WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey 1982-1984 drug

  1. Japan Association of Language Teachers Journal (JALT). 1982-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japan Association of Language Teaching Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This compilation of four issues of the Japan Association of Language Teachers Journal (JALT) covers the years 1982-1984. The four issues contain a total of 21 articles, as follows: "Communicative Needs in Foreign Language Learning" (Jack C. Richards); "Language Proficiency Interview Testing" (David J. Keitges); "Speculations into the Distributive…

  2. Myokardieinfarktincidensen i Danmark. Resultater fra Dan-Monica 1982-1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, M; Hansen, B; Hansen, U

    1993-01-01

    care in Copenhagen county (320,000 inhabitants) as part of WHO MONICA, which compares 39 centres in 26 countries. The incidence of myocardial infarction during the first three years, 1982-1984, of the Heart Register, DAN-MONICA at Glostrup Hospital, is reported. The register is complete and valid...

  3. On the discovery of K I 7699 Å line strength variation during the 1982-1984 eclipse of ε Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, M.

    2017-02-01

    The discovery of K I 7699 Å line strength variations during the 1982-1984 eclipse of ε Aurigae is described. The equivalent widths and radial velocities of the K I 7699 Å line derived from spectra obtained during 1981 November-1983 July with the 2.1 m Otto Struve reflector telescope of the McDonald observatory are presented.

  4. A model for seismicity rates observed during the 1982-1984 unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, M. E.; Bizzarri, A.; Berrino, G.; Ricciardi, G. P.

    2011-02-01

    We consider the space-time distribution of seismicity during the 1982-1984 unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) where a correlation between seismicity and rate of ground uplift was suggested. In order to investigate this effect, we present a model based on stress transfer from the deformation source responsible for the unrest to potential faults. We compute static stress changes caused by an inflating source in a layered half-space. Stress changes are evaluated on optimally oriented planes for shear failure, assuming a regional stress with horizontal extensional axis trending NNE-SSW. The inflating source is modeled as inferred by previous studies from inversion of geodetic data with the same crustal model here assumed. The magnitude of the regional stress is constrained by imposing an initial condition of "close to failure" to potential faults. The resulting spatial distribution of stress changes is in agreement with observations. We assume that the temporal evolution of ground displacement, observed by a tide-gauge at Pozzuoli, was due mainly to time dependent processes occurring at the inflating source. We approximate this time dependence in piecewise-linear way and we attribute it to each component of average stress-change in the region interested by the observed seismicity. Then we evaluate the effect of a time dependent stressing rate on seismicity, by following the approach indicated by Dieterich (1994) on the basis of the rate- and state-dependent rheology of faults. The seismicity rate history resulting from our model is in general agreement with data during the period 1982-1984 for reasonable values of unconstrained model-parameters, the initial value of the direct effect of friction and the reference shear stressing rate. In particular, this application shows that a decreasing stressing-rate is effective in damping the seismicity rate.

  5. The 1982-1984 El Niño in the Gulf of California as seen in coastal zone color scanner imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantamaríA-Del-Angel, Eduardo; Alvarez-Borrego, Saúl; Müller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-04-01

    The 1982-1984 El Niño was well documented for the Gulf of California, primarily with sea level anomalies. However, owing to strong tidal and atmospheric forcing, the general effects on chlorophyll concentrations ([Chl]) and phytoplankton productivity (PP) are not clear. The literature reports low [Chl] and PP for the mouth region and high values for both variables in the central gulf and in the region of the midrift islands. No data were collected in situ in the northern gulf. Using monthly composites of coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) satellite imagery, we generated time series for 33 locations throughout the gulf. We calculated pigment concentration anomalies and derived a relative power index that provides a measure of the relationship between negative anomalies and El Niño episodes. Our analyses show that during 1978-1986, variability in phytoplankton biomass in the Gulf of California was not dominated by El Niño events. Rather, strong tidal mixing and upwelling in the interior of the gulf masked the effect of El Niño 1982-1984 that otherwise showed so clearly in other coastal ecosystems of the eastern Pacific. Lower pigment concentrations were in fact detected with the CZCS at and near the entrance of the gulf, where vertical mixing is not as strong. Locations in the central and northern gulf showed either a weak effect or no effect of El Niño. Ballenas Channel showed an exceptional behavior, with an increase of pigment concentrations toward the end of 1983. Despite the Ballenas Channel having the highest surface nutrient concentrations, pigment maxima there are not in general the highest of the gulf. The excess vertical turbulence in the channel leads to light limitation of phytoplankton. Reduced mixing at the end of 1983 promoted the increase of phytoplankton biomass in Ballenas Channel. Strong non-El Niño conditions in 1984 caused lower phytoplankton biomass in Ballenas Channel than during other years of the period analyzed.

  6. Operational short-term Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment of tephra fallout: an example from the 1982-1984 unrest at Campi Flegrei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Laura; Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Macedonio, Giovanni; Marzocchi, Warner

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) represents the most complete scientific contribution for planning rational strategies aimed at mitigating the risk posed by volcanic activity at different time scales. The definition of the space-time window for PVHA is related to the kind of risk mitigation actions that are under consideration. Short intervals (days to weeks) are important for short-term risk mitigation actions like the evacuation of a volcanic area. During volcanic unrest episodes or eruptions, it is of primary importance to produce short-term tephra fallout forecast, and frequently update it to account for the rapidly evolving situation. This information is obviously crucial for crisis management, since tephra may heavily affect building stability, public health, transportations and evacuation routes (airports, trains, road traffic) and lifelines (electric power supply). In this study, we propose a methodology for the short-term PVHA and its operational implementation, based on the model BET_EF, in which measures from the monitoring system are used to routinely update the forecast of some parameters related to the eruption dynamics, that is, the probabilities of eruption, of every possible vent position and every possible eruption size. Then, considering all possible vent positions and eruptive sizes, tephra dispersal models are coupled with frequently updated meteorological forecasts. Finally, these results are merged through a Bayesian procedure, accounting for epistemic uncertainties at all the considered steps. As case study we retrospectively study some stages of the volcanic unrest that took place in Campi Flegrei (CF) in 1982-1984. In particular, we aim at presenting a practical example of possible operational tephra fall PVHA on a daily basis, in the surroundings of CF at different stages of the 1982-84 unrest. Tephra dispersal is simulated using the analytical HAZMAP code. We consider three possible eruptive sizes (a low, a medium and a

  7. pASELINE SURVEY ON DRUG PRESCRIBING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline Survey On Drug Prescribing Indicators Wubeante K. 147 rr. RIGINAL ... Specialized Hospital where measured values could be used later as baseline data for further follow up of ..... drug management systems in hospital. Moreover the ...

  8. Psychotropic drugs: another survey of prescribing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R; Gopalaswamy, A K

    1984-03-01

    We surveyed the psychotropic drug treatment of our hospital's 220 patients, and compared our findings with those of the only previous hospital survey in this country which showed much allegedly inappropriate prescribing. Using simple classifications of the patients' diagnoses and of the drugs prescribed, 30 per cent of our prescriptions appeared inappropriate in the absence of knowledge of the patients' symptoms. With such knowledge we show that only 2 of our 460 prescriptions were inappropriate.

  9. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  10. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  11. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  12. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  13. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  14. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  15. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  16. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  17. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  18. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  20. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  1. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  2. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  3. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  4. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  5. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  6. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  7. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  8. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  9. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  10. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  11. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  12. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  13. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  14. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  15. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  16. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  17. The Napa Project: 02 Year Annual Drug Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others

    The results of a survey administered to junior and senior high students in the Napa Valley (CA) Unified School District in 1980 are summarized. The questionnaire administered was the Drug and Alcohol Survey, a group administered, self-report instrument. The questionnaire assesses: (1) drug knowledge; (2) general drug attitudes; (3) perceived…

  18. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1990)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  19. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  20. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1996)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  1. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  2. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  3. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1988)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  4. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1982)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  5. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  6. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  7. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  8. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1985)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates....

  9. Drug use during breastfeeding. A survey from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Schwagermann, M.P.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To survey drug use by breastfeeding women, and to compare this with nonbreastfeeding women. In addition, we were interested whether drug use was of influence on the decision to give breastfeeding, and the other way around. Design and setting: During a 6-week period in 2002, a questionnair

  10. Drug use during breastfeeding. A survey from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Schwagermann, M.P.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    Objective: To survey drug use by breastfeeding women, and to compare this with nonbreastfeeding women. In addition, we were interested whether drug use was of influence on the decision to give breastfeeding, and the other way around. Design and setting: During a 6-week period in 2002, a

  11. Psychometric Properties of the "Drug and Alcohol Survey".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others

    Results obtained from scaling the "Drug and Alcohol Survey" (DAS), a questionnaire that assesses the drug involvement of secondary school students are documented. The scales are evaluated in terms of their psychometric properties, their compatability with a change model, and their utility as outcome measures of substance abuse prevention…

  12. Experienced drug users assess the relative harms and benefits of drugs: a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin Lester; Nutt, David John

    2013-01-01

    A web-based survey was used to consult the opinions of experienced drug users on matters related to drug harms. We identified a rare sample of 93 drug users with personal experience with 11 different illicit drugs that are widely used in the UK. Asked to assess the relative harms of these drugs, they ranked alcohol and tobacco as the most harmful, and three "Class A" drugs (MDMA, LSD, and psilocybin) and one class B (cannabis) were ranked as the four least harmful drugs. When asked to assess the relative potential for benefit of the 11 drugs, MDMA, LSD, psilocybin, and cannabis were ranked in the top four; and when asked why these drugs are beneficial, rather than simply report hedonic properties, they referred to potential therapeutic applications (e.g., as tools to assist psychotherapy). These results provide a useful insight into the opinions of experienced drug users on a subject about which they have a rare and intimate knowledge.

  13. Telephone surveying for drug abuse: methodological issues and an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, B

    1985-01-01

    In light of New York State's experience, it is probable that future household drug use surveys will use telephone administration. Drug use questions are not as sensitive as had been thought, and are easily administered by telephone. In addition, the lower costs, the computer-assisted capabilities, and the saving in time are some of the advantages in comparison to face-to-face surveying. In order to address the nontelephone segments of the household population--despite their declining proportion--and to improve response rates, mixed-mode interviewing may have to be considered. Given a better understanding of telephone-associated behavior and the increasing popularity of technological advances, such as the portability and mobility of phones, telephone surveying may become even more attractive in the future.

  14. Survey of abuses against injecting drug users in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwahyuono Agus

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Indonesia, an ongoing government "war on drugs" has resulted in numerous arrests and anecdotal reports of abuse in detention, but to date there has been little documentation or analysis of this issue. JANGKAR (also known in English as the Indonesian Harm Reduction Network, a nongovernmental organization (NGO based in Jakarta, surveyed 1106 injecting drug users in 13 cities about their experiences of police abuse. Of those interviewed, 667 or 60% reported physical abuse by police. These findings indicate the importance of continuing efforts to promote police reform and harm reduction in Indonesia.

  15. 1990 through 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) is the general civilian population aged 12 and...

  16. Basic survey for coal resources development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    Aiming at stable coal supply which occupies an important role as energy substitute for petroleum, as a link in surveys necessary to promote development of coal resources abroad, out of those areas with high reliability as coal resources inside and outside of Japan, by carrying out geophysical exploration and drilling in unexplored districts, a general outline of the overall geological construction and coal bed distribution, etc., can be grasped. This survey has been carried out in FY 1982-1984 in the 2 districts in Kyushu, ARIAKE SEA and OFF NISHI SONOGI and 5 districts in Hokkaido, OFF KUSHIRO, SHINJO,KITA ASHIBETSU, HOKUYO and RUSHIN to verify the coal bed and ascertain distribution conditions. Countinued surveys in these districts so as to grasp the geological construction of the district. Through these surveys, Japanese techniques in coal drilling prospecting, geophysical exploration and data processing have been found useful.

  17. Attitudes toward drug prescription rights: a survey of Ontario chiropractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, Peter Charles; Stuber, Kent Jason

    2015-01-01

    Several published surveys have shown that chiropractors are generally split in their opinions regarding the right to prescribe drugs in chiropractic practice. Many of these studies have been limited by low response rates, leaving the generalizability of their findings open to question. The aim of the current study was to ascertain the general attitudes of chiropractors in Ontario, Canada toward the inclusion of drug prescription rights in their scope of practice. Relationships between these attitudes and the number of years in practice including differences in philosophical orientation were also explored. A 14-item questionnaire was developed and invitations sent via e-mail to all eligible 2,677 chiropractors in active practice registered electronically with the College of Chiropractors of Ontario in February 2015. Data were collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. 960 questionnaires were completed for a 36 % response rate. The majority of respondents agreed that chiropractors should be permitted to prescribe musculoskeletal medications such as over-the-counter and prescription-based analgesics, anti-inflammatories, and muscle relaxants. Over two-thirds also felt that with limited prescriptive authority chiropractors could help reduce patients' reliance on these types of drugs. Over three-quarters were opposed however to chiropractors having full prescribing rights. The majority indicated they recommend over-the-counter medications to acute and chronic patients to some extent in clinical practice. Nearly two-thirds perceived their knowledge of musculoskeletal medications as high or very high, while a similar proportion perceived their knowledge of drugs for non-musculoskeletal conditions to be low or very low. A majority of respondents felt that further education in pharmacology would be necessary for those in the profession wishing to prescribe medications. More recent graduates and those who espoused a broad scope of chiropractic

  18. A Survey of Treatment of Diabetic Complications with Chinese Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fan

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to the TCM theory, diabetes is characterized in the initial stage by deficiency and consumption of qi and yin fluid and excessive dryness-heat; in the middle stage by deficiency of both qi and yin, and obstruction of channels and collaterals; while in the late stage, by various complications due to consumption and loss of qi and yin, imbalance of yin and yang and stagnation of both phlegm and blood stasis, which may result in failure of the kidney and serious injury of the channels and collaterals and zang-fu organs. In recent years, there are lots of reports concerning Chinese-drug treatment of diabetes with satisfactory therapeutic results. The following is a survey of treatment of diabetic complications with Chinese drugs.

  19. Development of a drug and alcohol information survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, H G

    1985-04-01

    Psychological measurement in regard to using drugs, alcohol, or other substances should attend to personological, attitudinal, and informational factors. Standardized tests are available for assessing personological and attitudinal variables, but not for knowledge. To develop a test of information, 45 multiple-choice items were correlated with total and part scores in samples of 132 men and 71 women; 35 items with significant (p less than .05) coefficients and other desirable properties were retained for a Drug and Alcohol Information Survey (DAIS). For 33 male and 36 female college students participating in an intensive psychological assessment program, scores on the DAIS were positively associated with (1) ratings of modernity, sensation seeking, originality, and nonorderliness; (2) personality scales for status propensity, sociability, social presence, and rebelliousness; and (3) a nonverbal test of field-independent cognitive ability. High scorers on the DAIS also reported more frequent use of marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco than did students with low scores.

  20. Off-label use of oncology drugs: national survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva González-Haba Peña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify by means of a survey the off-label treatments more often used in the oncohaematology area, as well as to know the established procedures and criteria used to authorise those treatments. Methods: a four-section survey was designed: 1 demographic data and hospital activity, 2 Off-label treatments protocol, 3 Approval criteria and 4 Off-label oncology treatments conducted during the last year. Results: in 42.1% of the hospitals it’s needed an authorisation before dispensing in more tan 80% of the treatments. The most influential factor in the approval-dispensation system is the available evidence. The consent of the hospital management with previous Pharmacy department’s report was the most common authorisation procedure. 55.3% of the hospitals settled specific patient criteria to help the decision-making altogether with the available safety and efficacy data of the drug for the requested indication. In most centers a lower level of evidence is accepted if there are no therapeutic alternatives as well as in tumors of low prevalence. Most of the centers have not clearly established a criterion of effectiveness to consider a benefit as clinically relevant, nor the cost-effectiveness threshold for approving a FFT. Conclusions: there is a great variability in the off-label treatments use and also in the criteria used for its approval.

  1. Irrational drug use in India: A prescription survey from Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is concern regarding the irrational production, prescription and use of drugs in India. This study aimed to describe the quality of prescriptions by medical practitioners, including both the layout of the prescription and the type and number of drugs prescribed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey of all prescriptions dispensed at a busy pharmacy in the state of Goa, India, was carried out over a consecutive seven-day period. Each prescription was rated on the basis of a priori and pilot-tested variable list. The prescriptions by private practitioners were compared with those from practitioners in the public healthcare system. RESULTS: Nine hundred and ninety prescriptions were collected. The majority (83.9% were from private practitioners. The quality of the layout of the prescriptions was unsatisfactory: information to identify the practitioner was incomplete in more than a third of the prescriptions and information to identify the patient was incomplete in more than half. Clarity of written instructions on how to take the medicines was unsatisfactory in the majority of prescriptions. Polypharmacy was the norm, with more than half (52.7% the prescriptions containing at least 3 medicines. Forty per cent of prescriptions included a vitamin or tonic preparation and a quarter of the prescriptions included an antibiotic and an analgesic. Over 90% of prescriptions contained only branded medicines. Private practitioners prescribed significantly greater number of medicines and were more likely to prescribe vitamins and antibiotics, and branded medicines. DISCUSSION: This study confirms that the quality of prescriptions, both in terms of layout and the content of the drugs prescribed, is inadequate. There is a need to standardize the format of prescriptions in India so that all essential information is included. There is a need to strengthen an independent mechanism for continuing professional development of practitioners to ensure that

  2. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 8-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the 8-year 2002-2009 data...

  3. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 2-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  4. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 4-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  5. Changing drug use and HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in Ukraine: evidence from biobehavioral surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumchev, Kostyantyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integrated biobehavioral surveys (IBBS have been used to evaluate the impact of HIV prevention efforts among most-at-risk groups in Ukraine since 2007. Harm reduction program coverage among injecting-drug users (IDUs increased substantially from 96,000 in 2008 to 170,000 in 2010 with support from the Global Fund, and IBBS have shown declining HIV prevalence. Aim of the study was to examine the changes in HIV prevalence, drug use patterns and risky behaviors in IDUs on national and city level.METHODS: For this analysis, three IDU-IBBS datasets were combined – 2008 (N=3711, 2009 (N=3962, and 2011 (N=9069. The analysis included 25 cities that participated in either 2008 or 2009, and 2011. Changes in HIV prevalence, drug use, and risk behaviors were compared between 2008/9 and 2011.RESULTS: The surveyed IDU population in 2011 was older than in 2008/9 (31.0 vs. 32.8 years; p<.0001, and included more females (23.5% vs. 25.5%; p=.0038, with substantial variation across cities.Overall HIV prevalence in the sample declined slightly (22.9% to 21.6%; p=.05. In eight cities, HIV prevalence decreased significantly (-5% to -18%, while significant increases were seen in five cities (8% to 15%. Prevalence among IDUs younger than 25 years declined (9.9% to 7.2%; p=.0078.The combined dataset showed no difference in opioid or stimulant past-30-day use, with variation at city level. Clean needle/syringe use during last injection increased significantly (88.8% to 97.0%; p<.0001, with no opposing trend in any city. Three cities had an increase in past-30-day needle/syringe sharing; nine – in container sharing; twelve – in use of preloaded syringes. Changes in condom use were not significant (54.1% to 54.9%, p=.32.CONCLUSIONS: IDUs in Ukraine are ageing and HIV seroprevalence among IDUs continues to decline, especially among young IDUs. However, prevention programming needs to respond to significant regional variations in risk behaviors and HIV

  6. Awareness survey of so-called Dappou drugs or Kiken drugs (New Psychoactive Substances) among University Students in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Fuse-Nagase, Yasuko; SAITO, Fukumi; HIROHARA, Toshie; MIYAKAWA, Happei

    2015-01-01

    Background Spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is a worldwide problem. In Japan, NPSs with psychoactive ingredients are called as “dappou drugs” or “kiken drugs.” Their potential effect on the Japanese society cannot be ignored. Findings We conducted an awareness survey of So-called Dappou Drugs or Kiken Drugs among the students of Ibaraki University, a national university in Japan, in April 2014. 3976 students (2425 men, 1406 women and 145 unspecified) participated in this study. 281...

  7. Drug Metabolism in Preclinical Drug Development: A Survey of the Discovery Process, Toxicology, and Computational Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Naiem T; Wathieu, Henri; Ojo, Abiola; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan

    2017-03-15

    Increased R & D spending and high failure rates exist in drug development, due in part to inadequate prediction of drug metabolism and its consequences in the human body. Hence, there is a need for computational methods to supplement and complement current biological assessment strategies. In this review, we provide an overview of drug metabolism in pharmacology, and discuss the current in vitro and in vivo strategies for assessing drug metabolism in preclinical drug development. We highlight computational tools available to the scientific community for the in silico prediction of drug metabolism, and examine how these tools have been implemented to produce drug-target signatures relevant to metabolic routes. Computational workflows that assess drug metabolism and its toxicological and pharmacokinetic effects, such as by applying the adverse outcome pathway framework for risk assessment, may improve the efficiency and speed of preclinical drug development.

  8. Surveying Teens in School to Assess the Prevalence of Problematic Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Russel S.; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Li, Linna; Carlson, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Illicit drug use by school-aged teens can adversely affect their health and academic achievement. This study used a survey administered in schools to assess the prevalence of problematic drug use among teenagers in a Midwestern community. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 11th- and 12th-grade students (N = 3974) in 16…

  9. A Survey of Antiviral Drugs for Bioweapons: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    treatment was started 15 h before viral challenge (Neumann-Haefelin et al., 1975). Cidofovir The group of drugs known as acyclic nucleoside phosphonates...mice at a dose of 5–100 mg/kg/day. (S)-HPMPC ( cidofovir ) has an activity spectrum similar to (S)-HPMPA, however it is less toxic, so it has surpassed its... cidofovir is effective against over 30 different strains of variola virus with IC50s below 30 µg/ml. Cidofovir has been licensed (as Vistide) for treating

  10. Development and validation of a survey instrument for assessing prescribers' perception of computerized drug-drug interaction alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Fear, Kathleen; Chaffee, Bruce W; Zimmerman, Christopher R; Karls, Edward M; Gatwood, Justin D; Stevenson, James G; Pearlman, Mark D

    2011-12-01

    To develop a theoretically informed and empirically validated survey instrument for assessing prescribers' perception of computerized drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts. The survey is grounded in the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and an adapted accident causation model. Development of the instrument was also informed by a review of the extant literature on prescribers' attitude toward computerized medication safety alerts and common prescriber-provided reasons for overriding. To refine and validate the survey, we conducted a two-stage empirical validation study consisting of a pretest with a panel of domain experts followed by a field test among all eligible prescribers at our institution. The resulting survey instrument contains 28 questionnaire items assessing six theoretical dimensions: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, perceived fatigue, and perceived use behavior. Satisfactory results were obtained from the field validation; however, a few potential issues were also identified. We analyzed these issues accordingly and the results led to the final survey instrument as well as usage recommendations. High override rates of computerized medication safety alerts have been a prevalent problem. They are usually caused by, or manifested in, issues of poor end user acceptance. However, standardized research tools for assessing and understanding end users' perception are currently lacking, which inhibits knowledge accumulation and consequently forgoes improvement opportunities. The survey instrument presented in this paper may help fill this methodological gap. We developed and empirically validated a survey instrument that may be useful for future research on DDI alerts and other types of computerized medication safety alerts more generally.

  11. DRUG THERAPY IN ASTHMATIC CHILDREN: SURVEY IN MASHHAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Karimi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For future health planning of our country, the type and amount of drugs used for treatment of chronic diseases should be known. Therefore, in the present study the treatment regimen of asthmatic children in the city of Mashhad was studied. Methods. To study the different types of drugs in the treatment regimen of asthmatic children in the city of Mashhad, we evaluated the treatment regimen of 366 primary school children with asthma disease. Starting, maximum and duration of action of three different bronchodilators (salbutamol inhaler, salbutamol syrup, and theophylline syrup were compared. Findings. The results of the first part of this study showed that only 31.6 percent of asthmatic children had history of treatment and only 10.6 percent had current medication. In addition, most of the treated children (38.8 percent had only bronchodilator (salbutamol syrup in their treatment regimen. The effect of salbutamol inhaler on lung function tests starts in 5 min, salbutamol syrup in 15 min and theophylline syrup at 30 min after administration. The maximum response to salbutamol inhaler, salbutamol syrup, and theophylline syrup occurred 15 min, 4 hr and 3 hr after administration, respectively. The reduction of response to salbutamol inhaler occurs after 3 hr, but there was no any reduction in response to salbutamol and theophylline syrup during study period. Conclusion. The prevalence of asthma among children in the city of Mashhad is relatively high, but most of asthmatic children are not treated. Although the oral bronchodilator in mild asthma is effective, salbutamol inhaler is needed for emergency use.

  12. Curriculum and instructional methods for drug information, literature evaluation, and biostatistics: survey of US pharmacy schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer A; Gabay, Michael P; Ficzere, Cathy; Ward, Kristina E

    2012-06-01

    The drug information curriculum in US colleges of pharmacy continues to evolve. The American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Drug Information Practice and Research Network (DI PRN) published an opinion paper with specific recommendations regarding drug information education in 2009. Adoption of these recommendations has not been evaluated. To assess which recommendations made in the ACCP DI PRN opinion paper are included in US pharmacy school curricula and characterize faculty qualifications, educational methods, and recent changes in drug information education. An electronic survey was designed using the ACCP DI PRN opinion paper and the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education standards and guidelines for accreditation of PharmD programs in the US. Survey questions addressed curricular content within the following categories: drug information, literature evaluation, and biostatistics. A letter including the online survey link was sent via email to the dean of each US college/school of pharmacy (N = 128). Recipients were instructed to forward the email to the individual at their institution who was the most knowledgeable about the content and methodology used for didactic drug information education. Sixty-four responses were included in the final analysis. Of the 19 ACCP DI PRN minimum core concepts, 9 (47%) were included in curricula of all responding institutions; 14 of 19 (74%) were included in curricula for all but 1 institution. In contrast, 5 of 16 concepts (31%) were not formally taught by a number of institutions. Many respondents noted an increased focus on evidence-based medicine, medication safety, and informatics. Although a survey of drug information curricula documented substantial inclusion of the essential concepts presented in the ACCP DI PRN opinion paper, room for improvement remains in drug information curricula in US colleges of pharmacy.

  13. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 10-Year Substate R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  14. Moving on From Representativeness: Testing the Utility of the Global Drug Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Zahnow, Renee; Palamar, Joseph J; Maier, Larissa J; Winstock, Adam R

    2017-01-01

    A decline in response rates in traditional household surveys, combined with increased internet coverage and decreased research budgets, has resulted in increased attractiveness of web survey research designs based on purposive and voluntary opt-in sampling strategies. In the study of hidden or stigmatised behaviours, such as cannabis use, web survey methods are increasingly common. However, opt-in web surveys are often heavily criticised due to their lack of sampling frame and unknown representativeness. In this article, we outline the current state of the debate about the relevance of pursuing representativeness, the state of probability sampling methods, and the utility of non-probability, web survey methods especially for accessing hidden or minority populations. Our article has two aims: (1) to present a comprehensive description of the methodology we use at Global Drug Survey (GDS), an annual cross-sectional web survey and (2) to compare the age and sex distributions of cannabis users who voluntarily completed (a) a household survey or (b) a large web-based purposive survey (GDS), across three countries: Australia, the United States, and Switzerland. We find that within each set of country comparisons, the demographic distributions among recent cannabis users are broadly similar, demonstrating that the age and sex distributions of those who volunteer to be surveyed are not vastly different between these non-probability and probability methods. We conclude that opt-in web surveys of hard-to-reach populations are an efficient way of gaining in-depth understanding of stigmatised behaviours and are appropriate, as long as they are not used to estimate drug use prevalence of the general population. PMID:28924351

  15. Could chiropractors screen for adverse drug events in the community? Survey of US chiropractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "Put Prevention into Practice" campaign of the US Public Health Service (USPHS was launched with the dissemination of the Clinician's Handbook of Preventive Services that recommended standards of clinical care for various prevention activities, including preventive clinical strategies to reduce the risk of adverse drug events. We explored whether nonprescribing clinicians such as chiropractors may contribute to advancing drug safety initiatives by identifying potential adverse drug events in their chiropractic patients, and by bringing suspected adverse drug events to the attention of the prescribing clinicians. Methods Mail survey of US chiropractors about their detection of potential adverse drug events in their chiropractic patients. Results Over half of responding chiropractors (62% reported having identified a suspected adverse drug event occurring in one of their chiropractic patients. The severity of suspected drug-related events detected ranged from mild to severe. Conclusions Chiropractors or other nonprescribing clinicians may be in a position to detect potential adverse drug events in the community. These detection and reporting mechanisms should be standardized and policies related to clinical case management of suspected adverse drug events occurring in their patients should be developed.

  16. Drug and Alcohol Use by Canadian University Athletes: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John C.; Gauvin, Lise

    1996-01-01

    Using a stratified random sampling procedure, 754 student athletes were surveyed regarding drug and alcohol use in eight different sports from eight universities across Canada. Provides statistics of substances athletes reported using, including pain medications, weight loss products, anabolic steroids, smokeless tobacco products, alcohol,…

  17. Adherence to Precautionary Guidelines for Compounding Antineoplastic Drugs: A Survey of Nurses and Pharmacy Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H

    2015-01-01

    Precautionary guidelines detailing standards of practice and equipment to eliminate or minimize exposure to antineoplastic drugs during handling activities have been available for nearly three decades. To evaluate practices for compounding antineoplastic drugs, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing primarily oncology nurses, pharmacists, and pharmacy technicians. This national survey is the first in over 20 years to examine self-reported use of engineering, administrative, and work practice controls and PPE by pharmacy practitioners for minimizing exposure to antineoplastic drugs. The survey was completed by 241 nurses and 183 pharmacy practitioners who compounded antineoplastic drugs in the seven days prior to the survey. They reported: not always wearing two pairs of chemotherapy gloves (85%, 47%, respectively) or even a single pair (8%, 10%); not always using closed system drug-transfer devices (75%, 53%); not always wearing recommended gown (38%, 20%); I.V. lines sometimes/always primed with antineoplastic drug (19%, 30%); and not always using either a biological safety cabinet or isolator (9%, 15%). They also reported lack of: hazard awareness training (9%, 13%); safe handling procedures (20%, 11%); and medical surveillance programs (61%, 45%). Both employers and healthcare workers share responsibility for adhering to precautionary guidelines and other best practices. Employers can ensure that: workers are trained regularly; facility safe-handling procedures reflecting national guidelines are in place and support for their implementation is understood; engineering controls and PPE are available and workers know how to use them; and medical surveillance, exposure monitoring, and other administrative controls are in place. Workers can seek out training, understand and follow facility procedures, be role models for junior staff, ask questions, and report

  18. Treatment Services in Adult Drug Courts: Report on the 1999 National Drug Court Treatment Survey. Drug Courts Resource Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pexton, Elizabeth A.; Gossweiler, Robert

    In October 1999, National Treatment Accountability for Safer Communities (TASC), in cooperation with the Office of Justice Programs, Drug Courts Program Office and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, developed and distributed a questionnaire designed to describe substance abuse…

  19. Housing Instability among People Who Inject Drugs: Results from the Australian Needle and Syringe Program Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Topp, Libby; Iversen, Jenny; Baldry, Eileen; Maher, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    High rates of substance dependence are consistently documented among homeless people, and are associated with a broad range of negative outcomes among this population. Investigations of homelessness among drug users are less readily available. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of housing instability among clients of needle syringe programs (NSPs) via the Australian NSP Survey, annual cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among NSP attendees. Following self-completion of a bri...

  20. Alarming levels of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Belarus: results of a survey in Minsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrahina, Alena; Hurevich, Henadz; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Sahalchyk, Evgeni; Astrauko, Andrei; van Gemert, Wayne; Hoffner, Sven; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Zignol, Matteo

    2012-06-01

    Resistance to anti-tuberculosis (TB) medicines is a major public health threat in most countries of the former Soviet Union. As no representative and quality-assured information on the magnitude of this problem existed in Belarus, a survey was conducted in the capital city of Minsk. Between November 2009 and December 2010, 156 consecutively diagnosed new and 68 previously treated culture-positive TB patients residing in Minsk were enrolled in the survey. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were obtained from each patient and tested for susceptibility to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs. Multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB was found in 35.3% (95% CI 27.7-42.8) of new patients and 76.5% (95% CI 66.1-86.8) of those previously treated. Overall, nearly one in two patients enrolled had MDR-TB. Extensively drug-resistant TB was reported in 15 of the 107 MDR-TB patients (14.0%, 95% CI 7.3-20.7). Patients 35 yrs. The findings of this survey in Minsk city are alarming and represent the highest proportions of MDR-TB ever recorded in the world. This study greatly contributes to the understanding of the burden of drug-resistant TB in urban areas of Belarus.

  1. Drug and Therapeutics (D & T) committees in Dutch hospitals : a nation-wide survey of structure, activities, and drug selection procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijn, R; Brouwers, JRBJ; Knaap, RJ; De Jong-Van den Berg, LTW

    1999-01-01

    Aims To determine structure, activities and drug selection processes used by Dutch hospital drug and therapeutics (D & T) committees. Methods A pretested structured survey questionnaire based on the Australian process and impact indicators, previous research, and consultation of professionals was de

  2. Exploring community pharmacists' experiences of surveying patients for drug utilization research purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Pia; Bergman, Ulrika; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient self-reported data are important in drug utilization research, but often logistically difficult to collect. During 2006–2012, 72 Swedish community pharmacies regularly collected such data through structured survey interviews at the pharmacy counter, performed by the dispensing...... pharmacists. This study is part of a validation of that data acquisition method. Objectives (1) To explore the experiences of the pharmacists involved, (2) to explore a random or systematic exclusion of eligible patients by the pharmacists, and (3) to find areas of improvement to the applied method...... of the pharmacies. Main outcome measure Proportions of pharmacists reporting positive and negative experiences of structured survey interviews, the nature of their experiences, proportion of pharmacists reporting to avoid survey interviews and reasons for doing so, and suggested areas of improvement. Results...

  3. The "Clubs against Drugs" program in Stockholm, Sweden: two cross-sectional surveys examining drug use among staff at licensed premises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gripenberg Abdon Johanna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to examine self-reported drug use among staff at licensed premises, types of drugs used, attitudes towards drugs, and observed drug use among guests. Results are presented from two measurement points (in 2001 and 2007/08. This study was carried out within the framework of the "Clubs against Drugs" program, which is a community-based multi-component intervention targeting licensed premises in Stockholm, Sweden. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted, the first in 2001 and the second in 2007/08. Staff at licensed premises attending server training were asked to participate in the anonymous survey. A survey was administered in a classroom setting and consisted of four sections: 1 demographics, 2 respondents' own drug use experience, 3 respondents' attitudes towards drug use, and 4 observed drug use among guests at licensed premises. Results Data were collected from 446 staff in 2001 and 677 staff in 2007/08. The four most commonly used drugs among staff were cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, and ecstasy. The highest rates of drug use were reported by staff in the two youngest age groups, i.e., those younger than 25 and those between the ages of 25 and 29. In 2007/08 staff reported significantly lower rates of drug use than staff in 2001. Last year drug use for the sample in 2007/08 was 19% compared to 27% for the 2001 sample. While drug-using staff compared to non drug-using staff reported more observations of drug use among guests, they were less inclined to intervene. Overall, staff reported restrictive attitudes towards drugs. Conclusions The prevalence of life-time and last year drug use among staff at licensed premises is high compared to the general population in Sweden. Lower rates of self-reported drug use among staff were reported in 2007/08. The results of this study highlight that staff at licensed premises represent an important target population in club drug prevention

  4. First household survey on drug abuse in São Paulo, Brazil, 1999: principal findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In order to establish prevention programs regarding psychotropic drug use that are adapted to specific populations it is, first of all, important to have data on the realities of such consumption. Single data points are not enough for drawing up a profile of society in relation to drugs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this household survey was to determine the incidence of illegal drug, alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication use, and thus the number of persons dependent on drugs, alcohol and nicotine, and to evaluate their perception regarding how easy it is to obtain psychotropic drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: Epidemiological survey. SETTING: All of the 24 cities in the State of Sao Paulo with more 200,000 inhabitants participated in the study. METHOD: The sampling was constructed from weighted probabilistic stratified conglomerates obtained via two-stage selection. In each municipality sampled, census sectors (generally 200-300 households were first selected. Then, households and a respondent were selected to provide information from his/her point of view. The SAMHSA questionnaire (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Public Health was used, after translation and adaptation to Brazilian conditions. RESULTS: A total of 2,411 persons aged 12-65 years old were interviewed, of whom 39.9% weremen. Lifetime use of any psychotropic drug other than alcohol and tobacco was 11.6%: much less than in the U.S. (34.8%. The alcohol dependence rate was 6%, similar to findings from other countries. Marijuana was the illegal drug most cited as used daily (6.6%: a prevalence much lower than in the U.S. (32.0%. Inhalant use was next in frequency of use (2.7%: about 10 times less than in the United Kingdom (20%. Cocaine use (2.1% was about 5 times less than in the U.S. (10.6%. There was no report of heroin use, although there was a surprisingly high perception regarding the ease of obtaining heroin: 38.3% said it was

  5. Interactions between medical residents and drug companies: a national survey after the Mediator® affair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Montastruc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to describe exposure and attitudes of French medical residents towards pharmaceutical industry. The study was performed shortly after the Mediator affair which revealed several serious conflicts of interest inside the French health system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was implemented among residents from 6 French medical faculties. Independent education in pharmacology, attitudes towards the practices of pharmaceutical sales representatives, opinions concerning the pharmaceutical industry, quality of information provided by the pharmaceutical industry, and opinions about pharmaceutical company sponsorship were investigated through a web-based questionnaire. We also assessed potential changes in resident attitudes following the Mediator affair. The mean value of exposure to drug companies was 1.9 times per month. Global opinions towards drug company information were negative for 42.7% of the residents and positive for only 8.2%. Surprisingly, 81.6% of residents claimed that they had not changed their practices regarding drug information since the Mediator affair. Multivariate analyses found that residents in anesthesiology were less likely to be exposed than others (OR = 0.17 CI95% [0.05-0.61], exposure was significantly higher at the beginning of residence (p<0.001 and residents who had a more positive opinion were more frequently exposed to drug companies (OR = 2.12 CI95% [1.07-4.22]. CONCLUSIONS: Resident exposure to drug companies is around 1 contact every 2 weeks. Global opinion towards drug information provided by pharmaceutical companies was negative for around 1 out of 2 residents. In contrast, residents tend to consider the influences of the Mediator affair on their practice as relatively low. This survey enabled us to identify profiles of residents who are obviously less exposed to pharmaceutical industry. Current regulatory provisions are not sufficient, indicating that

  6. Health Care Workers' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors Regarding Antineoplastic Drugs: Survey From British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Teschke, Kay; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although nurses are knowledgeable regarding the risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs, they often do not adhere with safe work practices. However, the knowledge, perceptions, and behavior of other health care job categories at risk of exposure has yet to be determined. This study aimed to survey a range of health care workers from British Columbia, Canada about their knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding antineoplastic drugs. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to participants querying the degree of contact with antineoplastics, knowledge of risks associated with antineoplastics, perceptions of personal risk, previous training with respect to antineoplastics, and safe work practices. Subjects were recruited from health care facilities in and around Vancouver. Fisher's exact tests were performed to ascertain whether there were differences in responses between job categories. We received responses from 120 participants representing seven different job categories. Pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and nurses were more knowledgeable regarding risks than other job categories examined (statistically significant difference). Although 80% of respondents were not afraid of working with or near antineoplastics, there were concerns about the suitability of current control measures and practices employed by co-workers. Only half of respondents felt confident that they could handle all situations where there was a potential for exposure. Only one of the perception questions, self-perceived risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs, differed significantly between job categories. Not all respondents always wore gloves when directly handling antineoplastic drugs. Further, hand hygiene was not regularly practiced after glove usage or after being in an area where antineoplastic drugs are handled. The majority of responses to questions related to safe work practices differed significantly between job categories. Our results suggest that knowledge regarding risks

  7. Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

  8. A Comparison of Paper vs. Computer-Assisted Self Interview for School, Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallfors, Denise; Khatapoush, Shereen; Kadushin, Charles; Watson, Kim; Saxe, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    Examined whether computer assisted self-interview (CASI) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use surveys are feasible with 2,296 7th, 9th, and 11th graders in 2 communities. CASI surveys did not increase reported rates of substance abuse, but did improve the speed of data processing and decrease missing data. (SLD)

  9. Predictors of adherence to safe handling practices for antineoplastic drugs: A survey of hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Sharon R; Steege, Andrea L; Boiano, James M

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing awareness of the hazards of exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ADs), surveys continue to find incomplete adherence to recommended safe handling guidelines. A 2011 survey of healthcare workers presents an opportunity to examine factors associated with adherence among 1094 hospital nurses who administered ADs. Data for these hypothesis-generating analyses were taken from an anonymous, web-based survey of healthcare workers. Regression modeling was used to examine associations between a number of predictors (engineering controls, work practices, nurse perceptions, and nurse and hospital characteristics) and three outcomes reported by nurses: use of personal protective equipment (PPE); activities performed with gloves previously worn to administer ADs; and spills of ADs. Adherence to safe handling guidelines was not universal, and AD spills were reported by 9.5% of nurses during the week prior to the survey. Familiarity with safe handling guidelines and training in safe handling were associated with more reported PPE use. Nurse-perceived availability of PPE was associated with more reported PPE use and lower odds of reported spills. Use of closed system drug-transfer devices and luer-lock fittings also decreased the odds of self-reported AD spills, while more frequent AD administration increased the risk. AD administration frequency was also associated with performing more activities with gloves previously worn to administer ADs, and nurse perception of having adequate time for taking safety precautions with fewer such activities. The results suggest that training and familiarity with guidelines for safe handling of ADs, adequate time to adhere to guidelines, and availability of PPE and certain engineering controls are key to ensuring adherence to safe handling practices. Further assessment of training components and engineering controls would be useful for tailoring interventions targeting these areas.

  10. [Morbidity and drug consumption. Comparison of results between the National Health Survey and electronic medical records].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Rabanaque-Hernández, M José

    2014-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of disease and drug consumption obtained by using the National Health Survey (NHS) with the information provided by the electronic medical records (EMR) in primary health care and the Pharmaceutical Consumption Registry in Aragon (Farmasalud) in the adult population in the province of Zaragoza. A cross-sectional study was performed to compare the prevalence of diseases in the NHS-2006 and in the EMR. The prevalence of drug consumption was obtained from the NHS-2006 and Farmasalud. Estimations using each database were compared with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and the results were stratified by gender and age groups. The comparability of the databases was tested. According to the NHS, a total of 81.8% of the adults in the province of Zaragoza visited a physician in 2006. According to the EMR, 61.4% of adults visited a primary care physician. The most prevalent disease in both databases was hypertension (NHS: 21.5%, 95% CI: 19.4-23.9; EMR: 21.6%, 95% CI: 21.3-21.8). The greatest differences between the NHS and EMR was observed in the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and other mental illnesses (NHS: 10.9%; EMR: 26.6%). The most widely consumed drugs were analgesics The prevalence of drug consumption differed in the two databases, with the greatest differences being found in pain medication (NHS: 23.3%; Farmasalud: 63.8%) and antibiotics (NHS: 3.4%; Farmasalud: 41.7%). These differences persisted after we stratified by gender and were especially important in the group aged more than 75 years. The prevalence of morbidity and drug consumption differed depending on the database employed. The use of different databases is recommended to estimate real prevalences. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs after successful epilepsy surgery. a Canadian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-Zenteno, José F; Ronquillo, Lizbeth Hernández; Jette, Nathalie; Burneo, Jorge G; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Donner, Elizabeth J; Sadler, Mark; Javidan M, Mano; Gross, Donald W; Wiebe, Samuel

    2012-11-01

    To identify the perceived practice among Canadian epileptologists regarding discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) following successful resective surgery for temporal and extratemporal surgery. We performed a survey of pediatric and adult epileptologists in Canada, using a 77-item questionnaire to explore attitudes, timing, rate of withdrawal, and factors contributing to the decision to withdraw AEDs after successful epilepsy surgery. Surveys were mailed with a postage-paid return envelope. Two subsequent surveys were mailed to non-respondents at 15 days intervals. All procedures received institutional review board approval. Surveys were sent to 82 epileptologists in all the Canadian provinces. Sixty-six physicians answered the survey (80.5%), representing all epilepsy centers across Canada. The minimum seizure free period required after epilepsy surgery before withdrawing AEDs, varied substantially among responders: 1 year in 50%, >2 years in 12%, >2 years in 3% after. The most important factors influencing the decision to withdraw AEDs a negative EEG before discontinuation (71%), patients' preferences (78%) and the presence of unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (70%). The most important factors against reduction were the following: patients' wishes to resume driving (67%), focal (65%) or generalized (78%) epileptiform activity on EEG after surgery, persistent isolated auras (78%), any seizures after hospital discharge (81%), and presurgical multifocal/bilateral/diffuse findings (78%). Canadian epileptologists indicated that AED levels, EEG and MRI are typically done before discontinuing AEDs. Generally, a good candidate for stopping AEDs has focal pathology, is completely seizure free, had an anterior temporal lobe resection, complete resection of seizure focus, and has no epileptiform discharges on postoperative EEG. The data pertaining to self-reported practice styles, and actual practice may differ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Use of antihypertensive drugs in France and relationship with cardiovascular disease. FLAHS 2009-2010 surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girerd, X; Laroche, P; Hanon, O; Pannier, B; Postel-Vinay, N; Mourad, J-J

    2012-06-01

    Describe how antihypertensive drugs are prescribed in France in 2009 and 2010 and assess the effect of the presence of cardiovascular disease on the characteristics of the treatment. The French League Against Hypertension Surveys (FLAHS) are conducted among a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years and older living in France. For the 2009 and 2010 surveys, a sample of 2292 subjects who declared to take one or more antihypertensive drug has been studied. In addition to the details of antihypertensive medications taken the day of the survey, the personal history for cardiovascular diseases was compiled. Of the 2292 prescriptions with at least one antihypertensive prescription frequencies are: ARB (43%), diuretics (43%), beta-blockers (34%), CCB (26%), ACEI (26%), spironolactone (8%), central and alpha (7%), DRI (1%). The prescription is performed as monotherapy (42%), bitherapy (37%), triple therapy (16%) and quadruple or more (5%). When triple therapy is prescribed, there is an association ACEI or ARB or DRI+Diu+BB in 46%, and an association ACEI or ARB or DRI+Diu+AC in 30%. Cardiovascular disease is present or past reported by 24% of hypertensive patients: coronary artery disease (13%), heart failure (6%), arrhythmias (5%), stroke (4%), PAD (4%). The use of BB is more common in hypertensive patients who have coronary artery disease, heart failure and arrhythmia. ACE inhibitors are more common in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure or stroke. CCB are more frequent in cases of coronary artery disease or PAD. The ARB are less frequent in patients with coronary artery disease. The ARB, diuretics and beta-blockers are the most prescribed antihypertensives in France in 2009 to 2010. Cardiovascular diseases declared in 24% of hypertensives led to a preferential prescription of an ACE inhibitor or BB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants of drug use in sport: a survey of Italian athletes

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    Giuseppe La Torre

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this survey was to study the socio-demographic determinants of drug use in sporting activities at an amateur level in Italy. In 2000 a cross-sectional study was carried out in two Italian regions (Latium and Campania. The participants were 1056 athletes (age range: 16-35 years; 660 males and 396 females.

    The results show that 28.3% thought “doping” was creatine, 14.7% said racemed amino-acids, 5.8% said proteins, 24.7% did not know and finally 35.7% correctly recognised it as growth hormone. When asked if using drugs was acceptable in order to improve sporting performance, significant results were associated with age (OR = 1.64 for 18-24 years old and OR = 2.22 for 25-30 years old; gender (males were more prone to consider them acceptable; type of sport undertaken (OR = 1.34 for athletes who practice team sport; educational level (athletes with an elementary level education are at higher risk, and knowledge of the effects of anabolic agents (OR = 0.6 for athletes with poor knowledge.

