WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance-selected steps communities

  1. The Central Pine Barrens of Long Island, New York - Steps to improve community preparedness for wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Hudson; Kristen Nelson; Erika Lang

    2004-01-01

    This handout provides cooperators and high fire risk communities in the area in and around the central pine barrens of Long Island, New York examples of steps to take to increase wildfire preparedness.

  2. Comparison of microbial community shifts in two parallel multi-step drinking water treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajiong; Tang, Wei; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hong

    2017-07-01

    Drinking water treatment processes remove undesirable chemicals and microorganisms from source water, which is vital to public health protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treatment processes and configuration on the microbiome by comparing microbial community shifts in two series of different treatment processes operated in parallel within a full-scale drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in Southeast China. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of water samples demonstrated little effect of coagulation/sedimentation and pre-oxidation steps on bacterial communities, in contrast to dramatic and concurrent microbial community shifts during ozonation, granular activated carbon treatment, sand filtration, and disinfection for both series. A large number of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at these four treatment steps further illustrated their strong shaping power towards the drinking water microbial communities. Interestingly, multidimensional scaling analysis revealed tight clustering of biofilm samples collected from different treatment steps, with Nitrospira, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, noted at higher relative abundances in biofilm compared to water samples. Overall, this study provides a snapshot of step-to-step microbial evolvement in multi-step drinking water treatment systems, and the results provide insight to control and manipulation of the drinking water microbiome via optimization of DWTP design and operation.

  3. Taking Steps Together: A Family- and Community-Based Obesity Intervention for Urban, Multiethnic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John D.; Newby, Rachel; Kehm, Rebecca; Barland, Patricia; Hearst, Mary O.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Successful childhood obesity intervention models that build sustainable behavioral change are needed, particularly in low-income, ethnic minority communities disparately affected by this problem. Method: Families were referred to Taking Steps Together (TST) by their primary care provider if at least one child had a body mass index…

  4. Two-Step Oxidation of Refractory Gold Concentrates with Different Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Hua; Xie, Jian-Ping; Li, Shou-Peng; Guo, Yu-Jie; Pan, Ying; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Xin-Xing

    2016-11-28

    Bio-oxidation is an effective technology for treatment of refractory gold concentrates. However, the unsatisfactory oxidation rate and long residence time, which cause a lower cyanide leaching rate and gold recovery, are key factors that restrict the application of traditional bio-oxidation technology. In this study, the oxidation rate of refractory gold concentrates and the adaption of microorganisms were analyzed to evaluate a newly developed two-step pretreatment process, which includes a high temperature chemical oxidation step and a subsequent bio-oxidation step. The oxidation rate and recovery rate of gold were improved significantly after the two-step process. The results showed that the highest oxidation rate of sulfide sulfur could reach to 99.01 % with an extreme thermophile microbial community when the pulp density was 5%. Accordingly, the recovery rate of gold was elevated to 92.51%. Meanwhile, the results revealed that moderate thermophiles performed better than acidophilic mesophiles and extreme thermophiles, whose oxidation rates declined drastically when the pulp density was increased to 10% and 15%. The oxidation rates of sulfide sulfur with moderate thermophiles were 93.94% and 65.73% when the pulp density was increased to 10% and 15%, respectively. All these results indicated that the two-step pretreatment increased the oxidation rate of refractory gold concentrates and is a potential technology to pretreat the refractory sample. Meanwhile, owing to the sensitivity of the microbial community under different pulp density levels, the optimization of microbial community in bio-oxidation is necessary in industry.

  5. Organized Communities as a Hybrid Form of Data Sharing: Experiences from the Global STEP Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Stamm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With this article, I explore a new way of how social scientists can share primary qualitative data with each other. More specifically, I examine organized research communities, which are small membership groups of scholars. This hybrid form of data sharing is positioned between informal sharing through collaboration and institutionalized sharing through accessing research archives. Using the global "Successful Transgenerational Entrepreneurship Practices" (STEP project as an example, I draw attention to the pragmatic practices of data sharing in such communities. Through ongoing negotiations, organized communities can, at least temporarily, put forward sharing policies and create a culture of data sharing that elevates the re-use of qualitative data while being mindful of the data's intersubjective and processual character.

  6. Kinematic and behavioral analyses of protective stepping strategies and risk for falls among community living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Woei-Nan; Prettyman, Michelle G; Beamer, Brock A; Rogers, Mark W

    2016-07-01

    Protective stepping evoked by externally applied lateral perturbations reveals balance deficits underlying falls. However, a lack of comprehensive information about the control of different stepping strategies in relation to the magnitude of perturbation limits understanding of balance control in relation to age and fall status. The aim of this study was to investigate different protective stepping strategies and their kinematic and behavioral control characteristics in response to different magnitudes of lateral waist-pulls between older fallers and non-fallers. Fifty-two community-dwelling older adults (16 fallers) reacted naturally to maintain balance in response to five magnitudes of lateral waist-pulls. The balance tolerance limit (BTL, waist-pull magnitude where protective steps transitioned from single to multiple steps), first step control characteristics (stepping frequency and counts, spatial-temporal kinematic, and trunk position at landing) of four naturally selected protective step types were compared between fallers and non-fallers at- and above-BTL. Fallers took medial-steps most frequently while non-fallers most often took crossover-back-steps. Only non-fallers varied their step count and first step control parameters by step type at the instants of step initiation (onset time) and termination (trunk position), while both groups modulated step execution parameters (single stance duration and step length) by step type. Group differences were generally better demonstrated above-BTL. Fallers primarily used a biomechanically less effective medial-stepping strategy that may be partially explained by reduced somato-sensation. Fallers did not modulate their step parameters by step type at first step initiation and termination, instances particularly vulnerable to instability, reflecting their limitations in balance control during protective stepping. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Research on the Translation and Implementation of Stepping On in Three Wisconsin Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Schlotthauer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveFalls are a leading cause of injury death. Stepping On is a fall prevention program developed in Australia and shown to reduce falls by up to 31%. The original program was implemented in a community setting, by an occupational therapist, and included a home visit. The purpose of this study was to examine aspects of the translation and implementation of Stepping On in three community settings in Wisconsin.MethodsThe investigative team identified four research questions to understand the spread and use of the program, as well as to determine whether critical components of the program could be modified to maximize use in community practice. The team evaluated program uptake, participant reach, program feasibility, program acceptability, and program fidelity by varying the implementation setting and components of Stepping On. Implementation setting included type of host organization, rural versus urban location, health versus non-health background of leaders, and whether a phone call could replace the home visit. A mixed methodology of surveys and interviews completed by site managers, leaders, guest experts, participants, and content expert observations for program fidelity during classes was used.ResultsThe study identified implementation challenges that varied by setting, including securing a physical therapist for the class and needing more time to recruit participants. There were no implementation differences between rural and urban locations. Potential differences emerged in program fidelity between health and non-health professional leaders, although fidelity was high overall with both. Home visits identified more home hazards than did phone calls and were perceived as of greater benefit to participants, but at 1 year no differences were apparent in uptake of strategies discussed in home versus phone visits.ConclusionAdaptations to the program to increase implementation include using a leader who is a non-health professional, and

  8. Relationship of functional fitness with daily steps in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Lucelia Luna; Menec, Verena H; Ready, A Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Walking is the main type of physical activity among community-dwelling older adults and it is associated with various health benefits. However, there is limited evidence about the relationship between functional fitness and walking performed under independent living conditions among older adults. This study examined the relationship between functional fitness and steps walked per day among older adults, both assessed objectively, with performance-based measures accounting for the effect of age, gender, and chronic conditions. In this cross-sectional study, 60 participants aged 65 years or older (mean = 76.9 ± 7.3 years, range 65-92 years) wore pedometers for 3 consecutive days. Functional fitness was measured using the Functional Fitness Test (lower and upper body strength, endurance, lower and upper body flexibility, agility/balance). The outcome measure was the mean number of steps walked for 3 days with participants classified into tertiles: low walkers (age, gender, and the number of chronic conditions, none of the functional fitness parameters was significantly associated with steps taken per day when comparing medium walkers with low walkers. In contrast, all functional fitness parameters, except upper body flexibility, were significantly associated with steps taken per day when comparing high walkers with low walkers. In this sample of older adults, greater functional fitness was associated only with relatively high levels of walking involving 6500 steps per day or more. It was not related to medium walking levels. The findings point to the importance of interventions to maintain or enhance functional fitness among older adults.

  9. Two steps forward, one step back: Achievements and limitations of university-community partnerships in addressing neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Warr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a partnership initiative that involved a major Australian research university (University of Melbourne, a local government and a network of local community service organisations. The partnership projects aimed to promote public access to university infrastructure for poor and marginalised residents, enhance the local value of research and teaching activities, and create employment opportunities. The article draws on an evaluation of the partnership, which focused on four keynote projects. It found that the partnership appeared to achieve positive outcomes for residents but was limited by tensions associated with the university’s ambivalent commitment to the value of such partnerships. These tensions remained difficult to resolve because they signalled present contestation over the foundational values of contemporary public universities. Keywords: university-community partnerships, neoliberalism, neighbourhoods, community development

  10. 100% RES communities. Steps towards 100% renewable energy at local level in Europe. Motivations, approaches, examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, Yannick; Pidana, Paulina; Hanisch, Angela; Priesner, Georg C.; Mc Kinney, Simon; Buschmann, Pia; Csanaky, Lilla; Praillet, Frederic; Zanchini, Edoardo; Lefevre, Christelle; ); Marincek, Gorazd; Meiffren, Isabelle; Toplice, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced in 2014, the energy and climate goals for 2030 of the European Union require the mobilization of everyone, everywhere. In a dynamic set to intensify rural territories, as well as cities, the communities have a major role to play. As the principal trustees of renewable resource deposits, they are the vanguard of the energy transition. Their strengths? Wind and water in abundance (very often), the sun of course, biomass - agricultural, forest, woodland, domestic, food processing - geothermal energy. With the desire to make this renewable capital live, it made some decide to take or regain control of the energy issue, reduce their energy bills and those of their inhabitants. Attracted by the opportunity to revitalize local economies and rural communes (alone or in groups) they are more likely to want to become 100% RES. But how to move from intention to action when faced with the lack of knowledge, or means, or when you feel too small to act? It is to assist you in developing your energy policy that this guide was written. Pragmatic, practical, it brings together the return on experience from partners and communities involved in 100% RES Communities project. For three years, elected representatives from rural areas, some experienced and some less, together with experts from 10 countries in Europe, have sought the best organizational, technical and financial means to reduce consumption and produce renewable energy. If because of the administrative, cultural, economic differences within the Union, all the territories do not enjoy the same facilities, the 100% RES Communities project has defined pragmatic methods, practices and tools which will make your work easier. You will find in this guide the key steps in defining your strategy and building your action plan. This is a feasible action plan to be shared and implemented with the stakeholders. A final note: because it is within networks that we discover new solutions, which can replenish the practices and

  11. Improving pain care through implementation of the Stepped Care Model at a multisite community health center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson DR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Daren R Anderson,1 Ianita Zlateva,1 Emil N Coman,2 Khushbu Khatri,1 Terrence Tian,1 Robert D Kerns3 1Weitzman Institute, Community Health Center, Inc., Middletown, 2UCONN Health Disparities Institute, University of Connecticut, Farmington, 3VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA Purpose: Treating pain in primary care is challenging. Primary care providers (PCPs receive limited training in pain care and express low confidence in their knowledge and ability to manage pain effectively. Models to improve pain outcomes have been developed, but not formally implemented in safety net practices where pain is particularly common. This study evaluated the impact of implementing the Stepped Care Model for Pain Management (SCM-PM at a large, multisite Federally Qualified Health Center. Methods: The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework guided the implementation of the SCM-PM. The multicomponent intervention included: education on pain care, new protocols for pain assessment and management, implementation of an opioid management dashboard, telehealth consultations, and enhanced onsite specialty resources. Participants included 25 PCPs and their patients with chronic pain (3,357 preintervention and 4,385 postintervention cared for at Community Health Center, Inc. Data were collected from the electronic health record and supplemented by chart reviews. Surveys were administered to PCPs to assess knowledge, attitudes, and confidence. Results: Providers’ pain knowledge scores increased to an average of 11% from baseline; self-rated confidence in ability to manage pain also increased. Use of opioid treatment agreements and urine drug screens increased significantly by 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. Significant improvements were also noted in documentation of pain, pain treatment, and pain follow-up. Referrals to behavioral health providers for patients with pain increased by 5.96% (P=0.009. There was no

  12. Abundance and composition of indigenous bacterial communities in a multi-step biofiltration-based drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Karin; Hwang, Chiachi; Ling, Fangqiong; Liu, Wen-Tso; Boon, Nico; Köster, Oliver; Egli, Thomas; Hammes, Frederik

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous bacterial communities are essential for biofiltration processes in drinking water treatment systems. In this study, we examined the microbial community composition and abundance of three different biofilter types (rapid sand, granular activated carbon, and slow sand filters) and their respective effluents in a full-scale, multi-step treatment plant (Zürich, CH). Detailed analysis of organic carbon degradation underpinned biodegradation as the primary function of the biofilter biomass. The biomass was present in concentrations ranging between 2-5 × 10(15) cells/m(3) in all filters but was phylogenetically, enzymatically and metabolically diverse. Based on 16S rRNA gene-based 454 pyrosequencing analysis for microbial community composition, similar microbial taxa (predominantly Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Nitrospira and Chloroflexi) were present in all biofilters and in their respective effluents, but the ratio of microbial taxa was different in each filter type. This change was also reflected in the cluster analysis, which revealed a change of 50-60% in microbial community composition between the different filter types. This study documents the direct influence of the filter biomass on the microbial community composition of the final drinking water, particularly when the water is distributed without post-disinfection. The results provide new insights on the complexity of indigenous bacteria colonizing drinking water systems, especially in different biofilters of a multi-step treatment plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. LifeSteps: An Evidence-based Health Promotion Program for Underserved Populations – A Community Service Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Austin-McCain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the most common, costly, and preventable of all health problems in the United States. Chronic diseases represent the leading causes of death and are experienced at higher rates by minority populations (CDC, 2012. Innovative community-based health promotion programs are recommended that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations (Yeary, et al., 2011. LifeSteps is being developed as an evidence-based health promotion program focusing on health and wellness, a domain area defined within the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (OTPF, 2008. LifeSteps will utilize a client-centered approach to coach individuals in making health behavior changes. Fieldwork and service-learning components are incorporated integrating clinical practice, academic study, and collaboration with community providers. Program evaluation measures based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM have been identified to address all phases of program planning. The LifeSteps health promotion program aligns with local, national, and international objectives and addresses the need for programs that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations. Occupational therapists are in a unique position for implementing community-based interventions that promote health and contribute to a healthier society.

  14. Listening to the community: a first step in adapting Diabetes Today to the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L; Kuhaulua, Rie L; Ichiho, Henry M; Aitaoto, Nia T

    2002-09-01

    Diabetes is a growing problem among Pacific Islanders, but few community-based groups in the Pacific are actively working on diabetes prevention and control. The Pacific Diabetes Today Resource Center (PDTRC) was established in 1998 to adapt the Diabetes Today (DT) curriculum for Pacific Island communities in Hawai'i, American Samoa, and Micronesia. To gather data to guide the development of the Pacific Diabetes Today (PDT) curriculum, a year was spent listening to Pacific communities. First, data were gathered from health professionals on how the DT curriculum should be modified. Second, health and community leaders in 11 sites were trained and supported to conduct discussion groups with people affected by diabetes. Third, site coordinators evaluated the discussion group process. A Pacific-wide Advisory Council (AC) was established to guide the project, and the AC used findings from the first year to generate guidelines for staff to follow in adapting the DT curriculum to the Pacific. These guidelines directed staff to: a) realize that Pacific communities need to build awareness about diabetes; b) train and support local community leaders as co-facilitators in the PDT curriculum, using a learn-by-doing approach, with the goal of developing them as independent trainers; c) encourage the involvement of a broad range of community members in PDT training, including the involvement of local physicians to counter medical misconceptions about diabetes; d) give the PDT curriculum a Pacific "look" and "feel;" and e) keep the training logistically flexible to accommodate differences in communities across the region. Other programs and agencies that want to develop training programs in the Pacific may find these listening strategies and guidelines helpful.

  15. A case study of pediatric asthma alerts from the beacon community program in cincinnati: technology is just the first step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudnak, Tara; Mansour, Mona; Mandel, Keith; Sauers, Hadley; Pandzik, Gerry; Donisi, Carl; Fairbrother, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    The Beacon Community in Cincinnati, Ohio was an innovative, community-wide initiative to use technology to transform care. One important feature was the development of regional alerts to notify practices when patients were hospitalized or seen in the emergency department. The purpose of this paper is to describe the way in which technology engages the improvement process, and to describe the early stages of learning how to use technology to enhance quality improvement. We interviewed key Beacon leaders as well as providers and office staff in selected practices. We also collected preliminary data from practices that reflected handling of alerts, including the number of asthma related alerts received and followed up. Regional alerts, supplied by the community-wide health information exchange, were a significant addition to the quality improvement effort in that they enabled practices to identify and follow up with additional children at risk. An important finding was the substantial effort at the practice level to integrate technology into ongoing patient care. Developing the technology for community wide alerts represented a significant endeavor in the Cincinnati Beacon Community. However, the technology was just the first step. Despite extra effort and time required on the part of individual practices, they reported that the value of having alerts was high. Hospital and ED visits represent some of the most costly aspects of care, and an efficient process for intervening with children using these costly services was seen as of significant value.