    The findings of our study confirm the need to implement preventive interventions, with a special focus on healthier behaviour, for reducing factors that encourage the use and the willingness to use licit and illicit drugs.

  14. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Budge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD. To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys.Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey.In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose, periodic surveys, thereby conserving

  15. Housing instability among people who inject drugs: results from the Australian needle and syringe program survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Libby; Iversen, Jenny; Baldry, Eileen; Maher, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    High rates of substance dependence are consistently documented among homeless people, and are associated with a broad range of negative outcomes among this population. Investigations of homelessness among drug users are less readily available. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of housing instability among clients of needle syringe programs (NSPs) via the Australian NSP Survey, annual cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among NSP attendees. Following self-completion of a brief, anonymous survey and provision of a capillary blood sample by 2,396 NSP clients, multivariate logistic regressions identified the variables independently associated with housing instability. Nineteen percent of ANSPS participants reported current unstable housing, with primary ('sleeping rough'; 5 %), secondary (staying with friends/relatives or in specialist homelessness services; 8 %), and tertiary (residential arrangements involving neither secure lease nor private facilities; 6 %) homelessness all evident. Extensive histories of housing instability were apparent among the sample: 66 % reported at least one period of sleeping rough, while 77 % had shifted between friends/relatives (73 %) and/or resided in crisis accommodation (52 %). Participants with a history of homelessness had cycled in and out of homelessness over an average of 10 years; and one third reported first being homeless before age 15. Compared to their stably housed counterparts, unstably housed participants were younger, more likely to be male, of Indigenous Australian descent, and to report previous incarceration; they also reported higher rates of key risk behaviors including public injecting and receptive sharing of injecting equipment. The high prevalence of both historical and current housing instability among this group, particularly when considered in the light of other research documenting the many adverse outcomes associated with this particular form of disadvantage, highlights the need

  16. [Student's use of illicit drugs: a survey in a preventive health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Y; Rouvier, J; Olié, J-P; Lôo, H; Krebs, M-O

    2009-12-01

    The use of illicit drugs by students and the possible psychological repercussions in this population of young adults is an important public health issue. While some data in the literature suggest a relationship between cannabis and the occurrence of mental health disorders, and in particular psychotic illnesses, epidemiologic surveys have shown that cannabis is the most consumed illicit drug in France. To carry out a quantitative and qualitative epidemiological investigation of substance use within a student population seen during their mandatory preventive health visit at the University medical facility. Students were asked to take part in an investigation of their substance consumption and their individual experiences with cannabis in particular. Personality autoquestionnaires were performed and the psychotomimetic effects of cannabis were investigated with substance use within a student population seen during their mandatory preventive health visit at the University medical facility. A total of 3,807 students took part in the survey with a response rate of approximately 50%. Preliminary results relating to a subsample of this study are presented here (n = 880, mean age 20 years, 65% women). 44% of the students consumed cannabis at least once in their life. The prevalence of regular consumption in students (at least once a week) was of 18%, 11% had periods of daily or close to daily consumptions, and 13% used cannabis in the last month. For each of the drugs cocaine, ecstasy (MDMA), and mushrooms (psilocybin) the prevalence of experimentation (at least once) was 5% for cocaine, 4% for ecstasy and mushrooms, and for LSD the rate was 1,5%. Other evaluated substances had a prevalence of consumption lower than 1%. For the first cannabis consumptions, a majority of students state to felt "pleasant" effects: relaxation (71%) and euphoria (53%). 13% state to have felt effects of anxiety or sadness. 25% admit having had difficulties of expression, 24% memory deficits, 35

  17. Comparative Survey of Mental Disorders and Personality Characteristics in Persons With Drug Dependent and Non Drug Dependent in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaleiha

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The influence of genetic, biological, psychological, social and cultural factors on drug dependency and high rate comorbidity of this phenomenon with psychiatric disorders for example anxiety, depression and characteristics and personality disorders is emphasized. The aim of this study was the comparative investigation of mental disorders and personality traits in persons with drug dependent and non drug dependent in Hamadan city in 2001-2003 .Materials & Methods: Present research was a descriptive comparison and subjects were 100 drug dependent persons and 100 non drug dependent individuals .Case group was chosen through available sampling among persons who call on psychiatrist and control group was chosen through randomly simple sampling from general population. Measurement and diagnostic tools includes questionnaire for examining demographic characteristics, designed by researchers and MMPI, SCL90-R tests and DSM IV criteria diagnostic and also T test that was used for analyzing data.Results: Between two groups in clinical and validity scales of MMPI test expect for hypochondriasis and hysteria and scales of SCL 90-R test expect somatization and interpersonal sensitivity differences were statistically significant (P<0.05.Conclusion: We can conclude that persons with drug dependent display more signs of psychopathology and mental disorders in comparison with non drug dependent people and Major depressive disorder and personality disorder were frequent among drug dependent groups. Depression and personal disorders were frequent in non drug dependent persons too. Our results support the results of previous studies.

  18. Differences in need for antihypertensive drugs among those aware and unaware of their hypertensive status: a cross sectional survey

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    Campbell Norman RC

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of antihypertensive use among hypertensive individuals is a major public health problem. It remains unclear as to how much of this lack of treatment is because of failure to diagnose hypertension or failure to initiate drug treatment for those with a diagnosis of hypertension. The primary aim of this study was to determine the proportion of those untreated individuals who would be recommended to start drug therapy for control of blood pressure among those aware or unaware of their diagnosis of hypertension. Methods The Canadian Heart Health Surveys (1986 – 1992, a national, cross-sectional descriptive survey (n = 23 129, was used to determine the proportion of individuals who were untreated, yet satisfied the 2004 Canadian hypertension guidelines for initiating drug therapy. Patients were divided into subgroups of those aware and unaware of having a diagnosis of hypertension according to self reported awareness from the survey. Results Of those with untreated hypertension (= 140/90 mmHg, only 37% were aware of their diagnosis. 74% of untreated individuals aware of their diagnosis of hypertension would require drug therapy, compared to 57% of those who were unaware. Of those >65 years of age, 52% of aware individuals needed drug therapy whereas only 34% of unaware elderly would need drug treatment. Conclusion In both unaware and aware subgroups, the majority of patients with untreated hypertension would benefit from antihypertensive drug therapy according to the 2004 Canadian Hypertension recommendations. The proportion of untreated patients that still need drug therapy was higher among those who were aware compared to those who were unaware. This finding suggests that the major gap in hypertension control may be in initiating drug therapy rather than in diagnosing hypertension. Further studies are needed to confirm these results to ultimately help strategize public health efforts in controlling hypertension.

  19. Can the use of psychoactive drugs in the general adult population be estimated based on data from a roadside survey of drugs and driving?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallvard Gjerde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A roadside survey of drugs and driving was performed in south-eastern Norway in 2005-6. Samples of saliva from a total of 10,503 drivers above 20 years of age were analysed, and the results were weighted for under- and over-sampling compared to the population distribution in the study area. Weighted results were compared with data on dispensed prescriptions of zopiclone, codeine and diazepam at Norwegian pharmacies in the same area and with self-reported use of cannabis. When using roadside data to estimate drug use, the use of medicinal drugs was under-estimated by 17-59% compared to amounts dispensed. One of the main reasons for the under-estimation may be that a large proportion of the users of psychoactive medicinal drugs are not frequent drivers. For cannabis, self-reported data corresponded approximately to the estimated prevalence range. The results indicate that roadside surveys cannot be used for accurate estima tions of drug use in the population, but may provide minimum figures.

  20. Is the Association between Neighborhood Drug Prevalence and Marijuana use Independent of Peer Drug and Alcohol Norms? Results from a Household Survey of Urban Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifheit, Kathryn M; Parekh, Jenita; Matson, Pamela A; Moulton, Lawrence H; Ellen, Jonathan M; Jennings, Jacky M

    2015-08-01

    To inform policy debates surrounding marijuana decriminalization and add to our understanding of social and structural influences on youth drug use, we sought to determine whether there was an independent association between neighborhood drug prevalence and individual-level marijuana use after controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a household survey of 563 youth aged 15-24 in Baltimore, Maryland. The study population was 88 % African-American. Using gender-stratified, weighted, multilevel logistic regression, we tested whether neighborhood drug prevalence was associated with individual-level marijuana use after controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms. Bivariate analyses identified a significant association between high neighborhood drug prevalence and marijuana use among female youth (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.26, 2.47); the association was in a similar direction but not significant among male youth (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.85, 1.87). In multivariable regression controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms, high neighborhood drug prevalence remained significantly associated among female youth (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.27). Among male youth, the association was attenuated toward the null (AOR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.63, 1.45). In the multivariable model, peer drug and alcohol norms were significantly associated with individual-level marijuana use among female youth (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.17, 2.04) and male youth (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.65, 4.07). This work suggests that individual-level marijuana use among female youth is associated with neighborhood drug prevalence independent of peer norms. This finding may have important implications as the policy landscape around marijuana use changes.

  1. Drug Testing Incoming Residents and Medical Students in Family Medicine Training: A Survey of Program Policies and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Paul F; Semelka, Michael W; Bigdeli, Laleh

    2015-03-01

    Despite well-established negative consequences, high rates of substance use and related disorders continue to be reported. Physicians in training are not immune from this, or the associated risks to their health and careers, while impaired physicians are a threat to patient safety. We surveyed family medicine residency programs' practices relating to drug testing of medical students and incoming residents. The survey asked about the extent to which residency programs are confronted with trainees testing positive for prohibited substances, and how they respond. The survey was sent to the directors of family medicine residency programs. A total of 205 directors (47.2%) completed the survey. A majority of the responding programs required drug testing for incoming residents (143, 68.9%). Most programs did not require testing of medical students (161, 81.7%). Few programs reported positive drug tests among incoming residents (9, 6.5%), and there was only 1 reported instance of a positive result among medical students (1, 3.3%). Respondents reported a range of responses to positive results, with few reporting that they would keep open training spots or offer supportive services for a medical student who tested positive. Changing laws legalizing certain drugs may require corresponding changes in the focus on drug testing and associated issues in medical training; however, many residency program directors were not aware of their institution's current policies. Programs will need to reexamine drug testing policies as new generations of physicians, growing up under altered legal circumstances concerning drug use, progress to clinical training.

  2. Preliminary survey of local bacteriophages with lytic activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latz, Simone; Wahida, Adam; Arif, Assuda; Häfner, Helga; Hoß, Mareike; Ritter, Klaus; Horz, Hans-Peter

    2016-10-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) represent a potential alternative for combating multi-drug resistant bacteria. Because of their narrow host range and the ever emergence of novel pathogen variants the continued search for phages is a prerequisite for optimal treatment of bacterial infections. Here we performed an ad hoc survey in the surroundings of a University hospital for the presence of phages with therapeutic potential. To this end, 16 aquatic samples of different origins and locations were tested simultaneously for the presence of phages with lytic activity against five current, but distinct strains each from the ESKAPE-group (i.e., Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae). Phages could be isolated for 70% of strains, covering all bacterial species except S. aureus. Apart from samples from two lakes, freshwater samples were largely devoid of phages. By contrast, one liter of hospital effluent collected at a single time point already contained phages active against two-thirds of tested strains. In conclusion, phages with lytic activity against nosocomial pathogens are unevenly distributed across environments with the prime source being the immediate hospital vicinity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. When Policy and Strategy Collide: U.S. Intervention in Lebanon 1982-1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    general consensus of its 81 Ibid., 41. 82 Rashid Khalidi, “The PLO’s Yasser Arafat,” in Leadership...42–43. 86 Khalidi, “The PLO’s Arafat,” 49–50. 87 Ibid., 50–51, 59–61. 88 Rashid Khalidi, Under Siege: P.L.O. Decisionmaking during the 1982 War... Rashid . “The PLO’s Yasser Arafat.” In Leadership and Negotiation in the Middle East, edited by Barbara Kellerman and Jeffrey Z. Rubin, 49–69. New

  4. Survey study: The antibacterial drugs used for treatment of the animals in the teaching veterinary hospital in Kirkuk province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Mousa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey is to collect data relating to antibacterial drugs used to treat different animals in the veterinary teaching hospital in the province of Kirkuk, which is taking place for the first time at the province level for the purpose of knowing the types of drugs most commonly used and the outcome whether these drugs used are optimal. Data were collected from the veterinary teaching hospital in Kirkuk province for 6 consecutive months and for the period between 1/7/2016 and until 1/1/2017 period included both the summer and autumn and winter seasons. The results show that the most commonly used drugs were Oxytetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline-Colistin compound by 26, 57 and 36% in cattle, sheep-goats and Poultry, respectively. While the least commonly used drugs were Tylosin, Gentamicin and Gentamicin-Tylosin compound by 10, 5 and 4% in cattle, sheep-goats and poultry, respectively. Based on the results obtained from this survey, we recommend the use of Penicillin-Streptomycin compound because it has a synergistic effect against most of the resistant bacteria and not to increase usage of Oxytetracycline because of its side effects and lack of effectiveness in recent times due to the abundance of resistant germs. Also, using antibacterial drugs, we would like to note the need for optimal scientific use of these drugs and to give attention to the period in which it takes the medicine to withdraw from the animal body before milking animals or slaughtering it, so that the bacterial resistance does not develop against these drugs in the future.

  5. Trends in drug use among students in Brazil: analysis of four surveys in 1987, 1989, 1993 and 1997

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    Galduróz J.C.F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of psychotropic drugs among Brazilian secondary school students was examined by comparing data from four surveys using a questionnaire adapted from the WHO's Program on Research and Reporting on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence. Students filled out the form in their classrooms without the presence of teachers. The target population consisted of 10-18-year-old students (on average, 15,000 students responded to each survey in Brazil's ten largest state capitals: Belém, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and São Paulo. Among the legal drugs, lifetime use (use at least once during life of tobacco was increased in seven cities (the exceptions were Brasília, Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro. There was also a significant increase in frequent use of alcohol (six times or more per month in 6 of the cities, from an average of 9.2% in 1987 to 15.0% in 1997. With respect to illegal drugs, there was a significant increase in lifetime use of marijuana (a 3-fold increase from 2.8% in 1987 to 7.6% in 1997. Cocaine use increased 4-fold over the survey period (0.5% in 1987 to 2.0% in 1997. Lifetime use of cocaine significantly increased in eight capitals (except Recife and Rio de Janeiro. However, frequent cocaine use increased in only three capitals (Belém, Fortaleza and Porto Alegre, from an average of 1.0% in 1987 to 3.6% in 1997. Lifetime use of medications such as anxiolytics and amphetamines increased 2-fold on average over the survey period. Comparing the four studies, the main conclusion is that there were significant increases in the frequencies for lifetime use, frequent use and heavy use of many drugs.

  6. A cross-sectional national survey assessing self-reported drug intake behavior, contact with the primary sector and drug treatment among service users of Danish drug consumption rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toth, Eva Charlotte; Tegner, Jette; Lauridsen, Sigurd

    2016-01-01

    in the DCRs. Methods A survey questionnaire sampled 154 participants of DCRs. Convenience sampling was used. Key variables covered demographics, drug intake mode, educational advice received in the DCR, and opinions about and role of the DCRs for the service users. Results Only 10 % of the participants were...

  7. High risk behavior for HIV transmission among former injecting drug users: A survey from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskandar, S.; Basar, D.; Hidayat, T.; Siregar, I.M.P.; Pinxten, W.J.L.; Crevel, R. van; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2010-01-01

    Background: Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide, especially in eastern Europe, South America, and east and southeast Asia. Among people actively injecting drugs, provision of clean needles and opioid substitution reduce

  8. High risk behavior for HIV transmission among former injecting drug users: A survey from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskandar, S.; Basar, D.; Hidayat, T.; Siregar, I.M.; Pinxten, L.; Crevel, R. van; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide, especially in eastern Europe, South America, and east and southeast Asia. Among people actively injecting drugs, provision of clean needles and opioid substitution reduce

  9. A Labratory Survey on Drug Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gholamian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Broad spectrum anthelmintics had been used for about 50 years to control internal parasites of human and animals. Methods: In this survey, resistance in gastrointestinal nematode of sheep to levamisole and albendazole were investigated in 15 sheep flocks. On each flock, faecal samples were taken from 20 randomly selected sheep. Nematode eggs were separated from the samples and placed in microplate for 24 hours at 25 °C to hatch and then Nutritive media, Escherichia coli and different concentrations of levamisole or albendazole were added to first stage larvae and incubated at 25 °C for 6 more days. LD50 of these drugs in each flock were calculated according to precent of larval development parameter in different concentration of levamisole or albendazole (Hubert and Kerboeuf, 1992. Results: LD50 of levamisole were varied between 0.021 to 0.27 μg /ml and LD50 of albendazole between 0.021 to 0.13 μg/ml. In negative control samples with no anthelmintic average larval development was 65% and third stage larvae were mostly composed of Ostertagia (59%, Trichostrongylus (20% and Haemonchus (21% but in positive contol samples with the highest concentration of levamisole Ostertagia spp and Trichostrongylus spp and albendazole Ostertagia spp were detected. Conclusion: Therefore we can conclude that resistance have been developed in some isolates of Ostertagia spp and Trichostrongylus spp to levamisole and to in some isolates of Ostertagia spp to benzimidazoles that can be alarming for treatment of trichotrongylus in people.

  10. A Survey of Secondary School Students' Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Use of Drugs by Teenagers. Part I, Part II, Part III.; A Survey of Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions of the Role of the Schools in Dealing with Teenage Drug Use. A General Overview of Survey Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Three volumes report the findings of a student survey among a random sample of 2,777 junior high and senior high school students. Volume one presents the overall findings: the typical student believes that drug use and experimentation are not common, except for marihuana, alcohol, cigarettes, and glue; believes that drug use is increasing; is not…

  11. Gap between evidence and physicians' knowledge and practice regarding hypertension and its drug treatment: a survey in a Chinese city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-zhong; TANG Jin-ling; HU Yong-hua; AN Jian-gang; WANG Yan-ling; REN Zhong-he; ZHANG Hong; Sian Griffiths

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine has come into its second decade. How prepared clinicians are in practicing it in particular in developing countries remains unclear. Thus we conducted this survey of physicians in urban hospitals in China to determine the size of the gap between research evidence and physicians' knowledge and practice regarding antihypertensive drugs for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in China.Methods A cross sectional survey by a face-to-face interview was conducted in 20 tertiary general hospitals in China in 2005. A total of 444 physicians (mostly cardiologists) in internal medicine who had treated at least one hypertensive patient in the past 12 months were invited for the interview on their perception of the cardiovascular risk of hypertension,the magnitude of the benefit of antihypertensive drugs, knowledge on the overall risk approach, first-line drugs used, the risk above which drug treatment is recommended, and knowledge on evidence-based medicine.Results A total of 444 of the 468 eligible physicians were successfully interviewed with a response rate of 94.9%. They estimated that a hypertensive man with an actual 5-year cardiovascular risk of 8.4% would have a 5-year cardiovascular risk of 40% (95% CI: 38% to 42%) if not treated, and have an absolute risk reduction and relative risk reduction from drug treatment by 20% (95% CI. 18% to 22%) and 39% (95% CI: 37% to 42%) respectively, as compared to 3.3% and 33%respectively shown in research evidence. On average, the physicians would recommend drug treatment at a number needed to treat (NNT) of 368 or smaller, as compared to the actual NNT of 50 for drug treatment in an average hypertensive Chinese. Fifty-five percent (95% CI: 50% to 59%) of them had never intently used the national hypertension guidelines. The majority still prescribed drugs primarily based on blood pressure alone by ignoring other risk factors or the overall risk and 78% (95 % C/. 76% to 83%) used new

  12. Correlates of Salvia divinorum use in a national sample: findings from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Watkins, William C; Blumenstein, Lindsey

    2011-11-01

    Salvia, a hallucinogenic plant legally available in most of the United States, has become a widely discussed drug in the media. The extant research on Salvia use relies on non-probability samples and studies of college students. There is a clear need for research that identifies the correlates of Salvia use using data from a large sample that is nationally representative. The current study fills this important gap in the literature by using data from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. This survey includes data from nearly 70,000 respondents ages 12 and older living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Due to survey design, separate analyses are conducted among adolescents and adults. Findings indicate that 1.66% of adolescents (respondents ages 12 to 17) and 5.08% of adults (respondents ages 18-34) report the use of Salvia at some point in their lifetime. Correlates of use among adolescents include age, gender, income, peer and parent attitudes toward substance use, and other forms of drug use. Correlates of use among adults include age, gender, race, religiosity, marital status, criminal involvement, and other forms of substance use. Implications of the findings and limitations of the current study are discussed.

  13. [Drug therapy in primary care in the light of discount contracts to health insurers--a patient survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber-Grätz, Dagmar; Gulich, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Since April 1, 2007 pharmacists in Germany are obligated by law to dispense products from particular manufacturers with whom the health insurance funds have entered into discount agreements. Only by ticking the relevant tick box ("Aut Idem") on the prescription form can the prescriber insist on a drug of a specific company. A standardized questionnaire was designed and piloted in a small group and adapted accordingly. By means of this questionnaire patients were asked about their experiences with drug discount contracts. 226 patients participated in this study. 75% of the participants had knowledge of these contracts. 64.6% of the patients were concerned about substitute drugs. 32.1% took no longer the drugs regularly, and 21.2% indicated that they were confused by the changed packaging of medicinal drugs. 79.5% of the participants wanted to keep their old, familiar drug, and 53.7% of the participants insisted on receiving their familiar medication against the prescriber's prescription. The survey shows that patients feel irritated by their medication and that medication errors occur. In addition, GPs and pharmacists must inform patients about the discount contracts (substitution). Many participants wanted to keep or insist on their familiar medication and compliance and physician-patient-relationship could be compromised. This intervention by the health insurance funds interferes with the medical treatment of patients. Such far-reaching changes in medication might lead to life-threatening situations.

  14. Drug use among complete responders, partial responders and non-responders in a longitudinal survey of nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Rasmussen, Lotte; Oksuzyan, Anna;

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In observational studies, non-response can limit representativity and introduce bias. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes in the number of used drugs among complete responders, partial responders, and non-responders in a whole birth cohort of Danish nonagenarians participating...... in a longitudinal survey. METHODS: We obtained prescription data on all individuals born in 1905 and living in Denmark when the Danish 1905 cohort study was initiated in 1998 (n = 3600) using the Danish National Prescription Registry. Drug use was assessed for complete responders, non-responders at baseline......, and partial responders (i.e., dropouts) in the 4-month period preceding each wave of the study (1998, 2000, 2003, and 2005), that is, as the cohort aged from 92-93 to 99-100 years. RESULTS: Complete responders, non-responders, and partial responders used a similar number of drugs at baseline, on average 4...

  15. On resource survey of natural mineral drugs in eastern Jilin and their sustaining application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    There are rich natural resources of natural mineral drugs in eastern Jilin Province. Systematic resource investigation can elevate fractional conversion of this area' s mineral drugs resources superiority. Research on natural mineral drugs of this area can upgrade the translation rate of resource superiority and accelerate the development of local medical industry, especially, it can provide scientific data for founding the strategic design of Chinese traditional medicine's trademark of Jilin Changbai Mountain. Since the resource of mineral drugs can not be regenerated, it must be exploited scientifically, utilized reasonably and protected effectively its sustaining application.

  16. Drug-induced renal function impairment : a population-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monster, TBM; de Jong, PE; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    2003-01-01

    Purpose The knowledge that drugs can affect renal function is mainly based on experimental studies or case reports. Thus, it has only been investigated in selected populations. Here we describe drug groups associated with altered renal function in the general population. Methods To study this, we us

  17. [Study on job support programs for drug addicts in japan: results of a nationwide survey on drug addiction rehabilitation centers (DARC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Keiko; Morita, Nobuaki; Ogai, Yasukazu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Koda, Minoru; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Yabe, Yohko; Abe, Yukie; Kondo, Tsuneo

    2014-04-01

    In Japan, many drug addiction rehabilitation centers (DARC) provide various types of recovery programs for drug addiction. The purpose of this study was to clarify the attitudes of DARC staff and users regarding job support programs. A nationwide questionnaire survey was conducted in 2009. The staff of 46 facilities and 606 users returned questionnaires. The results indicated that many (92.1%) users had work experience before entering the recovery programs provided by DARC and about half (49.3%) of the users reported being motivated to work. Although many DARC have established various job support programs, the users faced various levels of anxieties to get employed and 60.4% of the users expected to learn more detailed and concrete methods for finding a job. Through the DARC programs, the users gradually realize the significance of basic daily living skills such as maintaining their rhythm of life or neat and presentable appearance. And the more they get recovered the more they understand the significance of "self-care" and "interpersonal relationship skills". These findings indicate that job support programs for drug addicts should also focus on these recovery processes. More extensive job supports dealing with more practical issues and covering a wide variety of anxieties would be imperative.

  18. High risk behavior for HIV transmission among former injecting drug users:a survey from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Shelly

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide, especially in eastern Europe, South America, and east and southeast Asia. Among people actively injecting drugs, provision of clean needles and opioid substitution reduce HIV-transmission. However, former injecting drug users (fIDUs are often overlooked as a high risk group for HIV transmission. We compared HIV risk behavior among current and former injecting drug users (IDUs in Indonesia, which has a rapidly growing HIV-epidemic largely driven by injecting drug use. Methods Current and former IDUs were recruited by respondent driven sampling in an urban setting in Java, and interviewed regarding drug use and HIV risk behavior using the European Addiction Severity Index and the Blood Borne Virus Transmission Questionnaire. Drug use and HIV transmission risk behavior were compared between current IDUs and former IDUs, using the Mann-Whitney and Pearson Chi-square test. Results Ninety-two out of 210 participants (44% were self reported former IDUs. Risk behavior related to sex, tattooing or piercing was common among current as well as former IDUs, 13% of former IDUs were still exposed to contaminated injecting equipment. HIV-infection was high among former (66% and current (60% IDUs. Conclusion Former IDUs may contribute significantly to the HIV-epidemic in Indonesia, and HIV-prevention should therefore also target this group, addressing sexual and other risk behavior.

  19. Sexual behaviour, drugs and alcohol use of international students at a British university: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivancos, R; Abubakar, I; Hunter, P R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether international students have greater risk-taking behaviours that could lead to importing novel and resistant strains of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey of university students' sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and self-reported diagnosis of STIs and compared these between British and international students. In all, 827 students completed the survey, of whom 123 (15%) were international students. International students were less likely to have ever drunk alcohol (95.4% versus 87.8%, P = 0.002) and used drugs (56.4% versus 41.5%, P = 0.002). International students were on average almost two years older at first intercourse (18.7 versus 17 years; P international students. On a discriminant analysis model, international students were characterized by being older and from a non-white background, less likely to use cocaine, they drank alcohol less frequently and were more likely to have had unprotected intercourse with two or more partners in the previous year. In conclusion, international students tend to drink more moderately and use fewer recreational drugs than British students. However, they exhibit higher sexual risk behaviours that could lead to importing novel and resistant strains of STIs.

  20. Association between genotype and drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in China in a national drug resistance survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; van den Hof, Susan; Wang, Shengfen; Pang, Yu; Zhao, Bing; Xia, Hui; Anthony, Richard; Ou, Xichao; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Yang; Song, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yanlin; van Soolingen, Dick

    2017-01-01

    We describe the population structure of a representative collection of 3,133 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, collected within the framework of a national resistance survey from 2007 in China. Genotyping data indicate that the epidemic strains in China can be divided into seven major complexes, of which 92% belonged to the East Asian (mainly Beijing strains) or the Euro-American lineage. The epidemic Beijing strains in China are closely related to the Beijing B0/W148 strain earlier described in Russia and a large cluster of these strains has spread national wide. The density of Beijing strains is high in the whole of China (average 70%), but the highest prevalence was found North of the Yellow river. The Euro-American lineage consists of three sublineages (sublineage_1, 2, and 3) and is more prevalent in the South. Beijing lineage showed the highest cluster rate of 48% and a significantly higher level of resistance to rifampicin (14%, p<0.001), ethambutol (9%, p = 0.001), and ofloxacin (5%, p = 0.011). Within the Euro-American Lineage, sublineage_3 revealed the highest cluster rate (28%) and presented a significantly elevated level of resistance to streptomycin (44%, p<0.001). Our findings suggest that standardised treatment in this region may have contributed to the successful spread of certain strains: sublineage_3 in the Euro-American lineage may have thrived when streptomycin was used without rifampicin for treatment, while later under DOTS based treatment, in which rifampicin plays a key role, Beijing lineage appears to be spreading. PMID:28333978

  1. Nationwide survey of the development of drug-resistant pathogens in the pediatric field in 2007 and 2010: drug sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Japan (second report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Takeshi; Sato, Yoshitake; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2013-06-01

    We previously conducted nationwide surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 2000-2001 (period 1) and 2004 (period 2) and reported the findings. Subsequent surveillance surveys conducted in 2007 (period 3) and 2010 (period 4) are now reported. Bacterial strains were clinically isolated from children with meningitis, sepsis, and respiratory tract infections at 27 hospitals participating in the Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease. Twenty-one drugs were investigated for 283 isolated strains in period 3, and 24 drugs were investigated for 459 strains in period 4. In period 3, 43.8 % of strains were penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP), 52.3 % were penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP), and 3.9 % were penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP). In period 4, the percentages were PSSP 23.1 %, PISP 49.9 %, and PRSP 27.0 %. The resistance rates were 56.2 % and 76.9 %, respectively. Drug sensitivity was best with panipenem, at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)90 ≤0.063 μg/ml in period 3, and with tebipenem (MIC90 ≤ 0.063 μg/ml) in period 4. Patients' background factors related to increased bacterial resistance were investigated, and significant differences were found depending on whether a child had siblings (P = 0.0056) or was a daycare center attendee (P = 0.0195) in period 3, and age category (P = 0.0256) in period 4. No factors were common to both periods 3 and 4. Pneumococcus is a major causative organism of pediatric infectious disease, and we plan to continue conducting surveillance and providing information in the future.

  2. National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births (NPHS-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The primary objective of the National Pregnancy and Health Survey (NPHS) was to produce national annual estimates of the percentages and numbers of mothers of live...

  3. Survey on drug use among high school students: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clamarta Pasuch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments with drugs often occur in adolescence, in familiar surroundings, with legal substances such as alcohol and tobacco. Data indicate that adolescence is a phase of exposure and vulnerability to substance use. Objective: To determine the prevalence of drug use among high school students. Method: Systematic review. Results: We found 184 articles, and according to the exclusion criteria, 13 articles were adopted: 3 that address the theme in the South, one in the Northeast, one in the North, and the 8 in the Southeastern Brazilian regions. Discussion: We noticed a growth in drug use among adolescent students in the 13 articles examined. Research reveals significant increase in lifetime use, frequent use and heavy use of various drugs. We found that students have early contact with psychoactive substances, using them in large quantities, whether legal such as alcohol and tobacco, or illicit drugs like marijuana and solvents. The most important variable for this behavior was curiosity. Conclusion: There is an increase in substance use among high school students. Approaching the subject in schools is the best way to prevent drug use.

  4. Long-term benzodiazepine and Z-drugs use in the UK: a survey of general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, James; Rae, Todd C; Montagu, Luke

    2017-07-17

    Current British National Formulary (BNF) guidelines state that benzodiazepines and zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon, commonly known as Z-drugs (BZD), be prescribed for no more than 4 weeks, although anecdotal data suggest that many patients are prescribed BZDs for much longer. As there are no recent, evidence-based estimates of long-term (>12 months) BZD use in the UK, the scale of this potential problem is unknown. To produce the first reliable, evidence-based estimate of long-term BZD use in the UK. Estimates of UK long-term BZD use were projected from data obtained from a survey conducted in 2014-2015 by the Bridge Project, a prescribed-drug withdrawal support charity in the North of England (Bradford). Percentages of long-term users of BZD were derived from the survey, by sampling primary care GP surgeries with around 100 000 registered patients, and these were applied to UK-wide NHS patient numbers. The data were filtered to exclude the very young and old, and those with other health issues. The mean percentage of registered patients prescribed BZDs for more than a year in the survey sample is 0.69% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54 to 0.84). Applying this value to national patient numbers yields a mean projection of 296 929 (95% CI = 232 553 to 361 305) long-term users of BZD in the UK. The data also suggest that as many as 119 165 of these patients may be willing to accept prescribed drug dependency withdrawal services. More than a quarter of a million people in the UK are likely to be taking highly dependency-forming hypnotic medication far beyond the recommended time scales. As there is evidence that long-term use of BZDs causes adverse physiological and neurological effects, and protracted withdrawal (with associated complications), this represents a serious public health problem. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  5. [Attitude of patients and customers toward on-line purchase of drugs--a Hungarian survey by community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittler, András; Bosze, Gergely; Botz, Lajos

    2010-11-28

    As internet is now available to nearly everyone in Hungary, the accessibility of websites offering pharmaceutical products is also increasing. The national and international regulation of these sites is currently an unsolved problem worldwide, thus potentially harmful, counterfeit and prescription only medicines are easily accessible on the market. We aimed to measure and estimate the current situation of the ordering of online medicines. In 5 Hungarian cities 434 self-administered questionnaires were collected in community pharmacies. Our results show that 6.2% of the respondents have already ordered drugs or dietary supplements online and approximately same amount of people are considering this option in the near future. Based on our survey mostly the educated, the 30-49 year old people and women are likely to buy drugs online. Every fifth respondent reported willingness to buy drugs online from abroad if lower prices were offered. Most people do not know that the quality of medicines purchased online could be different from the ones purchased from community pharmacies. We would like to draw attention of healthcare professionals to the rising popularity and potential risks of drugs available online.

  6. International guidelines for bioequivalence of systemically available orally administered generic drug products: a survey of similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davit, Barbara; Braddy, April C; Conner, Dale P; Yu, Lawrence X

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the similarities and differences among bioequivalence approaches used by international regulatory authorities when reviewing applications for marketing new generic drug products which are systemically active and intended for oral administration. We focused on the 13 jurisdictions and organizations participating in the International Generic Drug Regulators Pilot. These are Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Chinese Taipei, the European Medicines Association, Japan, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, the USA, and the World Health Organization. We began with a comparison of how the various jurisdictions and organizations define a generic product and its corresponding reference product. We then compared the following bioequivalence approaches: recommended bioequivalence study designs, method of pharmacokinetic calculations and bioequivalence acceptance limits, recommendations for modifying bioequivalence study designs and limits for highly variable drugs and narrow therapeutic index drugs, provisions for waiving bioequivalence study requirements (granting biowaivers), and implementation of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. We observed that, overall, there are more similarities than differences in bioequivalence approaches among the regulatory authorities surveyed.

  7. Intimate partner violence trends in Brazil: data from two waves of the Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Z. Ally

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare intimate partner violence (IPV prevalence rates in 2006 and 2012 in a nationally representative household sample in Brazil. The associations between IPV and substance use were also investigated. Methods: IPV was assessed using the Conflict Tactic Scale-R in two waves (2006/2012 of the Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted logistic regression models were calculated. Results: Prevalence rates of IPV victimization decreased significantly, especially among women (8.8 to 6.3%. The rates of IPV perpetration also decreased significantly (10.6 to 8.4% for the overall sample and 9.2 to 6.1% in men, as well as the rates of bidirectional violence (by individuals who were simultaneously victims and perpetrators of violence (3.2 to 2.4% for the overall sample. Alcohol increased the likelihood of being a victim (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6 and perpetrator (OR = 2.4 of IPV. Use of illicit drugs increased up to 4.5 times the likelihood of being a perpetrator. Conclusions: In spite of the significant reduction in most types of IPV between 2006 and 2012, violence perpetrated by women was not significantly reduced, and the current national rates are still high. Further, this study suggests that use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs plays a major role in IPV. Prevention initiatives must take drug misuse into consideration.

  8. Development and Reliability of Items Measuring the Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs for the Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Results Froman Initial Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Melissa M.; Weiler, Robert M.; Haddox, J. David

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability of self-report survey items designed to monitor the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among adolescents. Methods: Eighteen nonmedical prescription drug items designed to be congruent with the substance abuse items in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's…

  9. An Australian nationwide survey on medicinal cannabis use for epilepsy: History of antiepileptic drug treatment predicts medicinal cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraev, Anastasia S; Todd, Lisa; Bowen, Michael T; Allsop, David J; McGregor, Iain S; Ireland, Carol; Lintzeris, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy Action Australia conducted an Australian nationwide online survey seeking opinions on and experiences with the use of cannabis-based products for the treatment of epilepsy. The survey was promoted via the Epilepsy Action Australia's main website, on their Facebook page, and by word of mouth. The survey consisted of 39 questions assessing demographics, clinical factors, including diagnosis and seizure types, and experiences with and opinions towards cannabis use in epilepsy. A total of 976 responses met the inclusion criteria. Results show that 15% of adults with epilepsy and 13% of parents/guardians of children with epilepsy were currently using, or had previously used, cannabis products to treat epilepsy. Of those with a history of cannabis product use, 90% of adults and 71% of parents reported success in reducing seizure frequency after commencing cannabis products. The main reasons for medicinal cannabis use were to manage treatment-resistant epilepsy and to obtain a more favorable side-effect profile compared to standard antiepileptic drugs. The number of past antiepileptic drugs tried was a significant predictor of medicinal cannabis use in both adults and children with epilepsy. Fifty-six percent of adults with epilepsy and 62% of parents/guardians of children with epilepsy expressed willingness to participate in clinical trials of cannabinoids. This survey provides insight into the use of cannabis products for epilepsy, in particular some of the likely factors influencing use, as well as novel insights into the experiences of and attitudes towards medicinal cannabis in people with epilepsy in the Australian community. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychotropic Drug Use in Sao Paulo, Brazil--An Epidemiological Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Quintana

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of one month psychotropic drug use in São Paulo, Brazil, and to assess the gap treatment between the presence of mental disorders and psychotropic drug users.A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the general population of São Paulo (n = 2336; turnout: 84.5% who were 15 years or older were interviewed by a trained research staff, applying the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (CIDI WHO (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections, and an inventory investigating psychotropic drug use during the 12-month and one-month periods immediately preceding the interview. Logistic models were fitted to investigate associations between psychotropic drug use as well as socio-demographic and clinical variables.The one month prevalence of psychotropic drug use in São Paulo was 5.89%, the most commonly used drugs were antidepressants (3.15% and tranquilizers (2.67%. A higher consumption of psychotropic drugs (overall, antidepressants and tranquilizers was observed among women (OR:2.42, older individuals (OR:1.04, individuals with higher levels of formal education (1.06, and individuals with a family (OR:2.29 or personal history of mental illness (OR:3.27. The main psychotropic drug prescribers were psychiatrists (41%, followed by general practitioners (30%; 60% of psychotropic drugs were obtained through a government-run dispensing program. Most individuals who obtained a positive diagnosis on the CIDI 2.1 during the previous month were not using psychotropic medication (85%. Among individuals with a diagnosis of moderate to severe depression, 67.5% were not on any pharmacological treatment.There is a change in the type of psychotropic more often used in São Paulo, from benzodiazepines to antidepressants, this event is observed in different cultures. The prevalence of use is similar to other developing countries. Most of the patients presenting a psychiatric illness in the

  11. [Assessment on the criminal responsibility of drug-induced mental disorders: a questionnaire survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng-yu; Zhao, Hai; Tang, Tao; Guan, Wei

    2014-12-01

    To understand the assessment on the criminal responsibility of drug-induced mental disorders and judicial experts' opinions. The judicial experts from institutes of forensic psychiatry in Shanghai were selected. They were asked to finish a self-made questionnaire of assessment on the criminal responsibility of drug-induced mental disorders by letters and visits. Most of experts knew the special regulation, "not suitable for evaluation" towards the criminal responsibility of drug-induced mental disorders of the guideline promulgated by Ministry of Justice. Before and after the guideline was issued, no expert made a no-responsibility opinion in such cases. After the guideline was issued, some experts made a full-responsibility or limited-responsibility opinion in such cases. There was a little disagreement among the experts in the case that the crime was unrelated with mental symptoms or the criminals used drugs even though he knew it could induced insanity. But there were still many obvious disagreements among experts in the case that crime was related to such symptoms and person was no ability to debate. Most experts agreed to settle the disagreements with improved legislative perfection. Most experts are not strictly complying with the assessment guidelines during their practice, and there is still an obvious disagreement towards the criminal responsibility of drug-induced mental disorders.

  12. Contribution of industry funded post-marketing studies to drug safety: survey of notifications submitted to regulatory agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugger, Christof; Doshi, Peter; Ostrowski, Kerstin; Witte, Thomas; Hüsgen, Dieter; Keil, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the practice of post-marketing studies in Germany during a three year period and to evaluate whether these trials meet the aims specified in the German Medicinal Products Act. Design Survey of notifications submitted to German regulatory agencies before post-marketing studies were carried out, 2008-10. Setting Notifications obtained through freedom of information requests to the three authorities responsible for registering post-marketing studies in Germany. Main outcome measures Descriptive statistics of post-marketing studies, including the products under study, intended number of patients, intended number of participating physicians, proposed remunerations, study plan and protocol, and availability of associated scientific publications and reports on adverse drug reactions. Results Information was obtained from 558 studies, with a median of 600 (mean 2331, range 2-75 000) patients and 63 (270, 0-7000) participating physicians per study. The median remuneration to physicians per patient was €200 (€441, €0-€7280) (£170, £0-£6200; $215, $0-$7820), with a total remuneration cost of more than €217m for 558 studies registered over the three year period. The median remuneration per participating physician per study was €2000 (mean €19 424), ranging from €0 to €2 080 000. There was a broad range of drugs and non-drug products, of which only a third represented recently approved drugs. In many notifications, data, information, and results were, by contract, strictly confidential and the sole property of the respective sponsor. No single adverse drug reaction report could be identified from any of the 558 post-marketing studies. Less than 1% of studies could be verified as published in scientific journals. Conclusions Post-marketing studies are not improving drug safety surveillance. Sample sizes are generally too small to allow the detection of rare adverse drug reactions, and many participating physicians are

  13. Contribution of industry funded post-marketing studies to drug safety: survey of notifications submitted to regulatory agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelsberg, Angela; Prugger, Christof; Doshi, Peter; Ostrowski, Kerstin; Witte, Thomas; Hüsgen, Dieter; Keil, Ulrich

    2017-02-07

     To investigate the practice of post-marketing studies in Germany during a three year period and to evaluate whether these trials meet the aims specified in the German Medicinal Products Act.  Survey of notifications submitted to German regulatory agencies before post-marketing studies were carried out, 2008-10.  Notifications obtained through freedom of information requests to the three authorities responsible for registering post-marketing studies in Germany.  Descriptive statistics of post-marketing studies, including the products under study, intended number of patients, intended number of participating physicians, proposed remunerations, study plan and protocol, and availability of associated scientific publications and reports on adverse drug reactions.  Information was obtained from 558 studies, with a median of 600 (mean 2331, range 2-75 000) patients and 63 (270, 0-7000) participating physicians per study. The median remuneration to physicians per patient was €200 (€441, €0-€7280) (£170, £0-£6200; $215, $0-$7820), with a total remuneration cost of more than €217m for 558 studies registered over the three year period. The median remuneration per participating physician per study was €2000 (mean €19 424), ranging from €0 to €2 080 000. There was a broad range of drugs and non-drug products, of which only a third represented recently approved drugs. In many notifications, data, information, and results were, by contract, strictly confidential and the sole property of the respective sponsor. No single adverse drug reaction report could be identified from any of the 558 post-marketing studies. Less than 1% of studies could be verified as published in scientific journals.  Post-marketing studies are not improving drug safety surveillance. Sample sizes are generally too small to allow the detection of rare adverse drug reactions, and many participating physicians are strictly obliged to maintain confidentiality towards the

  14. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  15. An analytical survey of promotional drug literatures at C. U. Shah Medical College and Hospital, Surendranagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Narendra Bhatt

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed that pharmaceutical companies do not strictly follow the WHO guidelines and majority of the research were sponsored by companies. Hence, more stringent regulations need to be implemented for the proper promotion and dissemination of information about the new drugs. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 325-329

  16. [Survey on the needs expressed by primary care doctors for continuing education in drug therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, D; Llop, R; Barceló, M E; Cucurull, E; Vallés, J A; Diogène, E; García, N; Fernández, E; Sabaté, N; Simó, E; Casadevall, J

    2002-12-01

    To describe the aspects of continuing education in pharmacological therapeutics considered as most relevant by the primary health care physicians. Observational study.Setting. Physicians filled-up the questionnaires during 45 minutes at their primary health care centres. Primary health care physicians involved in the Fundation Institut Català de Farmacologia continuing education activities since 1997 were selected. A specific questionnaire was designed to collect the physicians' opinion on different topics regarding continuing education in pharmacological therapeutics. 180 physicians from 21 primary health care centres answered the questionnaire. 68% of the responding physicians considered that continuing education has to be useful to improve routine clinical practice. Regular seminars and methods stimulating active participation administered by primary health care professionels are preferred. Continuing education in pharmacological therapeutics should be focused to health problems rather than being drug-oriented. They referred being more interested in drug selection issues and in the role of new drug in comparison with the existing alternatives rather than in regulation and drug consumption issues. 66,3% of the responding physicians considered that continuing education in pharmacological therapeutics should be compulsory. Public health authorities and primary health care physicians should share the responsibility in setting-up continuing education in pharmacological therapeutics programs, according to the opinion of almost 70% of the physicians. Primary health care physicians are interested in continuing education in pharmacological therapeutics as far as it is practical and useful to solve problems of their routine clinical practice.

  17. Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) to define endpoints for lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, Brian K.; Deming, Michael; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination through treatment of entire at-risk populations with repeated annual mass drug administration (MDA). Essential for program success is defining and confirming the appropriate endpoint for MDA when transmission is presumed to have reached...

  18. Current status of health technology reassessment of non-drug technologies: survey and key informant interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leggett Laura E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Technology Reassessment (HTR is a structured, evidence-based assessment of the clinical, social, ethical and economic effects of a technology currently used in the health care system, to inform optimal use of that technology in comparison to its alternatives. Little is known about current international HTR practices. The objective of this research was to summarize experience-based information gathered from international experts on the development, initiation and implementation of a HTR program. Methods A mixed methods approach, using a survey and in-depth interviews, was adopted. The survey covered 8 concepts: prioritization/identification of potentially obsolete technologies; program development; implementation; mitigation; program championing; stakeholder engagement; monitoring; and reinvestment. Members of Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi and the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA formed the sampling frame. Participation was solicited via email and the survey was administered online using SurveyMonkey. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. To gather more in-depth knowledge, semi-structured interviews were conducted among organizations with active HTR programs. Interview questions were developed using the same 8 concepts. The hour-long interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Results Ninety-five individuals responded to the survey: 49 were not discussing HTR, 21 were beginning to discuss HTR, nine were imminently developing a program, and 16 participants had programs and were completing reassessments. The survey results revealed that methods vary widely and that although HTR is a powerful tool, it is currently not being used to its full potential. Of the 16 with active programs, nine agreed to participate in follow-up interviews. Interview participants identified early and extensive stakeholder

  19. Chemotherapy-induced adverse drug reactions in oncology patients: A prospective observational survey

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    Deepti Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemotherapy, a multimodal approach to oncological treatment, involves highly complex regimens and hence accounts to high susceptibility toward adverse drug reactions (ADRs. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of adverse events in patients treated with chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Spontaneous ADR report of patients on antineoplastic drugs received in the past 2 years (January 2011-January 2013 were studied. These reports were analyzed for various carcinomas under treatment, medications used, types of ADRs, organ system involvement, severity, causality assessment, and preventability. Results: Over a period of 2 years, a total 591 cases were received with an incidence of 58.6%. The prevalence of ADRs was more in female patients (73.6% as compared to men. ADRs mostly occurred in the age group of 41-50 years (27.4%. Patients treated for breast carcinoma (39.1% reported the highest incidence of ADRs. Cisplatin (19.6% was found to be the most common offending drug. The most common ADR reported was nausea and vomiting (23%. Gastroenterology (40.1% was the most affected system. About 50.2% of the ADRs required treatment and 12.9% ADRs were considered serious. Causality assessment revealed that 80% of the ADRs were possible. About 86.97% cases were found to be mild, and 51% were not preventable. Conclusion: The success of chemotherapy comes with the word of caution regarding toxicities of antineoplastic drugs. Pharmacovigilance of these drugs needs to be explored, and use of preventative measures needs to be enhanced in order to reduce the incidence and severity of ADRs.