  16. One Step beyond What the Literature Says on Institutional Effectiveness of Community, Junior, and Technical Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, William F.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes the content of the literature on community, junior, and technical colleges, utilizing a matrix with seven major classifications (i.e., governance, organization, staffing, clientele, curriculum, finance, and evaluation) and three dimensions (i.e., structure/form, function/role, and process/operations). Offers observations on effectiveness…

  17. Older Adult Knowledge and Behavior Change in the Stepping On Fall Prevention Program in a Community Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Strommen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One out of every three Americans age 65 and over falls at least once annually. Fall-related injuries among older adults are a major public health concern, and prevention of falls has emerged as a key issue in avoiding the risks to mobility and health that exist due to falls. Stepping On is an evidence-based fall prevention program designed to help older adults take control of their fall risk factors, explore different behavioral steps, and reduce their fall risk. This study shares findings from evaluation efforts conducted with 182 older adult participants in Stepping On from 2013 to 2015. Older adults in the program demonstrated (1 high satisfaction with program quality; (2 positive impacts on knowledge related to fall risk factors and prevention; and (3 substantial followthrough on behavioral steps designed to minimize fall risk. Program participants also shared positive feedback on the program in response to open-ended questions. Implications of the findings for fall risk reduction and programs to enhance fall prevention among older adults are discussed. Programs designed to reduce fall risk factors and enhance quality of life can be a critical tool to assist older adults, educators, and community leaders in addressing this public health issue.

  18. Stepping Stones to Resiliency following a community-based two-generation Canadian preschool programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Carla S; Benzies, Karen M; Keown, Leslie Anne; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Thurston, Wilfreda E Billlie

    2018-05-01

    Early intervention programmes are designed to address complex inequities for Canadian families living with low income, affecting social relationships, well-being and mental health. However, there is limited understanding of resiliency and change in families living with low income over time. We conducted a mixed methods study with recent immigrant, other Canadian-born, and Aboriginal families living with low income, who attended a two-generation preschool programme (CUPS One World) between 2002 and 2008. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of the processes of change. We included 134 children and their caregivers living with low income, and experiencing mental health problems, addiction or social isolation. Children's receptive language, a proxy for school readiness, was measured at programme intake, exit, and age 10 years using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 3rd Edition (PPVT-III). In Phase I (quantitative), we identified children with receptive language scores in the top and bottom 25th percentile, informing participant selection for Phase II. In Phase II (qualitative), we engaged in constructivist grounded theory to explore experiences of 14 biological mothers, after their children (n = 25) reached age 10 years. Interviews were conducted between June and September 2015. The core category, Stepping Stones to Resiliency, encompassed Perceptions of Family, Moving Forward, Achieving Goals, and Completely Different. Perceptions of Family influenced families' capabilities to move across the Stepping Stones to Resiliency. Stepping Stones to Resiliency provides a lens from which to view others in their daily challenges to break free of painful intergenerational cycles. It is a reminder of our struggle, our shared humanness, and that movement towards resiliency is more difficult for some than others. Our findings challenge traditional episodic, biomedical treatment paradigms for low-income families also experiencing intergenerational cycles of

  19. REXUS/BEXUS: launching student experiments -a step towards a stronger space science community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittock, Mark; Stamminger, Andreas; Maria, Roth; Dannenberg, Kristine; Page, Helen

    The REXUS/BEXUS (Rocket/Balloon Experiments for University Students) programme pro-vides opportunities to teams of European student scientists and engineers to fly experiments on sounding rockets and high altitude balloons. This is an opportunity for students and the scientific community to benefit from encouragement and support for experiments. An important feature of the programme is that the students experience a full project life-cycle which is typically not a part of their university education and which helps to prepare them for further scientific work. They have to plan, organize, and control their project in order to develop and build up an experiment but must also work on the scientic aspects. Many of the students continue to work in the field on which they focused in the programme and can often build upon both the experience and the results from flight. Within the REXUS/BEXUS project cycle, they are encouraged to write and present papers about their experiments and results; increasing amounts of scientific output are seen from the students who participate. Not only do the students learn and develop from REXUS/BEXUS but the scientific community also reaps significant benefits. Another major benefit of the programme is the promotion that the students are able to bring to the whole space community. Not only are the public made more aware of advanced science and technical concepts but an advantage is present in the contact that the students who participate have to other university level students. Students are less restricted in their publicity and attract large public followings online as well as presenting themselves in more traditional media outlets. Many teams' creative approach to outreach is astonishing. The benefits are not only for the space science community as a whole; institutes, universities and departments can see increased interest following the support of participating students in the programme. The programme is realized under a bilateral Agency

  20. Impact of elementary school-located influenza vaccinations: A stepped wedge trial across a community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Peter G; Schaffer, Stanley; Rand, Cynthia M; Goldstein, Nicolas P N; Hightower, A Dirk; Younge, Mary; Eagan, Ashley; Blumkin, Aaron; Albertin, Christina S; DiBitetto, Kristine; Concannon, Cathleen; Vincelli, Phyllis; Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Humiston, Sharon G

    2018-05-11

    Influenza vaccination rates among children are low and novel strategies are needed to raise coverage. We measured the impact of school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) on coverage, examined whether SLIV substitutes for practice-based influenza vaccination ("substitution"), and estimated whether a second year of experience with SLIV increases its impact. We implemented a stepped wedge study design with schools as clusters. In Year 1, we randomly allocated schools to SLIV or control. In Year 2, all schools performed SLIV. We used emails (suburban schools) or backpack fliers (both urban and suburban schools) to notify parents, and offered web-based (suburban) or paper-based vaccination (urban) consent forms. Local health department nurses administered SLIV vaccinations and billed insurers. We analyzed state immunization registry data to measure influenza vaccination rates. 42 schools (38,078 children) participated over 2 years. Overall vaccination rates were 5 and 7 percentage points higher among SLIV- school children versus control-school children in suburban (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.25-1.49 in Years 1-2 SLIV vs. Year 1 control schools) and urban schools (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.36), respectively, adjusting for prior year's vaccination and other covariates. While no substitution occurred among children attending suburban schools, some substitution occurred among children attending urban schools, although overall vaccination rates were still higher in urban schools due to SLIV. Compared to an initial year of SLIV, more children were vaccinated in a second year of SLIV at urban (8.3% vs. 6.8%, aOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47) but not suburban schools (3.5% vs. 2.7%, aOR 1.24, 95% CI 0.98-1.57). In this stepped wedge trial, SLIV increased overall influenza vaccination rates in suburban and urban schools. Some substitution for primary care vaccination occurred in urban settings. A second year of SLIV expanded its reach slightly in urban schools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  1. Active steps for diabetes: a community-campus partnership addressing frailty and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, Gina; Hager, Kathy; Gillette, Patricia; Golemboski, Karen; Jackson, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Active Steps for Diabetes (ASD), a self-management education (DSME) program for aging adults with diabetes and frailty, on blood glucose control (A1C) and level of frailty of participants. Fifty females (62.2 ± 10.1 years old) with type 2 diabetes and frailty completed the program; 16 used a walking aid. Outcome measures included A1C and the modified Physical Performance Test (mPPT). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes before and after the program and between participants who did and did not use a walking aid. ASD was effective in reducing A1C and frailty in participants who did and did not use a walking aid. The reduction in A1C was similar for the 2 groups. The reduction in frailty was greater for the group that used a walking aid. Physical activity, a keystone for blood glucose control, is difficult for older adults who are frail. ASD provides a model for DSME that may reduce frailty of participants and increase their capacity for physical activity.

  2. Aerobic Bacterial Community of American Cockroach Periplaneta americana,a Step toward Finding Suitable Paratransgenesis Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Sanaz; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Hajikhani, Sara; Oshaghi, Ghazaleh; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan

    2015-06-01

    Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate. Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods. The analytical profile index (API) kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y. intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional plating method revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2). 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequence was identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species. A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively.

  3. Aerobic Bacterial Community of American Cockroach Periplaneta americana,a Step toward Finding Suitable Paratransgenesis Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Akbari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate.Methods: Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods.Results: The analytical profile index (API kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y.intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional platingmethod revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2. 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequencewas identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species.Conclusion: A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively.