  20. Does anti-malarial drug knowledge predict anti-malarial dispensing practice in drug outlets? A survey of medicine retailers in western Kenya

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    Rusk Andria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya, where it is the fifth leading cause of death in both children and adults. Effectively managing malaria is dependent upon appropriate treatment. In Kenya, between 17 to 83 percent of febrile individuals first seek treatment for febrile illness over the counter from medicine retailers. Understanding medicine retailer knowledge and behaviour in treating suspected malaria and dispensing anti-malarials is crucial. Methods To investigate medicine retailer knowledge about anti-malarials and their dispensing practices, a survey was conducted of all retail drug outlets that sell anti-malarial medications and serve residents of the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in the Bungoma East District of western Kenya. Results Most of the medicine retailers surveyed (65% were able to identify artemether-lumefantrine (AL as the Kenyan Ministry of Health recommended first-line anti-malarial therapy for uncomplicated malaria. Retailers who correctly identified this treatment were also more likely to recommend AL to adult and paediatric customers. However, the proportion of medicine retailers who recommend the correct treatment is disappointingly low. Only 48% would recommend AL to adults, and 37% would recommend it to children. It was discovered that customer demand has an influence on retailer behaviour. Retailer training and education were found to be correlated with anti-malarial drug knowledge, which in turn is correlated with dispensing practices. Medicine retailer behaviour, including patient referral practice and dispensing practices, are also correlated with knowledge of the first-line anti-malarial medication. The Kenya Ministry of Health guidelines were found to influence retailer drug stocking and dispensing behaviours. Conclusion Most medicine retailers could identify the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but the percentage that could

  1. Self-reported responsiveness to direct-to-consumer drug advertising and medication use: results of a national survey

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    Somes Grant W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct-to-consumer (DTC marketing of pharmaceuticals is controversial, yet effective. Little is known relating patterns of medication use to patient responsiveness to DTC. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in national telephone survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward DTC advertisements. The survey of 1081 U.S. adults (response rate = 65% was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Responsiveness to DTC was defined as an affirmative response to the item: "Has an advertisement for a prescription drug ever caused you to ask a doctor about a medical condition or illness of your own that you had not talked to a doctor about before?" Patients reported number of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC medicines taken as well as demographic and personal health information. Results Of 771 respondents who met study criteria, 195 (25% were responsive to DTC. Only 7% respondents taking no prescription were responsive, whereas 45% of respondents taking 5 or more prescription medications were responsive. This trend remained significant (p trend .0009 even when controlling for age, gender, race, educational attainment, income, self-reported health status, and whether respondents "liked" DTC advertising. There was no relationship between the number of OTC medications taken and the propensity to discuss health-related problems in response to DTC advertisements (p = .4. Conclusion There is a strong cross-sectional relationship between the number of prescription, but not OTC, drugs used and responsiveness to DTC advertising. Although this relationship could be explained by physician compliance with patient requests for medications, it is also plausible that DTC advertisements have a particular appeal to patients prone to taking multiple medications. Outpatients motivated to discuss medical conditions based on their exposure to DTC advertising may require a careful medication history to evaluate for

  2. Perceptions and patterns of use of generic drugs among Italian family pediatricians: first round results of a web survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Valentina; Mameli, Chiara; Cattaneo, Dario; Delle Fave, Antonella; Preziosa, Alessandra; Mele, Giuseppe; Clementi, Emilio; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2012-03-01

    Prescription of generic medicines represents an efficacious healthcare cost containment strategy. In some European countries and in the US, generic medicines are largely prescribed. In Italy, generic drugs prescription rate is lower. General Practitioners and Family Pediatricians may be less confident in prescribing generic equivalents instead of "branded" medicines. There are currently no data about Italian Family Pediatricians' perceptions and patterns of use of generic drugs. This is a first nationwide web survey conducted with the aim to evaluate generic medicines knowledge and prescribing habits of Italian Family Pediatricians. 303 Family Pediatricians completed the online questionnaire. 37.2% and 32.6% of them declared to have a sufficient or fairly good knowledge of generic medicines, respectively, and the majority of them believed that efficacy of generic medicines was sufficient (33.6%) or good (45.2%). Nevertheless, Italian Family Pediatricians are still prone to prescribe trade medicines more frequently, since only 13.5% of them declared that more than a half of their patients were treated with generic medicines. Major issues related with generic medicines prescriptions by Italian Family Pediatricians seem to be represented by diffuse scepticism about reliability of bioequivalence tests and safety of switchability from branded to generic equivalents. More information about generic drugs and more research in the field of pediatric pharmacology are needed for increasing generic medicines prescription rate among Italian Family Pediatricians.

  3. A Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effect of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome

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    Eri Muso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: LDL apheresis (LDL-A is used for drug-resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS as an alternative therapy to induce remission by improvement of hyperlipidemia. Several clinical studies have suggested the efficacy of LDL-A for refractory NS, but the level of evidence remains insufficient. A multicenter prospective study, POLARIS (Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effects of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome, was conducted to evaluate its clinical efficacy with high-level evidence. Methods: Patients with NS who showed resistance to primary medication for at least 4 weeks were prospectively recruited to the study and treated with LDL-A. The long-term outcome was evaluated based on the rate of remission of NS 2 years after treatment. Factors affecting the outcome were also examined. Results: A total of 58 refractory NS patients from 40 facilities were recruited and enrolled as subjects of the POLARIS study. Of the 44 subjects followed for 2 years, 21 (47.7% showed remission of NS based on a urinary protein (UP level Conclusions: Almost half of the cases of drug-resistant NS showed remission 2 years after LDL-A. Improvement of nephrotic parameters at termination of the LDL-A treatment was a predictor of a favorable outcome.

  4. A Survey of the Role of Noncovalent Sulfur Interactions in Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beno, Brett R; Yeung, Kap-Sun; Bartberger, Michael D; Pennington, Lewis D; Meanwell, Nicholas A

    2015-06-11

    Electron deficient, bivalent sulfur atoms have two areas of positive electrostatic potential, a consequence of the low-lying σ* orbitals of the C-S bond that are available for interaction with electron donors including oxygen and nitrogen atoms and, possibly, π-systems. Intramolecular interactions are by far the most common manifestation of this effect, which offers a means of modulating the conformational preferences of a molecule. Although a well-documented phenomenon, a priori applications in drug design are relatively sparse and this interaction, which is often isosteric with an intramolecular hydrogen-bonding interaction, appears to be underappreciated by the medicinal chemistry community. In this Perspective, we discuss the theoretical basis for sulfur σ* orbital interactions and illustrate their importance in the context of drug design and organic synthesis. The role of sulfur interactions in protein structure and function is discussed and although relatively rare, intermolecular interactions between ligand C-S σ* orbitals and proteins are illustrated.

  5. [Drug advertising--users want information. Report of telephone survey conducted by North-Rhine Westphalia Public Health Service on the topic of drug advertising and drug information for users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puteanus, U

    2000-10-01

    In Germany, drug advertising of non-prescription drugs is a controversial subject. On the one hand, consumer organisations plead for placing a ban on advertising or at least to offer a detailed description of medical risks in respect of protection. On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industry is keen on liberalizing the specific advertising law for drugs. A representative telephone survey among the population of North Rhine-Westphalia was conducted in April and May 1999. It showed consumer interest in advertising, the value of information on risks, the institution with maximum credibility in drug information for consumers, the importance of the now obligatory sentence after every advertisement: Regarding risks and side effects read the leaflet in the package and ask your physician or pharmacist, and to what extend the consumer would take advice from independent experts over the telephone about drugs. It was found that, in particular women, about 30% are occasionally interested in advertising, younger people are more open-minded about advertising than older people; and that doctors and pharmacists have the most credibility and are consulted for further information. It was also found that more than 80% of the population demanded precise information on the side effects of drugs. One-third of the consumers declared that the obligatory sentence (see above) led to greater demand for information from doctors or to read attentively the instruction leaflet. Nevertheless, there is a need for more information from more than half of the consumers, who would take advantage of an independent advice centre if this should exist.

  6. A Survey of the Tardive Dyskinesia Induced by Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Naser tabibi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Tardive Dyskinesia (TD, is one of the important problems of the patients with schizophrenia. The emergence of these side effects depends on so many factors such as the patients' age and the duration of antipsychotic treatment. By discovering new drugs (Atypical, there has been an outstanding decrease in the emergence of these side effects. The present study investigates the symptoms of TD in the Patients with schizophrenia who were under  treatments for more than 6 months. "nMethod: The sample of this study was 200 Patients with schizophrenia of four wards in Razi hospital (two acute and two chronic wards who were hospitalized in the winter of 2006 and were qualified for this study. The subjects were 101 males and 99 females who were younger than 60 and had received antipsychotic drugs for at least 6 months. After psychiatric interview and filling the demographic questionnaire by the patients, the required information about the drugs and the intensity of the symptoms was acquired. Then clinical and physical examinations of tardive dyskinesia were done. Next, the tardive dyskinesia disorders' check list (AIMS was used. Findings of this cross-sectional, descriptive study were analyzed by SPSS. "nResults: There was a high ratio of 95% between TD and the age factor (P=0.05. There was no relationship between symptoms frequency and duration of treatment (P=0.68. Facial muscles and oral zones were mostly involved in T.D disorder (72%. "nConclusion: No significant difference was observed between nine fold symptoms of T.D in patients who were using traditional drugs and those who were using the new ones (typical and atypical. Findings showed that in the intensity of the symptoms, gender does not play a major role.

  7. Worldwide Survey of Alcohol and Nonmedical Drug Use Among Military Personnel: 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    addiction , and long-term organic deter- ioration are linked closely with heavy and frequent use of alcohol (Polich, Armor, and Braiker, 1981). Among...medical/physical, mental health/emotional, family/ friends, legal, job/education, and financial problems as well as dependence, addiction , and...in measurement of use for the following ten categories of drugs: Marijuana or hashish, * PCP (phencyclidine), * LSD or other hallucinogens, * Cocaine

  8. Survey of methadone-drug interactions among patients of methadone maintenance treatment program in Taiwan

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    Lee Hsin-Ya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although methadone has been used for the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence for decades, it was not introduced in China or Taiwan until 2000s. Methadone-drug interactions (MDIs have been shown to cause many adverse effects. However, such effects have not been scrutinized in the ethnic Chinese community. Methods The study was performed in two major hospitals in southern Taiwan. A total of 178 non-HIV patients aged ≥ 20 years who had participated in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program (MMTP ≥ 1 month were recruited. An MDI is defined as concurrent use of drug(s with methadone that may result in an increase or decrease of effectiveness and/or adverse effect of methadone. To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MDIs, credible data sources, including the National Health Insurance (NHI database, face-to-face interviews, medical records, and methadone computer databases, were linked for analysis. Socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with MDIs and co-medications were also examined. Results 128 (72% MMTP patients took at least one medication. Clinically significant MDIs included withdrawal symptoms, which were found among MMTP patients co-administered with buprenorphine or tramadol; severe QTc prolongation effect, which might be associated with use of haloperidol or droperidol; and additive CNS and respiratory depression, which could result from use of methadone in combination with chlorpromazine or thioridazine. Past amphetamine use, co-infection with hepatitis C, and a longer retention in the MMTP were associated with increased odds of co-medication. Among patients with co-medication use, significant correlates of MDIs included the male gender and length of co-medication in the MMTP. Conclusions The results demonstrate clinical evidence of significant MDIs among MMTP patients. Clinicians should check the past medical history of MMTP clients carefully before prescribing medicines

  9. A survey of the current use of neuromuscular blocking drugs among the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists

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    Abdelazeem Eldawlatly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This survey aimed to assess the extent of practice of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMB in 2012. Methods: We distributed an electronic survey among 577 members of the Triple-M Middle Eastern Yahoo anesthesia group, enquiring about their practice in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. Questions concerned the routine "first choice" use of NMB, choice for tracheal intubation, the use of neuromuscular monitoring (NMT, type of NMB used in difficult airway, frequency of using suxamethonium, cisatracurium, rocuronium and sugammadex, observed side effects of rocuronium, residual curarization, and the reversal of residual curarization of rocuronium. Results: A total of 71 responses from 22 Middle Eastern institutions were collected. Most of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists were using cisatracurium and rocuronium frequently for tracheal intubation (39% and 35%, respectively. From the respondents, 2/3 were using suxamethonium for tracheal intubation in difficult airway, 1/3 were using rocuronium routinely and 17% have observed hypersensitivity reactions to rocuronium, 54% reported residual curarization from rocuronium, 78% were routinely using neostigmine to reverse the rocuronium, 21% used sugammadex occasionally, and 35% were using NMT routinely during the use of NMB. Conclusions: We believe that more could be done to increase the awareness of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists about the high incidence of PROC (>20% and the need for routine monitoring of neuromuscular function. This could be accomplished with by developing formal training programs and providing official guidelines.

  10. Screening, testing, and reporting for drug and alcohol use on labor and delivery: a survey of Maryland birthing hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Catherine; Lanham, Amy; Welsh, Christopher; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Terplan, Mishka

    2014-01-01

    Recent amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act tie the receipt of federal block grants to mandatory reporting of substance-exposed newborns. To determine rates of screening, testing, and reporting of drug and alcohol use at the time of delivery, we administered a telephone survey of nursing managers and perinatal social workers at Maryland birthing hospitals. Of the 34 hospitals, 31 responded (response rate 91%). Although 97% of hospitals reported universal screening, only 6% used a validated instrument. Testing was reported by 94% with 45% reporting universal maternal testing and 7% universal newborn testing. Only 32% reported obtaining maternal consent prior to testing. There is significant heterogeneity in screening and testing for substance use in birthing hospitals. Given federal reporting mandates, state-level practices need to be standardized.

  11. The Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Results of a Large Population-Based Survey.

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    Paul Aia

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of the burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB are crucial for effective control and prevention of tuberculosis (TB. Papua New Guinea (PNG is a high TB burden country with limited information on the magnitude of the MDR-TB problem.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four PNG provinces: Madang, Morobe, National Capital District and Western Province. Patient sputum samples were tested for rifampicin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and those showing the presence of resistance underwent phenotypic susceptibility testing to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin.Among 1,182 TB patients enrolled in the study, MDR-TB was detected in 20 new (2.7%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1-4.3% and 24 previously treated (19.1%; 95%CI: 8.5-29.8% TB cases. No case of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB was detected. Thirty percent (6/20 of new and 33.3% (8/24 of previously treated cases with MDR-TB were detected in a single cluster in Western Province.In PNG the proportion of MDR-TB in new cases is slightly lower than the regional average of 4.4% (95%CI: 2.6-6.3%. A large proportion of MDR-TB cases were identified from a single hospital in Western Province, suggesting that the prevalence of MDR-TB across the country is heterogeneous. Future surveys should further explore this finding. The survey also helped strengthening the use of smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF testing as diagnostic tools for TB in the country.

  12. A "miracle" cancer drug in the era of social media: A survey of Brazilian oncologists' opinions and experience with phosphoethanolamine

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    Juliana Florinda M. Rêgo

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Patients who are treating cancer have often used alternative therapies. In the internet era, information can be broadcasted widely, and this happened with phosphoethanolamine in Brazil, where this substance was claimed by the population to be the "cure for cancer." Method: This is a cross-sectional study developed by the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology (SBOC. An objectively structured questionnaire was sent by e-mail and SMS to active MDs members of the SBOC. Descriptive statistics was used to evaluate the data. Statistical significance between the variables was tested by Pearson's Chi-squared test (p<0.05 was considered significance. Results: The survey was sent to 1,072 oncologists, and 398 (37.1% answered at least part of it. One hundred and fifteen (28.9% had followed patients who had used phosphoethanolamine. Among these, 14 (12.2% observed adverse events and four (3.5% attributed clinical benefit to the substance. Most of the oncologists (n=331; 83.2% believe that it should only be used as part of a clinical trial protocol. Most physicians did not recommend this drug to their patients (n=311; 78.1%. Oncologists in Southeast, South and Midwest Brazil were more likely to have patients taking the drug compared to the Northern and Northeastern regions. Conclusion: This is the first survey to assess the opinion and experience of oncologists about this alternative therapy. Most oncologists in Brazil do not believe that synthetic phosphoethanolamine is active in cancer treatment, do not recommend its use without proper evaluation, and state that it should only be available to patients in the context of clinical trials.

  13. Factors associated with illicit drugs' lifetime and frequent/heavy use among students results from a population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitancourt, Tânia; Tissot, Maria Cristina Ribeiro Grilli; Fidalgo, Thiago Marques; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes; da Silveira Filho, Dartiu Xavier

    2016-03-30

    Substance use among teenage students and factors associated were investigated through a survey using a questionnaire adapted from the WHO's Program on Research and Reporting on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence, additional questions on family factors and personal risks, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, adapted to Brazil. The target population consisted of 3891 10-22-year-old students from the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil. The prevalence of lifetime substance use was 26.7%. Most commonly used substances were energy drinks combined with alcohol (19%), solvents (11.2%) and marijuana (4.8%). Almost 60% of the students had already tried alcohol and 18.2% had tried tobacco. Factors associated to lifetime substance use were: lower self-esteem, going to nightclubs at least twice a week, use of alcohol, trying tobacco, bad relationship with the mother, permissive mothers, practicing sports as an obligation, working, and higher socioeconomic level. Concerning frequent/heavy substance use, chances were found to be higher among students who had use tobacco and alcohol, going to nightclubs at least twice a week, and those with lower self-esteem. Preventive actions concerning drug use should focus on avoiding the first experimentation, approaching family relationships, and improving students' self-esteem.

  14. Results of a survey of biological drug and device industries inspected by FDA under the Team Biologics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Steve; Gangi, Victor J; Johnson, Anne; Little, Jacqueline; Mendivil, Steven; Trott, Carolyn; Webber, Keith; Weinstein, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Product Quality Research Institute, in conjunction with the Food and Drug Administration, conducted an anonymous, electronic survey of the biological products manufacturing industry inspected by Team Biologics, with emphasis in obtaining industry input on inspection and compliance aspects of program operations. Representatives from all of the product-specific manufacturing industries inspected under the Team Biologics Program responded to this survey (vaccines; fractionated plasma proteins and recombinant analogs; allergenics; therapeutics and in-vivo diagnostics; and in-vitro diagnostics, including blood grouping reagents). Data and written feedback was obtained regarding each firm's interactions and experiences of Team Biologics inspections at its facilities over the past three years. The three areas most impacted by Team Biologic inspections were "Production and Process Controls", "Failure Investigations" and "Facility / Equipment Controls". Overall assessment of the program was generally positive with 68% identifying a positive impact on the sites operations and 88% assessed the inspections as being conducted fairly. The findings and conclusions of this report will be utilized by the FDA to evaluate and further assess the impact of the Team Biologics Program and to implement any necessary changes. This report provides useful information to companies currently manufacturing licensed biologic products subject to Team Biologics inspections and also to those companies anticipating these inspections for future product manufacturing.

  15. Do Prescription Drug Ads Tell Consumers Enough About Benefits and Side Effects? Results From the Health Information National Trends Survey, Fourth Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W; Campbell, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) is a major source of consumer information about prescription drugs. The present study updates 2002 U.S. Food and Drug Administration phone survey questions that found that 44% and 61% of consumers thought that DTCA did not include enough information about benefits and risks, respectively. The present study was administered by mail using a nationally representative sample, and provides a more in-depth understanding of how these beliefs relate to demographic and health characteristics. Data collected from 3,959 respondents to the National Cancer Institute's 2011 Health Information National Trends Survey find results similar to the 2002 survey: 46% and 52% of respondents thought that DCTA did not include enough information about benefits and risks, respectively. Respondents fell into four groups: 23% agreed that DTCA tells enough about drug benefits and risks, 41% disagreed, 18% expressed no opinion, and 18% had discordant beliefs. DTCA attitudes were negatively associated with education, income, and whether respondents purchase prescription drugs; attitudes were positively associated with whether respondents understand prescription drug information. This study confirms that a plurality of Americans believe that DTCA does not include enough information about benefits and risks, suggesting that the educational effect of DTCA could be improved.

  16. KAP Survey of Turkish University Students on Sexuality, reproductive Health, Drug Addiction and Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H(y)zel Selda; Sanli Cihat; Albayrak Meryem; Fidan Serdar; Agar Ayca

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the attitudes, behaviours and reflections of the university students, on sexuality, reproductive health, violence, smoking, alcohol and drug use,and to find out their expectations from a youth health service.Methods A total of 5 300 students (1 880 girls, 3 420 boys)from various faculties of K(y)r(y)kkale University were enrolled into this cross-sectional study. Students completed the self-administered questionnaire as one of the researchers was present at the classroom. Research monitors five categories of priority health-risk behaviours among youth and young adults.Results Mean age of 3 420 male (64.5%) and 1 880female (35.5%) students were 20.3years. Among all 4 380 (82.9%)students [1 350 girls (71.8%), 3 030 boys (88.5%)]had some kinds of information about sexuality, however this dropped to 2 730 students(51.5%) within the context of adequacy. Friends were the major source (34%)for the first information on sexuality. Using a condom was the mostly heard method of contraception (46.9%) and interestingly 1.1% of the students had no knowledge on any of the protection methods. Among all 25.3% of the students (33.0% boys, 11.4%girls) had some kind of sexual intercourse, and within this group 58.8% experienced his/her first sexual relationship at 18 years of age and over; 53.9% were protected in all intercourses. Using a condom was the main way of protection for boys (63.7%)and pills were for the girls (73.9%). None of the female students mentioned having an abortion but 8% had friends who had undergone abortion. Tobacco use was 35.1%among the group, and 8.7% of the male and 3.6% of the female students were using drugs. Although 67. 4% students claimed they never witnessed violence between their parents, 43.2% witnessed violence among their siblings, 67.0% beween friends,72.6% in the streets and 64.2% in the school. About 30.0% of the students reported having weight problems, and 14.7% admitted visiting a doctor for that problem. If there

  17. Improving Coverage and Compliance in Mass Drug Administration for the Elimination of LF in Two 'Endgame' Districts in Indonesia Using Micronarrative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentel, Alison; Damayanti, Rita; Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Suharno, Nugroho; Bradley, Mark; Lynam, Timothy

    2016-11-01

    As the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) approaches its 2020 goal, an increasing number of districts will enter the endgame phase where drug coverage rates from mass drug administration (MDA) are used to assess whether MDA can be stopped. As reported, the gap between reported and actual drug coverage in some contexts has overestimated the true rates, thus causing premature administration of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) that detect ongoing LF transmission. In these cases, districts must continue with additional rounds of MDA. Two districts in Indonesia (Agam District, Depok City) fit this criteria-one had not met the pre-TAS criteria and the other, had not passed the TAS criteria. In both cases, the district health teams needed insight into their drug delivery programs in order to improve drug coverage in the subsequent MDA rounds. To inform the subsequent MDA round, a micronarrative survey tool was developed to capture community members' experience with MDA and the social realm where drug delivery and compliance occur. A baseline survey was implemented after the 2013 MDA in endemic communities in both districts using the EPI sampling criteria (n = 806). Compliance in the last MDA was associated with perceived importance of the LF drugs for health (psurvey was performed after the 2014 MDA using the same sampling criteria (n = 811). Reported compliance in the last MDA improved in both districts from 57% to 77% (psurveys were shown to be a valid and effective tool to detect operational issues within MDA programs. District health staff felt ownership of the results, implementing feasible changes to their programs that resulted in significant improvements to coverage and compliance in the subsequent MDA. This kind of implementation research using a micronarrative survey tool could benefit underperforming MDA programs as well as other disease control programs where a deeper understanding is needed to improve healthcare delivery.

  18. A comparative analysis of biopharmaceutics classification system and biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system: a cross-sectional survey with 500 bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Chiann, Chang; Dressman, Jennifer B; Storpirtis, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    Although policies of waiving bioequivalence studies are part of the legal framework of various regulatory agencies, there is no harmonization with regard to extension of the biowaiver to drugs other than those with high solubility and high permeability, nor is there any consensus or official endorsement of the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS). To better understand the applicability of the biowaiver, we carried out a cross-sectional survey to estimate the relative risk of obtaining nonbioequivalent (non-BE) or bioinequivalent (BIE) results for drug products containing drugs belonging to each of the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and BDDCS classes. Five hundred bioequivalence studies were randomly sampled from a database of the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The drugs were classified according to the BCS and BDDCS, to evaluate how characteristics related to drug and dosage form influence the outcome of bioequivalence studies. The relative risk of obtaining a non-BE result was approximately four times lower for drugs in classes 1 and 3 of BCS or BDDCS when compared with class 2 drugs. Thus, it seems that the final outcome of a bioequivalence study is strongly influenced by the solubility of the drug, but not by its intestinal permeability or extent of metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Postulating a dermal pathway for exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs among hospital workers. Applying a conceptual model to the results of three workplace surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.; Hoek, F.; Uitterhoeve, R.; Huijbers, R.; Overmars, R.F.; Anzion, R.; Vermeulen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dermal exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs has been suggested as a potentially important route of exposure of hospital workers. Three small-scale workplace surveys were carried out in several hospitals focusing on contamination by leakage from IV infusion systems; contamination by spilled urine of

  20. Postulating a dermal pathway for exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs among hospital workers. Applying a conceptual model to the results of three workplace surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.; Hoek, F.; Uitterhoeve, R.; Huijbers, R.; Overmars, R.F.; Anzion, R.; Vermeulen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dermal exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs has been suggested as a potentially important route of exposure of hospital workers. Three small-scale workplace surveys were carried out in several hospitals focusing on contamination by leakage from IV infusion systems; contamination by spilled urine of pat

  1. Parental Influences on Adolescent Marijuana Use and the Baby Boom Generation: Findings from the 1979-1996 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Analytic Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Denise B.; Griesler, Pamela C.; Lee, Gang; Davies, Mark; Schaffsan, Christine

    This report uses the 1979-1996 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to investigate the role of parents, especially members of the baby boom generation, on the marijuana use of children. The association of marijuana use between parents and children, the differences among parental birth cohorts, and the determinants of child marijuana use are…

  2. Original Research Article Serum Adiponectin and Ghrelin, Metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Embase, Index Corpenicus, Chemical Abstracts, Socolar, EBSCO, African Journal Online,. African Index ... Abstract. Purpose: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with the development of ...... Examination Survey, 1982-1984. Diabetes ...

  3. Epidemiology of DSM-5 Drug Use Disorder: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Bridget F; Saha, Tulshi D; Ruan, W June; Goldstein, Risë B; Chou, S Patricia; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Smith, Sharon M; Pickering, Roger P; Huang, Boji; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-01-01

    Current information on the prevalence and sociodemographic and clinical profiles of individuals in the general population with DSM-5 drug use disorder (DUD) is limited. Given the present societal and economic context in the United States and the new diagnostic system, up-to-date national information is needed from a single uniform data source. To present nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment of DSM-5 DUD diagnoses overall and by severity level. In-person interviews were conducted with 36,309 adults in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, a cross-sectional representative survey of the United States. The household response rate was 72%; person-level response rate, 84%; and overall response rate, 60.1%. Data were collected April 2012 through June 2013 and analyzed from February through March 2015. Twelve-month and lifetime DUD, based on amphetamine, cannabis, club drug, cocaine, hallucinogen, heroin, nonheroin opioid, sedative/tranquilizer, and/or solvent/inhalant use disorders. Prevalences of 12-month and lifetime DUD were 3.9% and 9.9%, respectively. Drug use disorder was generally greater among men, white and Native American individuals, younger and previously or never married adults, those with lower education and income, and those residing in the West. Significant associations were found between 12-month and lifetime DUD and other substance use disorders. Significant associations were also found between any 12-month DUD and major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.09-1.64), dysthymia (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.09-2.02), bipolar I (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.06-2.05), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.27-2.10), and antisocial (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.11-1.75), borderline (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.41-2.24), and schizotypal (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.18-1.87) personality disorders. Similar associations were found for any lifetime DUD with the

  4. Improving survey methods in sero-epidemiological studies of injecting drug users: a case example of two cross sectional surveys in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Milena

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of HIV or HCV in injecting drug users (IDUs in Serbia and Montenegro. We measured prevalence of antibodies to HIV (anti-HIV and hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV, and risk factors for anti-HCV, in community-recruited IDUs in Belgrade and Podgorica, and determined the performance of a parallel rapid HIV testing algorithm. Methods Respondent driven sampling and audio-computer assisted survey interviewing (ACASI methods were employed. Dried blood spots were collected for unlinked anonymous antibody testing. Belgrade IDUs were offered voluntary confidential rapid HIV testing using a parallel testing algorithm, the performance of which was compared with standard laboratory tests. Predictors of anti-HCV positivity and the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid HIV test algorithm were calculated. Results Overall population prevalence of anti-HIV and anti-HCV in IDUs were 3% and 63% respectively in Belgrade (n = 433 and 0% and 22% in Podgorica (n = 328. Around a quarter of IDUs in each city had injected with used needles and syringes in the last four weeks. In both cities anti-HCV positivity was associated with increasing number of years injecting (eg Belgrade adjusted odds ratio (AOR 5.6 (95% CI 3.2–9.7 and Podgorica AOR 2.5 (1.3–5.1 for ≥ 10 years v 0–4 years, daily injecting (Belgrade AOR 1.6 (1.0–2.7, Podgorica AOR 2.1 (1.3–5.1, and having ever shared used needles/syringes (Belgrade AOR 2.3 (1.0–5.4, Podgorica AOR 1.9 (1.4–2.6. Half (47% of Belgrade participants accepted rapid HIV testing, and there was complete concordance between rapid test results and subsequent confirmatory laboratory tests (sensitivity 100% (95%CI 59%–100%, specificity 100% (95%CI 98%–100%. Conclusion The combination of community recruitment, ACASI, rapid testing and a linked diagnostic accuracy study provide enhanced methods for conducting blood borne virus sero-prevalence studies in IDUs. The relatively high

  5. A survey of prescription pattern of anti-diabetic drugs on diabetic patients with cardiovascular complications within Dhaka metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubaba Karim

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings can serve as a guide to choose the formulation and combination of anti-diabetic drugs in this part of the world before developing and marketing any new drug. Therefore it is necessary to create better awareness among people, focus on rational use of anti-diabetic drugs and also motivate our physicians to prescribe the generic drugs. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(6.000: 2397-2402

  6. Use, Attitudes and Knowledge of Complementary and Alternative Drugs (CADs among Pregnant Women: A Preliminary Survey in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lapi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore pregnant women's use, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of complementary and alternative drugs (CADs defined as products manufactured from herbs or with a natural origin. A preliminary survey was conducted among 172 pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy, consecutively recruited in two obstetrical settings; 15 women were randomly selected to compute a test-to-retest analysis. Response rate was 87.2%. Test-to-retest analysis showed a questionnaire's reproducibility exceeding a K-value of 0.7 for all items. Mean age was 32.4 ± 0.4 years; most women were nulliparae (62.7%. The majority of subjects (68% declared to have used one or more CADs during their lifetime; 48% of pregnant women reported taking at least one CAD previously and during the current pregnancy. Women's habitual use of CADs meant they were at higher risk of taking CADs also during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio = 10.8; 95% confidence interval: 4.7–25.0. Moreover, 59.1% of the subjects were unable to correctly identify the type of CADs they were using. The majority of women resorted to gynecologists as the primary information source for CADs during pregnancy, while they mainly referred to herbalists when not pregnant. Habitual use of CADs seems to be a strong predictor for their ingestion also during pregnancy; in addition most subjects were unable to correctly identify the products they were taking. In the light of the scanty data concerning the safety of CADs during pregnancy, these preliminary results confirm the need to investigate thoroughly the situation of pregnant women and CADs consumption.

  7. Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Nalkur, Priya; Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools…

  8. A survey of the use of off-label and unlicensed drugs in a Dutch children's hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W. 't Jong (Geert); A.G. Vulto (Arnold); M. de Hoog (Matthijs); K.J. Schimmel; D. Tibboel (Dick); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The treatment of pediatric patients with drugs in hospitals is being impeded by a shortage in the availability of licensed drugs in an appropriate formulation. We have studied the extent of use of drugs that are not licensed for use in children (unlicensed)

  9. A survey of the use of off-label and unlicensed drugs in a Dutch children's hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W. 't Jong (Geert); A.G. Vulto (Arnold); M. de Hoog (Matthijs); K.J. Schimmel; D. Tibboel (Dick); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The treatment of pediatric patients with drugs in hospitals is being impeded by a shortage in the availability of licensed drugs in an appropriate formulation. We have studied the extent of use of drugs that are not licensed for use in children (unlicensed)

  10. Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Nalkur, Priya; Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools…

  11. Thai War on Drugs: measuring changes in methamphetamine and other substance use by school students through matched cross sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daosodsai, Paiboon; Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Hughes, Sara; Daosodsai, Sopida; Syed, Qutub

    2007-08-01

    In 2003 the Thai government announced a radical shift in drug policy with the implementation of a War on Drugs. Although consequences of this controversial measure (e.g. drug dealer deaths) have received widespread attention relatively little work has evaluated changes in substance use. We used two anonymous representative samples of secondary school students to compare drug use in Northeast Thailand before (1998; n=4217) and after (2004/5; n=3489) the War on Drugs. Results indicate that reported levels of current illicit drug use reduced significantly between 1998 and 2004/5 (for methamphetamine from 4.2% to 0.9%). By examining trends in year of first methamphetamine use we identify that observed reductions in drug initiation are temporally consistent with the War on Drugs. However, while prevalence of alcohol use has also fallen, there was a three-fold increase in daily alcohol use. We suggest that this rise, combined with other negative impacts of 'wars' on drugs, means drug control requires a public health perspective that sees eliminating drug use as part of a wider strategy that has improvement in population health, not just drug prevention, as its core objective.

  12. Tuberculosis drug resistance in Southern Mozambique: results of a population-level survey in the district of Manhiça.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, S; Respeito, D; Blanco, S; Ribeiro, R M; López-Varela, E; Sequera, V G; Saavedra, B; Mambuque, E; Morillo, M Gómez; Bulo, H; Cobelens, F; Macete, E; Alonso, P L; Caminero, J A; García-Basteiro, A L

    2017-04-01

    Mozambique, one of the world's high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries, has conducted only one national-level drug resistance survey, in 2007-2008. To determine the drug resistance patterns of laboratory-confirmed TB cases. This was a population-level survey conducted over a 1-year period in the district of Manhiça. All laboratory-confirmed cases were evaluated for first-line anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing using liquid culture. Resistance to at least one first-line drug was observed in 44 of 276 isolates (15.9%). Prevalence of drug resistance to each of the five anti-tuberculosis drugs tested was 4.0% for streptomycin, 10.1% for isoniazid (INH), 6.2% for rifampicin, 3.6% for ethambutol and 1.1% for pyrazinamide. The overall prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was 5.1%: 3.8% (95%CI 2.0-7.0) in new and 13.2% (95%CI 5.8-27.3) in retreatment cases. Respectively 4.6% and 2.6% of new and retreatment cases were INH-monoresistant. Previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment was associated with having MDR-TB (OR 4.3, 95%CI 1.3-14.1). The prevalence of drug resistance in the district of Manhiça is slightly higher than, but still compatible with, previous national estimates. INH monoresistance was high, posing the risk of hidden monotherapy in the continuation phase.

  13. Pretreatment HIV-drug resistance in Mexico and its impact on the effectiveness of first-line antiretroviral therapy: a nationally representative 2015 WHO survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; García-Morales, Claudia; Matías-Florentino, Margarita; Romero-Mora, Karla A; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Quiroz-Morales, Verónica S; Reyes-Gopar, Helena; Ji, Hezhao; Sandstrom, Paul; Casillas-Rodríguez, Jesús; Sierra-Madero, Juan; León-Juárez, Eddie A; Valenzuela-Lara, Marisol; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Uribe-Zuñiga, Patricia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2016-12-01

    WHO has developed a global HIV-drug resistance surveillance strategy, including assessment of pretreatment HIV-drug resistance. We aimed to do a nationally representative survey of pretreatment HIV-drug resistance in Mexico using WHO-recommended methods. Among 161 Ministry of Health antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics in Mexico, the largest, including 90% of ART initiators within the Ministry of Health (66 in total), were eligible for the survey. We used a probability-proportional-to-size design method to sample 25 clinics throughout the country. Consecutive ART-naive patients with HIV about to initiate treatment were invited to participate in the survey; individuals with previous exposure to ART were excluded. We assessed pretreatment HIV-drug resistance by Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing of viruses from plasma specimens from eligible participants with Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database methods. We obtained follow-up data for a median of 9·4 months (range 6-12) after enrolment. We investigated possible relations between demographic variables and pretreatment drug resistance with univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Between Feb 3 and July 30, 2015, we screened 288 patients in 25 clinics, from whom 264 provided successfully sequenced viruses with no evidence of current exposure to antiretroviral drugs. With the Sanger method, of these 264 participants, 41 (15·5%, 95% CI 11·4-20·5) had pretreatment resistance to any antiretroviral drug and 28 (10·6%, 7·2-15·0) had pretreatment resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). At least low-level pretreatment resistance (Stanford penalty score ≥15) was noted in 13 (4 · 9%) of participants to efavirenz and in 23 (8·7%) to the combination tenofovir plus emtricitabine plus efavirenz. With next-generation sequencing, of 264 participants, 38 (14·4%, 95% CI 10·4-19·2) had pretreatment resistance to any antiretroviral drug and 26 (9·8%, 6·5

  14. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design, Part I of IV, Summary Report, 1982-1984 Final Project Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    The report looks at the most active periods of fishway research since 1938 as background for a project to apply fundamental fluid and bio-mechanics to fishway design, and develop more cost effective fish passage facilities with primary application to small scale hydropower facilities. Also discussed are new concepts in fishway design, an assessment of fishway development and design, and an analysis of barriers to upstream migration. (ACR)

  15. Biological and Physical Inventory of the Streams within the Nez Perce Reservation; Synopsis, 1982-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Ross K.; Kucera, P.A.; Johnson, D.B. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    1985-08-01

    This report provides a synopsis for three years of inventory work on the streams in the Lower Clearwater Basin, Idaho. The main emphasis of the study was to document which streams presently support anadromous salmonids, the extent of production in those streams and the identification of those streams which may best respond to enhancement restoration activities. Rainbow-steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) were the most abundant anadromous salmonid found. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were found rarely except in the Lolo Creek Drainage. The main environmental problem affecting these streams was the extreme flow variations which commonly occur. This is due primarily to poor land management practices. Enhancement recommendations are suggested for these streams which include passage around barriers, barrier removal, riparian enhancement, instream habitat improvement, and better land use practices.

  16. SURVEY ON NEW -TYPE DRUG USE IN DRUG USERS UNDER FORCED ISOLATION REHABILITATION AND COUNTERMEASURES%强制隔离戒毒人员吸食新型毒品相关情况调查分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小良

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To know the related situations of new type drug use among drug abusers under forced isolation rehabilitation and innovate countermeasures for the education and intervention to them. Methods: Self - designed questionnaires were used to collect the information on general situation of drug abusers under forced isolation rehabilitation,their awareness of drug related harm, to do rehabilitation or not and motivation for getting rid of drugs in a rehabilitation center. Results: Altogether 200 drug abusers were surveyed among which 53% were found using new type drugs. Of the new type drug users, 18% knew the harm of the drugs to the body; 8% knew the harm to the mind;8% thought they must get rid of the drug,and 73% believed they could get rid of the drug successfully. Difference was observed in the demographic characteristics, drug use history and knowledge of and attitude to the harm of the drugs between new drug abusers and traditional drug abusers (P <0.01). Conclusion:New type drug users take a high proportion among drug abusers under forced isolation rehabilitation. Compared with traditional drug abusers,they are younger and have less knowledge about the harm new drugs will cause to their health. We suggest that a centralized management for new type drug users in compulsory rehabilitation centers is adopted and innovation is conducted on countermeasurts for education and intervention suitable to them.%目的:了解强制隔离戒毒人员对吸食新型毒品问题的相关态度,并就相关管理和矫治提出对策.方法:采用自制的《强制隔离戒毒人员基本情况》、《对毒品危害的认识》、《应不应该戒毒》、《戒毒信心》问卷,对强制隔离戒毒人员进行问卷调查.结果:在被调查的200名强制隔离戒毒人员中,吸食新型毒品人员占53%.吸食新型毒品人员中认识到毒品对躯体有害者占18%,对精神有害者占8%,认为必须戒断者占8%;在自信心方面,认为能够

  17. Identification and prevalence of adverse drug events caused by potentially inappropriate medication in homebound elderly patients: a retrospective study using a nationwide survey in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A nationwide large-scale survey was conducted to identify the prevalence and causal medications of adverse drug events (ADEs) that are caused by potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) given to homebound elderly patients, factors associated with ADEs, and measures taken by pharmacists to manage ADEs and their effects on ADEs. Settings A questionnaire was mailed to 3321 pharmacies nationwide. It asked about the details of PIMs and ADEs of up to 5 patients for whom home visits w...

  18. State-of-the-art and dissemination of computational tools for drug-design purposes: a survey among Italian academics and industrial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artese, Anna; Alcaro, Stefano; Moraca, Federica; Reina, Rocco; Ventura, Marzia; Costantino, Gabriele; Beccari, Andrea R; Ortuso, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    During the first edition of the Computationally Driven Drug Discovery meeting, held in November 2011 at Dompé Pharma (L'Aquila, Italy), a questionnaire regarding the diffusion and the use of computational tools for drug-design purposes in both academia and industry was distributed among all participants. This is a follow-up of a previously reported investigation carried out among a few companies in 2007. The new questionnaire implemented five sections dedicated to: research group identification and classification; 18 different computational techniques; software information; hardware data; and economical business considerations. In this article, together with a detailed history of the different computational methods, a statistical analysis of the survey results that enabled the identification of the prevalent computational techniques adopted in drug-design projects is reported and a profile of the computational medicinal chemist currently working in academia and pharmaceutical companies in Italy is highlighted.

  19. [Cross-sectional surveys on the use of recreational drug nitrous-acid-ester rush-poppers in men who have sex with men, Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z P; Zhang, M; Xu, Y Y; Xu, W J; Liu, L; Wu, S S; Guo, L; Li, X

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To investigate the situation of recreational drug nitrous acid ester inhaler-rush poppers use in men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: From April to June in 2014, October to December in 2014, April to June in 2015, three round cross-sectional surveys were conducted in MSM recruited in Nanjing by means of serum test and questionnaire survey. Results: Of the 1 721 MSM surveyed in three round, 19.3% (332/1 721) had ever used rush poppers, the proportions of MSM who used rush poppers in three round surveys showed an increasing trend (liner by liner χ(2)= 14.879, P=0.000), which was 12.6% (86/681), 27.6% (121/439) and 20.8% (125/601) respectively. Rush poppers use was associated with HIV infection significantly (OR=1.676, 95%CI: 1.201-2.339, P=0.002). Compared with MSM without rush poppers use, the MSM with rush poppers use were mainly aged drugs were the risk factors associated with rush poppers use. Conclusion: Rush poppers use was related with HIV infection in MSM in Nanjing.

  20. Research Survey of Genetic Engineering Drugs%基因工程药物研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊清; 徐进; 李建正

    2011-01-01

    对新发展起来的产业基因工程药物的研究作了简要的概述,通过对其发展历史及当前的几种药物的叙述,预测其发展前景。%The new genetically engineered drug industry research was summarized briefly. The prospect of genetically engineered drug industry research was predicted by describing its developing history and several current drugs.

  1. [Investigation of community support measures for patients with comorbid substance use disorder and psychotic disorder: nationwide survey of drug addiction rehabilitation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Koike, Junko; Kouda, Minoru; Inamoto, Atsuko; Morota, Nobuaki

    2014-12-01

    In psychiatric care practice, patients are often seen who have difficulty with their social lives due to protracted psychiatric symptoms despite years without drug abuse. The difficulty of dealing with such cases and the lack of preparedness of the legal system leave circumstantial care as the only option. Western.countries have recently begun using the name 'concurrent disorder' as a diagnosis for patients deemed unable to recover solely through such treatment for drug addiction, signifying the presence of both a substance use disorder (SUD) and a mental health disorder. Various assessment and intervention methods are being investigated, and many studies have been reported. Based on the hypothesis that Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Center (DARC) are partly involved in supporting those with psychotic concurrent disorders (PSCD) in Japan, we conducted a survey to clarify the actual support for PSCD patients at DARC and the challenges they face. Surveys were administered to DARC-related institutions all over Japan (44 governing organizations and 66 institutions). Complete responses from 86 full-time employees and 445 DARC users were analyzed. DARC users were divided into two groups: psychiatric concurrent disorders (PSCD group, n = 178) and those without such symptoms (SUD group, n = 267), with the PSCD group accounting for 40% of the DARC users surveyed. Compared to the SUD group, the PSCD group was significantly less satisfied with their lifestyle and interpersonal relations at the DARC and a significantly higher proportion of the PSCD group requested assistance in communicating with others. When employees were presented with a hypothetical PSCD case and asked what was needed to deal with it, some responses were, "an institution that can treat both drug addiction and other mental health disorders," "a psychiatric care institution that provides 24-hour care," and "sufficient manpower and training." In the future, a treatment system must be established based on

  2. Predictors of HIV infection and prevalence for syphilis infection among injection drug users in China: community-based surveys along major drug trafficking routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yujiang; Lu, Fan; Zeng, Gang; Sun, Xinhua; Xiao, Yan; Lu, Lin; Liu, Wei; Ni, Mingjian; Qu, Shuquan; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Jianbo; Wu, Pingsheng; Vermund, Sten H

    2008-08-25

    To assess the predictors and prevalence of HIV infection among injection drug users in highly endemic regions along major drug trafficking routes in three Chinese provinces. We enrolled participants using community outreach and peer referrals. Questionnaire-based interviews provided demographic, drug use, and sexual behavior information. HIV was tested via ELISA and syphilis by RPR. Of the 689 participants, 51.8% were HIV-infected, with persons living in Guangxi having significantly lower prevalence (16.4%) than those from Xinjiang and Yunnan (66.8% and 67.1%, respectively). Syphilis seropositivity was noted in 5.4%. Longer duration of IDU, greater awareness of HIV transmission routes, and living in Xinjiang or Yunnan were associated with HIV seropositivity on multivariable analysis. Independent risk factors differed between sites. In Guangxi, being male and having a longer duration of IDU were independent risk factors for HIV infection; in Xinjiang, older age and sharing needles and/or syringes were independent factors; in Yunnan, more frequent drug injection, greater awareness of HIV transmission routes, and higher income were independent predictors of HIV seropositivity. Prevalence rates of HIV among IDUs in China are more than two out of three in some venues. Risk factors include longer duration of IDU and needle sharing. Also associated with HIV were factors that may indicate some success in education in higher risk persons, such as higher knowledge. A systemic community-level intervention with respect to evidenced-based, population-level interventions to stem the spread of HIV from IDU in China should include needle exchange, opiate agonist-based drug treatment, condom distribution along with promotion, and advocacy for community-based VCT with bridges to HIV preventive services and care.

  3. Diagnosing microalbuminuria and consequences for the drug treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: a European survey in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakre, Kristin M; Thue, Geir; Subramaniam-Haavik, Sumathi

    2010-01-01

    To assess general practitioners (GPs) knowledge of guideline recommendations on diagnosing microalbuminuria (MA) and to evaluate how this diagnosis influences drug treatment of diabetes patients.......To assess general practitioners (GPs) knowledge of guideline recommendations on diagnosing microalbuminuria (MA) and to evaluate how this diagnosis influences drug treatment of diabetes patients....

  4. Respiratory paradoxical adverse drug reactions associated with acetylcysteine and carbocysteine systemic use in paediatric patients: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Mallet

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report pediatric cases of paradoxical respiratory adverse drug reactions (ADRs after exposure to oral mucolytic drugs (carbocysteine, acetylcysteine that led to the withdrawal of licenses for these drugs for infants in France and then Italy. DESIGN: The study followed the recommendations of the European guidelines of pharmacovigilance for medicines used in the paediatric population. SETTING: Cases voluntarily reported by physicians from 1989 to 2008 were identified in the national French pharmacovigilance public database and in drug company databases. PATIENTS: The definition of paradoxical respiratory ADRs was based on the literature. Exposure to mucolytic drugs was arbitrarily defined as having received mucolytic drugs for at least 2 days (>200 mg and at least until the day before the first signs of the suspected ADR. RESULTS: The non-exclusive paradoxical respiratory ADRs reported in 59 paediatric patients (median age 5 months, range 3 weeks to 34 months, 98% younger than 2 years old were increased bronchorrhea or mucus vomiting (n = 27, worsening of respiratory distress during respiratory tract infection (n = 35, dyspnoea (n = 18, cough aggravation or prolongation (n = 11, and bronchospasm (n = 1. Fifty-one (86% children required hospitalization or extended hospitalization because of the ADR; one patient died of pulmonary oedema after mucus vomiting. CONCLUSION: Parents, physicians, pharmacists, and drug regulatory agencies should know that the benefit risk ratio of mucolytic drugs is at least null and most probably negative in infants according to available evidence.

  5. Assessing the availability of the teratogenic drug isotretinoin outside the pregnancy prevention programme : a survey of e-pharmacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagan, Briege M.; Dolk, Helen; White, Bronagh; Uges, Donald R. A.; Sinclair, M.

    2014-01-01

    PurposeThe increase in online purchasing of medications raises safety concerns regarding teratogenic drugs. The use of the teratogenic drug isotretinoin' for women of childbearing age requires strict adherence to the Pregnancy Prevention Programme (PPP), a risk minimisation measure imposed on prescr

  6. Respiratory paradoxical adverse drug reactions associated with acetylcysteine and carbocysteine systemic use in paediatric patients: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Pauline; Mourdi, Nadjette; Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Bavoux, Françoise; Boyer-Gervoise, Marie-José; Jean-Pastor, Marie-Josèphe; Chalumeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    To report pediatric cases of paradoxical respiratory adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after exposure to oral mucolytic drugs (carbocysteine, acetylcysteine) that led to the withdrawal of licenses for these drugs for infants in France and then Italy. The study followed the recommendations of the European guidelines of pharmacovigilance for medicines used in the paediatric population. Cases voluntarily reported by physicians from 1989 to 2008 were identified in the national French pharmacovigilance public database and in drug company databases. The definition of paradoxical respiratory ADRs was based on the literature. Exposure to mucolytic drugs was arbitrarily defined as having received mucolytic drugs for at least 2 days (>200 mg) and at least until the day before the first signs of the suspected ADR. The non-exclusive paradoxical respiratory ADRs reported in 59 paediatric patients (median age 5 months, range 3 weeks to 34 months, 98% younger than 2 years old) were increased bronchorrhea or mucus vomiting (n = 27), worsening of respiratory distress during respiratory tract infection (n = 35), dyspnoea (n = 18), cough aggravation or prolongation (n = 11), and bronchospasm (n = 1). Fifty-one (86%) children required hospitalization or extended hospitalization because of the ADR; one patient died of pulmonary oedema after mucus vomiting. Parents, physicians, pharmacists, and drug regulatory agencies should know that the benefit risk ratio of mucolytic drugs is at least null and most probably negative in infants according to available evidence.

  7. Lifetime use of illicit drugs and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren, National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lessa Horta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at describing the prevalence of illicit drug use among 9th grade students in the morning period of public and private schools in Brazil, and assessing associated factors. METHOD: The Brazilian survey PeNSE (National Adolescent School-based Health Survey 2012 evaluated a representative sample of 9th grade students in the morning period, in Brazil and its five regions. The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was assessed for the most commonly used drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, solvent-based glue, general ether-based inhalants, ecstasy and oxy. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis, and Pearson's χ2 test and logistic regression was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The use of illicit drugs at least once in life was reported by 7.3% (95%CI 5.3 - 9.4 of the respondents. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis and the evidences suggest that illicit drug use is associated to social conditions of greater consumption power, the use of alcohol and tobacco, behaviors related to socialization, such as having friends or sexual activity, and also the perception of loneliness, loose contact between school and parents and experiences of abuse in the family environment. The outcome was inversely associated with close contact with parents and parental supervision. CONCLUSION: In addition to the association with the processes of socialization and consumption, the influence of family and school is expressed in a particularly protective manner in different records of direct supervision and care.

  8. Nationwide survey of the development of drug resistance in the pediatric field in 2007 and 2010: drug sensitivity of Haemophilus influenzae in Japan (second report)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yoshitake; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke; ,

    2013-01-01

    The Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease conducted national surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae in 2007 (phase 3) and 2010 (phase 4), following the previous surveillance conducted from 2000 to 2001 (phase 1) and in 2004 (phase 2). We examined the antimicrobial susceptibility for H. influenzae derived from clinical specimens of pediatric patients collected nationwide from 27 institutions during phases 3 (386 strains) and 4 (484 strains). The frequency ...

  9. [The use of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs for patients with sleeping problems - A survey among hospital doctors and nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, V; Heinemann, S; Himmel, W; Nau, R; Hummers-Pradier, E

    2016-07-01

    Aim | Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs are frequently prescribed sleep medications in spite of their poor risk-benefit ratio when used over a longer period of time. The aim of the study was to find out how the medical and nursing staff in a general hospital estimated the frequency of use for these drugs, and the risk-benefit ratio for elderly patients as well as the factors which positively influence the perceived use of these drugs. Methods | All members of the medical and nursing staff of a hospital received a questionnaire about their use of, and attitudes towards, benzodiazepines and Z-drugs. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated to estimate the perceived frequency of use and the risk-benefit ratio. Multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze which factors are associated with a perceived high use of benzodiazepines or Z-drugs for insomnia. Results | More nurses than hospital doctors believed that they dispensed benzodiazepines often or always (57 % vs. 29 %) to patients with insomnia; this was also the case for Z-drugs (66 % vs. 29 %). Nearly half of the hospital doctors and 29 % of the nurses perceived more harms than benefits for benzodiazepines in the elderly. The following factors were associated with a high perceived usage of Z-drugs: working as a nurse (OR: 13,95; 95%-CI: 3,87-50,28), working in a non-surgical department (5,41; 2,00-14,61), having benzodiazepines, only the perceived positive risk-benefit ratio had an influence on the perceived use (3,35; 1,28-8.79). Conclusion | The medical and nursing staff perceived the frequency of prescription of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs and the risk-benefit ratio in different ways. Other aspects, such as working in a non-surgical department or having a smaller amount of working experience may also influence the decision to use Z-drugs.

  10. International Guidelines for Bioequivalence of Systemically Available Orally Administered Generic Drug Products: A Survey of Similarities and Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Davit, Barbara; Braddy, April C.; Conner, Dale P.; Yu, Lawrence X.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the similarities and differences among bioequivalence approaches used by international regulatory authorities when reviewing applications for marketing new generic drug products which are systemically active and intended for oral administration. We focused on the 13 jurisdictions and organizations participating in the International Generic Drug Regulators Pilot. These are Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Chinese Taipei, the European Medicines Assoc...

  11. Illicit drug use among gay and bisexual men in 44 cities: Findings from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel J; Bourne, Adam; Weatherburn, Peter; Reid, David; Marcus, Ulrich; Hickson, Ford

    2016-12-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) are increasingly combining sex and illicit drugs (an activity referred to as 'chemsex'), in particular GHB/GBL, ketamine, crystal meth, or mephedrone (here called 4-chems). Use of such drugs has been associated with mental health and sexual health harms. We aim to compare patterns of illicit drug use among MSM in 44 European urban centres. In 2010, EMIS recruited 174,209 men from 38 countries to an anonymous online questionnaire in 25 languages. As harm reduction services for drugs and sex are organised at a local level, we chose to compare cities rather than countries. We defined 44 cities based on region/postal code and settlement size. For multivariable regression analyses, three comparison groups of MSM not living in these cities were applied: MSM living in Germany, the UK, and elsewhere in Europe. Data from 55,446 MSM living in 44 urban centres were included. Use of 4-chems (past 4 weeks) was highest in Brighton (16.3%), Manchester (15.5%), London (13.2%), Amsterdam (11.2%), Barcelona (7.9%), Zurich (7.0%) and Berlin (5.3%). It was lowest in Sofia (0.4%). The rank order was largely consistent when controlling for age, HIV diagnosis, and number of sexual partners. City of residence was the strongest demographic predictor of chemsex-drug use. Use of drugs associated with chemsex among MSM varies substantially across European cities. As city is the strongest predictor of chemsex-drug use, effective harm reduction programmes must include structural as well as individual interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A case study using a patient satisfaction survey to improve the delivery and effectiveness of drug addiction treatment services: marketing implications and organizational impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Beth; Hershey, Lewis; Ritchey, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Drug abuse and addiction continues to negatively impact many lives in this country. The United States health care system has grappled with how to best serve this vulnerable population. Since the personal and societal costs of addiction are high, all recent iterations of the United States strategic health plans (such as Healthy People 2010) have prioritized this area for improvement. At the local level, health care providers who care for those with addictions are challenged with shrinking insurance coverage for services, a difficult patient population, lack of treatment options, growing ranks of indigent patients, as well as a plethora of additional management challenges. It is known that successful treatment is integrally linked with patient satisfaction with services. The most critical factors in successful addiction treatment (from a patient's perspective) are (1) their belief that the counselor cares about them and, (2) their belief that they can recover. This paper reports a case study in the use of a patient satisfaction survey as a quality management/service refinement tool within a methadone treatment setting. Results indicate that the use of the survey itself provides patients with a tangible cue supporting the presence of the critical success factors. Further, the use of a survey provides a baseline for future measurements and trending. The paper concludes with a discussion of the marketing and organizational implications of incorporating the patient satisfaction survey into the ongoing delivery program for addiction services.

  13. A survey: Precepts and practices in drug use indicators at Government Healthcare Facilities: A Hospital-based prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menik, Hettihewa L; Isuru, Amrasinghe I; Sewwandi, Subasinghe

    2011-01-01

    We planned to identify the difficulties in practicing the rational use of medicine in health facilities, using drug-use indicators. We studied the average consultation time (ACT), average number of drugs per encounter (ANDE), percentage of drugs by generic name (PDPG), percentage of encounters with antibiotics (PAP), percentage of encounters with injection (PIP), percentage of drugs prescribed from the essential drugs list (PEDL), using pretested questionnaires in different hospital types. There was a higher value of ACT in Teachin hospital (TH,2.31 min) and general hospital (GH,2.17 min) compared to district hospital (DH,0.83 min). ANDE was high in all three categories (3.24, 2.88, and 3.26 in TH, GH, and DH, respectively). There was a significant difference in ANDE in all three categories (P≤0.05). There was no significant difference in the PDPG among all categories of Hospitals. PAP was highest in DH (80%) and lowest in GH (46%). PIP was highest in DH (6%), 4% in GH, and lowest in TH (3%) in the Galle district. PEDL in TH, GH, and DH were 97, 100, and 99%, respectively. Prescribers use a short consultation time and practice polypharmacy, and the use of generic and essential drug lists is significantly high. Antibiotic usage is high, but usage of injections is low. We further noted prescriptions with absence of the diagnosis, sex, and prescriber's identity. : We conclude that some areas like polypharmacy, high usage of antibiotics, and poor prescription writing practices are high and they can be addressed by in-service awareness programs for noted prescriber errors.

  14. A survey: Precepts and practices in drug use indicators at government healthcare facilities: A hospital-based prospective analysis

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    Hettihewa L Menik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : We planned to identify the difficulties in practicing the rational use of medicine in health facilities, using drug-use indicators. Materials and Methods : We studied the average consultation time (ACT, average number of drugs per encounter (ANDE, percentage of drugs by generic name (PDPG, percentage of encounters with antibiotics (PAP, percentage of encounters with injection (PIP, percentage of drugs prescribed from the essential drugs list (PEDL, using pretested questionnaires in different hospital types. Results : There was a higher value of ACT in Teachin hospital (TH,2.31 min and general hospital (GH,2.17 min compared to district hospital (DH ,0.83 min. ANDE was high in all three categories (3.24, 2.88, and 3.26 in TH, GH, and DH, respectively. There was a significant difference in ANDE in all three categories ( P≤0.05. There was no significant difference in the PDPG among all categories of Hospitals. PAP was highest in DH (80% and lowest in GH (46%. PIP was highest in DH (6%, 4% in GH, and lowest in TH (3% in the Galle district. PEDL in TH, GH, and DH were 97, 100, and 99%, respectively. Prescribers use a short consultation time and practice polypharmacy, and the use of generic and essential drug lists is significantly high. Antibiotic usage is high, but usage of injections is low. We further noted prescriptions with absence of the diagnosis, sex, and prescriber′s identity. Conclusion : We conclude that some areas like polypharmacy, high usage of antibiotics, and poor prescription writing practices are high and they can be addressed by in-service awareness programs for noted prescriber errors.

  15. The effectiveness of risk communication regarding drug safety information: a nationwide survey by the Japanese public health insurance claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Hiromi; Nakano, Shun; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Tohkin, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of warning letters published by the pharmaceutical regulatory agency in Japan on communication of drug safety and risk by quantitative analysis of the national health insurance claims database (NHICD). We then explored what factors may have affected risk communication. We measured the implementation rate of the hepatitis virus-monitoring test among methotrexate (MTX)-treated patients; a warning letter had been issued regarding the use of MTX, as it apparently activates the hepatitis virus. Data from the NHICD, which include 99·3% of Japanese residents, were used. A total of 4,933,481 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (January-June, 2010) were the focus of this study. The implementation rate of the hepatitis virus-monitoring test increased from 1·4% before to 1·8% after the warning letter announcement. Logistic regression analysis suggested that the installation of a drug information management room is one of the important factors affecting risk communication. Further analysis revealed that the hepatitis virus monitoring rates in hospitals without drug information management rooms increased from 2·3% to 4·1% due to the issue of the warning letter. The warning letter from the regulatory agency plays an important role in risk communication in hospitals without drug information management rooms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Prescription only on anthelmitic drugs - a questionnaire survey on strategies for daignosis and treatment of eguine strongyles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Monrad, Jesper; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    2005-01-01

    In 1999´, legislation in Denmark made anthelmintic available by prescription only and proghibited use for prophylactic treatment. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 among Danish equine veterinary practises to determine current strategies for surveillance and control of equine strongyles....

  17. Study of Drug Utilization Pattern for Skin Diseases in Dermatology OPD of an Indian Tertiary Care Hospital - A Prescription Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anuj Kumar; Kumar, Subodh; Kumar, Manish; Dikshit, Harihar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin diseases are the major contributors of disease burden in society. It affects individuals of all ages, neonates to elderly. Owing to its chronic nature, it causes serious impact on quality of life and financial status of the sufferer and his family. The problem gets compounded with the inappropriate and irrational use of medicines. Periodic prescription audit in form of drug utilization study is a way to improve the quality of prescription and curb the menace of irrational prescribing which has become a global phenomenon. Aim This study aims to determine the drug utilization pattern and assess the economic burden of the patient with skin disease. Materials and Methods It was a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted over a period of three months from January to March 2015 in newly diagnosed cases attending outpatient department of Skin and VD, IGIMS, Patna. The prescriptions were analysed with the help of descriptive statistics and results were expressed in percentage. Results Total 752 prescriptions were analysed during the study. Male patients were lesser as compared to female as male to female ratio was 0.88. Over 50% of patients were in adolescent age group i.e. 21-40 years. Acne (17.95%) was most common disease in the study population followed by eczema and Dermatophytosis. Among the drugs, antihistaminics (24.13%) were prescribed most frequently followed by antifungals and antibiotics. Topical agents constituted almost 60% of the total prescription and average number of drugs per prescription was 5.13, irrespective of the dosage forms prescribed. Conclusion This drug utilization study provides an insight to the prescriber regarding various issues related to polypharmacy, cost analysis and prevalent disease pattern in the region. This study also suggests periodic evaluation of prescription pattern to monitor and improve quality of prescription in other departments of the hospital. PMID:27042479

  18. Trends in market share of leading cigarette brands in the USA: national survey on drug use and health 2002–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anushree; Fix, Brian V; Delnevo, Cristine; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of this study is to examine trends in market share for leading cigarette brands, both before (2002–2008) and after (2009–2013) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products. Design Data come from the annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2002 through 2013. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations, and logistic regression were employed. Data were weighted to the US population and adjusted for cigarette consumption. Our analysis is restricted to 164 343 current cigarette smokers who were at least 12 years of age or older, had smoked at least one cigarette in the 30 days prior to the survey, and reported a usual cigarette brand at the time of the survey. Results Over 12 years, 14 brands comprised over 77% of the cigarette market. Marlboro consistently held over 38% of the market. Newport held the second highest market share, and increased from 7.2% in 2002 to 10.9% by 2013. Market share of Pall Mall grew by over 400% (1.7% in 2002 vs 8.9% in 2013), likely aided by the 2009 Federal excise tax increase. No clear associations of changes in market share with the implementation of FDA's regulatory authority over tobacco in 2009 were noted. Conclusions Tracking market share trends offers clues about brand marketing changing preferences of consumers. Rapidly growing cigarette brands should be monitored to determine if specific marketing practices or design changes are drivers, as these could represent public health concerns. Monitoring trends in cigarette market share could inform regulatory decision-making efforts related to marketing and advertising. PMID:26826144

  19. A Cross-Comparative Survey of Information Seeking and Scanning About Drug-Related Sources and Topics Among U.S. and Israeli College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Ahn, Jisoo; Lewis, Nehama; Martinez, Lourdes S

    2017-08-01

    There is an increasing amount of drug-related information that is easily accessible from media and interpersonal sources. Recent research shows significant positive associations between information acquisition and nonmedical drug use intentions among college students. This study examines information about amphetamines and marijuana that was actively searched ("seeking") as well as information that was encountered during routine media use ("scanning"). Data are drawn from a cross-national comparative survey of college students in the United States (N = 734) and in Israel (N = 800). U.S. participants reported seeking and scanning information about marijuana across a broader range of sources than Israeli participants. Among U.S. and Israeli participants, the most frequently searched marijuana-related topics included the benefits of marijuana, negative effects of marijuana use, and political reasons why marijuana should be legal. Participants from both countries reported the benefits of amphetamines, and the negative effects of amphetamine use as the most frequently searched topics about amphetamines. Participants in both countries identified the internet and friends as the most popular sources of drug-related information and noted that physicians, friends, and the internet were the most trusted sources. Implications for research on information seeking and health communication are discussed.

  20. Nationwide survey of the development of drug resistance in the pediatric field in 2007 and 2010: drug sensitivity of Haemophilus influenzae in Japan (second report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yoshitake; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2013-06-01

    The Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease conducted national surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae in 2007 (phase 3) and 2010 (phase 4), following the previous surveillance conducted from 2000 to 2001 (phase 1) and in 2004 (phase 2). We examined the antimicrobial susceptibility for H. influenzae derived from clinical specimens of pediatric patients collected nationwide from 27 institutions during phases 3 (386 strains) and 4 (484 strains). The frequency of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin (ABPC)-resistant (BLNAR) strains, which rapidly increased from 11.4 % in phase 1 to 43.4 % in phase 2, has gradually decreased from 38.3 % in phase 3 to 37.8 % in phase 4. In contrast, On the other hand, the frequency of β-lactamase-producing strains, which continuously decreased from 8.3 % in phase 1 to 4.4 % in phase 3, has increased to 8.7 % in phase 4. Prevalence of β-lactamase-producing clavulanic acid/amoxicillin-resistant (BLPACR) strains, especially, has increased from 1.6 % in phase 3 to 4.8 % in phase 4. The oral antimicrobial agents with the lowest MIC90 were levofloxacin in both phases, and tosufloxacin in phase 4 (≤0.063 μg/ml), whereas for intravenous use the corresponding agent was tazobactam/piperacillin in both phases (0.125 μg/ml). There was no increase in the MIC90 of most β-lactams between phase 3 and phase 4. In relationship to sex, age, presence of siblings, attendance at a daycare center, siblings' attendance at a daycare center, and prior administration of antimicrobial agents within 1 month, the frequency of β-lactamase-nonproducing ABPC-intermediately resistant (BLNAI) strains + BLNAR strains was high (P = 0.005) in cases with prior administration of antimicrobial agents in phase 3.

  1. HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among hanka injection drug users in central Ukraine: a cross-sectional survey

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    Slobodyanyuk Pavel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ukraine has experienced an increase in injection drug use since the 1990s. An increase in HIV and hepatitis C virus infections has followed, but not measures of prevalence and risk factors. The purposes of this study are to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HCV, and co-infection among injection drug users (IDUs in central Ukraine and to describe risk factors for HIV and HCV. Methods A sample of 315 IDUs was recruited using snowball sampling for a structured risk interview and HIV/HCV testing (81.9% male, 42% single, average age 28.9 years [range = 18 to 55]. Results HIV and HCV antibodies were detected in 14.0% and 73.0%, respectively, and 12.1% were seropositive for both infections. The most commonly used drug was hanka, home-made from poppy straw and often mixed with other substances including dimedrol, diazepines, and hypnotics. The average period of injecting was 8.5 years; 62.5% reported past-year sharing needles or injection equipment, and 8.0% shared with a known HIV-positive person. More than half (51.1% reported multiple sexual partners, 12.9% buying or selling sex, and 10.5% exchanging sex and drugs in the past year. Those who shared with HIV positive partners were 3.4 times more likely to be HIV positive than those who did not. Those who front- or back-loaded were 4 times more likely to be HCV positive than those who did not. Conclusion Harm reduction, addiction treatment and HIV prevention programs should address risk factors to stop further spread of both HIV and HCV among IDUs and to the general population in central Ukraine.

  2. [Clinical survey of tizanidine-induced adverse effects--impact of concomitant drugs providing cytochrome P450 1A2 modification--].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, Kenji; Homma, Masato; Matsumoto, Sayaka; Sasaki, Tadanori; Kohda, Yukinao

    2013-01-01

    The drug-drug interactions of tizanidine and cytochrome (CYP) P450 1A2 inhibitors, which potentially alter the hepatic metabolism of tizanidine, were investigated by retrospective survey of medical records with regard to prescription. One thousand five hundred sixty-three patients treated with tizanidine at University of Tsukuba Hospital were investigated. Of those, 713 patients (45.6%) were treated with coadministration of tizanidine and CYP1A2 inhibitors (37 drugs). The patients who received a combination of tizanidine and CYP1A2 inhibitors were characterized as elderly, having multiple diseases, and taking a large number of comedications (over 10 drugs) for a long period as compared with the patients who did not receive CYP1A2 inhibitors. Tizanidine-induced adverse effects were examined in 100 patients treated with coadministration of tizanidine and 8 CYP1A2 inhibitors. Adverse effects (e.g., drowsiness: 10 patients; low blood pressure: 9 patients; low heart rate: 9 patients) were observed in 23 patients (23%) 8±10 days after CYP1A2 inhibitors were coadministered. The patients with tizanidine-induced adverse effects were of older age (64.3±9.8 vs. 57.5±18.1 years, p<0.05) and received a higher daily dose of tizanidine (3.00±0.74 vs. 2.56±0.86 mg/day, p<0.05) than the patients without adverse effects. The present results suggest that coadministration of tizanidine and CYP1A2 inhibitors enhances tizanidine-induced adverse effects, especially in elderly patients treated with a higher dose of tizanidine.

  3. Risks of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among Thais with alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use: findings from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttajit, Sirijit; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the risks of mood and anxiety disorders among Asians with alcohol use disorders and the effect of illicit drug use in this population. All participants from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey (N=17,140) were assessed for current major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and were interviewed for illicit drug use within one year prior to their assessment. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine (a) whether alcohol use disorders were associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and (b) whether the use of illicit drugs increased these associations. Sex, age, marital status, region, and educational level were found to be significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and were taken into account in the regression analysis. Compared with the general population, individuals with alcohol use disorders alone had significantly increased risks of major depressive disorder (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.76-3.53 in men and OR 4.09, 95%CI 2.31-7.26 in women) and anxiety disorders (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.46-3.36 in men and OR 4.34, 95%CI 2.35-8.03 in women). The risks became higher among individuals with both alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.64-8.01 in men and OR 11.53, 95%CI 1.32-100.65 in women for major depressive disorder, and OR 3.20, 95%CI 1.36-7.51 in men and OR 13.10, 95%CI 1.48-115.60 in women for anxiety disorders). In conclusion, alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Illicit drug use was an important factor in increasing these associations, especially in women. Screening for depression, anxiety, and illicit drug use should be done in individuals with alcohol use disorders.

  4. Quality of antimalarial drugs and antibiotics in Papua New Guinea: a survey of the health facility supply chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel W Hetzel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor-quality life-saving medicines are a major public health threat, particularly in settings with a weak regulatory environment. Insufficient amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API endanger patient safety and may contribute to the development of drug resistance. In the case of malaria, concerns relate to implications for the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT. In Papua New Guinea (PNG, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax are both endemic and health facilities are the main source of treatment. ACT has been introduced as first-line treatment but other drugs, such as primaquine for the treatment of P. vivax hypnozoites, are widely available. This study investigated the quality of antimalarial drugs and selected antibiotics at all levels of the health facility supply chain in PNG. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Medicines were obtained from randomly sampled health facilities and selected warehouses and hospitals across PNG and analysed for API content using validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Of 360 tablet/capsule samples from 60 providers, 9.7% (95% CI 6.9, 13.3 contained less, and 0.6% more, API than pharmacopoeial reference ranges, including 29/37 (78.4% primaquine, 3/70 (4.3% amodiaquine, and one sample each of quinine, artemether, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amoxicillin. According to the package label, 86.5% of poor-quality samples originated from India. Poor-quality medicines were found in 48.3% of providers at all levels of the supply chain. Drug quality was unrelated to storage conditions. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents the presence of poor-quality medicines, particularly primaquine, throughout PNG. Primaquine is the only available transmission-blocking antimalarial, likely to become important to prevent the spread of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum and eliminating P. vivax hypnozoites. The availability of poor-quality medicines reflects the lack of adequate quality control and

  5. Religiosity and Violence Among Adolescents in the United States: Findings From the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Maynard, Brandy R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need to develop a more nuanced understanding of the relationships between particular expressions of religiosity and the various manifestations of violence among youth. This study examines these relationships among adolescents in the general population as well as across racial/ethnic, gender, and family income differences. Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 90,202) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2006-2010), logistic regression is used to examine the relationships between religiosity and violence. Results indicate that multiple components of adolescent religiosity are associated with the decreased likelihood of fighting, group fighting, and, to a lesser extent, violent attacks. A number of noteworthy differences were identified across race/ethnicity, gender, and family income. Findings from this investigation shed light on the relationship between particular facets of religiosity and violence that may be useful for violence prevention organizations seeking to integrate religious components into intervention efforts. PMID:24288193

  6. Transmitted drug resistance in women with intrapartum HIV-1 diagnosis: a pilot epidemiological survey in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cecchini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surveillance of primary resistance to antiretroviral drugs is particularly important in pregnant population, in which infection by drug-resistant HIV has not only implications for maternal treatment, but could also jeopardize the efficacy of neonatal prophylaxis. We aim to describe the prevalence of resistance associated mutations (RAMs in pregnant women with intrapartum HIV diagnosis in a public hospital of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Materials and Methods: Prospective pilot study (period from 2008 to October 2013. Plasma samples were tested for viral load by Versant HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (bDNA and sequenced using HIV-1 TRUGENE™Genotyping Kit (Siemens. The prevalence of RAMs was analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Results: Of 231 HIV-infected pregnant women assisted, 6% (n=14 had intrapartum diagnosis of HIV infection. 12 patients (85.7% had previous pregnancies, 10 (71.4% had inadequate prenatal care and 3 (23.1% seroconverted during pregnancy. Maternal characteristics (expressed medians and ranges were: age 25.5 (16–35 years; gestational age at birth: 39 (30–42 weeks; CD4 count: 500 (132–925 cells/µL; viral load: 9418 (1800–55299 copies/mL. No one had hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV coinfection; four (33.3% had syphilis. Eight patients (57.1% had vaginal delivery and six emergency C-section (42.9%. In six cases (46.2%, membrane rupture was spontaneous; four patients (28.6% failed to receive intrapartum zidovudine (ZDV infusion. In 12 patients a genotypic resistance test was performed: two (16.7% had WHO RAMs corresponding to K103N mutation in both cases, conferring high-level resistance to nevirapine (NVP and efavirenz. Two newborns (14.3% were preterm. All received neonatal prophylaxis: ZDV in 1 case and combined prophylaxis (ZDV/3TC/NVP in the remaining 13 (92.9%. All newborns were formula-fed. Two (14.3% had congenital syphilis, one of whom died. One newborn was HIV

  7. How Do Nurses Manage Their Occupational Exposure to Cytotoxic Drugs? A Descriptive Survey in Chemotherapy Settings, Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Momeni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs is a global concern. We conducted this cross-sectional study in 2012 to describe the adverse effects experienced by nurses working in one of chemotherapy facilities affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, southern Iran, and their proper use of personal protective equipment and educational programs. The frequency of side effects reported by participants was noticeably high. Approximately, 60% of the nurses used all personal protective equipment. There were air conditioner ventilation systems in all facilities, but they were not standard. Clinics did not have any dedicated room. Lack of adequate training was noticeable among all participants. We concluded that establishment of safety regulations, health care workers safety surveillance systems as well as continuous training for nurses are of paramount importance.

  8. Religiosity as a protective factor for hazardous drinking and drug use among sexual minority and heterosexual women: Findings from the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen F; Klinger, Jamie L

    2016-04-01

    Despite research documenting disparities in risk for alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women, few studies explore potential protective factors within this population. This study examines how religiosity may function as a protective or risk factor for alcohol-problems or other substance use among sexual minorities compared to heterosexuals. Data from 11,169 women who responded to sexual identity and sexual behavior questions from three population-based National Alcohol Survey waves (2000, 2005, 2010) were utilized for analyses of religiosity in relation to lifetime drinking, past year hazardous drinking, and past year drug use. Religiosity was significantly greater among exclusively heterosexual women compared to all sexual minority groups (lesbian, bisexual and heterosexual women who report same sex partners). Lesbians reported the lowest rates of affiliation with religions/denominations discouraging alcohol use. Past year hazardous drinking and use of any illicit drugs were significantly lower among exclusively heterosexual women compared to all sexual minority groups. High religiosity was associated with lifetime alcohol abstention and was found to be protective against hazardous drinking and drug use among both sexual minority and heterosexual women. Reporting religious norms unfavorable to drinking was protective against hazardous drinking among exclusively heterosexual women but not sexual minority women. Findings reveal the importance of considering sexual minority status in evaluation of religion or spirituality as protective among women. Future studies should explore religiosity in the context of other individual and environmental factors, such as positive identity development and community-level acceptance, which may be salient to resiliency among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-sectional Survey of Male HIV-positive Drug Users in Guangxi%广西男性HIV阳性吸毒者现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秋映; 刘伟; 朱金辉; 郑文彬; 唐帅

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解广西男性HIV阳性吸毒者艾滋病相关知识、吸毒行为、与配偶或固定性伴的性行为情况等,为制定针对性防治策略提供科学依据,以更好地控制艾滋病经吸毒和性行为传播. 方法 筛选男性HIV阳性已婚或有固定性伴的吸毒者采用一对一的方式进行问卷调查,收集社会人口学特征、艾滋病相关知识、吸毒及性行为等信息,并对其进行梅毒和生殖器疱疹病毒(HSV)的抽血检测同时提供相应的咨询和转介服务. 结果 对382名HIV阳性男性吸毒者进行了调查,调查对象平均年龄为(36.5±6.5)岁,教育程度以初中和小学为主,占91.6%;艾滋病相关知识知晓率为95.8%;3.4%曾做过包皮环切术;第一次吸毒的平均年龄为(23.1±6.0)岁,98.4%有过注射吸毒行为,其中93.1%共用注射器吸毒.62.5%的注射吸毒年限在10年以上,51.6%在接受美沙酮门诊治疗;82.5%把自身感染HIV的情况告诉了配偶/性伴;271名调查对象(70.9%)知道配偶/性伴的HIV感染情况,其中配偶/性伴为阳性者166人,占61.3%(166/271);得知自身感染HIV后每月与配偶/性伴同房次数和从不使用安全套的频率均有所下降(P<0.01);调查对象梅毒和生殖器疱疹病毒Ⅱ型(HSV-2)阳性检出率分别为6.3%、52.8%. 结论 应加强吸毒人群监测和行为干预,及早发现阳性病例及早告知,实施有效措施使之减少危险行为以减少艾滋病经吸毒者共用针具和性行为的传播.%Objective To investigate the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge,drug addictive behaviors and sexual behavior with spouses or regular partners among male HIV-positive drug users in Guangxi,and to provide the scientific evidences for strategy planning of HIV/AIDS prevention and better control of the transmission by injecting drug use or sexual behaviors.Methods Face to face questionnaire survey was conducted among male HIV-positive drug users with spouses or

  10. Developing Calibration Weights and Standard-Error Estimates for a Survey of Drug-Related Emergency-Department Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kott Phillip S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a two-step calibration-weighting scheme for a stratified simple random sample of hospital emergency departments. The first step adjusts for unit nonresponse. The second increases the statistical efficiency of most estimators of interest. Both use a measure of emergency-department size and other useful auxiliary variables contained in the sampling frame. Although many survey variables are roughly a linear function of the measure of size, response is better modeled as a function of the log of that measure. Consequently the log of size is a calibration variable in the nonresponse-adjustment step, while the measure of size itself is a calibration variable in the second calibration step. Nonlinear calibration procedures are employed in both steps. We show with 2010 DAWN data that estimating variances as if a one-step calibration weighting routine had been used when there were in fact two steps can, after appropriately adjusting the finite-population correct in some sense, produce standard-error estimates that tend to be slightly conservative.

  11. Time point survey of drug use inpatients of psychiatric hospital%某精神病院住院患者药物使用时点调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖; 王川

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解某精神病院住院患者药物使用状况,提高医院临床合理用药水平。方法利用天津市安宁医院 HIS系统对全部住院患者采用一日法进行用药时点调查。结果当日共调查616例患者,其中单用一种抗精神病药有499例(81.0%),联用两种59例(9.6%),联用三种1例(0.2%)。抗精神病药总用药例次为635,其中利培酮使用频度居首位317例(49.9%),其次为氯氮平163例(25.7%),喹硫平40例(6.3%)。共54例(8.8%)患者使用心境稳定剂,使用频率居前三位的分别为丙戊酸镁26例(48.1%),丙戊酸钠19例(35.2%),卡马西平9例(16.7%)。共222例(36.0%)患者使用抗焦虑和镇静催眠药物,其中苯二氮艹卓类药物中使用氯硝西泮74例(33.3%),其次为阿普唑仑61例(27.5%)、艾司唑仑30例(13.5%)。在躯体疾病辅助用药中,心脑血管疾病药、降糖药、保肝药物使用例数分别为468例(76.0%)、123例(20.0%)、73例(11.9%)。结论精神病院住院患者中非典型抗精神病药的使用占主导地位,且符合单一用药原则,药物使用剂量合理,但应控制苯二氮艹卓类药物的使用。%Objective To learn the status of drug use of inpatients in psychiatric hospitals,and to improve the level of hospital clinical rational drug use. Methods All hospitalized patients were investigated with a day of drug use point of time survey by the HIS system of Tianjin Anning Hospital. Results A total of 616 patients were investigated at that day. There were 499 cases(81. 0% )of single use of antipsychotic drugs,59 cases(9. 6% )with two kinds of drugs,1 case(0. 2% )with three kinds of drugs. The total cases of antipsychotic drug use were 635. The frequency of use in the first place was risperidone(317 cases,49. 9 % ),the second was 163 cases with clozapine(25. 7 % ),the third was 40 cases with quetiapine(6. 3 % ). A total of 54(8. 8

  12. Consumo de drogas entre adolescentes: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones, 1998 Drug used among adolescents: results from the National Survey on Addictions, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Elena Medina-Mora

    2003-01-01

    probabilidad de desarrollar dependencia, quienes requieren de intervenciones preventivas más intensas.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe drug and associated factors use among adolescents (12 to 17 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data come from the recent Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones, 1998 (National Survey on Addictions undertaken in urban areas of Mexico. A probabilistic, multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling design was used to select the study population. The sampling unit was the individual in each household. Statistical analysis consisted of the estimation of prevalences of drug use, with 95% confidence intervals. Associations were analyzed using logistic regressions models. RESULTS: Excluding tobacco and alcohol, 3.57% of males and 0.6% of females have used one or more drugs; 2.14% and 0.45% used them in the 12 months previous to the survey, and 1.4% and 0.3% in the previous 30 days, respectively. Marihuana was the drug more often used by males (2.4% and females (0.45%, followed by inhaled solvents (1.08% and 0.20%, and cocaine (0.99% and 0.22%, respectively. The risk of using illicit drugs was associated to being male, having dropped out from school, perceiving availability, drug use by family and friends, social tolerance among friends, and symptoms of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents between 12 to 17 years of age are exposed to increasing drug use. The rates of drug use have risen, especially in the northern region of Mexico and in the big urban areas (Tijuana, Mexico City and Guadalajara. These findings emphasize the need to develop campaigns to detect emotional problems. Preventive measures should provide appropriate care to prevent drug use as a mechanism to cope with such emotional conflicts. Also, more intense preventive interventions should be targeted to adolescents with a high probability of developing drug abuse.

  13. The role of policy in community pharmacies' response to injection-drug use: results of a nationwide Canadian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, T; Cockerill, R; Millson, M; Rankin, J; Worthington, C

    1996-01-01

    The response rate to this survey reflects the salience of the topic and the professional concern about and interest in issues presented by HIV. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has presented pharmacists with one of the greatest challenges to their professional training, ethics, and practice. It further expedites a current re-examination that is occurring among community pharmacies concerning their roles in community health practices. In response to HIV there have been dramatic and unprecedented changes in pharmacy policy and practices. Clearly, some community pharmacies have led the way and influenced policy and practices. In view of the recent introduction of many of these policies and practices, it is likely that change will continue. Survey respondents were, in general, very comfortable with an expanded role involving counseling, health promotion, and disease prevention, consistent with a broader role for community pharmacies in general that has been recently advocated. Community pharmacies serve all areas of the country, in communities large and small; many are open seven days a week, and some provide extended hours of service. Community pharmacies may provide an important complement to community outreach programs as a source of clean needles and syringes for IDUs in most communities, and as an alternative service in some communities where more elaborate programs are not feasible. Safer needle use, as part of a health-promotion approach, is divergent from conventional practice. While major changes have occurred, it appears that there has been some polarization of attitudes and response. The explanation for this is not simple, and further analysis is required to determine the full impact from several ethical perspectives that include professional, business, and public health viewpoints. We have highlighted the role that policy has in moving toward preventive and harm-reduction approaches. From a policy perspective, we have found that support from the federal government

  14. Survey on drug resistance of Candida to common antifungal drugs%念珠菌对临床常用抗真菌药物的耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽君; 王博

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the drug resistance of Candida to commonly used antifungal drugs and to survey the distribution of Candida infection in this area. Methods By using Candida color culture medium for cultivation and identification of Candida, and K - B method was used for drug sensitivity testing. Results The specimens from respiratory tract of 267 cases of Candida infection accounted for 70. 8% , urine specimens accounted for 16.9% , pus specimens for 6. 4% , pleural effusion and ascites for 3. 4% , cerebrospinal fluid for 0.7% and blood samples for 1.9%. Among species distribution, Candida albicans accounted for 61. 4% , Candida tropicalis accounted for 10. 9% , Candida krusei accounted for 6.4%, Candida glabrata accounted for 8. 6% , and other species of Candida accounted for 12.7% . The rate of resistance was 1. 1 % to ampho-tericinB, 13.1% to 5 - fluorocytosine, 46. 4% to itraconazole, 48. 3% to fluconazole and 34. 8% to ketoconazole. Conclusion The incidence of infection with Candida is in rising tendency, distribution of species and manifestations in drug resistance are different, hence clinical medication should be based on drug sensitivity test for rational application of antifungal drugs.%目的 研究本地区念珠菌感染构成及对临床常用抗真菌药物的耐药情况.方法 使用念珠菌显色培养基对念珠菌进行培养鉴定,并用现行纸片扩散法(K-B法)进行药敏实验.结果 267例念珠菌感染中呼吸道标本占70.8%、尿液占16.9%,脓液6.4%,胸腹水3.4%,脑脊液0.7%,血液1.9%;菌种分布分别为白色念珠菌占61.4%,热带念珠菌占10.9%,克柔念珠菌占6.4%,光滑念珠菌占8.6%,其他念珠菌占12.7%;耐药情况分别为两性霉素B耐药性1.1%,5-氟胞嘧啶13.1%,依曲康唑46.4%,氟康唑48.3%,酮康唑34.8%.结论 念珠菌的感染呈上升态势,菌种分布及耐药性表现均不同,临床上应根据药敏实验合理使用抗真菌药物.

  15. Control of emerging extensively drug-resistant organisms (eXDRO) in France: a survey among infection preventionists from 286 healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepelletier, D; Lucet, J C; Astagneau, P; Coignard, B; Vaux, S; Rabaud, C; Grandbastien, B; Berthelot, P

    2015-08-01

    We performed a multicenter survey in May-June 2012 to assess strategies in preventing the spread of emerging extensively drug-resistant organisms (eXDRO), including glycopeptide-resistant enterococci and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, in a convenient sample of French healthcare facilities (HCFs). The collected data included organization and measures to: (1) identify patients at risk for carrying eXDRO, (2) investigate and control sporadic cases or outbreaks, and (3) describe prior 2010-2012 episodes with one or more colonized patients. Of the 286 participating HCFs, 163 (57 %) and 134 (47 %) reported having a specific procedure to detect repatriates or patients hospitalized in foreign countries within the last year, respectively. Among the 97 HCFs with prior at-risk patient management experience, contact precautions, hospitalization in a single room, and screening for eXDRO carriage were quasi-systematically performed (n = 92/97, 95 %). The alleged time between admission and alert ranged from 24 to 48 h after the patient's admission; 203 (71 %) HCFs recommended obtaining three successive negative screening samples to declare a patient free of eXDRO colonization. During the last two years, 64 HCFs (23 %) had to manage at least one eXDRO case, with a total of 20 outbreaks with more than one secondary case. This first national survey shows that French HCFs were not totally ready to control eXDRO spread in 2012. Their previous experiences and capacities in controlling eXDRO outbreaks are quite heterogeneous from one hospital to another. Further researches are needed in order to understand the constraints in applying national guidance.

  16. The European patient with Dravet syndrome: results from a parent-reported survey on antiepileptic drug use in the European population with Dravet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Luis Miguel; Isla, Julián; Mingorance-Le Meur, Ana

    2015-03-01

    Dravet syndrome is a rare form of epilepsy largely refractory to current antiepileptic medications. The only precedents of randomized placebo-controlled trials in Dravet syndrome are the two small trials that led to the approval of stiripentol. With the arrival of new clinical trials for Dravet syndrome, we sought to determine the characteristics of the patient population with Dravet syndrome in Europe today, which has possibly evolved subsequent to the approval of stiripentol and the ability to diagnose milder clinical cases via genetic testing. From May to June 2014, we conducted an online parent-reported survey to collect information about the demographics, disease-specific clinical characteristics, as well as current and past use of antiepileptic medications by European patients with Dravet syndrome. We present data from 274 patients with Dravet syndrome from 15 European countries. Most patients were between 4 and 8years of age, and 90% had known mutations in SCN1A. Their epilepsy was characterized by multiple seizure types, although only 45% had more than 4 tonic-clonic seizures per month on average. The most common drug combination was valproate, clobazam, and stiripentol, with 42% of the total population currently taking stiripentol. Over a third of patients with Dravet syndrome had taken sodium channel blockers in the past, and most had motor and behavioral comorbidities. Our study helps define the current typical European patient with Dravet syndrome. The results from this survey may have important implications for the design of future clinical trials that investigate new treatments for Dravet syndrome.

  17. Health risks related to illegal and on-line sale of drugs and food supplements: results of a survey on marketed products in Italy from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Manna, Livia; Bartolomei, Monica; Rodomonte, Andrea Luca; Bertocchi, Paola; Antoniella, Eleonora; Romanini, Laura; Alimonti, Stefano; Rufini, Leandro; Valvo, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The increasing illegal and on-line market of medicines and food supplements is helping the widespread diffusion of harmful counterfeit and forbidden products among consumers of developed countries. The objectives of this survey were the description of the main frauds recognized by public officers and the detection of illegal or counterfeit drugs and food supplements. Medicines and food supplements found by Police forces on the illegal market or resulting from seizures made by Italian Customs authorities were visually inspected and analysed to evaluate their quality and the presence of other undeclared substances. The visual inspection and the chemical analysis revealed unsuitable packaging (mostly lacking of adequate information for consumers), absence of the declared active substances and presence of undeclared active substances. Products containing doping agents, illegal substances and active ingredients requiring medical supervision were found. The present work confirmed the health risk associated with assumption of medicines purchased on the Internet and from the illegal supply chain and evidenced a new threat to consumer safety related to the presence of pharmaceutical active ingredients in food supplements claiming to contain only "natural ingredients".

  18. How Illegal Drug Use, Alcohol Use, Tobacco Use, and Depressive Symptoms Affect Adolescent Suicidal Ideation: A Secondary Analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Rachel; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major risk factors among adolescents who have either contemplated or attempted suicide. Along with successful suicides, suicide attempts and contemplation are coexisting factors that are prominent in the adolescent population and therefore warrant major concern. A secondary data analysis of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed to explore the factors that may influence adolescents' thoughts or actions about suicidal behavior. The YRBS represents high-school students throughout 50 states. Nine questions from the YRBS were used to elicit information about the relationships among the risk factors: (1) Suicidal thoughts and attempts; (2) illegal drug use; (3) alcohol use; (4) tobacco use; and (5) depressive symptoms. Statistically significant relationships among the risk factors were found for adolescents. Adolescents considered suicide (15.8%); attempted suicide at least once (7.8%); were injured while attempting suicide (n = 2.7%). Our findings support the idea that illegal substance use can lead to suicidal thoughts and actions. Depression had a positive relationship with suicidal ideations, supporting similar studies suggesting that depression leads to suicidal action.