  4. Correlates of pedometer use: Results from a community-based physical activity intervention trial (10,000 Steps Rockhampton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Grant

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedometers have become common place in physical activity promotion, yet little information exists on who is using them. The multi-strategy, community-based 10,000 Steps Rockhampton physical activity intervention trial provided an opportunity to examine correlates of pedometer use at the population level. Methods Pedometer use was promoted across all intervention strategies including: local media, pedometer loan schemes through general practice, other health professionals and libraries, direct mail posted to dog owners, walking trail signage, and workplace competitions. Data on pedometer use were collected during the 2-year follow-up telephone interviews from random population samples in Rockhampton, Australia, and a matched comparison community (Mackay. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent influence of interpersonal characteristics and program exposure variables on pedometer use. Results Data from 2478 participants indicated that 18.1% of Rockhampton and 5.6% of Mackay participants used a pedometer in the previous 18-months. Rockhampton pedometer users (n = 222 were more likely to be female (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.23, aged 45 or older (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.46 and to have higher levels of education (university degree OR = 4.23, 95% CI: 1.86, 9.6. Respondents with a BMI > 30 were more likely to report using a pedometer (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.54 than those in the healthy weight range. Compared with those in full-time paid work, respondents in 'home duties' were significantly less likely to report pedometer use (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.53. Exposure to individual program components, in particular seeing 10,000 Steps street signage and walking trails or visiting the website, was also significantly associated with greater pedometer use. Conclusion Pedometer use varies between population subgroups, and alternate strategies need to be investigated to engage men, people with lower levels

  5. Time will tell: community acceptability of HIV vaccine research before and after the “Step Study” vaccine discontinuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M Frew

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Paula M Frew1,2,3,4, Mark J Mulligan1,2,3, Su-I Hou5, Kayshin Chan3, Carlos del Rio1,2,3,61Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Emory Center for AIDS Research, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 3The Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center, Decatur, Georgia, USA; 4Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 5Department of Health Promotion and Behavior, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA; 6Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USAObjective: This study examines whether men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM and transgender (TG persons’ attitudes, beliefs, and risk perceptions toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV vaccine research have been altered as a result of the negative findings from a phase 2B HIV vaccine study.Design: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among MSM and TG persons (N = 176 recruited from community settings in Atlanta from 2007 to 2008. The first group was recruited during an active phase 2B HIV vaccine trial in which a candidate vaccine was being evaluated (the “Step Study”, and the second group was recruited after product futility was widely reported in the media.Methods: Descriptive statistics, t tests, and chi-square tests were conducted to ascertain differences between the groups, and ordinal logistic regressions examined the influences of the above-mentioned factors on a critical outcome, future HIV vaccine study participation. The ordinal regression outcomes evaluated the influences on disinclination, neutrality, and inclination to study participation.Results: Behavioral outcomes such as future recruitment, event attendance, study promotion, and community mobilization did not reveal any differences in participants’ intentions between the groups. However, we observed

  6. Wrestling with 'doubt-sayers': a first step in leading community-wide climate change action for better health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Although the evidence base for climate change is indisputable and the potential human health impact is extremely concerning, to date public health professionals are playing little part in influencing community change to accept and act on the science. In reviewing the techniques used to obstruct action on tobacco control by vested interests through constantly raising doubt about the science in this arena, a similar pattern is seen in obstructing action on climate change. It is clear that the raising of unverified doubt is the primary tool employed by profit-driven corporations to prevent constructive action in both these arenas, with the very high potential for the health of the whole population to suffer as a result. Those promoting the health of Australians have a responsibility to optimise health in this regard and need to think differently through embracing complexity science and then take action, with the first step being to provide constant counter-arguments to the unsubstantiated statements of the 'doubt-sayers'.

  7. Assessing communities of practice in health policy: a conceptual framework as a first step towards empirical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Communities of Practice (CoPs) are groups of people that interact regularly to deepen their knowledge on a specific topic. Thanks to information and communication technologies, CoPs can involve experts distributed across countries and adopt a ‘transnational’ membership. This has allowed the strategy to be applied to domains of knowledge such as health policy with a global perspective. CoPs represent a potentially valuable tool for producing and sharing explicit knowledge, as well as tacit knowledge and implementation practices. They may also be effective in creating links among the different ‘knowledge holders’ contributing to health policy (e.g., researchers, policymakers, technical assistants, practitioners, etc.). CoPs in global health are growing in number and activities. As a result, there is an increasing need to document their progress and evaluate their effectiveness. This paper represents a first step towards such empirical research as it aims to provide a conceptual framework for the analysis and assessment of transnational CoPs in health policy. The framework is developed based on the findings of a literature review as well as on our experience, and reflects the specific features and challenges of transnational CoPs in health policy. It organizes the key elements of CoPs into a logical flow that links available resources and the capacity to mobilize them, with knowledge management activities and the expansion of knowledge, with changes in policy and practice and, ultimately, with an improvement in health outcomes. Additionally, the paper addresses the challenges in the operationalization and empirical application of the framework. PMID:24139662

  8. Assessing communities of practice in health policy: a conceptual framework as a first step towards empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Maria Paola; Meessen, Bruno; Clarysse, Guy; Hercot, David; Kelley, Allison; Kafando, Yamba; Lange, Isabelle; Pfaffmann, Jérôme; Ridde, Valéry; Sieleunou, Isidore; Witter, Sophie

    2013-10-20

    Communities of Practice (CoPs) are groups of people that interact regularly to deepen their knowledge on a specific topic. Thanks to information and communication technologies, CoPs can involve experts distributed across countries and adopt a 'transnational' membership. This has allowed the strategy to be applied to domains of knowledge such as health policy with a global perspective. CoPs represent a potentially valuable tool for producing and sharing explicit knowledge, as well as tacit knowledge and implementation practices. They may also be effective in creating links among the different 'knowledge holders' contributing to health policy (e.g., researchers, policymakers, technical assistants, practitioners, etc.). CoPs in global health are growing in number and activities. As a result, there is an increasing need to document their progress and evaluate their effectiveness. This paper represents a first step towards such empirical research as it aims to provide a conceptual framework for the analysis and assessment of transnational CoPs in health policy.The framework is developed based on the findings of a literature review as well as on our experience, and reflects the specific features and challenges of transnational CoPs in health policy. It organizes the key elements of CoPs into a logical flow that links available resources and the capacity to mobilize them, with knowledge management activities and the expansion of knowledge, with changes in policy and practice and, ultimately, with an improvement in health outcomes. Additionally, the paper addresses the challenges in the operationalization and empirical application of the framework.

  9. Rapid establishment of thermophilic anaerobic microbial community during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Li, Yuyou; Chi, Yongzhi; Yang, Min

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how fast the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community could be established during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester. Stable thermophilic anaerobic digestion was achieved within 20 days from a mesophilic digester treating sewage sludge by adopting the one-step startup strategy. The succession of archaeal and bacterial populations over a period of 60 days after the temperature increment was followed by using 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. After the increase of temperature, thermophilic methanogenic community was established within 11 days, which was characterized by the fast colonization of Methanosarcina thermophila and two hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanothermobacter spp. and Methanoculleus spp.). At the same time, the bacterial community was dominated by Fervidobacterium, whose relative abundance rapidly increased from 0 to 28.52 % in 18 days, followed by other potential thermophilic genera, such as Clostridium, Coprothermobacter, Anaerobaculum and EM3. The above result demonstrated that the one-step startup strategy could allow the rapid establishment of the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How effective is high-support community-based step-down housing for women in secure mental health care? A quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, W; Brown, A; Quinn, B; McFarlane, J; McCabe, R; Whittington, R

    2013-02-01

    In the past decade UK government policy has been to develop alternative care for women detained in secure psychiatric hospital. This study evaluated the relative benefits of community-based step-down housing. Comparisons were made between female patients in community step-down housing and a control group in secure hospital who were on the waiting list for the houses. For each woman in the sample, a range of assessments was conducted on three separate occasions over a 12-month period. We noted a gradual improvement over time in women in both settings. However, by the final assessment psychological well-being and security needs were significantly better in the community group (P community housing for women in secure psychiatric care. This initiative may provide greater personal freedom and enhanced relational security for the women concerned while also facilitating improvements in their psychological well-being, with no increased risk to the women themselves or to the wider community. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  11. Whole School Improvement and Restructuring as Prevention and Promotion: Lessons from STEP and the Project on High Performance Learning Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felner, Robert D.; Favazza, Antoinette; Shim, Minsuk; Brand, Stephen; Gu, Kenneth; Noonan, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Describes the School Transitional Environment Project and its successor, the Project on High Performance Learning Communities, that have contributed to building a model for school improvement called the High Performance Learning Communities. The model seeks to build the principles of prevention into whole school change. Presents findings from…

  12. Revamping of existent chlor-alkali plants for conversion of hydrogen to electricity, hydrogen community germination step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordache, Ioan; Laurentiu, Patularu [National R and D Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICSI, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Delfrate, Alessandro [UHDENORA SpA (Italy); Iordache, Mihaela [National R and D Institute for Industrial Ecology - ECOIND, Rm. Valcea (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    The transition towards hydrogen becoming widespread in future energy systems and may be one of the greatest social and technical challenges facing society. A wide range of stakeholders will need to work together over extended periods of time to make the sustainable hydrogen ''vision'' a reality. Community-based projects are seen as a route to stimulate the start of the transformation, leading to more widespread early adoption of these new technologies. Valcea have premises to develop some local projects in order to become a Hydrogen Community. This ''Community'' fulfills both an economic-technical background and a scientifically potential. (orig.)

  13. Increasing the number of steps walked each day improves physical fitness in Japanese community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, N; Nakatani, T; Okamoto, Y; Iwamoto, J; Saeki, K; Kurumatani, N

    2010-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of increasing the number of steps each day on physical fitness, and the change in physical fitness according to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotype. A total of 174 participants were randomly assigned to two groups. Subjects in group A were instructed for 24-week trial to increase the number of steps walked each day, while subjects in group B were instructed to engage in brisk walking, at a target heart rate, for 20 min or more a day on two or more days a week. The values of the 3-min shuttle stamina walk test (SSWT) and the 30-s chair-stand test (CS-30) significantly increased, but no differences in increase were found between the groups. A significant relationship was found between the percentage increase in SSWT values and the increase in the number of steps walked by 1 500 steps or more per day over their baseline values. Our results suggest that increasing the number of steps walked daily improves physical fitness. No significant relationships were observed between the change in physical fitness and ACE genotypes. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  14. Older Adult Knowledge and Behavior Change in the Stepping On Fall Prevention Program in a Community Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Strommen; Sean E. Brotherson; Zhen Yang

    2017-01-01

    One out of every three Americans age 65 and over falls at least once annually. Fall-related injuries among older adults are a major public health concern, and prevention of falls has emerged as a key issue in avoiding the risks to mobility and health that exist due to falls. Stepping On is an evidence-based fall prevention program designed to help older adults take control of their fall risk factors, explore different behavioral steps, and reduce their fall risk. This study shares findings...

  15. Young community of EACVI: the transition from EACVI Club 35 to Heart Imagers of Tomorrow: a promising yet challenging step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapsa, Julia; Cameli, Matteo; Granier, Camille; Muraru, Denisa; Ernande, Laura; Popescu, Bogdan A; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Habib, Gilbert

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the activity and potential of the young community of European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and to highlight the transition from Club 35 to 'Heart Imagers of tomorrow'. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Systematic literature review of integrated community case management and the private sector in Africa: Relevant experiences and potential next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awor, Phyllis; Miller, Jane; Peterson, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Despite substantial investments made over the past 40 years in low income countries, governments cannot be viewed as the principal health care provider in many countries. Evidence on the role of the private sector in the delivery of health services is becoming increasingly available. In this study, we set out to determine the extent to which the private sector has been utilized in providing integrated care for sick children under 5 years of age with community-acquired malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea. We reviewed the published literature for integrated community case management (iCCM) related experiences within both the public and private sector. We searched PubMed and Google/Google Scholar for all relevant literature until July 2014. The search terms used were "malaria", "pneumonia", "diarrhoea", "private sector" and "community case management". A total of 383 articles referred to malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea in the private sector. The large majority of these studies (290) were only malaria related. Most of the iCCM-related studies evaluated introduction of only malaria drugs and/or diagnostics into the private sector. Only one study evaluated the introduction of drugs and diagnostics for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea in the private sector. In contrast, most iCCM-related studies in the public sector directly reported on community case management of 2 or more of the illnesses. While the private sector is an important source of care for children in low income countries, little has been done to harness the potential of this sector in improving access to care for non-malaria-associated fever in children within the community. It would be logical for iCCM programs to expand their activities to include the private sector to achieve higher population coverage. An implementation research agenda for private sector integrated care of febrile childhood illness needs to be developed and implemented in conjunction with private sector intervention programs.

  17. The impact of the carer support needs assessment tool (CSNAT in community palliative care using a stepped wedge cluster trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar M Aoun

    Full Text Available Family caregiving towards the end-of-life entails considerable emotional, social, financial and physical costs for caregivers. Evidence suggests that good support can improve caregiver psychological outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the impact of using the carer support needs assessment tool (CSNAT, as an intervention to identify and address support needs in end of life home care, on family caregiver outcomes. A stepped wedge design was used to trial the CSNAT intervention in three bases of Silver Chain Hospice Care in Western Australia, 2012-14. The intervention consisted of at least two visits from nurses (2-3 weeks apart to identify, review and address caregivers' needs. The outcome measures for the intervention and control groups were caregiver strain and distress as measured by the Family Appraisal of Caregiving Questionnaire (FACQ-PC, caregiver mental and physical health as measured by SF-12v2, and caregiver workload as measured by extent of caregiver assistance with activities of daily living, at baseline and follow up. Total recruitment was 620. There was 45% attrition for each group between baseline and follow-up mainly due to patient deaths resulting in 322 caregivers completing the study (233 in the intervention group and 89 in the control group. At follow-up, the intervention group showed significant reduction in caregiver strain relative to controls, p=0.018, d=0.348 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.41. Priority support needs identified by caregivers included knowing what to expect in the future, having time for yourself in the day and dealing with your feelings and worries. Despite the challenges at the clinician, organisational and trial levels, the CSNAT intervention led to an improvement in caregiver strain. Effective implementation of an evidence-informed and caregiver-led tool represents a necessary step towards helping palliative care providers better assess and address caregiver needs, ensuring adequate family

  18. An overview of physico-chemical mechanisms of biogas production by microbial communities: a step towards sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ramansu; Chattopadhyay, Pritam; Shome, Arunima; Banerjee, Sambhu Nath; Chakraborty, Amit Kumar; Mathew, Anil K; Chaudhury, Shibani

    2016-06-01

    Biogas is a combination of methane, CO 2 , nitrogen, H 2 S and traces of few other gases. Almost any organic waste can be biologically transformed into biogas and other energy-rich organic compounds through the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus helping in sustainable waste management. Although microbes are involved in each step of AD, knowledge about those microbial consortia is limited due to the lack of phylogenetic and metabolic data of predominantly unculturable microorganisms. However, culture-independent methods like PCR-based ribotyping has been successfully employed to get information about the microbial consortia involved in AD. Microbes identified have been found to belong mainly to the bacterial phyla of Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Among the archaeal population, the majority have been found to be methanogens (mainly unculturable), the remaining being thermophilic microbes. Thus, the AD process as a whole could be controlled by regulating the microbial consortia involved in it. Optimization in the feedstock, pH, temperature and other physical parameters would be beneficial for the microbial growth and viability and thus helpful for biogas production in AD. Besides, the biogas production is also dependent upon the activity of several key genes, ion-specific transporters and enzymes, like genes coding for methyl-CoM reductase, formylmethanofuran transferase, formate dehydrogenase present in the microbes. Fishing for these high-efficiency genes will ultimately increase the biogas production and sustain the production plant.

  19. Promoting ADL independence in vulnerable, community-dwelling older adults: a pilot RCT comparing 3-Step Workout for Life versus resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chiung-ju Liu,1,2 Huiping Xu,3,4 NiCole R Keith,2,4,5 Daniel O Clark2,4,6 1Department of Occupational Therapy, Indiana University School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 3Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, 4Regenstrief Institute, Inc., 5Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University School of Physical Education and Tourism Management, 6Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: Resistance exercise is effective to increase muscle strength for older adults; however, its effect on the outcome of activities of daily living is often limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 3-Step Workout for Life (which combines resistance exercise, functional exercise, and activities of daily living exercise would be more beneficial than resistance exercise alone. Methods: A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. Fifty-two inactive, community-dwelling older adults (mean age =73 years with muscle weakness and difficulty in activities of daily living were randomized to receive 3-Step Workout for Life or resistance exercise only. Participants in the 3-Step Workout for Life Group performed functional movements and selected activities of daily living at home in addition to resistance exercise. Participants in the Resistance Exercise Only Group performed resistance exercise only. Both groups were comparable in exercise intensity (moderate, duration (50–60 minutes each time for 10 weeks, and frequency (three times a week. Assessment of Motor and Process Skills, a standard performance test on activities of daily living, was administered at baseline, postintervention, and 6 months after intervention completion.Results: At postintervention, the 3-Step Workout for Life Group showed improvement on the outcome measure (mean change from baseline =0.29, P=0.02, but the improvement was not greater than

  20. Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP): a school-based and community-based cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael; Agus, Ashley; Cole, Jonathan; Doherty, Paul; Foxcroft, David; Harvey, Séamus; Murphy, Lynn; Percy, Andrew; Sumnall, Harry