  19. Societal views on NICE, cancer drugs fund and value-based pricing criteria for prioritising medicines: a cross-sectional survey of 4118 adults in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Warren G; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2013-08-01

    The criteria used by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) for accepting higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for some medicines over others, and the recent introduction of the Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) in England, are assumed to reflect societal preferences for National Health Service resource allocation. Robust empirical evidence to this effect is lacking. To explore societal preferences for these and other criteria, including those proposed for rewarding new medicines under the future value-based pricing (VBP) system, we conducted a choice-based experiment in 4118 UK adults via web-based surveys. Preferences were determined by asking respondents to allocate fixed funds between different patient and disease types reflecting nine specific prioritisation criteria. Respondents supported the criteria proposed under the VBP system (for severe diseases, address unmet needs, are innovative--provided they offered substantial health benefits, and have wider societal benefits) but did not support the end-of-life premium or the prioritisation of children or disadvantaged populations as specified by NICE, nor the special funding status for treatments of rare diseases, nor the CDF. Policies introduced on the basis of perceived--and not actual--societal values may lead to inappropriate resource allocation decisions with the potential for significant population health and economic consequences. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Survey of HIV drug resistance threshold in Zhejiang province from 2009 to 2011%2009-2011年浙江省HIV耐药警戒线调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳峰; 潘晓红; 郭志宏; 郑锦雷; 杨介者; 徐云; 牛建丽; 邢辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解2009-2011年浙江省的HIV耐药株传播水平.方法 采用WHO的截断序贯抽样法,分别于2009、2010、2011年在浙江省AIDS疫情主要发生地区(杭州、宁波和温州)采集63例、62例和57例当年新报告的16 ~25岁的HIV感染者血样,提取病毒RNA核酸,采用RT-PCR和巢式PCR扩增HIV pol区片段,并进行耐药基因变异分析.结果 2009-2011年调查对象的序列成功获得率分别为82.5%( 52/63)、95.2%( 59/62)和94.7%( 54/57),亚型以CRF01 _AE为主[68.5%(37/54) ~71.2%(37/52)].在2009-2011年各抽取的47个样本序列中分别发现4、2、2份样本存在监测性耐药突变,对应的HIV耐药株传播水平分别为中流行、低流行和低流行.调查发现的8例耐药个体感染均为经性传播,且主要为同性传播(6例),亚型主要为CRF01 _AE(7例).1例耐药个体同时存在蛋白酶抑制剂(PI)、核苷类逆转录酶抑制剂( NRTI)和非核苷类逆转录酶抑制剂(NNRTI)耐药突变(L90M、T215S和Y188L).结论 2009-2011年浙江省AIDS疫情主要发生地HIV耐药株传播水平为低度.%Objective To survey the prevalence of drug resistant HIV in Zhejiang province in 2009 -2011.Methods WHO truncated sequential sampling technique was adopted annually by using 63,62 and 57 samples of newly diagnosed as HIV positive and aged 16 -25 years in Hangzhou,Ningbo and Wenzhou from 2009 to 2011,respectively.RNA was prepared and HIV pol region was amplified by RT-PCR and nested PCR.Pol genetic mutation associated with drug resistance was analyzed.Results The success rates for sequence acquisition of the survey were 82.5% ( 52/63 ),95.2% ( 59/62 ) and 94.7% ( 54/57 )from year 2009 to 2011,respectively,and the main subtype was CRF01 _AE ( 68.5 % (37/54) - 71.2%(37/52) ).A total of 4 surveillance drug-resistance mutation(SDRMs),2 SDRMs and 2 SDRMs were found by analyzing the 47 sequences each year,sampled from year 2009 to 2010,respectively,indicating that the

  1. Impact of Undertreatment of Cancer Pain With Analgesic Drugs on Patient Outcomes: A Nationwide Survey of Outpatient Cancer Patient Care in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Chi; Chen, Jen-Shi; Shao, Yu-Yun; Lee, Kuan-Der; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Sung, Yung-Chuan; Rau, Kun-Ming; Yen, Chia-Jui; Liao, Yu-Min; Liu, Ta-Chih; Wu, Ming-Fang; Lee, Ming-Yang; Yu, Ming-Sun; Hwang, Wen-Li; Lai, Pang-Yu; Chang, Cheng-Shyong; Chou, Wen-Chi; Hsieh, Ruey-Kuen

    2017-07-01

    Undertreatment of cancer pain among outpatient cancer patients needs to be addressed to enhance care and improve patients' quality of life (QoL). This prospective, cross-sectional, patient-focused study aimed to explore the prevalence of pain and undertreatment of cancer pain in outpatients in Taiwan. A total of 2652 non-selected outpatients with cancer and aged 20 years or older from 16 medical centers across Taiwan were included in this survey. All patients completed a questionnaire based on the Brief Pain Inventory. Pain management index (PMI) was used to evaluate the adequacy of pain management. Possible clinical variables of patients with positive PMI were examined by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. A total of 1659 (62.6%) outpatients had experienced some degree of pain; among these, 32.4% had negative PMI. Patients with a negative PMI score had significantly poor outcomes of QoL and a significantly higher tendency toward dissatisfaction with pain control by the physician and with the prescribed analgesic drugs. Female gender, primary tumor from breast, non-cancer-related cause of pain, and hospital locations from north Taiwan were independent variables that predicated patients with undertreatment of cancer pain. Most importantly, a forward trend of undertreatment of pain among patients who presented with lower prevalent rate of pain was observed. One-third of Taiwanese outpatients experienced pain because of undertreatment. Awareness of the prevalence of undertreatment of cancer pain and identification of the vulnerable subjects may assist in enhancing patient care and improving patient's QoL. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sociodemographic and Psychological Characteristics of Very Light Smoking Among Women in Emerging Adulthood, National Survey of Drug Use and Health, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyin; Holahan, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although smoking prevalence and average cigarette consumption have declined, very light smoking (5 or fewer cigarettes per day) has increased. Very light smoking is common among young adult women. This study examines the differences between the sociodemographic and psychosocial factors associated with women in emerging adulthood who are very light smokers and similar women who are at other smoking levels. Methods The sample consisted of 9,789 women aged 18 to 25 years who took part in the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health in the United States. Variables were sociodemographic factors, psychological adjustment, substance misuse, smoking attitudes, daily smoking, age at smoking initiation, and nicotine dependence. Analyses used were χ2 and multinomial logistic regression. Results Almost a fifth of participants and about three-fifths of smokers were very light smokers (no more than 5 cigarettes per day). Very light smokers were relatively more likely than other smokers to be young (aged 18 to 20), to be from a minority group, and to have some college education. They also were less likely to be married. The characteristics of very light smokers (poor psychological adjustment and tendency to misuse other substances) were similar to the characteristics of other smokers. However, very light smokers were more likely than other smokers to recognize high risks in smoking, less likely to report nicotine dependence, and more likely to be nondaily smokers. Conclusion Prevention programs targeting women in emerging adulthood need to recognize the prevalence of very light smoking in this population. Although comorbid psychological disorders and substance use present challenges, very light smokers’ perception of higher smoking risks and lower nicotine dependence compared with that of other smokers provide intervention opportunities. PMID:26182146

  3. A Large Candidate Gene Survey Identifies the KCNE1 D85N Polymorphism as a Possible Modulator of Drug-Induced Torsades de Pointes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaeaeb, Stefan; Crawford, Dana C.; Sinner, Moritz F.; Behr, Elijah R.; Kannankeril, Prince J.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Guicheney, Pascale; Bishopric, Nanette H.; Myerburg, Robert J.; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Pfeufer, Arne; Beckmann, Britt-Maria; Martens, Eimo; Zhang, Taifang; Stallmeyer, Birgit; Zumhagen, Sven; Denjoy, Isabelle; Bardai, Abdennasser; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Marshall, Vanessa; Jeffery, Steve; Shakir, Saad; Camm, A. John; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Perz, Siegfried; Lichtner, Peter; Meitinger, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Ingram, Christiana; Bradford, Yuki; Carter, Shannon; Norris, Kris; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; George, Alfred L.; Roden, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background-Drug-induced long-QT syndrome (diLQTS) is an adverse drug effect that has an important impact on drug use, development, and regulation. We tested the hypothesis that common variants in key genes controlling cardiac electric properties modify the risk of diLQTS. Methods and Results-In a ca

  4. A Large Candidate Gene Survey Identifies the KCNE1 D85N Polymorphism as a Possible Modulator of Drug-Induced Torsades de Pointes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaeaeb, Stefan; Crawford, Dana C.; Sinner, Moritz F.; Behr, Elijah R.; Kannankeril, Prince J.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Guicheney, Pascale; Bishopric, Nanette H.; Myerburg, Robert J.; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Pfeufer, Arne; Beckmann, Britt-Maria; Martens, Eimo; Zhang, Taifang; Stallmeyer, Birgit; Zumhagen, Sven; Denjoy, Isabelle; Bardai, Abdennasser; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Marshall, Vanessa; Jeffery, Steve; Shakir, Saad; Camm, A. John; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Perz, Siegfried; Lichtner, Peter; Meitinger, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Ingram, Christiana; Bradford, Yuki; Carter, Shannon; Norris, Kris; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; George, Alfred L.; Roden, Dan M.

    Background-Drug-induced long-QT syndrome (diLQTS) is an adverse drug effect that has an important impact on drug use, development, and regulation. We tested the hypothesis that common variants in key genes controlling cardiac electric properties modify the risk of diLQTS. Methods and Results-In a

  5. Individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use, sexual risk behaviours on sexually transmitted infections among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: results from the GOANNA survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Handan; Ward, James; Bryant, Joanne; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Worth, Heather; Pitts, Marian; Kaldor, John M

    2016-07-19

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been increasing among Australian Indigenous young people for over two decades. Little is known about the association between alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviours and diagnosis of STIs among this population. A cross-sectional, community based self-administered survey was conducted among young Aboriginal people aged 16-29 years of age. Questionnaires included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, sexual risk behaviours alcohol and other drug use and health service access including self-reported history of diagnosis with a STI. Logistic regression models and population attributable risks were used to assess individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use on high risk sexual behaviours and ever reported diagnosis of an STI. Of the 2877 participants, 2320 (81 %) identified as sexually active and were included in this study. More than 50 % of the study population reported that they had used at least one illicit drug in past year. Cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamines were the three most commonly used illicit drugs in the past year. The prevalence of self-reported STI diagnosis was 25 %. Compared with people who did not report using illicit drugs, risky alcohol use and sexual behaviours including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners in the past year and sex with casual partners were all significantly higher among illicit drug users. In adjusted analysis, participants who reported using illicit drugs were significantly more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviours and to ever have been diagnosed with an STI. Adjusted Odds Ratios ranged from 1.86 to 3.00 (males) and from 1.43 to 2.46 (females). At the population level, more than 70 % of the STI diagnoses were attributed to illicit drug-use and sexual risk behaviours for males and females. Illicit drug use in this population is relatively high compared to other similar aged populations in Australia. Illicit drug use was

  6. Public health management of antiviral drugs during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: a survey of local health departments in California

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    Hunter Jennifer C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large-scale deployment of antiviral drugs from the Strategic National Stockpile during the 2009 H1N1 influenza response provides a unique opportunity to study local public health implementation of the medical countermeasure dispensing capability in a prolonged event of national significance. This study aims to describe the range of methods used by local health departments (LHDs in California to manage antiviral activities and to gain a better understanding of the related challenges experienced by health departments and their community partners. Methods This research employed a mixed-methods approach. First, a multi-disciplinary focus group of pandemic influenza planners from key stakeholder groups in California was convened in order to generate ideas and identify critical themes related to the local implementation of antiviral activities during the H1N1 influenza response. These qualitative data informed the development of a web-based survey, which was distributed to all 61 LHDs in California for the purpose of assessing the experiences of a representative sample of local health agencies in a large region. Results Forty-four LHDs participated in this study, representing 72% of the local public health agencies in California. While most communities dispensed a modest number of publicly purchased antivirals, LHDs nevertheless drew on their previous work and engaged in a number of antiviral activities, including: acquiring, allocating, distributing, dispensing, tracking, developing guidance, and communicating to the public and clinical community. LHDs also identified specific antiviral challenges presented by the H1N1 pandemic, including: reconciling multiple sources and versions of antiviral guidance, determining appropriate uses and recipients of publicly purchased antivirals, and staffing shortages. Conclusions The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic presented an unusual opportunity to learn about the role of local public health

  7. Monitoring prevention or emergence of HIV drug resistance: results of a population-based foundational survey of early warning indicators in mainland Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, James M; Tiberio, Jenny K; Abuya, Mathias I; Kilama, Bonita K; Somi, Geoffrey R; Sambu, Veryeh; Banda, Richard; Jullu, Boniphace S; Ramadhani, Angela A

    2014-04-11

    In Tanzania, routine individual-level testing for HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) using laboratory genotyping and phenotyping is not feasible due to resource constraints. To monitor the prevention or emergence of HIVDR at a population level, WHO developed generic strategies to be adapted by countries, which include a set of early warning indicators (EWIs). To establish a baseline of EWIs, we conducted a retrospective longitudinal survey of 35 purposively sampled care and treatment clinics in 17 regions of mainland Tanzania. We extracted data relevant for four EWIs (ART prescribing practices, patients lost to follow-up 12 months after ART initiation, retention on first-line ART at 12 months, and ART clinic appointment keeping in the first 12 months) from the patient monitoring system on patients who initiated ART at each respective facility in 2010. We uploaded patient information into WHO HIVResNet excel-based tool to compute national and facility averages of the EWIs and tested for associations between various programmatic factors and EWI performance using Fisher's Exact Test. All sampled facilities met the WHO EWI target (100%) for ART prescribing practices. However, the national averages for patients lost to follow-up 12 months after ART initiation, retention on first-line ART at 12 months, and ART clinic appointment keeping in the first 12 months fell short, at 26%, 54% and 38%, respectively, compared to the WHO targets ≤ 20%, ≥ 70%, and ≥ 80%. Clinics with fewer patients lost to follow-up 12 months after ART initiation and more patients retained on first-line-ART at 12 months were more likely to have their patients spend the longest time in the facility (including wait-time and time with providers), (p = 0.011 and 0.007, respectively). Tanzania performed very well in EWI 1a, ART prescribing practices. However, its performance in other three EWIs was far below the WHO targets. This study provides a baseline for future monitoring of EWIs in

  8. Disentangling the stigma of HIV/AIDS from the stigmas of drugs use, commercial sex and commercial blood donation – a factorial survey of medical students in China

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    Zhang Kong-Lai

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS related stigma interferes with the provision of appropriate care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS. Currently, programs to address the stigma approach it as if it occurs in isolation, separate from the co-stigmas related to the various modes of disease transmission including injection drug use (IDU and commercial sex (CS. In order to develop better programs to address HIV/AIDS related stigma, the inter-relationship (or 'layering' between HIV/AIDS stigma and the co-stigmas needs to be better understood. This paper describes an experimental study for disentangling the layering of HIV/AIDS related stigmas. Methods The study used a factorial survey design. 352 medical students from Guangzhou were presented with four random vignettes each describing a hypothetical male. The vignettes were identical except for the presence of a disease diagnosis (AIDS, leukaemia, or no disease and a co-characteristic (IDU, CS, commercial blood donation (CBD, blood transfusion or no co-characteristic. After reading each vignette, participants completed a measure of social distance that assessed the level of stigmatising attitudes. Results Bivariate and multivariable analyses revealed statistically significant levels of stigma associated with AIDS, IDU, CS and CBD. The layering of stigma was explored using a recently developed technique. Strong interactions between the stigmas of AIDS and the co-characteristics were also found. AIDS was significantly less stigmatising than IDU or CS. Critically, the stigma of AIDS in combination with either the stigmas of IDU or CS was significantly less than the stigma of IDU alone or CS alone. Conclusion The findings pose several surprising challenges to conventional beliefs about HIV/AIDS related stigma and stigma interventions that have focused exclusively on the disease stigma. Contrary to the belief that having a co-stigma would add to the intensity of stigma attached to people with HIV

  9. O controle da transmissão da doença de Chagas em Mambaí - Goiás, Brasil (1982-1984

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    Marco Túlio Garcia-Zapata

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de inseticidas em Mambaí-GO, desde 1980, está determinando uma diminuição progressiva inicial de Triatoma infestans no intradomicilio, mas não a sua eliminação. A infestação triatominica foi detectada através de diversos métodos de vigilância imediata (transversal e a longo prazo (longitudinal, com a colaboração dos próprios moradores. No primeiro ano de controle foi observada uma queda signiflcante de 28,6 % a 13,5%, mas devido a uma falha no programa de expurgos, em 1981, esta cifra voltou a elevar-se (23,2%. A continuidade desses expurgos nos anos seguintes resultou em um declínio gradual, atingindo em 1984 o nível de 14,2%. Simultaneamente a percentagem intradomiciliar de T. sórdida tendeu a aumentar, embora a infecção tripanossômica tenha sido sempre mínima. O conjunto destes achados sugerem que o controle do T. infestans com o uso exclusivo de inseticidas (BHC e Deltametrina é difícil e oneroso. Precisando-se, portanto, o uso de medidas supletivas integradas aos sistemas de controle de doença de Chagas, que encorajam a participação ativa das comunidades afligidas, estimuladas mediante programas educativos.The spraying with insecticides in Mambaí - GO in 1980 caused a Progressive decrease of intradomiciliary T infestans but not its eradication. With the collaboration of the local population triatomine infestation was detected using several vigilance methods. In the first year of control there was a significant decrease from 28.6% to 13.5%, but because of failures in the spraying program during 1981, this level increased to 23.2%. The continuation of selective spraying in subsequent years resulted in a progressive fall, and in 1984 14.2% of the houses registered bugs. Simultaneously the percentage of intradomiciliary T. sórdida tended to increase but T. cruzi infection rema ined low. These findings suggest that control of T. infestans using only insecticides (BHC and Deltamethrin is difficult and expensive. Community participation is essential in programmes for the control of Chagas ' disease. Consequently, the use of integrated measures is necessary in the control of Chagas' disease to encourage the active participation of afflicted communities, stimulated through educational programs.

  10. A Case for Developing Community Drug Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Hilda; McCann, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The EU Action Plan on Drugs (2005-2008) calls for member states of the European Union to provide information on five key epidemiological indicators. These are: general population surveys, prevalence and patterns of problem drug use, drug related infectious diseases, drug related deaths and mortality of drug users, and demand for drug treatment.…

  11. A SURVEY STUDY ON USE OF OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC DRUGS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS OF A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE, B. G. NAGAR

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    Manu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Over-the-counter drugs (OTC or non-prescriptive drugs are the drugs that are purchased without a prescription. Medical professionals have a common tendency to practice self-medication when they feel sick themselves. Self-medication practice in medical professionals gets incorporated right from their undergraduate days. As medical students are the future medical practitioners, it assumes a specific significance among them. AIMS & OBJECTIVES To analyze the use of over-the-counter drugs among medical students, to determine the type of OTC drugs commonly used and to determine the various factors responsible for the usage of OTC drugs. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among 2 nd year medical students of AIMS, B. G. Nagar. RESULTS Among 160 students, 118 were female students (73.75% and 42 were male students (26.25% and were within the age group of 19 to 21 years. 84.37 % (n=135 of the participants were aware of OTC drugs and 76.87 % (n=123 of participants knew the name of some drugs which fall under this category. 43.75% of the participants use OTC drugs very rarely and 40.62% of participants once a month. Fever (78.12% and headache (78.75% were the most common ailments for using OTC drugs following for cold/cough (76.25%, pain (63.12% and acidity (51.87%. Commonly used drugs were analgesics (68.75%, antipyretics (65.62%, cough suppressants (51.87%, antacids (44.37%, vitamins (32.5%, anti-allergens (18.75% and antiemetic drugs (6.87%. 70.62% of participants think why to seek doctor’s advice as it is a minor ailment. 45.62% of participants were confident in self-medication, 43.12% of participants think that they can save time by self-medication. CONCLUSION In our study, OTC medication is widely used among medical students. It is important to create awareness about harmful effects of OTC drugs among medical students as they are future health care providers and prevent untoward consequences.

  12. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn ...

  14. ‘If Ya Wanna End War and Stuff, You Gotta Sing Loud’—A Survey of the Provisional Agreement between FARC and Colombia on Illicit Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Seatzu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although still neglected in legal writings, the 2014 agreement on illicit drugs between the FARC and the Colombian Government deserves attention for a number of reasons, including that it was conceived as an essential part of the broader strategy for peace in Colombia, as well as because of its aim of eradicating illicit crops. Starting with some remarks on the Colombian ‘drug war’ and the policy and legal arguments for classifying the Colombian armed conflict as a non-international armed conflict (NIAC, the paper will then proceed with an analysis of the main reasons behind the drafting of a partial agreement on illicit drugs between the FARC and Colombia in 2014. Next, the paper will address the relevant sections and enforcement mechanisms for putting the provisions of the agreement into effect. An assessment of how the 2014 agreement has addressed the issue of drug trafficking and the issues concerning drug related crimes will also be considered. The paper will conclude with the lessons to be drawn from the new Agreement on illicit drugs.

  15. Comparison between two household surveys on psychotropic drug use in Brazil: 2001 and 2004 O uso de drogas no Brasil: comparação de dois levantamentos domiciliares: 2001 e 2004

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    Arilton Martins Fonseca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available CEBRID (Brazilian Center of Information on Psychotropic Drugs conducted two household surveys on drug use in Brazil, the first in 2001 and the second in 2005, making it possible for researchers, for the first time ever, to have a timeline comparison using this type of methodology. The universe studied corresponded to the Brazilian population living in 107 Brazilian cities with more than 200.00 inhabitants. 8,589 people were interviewed in the first survey in 2001, and 7,939 people in the second. Data on prevalence of lifetime use for psychotropic drugs showed that there was a significant increase only in the number of people who had made lifetime use of psychotropic substances (including tobacco and alcohol. In 2001, 19.4% of the interviewees reported having used some type of drug, and the ranking of lifetime drug use in 2004 was 22.8%, a statistically significant increase. There was also a statistically significant increase in lifetime use of alcohol and tobacco in comparison between the two surveys.O CEBRID realizou duas pesquisas domiciliares sobre drogas no Brasil, uma em 2001 e uma em 2004, permitindo, pela primeira vez, uma comparação usando a mesma metodologia. O universo estudado correspondeu à população brasileira que vive nas 107 cidades brasileiras com mais de 200.00 habitantes. 8,589 pessoas foram entrevistadas na primeira pesquisa realizada em 2001 e 7,939 pessoas, na segunda. Os dados sobre a prevalência mostraram que houve um aumento significativo do uso na vida de drogas psicotrópicas (inclusive para o tabaco e o álcool. Em 2001, 19,4% dos entrevistados relataram ter usado algum tipo de droga e, em 2004, foi 22,8% de uso na vida de drogas, um aumento estatisticamente significativo. Verificou-se também um aumento estatisticamente significativo no uso na vida de álcool e tabaco na comparação entre os dois levantamentos.

  16. [Survey of analytical works for drugs at emergency and critical care centers with high-performance instruments provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (at present: Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare) in fiscal 1998--continuation of survey with 2008 survey results as point of reference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeshi; Tominaga, Aya; Nozawa, Mayu; Unei, Hiroko; Hatano, Yayoi; Fujita, Yuji; Iseki, Ken; Hori, Yasushi

    2013-09-01

    In a 2008 survey of the 73 emergency and critical care centers around the nation that were equipped with the drug and chemical analytical instrument provided by the Ministry of Welfare (currently the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare) in 1998, 36 of those facilities were using the analytical instruments. Of these 36 facilities, a follow-up survey of the 17 facilities that recorded 50 or analyses per year. Responses were gained from 16 of the facilities and we learned that of those, 14 facilities (87.5%) were conducting analyses using the instrument. There was a positive mutual correlation between the annual number of cases of the 14 facilities conducting analyses with the instrument and the number of work hours. Depending on the instrument in use, average analytical instrument parts and maintenance expenses were roughly three million yen and consumables required a maximum three million yen for analysis of 51-200 cases per year. From this, we calculate that such expenses can be covered under the allowed budget for advanced emergency and critical care centers of 5,000 NHI points (1 point = 10 yen). We found there were few facilities using the instrument for all 15 of the toxic substances recommended for testing by the Japanese Society for Clinical Toxicology. There tended to be no use of the analytical instrument for compounds with no toxicology cases. However, flexible responses were noted at each facility in relation to frequently analyzed compounds. It is thought that a reevaluation of compounds subject to analysis is required.

  17. Comparisons between the attitudes of student nurses and other health and social care students toward illicit drug use: An attitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Martyn R

    2017-01-01

    In the context of a recent emphasis on compassion in the delivery of health care, the current study set out to measure the attitudes of different groups of health and social care students toward illicit drug users. Previous research has identified variations in the attitudes of different groups of health and social care professionals toward working with illicit drug users. Nurses, in particular, have been reported as holding moralistic or stereotypical views of illicit drug users. However, few studies have measured the attitudes of student nurses or compared their attitudes to other health and social care students. This article describes the use of a bespoke attitude scale to measure the attitudes of cohorts of student nurses, clinical psychology trainees, health and social care, social work and midwifery students at the start of their course (N=308). Results indicated that student nurses had the least tolerant attitudes, reinforcing the need for a specific educational focus on working with illicit drug users in nurse education. Variations between student groups indicate that Interprofessional Education can provide an opportunity to improve attitudes toward illicit drug users, particularly amongst student nurses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance in recently infected patients in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: A 4-year survey, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Thomas d'Aquin; Masquelier, Bernard; Minga, Albert; Anglaret, Xavier; Danel, Christine; Coulibaly, Ali; Chenal, Henri; Dabis, François; Salamon, Roger; Fleury, Hervé J

    2007-09-01

    We performed HIV-1 drug resistance genotypic analysis of viral isolates from 100 antiretroviral (ARV)-naive, recently HIV-1-infected (between 2002 and 2006) individuals from Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). The overall prevalence of HIV-1 variants with resistance mutations to reverse transcriptase, protease, or fusion inhibitors was 6%. The majority of isolates were CRF02_AG. Compared with a previous study carried out by our group in 2001-2002 in a similar population in Abidjan, our findings confirm the circulation and transmission of HIV-1 carrying key ARV drug resistance mutation.

  19. Self-reported adverse drug events and the role of illness perception and medication beliefs in ambulatory heart failure patients : A cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, Ruth H. E.; Denig, Petra; van der Meer, Klaas; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2011-01-01

    Background: Identifying patients with heart failure (HF) who are at risk of experiencing symptomatic adverse drug events (ADEs) is important for improving patient care and quality of life. Several demographic and clinical variables have been identified as potential risk factors for ADEs but limited

  20. Melperone but not bisoprolol or metoprolol is a clinically relevant inhibitor of CYP2D6: evidence from a therapeutic drug monitoring survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Gudrun; Unterecker, Stefan; Shams, Mohamed E E; Wolf, Margarete; Falter, Tanja; Haen, Ekkehard; Hiemke, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) can be inhibited or induced by drugs, resulting in clinically significant drug-drug interactions that can cause unanticipated adverse reactions or therapeutic failures. The objective of the study was to analyze the in vivo inhibitory potential of the beta-blockers bisoprolol and metoprolol as well as the low-potency antipsychotic melperone on CYP2D6. By utilizing a large therapeutic drug monitoring database of 2874 samples, data from patients who had been treated with venlafaxine (VEN) either without (control group) or with a concomitant medication with bisoprolol, metoprolol or melperone were evaluated retrospectively to study the CYP2D6-catalyzed O-demethylation to O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODVEN). Dose-adjusted serum levels (C/D) of VEN and ODVEN as well as the metabolic ratios (ODVEN/VEN) were computed for the four groups and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test. In total, 381 patients could be included for analysis. No significant difference was found in the median C/D (VEN), C/D (ODVEN) or C/D of the active moiety (VEN + ODVEN) in either the metoprolol (N = 103) or bisoprolol group (N = 101), compared to the control group (N = 108). In contrast, a significantly higher median C/D (VEN) (0.79 ng/ml/mg, range 0.13-5.73 ng/ml/mg) (P metoprolol has a clinically relevant inhibitory potential on CYP2D6.

  1. Nationwide survey of the development of drug resistance in the pediatric field in 2000-2001, 2004, 2007, 2010, and 2012: evaluation of the changes in drug sensitivity of Haemophilus influenzae and patients' background factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiro, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yoshitake; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2015-04-01

    The Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease has conducted surveillance of pediatric patients with respiratory tract infections, meningitis, and sepsis five times (in 2000-2001 [period 1], 2004 [period 2], 2007 [period 3], 2010 [period 4], and 2012 [period 5]). With respect to the clinically isolated Haemophilus influenzae, the drug susceptibility, the frequency of drug-resistant strains, and patients' background factors in each period have already been reported. Here we evaluate trends in the development of drug resistance in H. influenzae, and the relationship between the development of drug resistance and patients' background factors in the aforementioned five periods. H. influenzae derived from pediatric patients with respiratory tract infections that had been previously collected (period 1, 448 isolates; period 2, 376 isolates; period 3, 386 isolates; period 4, 484 isolates; and period 5, 411 isolates) were analyzed. The proportions of ß-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediate resistant (BLNAI) strains + β-lactamase-nonproducing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR) strains were 28.8% in period 1, 59.3% in period 2, 61.1% in period 3, 58.1% in period 4, and 63.5% in period 5, showing a rapid increase from period 1 to period 2 followed by an almost constant rate of approximately 60%. The proportion of ß-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains + ß-lactamase-producing clavulanic acid/amoxicillin-resistant (BLPACR) strains was 4.4% in period 3, which was somewhat low; however, there were no significant changes in the proportions of these strains, which ranged between 6.4% and 8.7% throughout the surveillance period except for period 3. The drugs whose MIC90 values against BLNAR strains were low throughout the surveillance included piperacillin (0.25 μg/mL) and tazobactam/piperacillin (0.125-0.25 μg/mL) in the penicillins; cefditoren and ceftriaxone (0.25-0.5 μg/mL for both) in the cephems; meropenem (0.5-1

  2. Drug Facts

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  3. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Use Hurts Unborn Children Drug Use Hurts Your Health Drug Use Hurts Bodies Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  4. Drug Allergy

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    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  5. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Addiction? Addiction Risk Factors Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts Families Drug Use Hurts Kids Drug Use Hurts Unborn ...

  6. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Recovery & Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? ... and Family Can Help Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Prevent Drug Use Help Children and Teens Stay Drug- ...

  7. Food-Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Yar Khan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction, food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction. A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least fooddrug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient.

  8. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use amongst same-sex attracted women: results from the Western Australian Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Health and Well-Being Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus Alexandra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use has been reported to be higher amongst lesbian and bisexual women (LBW than their heterosexual counterparts. However, few studies have been conducted with this population in Australia and rates that have been reported vary considerably. Methods A self-completed questionnaire exploring a range of health issues was administered to 917 women aged 15-65 years (median 34 years living in Western Australia, who identified as lesbian or bisexual, or reported having sex with another woman. Participants were recruited from a range of settings, including Perth Pride Festival events (67.0%, n = 615, online (13.2%, n = 121, at gay bars and nightclubs (12.9%, n = 118, and through community groups (6.9%, n = 63. Results were compared against available state and national surveillance data. Results LBW reported consuming alcohol more frequently and in greater quantities than women in the general population. A quarter of LBW (25.7%, n = 236 exceeded national alcohol guidelines by consuming more than four standard drinks on a single occasion, once a week or more. However, only 6.8% (n = 62 described themselves as a heavy drinker, suggesting that exceeding national alcohol guidelines may be a normalised behaviour amongst LBW. Of the 876 women who provided data on tobacco use, 28.1% (n = 246 were smokers, nearly double the rate in the female population as a whole. One third of the sample (33.6%, n = 308 reported use of an illicit drug in the previous six months. The illicit drugs most commonly reported were cannabis (26.4%, n = 242, meth/amphetamine (18.6%, n = 171, and ecstasy (17.9%, n = 164. Injecting drug use was reported by 3.5% (n = 32 of participants. Conclusion LBW appear to use alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs at higher rates than women generally, indicating that mainstream health promotion messages are not reaching this group or are not perceived as relevant. There is an urgent

  9. The Drug-Abuse Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The drug-abuse questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the alcoholism questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about drug abuse and drug abusers, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  10. 2013年细菌耐药监测调查分析%2013 Survey of Drug-resistant Bacteria Detected

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄双英; 李湘; 陈立毅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨2013年河源市的细菌耐药情况。方法对河源市人民医就诊者进行细菌收集、鉴定和药物敏感性测定,了解细菌耐药情况。结果金黄色葡萄球菌、凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌、粪肠球菌、屎肠球菌、鲍曼不动杆菌、大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、肠杆菌属、费劳地枸橼酸杆菌、粘质沙雷菌、奇异变形杆菌等细菌耐药情况均比较严重。结论临床医生在使用抗生素时应慎重使用,避免盲目使用,以控制耐药菌数的增长。%Objective To investigate the drug resistance of bacteria in Heyuan city in 2013.Methods We measured the collection, identification of bacteria and drug sensitivity,in order to understand the bacterial drug resistance in Heyuan People's Hospital.Results Staphylococcus aureus,coagulase negative staphylococcus, Enterococcus faecalis,Enterococcus faecium,Bauman Acinetobacter sp.,Escherichia coli,Klebsiel a pneumoniae, enterobacter,Feilaodi Citrobacter,Serratia marcescens,proteus,etc.are relatively serious bacterial resistance. Conclusion When the use of antibiotics,clinicians should use caution,avoid blindly use,control the growth of drug-resistant bacteria number.

  11. Coccidiosis in the Chukar Partridge ( Alectoris chukar ): A Survey of Coccidiosis Outbreaks and a Test of Anticoccidial Drugs Against Eimeria kofoidi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, R W; Fuller, A L; McDougald, L R

    2016-12-01

    Field isolates of coccidia from 20 natural outbreaks in the chukar partridge ( Alectoris chukar ) were received from gamebird farms in 10 U.S. states. These were propagated in the laboratory and identified by microscopy and PCR. Of 20 samples, 18 were Eimeria kofoidi, two were Eimeria legionensis only, and one was a mixture of the two species. One isolate of E. kofoidi also contained an unidentified species detected only by PCR, nucleotide sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against chukar coccidia was tested with experimental infections in battery cages. Isolates of E. kofoidi were used to infect 2-wk-old chukars. Anticoccidial products were given in the feed at levels approved for other poultry or for chukars. Tests were terminated at 6 days postinoculation with measurement of weight gains, fecal diarrhea scores, and necropsy to observe for lesion severity. Lasalocid (120 ppm) was moderately effective in one test. When tested against four field isolates, other ionophores (monensin, salinomycin, semduramicin) showed moderate effectiveness in reducing lesions and improving weight gains. Rofenaid (a potentiated sulfa mixture), robenidine (30 ppm), diclazuril (2 ppm), and decoquinate (80 ppm) were highly effective. In a test of nine products against a highly virulent field isolate, only diclazuril (2 ppm) and clopidol (125 ppm) reduced the severity of lesions and improved weight gain relative to infected controls, suggesting the extent to which previous drug usage had selected for drug resistance.

  12. Validating Self-Reports of Illegal Drug Use to Evaluate National Drug Control Policy: A Reanalysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use remains at high levels in the U.S. The federal Office of National Drug Control Policy evaluates the outcomes of national drug demand reduction policies by assessing annual changes in drug use from several federally sponsored annual national surveys. Such survey methods, relying exclusively on drug use as self-reported on…

  13. Consumo de álcool e drogas: principais achados de pesquisa de âmbito nacional, Brasil 2005 Drug and alcohol use: main findings of a national survey, Brazil 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco I Bastos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os padrões de consumo de álcool e drogas de uma amostra representativa da população urbana brasileira na sua inter-relação com a saúde sexual e reprodutiva. MÉTODOS: Dados de inquérito de base populacional, de abrangência nacional, com plano amostral complexo, realizado em 2005. Foram entrevistados 5.040 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, na faixa etária de 16 a 65 anos. Analisaram-se questões relativas consumo de álcool e drogas e comportamento sexual. Utilizou-se análise bivariada e multivariada. RESULTADOS: O álcool foi a substância mais freqüentemente utilizada, com relato de uso regular, na vida, por 18% dos entrevistados. O consumo de drogas ilícitas foi referido por 9% dos entrevistados, especialmente, maconha e cocaína aspirada, com uso de drogas injetáveis infreqüente. Observou-se declínio do consumo de cocaína aspirada e incremento do uso de maconha (nos últimos 12 meses, comparados a resultados de pesquisa similar realizada em 1998. Histórico de abuso sexual constituiu fator de risco do consumo de drogas e uso regular de álcool. A referência por parte do entrevistado ao papel da religião na sua formação, ser branco e do sexo feminino se mostraram protetores frente ao consumo regular de álcool, particularmente prevalente entre homens mais velhos. As opções de lazer e a ausência de práticas religiosas atuais se mostraram associadas ao consumo de drogas. CONCLUSÕES: O consumo de álcool, regular ou não, é prevalente na população urbana brasileira, enquanto o uso de drogas injetáveis se mostrou raro. Ao longo da última década observou-se declínio no consumo de cocaína. Histórico de abuso sexual se mostrou central ao consumo posterior de drogas e álcool.OBJECTIVE: To assess alcohol and drug use in a representative sample of the urban Brazilian population and their correlation with sexual and reproductive health. METHODS: Data from a national population-based survey with a

  14. 恶性肿瘤患者多重耐药菌医院感染的调查%Survey of multi-drug resistant bacterial hospital infection in patients with malignant tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 解静荣; 朱海鹏; 张国峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To survey the multi-drug resistant bacterial hospital infections in the patients with malignant tumor so as to support rational use of antibiotics in clinical practice and control of multi-drug resistant infections. Methods The clinical data of nosocomial infections were reviewed retrospectively in the patients with malignant tumor treated in our hospital from January 2007 to December 2010. Multi-drug resistant bacterial infections were identified for further analysis. Results A total of 2 937 patients with malignant tumor were surveyed. Nosocomial infection was found in 269 patients. Multi-drug resistant bacterial infection was identified in 44 patients (16. 4% , 44/269). Most of the patients had lung cancer. The infection was mainly pneumonia (43. 2%). A total of 61 multi-drug resistant bacterial strains were isolated, including gram-negative bacillus (42 strains) and gram-positive coccus (19 strains). The top five bacterial pathogens were E. Coli, K. Pneumoniae, P. Aeruginosa, coagu-lase-negative Staphylococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. These isolates were highly resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. The mortality due to multi-drug resistant infection was 65. 9%. Conclusions The multi-drug resistant bacterial hospital infection is serious in the patients with malignant tumor. The key to control of multi-drug resistant bacterial infection is to strengthen monitoring of the patients at risk and antibiotic resistance, and reduce the unreasonable antibiotic use as far as possible.%目的 调查恶性肿瘤患者多重耐药菌医院感染的情况,为临床合理用药,降低和控制多重耐药菌感染提供依据.方法 采用回顾性调查方法,对克拉玛依市中心医院2007年1月 — 2010年12月收治恶性肿瘤患者的医院感染情况进行调查,筛选出多重耐药菌感染者,并分析结果.结果 该院调查期间收治恶性肿瘤患者2937例,发生医院感染269例,其中发生多重耐药

  15. Drugs and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Robert, Comp.; And Others.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Drugs and drug abuse. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several sections, each of which is in outline or list form. It is xeroxed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The major portion of the guide contains a…

  16. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  17. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsack Latsamy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines in the Lao PDR (Laos. Methods In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling. Samples were analysed for packaging characteristics, by the Fast Red Dye test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, mass spectrometry (MS, X-ray diffractometry and pollen analysis. Results Of 180 outlets sampled, 25 (13.9% sold oral artesunate. Outlets selling artesunate were more commonly found in the more malarious southern Laos. Of the 25 outlets, 22 (88%; 95%CI 68–97% sold counterfeit artesunate, as defined by packaging and chemistry. No artesunate was detected in the counterfeits by any of the chemical analysis techniques and analysis of the packaging demonstrated seven different counterfeit types. There was complete agreement between the Fast Red dye test, HPLC and MS analysis. A wide variety of wrong active ingredients were found by MS. Of great concern, 4/27 (14.8% fakes contained detectable amounts of artemisinin (0.26–115.7 mg/tablet. Conclusion This random survey confirms results from previous convenience surveys that counterfeit artesunate is a severe public health problem. The presence of artemisinin in counterfeits may encourage malaria resistance to artemisinin derivatives. With increasing accessibility of artemisinin-derivative combination therapy (ACT in Laos, the removal of artesunate monotherapy from pharmacies may be an effective intervention.

  18. Nosologic Comparisons of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Smith, Sharon M.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; June Ruan, W.; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine prevalences and concordances between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), and Fifth Edition (DSM-5) substance use disorders (SUDs) in a newly completed U.S. epidemiologic survey. Method: The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III surveyed 36,309 civilian, noninstitutionalized adults. SUDs were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–5. Concordances between DSM-IV and DSM-5 disorders were assessed using kappa statistics. Results: Prevalences of past-year substance-specific DSM-5 disorders (2+ criteria) were modestly higher than those of DSM-IV dependence and abuse combined for alcohol, sedatives/tranquilizers, opioids, and heroin, but lower for cannabis, cocaine, and stimulants. Lifetime prevalences were lower under DSM-5. Prevalences were similar between moderate to severe (4+ criteria) DSM-5 disorders and dependence, whereas prevalences of DSM-5 disorders at 3+ criteria (DSM-5 [3+]) were higher, particularly for cannabis. Past-year concordances were excellent for DSM-IV dependence and abuse combined versus any DSM-5 and DSM-IV dependence versus DSM-5 moderate to severe disorders; lifetime concordances were fair to excellent. Past-year concordances between DSM-IV and DSM-5 (3+) were generally similar to or modestly higher than those with any DSM-5 disorder; lifetime concordances were mostly lower. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with those informing the development of DSM-5. Future research should examine differences in patterns between past-year and lifetime disorders, particularly for cannabis. Other questions warranting investigation include whether different combinations of the same numbers of criteria carry different clinical or nosologic implications, whether changes innosology yield changes in treatment demand, and whether changes in characteristics of individuals with DSM-5 SUDs

  19. GPs' views on changing the law on physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, and willingness to prescribe or inject lethal drugs: a survey from Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterfield, Diana; Wilkinson, Clare; Finlay, Ilora G; Neal, Richard D; Hulbert, Nicholas J

    2006-06-01

    If physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia is legalised in the UK, this may be the work of GPs. In the absence of recent or comprehensive evidence about GPs' views on either legalisation or willingness to take part, a questionnaire survey of all Welsh GPs was conducted of whom 1202 (65%) responded. Seven hundred and fifty (62.4% of responders) and 671 (55.8% of responders) said that they did not favour a change in the law to allow physician-assisted suicide/voluntary euthanasia respectively. These data provide a rational basis for determining the position of primary care on this contentious issue.

  20. GPs' views on changing the law on physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, and willingness to prescribe or inject lethal drugs: a survey from Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterfield, Diana; Wilkinson, Clare; Finlay, Ilora G; Neal, Richard D; Hulbert, Nicholas J

    2006-01-01

    If physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia is legalised in the UK, this may be the work of GPs. In the absence of recent or comprehensive evidence about GPs' views on either legalisation or willingness to take part, a questionnaire survey of all Welsh GPs was conducted of whom 1202 (65%) responded. Seven hundred and fifty (62.4% of responders) and 671 (55.8% of responders) said that they did not favour a change in the law to allow physician-assisted suicide/voluntary euthanasia respectively. These data provide a rational basis for determining the position of primary care on this contentious issue. PMID:16762127

  1. The effect of fat intake and antihypertensive drug therapy on serum lipid profile: a cross-sectional survey of serum lipids in male and female hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Raghuram, T C; Rao, U Brahmoji; Moffatt, Robert J; Krishnaswamy, Kamla

    2010-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of betablocker with diuretics therapy on serum cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) lipids in cross-sectional data (age, sex, weight, and body mass index (BMI), smoking/alcoholic consumption) and supplemented vegetarian low-fat diet with daily low fat energy intake, salt intake, duration of drug therapy, and serum protein as effective measures of lowering blood pressure among hypertensives in both males and females. Hypertensive patients on betablocker and/or thiazide therapy were compared in cross-section study with their age, blood pressure, fat intake, serum lipid profile, BMI, and serum albumin in males and females. Dietary fat intake and serum lipid profile were income related. Betablocker and diuretics therapy in combination with dietary fat intervention was beneficial for prolonged dyslipidemia control. Serum cholesterol level was main contributing factor dependent on BMI, duration of drug, and socio-economic factors. Fat intake contributed in hypertension and serum cholesterol levels. A cross-sectional data analysis showed beneficial effects of "low fat-salt-smoking-alcohol consumption and combined polyunsaturated fatty acid with antihypertensive therapy approach" to keep normal dyslipidemia and hypertension. Low fat intake, low salt, smoking, alcohol consumption, and combination of dietary oil supplements with lipid betablockers and diuretic modulators were associated with low hypertension and controlled dyslipidemia in Asian sedentary population.

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  3. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses. Other uses of these drugs are abuse. Club drugs are also sometimes used as "date rape" drugs, to make someone unable to say no to or fight back against sexual assault. Abusing these drugs can ...

  4. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? Do You or a Loved One Have a Drug Use Problem? Signs of Drug Use and Addiction How Does Drug Use Become Addiction? Addiction Risk ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & ...

  6. Prevalence of Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in Patients Who Are Not Responding to Protease Inhibitor-Based Treatment: Results From the First National Survey in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegen, K; Bronze, M; Papathanasopoulos, M A; van Zyl, G; Goedhals, D; Van Vuuren, C; Macleod, W; Sanne, I; Stevens, W S; Carmona, S C

    2016-12-15

    Limited data exist on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistance in patients who are not responding to protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens in resource-limited settings. This study assessed resistance profiles in adults across South Africa who were not responding to PI-based regimens. pol sequencing was undertaken and submitted to the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database. At least 1 major PI mutation was detected in 16.4% of 350 participants. A total of 53.4% showed intermediate resistance to darunavir/ritonavir, whereas high-level resistance was not observed. Only 5.2% and 32.8% of participants showed high-level and intermediate resistance to etravirine, respectively. Although the prevalence of major PI mutations was within previously reported ranges, most patients will likely experience virological suppression during receipt of currently available South African third-line regimens.

  7. [Results from the 2012-2013 paediatric national survey on off-label drug use in children in Spain (OL-PED study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro Pérez, R; Ruiz Antorán, M B; Avendaño Solá, C; Román Riechmann, E; Cabrera García, L; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Mellado Peña, M J

    2014-07-01

    Off-label drug use is a common practice in paediatrics. The aim of the present study was to estimate the knowledge of Spaniard paediatricians on off-label use. Cross-sectional, multicentre, descriptive and national study from July 2012 to March 2013 using an on-line questionnaire on off-label use in children. An e-mail was sent to paediatricians who were members of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (AEP) or its Regional or Paediatric Specialties Societies. Out of 673 responses were received, 75.1% of Spanish paediatricians knew the meaning of off-label use, 61% of them prescribed medicines outside the conditions authorised in their Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) and 47% knew of the importance of noting the off-label use in the medical record. However, just under half of paediatricians informed parents, and only 22% wrote it down in the medical record. Most Spanish paediatricians do not meet current regulations regarding off-label use. This regulation demands: justifying the decisions when off-label use is needed, and to write down in the medical record that, at least an oral consent from the parents has been obtained. This study reveals a fact that Spanish paediatricians must change. Meanwhile, it is a priority to continue with the implementation of consensus and clinical guidelines, to obtain more data on the efficacy and safety of off-label drug use in children, and to incorporate them into the SPC. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk behaviors, prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus infection and population size of current injection drug users in a China-Myanmar border city: results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Injection drug use has been the major cause of HIV/AIDS in China in the past two decades. We measured the prevalences of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV prevalence and their associated risk factors among current injection drug users (IDUs in Ruili city, a border region connecting China with Myanmar that has been undergoing serious drug use and HIV spread problems. An estimate of the number of current IDUs is also presented. METHODS: In 2012, Chinese IDUs who had injected within the past six months and aged ≥ 18 years were recruited using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS technique. Participants underwent interviews and serological testing for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. Logistic regression indentified factors associated with HIV and HCV infections. Multiplier method was used to obtain an estimate of the size of the current IDU population via combining available service data and findings from our survey. RESULTS: Among 370 IDUs recruited, the prevalence of HIV and HCV was 18.3% and 41.5%, respectively. 27.1% of participants had shared a needle/syringe in their lifetime. Consistent condom use rates were low among both regular (6.8% and non-regular (30.4% partners. Factors independently associated with being HIV positive included HCV infection, having a longer history of injection drug use and experience of needle/syringe sharing. Participants with HCV infection were more likely to be HIV positive, have injected more types of drugs, have shared other injection equipments and have unprotected sex with regular sex partners. The estimated number of current IDUs in Ruili city was 2,714 (95% CI: 1,617-5,846. CONCLUSIONS: IDUs may continue to be a critical subpopulation for transmission of HIV and other infections in this region because of the increasing population and persistent high risk of injection and sexual behaviours. Developing innovative strategies that can improve accessibility of current harm reduction services and incorporate

  9. Survey on the personality disorder and self-esteem in drug addicts under compulsory treatment%强制戒毒人员人格障碍调查及其自尊相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀; 刘新民; 韦克诚; 许东彪; 张婷

    2013-01-01

    目的:调查强制戒毒人员的人格障碍水平,探讨自尊水平与人格障碍的关系.方法:采用一般情况调查问卷、人格障碍诊断问卷(PDQ-4)和自尊量表 (SES)对353名强制戒毒人员进行问卷调查.结果:①强制戒毒人员PDQ-4总分和各因子分均高于正常人群;②不同自尊水平强制戒毒人员人格障碍各维度得分差异显著,低自尊组强制戒毒人员PDQ-4各因子分均高于高自尊组.结论:强制戒毒人员人格障碍水平高于正常人群,自尊水平对人格障碍形成有显著影响,低自尊可能与吸毒行为有关.%Objective :To investigate the relationship between personality disorder and sell-esteem by a purvey on the personality disorder in drug addicts under compulsory treatment. Methods : A survey was conducted in 353 drug addicts under compulsory treatment using Personality Diagnostic Questionnairef PDQ4 ) and Sell-esteem Scale( SES ). Results :①The total scores and average scoring on components in PDQ-4 were higher in drug addicts under compulsory treatment than healthy controls. ②The scoring differed a lot in the drug addicts with diverse sell-esteem level regarding the dimensions on PDQ-4, which appealed relatively higher in those with lower sell-esteem level. Conclusion: The levels of personality disorder in drug addicts under compulsory treatment were higher as compared with the healthy population. The findings suggest that sell-esteem may sig-nilicantly affect personality,and lower self-esteem may be associated with ding abuse.