    2018-03-09

    To assess the effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention (the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP)), compared with alcohol education as normal (EAN), in reducing self-reported heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related harms (ARHs) in adolescents. 105 high schools in Northern Ireland (NI) and in Scotland. Schools were stratified by free school meal provision. Schools in NI were also stratified by school type (male/female/coeducational). Eligible students were in school year 8/S1 (aged 11-12 years) at baseline (June 2012). A classroom-based alcohol education intervention, coupled with a brief alcohol intervention for parents/carers. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: (1) The prevalence of self-reported HED in the previous 30 days and (2) the number of self-reported ARHs in the previous 6 months. Outcomes were assessed using two-level random intercepts models (logistic regression for HED and negative binomial for number of ARHs). At 33 months, data were available for 5160 intervention and 5073 control students (HED outcome), and 5234 and 5146 students (ARH outcome), respectively. Of those who completed a questionnaire at either baseline or 12 months (n=12 738), 10 405 also completed the questionnaire at 33 months (81.7%). Fewer students in the intervention group reported HED compared with EAN (17%vs26%; OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.73), with no significant difference in the number of self-reported ARHs (incident rate ratio=0.92, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.05). Although the classroom component was largely delivered as intended, there was low uptake of the parental component. There were no reported adverse effects. Results suggest that STAMPP could be an effective programme to reduce HED prevalence. While there was no significant reduction in ARH, it is plausible that effects on harms would manifest later. ISRCTN47028486; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  1. Exploring health providers’ and community perceptions and experiences with malaria tests in South-East Nigeria: a critical step towards appropriate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeoke Ogochukwu P

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of ACT as the first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Nigeria has concentrated attention on the role of testing in appropriate malaria treatment. There are calls at both national and global level for malaria treatment to be based on test result, but it is still unclear how testing can be incorporated into treatment-seeking and practices of health providers. This study explored community members and health providers’ perceptions and experiences with malaria tests in south east Nigeria. Methods The study was conducted in urban and rural areas of Enugu state in south-eastern Nigeria. A total of 18 focus group discussions with 179 community members including sub-groups of primary caregivers, adult men and adult women aged 15 years and above. Twenty- six (26 In-depth interviews were held with public and private health providers involved in prescribing medicines at public and private health facilities in the study area. Results Both providers and community members were familiar with malaria tests and identified malaria tests as an important step to distinguish malaria from other illnesses with similar symptoms and as a means of delivering appropriate treatment. However, the logic of test-directed treatment was undermined by cost of test and a lack of testing facilities but above all concerns over the reliability of negative test results, with community members and providers observing inconsistencies between results and symptoms, and providers attributing inaccurate results to incompetencies of technicians. Recognition of malaria symptoms was deemed most important in determining the use of antimalarial drugs rather than the result of a malaria test. Conclusion The results highlight important areas of intervention to promote appropriate malaria treatment. If tests are to play a role in patient management, demand and supply side interventions are needed to change people’s attitude towards malaria test

  2. The use of step aerobics and the stability ball to improve balance and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults - a randomized exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsky, Ayelet; Yahalom, Tal; Arnon, Michal; Lidor, Ronnie

    2017-07-01

    To explore the use of step aerobics (SA) and the stability ball (SB) as tools for balance improvement in community-dwelling older adults. Forty-two women (age: 72.2±5.8 years) who attended a community day center volunteered to participate in the study. Following the first assessment session, 28 women were assigned randomly to one of two experimental groups (the use of either SA or SB). The other 14 participants, who were engaged in a ceramic class, served as the control group. The study design was based on four assessment sessions and eight weeks of intervention. Assessment included four balance tests: Timed Up and Go (TUG), One-Leg Stand, Functional Reach, and the Performance-Oriented Assessment of Mobility (POMA). Quality of life was assessed by the use of the Short Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire. The TUG and POMA intervention improved significantly (d=.83 and d=.95, respectively) following the SA. In addition, general health perception following both the SA and SB interventions improved significantly relative to the control condition (d=.62 and d=.22, respectively). The findings of this study may imply that trainers should consider the inclusion of SA and SB as components of physical activity programs for seniors, aimed at improving balance ability and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Step towards a Sharable Community Knowledge Base for WRF Settings -Developing a WRF Setting Methodology based on a case study in a Torrential Rainfall Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHU, Q.; Xu, Z.; Zhuo, L.; Han, D.

    2016-12-01

    Increased requirements for interactions between different disciplines and readily access to the numerical weather forecasting system featured with portability and extensibility have made useful contribution to the increases of downstream model users in WRF over recent years. For these users, a knowledge base classified by the representative events would be much helpful. This is because the determination of model settings is regarded as the most important steps in WRF. However, such a process is generally time-consuming, even if with a high computational platform. As such, we propose a sharable proper lookup table on WRF domain settings and corresponding procedures based on a representative torrential rainfall event in Beijing, China. It has been found that WRF's simulations' drift away from the input lateral boundary conditions can be significantly reduced with the adjustment of the domain settings. Among all the impact factors, the placement of nested domain can not only affect the moving speed and angle of the storm-center, but also the location and amount of heavy-rain-belt which can only be detected with adjusted spatial resolutions. Spin-up time is also considered in the model settings, which is demonstrated to have the most obvious influence on the accuracy of the simulations. This conclusion is made based on the large diversity of spatial distributions of precipitation, in terms of the amount of heavy rain varied from -30% to 58% among each experiment. After following all the procedures, the variations of domain settings have minimal effect on the modeling and show the best correlation (larger than 0.65) with fusion observations. So the model settings, including domain size covering the greater Beijing area, 1:5:5 downscaling ratio, 57 vertical levels with top of 50hpa and 60h spin-up time, are found suitable for predicting the similar convective torrential rainfall event in Beijing area. We hope that the procedure for building the community WRF knowledge

  4. Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  5. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  6. The PULSAR Specialist Care protocol: a stepped-wedge cluster randomized control trial of a training intervention for community mental health teams in recovery-oriented practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawyer, Frances; Enticott, Joanne C; Brophy, Lisa; Bruxner, Annie; Fossey, Ellie; Inder, Brett; Julian, John; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Weller, Penelope; Wilson-Evered, Elisabeth; Edan, Vrinda; Slade, Mike; Meadows, Graham N

    2017-05-08

    Recovery features strongly in Australian mental health policy; however, evidence is limited for the efficacy of recovery-oriented practice at the service level. This paper describes the Principles Unite Local Services Assisting Recovery (PULSAR) Specialist Care trial protocol for a recovery-oriented practice training intervention delivered to specialist mental health services staff. The primary aim is to evaluate whether adult consumers accessing services where staff have received the intervention report superior recovery outcomes compared to adult consumers accessing services where staff have not yet received the intervention. A qualitative sub-study aims to examine staff and consumer views on implementing recovery-oriented practice. A process evaluation sub-study aims to articulate important explanatory variables affecting the interventions rollout and outcomes. The mixed methods design incorporates a two-step stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) examining cross-sectional data from three phases, and nested qualitative and process evaluation sub-studies. Participating specialist mental health care services in Melbourne, Victoria are divided into 14 clusters with half randomly allocated to receive the staff training in year one and half in year two. Research participants are consumers aged 18-75 years who attended the cluster within a previous three-month period either at baseline, 12 (step 1) or 24 months (step 2). In the two nested sub-studies, participation extends to cluster staff. The primary outcome is the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery collected from 756 consumers (252 each at baseline, step 1, step 2). Secondary and other outcomes measuring well-being, service satisfaction and health economic impact are collected from a subset of 252 consumers (63 at baseline; 126 at step 1; 63 at step 2) via interviews. Interview-based longitudinal data are also collected 12 months apart from 88 consumers with a psychotic disorder

  7. Predictors of cognitive impairment assessed by Mini Mental State Examination in community-dwelling older adults: relevance of the step test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, Antonio; Spiller, Ilaria; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Fabbri, Elisa; Forti, Paola; Magalotti, Donatella; Pandolfi, Paolo; Zoli, Marco

    2018-07-15

    Several predictors of cognitive impairment assessed by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) have previously been identified. However, which predictors are the most relevant and what is their effect on MMSE categories remains unclear. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study using data from 1116 older adults (72.6 ± 5.6 years, 579 female), 350 of whom were followed for 7 years. At baseline, the following variables were collected: personal data, marital status, occupation, anthropometric measures, risk factors, previous cardiovascular events, self-rated health and physical activity during the last week. Furthermore, routine laboratory tests, abdominal echography and a step test (with measurement of the time needed to ascend and descend two steps 20 times) were performed. The associations of these variables with cross-sectional cognitive deficit (MMSE cognitive decline (decrease of MMSE score over 7 years of follow-up) were investigated using logistic regression models. Cross-sectional cognitive deficit was independently associated with school education ≤ 5 years, prolonged step test duration, having been blue collar or housewife (P ≤ 0.0001 for all) and, with lower significance, with advanced age, previous stroke and poor recent physical activity (P cognitive decline was mainly associated with step test duration (P = 0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.0002). The MMSE categories mostly associated with step test duration were orientation, attention, calculation and language, while memory appeared to be poorly or not affected. In our cohort of older adults, step test duration was the most relevant predictor of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Next steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    On the 60th anniversary of the founding of the Chartered Institute of Transport, its past, its current aims and structure, and the role which the Institute should adopt to the year 2000 are discussed. Technological and social change, bureaucracy, industrial relations, worker participation, government and transport, national role, and financial policy, are some of the subjects covered. In discussing the energy crisis, the objectives of the European Communities for 1985 and 1990 dealing with energy and energy conservatin are noted. Absent was the mention of the role that transport could play in the more efficient and effective utilization of energy. The Institute of Transport has the opportunity to demonstrate leadership and initiative in cooperating with governments in the area of energy use and energy conservation.

  9. Effectiveness of community-based treatment for problem gambling: a quasi-experimental evaluation of cognitive-behavioral vs. twelve-step therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toneatto, Tony; Dragonetti, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing availability of gambling throughout North America, there is interest in developing more effective treatments. This study compares the effectiveness of two brief outpatient treatments for problem gambling: eight sessions of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (n = 65) and eight sessions of a twelve-step treatment-oriented approach based on the first five steps of Gamblers Anonymous (n = 61). There were no baseline group differences on gambling-relevant variables. Twelve months post-treatment showed no group differences on key gambling variables (eg, frequency, abstinence rates, money wagered) in an analysis of completers. Participants who attended more sessions and chose an initial abstinent treatment goal appeared to achieve better outcomes.

  10. Partnering on a Curriculum To Address the Dental Care Crisis in a Rural Island Community: The First Step of a Career Ladder Program in Dental Assisting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, J. A.; Johnson, Nancy

    This document describes the curriculum and objectives of the Certificate of Completion in Dental Assisting at Maui Community College, Hawaii. Hawaii is below the national average in oral health care, with as many as 40% of Maui residents being underserved. Dental disease among the uninsured and underinsured in Hawaii is three times the national…

  11. A Randomized Trial Using Motivational Interviewing for Maintenance of Blood Pressure Improvements in a Community-Engaged Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Alicia; Madson, Michael; Thomson, Jessica; Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Yadrick, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effective dose of motivational interviewing for maintaining intervention-induced health outcome improvements. The purpose of this study was to compare effects of two doses of motivational interviewing for maintaining blood pressure improvements in a community-engaged lifestyle intervention conducted with…

  12. A randomized trail using motivational interviewing for maintenance of blood pressure improvements in a community-engaged lifestyle intervention: HUB City Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Little is known about the effective dose of motivational interviewing for maintaining intervention-induced health outcome improvements. Purpose: To compare effects of two doses of motivational interviewing for maintaining blood pressure improvements in a community-engaged lifestyle int...

  13. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked de...

  14. Effects of 10,000 steps a day on physical and mental health in overweight participants in a community setting: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Being overweight is associated not only with physical health problems, but also with risk of mental health problems. Increased physical activity (PA has been recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the effect of walking on physical and mental health outcomes. Objective The purpose of the study was to explore the effectiveness of a pedometer-based PA intervention on physical and mental health states. Method Thirty-five overweight participants with body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg•m–2 were selected and assigned to a 12-week pedometer-based walking program (10,000 steps•d–1. The profile of mood states, BMI, waist circumference (WC, body fat percentage (%BF, and lean body mass (LBM were measured before and after the 12-week intervention. The number of step counts was recorded 5 days a week in a diary booklet. Results The 30 participants who accumulated 10,000 steps•d–1 had significantly lower anxiety, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion, and total mood distress scores compared with measurements taken prior to the intervention. Further, the participants had higher vigor scores compared to baseline. Regarding physical health, the participants who accrued 10,000 steps a day had significantly lower body weight, WC, BMI, and %BP. After adjustment for gender, height, and daily steps at follow-up, changes in WC were negatively associated with depression, fatigue, confusion, and total mood distress. Conclusions An increase in PA by accumulating at least 10,000 steps•d–1 over a 12-week period improves physical and mood states in sedentary, overweight individuals.

  15. Effects of 10,000 steps a day on physical and mental health in overweight participants in a community setting: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong

    2016-01-01

    Being overweight is associated not only with physical health problems, but also with risk of mental health problems. Increased physical activity (PA) has been recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the effect of walking on physical and mental health outcomes. The purpose of the study was to explore the effectiveness of a pedometer-based PA intervention on physical and mental health states. Thirty-five overweight participants with body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg•m-2 were selected and assigned to a 12-week pedometer-based walking program (10,000 steps•d-1). The profile of mood states, BMI, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (%BF), and lean body mass (LBM) were measured before and after the 12-week intervention. The number of step counts was recorded 5 days a week in a diary booklet. The 30 participants who accumulated 10,000 steps•d-1 had significantly lower anxiety, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion, and total mood distress scores compared with measurements taken prior to the intervention. Further, the participants had higher vigor scores compared to baseline. Regarding physical health, the participants who accrued 10,000 steps a day had significantly lower body weight, WC, BMI, and %BP. After adjustment for gender, height, and daily steps at follow-up, changes in WC were negatively associated with depression, fatigue, confusion, and total mood distress. An increase in PA by accumulating at least 10,000 steps•d-1 over a 12-week period improves physical and mood states in sedentary, overweight individuals.

  16. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  17. Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Quant, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out - Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order.

  18. Step out-step in sequencing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out–Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order. First,

  19. Steps Toward Creating A Therapeutic Community for Inpatients Suffering from Chronic Ulcers: Lessons from Allada Buruli Ulcer Treatment Hospital in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Setondji Amoussouhoui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing social distance between hospital staff and patients and establishing clear lines of communication is a major challenge when providing in-patient care for people afflicted by Buruli ulcer (BU and chronic ulcers. Research on hospitals as therapeutic communities is virtually non-existent in Africa and is currently being called for by medical anthropologists working in the field of health service and policy planning. This paper describes a pioneering attempt to establish a therapeutic community for patients suffering from BU and other chronic ulcers requiring long term hospital care in Benin.A six-month pilot project was undertaken with the objectives of establishing a therapeutic community and evaluating its impact on practitioner and patient relations. The project was designed and implemented by a team of social scientists working in concert with the current and previous director of a hospital serving patients suffering from advanced stage BU and other chronic ulcers. Qualitative research initially investigated patients' understanding of their illness and its treatment, identified questions patients had about their hospitalization, and ascertained their level of social support. Newly designed question-answer health education sessions were developed. Following these hospital wide education sessions, open forums were held each week to provide an opportunity for patients and hospital staff to express concerns and render sources of discontent transparent. Patient group representatives then met with hospital staff to problem solve issues in a non-confrontational manner. Psychosocial support for individual patients was provided in a second intervention which took the form of drop-in counseling sessions with social scientists trained to serve as therapy facilitators and culture brokers.Interviews with patients revealed that most patients had very little information about the identity of their illness and the duration of their treatment. This

  20. A randomized trial using motivational interviewing for maintenance of blood pressure improvements in a community-engaged lifestyle intervention: HUB city steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Alicia; Madson, Michael; Thomson, Jessica; Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Yadrick, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effective dose of motivational interviewing for maintaining intervention-induced health outcome improvements. The purpose of this study was to compare effects of two doses of motivational interviewing for maintaining blood pressure improvements in a community-engaged lifestyle intervention conducted with African-Americans. Participants were tracked through a 12-month maintenance phase following a 6-month intervention targeting physical activity and diet. For the maintenance phase, participants were randomized to receive a low (4) or high (10) dose of motivational interviewing delivered via telephone by trained research staff. Generalized linear models were used to test for group differences in blood pressure. Blood pressure significantly increased during the maintenance phase. No differences were apparent between randomized groups. Results suggest that 10 or fewer motivational interviewing calls over a 12-month period may be insufficient to maintain post-intervention improvements in blood pressure. Further research is needed to determine optimal strategies for maintaining changes. PMID:26590242

  1. Involving the Community

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Step 3: Identifying the different community groups and other stakeholders concerned .... How can two-way communication enhance community participation in ...... for maintenance and the rights of specific community groups to drinkable water.

  2. Internship guide : Work placements step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Internship Guide: Work Placements Step by Step has been written from the practical perspective of a placement coordinator. This book addresses the following questions : what problems do students encounter when they start thinking about the jobs their degree programme prepares them for? How do you

  3. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  4. [Effects of Square-Stepping Exercise inducing activation of the brain's cognitive function in community-dwelling older Japanese females--Focus on the baseline cognitive function level and age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takumi; Tsuji, Taishi; Kitano, Naruki; Muraki, Toshiaki; Hotta, Kazushi; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the degree of improvement in cognitive function achieved with an exercise intervention in community-dwelling older Japanese women is affected by the participant's baseline cognitive function and age. Eighty-eight women (mean age: 70.5±4.2 years) participated in a prevention program for long-term care. They completed the Square-Stepping Exercise (SSE) program once a week, 120 minutes/session, for 11 weeks. We assessed participants' cognitive function using 5 cognitive tests (5-Cog) before and after the intervention. We defined cognitive function as the 5-Cog total score and defined the change in cognitive function as the 5-cog post-score minus the pre-score. We divided participants into four groups based on age (≤69 years or ≥70 years) and baseline cognitive function level (above vs. below the median cognitive function level). We conducted two-way analysis of variance. All 4 groups improved significantly in cognitive function after the intervention. There were no baseline cognitive function level×age interactions and no significant main effects of age, although significant main effects of baseline cognitive function level (P=0.004, η(2)=0.09) were observed. Square-Stepping Exercise is an effective exercise for improving cognitive function. These results suggest that older adults with cognitive decline are more likely to improve their cognitive function with exercise than if they start the intervention with high cognitive function. Furthermore, during an exercise intervention, baseline cognitive function level may have more of an effect than a participant's age on the degree of cognitive improvement.