  10. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  11. Longitudinal ocular survey of 202 Filipino patients with multi-bacillary (MB) leprosy treated with 2 year WHO-multiple drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanes, Jesus M; Cellona, Roland V; Balagon, Marivic; Abalos, Rodolfo M; Walsh, Gerald P; Walsh, Douglas S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ocular conditions in multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients treated with 2 year WHO multiple drug therapy (MDT), consisting of dapsone, clofazimine and rifampin, a regimen expected to reduce ocular complications of leprosy. We conducted comprehensive eye examinations in 202 Filipino MB leprosy patients before, during, and after WHO 2 year MDT. Assessments were carried out for at least 5 years. Inflammatory "lepra" reactions occurred in 62% (reversal reaction, 52%; erythema nodosum leprosum, 10%); most were mild. Eye abnormalities consisted mostly of diminished corneal sensitivity before MDT (6%) and lagopthalmos (n = 7, 3.4%). Six of 7 lagopthalmos cases occurred in a subset of 132 patients with facial patches (5%). Visual acuity scores, intra-ocular pressures and pupil cycle times were unremarkable. Bacillary invasion, keratitis, episcleritis, iridocyclitis, ectropion, synechiae, glaucoma and cataract formation were not detected. Scleral clofazimine pigmentation was frequent, resolving in most within 3 years of treatment cessation. Facial patches at presentation may denote a higher risk for lagopthalmos. We propose the generally low rates of ocular problems reflected mild lepra reactions, due to anti-inflammatory properties of clofazimine, a relatively young cohort, and a readily accessible community-based clinic permitting earlier diagnosis and prompt treatment.

  12. The spread of multi drug resistant infections is leading to an increase in the empirical antibiotic treatment failure in cirrhosis: a prospective survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Merli

    Full Text Available The spread of multi-resistant infections represents a continuously growing problem in cirrhosis, particularly in patients in contact with the healthcare environment.Our prospective study aimed to analyze epidemiology, prevalence and risk factors of multi-resistant infections, as well as the rate of failure of empirical antibiotic therapy in cirrhotic patients.All consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized between 2008 and 2013 with a microbiologically-documented infection (MDI were enrolled. Infections were classified as Community-Acquired (CA, Hospital-Acquired (HA and Healthcare-Associated (HCA. Bacteria were classified as Multidrug-Resistant (MDR if resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes, Extensively-Drug-Resistant (XDR if only sensitive to one/two classes and Pandrug-Resistant (PDR if resistant to all classes.One-hundred-twenty-four infections (15% CA, 52% HA, 33% HCA were observed in 111 patients. Urinary tract infections, pneumonia and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were the more frequent. Forty-seven percent of infections were caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Fifty-one percent of the isolates were multi-resistant to antibiotic therapy (76% MDR, 21% XDR, 3% PDR: the use of antibiotic prophylaxis (OR = 8.4; 95%CI = 1.03-76; P = 0,05 and current/recent contact with the healthcare-system (OR = 3.7; 95%CI = 1.05-13; P = 0.04 were selected as independent predictors. The failure of the empirical antibiotic therapy was progressively more frequent according to the degree of resistance. The therapy was inappropriate in the majority of HA and HCA infections.Multi-resistant infections are increasing in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. A better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics is important to improve the efficacy of empirical antibiotic therapy. The use of preventive measures aimed at reducing the spread of multi-resistant bacteria is also essential.

  13. Risk Factors Associated with Unsafe Injection Practices at the First Injection Episode among Intravenous Drug Users in France: Results from PrimInject, an Internet Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guichard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. New drug use patterns may increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis infections. In France, new injection patterns among youths with diverse social backgrounds have emerged, which may explain the persistently high rates of hepatitis C virus infection. This study explores factors associated with injection risk behaviours at first injection among users who began injecting in the post-2000 era. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the Internet from October 2010 to March 2011, through an online questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression identified the independent correlates of needle sharing and equipment (cooker/cotton filter sharing. Results. Among the 262 respondents (mean age 25 years, 65% were male. Both risk behaviours were positively associated with initiation before 18 years of age (aOR 3.7 CI 95% 1.3–10.6 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3–7.0 and being injected by another person (aOR 3.1 CI 95% 1.0–9.9 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3–7.1. Initiation at a party was an independent correlate of equipment sharing (aOR 2.6 95% CI 1.0–6.8. Conclusions. Results suggest a need for innovative harm reduction programmes targeting a variety of settings and populations, including youths and diverse party scenes. Education of current injectors to protect both themselves and those they might initiate into injection is critically important.

  14. Hepatitis C virus and HIV seroprevalences, sociodemographic characteristics, behaviors and access to syringes among drug users, a comparison of geographical areas in France, ANRS-Coquelicot 2011 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weill-Barillet, L; Pillonel, J; Semaille, C; Léon, L; Le Strat, Y; Pascal, X; Barin, F; Jauffret-Roustide, M

    2016-09-01

    People who use drugs (PWUDs) are at a high risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but they have different characteristics depending on the local context. In France, seroprevalence, sociodemographic, and behavior information have only been studied at a national level rather than at a local level. The aim of this study was to describe and examine profile and drug use practice differences in seven French cities and departments and to assess whether these differences can explain HCV and HIV seroprevalence variations between French geographical areas. Data were collected from the cross-sectional ANRS-Coquelicot survey conducted for the second time in 2011 among drug users having injected or snorted drugs at least once in their life. Professional interviewers administrated a face-to-face questionnaire in six different areas in France: Paris, Marseille, Bordeaux, Lille, Strasbourg and the Seine-Saint-Denis department (Paris suburbs). Participants were asked to self-collect a fingerpick blood sample in order to search for the presence of anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies and to estimate seroprevalence in PWUDs. Overall, HCV and HIV seroprevalence was 44% [95% CI: 39.6-47.9] and 10% [95% CI: 7.5-12.6] respectively. The highest HCV seroprevalence was 56% in Marseille and the lowest was 24% in Bordeaux and for HIV the highest was 18% in Seine-Saint-Denis and the lowest was 0% in Lille. The population's age differed between areas and could mostly explain HCV seroprevalence variation but not exclusively. Profiles and practices, different in each area, can also explain this variation. In multivariate analysis, HCV seroprevalence was lower in Bordeaux (prevalence ratio [PR]=0.64), Strasbourg (PR=0.76), and Seine-Saint-Denis (PR=0.8) than in Paris. Nearly one-third of injectors declared having had difficulties to obtain syringes in the 6 previous months, but disparities existed between areas. HCV risk exposure in PWUDs remains high in France and

  15. PulmonaryTuberculosisPatientswithMulti-drugResistantTuberculosisAwarenessSurvey%肺结核患者的MDR-TB知识知晓率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟红苗; 黄图华; 叶朝红

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pulmonary tuberculosis patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis knowledge and awareness of the situation, in order to provide reference to carry out health education work. Methods On pulmonary outpatient follow-up treatment management of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis questionnaire was conducted. Result In 159 cases of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were investigated, and the primary school education accounted for 67.2%,"what is MDR-TB"witting rate of 55.9%,"chronic discharging bacteria/initial treatment failure/recurrence in patients with MDR-TB/close contacts of patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients should be suspected MDR-TB"witting rate was 13.8%, MDR-TB"causes of"the awareness rate of 26.4%,"how to treat the awareness rate of 15.1%MDR-TB","MDR-TB can administer well what"the awareness rate of 30.2%,"how to prevent MDR-TB"rate was 23.9%.Conclusion Pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with MDR-TB knowledge awareness rate is low, should strengthen the publicity and education of MDR-TB.%  目的了解肺结核患者的MDR-TB知识知晓率情况,为有针对性开展健康教育工作提供参考。方法对肺科门诊跟踪治疗管理的肺结核患者进行询问式问卷调查。结果共调查159例肺结核患者,小学及以下学历占67.2%,“什么是MDR-TB”的知晓率为55.9%,“慢性排菌者/初治失败者/复发患者/密切接触MDR-TB患者的涂阳肺结核患者应怀疑得了MDR-TB”的知晓率为13.8%,“产生MDR-TB的原因”的知晓率为26.4%,“如何治疗MDR-TB”的知晓率为15.1%,“MDR-TB能治好吗”的知晓率为30.2%,“如何预防MDR-TB”的知晓率为23.9%。结论肺结核患者的MDR-TB知识知晓率低,应加强MDR-TB的宣传教育。

  16. Vulnerability to HIV infection among sex worker and non-sex worker female injecting drug users in Dhaka, Bangladesh: evidence from the baseline survey of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Tasnim; Chowdhury, Ezazul I; Reza, Masud; Ahmed, Munir; Uddin, Mohammed T; Khan, Repon; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Rahman, Motiur; Khandakar, Irona; Khan, Sharful I; Sack, David A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2006-11-17

    Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU) in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk behaviors. In order to better understand the risks and vulnerability to HIV of female IDU, a cohort study was initiated through which HIV prevalence and risk behaviors was determined. All female IDU (those who had injected in the last six months and were 15 years or older) who could be identified from three cities in the Dhaka region were enrolled at the baseline of a cohort study. The study was designed to determine risk behaviors through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and measure prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis semiannually. At the baseline of the cohort study 130 female IDU were recruited and female IDU selling sex in the last year (sex workers) versus those not selling sex (non-sex workers) were compared using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Of the 130 female IDU enrolled 82 were sex workers and 48 were non-sex workers. None had HIV but more sex workers (60%) had lifetime syphilis than non-sex workers (37%). Fewer sex worker than non-sex worker IDU lived with families (54.9% and 81.3% respectively), but more reported lending needles/syringes (29.3% and 14.6% respectively) and sharing other injection paraphernalia (74.4% and 56.3% respectively) in the past six months. Although more sex workers used condoms during last sex than non-sex workers (74.4% and 43.3% respectively), more reported anal sex (15.9% and 2.1% respectively) and serial sex with multiple partners (70.7% and 0% respectively). Lifetime sexual violence and being jailed in the last year was more common in sex workers. Female IDU are vulnerable to HIV through their injection and sexual risk behaviors and sex worker IDU appear especially vulnerable. Services such as needle exchange programs should become more comprehensive to address the needs of

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of ... to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of ...

  18. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as ginkgo and blood thinners ...

  19. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  20. Survey on the knowledge and behavior of AIDS, and serological analysis among drug addicts in Yichang City%宜昌市吸毒人群艾滋病知识行为调查及血清学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宇宙; 熊焱强; 李志红; 陈宏平; 毛丰益

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解宜昌市吸毒人群艾滋病知识和行为特征,以及该人群中HIV、丙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis C virus,HCV)和梅毒的流行状况,为制定针对该人群的综合防治措施提供依据.方法 对宜昌市社区和戒毒所的400名吸毒人员进行问卷调查和血清学检测.结果 吸毒人群以30~49岁(78.75%)、男性(76.50%)、初中文化(57.50%)、已婚(40.25%)为主;艾滋病知识总知晓率高达97.00%;吸毒者注射吸毒占73.00%,其中23.63%共用过针具;与配偶和商业性伴每次性行为都使用安全套的仅占7.41%和20.54%;梅毒和HCV阳性率分别为0.75%和76.50%,未发现HIV抗体阳性者.结论 吸毒人员艾滋病知识知晓率较高,但是安全套使用率较低,共用针具率较高,HCV的感染率很高.应继续加强艾滋病知识宣传教育和安全套推广等行为干预,提高预防效果.%Objective To know AIDS related knowledge, behavior and the epidemic status of HIV, heparitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis among drug addicts in Yichang City, and provide helpful information for prevention and control of AIDS. Methods Both questionnaire survey and serological detection were conducted among 400 drug addicts of community and drug rehabilitation center in Yichang City. Results Most of the drug addicts were 30~49 years old (78.75%), male (76.50 % ) , middle school educated (57.50%), married ( 40.25 % ), and fully a ware of AIDS-related knowledge (97.00% ). 73.00% of the interviewees took drug by injection, among which the proportion of sharing syringes was 23. 63 % . Noteworthily, only 7.41% and 20.54 % of them use condom with spouse or business partner every time, respectively. Syphilis infection rate and HCV infection rate were 0.75% and 76.50% , respectively. No positive result for anti-HIV has been detected. Conclusions Drug addicts know well about AIDS related knowledge, however, the usage of condom is still pretty infrequent, while the situation of

  1. DRUG EXPECTATIONS AND DRUG CHOICES OF HOSPITAL PHYSICIANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENIG, P; HAAIJER-RUSKAMP, FM; WESSELING, H

    1993-01-01

    Objectives. To assess whether differences in drug choices of hospital physicians are related to differences in the underlying decision-making process. Design. A survey study was conducted addressing drug choices in six therapeutic fields with existing interprescriber variations; prescribers and non-

  2. Preteen Children and Illegal Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; McIntosh, James; MacDonald, Fiona; Gannon, Maria; Gilvarry, Eilish; McArdle, Paul; McCarthy, Steve

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of research on the nature and extent of legal and illegal drug use among preteens and those factors associated with illegal drug use at this young age. The paper is based upon a survey of 2318 ten to twelve year olds in Glasgow and Newcastle. Overall around 30% of children reported having been exposed to illegal…

  3. ASSESSMENT OF RISK FOR GASTROINTESTINAL AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS IN THE CIS POPULATION: PRELIMINARY DATA OF THE CORONA-2 EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Karateev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are able to effectively control the major symptoms of rheumatic diseases and widely used in real clinical practice. However, they may cause serious gastrointestinal (GI and cardiovascular (CV events. The prevention of these events is based on the estimation of whether risk factors (RFs are present.Objective: to estimate the presence of RFs in patients needing NSAIDs.Subjects and methods. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was performed, during which 2021 physicians from 9 CIS countries questioned for 2 weeks at least 10 patients needing NSAIDs. The inclusion criterion was severe musculoskeletal pain (>40 mm on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS or use of NSAIDs at the examination. Data were obtained on 21,185 patients (57.5% women and 42.5% men (mean age 50.5±14.1 years who had predominantly dorsalgia (56.6% and osteoarthritis (23.5%. The mean pain value was 62.2±25.2 mm.Results. 1.7, 11.3, and 25.3% of patients had history of gastrointestinal bleeding, ulcer, or dyspepsia, respectively; people over 65 years of age constituted 16.8%; those who took low-dose aspirin (LDA – 20.0%. The total number of patients at high risk for GI events was 29.0%. There were also common CV RFs: myocardial infarction or stroke (7.8%, coronary heart disease (17.8%, hypertension (37.7%, and diabetes mellitus (8.1%. The total number of patients at high risk for CV events (without SCOR assessment was 23.0%. Many high-risk patients who has already used NSAIDs received no effective prevention. Thus, 62.2% of the patients at high GI risk took gastroprotective drugs; 53.2% of those at high CV risk used LDA.Conclusion. A large number of patients needing active analgesic therapy have a serious risk for drug-induced complications. This limits the possibility of using NSAIDs and determines the need for effective prevention or use of alternative methods for analgesia.

  4. The Relationship between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    This report provides information about drug testing by American secondary schools, based on results from national surveys. The purposes of this study are (1) to provide descriptive information on drug testing practices by schools from 1998 to 2001, and (2) to examine the association between drug testing by schools and reported drug use by…

  5. A Factual Approach to Drug Education and Its Effects on Drug Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdahely, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Literature suggests that the factual approach to drug education may cause an increase in drug usage. The pharmacological approach was used in a college drug education course, and an assessment of students' drug consumption was made. No statistically significant changes were found for the substances surveyed. (Author)

  6. Feasibility of household survey combined with cue investigation in community survey on illicit drug abuse%入户调查结合线索调查在社区药物滥用流行病学调查中的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏中华; 谌红献; 周旭辉; 郝伟; 成义仁

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解入户调查结合线索调查在社区选点药物滥用流行病学研究中的可行性.方法 与湖南省第五次人口普查资料比较,分析样本的代表性;对370例阿片类物质滥用者信息来源线索进行描述性分析.结果 (1)样本资料收集质鼍较高,有效问卷率高达99.7%,具有较好代表性.(2)新发现阿片类物质滥用者130例,实际吸毒人员数量与登记在册吸毒人员之比是1.49:1.(3)阿片类药物滥用者信息来源以单一渠道为主(55.1%),2种或以上渠道者44.9%.(4)调查仅发现33例新型毒品滥用者,且多为多药滥用者(20/33例).结论 入户调查结合线索调查进行社区居民阿片类物质滥用流行病学调查切实可行,但不适于新型毒品.%Objective To explore the feasibility of household survey combined with cue investigation in epidemiology catchments area on illicit drug abuse.Methods The representativeness of the sample was analyzed by comparing data of the survey with ones of the fifth population census in Hunan Province.The ways to get information of 370 opiate abusers were described.Results (1)The survey was conducted well,that the sample could represent the population of Hunan Province.and of which,99.7%of the all respondance were available.(2) The ratio of opiate abusers to registered opiate abusers was 1.49(370 vs 240),in which of 130 cases were non-regis-tered abusers.(3) The data on opiate abuse in 55.1% of the all abusers came from one source (such as users themselves.family numbers,the leaders of community,policemen,or other abusers),and the others came from more than two sources.(4)Of all the responders,only 33 cases reported that they had abused party drugs before the interview.and the polydmg abuse accounted for 60.6%(20/33 cases) among the party drugs abusers.Conclusion Combination of household survey with cue investigation in epidemiology catchments area has good feasibility to get epidemiological information on the opiate abuse

  7. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  8. Prevalence of marijuana use does not differentially increase among youth after states pass medical marijuana laws: Commentary on and reanalysis of US National Survey on Drug Use in Households data 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Melanie M; Mauro, Christine; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Cerda, Magdalena; Martins, Silvia S; Feng, Tianshu

    2016-03-01

    There is considerable interest in the effects of medical marijuana laws (MML) on marijuana use in the USA, particularly among youth. The article by Stolzenberg et al. (2015) "The effect of medical cannabis laws on juvenile cannabis use" concludes that "implementation of medical cannabis laws increase juvenile cannabis use". This result is opposite to the findings of other studies that analysed the same US National Survey on Drug Use in Households data as well as opposite to studies analysing other national data which show no increase or even a decrease in youth marijuana use after the passage of MML. We provide a replication of the Stolzenberg et al. results and demonstrate how the comparison they are making is actually driven by differences between states with and without MML rather than being driven by pre and post-MML changes within states. We show that Stolzenberg et al. do not properly control for the fact that states that pass MML during 2002-2011 tend to already have higher past-month marijuana use before passing the MML in the first place. We further show that when within-state changes are properly considered and pre-MML prevalence is properly controlled, there is no evidence of a differential increase in past-month marijuana use in youth that can be attributed to state MML.

  9. Non-pharmaceutical factors for poor glycemic control in 13,970 Chinese women with drug-treated type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional survey in 77 tertiary hospitals in four Chinese cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Juming Lu,1,* Jianping Weng,2,* Weijun Gu,1 Xiaohui Guo,3 Wenying Yang,4 Dajin Zou,5 Zhiguang Zhou,6 Dalong Zhu,7 Qiuhe Ji,8 Linong Ji,9 Xilin Yang10 1Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 2Department of Endocrinology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 3Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Peking University, Beijing, 4Department of Endocrinology, Sino-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, 5Department of Endocrinology, Changhai Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai, 6Department of Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 7Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, Jiansu, 8Department of Endocrinology, Xijing Hospital affiliated to 4th Military Medical University, Xi’an, 9Department of Endocrinology, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, 10Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to the manuscript Background: Achieving good glycemic control improves clinical outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. This study aimed to explore non-pharmaceutical factors for poor glycemic control in Chinese women with T2D who used antidiabetic drug(s. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March to June 2011 in 77 top tertiary hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China (the coverage rates of the 3A hospitals: 74.4%, 76%, 55%, and 29.3%, respectively. Of 29,502 patients with T2D who used oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs alone or combined with insulin, 13,970 were women and used in the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of factors for hyperglycemia defined as HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin ≥77 mmol/mol (7.0%.Results: The mean age was 60.3 (standard deviation

  10. Attitudes of Psychologists Toward Drug Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Wilma J.

    1976-01-01

    The present survey sought to define drug abuse, its causes, recommended treatments, treatment settings, prognosis, and personal commitment to treating drug abusers. The use of prison and courts was contrasted with hospitals, and willingness to treat drug abusers was contrasted with alcoholics. (Author)

  11. Survey Research on Pre-hospital Emergency of Drug-induced Disulfiram-like Reaction%药源性双硫仑样反应院前急救情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云霄; 牟丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To survey and analyze the rationality and necessity of pre-hospital emergency of drug-induced disul-firam-like reaction. Methods 24 cases of patients with disulfiram-like reaction in the pre-hospital diagnosis in our hospital from January 2010 to May 2012 were selected as the survey objects, and the related data were retrospectively analyzed, and the physiological parameters, heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure and pulse saturation of arterial blood oxygen of pa-tients were counted and analyzed before and after the emergency disposal. Results The general state of patients was obvi-ously improved after the pre-hospital emergency, and various physiological indexes were obviously improved, and the differ-ence had statistical significance. Conclusion The pre-hospital emergency rational intervention can obviously improve the patients with disulfiram-like reaction in limited time, and the emergency physicians should pay great attention to the occur-rence of disulfiram-like reaction when handling the emergency events after drinking.%目的:调查分析药源性双硫仑样反应患者院前急救的合理性及必要性。方法选取2010年1月-2012年5月院前接诊的24例双硫仑反应患者的作为调查对象,对相关资料进行回顾性分析。统计分析病人急救处置前后生理参数情况,心率(HR)、平均动脉压(MABP)、脉搏氧饱和度(SpO2)。结果在经过院前救治后,患者的一般状态明显好转,各项生理指标较前有明显改善,差异有统计学意义。结论双硫仑样反应患者经过院前急救合理干预,能够在有限时间内得到显著明显的改善。急救医师在处理饮酒后发生的急救事件时应特别注意双硫仑样反应的发生。

  12. 癌痛患者强阿片类药物镇痛治疗继发便秘现况调查分析%Survey of Constipation Induced by Strong Opioid Drugs in Patients with Cancer Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽华; 段培蓓; 侯庆梅; 修闽宁; 陈毓雯

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨癌痛患者采用强阿片类药物镇痛治疗继发便秘的发生率、严重程度及其影响。方法选取2011年10月-2013年2月在江苏省中医院肿瘤内科接受镇痛治疗的107例住院患者,调查强阿片类药物相关性便秘的发生率、严重程度及对生活质量的影响。结果强阿片类药物相关性便秘发生率高达91.6%;在该类便秘各单项评分中,排便费力、排便不尽感位列前2位,积分值远高于其他单项;此类便秘对癌痛患者的生活质量造成严重影响。结论强阿片类药物相关性便秘发生率高、症状严重、持续时间长,是癌痛患者最主要的困扰之一,因此探寻一种有效的特异性针对便秘发生机制、安全简便且患者乐于接受的干预措施迫在眉睫。%Objective To assess the prevalence, severity and impact of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in cancer patients receiving opioid therapy for chronic pain. Methods Totally 107 cases of patients complaining pain (NRS score for moderate-severe pain), and receiving treatment with strong opioid were surveyed for the occurrence and severity of OIC and its impact on their quality of life. Results The most frequently-seen side effect of strong opioid drugs was constipation (91.6%) and most patients reported that OIC had severely negative impact on their overall quality of life. Conclusion The survey findings confirm that OIC occurs frequently among patients taking opioids for chronic cancer pain, which exerts negative impact on their quality of life. It is necessary to find a safe and acceptable approach specifically targeting the opioid-mediated mechanisms that cause constipation for patients.

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts ... Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs ...

  14. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Google Plus Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu ... misuse of prescription drugs can make driving a car unsafe—just like driving after drinking alcohol. Drugged ...

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice ( ...

  18. Study Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study drugs: amphetamines like Adderall, Dexedrine, or Vyvanse methylphenidates like Ritalin or Concerta Most people get study ... How Much Sleep Do I Need? Prescription Drug Abuse How to Make Homework Less Work Organizing Schoolwork & ...

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts ... addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain ...

  1. Drugs (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs for fever, cough, stuffy nose, runny nose, diarrhea, and allergies are common drugs which are especially helpful during times of illness. All medications should be kept out of the reach of children.

  2. Drug Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug. "Max" was addicted to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To stop using marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from ...

  3. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  4. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter to ...

  5. Survey Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  6. Survey on species distribution and drug susceptibility testing in sterile areas of patients infected with Candida%无菌部位念珠菌感染的菌群分布特点及药敏分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 苏建荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To survey the distribution of Candida species and drug susceptibility testing of isolates from sterile areas and to pro-vide the basis for clinical anti - fungus therapy. Methods After cultivation and isolation,all strains were identified with chromogenic media or VITEK - 2 Compact 2. ATB FUNGUS3 kits were used for drug susceptibility testing. Results A total of 939 strains of Candida had been isolated from sterile areas of patients during January 2013 to December 2014. Candida albicans(49. 31% )was the most common pathogen,followed by Candida glabrata(28. 43% )and Candida tropicalis(12. 03% ). ICU and cadre health care ward were high - risk departments. All isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B(AMB)and flucytosine. Except Candida krusei was naturally fluconazole - resistant,Candida albicans was more sensi-tive to azoles than Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. Conclusion Candida albican is the main pathogen isolated from sterile areas on the whole,but Candida glabrata is the primary isolate in clean mid - urine specimens and less sensitive to azoles. Clinicians should pay more attention to sterile samples for laboratory examination and antifungal agents should be applied according to the results of drug susceptibility testing.%目的:分析临床无菌体液标本中分离的常见念珠菌的临床分布情况及其对临床常用抗真菌药物的敏感性,为临床抗真菌治疗提供依据。方法各种临床标本经分离培养后,CHROMagar 念珠菌显色培养基或 VITEK -2 Compact 2鉴定;ATB FUNGUS 3药敏试剂条测定常用抗真菌药物敏感性。结果收集2013年1月至2014年12月无菌部位分离念珠菌939株,主要为白色念珠菌(49.31%)、光滑念珠菌(28.43%)和热带念珠菌(12.03%)。高发科室主要为 ICU 和干部保健病房。临床分离的念珠菌对两性霉素 B 和5-氟胞嘧啶均敏感,除克柔念珠菌对氟康唑天然耐药外,光滑念珠菌和热带念珠

  7. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  8. Drug Themes in Fiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Digby

    This essay is a survey of selected literary works of fiction with drug-related thematic content. The themes represented in the survey reflect popular American attitudes toward drugs from pre-World War II through the 1970's. The roots of these themes, beginning with 17th century French cultural attitudes are explained. The subject has been treated…

  9. Mescaline: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R H

    1988-04-01

    The hallucinogen mescaline is found in the peyote and San Pedro cacti, which are prevalent in Mexico and the southwestern United States. In a survey of middle-class, predominantly white adolescents in a drug treatment facility, 18 percent of the respondents indicated that they had taken mescaline. Much of the purported mescaline was probably another hallucinogen, usually LSD. The effects of equipotent doses of mescaline and LSD are almost indistinguishable.

  10. 全国结核病流行病学抽样调查及各省耐药监测中耐药结核病疫情资料分析%Drug resistant tuberculosis in China-a analysis on results of national tuberculosis epidemiological sampling surveys and drug resistance surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈诚; 李仁忠; 陈明亭; 赵雁林; 王黎霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 对我国耐药肺结核的流行现状展开分析,为制定相关政策提供科学依据.方法 分析1990、2000和2010年三次全国结核病流行病学抽样调查资料(未包括香港、澳门和台湾地区,以下同)中不同药物的初始耐药率以及获得性耐药率的变化趋势,比较全国12个省耐药率及耐多药率的差异.结果 根据目前我国1990、2000、2010年三次结核病流行病学抽样调查结果显示,异烟肼和链霉素的初始耐药率呈现上升趋势(P<0.01),乙胺丁醇和对氨水杨酸钠的初始耐药率呈现1990年和2010年高,而2000年低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),利福平的初始耐药率和获得性耐药率呈现1990年和2010年低,而2000年高(P<0.01),丙硫异烟胺的初始耐药率和获得性耐药率在2000年比1990年呈现显著下降趋势(P<0.01).在12个省的耐药监测资料中,初始耐药率最高的是辽宁省(42.1%),最低的是上海市(14.5%),获得性耐药率最高的是黑龙江省(67.7%),最低的是上海市(27.5%),总耐药率最高的是内蒙古自治区(44.8%),最低的是上海市(18.0%).初始耐多药率最高的是辽宁省(10.4%),最低的是湖北省(2.1%),获得性耐多药率最高的是内蒙古自治区(36.8%),最低的是新疆维吾尔自治区(7.9%),总耐多药率最高的是内蒙古自治区(16.1%),最低的是北京市(3.5%).结论 为了遏制耐多药肺结核,需要尽快提高耐多药肺结核规范化治疗管理的覆盖率,通过规范化治疗来治愈耐多药肺结核患者,以控制耐多药肺结核的传染源从而降低疫情.在开展耐多药肺结核控制的同时,不可降低普通肺结核治疗管理的质量.%Objective To understand the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) in China and provide scientific evidence for the development of TB prevention and control strategy. Methods The analysis was conducted on the data of three national TB epidemiological surveys

  11. Drug-Related Identity Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ferydoon Seyed Rabiee

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Our study is concentrating on understanding drug-related identity process which may enter important sociological visions into drug abuse pathology. It is in the framework of symbolic proactivity، cultural studies and the existing model for analyzing drug-related identity (Anderson – 1994. In this study، we have used a qualitative survey and a model test in a statistical sample cosisting white/black males and females who are under drug abuse treatment in Middle Michigan. Our data shows that identity change occures during childihood or early adolescence and is accompanied with experiences of isolationism before drug abuse which facilitates the creation of an afflicted identity as well as the loss of the ability to control the personal identity. Assimilation and drug abuse subculture have represented altenative identities for resolving such an unsuitable situation.

  12. Orphan drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goločorbin-Kon Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. The beginning of orphan drugs development. This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the ”Orphan Drug Act” was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. Conclusion. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41012

  13. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ...

  14. The Visibility of Illicit Drugs: Implications for Community-based Drug Control Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Leonard; Kadushin, Charles; Beveridge, Andrew; Livert, David; Tighe, Elizabeth; Rindskopf, David; Ford, Julie; Brodsky, Archie

    2001-01-01

    Examined differences between the visibility of drugs and drug use in over 2000 neighborhoods, surveying residents regarding drug- and alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes and comparing the responses of poor, urban, African Americans versus people from comparison neighborhoods. The most disadvantaged neighborhoods had the most visible drug…

  15. Psychometrics of the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2 and the Quality of Life Scale for Drug Addicts (QOL-DAv2.0 in Chinese mainland patients with methadone maintenance treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaina Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test psychometrics of the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2 and the Quality of Life Scale for Drug Addicts (QOL-DAv2.0 in Chinese mainland patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT. METHODS: A total of 1,212 patients were recruited from two MMT clinics in Xi'an, China. Reliability was estimated with Cronbach's α and intra-class correlation (ICC. Convergent and discriminant validity was assessed using multitrait-multimethod correlation matrix. Sensitivity was measured with ANOVA and relative efficiency. Responsiveness was evaluated by pre-post paired-samples t-test and standardized response mean based on the patients' health status changes following 6-month period. RESULTS: Cronbach's α of the SF-36v2 physical and mental summary components were 0.80 and 0.86 (eight scales range 0.73-0.92 and the QOL-DAv2.0 was 0.96 (four scales range: 0.80-0.93. ICC of the SF-36v2 two components were 0.86 and 0.85 (eight scales range: 0.72-0.87 and the QOL-DAv2.0 was 0.94 (four scales range: 0.88-0.92. Convergent validity was lower between the two instruments (γ <0.70 while discriminant validity was acceptable within each instrument. Sensitivity was satisfied in self-evaluated health status (both instruments and average daily methadone dose (SF-36v2 physical functioning and vitality scales; QOL-DAv2.0 except psychology scale. Responsiveness was acceptable in the improved health status change (SF-36v2 except vitality scale; QOL-DAv2.0 except psychology and symptoms scales and deteriorated health status change (SF-36v2 except vitality, social functioning and mental health scales; QOL-DAv2.0 except society scale. CONCLUSIONS: The SF-36v2 and the QOL-DAv2.0 are valid tools and can be used independently or complementary according to different emphases of health-related quality of life evaluation in patients with MMT.

  16. Antimicrobial Drugs in the Home

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-19

    Survey participants in the United Kingdom admitted keeping leftover antimicrobial drugs for future use and taking them without medical advice. Dr. J. Todd Weber, director of CDC's Office of Antimicrobial Resistance, advises against the practice, which can be dangerous and can promote antimicrobial drug resistance.  Created: 10/19/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/26/2006.

  17. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug ... Interview Survey, alternative therapies, medication Adults used several strategies to reduce prescription drug costs. Figure 1. Percentages ...

  18. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Gül Dülger

    2014-01-01

    Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions ...

  19. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Age Adults in 2015 Teens and E-cigarettes Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Substance Use in Women and Men View All NIDA's Publication Series Brain Power DrugFacts Mind Over Matter Research Reports NIDA Home ...

  20. Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010263 Drug resistance mechanism of non-small cell lung cancer PC9/AB2 cell line with acquired drug resistance to gefitinib.JU Lixia(鞠立霞),et al. Dept Oncol,Shanghai Pulm Hosp,Tongji Univ,Shanghai 200433. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2010;33(5):354-358. Objective To

  1. Drug Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Raj K.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of such drugs as marijuana and LSD, with emphasis on drug abuse. It is suggested that it can be used in science classes at the middle level of school. No prerequisites are suggested. The teacher's guide lists the behavioral objectives, the equipment needed to complete the experience and suggests…

  2. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateu-Gelabert Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs; time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were

  3. Drug Testing in Schools: Policies, Practices, and Association with Student Drug Use. YES Occasional Papers. Paper 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable recent public and judicial attention to the issue of drug testing, little empirical research has focused on the relationship between drug testing in schools and the actual use of illicit drugs by students. To explore this issue, we use school-level survey data about drug testing from the Youth, Education, and Society study and…

  4. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  5. Many Misuse OTC Sleep Aids: Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162790.html Many Misuse OTC Sleep Aids: Survey Consumer Reports finds the non-prescription drugs ... people taking so many over-the-counter sleep aids, and doing so much longer than they were ...

  6. Drugs used in child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Between 2000 and 2008, the American Association of Poison Control Centers recorded 1439 cases in which drugs or alcohol were used to mistreat children under 7 years of age, representing an average of 160 reports per year. Median age was 2 years, and 57% of victims were boys. The substances included psychotropic drugs, analgesics, cold remedies, alcohol, and illicit drugs. 18 children died, while 32 children experienced life-threatening effects or residual disability. It is not clear whether these results can be extrapolated to the French population. In France, a yearly survey of the Centres for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) identified 162 cases of "chemical submission", 3 of which involved children. In practice, it is often difficult to recognise when a child is being maltreated, especially when medications, illicit drugs or alcohol are used. Taking into consideration the known adverse effect profile of a drug may provide a clue, help to limit harms to the child and allow appropriate management.

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery What is Treatment? Why Does a Person Need ... Work? What Are the Treatment Options? What Is Recovery? What Is a Relapse? How Can Friends and ...

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco ... Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You ...

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA ( ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/ ...

  12. Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stimulants Stimulants include amphetamines, meth (methamphetamine), cocaine and methylphenidate (Ritalin). They are often used and abused in ... a medication, talk to your doctor. Preventing drug abuse in children and teenagers Take these steps to ...

  13. Antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2010-10-01

    In October 2010, it will be exactly 25 years ago that the first antiretroviral drug, AZT (zidovudine, 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine), was described. It was the first of 25 antiretroviral drugs that in the past 25 years have been formally licensed for clinical use. These antiretroviral drugs fall into seven categories [nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), fusion inhibitors (FIs), co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs) and integrase inhibitors (INIs). The INIs (i.e. raltegravir) represent the most recent advance in the search for effective and selective anti-HIV agents. Combination of several anti-HIV drugs [often referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)] has drastically altered AIDS from an almost uniformly fatal disease to a chronic manageable one.

  14. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and ... Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  16. Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jackets, Yellows, and Zombie Pills Stimulants: Bennies, Black Beauties, Hearts, Roses, Skippy, The Smart Drug, Speed, and ... used to relieve anxiety or help a person sleep, such as Valium or Xanax Stimulants — used for ...

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth ( ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  18. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...

  19. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures...

  20. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  1. Drug-drug interactions: antiretroviral drugs and recreational drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staltari, Orietta; Leporini, Christian; Caroleo, Benedetto; Russo, Emilio; Siniscalchi, Antonio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    With the advances in antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are living longer, however, some patients encounter co- morbidities which sometimes require treatment. Therefore, during the treatment with ARV drugs these patients could take several recreational drugs (e.g. amphetamines, hallucinogenes, opiates, or alcohol) with a possible development of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In particular, Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs) are mainly excreted through the kidney and are not substrates of the cytochrome P450 or P-glycoprotein, therefore the DDIs during this treatment are minimal. In contrast, the other ARV drugs (i.e. non-nucleoside reversetranscriptase inhibitors, Protease inhibitors, Integrase inhibitors, chemokine receptor 5 antagonists and HIV-fusion inhibitors) are an important class of antiretroviral medications that are frequent components of HAART regimens but show several DDIs related to interaction with the cytochrome P450 or P-glycoprotein. In this paper we will review data concerning the possibility of DDI in HIV patients treated with ARV and taking recreational drugs.

  2. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  3. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  4. La recomposición del bloque en el poder en Costa Rica, la política norteamericana y el Fondo Monetario Internacional (1982-1984). Coyuntura y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Vega, Mylena

    2006-01-01

    El fin del presente estudio es señalar que entre 1982 y 1984 se sientan en Costa Rica las bases de lo que podría ser una recomposición del bloque en el poder (1) que implicaría el paulatino fortalecimiento en el plano político de un sector exportador de bienes no-tradicionales (2) y de la fracción financiera, en especial su sector bancario. la política norteamericana, tal y como se intenta mostrar en las páginas siguientes, cumple un papel central en la articulación de un proyecto político qu...

  5. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design, Volume II of IV, Results of Laboratory and Field Research on New Concepts in Weir and Pool Fishways, 1982-1984 Final Project Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaserude, Robert G.; Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    A comprehensive review of fishway design practice led to new design concepts that had previously been untested. This concept was based on the observation that fish can be stimulated to leap when presented with certain hydraulic conditions. A laboratory test program was conducted to develop this concept into a new fishway configuration. Field testing revealed that components of the new design improved fish passage. Verification of the initial premise that fish can be stimulated to leap needs further study.

  6. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design: Analysis of Barriers to Upstream Fish Migration, Volume IV of IV, Investigation of the Physical and Biological Conditions Affecting Fish Passage Success at Culverts and Waterfalls, 1982-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Patrick D.; Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    A synopsis of the project components was prepared to provide an overview for persons who are not fisheries scientists or engineers. This short report can be used also by technical persons who are interested in the scope of the project, and as a summary of the three main reports. The contents includes an historical perspective on fishway design which provides the basis for this project. The major project accomplishments and significant additions to the body of knowledge about the analysis and design of fishways are discussed. In the next section the research project organization, objectives and components are presented to familiarize the reader with the scope of this project. The summary report concludes with recommendations for assisting in the enhancement and restoration of fisheries resources from the perspective of fish passage problems and their solution. Promising research topics are included.

  7. La investigación sobre análisis de contenido y los lenguajes documentales en las publicaciones periódicas españolas de información y documentación (1982-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Casabón, A. I.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the bibliographic production on Content Analysis and Documentary Languages in Spain from 1982 to 1994, based on the articles published in seven spanish journals devoted to Library and Information Science subjects. The distribution of the papers by journals, years, number of authors, subjects, places and research centers is studied, with the following results: a the most productive period is 1988-1990; b Madrid and Barcelona, followed by Granada, are the most important centers of research; c the majority of the papers are written by two or more authors, and they are only sporadic contributions; and d the UDC and thesauri are by far the most researched subjects, followed only by abstracting. It may be concluded that neither content analysis nor indexing and classifying are important research topics in Spain compared with other traditional LIS research fields. Excluding papers from CINDOC (Madrid and those of a very small group of productive individuals, a lack of well-grounded research lines and groups is evident. So, establishing lasting research groups, promoting periodical discussion meetings and, perhaps, a journal devoted specifically to these subjects is highly recommended. FinalIy, the bibliography resulting from the research project is appended in an annex.

    Se analiza la producción bibliográfica sobre análisis de contenido y lenguajes documentales llevada a cabo en España entre 1982 y 1994 a partir de los artículos publicados en siete revistas españolas de información y documentación. Se estudia su distribución por revistas, años, número de autores por artículo, temas, lugares y centros de investigación, con los siguientes resultados: a la producción alcanza sus cotas máximas entre 1988 Y 1990; b Madrid y Barcelona, seguidos a cierta distancia por Granada, centralizan casi toda la producción; c la mayor parte de los artículos son trabajos en colaboración, y tienen carácter esporádico; y d la CDU y los tesauros son, con mucho, los temas más tratados, seguidos a gran distancia por los resúmenes. En definitiva, ni el análisis de contenido ni los lenguajes documentales son objeto de especial atención en las publicaciones seleccionadas. Con la excepción de la labor de los equipos de trabajo del CINDOC y de algunas personalidades individuales de gran relevancia, se echa de menos la existencia de líneas de investigación consolidadas. Por todo ello, se encarece la formación de equipos de investigación estables, la promoción de foros de discusión permanentes y, quizá, la aparición de alguna publicación periódica de carácter especializado que promocione y canalice la investigación en el campo. Finalmente, se adjunta en apéndice un anexo bibliográfico completo.

  8. 某二级医院基本药物使用情况调查分析%Investigation and Survey of Essential Drug Used in a Second-grade Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁立云

    2014-01-01

    Objective To master the utilization of national essential drugs in a hospital in 2013 in order to provide reference for rational use of essential drugs. Methods The utilization of national essential drugs in a hospital in 2013 was analyzed statistically using the Pharmacy management of Hospital Information System. Results 328 kinds of national essential drugs were adopted in a hospital,which accounted for 40.44%of national essential drugs. The consumption sum of national essential drugs accounted for 29.52%of total annual consumption sum of drugs. Conclusion The coverage rate and utilization rate of national essential drugs in a hospital should be further improved,but this list is not able to meet the demand of second-grade hospitals,especially in developed area. The non-national essential drugs play a major determinant and more effective role in the control of the total drug expenditure.%目的:调查分析某二级医院2013年基本药物使用情况,为进一步提高基本药物在该院的使用效果提供参考。方法收集整理2013年1月~2013年12月该院门诊和住院基本药物的使用品规数、销售金额等,采用办公软件Excel2003对数据进行处理。结果该院实施基本药物制度后,使用基本药物品规数328种占全部药物品规数的40.44%,基本药物品种使用金额比率为29.52%。结论实施基本药物制度,减轻患者的经济负担,维护患者的利益,该院使用基本药物的比率仍较低,需进一步提高和改进。国家基本药物目录仍无法满足二级医院的医疗需求,特别是经济较发达地区。非基本药物是药品费用的主要决定因素,降低非基本药物价格能有效降低药品费用。

  9. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - ...

  10. Oral syringe use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J N; Wedemeyer, H F

    1980-09-01

    Use of oral syringes at children's and ASHP-accredited residency hospitals in the United States was surveyed. Questionnaires were mailed to 131 hospitals; 117 (89.3%) were returned. Of the responding hospitals, 54.5% of children's hospitals and 67.1% of residency hospitals used oral syringes. There was no definite preference for a particular brand or type (glass vs. plastic) of syringe. Patients who often required liquid dosage forms, including pediatric and geriatric patients and patients with nasogastric tubes, were most frequently included in oral syringe distribution systems. Twenty-six of the 73 hospitals utilizing oral syringes used them for most unit dose liquids in all drug distribution systems. The remainder reported use for specific medications or circumstances. Expiration dating policies varied from 24 hours to one year to the manufacturer's expiration dating. The survey indicates widespread use of oral syringes and identifies a need for evaluation of medication stability in these devices.

  11. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Dülger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of some most commanly used herbals (St John's wort, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, ginger, garlic, echinacea, ephedra and valerian with the conventional drugs were reviewed. Pharmacokinetic interactions involve mainly induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isozymes and p-glycoproteins by the herbal medicine, thus changing the absorption and/or elimination rate and consequently the efficacy of the concommitantly used drugs. St John's wort, a well known enzyme inducer, decreases the efficacy of most of the other drugs that are known to be the substrates of these enzymes.Pharmacodynamic interactions may be due to additive or synergistic effects which results in enhanced effect or toxicity, or herbal medicines with antagonistic properties reduce drug efficacy and result in therapeutic failure. For exampla, St John's wort may have synergistic effects with other antidepressant drugs used by the patient, resulting in increased CNS effects.Herbals like ginseng, ginkgo, garlic, ginger were reported to increase bleeding time, thus potentiating the effect of anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents. In conclusion, patients should be warned against the interaction between the herbal products and conventional medicines.

  12. 413例精神科住院患者精神药物使用时点调查%Time survey of psychotropic drugs use among 413 inpatients in psychiatric department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳璞; 冯长军; 戴劲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the use condition and its rationality of psychotropic drugs in inpatients of psychiatric department in our hospital. Methods The use condition of psychotropic drugs in inpatients of psychiatric department at 18:00 on February 17, 2011 was investigated by the hospital information system (HIS) of Beijing Ankang hospital. Results Among 413 inpatients in the psychotropic department, 407 used antipsychotics, involved 24 kinds of drugs. 225 patients (55.28%) were given single drug, of whom 81 patients (36.00%) used Risperidone Tablets (Zhuofei, Ketong, Risperdal), 51 patients (22.67%) used Aripiprazole Tablets and 33 patients (14.67%) used Clozapine. 182 patients were given combination drugs. Among the two-drugs combination, benzodiazepines (Lorazepam, Clonazepam, Nitrazepam, Diazepam, Estazolam) combined with other drugs were used in 66 patients (41.51%) and Risperidone + Zaleplon were used in 21 patients (13.21%). Among the three-drugs combination, benzodiazepines + Risperidone + other drugs were used in 8 patients (34.78%) and Zaleplon combination was used in 6 patients (26.09%). Conclusion The use of psychotropic drugs among the inpatients in the psychiatric department of Beijing Ankang Hospital is rational and the use of new atypical antipsychotics increases gradually. However, doctors should adhere to the principle of using single drug first and reduce the multi-drug combination.%目的 了解我院精神科住院患者精神药物使用情况及其合理性.方法 利用北京市安康医院HIS系统查阅2011年2月17日精神科住院患者精神药物用药情况,于18∶00时进行用药时点调查.结果 413例精神科住院患者中407例使用抗精神药物,涉及24种药物,单一用药物者225例(55.28%),其中,使用利培酮片(卓菲、可同、维思通)81例(36.00%),阿立哌唑片51例(22.67%),氯氮平33例(14.67%);联合用药者182例.两种药物联合应用患者中苯二氮(艹卓)类(劳拉西泮、氯硝西泮、

  13. 抑郁症双相情感障碍精神分裂症药物应用状况调查%Surveys of drug applications to depression, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙昭; 王宝安; 马雪红

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解抑郁症、双相情感障碍及精神分裂症患者的药物应用状况。方法采用自制调查表对34例抑郁症、27例双相情感障碍及88例精神分裂症患者的药物应用状况进行统计分析。结果抑郁症以单一用药为主(94.1%);双相情感障碍在应用情感稳定剂治疗的基础上常联合抗抑郁药物(37.0%)或抗精神病药(37.0%)治疗;精神分裂症单一用药占51.1%,联合用药占48.9%。结论抑郁症、双相情感障碍及精神分裂症患者的临床用药均符合精神药理学规范。%Objective To investigate drug applications to depression ,bipolar af-fective disorder and schizophrenia .Methods Drug applications were counted and analyzed with self-made questionnaire in 34 patients with depression ,27 bipolar affective disorder and 88 schizophrenia .Results Most depression patients were treated with a single medication (94 .1% );patients with bipolar disorder were combined with antidepressant drug (37 .0% ) or antipsychotic drug (37 .0% ) on the basis of mood stabilizer ;schizophrenia patients were treated with a single drug (51 .1% ) and with drug combination (48 .9% ) .Conclusion Clinical medications for depression ,bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia are all up to the psychopharmacological standard .

  14. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  15. 药品规格与其临床单次给药剂量的一致性及适配性调查分析%Survey on the consistency and suitability between drug specifications and its clinical single doses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐梦丹; 巫丽娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide the empirical references for medical institutions selecting drug specifications,pharma-ceutical enterprises designing drug specifications,and government departments formulating relevant drug specifications management policies through surveying the consistency and suitability between drug specifications and its clinical sin-gle doses based on the clinical prescription information data. Methods The prescription information data of 10 days were randomly selected from the hospital information system of the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University,after excluding some drug-using records which did not conform to the requirements,the 5533 prescriptions, 16 357 drug-using records and 621 drugs were treated as the research sample,and a database was established,then the statistical indicators such as the frequencies and percentages of drug-using records of consistency and suitability be-tween drug specifications and its clinical single doses were analyzed. Results The inconsistency rate and unsuitability rate between drug specifications and its clinical single doses of total drug-using records were 38.6% and 20.3%,re-spectively. Conclusion As for the drugs,especially the pediatric drugs currently circulating on the market in our coun-try,the suitability between their specifications and clinical single doses has a large improvement space.The related orga-nizations,such as government departments,pharmaceutical enterprises,hospitals and so on,should make joint efforts to solve the problem.%目的:基于临床处方用药信息数据,考察药品规格与其临床单次给药剂量的一致性及适配性状况,为医疗机构选择药品规格、制药企业设计药品规格、政府部门制订有关药品规格管理政策等提供实证参考。方法从广州医科大学附属第四医院的医院信息系统中随机抽取10 d的处方信息数据,排除部分不符合要求的用药记录后,以5533张处方、16357

  16. SURVEY ON KNOWLEDGE,ATTITUDE AND DRUG ABUSE INTENTION AMONG METHAMPHETAMINE ABUSERS%甲基苯丙胺滥用者对新型毒品的认知、态度以及滥用倾向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹海欧; 郭瑞卿; 李峥

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge, attitude and drug abuse intention among 138 methamphetamine abusers. Methods: The investigation was carried out on methamphetamine abusers with self - designed questionnaire in a compulsory drug treatment center. Results: Results show that 42. 8% of methamphetamine abusers believed new type drug was not addictive, 80. 4% of abusers believed they can control themselves to use new type drug, and 68. 1% of them considerd less harmful new type drug compared with heroin. In terms of attitude, 47. 1% of methamphetamine abusers believed new type drug may eliminate worry, 42. 8% of them believed using new type drug may make themselves distinctive from others, and 32. 6% of abusers considered using new type drug is a symbol of fashion. Regarding to their intention to use new type drug, more than half of participants expressed that they might use drugs under such circumstances. In addition, more than one third of participants expressed that future is hopeless and uncertain. Conclusion: In order to help methamphetamine abusers to quit using drugs, it is necessary to correct their wrong knowledge, attitude and enforce their confidence.%目的:本研究调查了138名甲基苯丙胺滥用者,旨在了解他们对新型毒品的认知、态度、滥用倾向以及对未来的看法.方法:采用结合文献自行设计的调查问卷,内容包括被调查者的社会人口学特征、对新型毒品的认知、对待新型毒品的态度、滥用新型毒品的倾向以及对未来的看法.结果:研究结果显示42.8%的甲基苯丙胺滥用者认为吸食新型毒品不会成瘾,认为吸食新型毒品是可以自己控制的高达80.4%,认为新型毒品对身体的危害远远小于海洛因等传统毒品的占68.1%.在对待新型毒品的态度方面,47.1%的认为吸食新型毒品可以消除烦恼,42.8%的认为吸食新型毒品显得有个性、与众不同,42.0%的认为吸食新型毒品是一种身份地位的象征,32

  17. Antineoplastic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antineoplastic drugs is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button ... sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | ...

  19. Mucoactive drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balsamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucus hypersecretion is a clinical feature of severe respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Airway mucosal infection and/or inflammation associated with these diseases often gives rise to inflammatory products, including neutrophil-derived DNA and filamentous actin, in addition to bacteria, apoptotic cells and cellular debris, that may collectively increase mucus production and viscosity. Mucoactive agents have been the medication of choice for the treatment of respiratory diseases in which mucus hypersecretion is a clinical complication. The main purpose of mucoactive drugs is to increase the ability to expectorate sputum and/or decrease mucus hypersecretion. Many mucoactive drugs are currently available and can be classified according to their putative mechanism of action. Mucoactive medications include expectorants, mucoregulators, mucolytics and mucokinetics. By developing our understanding of the specific effects of mucoactive agents, we may result in improved therapeutic use of these drugs. The present review provides a summary of the most clinically relevant mucoactive drugs in addition to their potential mechanism of action.

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the ... información sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  1. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure f

  2. Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Cunha, Luiz Carlos da; Yonamine, Maurício; Pucci, Liuba Laxor; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Souza, Camila Gabriela de; Mesquita, Guilherme Alves; Vieira, Ana Paula de Toledo; Vinhal, Ludmilla Barros; Dalastra, Janayna; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n=221) were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID). Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. The frequency of use was divided into: 1) lifetime use: tobacco-39.9%, alcohol-87.8%, cannabis-8.1%, cocaine-1.8%, stimulants-7.2%, solvents-10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-6.8%, LSD-0.5%, Bentyl®-0.5%, anabolic steroids-5.4%; 2) use in the previous year: tobacco-15.4%, alcohol-72.9%, stimulants-6.3%, solvents-0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%; 3) use in the previous 30 days: tobacco-14.5%, alcohol-57.5%, stimulants-5.0%, solvents-0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%. The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.

  3. Patterns and Correlates of Drug Use Among Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Killip, Jack; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A drug-use survey was administered in a large metropolitan, middle class high school to test two hypotheses: a. drug users can be divided according to the types of drugs used (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana vs. opiates, LSD, amphetamines, etc.); and, b. respondents' drug use is significantly related to their peers drug use. Both hypotheses were…

  4. Patterns and Correlates of Drug Use Among Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Killip, Jack; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A drug-use survey was administered in a large metropolitan, middle class high school to test two hypotheses: a. drug users can be divided according to the types of drugs used (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana vs. opiates, LSD, amphetamines, etc.); and, b. respondents' drug use is significantly related to their peers drug use. Both hypotheses were…

  5. A Typology of Violence against Self and Others and Its Associations with Drinking and Other Drug Use among High School Students in a U.S. General Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-Ye; Freeman, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines associations between binge drinking and other substance use and perpetration of violence against self and others. Data were pooled from the 2003, 2005, and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, yielding a sample of 43,172 U.S. high school students. A typology was constructed to reflect four categories of behaviors: other-directed…

  6. Happiness Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Are Chinese people happy in today’s fast-paced, modern society? What are the sources of their happiness? In today’s rapidly developing economy, is happiness closely related to wealth or not? A recent happiness survey conducted in China gives some answers.

  7. What Are Probability Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  8. 经济欠发达地区农民家庭储药现状分析%Status Survey on Family-owned Drug Storage of Rural Residents in Economically Underdeveloped Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪凌燕; 周小军; 李冬晴; 李艳萍; 易敬林; 吴磊; 韩金祥; 李幼平; 李胜; 李鸿浩

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of reserve drugs,medical devices and portable medical kits of rural households in service areas of basic township health centers in economically underdeveloped areas, and to provide a reference for the design of portable medicine kits suitable for rural residents. Methods The methods of simple random and cluster sampling were used to investigate and analyze the situation of commonly used drugs,medical devices and storages of 139 rural households from 3 basic township health hospitals in Hebei,Jiangxi and Gansu provinces, respectively. Results The storage rates of commonly used drugs of rural households werecold medicine (63. 3%) ,wound paste (40. 3%) .essential balm (36. 7%) ,cooling oil (36. 0%) ,an-tihypertensive (23. 0%), iodine tincture (18. 0%), diabetes drugs (2, 2%) and other drugs (24.5%). The storage rates of medical devices were thermometer (44. 6%), cotton swab (39. 6%),sphygmomanometer (8. 6%), injector (7. 2%) and other devices (16. 5%). A total of 48. 9% of families stored drugs and medical devices in fixed drawers. Only 4. 3% of families stored drugs and medical devices in special portable medical kits. Conclusion Rural families have a higher storage rate of household drugs in service areas of basic township health hospitals,and most drugs are non-prescription drugs. The storage rates of medical devices are not high. Only few rural households have portable medical kits. A lot of rural families place drugs and medical devices randomly. It may be a hidden danger of irrational drug use. Therefore,the education and self-management of drug utilization must be strengthened and storage rates of portable medical kits should be increased to gradually improve irrational drug utilization in rural households.%目的 了解基本型乡镇卫生院辖区居民家庭所备存的药物、医药器械及便携式药包情况,为设计适合农村居民使用的便携药包提供参考.方法 采用单纯随机抽样与整群抽

  9. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes III, Pharm.D. Candidate 2013

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages.Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used.Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals.Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.

  10. Do national drug policies influence antiretroviral drug prices? Evidence from the Southern African Development community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Galárraga, Omar

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of low- and middle-income countries’ (LMIC) national drug policies in managing antiretroviral (ARV) pharmaceutical prices is not well understood. Though ARV drug prices have been declining in LMIC over the past decade, little research has been done on the role of their national drug policies. This study aims to (i) analyse global ARV prices from 2004 to 2013 and (ii) examine the relationship of national drug policies to ARV prices. Analysis of ARV drug prices utilized data from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization (WHO). Ten of the most common ARV drugs (first-line and second-line) were selected. National drug policies were also assessed for 12 countries in the South African Development Community (SADC), which self-reported their policies through WHO surveys. The best predictor of ARV drug price was generic status—the generic versions of 8 out of 10 ARV drugs were priced lower than branded versions. However, other factors such as transaction volume, HIV prevalence, national drug policies and PEPFAR/CHAI involvement were either not associated with ARV drug price or were not consistent predictors of price across different ARV drugs. In the context of emerging international trade agreements, which aim to strengthen patent protections internationally and potentially delay the sale of generic drugs in LMIC, this study shines a spotlight on the importance of generic drugs in controlling ARV prices. Further research is needed to understand the impact of national drug policies on ARV prices.

  11. The “Black Box” of Prescription Drug Diversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Cicero, Theodore J.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Martin, Steven S.; Parrino, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of surveys and studies are examined in an effort to better understand the scope of prescription drug diversion and to determine if there are consistent patterns of diversion among various populations of prescription drug abusers. Data are drawn from the RADARS® System, the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the Delaware School Survey, and a series of quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in Miami, Florida. The data suggest that the major sources of diversion include drug dealers, friends and relatives, smugglers, pain patients, and the elderly, but these vary by the population being targeted. In all of the studies examined, the use of the Internet as a source for prescription drugs is insignificant. Little is known about where drug dealers are obtaining their supplies, and as such, prescription drug diversion is a “black box” requiring concentrated systematic study. PMID:20155603

  12. Optimal drug use and rational drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey F

    2011-12-01

    The Müller & Schumann (M&S) view of drug use is courageous and compelling, with radical implications for drug policy and research. It implies that most nations prohibit most drugs that could promote happiness, social capital, and economic growth; that most individuals underuse rather than overuse drugs; and that behavioral scientists could use drugs more effectively in generating hypotheses and collaborating empathically.

  13. Survey Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Weale

    2005-01-01

    This paper focusses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focusses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. ...

  14. Survey Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, M.H.; Weale, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focuses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. Te...

  15. Survey expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, Mohammad Hashem; Weale, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focuses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. Te...

  16. The Knowledge About Drugs, Attitudes Towards Them And Drug Use Rates Of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejer, Dianne; Smart, Reginald G.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of attitudes towards drugs, knowledge about them and the use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit and psychoactive drugs was conducted among 4,693 high school students. Knowledge level and permissive attitudes tended to increase with grade level. Knowledge scores also increased, but attitudes became less permissive with increasing academic…

  17. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a rele...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.......In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...

  18. 北京市大兴区药物依赖流行病学调查报告%Epidemiology Surveys of Drug Dependence in Daxing District in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖秋霞; 吴宝恒

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the epidemiology features and risk factors of drug dependence in Beijing Daxing district in order to set up some preventive measures. Method : 368 026 residents aged 15 and over in Daxing district were interviewed by psychiatrists through the Paychiatric State Examination ( PSE) , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale( BPRS) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire( EPQ) . The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10th version(ICD-10) was used as the diagnostic criteria. Result:402 persons were identified as the drug dependence, and the sickness rate was 1. 09%. The case rate of drug dependence for male was 0. 70‰ and 1. 53‰ for female ,and there was significant statistical difference ( P <0.01 ) . The morbidity rate of the drug dependence was increased by age and that of drug dependence among people aged 60 or over was 4. 46‰. Conclusion :The case rate of drug dependence in Daxing district was higher in its comparison with some parts of the country. and the case rate among elderly people was higher; thus, something must be done to control drug abuse in rural areas.%目的:掌握北京市大兴区药物依赖流行病学特征,探讨药物依赖的影响因素,为建立相关干预措施提供科学依据.方法:6名精神科专科医生对辖区在册的368 026名15岁及以上的人口采用统一量表进行调查,包括精神现状检查(PSE)、简明精神病量表(BPRS)和艾森克人格问卷(EPQ),诊断标准为第10版(ICD-10).结果:药物依赖患者402例,患病率为1.09‰,其中男134例,在男性人口中患病率0.70‰,女268例,在女性人口中患病率1.53‰,两者差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);患病率随年龄增长逐渐增高,≥60岁患病率为4.46‰;丧偶者患病率5.45‰,明显高于其他婚姻类型(P<0.01).本次调查药物依赖患病率是1982年全国12地区调查的2.8倍(0.39‰).结论:大兴区药物依赖与国内部分地区相比患病率较

  19. Survey of antipsychotic druGs usinG status in patients with schizophrenia in Suzhou%苏州市精神分裂症患者抗精神病药物使用现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 盖海军; 王秀艳; 丁若水; 杨忠; 王新达; 杜向东; 梅其一; 吴爱勤

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To infestigate the status quo of antipsychotic drugs using in patients with schizo-phrenia in Suzhou. Method:The drugs using questionnaire was used to infestigate the drug using situation in 544 schizophrenic patients( including inpatients and outpatients)from 3 mental disease hospitals in Suzhou. Results:The first 6 drugs used frequently were clozapine( 25. 6%),risperidone( 16. 5%),olanzapine (13. 9%),quetiapine(11. 4%),aripiprazole(9. 1%)and chlorpromazine(6. 8%). The usage frequency of an-tipsychotic was significantly different between inpatients and outpatients(χ2 =37. 361,P=0. 003). Compared with inpatients,the dose of clozapine,risperidone,olanzapine,quetiapine,aripiprazole and chlorpromazine in outpatients were significantly lower,sulpiride,ziprasidone and haloperidol were significantly higher( all P ﹤0. 01). The rate of using single antipsychotic drug(54. 4%,293 cases)was higher than combination(45. 6%, 246 cases). Among the patients treated with single antipsychotic drug,84. 2%(247 cases)used the second gen-eration antipsychotics(SGAs);and among the patients treated with combination therapy,97. 8%(241 cases) main drug and 65. 0%(160 cases)secondary drugs were SGAs. The most common combinatife drugs were sed-atife hypnotics( 20. 2%),then mood stabilizers( 12. 2%),anticholinergics( 12. 1%),antidepressants (7. 8%)andβ-blockers(4. 3%). Conclusion:The major treatment model of schizophrenia in Suzhou is u-sing single antipsychotic drug and choosing SGAs.%目的:调查苏州市精神分裂症患者抗精神病药物使用现况。方法:采用患者药物使用调查表,对苏州市3家精神疾病专科医院的544例住院和门诊精神分裂症患者进行抗精神病药物使用情况调查。结果:使用居前6位的抗精神病药物分别是氯氮平(25.6%)、利培酮(16.5%)、奥氮平(13.9%)、奎硫平(11.4%)、阿立哌唑(9.1%)、氯丙嗪(6.8%)。门诊和住院

  20. Quality Culture Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pritesh; Baker, Denyse; Burdick, Rick; Chen, Cylia; Hill, Jonathon; Holland, Morgan; Sawant, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Parenteral Drug Association conducted an anonymous global survey of quality culture in the pharmaceutical industry to determine whether there is a relationship between certain quality behaviors and certain quality attributes, and whether these quality attributes could be used as surrogates (or proxy variables) to assess quality culture. Other studies have shown that an unhealthy quality culture is a root cause of many quality or compliance issues seen by sites and organizations. Statistical analysis of survey data suggests that certain attributes are driving good behaviors, and the demographic data suggests that this relationship holds irrespective of the geographic location of the site. Executive survey respondents had a more optimistic view of the current state of quality culture than survey respondents at large, with cross-functional vision showing the biggest gap (P-value = 0.07, F-Test). The top five quality attributes that can serve as surrogates for quality culture were (1) Management communication that quality is everyone's responsibility, (2) Site has formal quality improvement objectives and targets, (3) Clear performance criteria for feedback and coaching, (4) Quality topics included in at least half of all-hands meetings, and (5) Collecting error prevention metrics. These identified mature quality attributes are related to management responsibility, and continual improvement of the pharmaceutical quality system sections of ICH Q10, and therefore may be amenable to be incorporated in audit programs or in regulatory inspections. Additional research and discussion is required to build a coherent approach, which the pharmaceutical industry and regulators can adopt. © PDA, Inc. 2015.

  1. [Emergent drugs (I): smart drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo-Putze, G; Díaz, B Climent; Pazos, J L Echarte; Mas, P Munné; Miró, O; Puiguriguer, J; Dargan, P

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a series of new drugs, known as smart drugs or legal highs, have gaining in popularity. They are easily obtainable through online shops. This is happening amongst younger segments of the population and is associated with recreational consumption, at weekends. In general, they are synthetic derivatives of natural products. There has been hardly any clinical research into them and they are not detectable in hospital laboratories. Three of these products, BZP (1- benzylpiperazine), mefedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) and Spice are probably the most widely used in Europe. The first two are consumed as an alternative to ecstasy and cocaine and are characterized by their producing a clinical profile of a sympathetic mimetic type; on occasion, they have serious consequences, with convulsions and even death. Spice (a mixture of herbs with synthetic cannabinoids such as JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP 47497-C8) is giving rise to profiles of dependence and schizophrenia. Although the emergent drugs have an aura of safety, there is an increasing amount of experience on their secondary effects.

  2. Drug resistance and antiretroviral drug development

    OpenAIRE

    Shafer, Robert W.; Jonathan M Schapiro

    2005-01-01

    As more drugs for treating HIV have become available, drug resistance profiles within antiretroviral drug classes have become increasingly important for researchers developing new drugs and for clinicians integrating new drugs into their clinical practice. In vitro passage experiments and comprehensive phenotypic susceptibility testing are used for the pre-clinical evaluation of drug resistance. Clinical studies are required, however, to delineate the full spectrum of mutations responsible fo...

  3. Tolerance Survey of Escherichia coli Isolated from pig to Antimicrobial Drugs in Karamay City of Xinjiang%新疆克拉玛依市猪源大肠杆菌耐药性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娟; 夏利宁; 夏绪进; 程伟华

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the drug resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from pig manuer of large⁃scale pig farm and local farmer�s piggeries on commonly used antimicrobial drugs in Baijiantan region of Karamay City, Xinjiang, this experiment conducted test with minimal inhibitory concentrations ( MIC) of antimicrobial drugs on these isolates by broth micro⁃dilution method. The results showed that 701 Escherichia coli were isolated from 703 fecal samples ( including 549 isolates from large⁃scale pig farm and 152 isolates from farmer�s piggeries) . The isolated Escherichia coli were highly resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin / clavulanic by over 77.0%. These isolates were very sensitive to amikacin. Their tolerant rate reached 11.1%. Isolates tolerant to 3 or more than 3 antimicrobial drugs accounted for 17.0%. In this region, the tolerance of pig Escherichia coli to commonly used antimicrobial drugs was very serious, so in clinical treatment of bacterial diseases, the use of insensitive antimicrobial drugs should be avoid. The tolerant rate of Escherichia coli isolated from large⁃scale pig farm was lower than that from the farmer�s piggeries.%为调查新疆克拉玛依市白碱滩地区规模化猪场和养殖户家猪粪样中分离的大肠杆菌对临床常用抗菌药物的耐药情况。对该地区猪场及周边养殖户家猪粪样分离的大肠杆菌采用微量肉汤稀释法进行最小抑菌浓度测定。结果显示:采集的703份粪样中分离出大肠杆菌701株(包括规模化养殖场549株和养殖户152株),分离的大肠杆菌对氨苄西林和阿莫西林/克拉维酸耐药率最高,达77.0%以上;对阿米卡星最敏感,耐药率也达11.1%;3耐以上的菌株占17.0%。该地区猪源大肠杆菌对常用抗菌药物耐药情况较为严重,须在临床治疗细菌性疾病中避开使用不敏感的抗菌药物。规模化养殖场分离的猪源大肠杆菌相比养殖户分离的

  4. 乌鲁木齐市水磨沟区吸毒者HIV感染状况和危险行为调查%Survey on the HIV infection status and dangerous behavior among drug addicts in in Shuimogou District of Urumqi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 苗海英; 冯雪; 樊于生; 王亚丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解乌鲁木齐市水磨沟区吸毒者人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)、丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)和梅毒的感染情况和相关危险行为.方法 对252名吸毒者进行血清学监测,并进行相关行为问卷调查.结果 252名吸毒人员HIV的感染率为18.7%,维吾尔族吸毒者HIV阳性率高于其他民族(x2=10.64,P<0.01),共用注射器的注射吸毒人员HIV阳性率(48.7%)高于非共针人员(14.4%),差异有统计学意义(x2 =23.17,P<0.01).结论 水磨沟区应加强吸毒者的宣传和干预的力度,控制艾滋病的传播和流行.%[Objective]To understand the infection status of syphilis, HIV and HCV among drug addicts and their related risk behaviors in Urumqi City [ Methods]A serology monitoring was conducted among 252 drug addicts, then the relative behavior questionnaire survey was applied. [Results]The HIV infection rate in 252 drug addicts was 18. 7% , and the positive rate of HIV a-mong uighur was higher than any other nation ( x2 = 10. 64, P < 0. 01) . The positive rate of HIV drug addicts sharing injection e-quipment (48. 7% ) was higher than the drug addicts without injection equipment sharing ( 14. 4% ) with significant difference (x2 =23. 17 ,P < 0. 01) . [ Conclusion]The propaganda and intervention of drug addicts should be strengthened in Shuimogou District , and the spread of AIDS should be controlled.

  5. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  6. [Survey of analytical work done for drugs at the emergency and critical care centers equipped with high-performance instruments provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (at present: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) in fiscal 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yasushi; Iseki, Ken; Suzuki, Koichiro; Namera, Akira; Fukumoto, Mariko; Fuke, Chiaki; Mori, Hiromi; Soma, Kazui

    2010-09-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 73 emergency and critical care centers where high-performance instruments for analyzing drugs and chemicals were provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (currently Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) in fiscal 1998. 52 centers (71.2%) responded to the questionnaire. Among these, the instruments have been in operation at 36 centers. This means that analytical work has been performed in at least 49.3% (36/73) of facilities with the instruments. A positive correlation was observed between the annual number of patients tested for drugs and chemicals and analytical work hours at the 36 facilities. The results indicated that 150 cases may be tested for drugs and chemicals in a year on the condition that 100 hours a month of analytical work are secured, and 200 or more cases may be tested if 200 hours a month are secured. As for the running costs required for the operation of the instruments, the instrument maintenance and repair cost was estimated at 2 million yen a year, and it was calculated that 100 cases could be handled with a maximum annual supply expense of 1 million yen and 150 cases could be handled with a maximum annual supply expense of 2 million yen. These results suggest that the instrument running cost would be fully covered at nationwide emergency and critical care centers if the additional 5,000 NHI points (1 point = 10 yen) for hospital admission, which is approved for advanced emergency and critical care centers, were applicable to all facilities. Among the 36 facilities, the implementation of analysis varied for each of the 15 toxic substances recommended for analysis by the Japanese Society for Clinical Toxicology. Further research will be necessary to investigate and assess the frequency of analysis requests and combination of simple qualitative and instrumental analyses for each of the 15 substances, in order to evaluate the approach to the 15 substances in analytical work.

  7. Prevalencia de prescripción: indicación de protectores gástricos en pacientes hospitalizados A survey of gastroprotective drugs: prescription-indication in hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Lorenzo Zúñiga

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La prescripción de fármacos antiulcerosos en medio hospitalario, y su influencia posterior en atención primaria, se incrementó en los últimos años y con ello el gasto farmacéutico. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar la prevalencia de prescripción de antiulcerosos en nuestro centro hospitalario y la adecuación a las indicaciones establecidas. Se realizó un estudio observacional de prescripción-indicación con 2 cortes transversales separados en 6 meses para evitar sesgos de selección. Se constata el uso elevado de gastroprotectores, principalmente inhibidores de bomba de protones, sobre todo en profilaxis de gastropatía por antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINE (17,1%, con una tasa de prescripciones incorrectas del 77,6% a pesar de la existencia de un protocolo específico elaborado por el comité de farmacia y terapéutica de nuestro centro. Destaca el número elevado de prescripciones en pacientes con corticoterapia sin asociación con AINE (25,7%. Se requieren nuevas herramientas que impliquen al facultativo y a los gestores clínicos en el uso racional de medicamentos.Prescription rates of anti-ulcer drugs in hospitals and their spill-over to general practice have risen over the last few years, increasing pharmaceutical expenses. The aim of this study was to analyze gastroprotective drug prescription habits in our hospital by assessing both prevalence and adherence to approved indications. An observational study of prescription-indication was performed with 2 cross sections separated by 6 months to avoid selection bias. We found overprescription of gastroprotective drugs, mainly proton pump inhibitors for the prevention of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced ulcer (17.1%. Overall, 77.6% of prescriptions had no acceptable indication, despite the availability of a specific protocol produced by the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee in our center. There was a high prevalence of prescriptions for non

  8. A Survey of Design Defects of Dosage and Administration in Oral Drug Package%口服药品外包装的“用法用量”设计缺陷调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建民

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the contents of dosage and administration in external packages of oral drugs, reveal some problems and provide humanized design proposals. Methods:Contents of usage frequency, dosage and dosing time in external packages of commonly used western oral medicines were summarized and classiifed. Results:Among 210 medicines, the items of dosage and administration were showed as“all the details in drug instructions”in packages of 44 medicines (21%), while was displayed in packages of 65 medicines (31%). Conclusion: Contents of dosage and administration in external packages of oral drugs need to be completed. Related authorities should strengthen supervision and management for contents of dosage and administration in external packages of oral drugs so as to guarantee the safe, effective, rational and convenient use of medicines for patients.%目的:对药品外包装上用法用量项目的内容进行调查,查找存在的不足,提供人性化的设计方案。方法:对某医院常用的210种西药口服药品外包装的用药次数、用量、用药时间等内容分别进行统计。结果:在210种药品小包装的用法用量项目中,有44例仅显示为“详见说明书”,约占21%;65例提及服药时间,约占31%。结论:口服药品外包装中用法用量的内容尚需完善,有关部门应强化药品包装上书写用法用量的监督与管理,以保证患者用药安全、有效、合理、方便。

  9. Health needs assessment in patients assisted by a pharmaceutical non-profit charitable organisation: a preliminary pharmacoepidemiological survey based on the analysis of drug dispensation within Italy’s Banco Farmaceutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed a health needs assessment of the vulnerable population cared for by the Banco Farmaceutico, an Italian nonprofit charitable organization that supplies medicines for many centers belonging to different charities. Drugs dispensed in the first half of 2014 by a representative sample of these centers were examined. An independently conducted telephone interview on our centers complemented this data. Adult males and migrants constituted the majority of the user population, and the most dispensed drugs were those for the respiratory system. Of all patients, 40% presented with a chronic problem and more than half needed polypharmacy. Users seek help spontaneously in 70% of the cases, with the centers being able to meet 80% of the existing demand. Patients that could not be managed were referred to local hospitals or collaborating doctors and reasons were explored. We believe our study to be a first attempt to characterise a growing population that is also increasingly represented in emergency departments and internal medicine wards. It is also an evaluation of the quality of data collected by charitable institutions, highlighting a significant need for improvement as they could be the only basis to monitor the health needs of this type of population.

  10. The third quarter of 2012 antimicrobial drug use survey analysis in our hospital%我院2012年三季度抗菌药物使用调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨作英

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨我院抗菌药物使用情况,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法:利用计算机软件管理系统检索2012年三季度抗菌药物使用情况。结果:数量、金额排序前两位的分别是“阿莫西林胶囊、注射用哌拉西林钠他唑巴坦钠”、“注射用头孢美唑钠、注射用头孢哌酮钠他唑巴坦钠”。结论:特殊使用级抗菌药物有过度使用的现象,有待干预。%Objective:Explore our hospital antimicrobial use, and provide a reference for the clinical use of drugs.Methods:Computer software management system to retrieve the third quarter of 2012,the use of antimicrobial agents.Results:Quantity, the amount of sort 2 are“amoxicillin capsules”,“Piperacillin Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium for Injection”,“Cefmetazole Sodium for Injection”,“Cefoperzone Sodium and Tazobactam Sodium for Injection”.Conclusions:Excessive use of special use grade antibacterial drugs to be intervention.

  11. 毒品所致精神障碍者刑事责任能力评定现状调查%Assessment on the Criminal Responsibility of Drug-induced Mental Disorders:A Questionnaire Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盛宇; 赵海; 蔡伟雄; 汤涛; 管唯

    2014-01-01

    Objective T o understand the assessm ent on the criminal responsibility of drug-induced m ental disorders and judicial experts’ opinions. Methods T he judicial experts from institutes of forensic psychi-atry in Shanghai were selected. T hey were asked to finish a self-m ade questionnaire of assessm ent on the criminal responsibility of drug-induced m ental disorders by letters and visits. Results Most of experts knewthe special regulation,“not suitable for evaluation” towards the criminal responsibility of drug-in-duced m ental disorders of the guideline prom ulgated by Ministry of Justice. B efore and after the guide-line was issued, no expert m ade a no-responsibility opinion in such cases. After the guideline was issued, som e experts m ade a full-responsibility or lim ited-responsibility opinion in such cases. T here was a little disagreem ent am ong the experts in the case that the crime was unrelated with m ental sym ptom s or the criminals used drugs even though he knewit could induced insanity. B ut there were still m any obvious disagreem ents am ong experts in the case that crime was related to such sym ptom s and person was no ability to debate. Most experts agreed to settle the disagreem ents with im proved legislative perfection. Conclusion Most experts are not strictly com plying with the assessm ent guidelines during their practice, and there is still an obvious disagreem ent towards the criminal responsibility of drug-induced m ental disorders.%目的:了解毒品所致精神障碍者刑事责任能力评定现状及鉴定人对此类案件的观点。方法自编《毒品所致精神障碍者责任能力评定调查表》,选择上海市法医精神病鉴定机构的鉴定人为调查对象,通过信访方式收集调查表。结果大部分鉴定人知晓《精神障碍者刑事责任能力评定指南》(简称《指南》)对毒品所致精神障碍者刑事责任能力评定做出了“不宜评定”的特别规定。《指南

  12. Drug Coverage (Part D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insurance Find health & drug plans Drug coverage (Part D) How to get drug coverage Get Medicare prescription drug coverage either from a Part D plan or a Medicare Advantage Plan offering Medicare ...

  13. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs...

  14. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs manufactured,...

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter medications. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-over-counter- ... 2015. Prescription drug abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/prescription-drugs/ ...

  16. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  17. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  20. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... immediate or delayed. What Is an Allergy to Medication/Drugs? Allergies to drugs/medications are complicated, because ...

  1. Risk of drug interaction: combination of antidepressants and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyasaka Lincoln Sakiara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of combination of antidepressants with other drugs and risk of drug interactions in the setting public hospital units in Brazil. METHODS: Prescriptions of all patients admitted to a public hospital from November 1996 to February 1997 were surveyed from the hospital's data processing center in São Paulo, Brazil. A manual search of case notes of all patients admitted to the psychiatric unit from January 1993 to December 1995 and all patients registered in the affective disorders outpatient clinic in December 1996 was carried out. Patients taking any antidepressant were identified and concomitant use of drugs was checked. By means of a software program (Micromedex® drug interactions were identified. RESULTS: Out of 6,844 patients admitted to the hospital, 63 (0.9% used antidepressants and 16 (25.3% were at risk of drug interaction. Out of 311 patients in the psychiatric unit, 63 (20.2% used antidepressants and 13 of them (20.6% were at risk. Out of 87 patients in the affective disorders outpatient clinic, 43 (49.4% took antidepressants and 7 (16.2% were at risk. In general, the use of antidepressants was recorded in 169 patients and 36 (21.3% were at risk of drug interactions. Twenty different forms of combinations at risk of drug interactions were identified: four were classified as mild, 15 moderate and one severe interaction. CONCLUSION: In the hospital general units the number of drug interactions per patient was higher than in the psychiatric unit; and prescription for depression was lower than expected.

  2. Permissive Attitude Towards Drug Use, Life Satisfaction, and Continuous Drug Use Among Psychoactive Drug Users in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, N Wt; Cheung, Y W; Chen, X

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of a permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, life satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, and other psychosocial variables in the drug use of psychoactive drug users. Psychosocial factors that might affect a permissive attitude towards regular / occasional drug use and life satisfaction were further explored. We analysed data of a sample of psychoactive drug users from a longitudinal survey of psychoactive drug abusers in Hong Kong who were interviewed at 6 time points at 6-month intervals between January 2009 and December 2011. Data of the second to the sixth time points were stacked into an individual time point structure. Random-effects probit regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative contribution of the independent variables to the binary dependent variable of drug use in the last 30 days. A permissive attitude towards drug use, life satisfaction, and depression at the concurrent time point, and self-esteem at the previous time point had direct effects on drug use in the last 30 days. Interestingly, permissiveness to occasional drug use was a stronger predictor of drug use than permissiveness to regular drug use. These 2 permissive attitude variables were affected by the belief that doing extreme things shows the vitality of young people (at concurrent time point), life satisfaction (at concurrent time point), and self-esteem (at concurrent and previous time points). Life satisfaction was affected by sense of uncertainty about the future (at concurrent time point), self-esteem (at concurrent time point), depression (at both concurrent and previous time points), and being stricken by stressful events (at previous time point). A number of psychosocial factors could affect the continuation or discontinuation of drug use, as well as the permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, and life satisfaction. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention work targeted at

  3. Counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lon, C T; Tsuyuoka, R; Phanouvong, S; Nivanna, N; Socheat, D; Sokhan, C; Blum, N; Christophel, E M; Smine, A

    2006-11-01

    Counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs can cause death and contribute to the growing malaria drug resistance problem, particularly in Southeast Asia. Since 2003 in Cambodia the quality of antimalarial drugs both in the public and private health sector is regularly monitored in sentinel sites. We surveyed 34% of all 498 known facilities and drug outlets in four provinces. We collected 451 drug samples; 79% of these were not registered at the Cambodia Department of Drugs and Food (DDF). Twenty-seven percent of the samples failed the thin layer chromatography and disintegration tests; all of them were unregistered products. Immediate action against counterfeit drugs was taken by the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) and the DDF. They communicated with the Provincial Health Department about the presence of counterfeit antimalarial drugs through alert letters, a manual, annual malaria conferencing and other training occasions. Television campaigns to alert the population about counterfeit drugs were conducted. Moreover, the NMCP has been promoting the use of good quality antimalarial drugs of a blister co-packaged combination of artesunate and mefloquine in public and private sectors. Appropriate strategies need to be developed and implemented by relevant government agencies and stakeholders to strengthen drug quality assurance and control systems in the country.

  4. Survey on Acinetobacter Baumannii Infection and Analysis of Drug Susceptibility in ICU%基层医院 ICU 鲍曼不动杆菌的感染现况及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健云; 芮勇宇; 莫和国; 黎泳仪; 陆小琴; 欧水连; 邴晏如

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current situation on the infection of Acinetobacter baumannii in ICU and evaluate the efficiency of resistance control project which was performed in Xiaolan hospital,so as to provide scientific basis for clinical rational use of antibiotics.Methods Used VITEK-2 microbiology analysis system for the pathogen identification and drug sensitivity.Compared drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from the samples of ICU patients in 2012 (before the project executed)with that in 2013 (after the project executed).Results 71 strains and 57strains Acinetobacter bauman-nii were isolated from the ICU in 2012 (before the project executed)and in 2013 (after the project executed)respectively, which majorly isolated from the samples of respiratory system,and occupied 94.4% and 84.2% respectively.The infection rate of multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was decreased from 77.5% to 66.7%,and the resistance rate of Acinetobact-er baumannii to cefepime,ceftazidime,cefatriaxone,tobramycin and cotrimoxazole decreased distinctly after the implementa-tion of drug resistance control management (χ2 > 3.84,P <0.05).Conclusion The drug resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii to 14 kinds of routine antibacterial drugs in 2013 were lower than that in 2012 in ICU.Among them,the drug re-sistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii to 5 kinds of antibacterial drugs decreased distinctly.%目的:了解基层医院 ICU 鲍曼不动杆菌(Acinetobacter baumannii ,Ab)的感染现状和评价《抗菌药物临床应用专项整治活动方案》的实施效果,为临床医生合理应用抗菌药物提供科学依据。方法用 VITEK2微生物分析系统对小榄医院2012年1月~2013年12月 ICU 患者标本中分离的鲍曼不动杆菌进行药敏分析,比较分析《抗菌药物临床应用专项整治活动方案》2012年(干预前)和2013年(干预后)ICU 鲍曼不动杆菌的耐药性。结果2012年(干预前)和2013

  5. Survey and Analysis on Changes in Medical Expenses after Reform of Drug Zero Markup%药物零差率改革后医疗费用变化情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞家玲; 吴维民; 蒋帅; 范丽; 谌晓勤; 李艺钊

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the changes of medical expenses after the reform of zero-profit medicines and provide references to improve the system in county public hospitals. Method:The authors make the statistical analysis on medical expenses and other data with descriptive and statistical methods. Result:After zero-profit medicines was put into practice,drug expenses of discharged and admitted patients reduced,and the drug proportions of both discharged and admit-ted patients decreased 0. 3 and 4. 5 percentage points respectively. However,the average expenses per capita grow fast. The expense of patients with single disease doesn’t change much. Drug expense per capita reduces. The patient’s actual reim-bursement ratio increases. Gap still exists in government’s subsidies to county public hospitals. Conclusion:A long-term mechanism should be established,and more subsidizing methods be explored,which can better demonstrate the effective-ness of zero-profit medicines.%目的:了解县级公立医院药物零差率改革后医疗费用的变化情况,为完善该制度提出参考依据。方法运用描述性统计分析方法对医疗费用等数据进行统计分析。结果实行药物零差率后,门急诊病人与住院病人药品费用减少、药占比下降,门急诊病人和住院病人药占比分别下降了0.3和4.51个百分点,住院病人人均费用增长过快;单病种病人住院费用变化不大,人均药品费均有所下降,病人的实际报销比例提高;政府对县级公立医院的补偿平衡仍然存在缺口。结论建立长效投入机制,探索多渠道补偿途径,取消药品加成同时需与医保支付方式等公立医院综合改革措施同时推进,才能更体现出药物零差率效果。

  6. DrugCentral: online drug compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Oleg; Holmes, Jayme; Knockel, Jeffrey; Bologa, Cristian G; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L; Nelson, Stuart J; Oprea, Tudor I

    2017-01-04

    DrugCentral (http://drugcentral.org) is an open-access online drug compendium. DrugCentral integrates structure, bioactivity, regulatory, pharmacologic actions and indications for active pharmaceutical ingredients approved by FDA and other regulatory agencies. Monitoring of regulatory agencies for new drugs approvals ensures the resource is up-to-date. DrugCentral integrates content for active ingredients with pharmaceutical formulations, indexing drugs and drug label annotations, complementing similar resources available online. Its complementarity with other online resources is facilitated by cross referencing to external resources. At the molecular level, DrugCentral bridges drug-target interactions with pharmacological action and indications. The integration with FDA drug labels enables text mining applications for drug adverse events and clinical trial information. Chemical structure overlap between DrugCentral and five online drug resources, and the overlap between DrugCentral FDA-approved drugs and their presence in four different chemical collections, are discussed. DrugCentral can be accessed via the web application or downloaded in relational database format. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Drug Preferences of Multiple Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Examined drug preferences of a group of active multiple drug abusers referred for treatment. Nearly half the respondents preferred drugs other than type they most frequently used. Preferences were related to method of administration. Results suggest preference is one among several determinants of drug use. (Author/BEF)

  8. 某专科医院精神科住院病人用药时点调查%Inpatient utilization of psychotropic drugs:A time-point survey of psychiatry in a mental hospital of zhongshan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温全胜; 卢文芬; 厉倬学; 孙录

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status and regularities in the utilization of psychotropic drugs for the third people's hospital of zhongshan hospital patients.Methods The durg use was analyzed,and the regularity of prescription was summarized for overall hospitalized patients in our hospital at the same day,i.e.May 14th.2013.Results The top 5 antipsychotic drugs were Risperidone,Clozapine,Olanzapine,Aripiprazole and Quetiapine.The top 3 mood stabilizers were Sodium Valproate,Oxcarbaz-epine and Magnesium Valproate.Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have become the first line antipsychotic drugs.The medication scheme for psychotic inpatients in this hospital is rational on the whole.But more attention should be paid to make reasonable use of such medicine as Antane and Benzodiazeyzine.%目的:了解中山市第三人民医院住院精神障碍患者的药物应用情况及其用药规律。方法采用一日法,以2013年5月14日为时间节点,对该院住院病人的用药情况进行分析,总结其用药规律。结果①单用抗精神病药、心境稳定剂、抗焦虑药/镇静催眠药、抗抑郁药和苯海索分别占60.53%、27.70%、30.74%、7.40%和14.23%,未使用抗精神病药、心境稳定剂、抗焦虑药/镇静催眠药、抗抑郁药和苯海索分别占5.50%、69.83%、66.98%、92.60%和85.77%;②使用频率居前5位的抗精神病药分别为利培酮174例(33.02%),氯氮平143例(27.13%),奥氮平107例(20.30%),阿立哌唑75例(14.23%),喹硫平68例(12.90%)。居前3位的心境稳定剂分别为丙戊酸钠110例(20.87%),奥卡西平22例(4.17%),丙戊酸镁19例(3.60%)。结论非典型抗精神病药和新型抗抑郁药已成为临床一线用药,临床用药总体较规范,但仍需要注意苯海索和苯二氮艹卓类(BDZ)药物的合理使用。

  9. Survey of phytochemical composition and biological effects of three extracts from a wild plant (Cotoneaster nummularia Fisch. et Mey.: a potential source for functional food ingredients and drug formulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Zengin

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the analysis of the phenolic content, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-cholinesterase, anti-tyrosinase, anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activity of three solvent extracts from Cotoneaster nummularia. Moreover, water extract was tested in terms of mutagenic/anti-mutagenic effects. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, O2, metal chelating, phosphomolybdenum, β-carotene/linoleic acid, ferric and cupric reducing power assays. Enzyme inhibitory activities were also examined with colorimetric methods. Generally, methanol and water extracts exhibited excellent biological activities. These extracts were rich in phenolic and flavonoid content. Furthermore, Cotoneaster extracts indicated appreciable antibacterial properties against human pathogen strains. HPLC analysis showed that ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, (- - epicatechin and (+-catechin were the major phenolics in extracts tested. These data offer that these extracts from C. nummularia may be considered as a potential source of biological agents for developing functional foods or drug formulations.

  10. Survey of phytochemical composition and biological effects of three extracts from a wild plant (Cotoneaster nummularia Fisch. et Mey.): a potential source for functional food ingredients and drug formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Gokhan; Uysal, Ahmet; Gunes, Erdogan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the analysis of the phenolic content, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-cholinesterase, anti-tyrosinase, anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activity of three solvent extracts from Cotoneaster nummularia. Moreover, water extract was tested in terms of mutagenic/anti-mutagenic effects. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, O2, metal chelating, phosphomolybdenum, β-carotene/linoleic acid, ferric and cupric reducing power assays. Enzyme inhibitory activities were also examined with colorimetric methods. Generally, methanol and water extracts exhibited excellent biological activities. These extracts were rich in phenolic and flavonoid content. Furthermore, Cotoneaster extracts indicated appreciable antibacterial properties against human pathogen strains. HPLC analysis showed that ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, (-) - epicatechin and (+)-catechin were the major phenolics in extracts tested. These data offer that these extracts from C. nummularia may be considered as a potential source of biological agents for developing functional foods or drug formulations.

  11. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  12. Drug Utilization Study in Ophthalmology Out‑patient Department of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and escalation in the pricing of drugs have increased the importance of ... the drug utilization pattern in ophthalmology out‑patient department (OPD) of a Medical. College in India. .... Malaysia; the findings of a household survey. Al Ameen J.

  13. 78 FR 77686 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food and Drug Administration Rapid Response Surveys (Generic Clearance) AGENCY...) (21 U.S.C. 355), requires that important safety information relating to all human prescription...

  14. 78 FR 20141 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: National Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: National Drug Threat Survey; Extension With Change of a Previously Approved Collection ACTION:...

  15. Dutch perfusion incident survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenenberg, Ingrid; Weerwind, Patrick W; Everts, Peter A M; Maessen, Jos G

    2010-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass procedures remain complex, involving many potential risks. Therefore, a nationwide retrospective study was conducted to gain insight into the number of incidents and accidents in Dutch adult perfusion practice. An anonymous postal survey (85 questions about hardware, disposables, fluids and medication, air emboli, anticoagulation, practice, and safety measures) was sent to all Dutch perfusionists involved in adult cardiovascular perfusion during 2006 and 2007. To guarantee complete anonymity, respondents were asked to return the survey to a notary who discarded personal information. The net response rate was 72% and covered 23,500 perfusions. Individual respondents performed 240 ± 103 perfusions during the 2-year study period and had 13.8 ± 8.7 years of practical experience. The incident rate was 1 per 15.6 perfusions and the adverse event rate was 1 per 1,236 perfusions. The three most reported incidents were: (1) persistent inability to raise the activated coagulation time above 400s during perfusion (184 incidents); (2) an allergic or anaphylactic reaction to drugs, fluids, or blood products (114 incidents); and (3) clotting formation in the extracorporeal circuit (74 incidents). Furthermore, pre-bypass safety measures showed no statistically significant association with the reported incidents. In comparison with data from the recent literature, the reported number of incidents is high. Nevertheless, the adverse outcome rate is well matched to other published surveys. The relatively high response rate conveys the impression that the Dutch perfusionist is vigilant and willing to report incidents. Hence, a web-based Dutch perfusion incident registration system is recommended.

  16. The Survey of Middle School Students’Drug Abuse of Bao'an District of Shenzhen%深圳市宝安区中学生药物滥用行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏海云; 张泉水; 刘成锋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the abuse occurred in Shenzhen city high school students in Baoan District agents,provide scientific data for making control of drug abuse prevention measures for middle school students. Methods 308 middle school students of Bao'an District were sampled by cluster sampling method,relative messageswere col ected by questionnaire.Results The student to the cough water,heroin,methamphetamine, ecstasy,kpowder,the stability of the awareness rate were 87.6%,87.7%,82.5%,89.6%,89.0%and 45.4%;8 patients used cough water student numbers of men and women,no statistical y significant difference(χ2=0.7,P<0.05). Conclusion Forces of the society with a common,occurring to attack in order to better prevention of juvenile drug abuse.%目的:探讨深圳市宝安区中学生药物滥用行为的发生情况,为制订预防控制中学生药物滥用的措施提供科学依据。方法采取整群抽样方法抽取宝安区308名学生为调查样本,采用问卷调查的方式获取学生药物滥用相关知识与行为发生情况。结果学生对复方磷酸可待因、海洛因、K 粉、摇头丸、冰毒、止咳水的知晓率分别为87.6%、87.7%、82.5%、89.6%、89.0%和45.4%;8名使用过复方磷酸可待因的学生男女人数比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=0.7,P<0.05)。结论社会多方面力量共同配合,共同出击才能更好地防治青少年药物滥用行为发生。

  17. The Current Status of Drug Intervention and Prevention in College Athletic Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Raymond; Cook, David L.

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I universities concerning existence, nature, and effect of drug testing and drug education programs upon college athletes. Findings from 43 head athletic trainers indicated that the trainers believed drug testing helped reduce incidence of drug abuse in college sports programs.…

  18. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  19. Recreational drug use: an emerging concern among venue-based male sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shusen; Detels, Roger

    2012-04-01

    A 2009 survey of 418 venue-based male commercial sex workers in Shenzhen, China revealed that 19.9% used recreational drugs. Consistent condom use by drug users was lower than that by nonusers. HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus 2 prevalences were higher among drug users. Prevention programs need to address drug use among male commercial sex workers in China.

  20. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  1. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  2. Bioanalysis for plasma protein binding studies in drug discovery and drug development: views and recommendations of the European Bioanalysis Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscher, Brigitte; Laakso, Sirpa; Mascher, Hermann; Pusecker, Klaus; Doig, Mira; Dillen, Lieve; Wagner-Redeker, Winfried; Pfeifer, Thomas; Delrat, Pascal; Timmerman, Philip

    2014-03-01

    Plasma protein binding (PPB) is an important parameter for a drug's efficacy and safety that needs to be investigated during each drug-development program. Even though regulatory guidance exists to study the extent of PPB before initiating clinical studies, there are no detailed instructions on how to perform and validate such studies. To explore how PPB studies involving bioanalysis are currently executed in the industry, the European Bioanalysis Forum (EBF) has conducted three surveys among their member companies: PPB studies in drug discovery (Part I); in vitro PPB studies in drug development (Part II); and in vivo PPB studies in drug development. This paper reflects the outcome of the three surveys, which, together with the team discussions, formed the basis of the EBF recommendation. The EBF recommends a tiered approach to the design of PPB studies and the bioanalysis of PPB samples: 'PPB screening' experiments in (early) drug discovery versus qualified/validated procedures in drug development.

  3. Survey of contamination status of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella and drug resistance in Mianyang City%绵阳市屠宰生猪沙门菌的污染状况及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周良君; 陈果; 王乐; 王学军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the contamination status,serotype and drug resistance of Salmonella in slaughtered pigs in Mianyang City. Methods Carcass surface,lymph nodes and anal swabs were collected from slaughtered pigs and Salmonella strains were isolated. API20E was used for biochemical identification, Salmonella diagnostic serum for serotyping, and K-B method for drug sensitivity test. Results The total contamination rate of Salmonella in slaughtered pigs was24. 67% (37/1500 in Mianyang City,The positive rates of ketone body surface,lymph nodes and anal swabs were 28.33% (17/60),18.33(11/60) and 30.00(9/30)respectively. The predominant serotype was Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella agona belonged to Group B; These Salmonella strains were 100% sensitive to cefotaxime and cefoxitin, and the tolerance to tetracycline and chloromycetin was the highest with 81.1% and 73.0%,respectively. 75.7%(28/37)were multiple resistant to TET-CHL-W-NAL-GNE. Conclusions The contamination of Salmonella in slaughtered pigs. Was serious. Hygienic management of slaughtered pigs be emphasized involved in ante-mortem inspection, cross contamination avoidance during slaughtering and supervision of antibiotic use for livestock breeding. Cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin re the drugs of first choice for treatment of Salmonella infection.%目的 了解绵阳市屠宰生猪中沙门菌的污染状况、血清分型及耐药性,为食品微生物风险评估提供基础数据,为合理使用抗生素提供科学依据. 方法 对屠宰生猪的酮体表面、回肠淋巴结和肛拭子进行采集和分离培养获得分离株;用API 20E进行菌株生化鉴定,沙门菌诊断血清进行血清分型;用K-B法进行药敏实验. 结果 绵阳市屠宰生猪沙门菌总体污染率为24.67%(37/150),猪酮体表面、猪回肠淋巴结和猪肛拭子的污染率分别为28.33%(17/60)、18.33%(11/60)、30.00%(9/30);沙门菌分离株以B群的鼠伤寒

  4. Drug Abuse Warning Network US (DAWN-NS-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...

  5. Drug Abuse Warning Network US (DAWN-NS-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...

  6. Uso de anti-hipertensivos e antidiabéticos por idosos: inquérito em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Use of anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic drugs by the elderly: a survey in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Fátima Gontijo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com efeitos prejudiciais do uso de medicamentos por idosos tem motivado estudos com o objetivo de identificar problemas nessa utilização. Realizou-se um inquérito domiciliar entre aposentados, com idade > 60 anos, residentes em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil (2003, que declararam ter diabetes ou hipertensão arterial. A qualidade do uso de medicamentos anti-hipertensivos e antidiabéticos foi avaliada com base em redundância, associações medicamentosas e fármacos inapropriados. Entre os 283 (89% idosos autodeclarados hipertensos, em uso de farmacoterapia, 68,2% utilizavam diuréticos, e 37,8% utilizavam IECA. Entre os 22 (64,7% autodeclarados diabéticos sob farmacoterapia, 45,5% utilizavam insulina, e 77,3%, antidiabéticos orais. Entre os 89 autodeclarados diabéticos hipertensos, 80 (90% utilizavam anti-hipertensivos, e 51 (57,3%, antidiabéticos. Observou-se o uso de associações medicamentosas, medicamentos redundantes ou inadequados, o que indica a necessidade de seguimento de protocolos terapêuticos e maior atenção à saúde dos pacientes idosos.Concern over the harmful effects of drug use by the elderly has motivated studies aimed at identifying problems in such utilization. This was a household survey with retirees aged > 60 years living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2003, who reported having a diagnosis of diabetes and/or hypertension. Quality of anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic medication was measured by redundancy, combinations of drugs, and inappropriate drugs. Among 283 elderly patients (89% with self-reported hypertension and use of anti-hypertensive pharmacotherapy, 68.2% were using diuretics and 37.8% ACE inhibitors. Among the 22 (64.7% self-reported diabetic patients under pharmacotherapy, 45.5% were using insulin and 77.3% oral anti-diabetic agents. Among the 89 self-reported diabetic and hypertensive patients, 80 (90% were using anti-hypertensive drugs and 51 (57.3% anti

  7. AIDSinfo Drug Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z All Drugs Drug News Thursday, February 2, 2017 Sustiva Drug Label Updated ... Drug Label Updated Tuesday, January 31, 2017 Stribild Drug Label Updated More News Mobile Apps iPhone/iPad App Android App Back ...

  8. Robotic Surveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    -actuated functions to be controlled by an onboard computer. The computer-controlled Speedrower was developed at Carnegie Mellon University to automate agricultural harvesting. Harvesting tasks require the vehicle to cover a field using minimally overlapping rows at slow speeds in a similar manner to geophysical data acquisition. The Speedrower had demonstrated its ability to perform as it had already logged hundreds of acres of autonomous harvesting. This project is the first use of autonomous robotic technology on a large-scale for geophysical surveying.

  9. Drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and novel cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Greco, Cesare; Gaudio, Carlo; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2015-10-15

    The combination of aspirin and the thienopyridine clopidogrel is a cornerstone in the prevention of atherothrombotic events. These two agents act in concert to ameliorate the prothrombotic processes stimulated by plaque rupture and vessel injury complicating cardiovascular disease. Guidelines recommend the use of clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes and in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, and the drug remains the most utilized P2Y12 receptor inhibitor despite the fact that newer antiplatelet agents are now available. In recent years, numerous studies have shown inconsistency in the efficacy of clopidogrel to prevent atherothrombotic events. Studies of platelet function testing have shown variability in the response to clopidogrel. One of the major reason for this phenomenon lies in the interaction between clopidogrel and other drugs that may affect clopidogrel absorption, metabolism, and ultimately its antiplatelet action. Importantly, these drug-drug interactions have prognostic implications, since patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity associated with reduced clopidogrel metabolism have an increased risk of ischemia. Previous systematic reviews have focused on drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and specific pharmacologic classes, such as proton pump inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and statins. However, more recent pieces of scientific evidence show that clopidogrel may also interact with newer drugs that are now available for the treatment of cardiovascular patients. Accordingly, the aim of this review is to highlight and discuss recent data on drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and third-generation proton pump inhibitors, pantoprazole and lansoprazole, statins, pitavastatin, and antianginal drug, ranolazine.

  10. KEGG DRUG / Acutect (TN) [KEGG DRUG

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DRUG: D06027 Entry D06027Drug Name Technetium Tc 99m apcitide (USP); Acutect (TN) F... 1 838085 1 848586 1 857781 1 868182 1 878280 1 888687 1 898288 2 908689 2 918390 1 929091 2 939092 1 949495 2 KEGG DRUG / Acutect (TN) ...

  11. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  12. Microneedles: an emerging transdermal drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariya, Shital H; Gohel, Mukesh C; Mehta, Tejal A; Sharma, Om Prakash

    2012-01-01

    One of the thrust areas in drug delivery research is transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) due to their characteristic advantages over oral and parenteral drug delivery systems. Researchers have focused their attention on the use of microneedles to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum. Microneedles deliver the drug into the epidermis without disruption of nerve endings. Recent advances in the development of microneedles are discussed in this review for the benefit of young scientists and to promote research in the area. Microneedles are fabricated using a microelectromechanical system employing silicon, metals, polymers or polysaccharides. Solid coated microneedles can be used to pierce the superficial skin layer followed by delivery of the drug. Advances in microneedle research led to development of dissolvable/degradable and hollow microneedles to deliver drugs at a higher dose and to engineer drug release. Iontophoresis, sonophoresis and electrophoresis can be used to modify drug delivery when used in concern with hollow microneedles. Microneedles can be used to deliver macromolecules such as insulin, growth hormones, immunobiologicals, proteins and peptides. Microneedles containing 'cosmeceuticals' are currently available to treat acne, pigmentation, scars and wrinkles, as well as for skin tone improvement. Literature survey and patents filled revealed that microneedle-based drug delivery system can be explored as a potential tool for the delivery of a variety of macromolecules that are not effectively delivered by conventional transdermal techniques. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. RECENT TRENDS IN DENTAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Nishu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release local drug delivery systems offer advantages compared to systemic dosage forms for many dental diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis. The objective of this literature survey was to gain knowledge about various dental drug delivery systems for targeted delivery of the drug. The polymer ethyl cellulose was used in the formulation of dental films. The dental film was then evaluated for various parameters like thickness, folding endurance and weight variation and content uniformity, in vitro and in vivo study. There has been a great attention in using iontophoretic technique for the transdermal drug delivery of medications, both ionic and non ionic. This technique of facilitated movement of ions across a membrane under the influence of an externally applied electric potential difference is one of the most promising physical skin penetrations enhancing method. Another novel approach is the use of lasers in dentistry. Lasers can be used in both hard and soft tissue applications including laser bleaching, frenectomy, gingivectomy, caries removal etc. Drugs delivery via the buccal routs using bio adhesive dosage forms offers such a novel route of drugs administration. This route has been used successfully for the systematic delivery of number of drugs candidates. Problems such as high first pass metabolisms and drugs degradation in the gastrointestinal tract can be circumvented by administrating the drug buccal routes.

  14. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  15. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  16. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself ... drug plan How Part D works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules ...

  17. Drugs: Shatter the Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ML. Tobacco, alcohol, and other risk behaviors in film: how well do MPAA ratings distinguish content? J ... about drugs and drug abuse. NDFW includes local school and community events and Drug Facts Chat Day, ...

  18. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  19. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Melanoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Melanoma Aldesleukin Cobimetinib Cotellic (Cobimetinib) Dabrafenib Dacarbazine DTIC-Dome ( ...

  20. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  1. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... a short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

  2. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  3. Drug Delivery for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    and connect the two tubes; (b) A scanning electron microscope image of the transverse cross-sectional view of the PLGA nerve conduit. The filter is...reprints of manuscripts and abstracts, a curriculum vitae, patent applications, study questionnaires, and surveys, etc. Bioresorbable Multi-Drug

  4. Drug: D06912 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06912 *Quercus cortex; Bokusoku Drug...s for external use Drugs for external use D06912 *Quercu

  5. Nuclear Receptors in Drug Metabolism, Drug Response and Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prakash

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orally delivered small-molecule therapeutics are metabolized in the liver and intestine by phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs, and transport proteins coordinate drug influx (phase 0 and drug/drug-metabolite efflux (phase III. Genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition are induced by xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors (NRs, i.e. PXR (pregnane X receptor and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor, and by the 1α, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-activated vitamin D receptor (VDR, due to transactivation of xenobiotic-response elements (XREs present in phase 0-III genes. Additional NRs, like HNF4-α, FXR, LXR-α play important roles in drug metabolism in certain settings, such as in relation to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. The phase I enzymes CYP3A4/A5, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2A6, CYP2J2, and CYP2E1 metabolize >90% of all prescription drugs, and phase II conjugation of hydrophilic functional groups (with/without phase I modification facilitates drug clearance. The conjugation step is mediated by broad-specificity transferases like UGTs, SULTs, GSTs. This review delves into our current understanding of PXR/CAR/VDR-mediated regulation of DME and transporter expression, as well as effects of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and epigenome (specified by promoter methylation, histone modification, microRNAs, long non coding RNAs on the expression of PXR/CAR/VDR and phase 0-III mediators, and their impacts on variable drug response. Therapeutic agents that target epigenetic regulation and the molecular basis and consequences (overdosing, underdosing, or beneficial outcome of drug-drug/drug-food/drug-herb interactions are also discussed. Precision medicine requires understanding of a drug's impact on DME and transporter activity and their NR-regulated expression in order to achieve optimal drug efficacy without adverse drug reactions. In future drug screening, new tools such as humanized mouse

  6. Lesotho - Enterprise Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The 2011 MCA-Lesotho baseline enterprise survey is a national survey of enterprises. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current status of businesses...

  7. Clinical survey on gastroduodenal damages induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs%非甾体类抗炎药相关性胃十二指肠黏膜损害临床调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊理守; 马师洋; 杨岫岩; 董吁钢; 高修仁; 何建桂; 梁柳琴; 陈旻湖

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of gastroduodenal damages induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Methods One hundred and eighty-four patients who were prescribed NSA1Ds for long time in rheumatology and cardiovascular clinics were enrolled. Clinical data such as age, sex, medication history and body mass index were recorded. The lesions were estimated by endoscopy and the specimens were tested for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Results Peptic ulcer was found in 63 (34. 24%) patients including gastric ulcer in 22, duodenal ulcer in 34 and compound ulcer in 7. The endoscopic examination showed that 57 out of 121 patients without peptic ulcer had ≥3 erosive lesions. Logistic regression analysis revealed that H. pylori infection was important risk factor that induced the peptic ulcer in those who were taking NSAIDs for long time (OR = 13. 86, 95% CI: 6. 53 ~ 29. 43). The incidence of gastroduodenal damage was similar in patients taking NSAIDs and low dose aspirin (OR =0.45,95CI:0.16~ 1.28). Conclusions NSAIDs may cause gastroduodenal damages in long-term users and H. pylori infection was an important risk factor. The effect of low dose aspirin on gastroduodenal damages is as same as NSAIDs.%目的 探讨非甾体类抗炎药(NSAID)相关性胃十二指肠黏膜损害的发生情况及其危险因素.方法 收集心血管科与风湿免疫科门诊中184例长期服用NSAID的患者作为研究对象.记录患者的一般资料,对患者的消化不良症状进行评分,胃镜下行黏膜损伤评分,留取标本行幽门螺杆菌(Hp)检测,并行统计分析.结果 在184例长期服用NSAID患者中共发现消化性溃疡63例(34.2%),其中胃溃疡22例、十二指肠溃疡34例、复合性溃疡7例.在其余121例无溃疡患者中,57例胃黏膜存在3处或3处以上糜烂灶.Logistic多因素回归分析发现,Hp感染是长期服用NSAID人群发生消化性溃疡的重要危险因素(OR=13

  8. The deterrent effects of Australian street-level drug law enforcement on illicit drug offending at outdoor music festivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth; Moxham-Hall, Vivienne; Ritter, Alison; Weatherburn, Don; MacCoun, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Australian and international street-level drug law enforcement deploy many strategies in efforts to prevent or deter illicit drug offending. Limited evidence of deterrence exists. This study assessed the likely impacts of four Australian policing strategies on the incidence and nature of drug use and supply at a common policing target: outdoor music festivals. A purpose-built national online survey (the Drug Policing Survey) was constructed using five hypothetical experimental vignettes that took into account four policing strategies (High Visibility Policing, Riot Policing, Collaborative Policing, and policing with Drug Detection Dogs) and a counter-factual (no police presence). The survey was administered in late 2015 to 2115 people who regularly attend festivals. Participants were block-randomised to receive two vignettes and asked under each whether they would use, possess, purchase, give or sell illicit drugs. Compared to 'no police presence', any police presence led to a 4.6% point reduction in engagement in overall illicit drug offending: reducing in particular willingness to possess or carry drugs into a festival. However, it had minimal or counterproductive impacts on purchasing and supply. For example, given police presence, purchasing of drugs increased significantly within festival grounds. Offending impacts varied between the four policing strategies: Drug Detection Dogs most reduced drug possession but High Visibility Policing most reduced overall drug offending including supply. Multivariate logistic regression showed police presence was not the most significant predictor of offending decisions at festivals. The findings suggest that street-level policing may deter some forms of drug offending at music festivals, but that most impacts will be small. Moreover, it may encourage some perverse impacts such as drug consumers opting to buy drugs within festival grounds rather than carry in their own. We use our findings to highlight trade-offs between the

  9. Drug retailer training: experiences from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, K K; Gartoulla, R P; Pradhan, Y M; Shrestha, A D; Karkee, S B; Quick, J D

    1992-10-01

    Sale of modern medicines by untrained peddlers, general merchants, and other drug sellers is common throughout the developing world. Drug sellers operating in the 'informal sector' are often the first source of health care outside the home. Reasons given by patients for using private drug sellers include expediency, convenience, efficacy of the medicines, dependability of supply, and reasonable cost. At the same time, self-medication through private drug sellers can be ineffective, wasteful, and at times distinctly harmful. Regulatory approaches to controlling drug selling in the informal sector, widely endorsed on paper through national drug control legislation, require a cadre of professional regulatory staff and enforcement mechanisms which are too often beyond the current economic and political reach of countries. In Nepal, where rugged terrain has limited infrastructure development, the doctor to population ratio is 1:23,000, utilization of government health services averages only 0.2 visits per person per year. Retail drug outlets outnumber health posts and health centers by a ratio of 4:1 and private drug sellers often offer the only access to modern medicine for much of the population. Community surveys have found that drug retailers are very often the first and only source of health care outside the home. Given the importance of retail drug outlets and the lack of trained pharmacists, the Department of Drug Administration in 1981 established a 45-hr course for drug retailers which emphasized practical training as well as formal teaching on pharmacology, ethics, storage of drugs, and legal issues. By the end of 1989, 4096 drug retailers had graduated from the course. Still run by the Ministry of Health Department of Drug Administration, the course has proven to be administratively feasible and has been quite popular with drug retailers. Initial reservations expressed by doctors and some pharmacists were soon overcome, and the course is now well accepted by

  10. Drug: D06722 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ranthes bidentata root Major component: Ecdysterone [CPD:C02633] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06...ude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06722 Achyranthes root; Achyranthese root Crude drugs

  11. Drug: D06697 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ceae (buckwheat family) Polygonum tuber Major component: Chrysophanol [CPD:C10315] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishing blood D06697 Polygonum root Crude drugs [BR

  12. Galactorrhea due to psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, S; Ziegenbein, M; Grohmann, R; Engel, R R; Degner, D

    2004-03-01

    Within the drug safety program in psychiatry AMSP ( Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie), severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are assessed. Currently 35 psychiatric hospitals and departments are participating in detecting severe ADRs. This paper focuses on prolactin-dependent ADRs such as gynecomastia and galactorrhea due to psychotropic medications. Related to the number of patients surveyed (122,562 from 1993 to 2000), these are rare events (0.03 % or 35 cases). Imputed drugs were mostly antipsychotics, but antidepressants were also imputed in single cases. In the group of antipsychotics, relative frequencies of galactorrhea were highest for amisulpride and risperidone and corresponded to the degree of D2 binding. Galactorrhea assessed as "severe" was accompanied by distressing symptoms such as pain, tension, enlargement of breasts, or soaked clothing. The AMSP data contribute to the knowledge on endocrine ADRs by the large number of patients examined and help clinicians select the appropriate drug if their patients have been prone to for these ADRs in the past.

  13. Drug Use Patterns among High School Athletes and Nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Adam H.; Gardner, Doug; Zaichkowsky, Len

    2001-01-01

    High school students (N=1,515) in Massachusetts were surveyed about whether participation in athletics promoted a healthier lifestyle and decreased use of recreational drugs. Participation in athletics did promote a healthier lifestyle and athletes were significantly less likely to use cocaine, psychedelic drugs, or smoke cigarettes. However, work…

  14. The War on Drugs - America’s Other War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-04

    aerial spraying of glyphosate along the Colombia-Ecuador border is damaging to the health of people living in Ecuador.” The Department of...Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) who conducts the largest and most comprehensive study of drugs in the United States...9 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, New National survey Reveals Drug Use

  15. Students and Drugs at NCSU: 1977-1978 Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Earl H.

    A survey conducted in 1977 at North Carolina State University on drugs was designed to measure usage rates for four types of drugs: marijuana, hallucinogens (such as LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin); amphetamines and barbituates; and narcotics (heroin, opium, and morphine). The questionnaire was also designed to determine student attitudes on…

  16. New indicators of illegal drug use to compare drug user populations for policy evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fabi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: New trends in drug consumption show a trend towards higher poly-use. Epidemiological indicators presently used are mostly based on the prevalence of users of the “main” substances and the ranking of harm caused by drug use is based on a single substance analysis.Methods: In this paper new indicators are proposed; the approach consider the segmentation of the population with respect to the frequency of use in the last 30 days and the harm score of the various substances used by a poly-user. Scoring is based on single substance score table reported in recent papers and principal component analysis is applied to reduce dimensionality. Any user ischaracterized by the two new scores: frequency of use score and poly-use score.Results: The method is applied to the drug user populations interviewed in Communities and Low Threshold Services within the Problem Drug Use 2012 survey in four different European countries. The comparison of the poly-use score cumulative distributions gives insight about behavioural trends of drug use and also evaluate the efficacy of the intervention services. Furthermore, the application of this method to School Population Survey 2011 data allows a definition of the expected behaviour of the poly-drug score for the General Population Survey to be representative.Conclusions: In general, the method is simply and intuitive, and could be applied to surveys containing questions about drug use. A possible limitations could be that the median is chosen for calculating the frequency of use score in questionnaires containing the frequency of drug use in classes.

  17. CONCEPT OF DRUG INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nidhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug interaction is an increasingly important cause of adverse reactions (ADR, and is the modification of the effect of one drug (object by the prior or concomitant administration of another drug (precipitant drug. Drug interaction may either enhance or diminish the intended effect of one or both drugs. For example severe haemorrhage may occur if warfarin and salicylates (asprin are combined. Precipitant drugs modify the object drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or actual clinical effect. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and, in particular, rifampin are common precipitant drugs prescribed in primary care practice. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range or low therapeutic index are more likely to be the objects for serious drug interactions. Object drugs in common use include warfarin, fluoroquinolones, antiepileptic drugs, oral contraceptives, cisapride and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Many other drugs, act as precipitants or objects, and a number of drugs act as both. The aim of present review is to throw light on the concept of drug interaction.

  18. Drugs, alcohol and sexual health: opportunities to influence risk behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Alcohol and drug consumption can affect judgment and may contribute towards an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. In this cross sectional survey of clients attending STI services levels of drug and alcohol use were assessed using two standardised drug and alcohol screening instruments (the PAT and the SDS). Findings The rates of hazardous alcohol consumption were similar to those found among patients attending A&E departments. Approximately 15% of ...

  19. College Athletes and Drug Testing: Attitudes and Behaviors by Gender and Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Dona; Morris, Joyce

    1993-01-01

    We surveyed varsity athletes at a Big East university to assess attitudes toward a mandatory drug education and testing program and examined whether there were differences in drug-related attitudes and behaviors based on gender or varsity sport. We found no statistically significant differences in personal drug use behaviors based on gender or team affiliation. Attitudes about drug use and knowledge of a teammate using drugs did show significant differences based on varsity sport. Tennis play...

  20. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  1. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fully developed. As a result, the brains of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs include Amphetamines Anabolic ... better to prevent drug abuse in the first place. NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

  2. Utah Drug Use Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in junior and senior high school students. The 21 multiple choice items pertain to drug use practices, use history, available of drugs, main reason for drug use, and demographic data. The questionnaire is untimed, group administered, and may be given by the classroom teacher in about 10 minutes. Item…

  3. Recent survey on nanosuspension: a patent overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethara, Sahilhusen I; Patel, Alpesh D; Patel, Mukesh R; Patel, Mukesh S; Patel, Kanu R

    2015-01-01

    The major goals of designing nanosuspension of nanosize materials are increasing due to their tremendous potential as a drug delivery system with the wide range of applications. Nanosuspension is a unique tool for improving the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Nanosuspension drug delivery has wide range of application like oral, injectable, transdermal, inhalation, peroral, ocular, pulmonary and topical etc. by improviing the bioavailability, reducing the dose, gastric irritation, decreasing intra subject variability and increasing adhesivness with intestinal membrane. Recently, nanosuspension has been received much interest as a way to resolve solubility and stability problem because of their cost-effectiveness and technical simplicity compare to other liposome and colloidal drug carriers. Nanosuspensions are engaged to control particle size, surface properties and release of pharmacologically active agents in order to achieve the site-specific action of the drug at the therapeutically optimal rate, improve the bioavaibility of drug with poor solubility and dose regimen. Application and preparation method of nanosuspension has been reported by research articles and patented in different countries. Most of the marketed nanosuspensions are in preclinical and clinical based study for its application. More than 100 patents have been published on nanosuspensions by the recent days. This patent reviews covers different methods of pharmaceutical preparation and applications in drug delivery as well as the recent marketed published or granted patent surveys. This patent review is useful in enhance the knowledge of controlled drug delivery and applications.

  4. Drug: D06758 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available component: Zizyphus saponin Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese m...edicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06758 Jujub...e (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs St...omachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06758 *Jujube; Jujube Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06758 *Jujube; Jujube Crude drugs

  5. New drug update: 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2010-10-01

    Five new drugs that are used for medical problems often encountered in the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are considered, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. In the NDCR system, a rating from 1 to 5 (5 being the highest rating) is assigned for each new drug. The rating is based on a comparison of the new drug with related drugs already marketed. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating.

  6. 2016 New Drug Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2016-04-01

    Six new drugs marketed within the last year, which are used for medical problems often experienced by the elderly, have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are discussed, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating. The drugs include a hypnotic, an anticoagulant, two drugs for heart failure, and two drugs to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  7. New drug update: 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2012-04-01

    Five new drugs that are used for medical problems often encountered in the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are considered, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. In the NDCR system, a rating from 1 to 5 (5 being the highest rating) is assigned for each new drug. The rating is based on a comparison of the new drug with related drugs already marketed. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating.

  8. Handbook of web surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.; Biffignandi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Best practices to create and implementhighly effective web surveys Exclusively combining design and sampling issues, Handbook of Web Surveys presents a theoretical yet practical approach to creating and conducting web surveys. From the history of web surveys to various modes of data collection to ti

  9. Food and drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Đaković-Švajcer Kornelija

    2002-01-01

    Food can exert a significant influence on the effects of certain drugs. The interactions between food and drugs can be pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. Pharmacokinetic interactions most often take place on absorption and drug metabolism levels. Absorption can be either accelerated or delayed, increased or decreased, while drug metabolism can be either stimulated or inhibited. The factors which influence food-drug interactions are as follows: composition and physic-chemical properties of d...

  10. New drug update: 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2013-04-01

    Five new drugs that are used for medical problems often experienced by the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are considered, and a rating for each new drug is determined. The rating is based on a comparison of the new drug with related drugs already marketed. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating.

  11. Drug interactions with oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J M; Christensen, L K

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs may be influenced by a large number of other drugs. Some of these combinations (e.g. phenylbutazone, sulphaphenazole) may result in cases of severe hypoglycaemic collapse. Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide should never be given to a patient without a prior careful check of which medicaments are already being given. Similarly, no drug should be given to a diabetic treated with tolbutamide and chlorpropamide without consideration of the possibility of interaction phenomena.

  12. Drug Products in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Active drugs that have been reported by participating drug manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. All drugs are identified by National Drug Code...

  13. Global MS-Based Proteomics Drug Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Matthiesen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    DNA-based technologies such as RNAi, chemical-genetic profiling, or gene expression profiling by DNA microarrays combined with other biochemical methods are established strategies for surveying drug mechanisms. Such approaches can provide mechanistic information on how drugs act and affect cellular pathways. By studying how cancer cells compensate for the drug treatment, novel targets used in a combined treatment can be designed. Furthermore, toxicity effects on cells not targeted can be obtained on a molecular level. For example, drug companies are particularly interested in studying the molecular side effects of drugs in the liver. In addition, experiments with the purpose of elucidating liver toxicity can be studied using samples obtained from animal models exposed to different concentrations of a drug over time. More recently considerable advances in mass spectrometry (MS) technologies and bioinformatics tools allows informative global drug profiling experiments to be performed at a cost comparable to other large-scale technologies such as DNA-based technologies. Moreover, MS-based proteomics provides an additional layer of information on the dynamic regulation of proteins translation and particularly protein degradation. MS-based proteomics approaches combined with other biochemical methods delivers information on regulatory networks, signaling cascades, and metabolic pathways upon drug treatment. Furthermore, MS-based proteomics can provide additional information on single amino acid polymorphisms, protein isoform distribution, posttranslational modifications, and subcellular localization. In this chapter, we will share our experience using MS based proteomics as a pharmacoproteomics strategy to characterize drug mechanisms of action in single drug therapy or in multidrug combination. Finally, the emergence of integrated proteogenomics analysis, such as "The Cancer Genome Atlas" program, opened interesting perspectives to extend this approach to drug target

  14. Public opinion and drug policy in Australia: engaging the 'affected community'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Ritter, Alison; Stafford, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Policy should be informed by the people it directly affects; however, the voices of people who use illicit drugs have been marginalised from drug policy debate. In Australia, the majority of survey data regarding attitudes to drug policy are collected at the population level and the opinions of people who inject drugs remain underexplored. This study aimed to investigate how people who inject drugs perceive drug policy in Australia and whether these opinions differ from those of the broader general population. Drug-related policy questions were drawn from the National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) and added to the 2011 Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) Survey (n = 868). The results were analysed for the full IDRS sample and by recent drug use. IDRS responses were compared with the general population using the 2010 NDSHS. There was a high level of support among IDRS participants for measures to reduce the problems associated with heroin, but heterogeneity in levels of support for legalisation and penalties for sale/supply across different drug types. Differences between the opinions of the IDRS sample and the NDSHS sample were identified regarding support for harm reduction, treatment, legalisation and penalties for sale/supply. These findings provide a springboard for further investigation of the attitudes of people who use illicit drugs towards drug policy in Australia, and challenge us to conceptualise how the opinions of this community should be solicited, heard and balanced in drug policy processes. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Using Electronic Surveys: Advice from Survey Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the perceptions and recommendations of sixty-two experienced survey..researchers from the American Educational Research Association regarding the use of..electronic surveys. The most positive aspects cited for the use of electronic surveys were..reduction of costs (i.e., postage, phone charges, the use of electronic mail for pre-notification or..follow-up purposes, and the compatibility of data with existing software programs. These..professionals expressed limitations in using electronic surveys pertaining to the limited..sampling frame as well as issues of confidentiality, privacy, and the credibility of the sample...They advised that electronic surveys designed with the varied technological background and..capabilities of the respondent in mind, follow sound principles of survey construction, and be..administered to pre-notified, targeted populations with published email addresses.

  16. Questionnaire on the awareness of generic drugs among outpatients and medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, S; Kimura, H

    2008-06-01

    Generic drugs are not as widely used in Japan as they are in the West. The objective of this study was to survey the awareness of generic drugs among outpatients and medical staff and propose methods of promoting the use of generic drugs. Our survey showed that 86.7% of respondents were aware of generic drugs. This is a higher awareness rate than that in a survey of other groups conducted last year. One reason to explain this higher awareness is the recent increase in generic drug advertisements both in newspapers and on television. However, a point of note is that generic drug usage has not increased. Our survey also showed that generic drug awareness was differed widely among age groups, as younger respondents were much more aware of generic drugs than older respondents. Still, about 40% of respondents who were aware of generic drugs did not realize that they were less expensive than name-brand drugs ? including 30% of medical staff. In addition to continuing advertisement of generic drugs in the media, medical doctors and pharmacists should also be encouraged to endorse the use of generic drugs. Furthermore a new system allowing for substitution prescriptions started in April 2008 and consequently pharmacists can now play an important role in promoting the use of generic drugs.

  17. Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Peter J

    2017-07-14

    The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.

  18. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liljana Boci; Elona Berberi

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the ...

  19. Survey of Hepatitis B infection and vaccination status among drug users in Xi'an,2013%2013年西安市强制戒毒人员乙型肝炎病毒感染及疫苗接种状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴谦; 祖建; 卫晓丽; 游丽娟; 寇玲玲; 李恒新; 庄贵华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore seroepidemiological status and vaccine coverage of hepatitis B among drug users in Xi'an.Methods 545 drug users in the Xi'an Compulsory Detoxification Center were asked to answer questionnaire and provide blood sample (3-5 ml) for test of HBsAg,anti-HBc and anti-HBs from March to June 2013.Totally,545 subjects were surveyed and tested.All of them effectively completed the survey.Results The positive rates of HBsAg,anti-HBc and anti-HBs were 29.4% (160/545),60.0% (327/545) and 56.1% (306/545),respectively.Eighty five subjects (15.6%) were negative for all of the three markers.The prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBc among injection drug users were 40.0% (94/235) and 65.6% (154/235),which was significantly higher than non-injection drug users' (21.6% (52/241),58.5% (141/241)) and mixed non-injection and injection drug users ((20.3% (14/69),46.4% (32/69)) (x2 =23.518 and 9.017,respectively,P < 0.05).The HBsAg positive rate (30.6% (153/500)) of subjects with more than once per day of drug using within one year was significantly higher than those who used drugs for 2-3 times per week (15.6% (7/45))(x2 =4.51,P < 0.05).Only 11.7% (64/545) of drug users had a clear history of hepatitis B vaccination.The vaccination rate of subjects (3.5% (5/141)) with primary education or below was significantly lower than those with high school (16.3% (45/276)) (x2 =26.61,P < 0.05).The vaccination rate of subjects (7.8% (12/153)) over 45 years old was significantly lower than that of subjects below 30 years old (15.9% (21/132)) and 30-44 years old (11.9% (31/260)) (x2 =30.36,P < 0.05).The vaccinees had a significantly higher positive rate of anti-HBs (73.4% (47/64)) than those who without vaccination (53.8% (259/481)) (x2 =8.81,P =0.003),but the positive rates of HBsAg (16.7% (11/64))were lower than those who without vaccination (31.0% (149/481)) (x2 =23.52 and 9.02,respectively; P > 0.05).Conclusion The HBV infection

  20. Drug: D06742 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Crude drugs D06742 Houttuynia herb (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drug...s for clearing heat D06742 *Houttuynia herb; Houttuynia harb Drugs... for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06742 *Houttuynia herb; Houttuynia harb Crude drugs [B

  1. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Boci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the identification and treatment of outliers, and analyses of coefficient of variation. It provides sources of errors and gives recommendations of how to improve them throw sample survey techniques.

  2. Use of antiplatelet drugs after cardiac operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Victor A; Bolanos, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Unfortunately, venous bypass grafts still have a prominent role in operative coronary revascularization (coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]). Venous grafts develop pathologically occlusive disease that limits the effectiveness of CABG, and antiplatelet drugs following operation may limit this problem. The types and indications of antiplatelet drugs following CABG generate some controversy in the recent literature. This review surveys relevant evidence about the use of antiplatelet drugs following CABG to identify the controversial issues, define appropriate questions, and attempt to provide evidence-based interventions that may be helpful in limiting graft occlusion after CABG. Evidence suggests that, in most CABG patients, dual antiplatelet drugs (aspirin and clopidogrel), given after operation, minimizes early (within 1 year) graft failure and improves intermediate-term outcomes, better than single antiplatelet therapy with aspirin alone. There are gaps in the knowledge base that supports this contention, and future clinical trials will likely augment or alter this recommendation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quitting drugs: quantitative and qualitative features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gene M

    2013-01-01

    According to the idea that addiction is a chronic relapsing disease, remission is at most a temporary state. Either addicts never stop using drugs, or if they do stop, remission is short lived. However, research on remission reveals a more complex picture. In national epidemiological surveys that recruited representative drug users, remission rates varied widely and were markedly different for legal and illegal drugs and for different racial/ethnic groups. For instance, the half-life for cocaine dependence was four years, but for alcohol dependence it was 16 years, and although most dependent cocaine users remitted before age 30, about 5% remained heavy cocaine users well into their forties. Although varied, the remission results were orderly. An exponential growth curve closely approximated the cumulative frequency of remitting for different drugs and different ethnic/racial groups. Thus, each year a constant proportion of those still addicted remitted, independent of the number of years since the onset of dependence.

  4. Impact of the heroin 'drought' on patterns of drug use and drug-related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Marie C; Henry-Edwards, Susan M; Humeniuk, Rachel E; Christie, Paul; Ali, Robert L

    2004-06-01

    Since late 2000, anecdotal reports from drug users and health professionals have suggested that there was a reduction in the supply of heroin in Adelaide in the first half of 2001, referred to as a heroin 'drought'. The aim of this paper was to critically review evidence for this, using data obtained from 100 injecting drug users surveyed for the 2001 Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS). This project is carried out annually in all Australian jurisdictions, and collects up-to-date information on the markets for heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine and cannabis. This paper also investigates the possible implications of this 'drought' on patterns of drug use and drug-related harms. The 2001 IDRS found consistent reports by users of an increase in the price of heroin, together with decreases in purity and availability. These factors resulted in a decrease in the frequency of self-reported heroin use among those surveyed in 2001, and a concomitant increase in the use of other drugs, in particular methamphetamine and morphine. The heroin 'drought' appears to have had a substantial impact on several indices of drug-related harm. There was a marked decrease in the number of opioid-related fatalities, and hospital data also showed reductions in heroin-related presentations. Treatment service data showed an increase in the number of admissions related to amphetamines. There is a need for health promotion and education on the adverse effects of methamphetamine use, and the development of improved treatment protocols for methamphetamine abuse and dependence.

  5. Medicaid Drug Rebate Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Product Data for Drugs in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. The rebate drug product data file contains the active drugs that have been reported by participating drug...

  6. Drug: D06736 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ehmannia root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs... for replenishing Ying D06736 *Rehmannia root; Rehmannia root Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishin

  7. Drug: D06813 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nent: Scopoletin [CPD:C01752] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and a...ntidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06813 *Dolichos seed Drugs for dampness Drugs

  8. Drug: D09185 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic ...and antidiarrheal drugs D09185 *Myrica Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D09185 *Myrica Crude dr

  9. Drug: D09151 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available raditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D09151 Sw...eetflag rhizome Other drugs Drugs for resuscitation D09151 Acorus gramineus rhizo

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigs Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse ...

  11. Food-drug interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated......, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. However, in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of a food-drug interaction, the impact of food intake on the clinical effect of the drug has to be quantified as well. As a result of quality review in healthcare systems, healthcare providers...... are increasingly required to develop methods for identifying and preventing adverse food-drug interactions. In this review of original literature, we have tried to provide both pharmacokinetic and clinical effect parameters of clinically relevant food-drug interactions. The most important interactions are those...

  12. Família e proteção ao uso de tabaco, álcool e drogas em adolescentes, Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde dos Escolares Family and the protection from use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs in adolescents, National School Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo avalia a associação entre o consumo de tabaco, bebidas alcoólicas e drogas ilícitas e os fatores de proteção familiar. Foram analisados dados referentes da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE, em uma amostra de 60.973 escolares do nono ano do Ensino Fundamental de escolas públicas e privadas das 26 capitais dos estados brasileiros e Distrito Federal. A maioria dos adolescentes vive com o pai e a mãe e cerca de um terço reside em lares apenas com a presença da mãe. Metade dos pais ou responsáveis sabe o que os adolescentes fazem no tempo livre. Residir com ambos os pais tem efeito protetor nos hábitos de fumar, beber e usar drogas. Além disto, a supervisão familiar também é importante na prevenção destes hábitos. Práticas como fazer pelo menos uma refeição com pais ou responsáveis, na maioria dos dias da semana, e o fato de os pais ou responsáveis saberem o que os adolescentes fazem no tempo livre nos últimos 30 dias tem efeito protetor. Os alunos que faltam às aulas sem avisar aos pais têm maior chance de fumar, beber e experimentar drogas. O papel da família é essencial na prevenção de riscos, tais como: tabaco, álcool e drogas e na promoção à saúde dos adolescentes.This study evaluates the relation between the use of tobacco, alcoholic beverages and illicit drugs and family protective factors. Data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE were analyzed in a sample of 60,973 students at the freshman year of high school, from public and private schools of Brazilian state capitals. Most adolescents lived with both their parents and about a third lived in households only with their mothers. Half the parents or responsible parties are aware of what adolescents do in their free time. Living with both parents is a protective factor for smoking, drinking, and drug use. Family supervision is also important for the prevention of such behavior. Sharing a meal with parents or responsible parties

  13. Prevalência do consumo de álcool e drogas entre adolescentes: análise dos dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Escolar Prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption among adolescents: data analysis of the National Survey of School Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência do consumo de álcool e outras drogas entre estudantes adolescentes. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal com amostra de conglomerados de 60.973 estudantes do nono ano do Ensino Fundamental de escolas públicas e privadas das capitais dos estados brasileiros e do Distrito Federal, em 2009. Foram analisadas as prevalências e os intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95% do consumo de álcool e drogas. RESULTADOS: Para o conjunto dos alunos entrevistados, identificou-se o seguinte: experimentação de bebida alcoólica (71,4%; IC95% 70,8-72,0; consumo regular de álcool (27,3%; IC95% 26,7-28,0; embriaguez na vida (22,1%; IC95% 21,6-22,7; preocupação da família se chegasse bêbado em casa (93,8%; IC95% 93,3-94,2; problemas com uso de álcool (9,0%; IC95% 8,6-9,4 e experimentação de outras drogas (8,7%; IC95% 8,3-9,1. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstra a extensão do problema do uso de álcool e drogas entre adolescentes brasileiros, destacando a facilidade com que os jovens entrevistados tiveram acesso ao álcool em festas, bares, lojas e até em suas próprias casas.OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of alcohol and other drugs consumption, among adolescent students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with conglomerate samples of 60,973 students at freshman year high school in public and private schools in capitals and the Federal District in Brazil, in 2009. The 95% confidence interval and the prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption were analyzed. RESULTS: For the set of surveyed students, the following were identified: experimenting alcoholic beverages (71.4%; 95%CI 70.8-72.0; regular alcoholic beverage consumption (27.3%; 95%CI 26.7-28.0; drunkenness in lifetime (22.1%; 95%CI 21.6-22.7; family is worried when the student gets home drunk (93.8%; 95%CI 93.3-94.2; problems with alcohol use (9.0%; 95%CI 8.6-9.4; consumption of other drugs (8.7%; 95%CI 8.3-9.1. CONCLUSION: This study shows the extension of the alcohol and

  14. Drug: D06732 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r component: Loganin [CPD:C01433] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs...ine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06732 Cornus fruit; Sanshuyu Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06732 Cornus fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medic

  15. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against

  16. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against illeg

  17. Drug development, radiolabelled drugs and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaalburg, W; Hendrikse, NH; de Vries, EFJ

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides noninvasive in vivo quantitative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information on novel and established drugs. Because only very low amounts of the (potential) drug have to be administered, far below toxicity levels, human studies can be carried out even

  18. Patterns, Trends, and Meanings of Drug Use by Dance-Drug Users in Edinburgh, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Sarah C. E.; Hayward, Emma

    2004-01-01

    A survey of drug use in the past year was completed by 124 clubbers (50% male, 50% female, age range 14-44, mean 24 years). Participants were self selecting and recruited in clubs and pre-club bars. Prevalence rates for alcohol, cannabis, and ecstasy were over 80%; 63% reported cocaine and 53% amphetamine use, 15%-43% used ketamine, psilocybin,…

  19. Antiepileptic drugs: newer targets and new drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihang S. Chawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. Majority of patients respond to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, but a small percentage of patients have shown poor and inadequate response to AEDs in addition to various side effects and drug interactions while on therapy. Thus there is a need to develop more effective AEDs in drug resistant epilepsy which have a better safety profile with minimal adverse effects. The United States food and drug administration (USFDA has approved eslicarbazepine acetate, ezogabine, perampanel and brivaracetam which have shown a promising future as better AEDs and drugs like ganaxolone, intranasal diazepam, ICA- 105665, valnoctamide, VX-765, naluzotan are in the pipeline. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 587-592

  20. High resolution survey for topographic surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, L. C.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Tan, Z.

    2014-02-01

    In this decade, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is getting popular in many fields such as reconstruction, monitoring, surveying, as-built of facilities, archaeology, and topographic surveying. This is due the high speed in data collection which is about 50,000 to 1,000,000 three-dimensional (3D) points per second at high accuracy. The main advantage of 3D representation for the data is that it is more approximate to the real world. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show the use of High-Definition Surveying (HDS), also known as 3D laser scanning for topographic survey. This research investigates the effectiveness of using terrestrial laser scanning system for topographic survey by carrying out field test in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor. The 3D laser scanner used in this study is a Leica ScanStation C10. Data acquisition was carried out by applying the traversing method. In this study, the result for the topographic survey is under 1st class survey. At the completion of this study, a standard of procedure was proposed for topographic data acquisition using laser scanning systems. This proposed procedure serves as a guideline for users who wish to utilize laser scanning system in topographic survey fully.