  5. Microsoft Office professional 2010 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce; Frye, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Teach yourself exactly what you need to know about using Office Professional 2010-one step at a time! With STEP BY STEP, you build and practice new skills hands-on, at your own pace. Covering Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Outlook, Excel, Access, Publisher, and OneNote, this book will help you learn the core features and capabilities needed to: Create attractive documents, publications, and spreadsheetsManage your e-mail, calendar, meetings, and communicationsPut your business data to workDevelop and deliver great presentationsOrganize your ideas and notes in one placeConnect, share, and accom

  6. Step by Step Microsoft Office Visio 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Visio 2003, the Microsoft Office business and technical diagramming program. With STEP BY STEP, you can take just the lessons you need, or work from cover to cover. Either way, you drive the instruction-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Produce computer network diagrams, organization charts, floor plans, and moreUse templates to create new diagrams and drawings quicklyAdd text, color, and 1-D and 2-D shapesInsert graphics and pictures, such as company logosConnect shapes to create a basic f

  7. Free Modal Algebras Revisited: The Step-by-Step Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio; Jibladze, Mamuka

    2012-01-01

    We review the step-by-step method of constructing finitely generated free modal algebras. First we discuss the global step-by-step method, which works well for rank one modal logics. Next we refine the global step-by-step method to obtain the local step-by-step method, which is applicable beyond

  8. Diabetes PSA (:30) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  9. Diabetes PSA (:60) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  10. Microsoft Office Word 2007 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create impressive documents with Word 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them!Apply styles and themes to your document for a polished lookAdd graphics and text effects-and see a live previewOrganize information with new SmartArt diagrams and chartsInsert references, footnotes, indexes, a table of contentsSend documents for review and manage revisionsTurn your ideas into blogs, Web pages, and moreYour all-in-one learning experience includes:Files for building sk

  11. Protocol for a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial assessing the impact of a community-level hygiene intervention and a water intervention using riverbank filtration technology on diarrhoeal prevalence in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Sarah L; O'Toole, Joanne E; Boving, Thomas B; Forbes, Andrew B; Sinclair, Martha; Gautam, Sumit K; Leder, Karin

    2017-03-17

    Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death globally, mostly occurring as a result of insufficient or unsafe water supplies, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. Our study aims to investigate the impact of a community-level hygiene education program and a water quality intervention using riverbank filtration (RBF) technology on diarrhoeal prevalence. We have designed a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial to estimate the health impacts of our intervention in 4 rural villages in Karnataka, India. At baseline, surveys will be conducted in all villages, and householders will receive hygiene education. New pipelines, water storage tanks and taps will then be installed at accessible locations in each village and untreated piped river water will be supplied. A subsequent survey will evaluate the impact of hygiene education combined with improved access to greater water volumes for hygiene and drinking purposes (improved water quantity). Villages will then be randomly ordered and RBF-treated water (improved water quality) will be sequentially introduced into the 4 villages in a stepwise manner, with administration of surveys at each time point. The primary outcome is a 7-day period prevalence of self-reported diarrhoea. Secondary outcomes include self-reported respiratory and skin infections, and reported changes in hygiene practices, household water usage and water supply preference. River, tank and tap water from each village, and stored water from a subset of households, will be sampled to assess microbial and chemical quality. Ethics approval was obtained from the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee in Australia and The Energy and Resources Institute Institutional Ethics Committee in India. The results of the trial will be presented at conferences, published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to relevant stakeholders. This study is funded by an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) project grant. ACTRN12616001286437; pre

  12. Steps toward Gaining Knowledge of World Music Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This article presents steps toward gaining knowledge of world music pedagogy for K-12 general music educators. The majority of the article details steps that invite engagement within everyday contexts with accessible resources within local and online communities. The steps demonstrate ways general music teachers can diversify and self-direct their…

  13. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Redondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa. The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. Results: The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipment utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40°C to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1–5. Conclusions: Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment.

  14. Last Step to Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Ed

    2016-01-01

    First-time community college presidents are typically chosen from the senior ranks of two-year colleges' administrations, so they know what the job entails to some extent--at least from a close secondhand perspective. Leaders of community colleges who have taken the reins in the mid-2010s say that a close secondhand view only goes so far in…

  15. Step-by-step cyclic processes scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, G.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaszak, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research is to pro......Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research...... is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at AGVs fleet scheduling subject to assumed itineraries of concurrently manufactured product types. In other words, assuming a given layout of FMS’s material handling and production routes of simultaneously manufactured...... orders, the main objective is to provide the declarative framework aimed at conditions allowing one to calculate the AGVs fleet schedule in online mode. An illustrative example of the relevant algebra-like driven step-by-stem cyclic scheduling is provided....

  16. The Seven Step Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Many well-intended instructors use Socratic or leveled questioning to facilitate the discussion of an assigned reading. While this engages a few students, most can opt to remain silent. The seven step strategy described in this article provides an alternative to classroom silence and engages all students. Students discuss a single reading as they…

  17. Accelerators Spanish steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    In September, the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) held its third General Accelerator Physics Course, the venue this time being Salamanca, the oldest university in Spain. Spain, which rejoined CERN in 1982, now has a vigorous and steadily growing high energy physics community making substantial contributions to physics detector development and successfully involving Spanish industry. However the embryonic accelerator community cannot yet generate an equivalent level of activity, and this important channel for introducing new high technology into industry has yet to be fully exploited

  18. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  19. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating...... or capturing concrete values, objects, or actions. As the next step, some of these are lifted to a higher level by computational means. In the object-oriented paradigm the target of such steps is classes. We hypothesise that the proposed approach primarily will be beneficial to novice programmers or during...... the exploratory phase of a program development process. In some specific niches it is also expected that our approach will benefit professional programmers....

  20. Step 3: Manage Your Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 3: Manage Your Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... 2 Diabetes" Articles Diabetes Is Serious But Manageable / Step 1: Learn About Diabetes / Step 2: Know Your ...

  1. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stepping Stones through Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lyle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Indo-European mythology is known only through written records but it needs to be understood in terms of the preliterate oral-cultural context in which it was rooted. It is proposed that this world was conceptually organized through a memory-capsule consisting of the current generation and the three before it, and that there was a system of alternate generations with each generation taking a step into the future under the leadership of a white or red king.

  3. SYSTEMATIZATION OF THE BASIC STEPS OF THE STEP-AEROBICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Korovljev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of the powerful sport industry, in front of us appeared a lot of new opportunities for creating of the new programmes of exercising with certain requisites. One of such programmes is certainly step-aerobics. Step-aerobics can be defined as a type of aerobics consisting of the basic aerobic steps (basic steps applied in exercising on stepper (step bench, with a possibility to regulate its height. Step-aerobics itself can be divided into several groups, depending on the following: type of music, working methods and adopted knowledge of the attendants. In this work, the systematization of the basic steps in step-aerobics was made on the basis of the following criteria: steps origin, number of leg motions in stepping and relating the body support at the end of the step. Systematization of the basic steps of the step-aerobics is quite significant for making a concrete review of the existing basic steps, thus making creation of the step-aerobics lesson easier

  4. Community Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Saganowski, Stanisław; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Havi...

  5. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galyean, W.J.; Whaley, A.M.; Kelly, D.L.; Boring, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  6. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. J. Galyean; A. M. Whaley; D. L. Kelly; R. L. Boring

    2011-05-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  7. Hippocampus discovery First steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available The first steps of the discovery, and the main discoverers, of the hippocampus are outlined. Arantius was the first to describe a structure he named "hippocampus" or "white silkworm". Despite numerous controversies and alternate designations, the term hippocampus has prevailed until this day as the most widely used term. Duvernoy provided an illustration of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, considered the first by most authors, which appeared more than one and a half century after Arantius' description. Some authors have identified other drawings and texts which they claim predate Duvernoy's depiction, in studies by Vesalius, Varolio, Willis, and Eustachio, albeit unconvincingly. Considering the definition of the hippocampal formation as comprising the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus and subiculum, Arantius and Duvernoy apparently described the gross anatomy of this complex. The pioneering studies of Arantius and Duvernoy revealed a relatively small hidden formation that would become one of the most valued brain structures.

  8. Astronomical sketching a step-by-step introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Handy, Richard; Perez, Jeremy; Rix, Erika; Robbins, Sol

    2007-01-01

    This book presents the amateur with fine examples of astronomical sketches and step-by-step tutorials in each medium, from pencil to computer graphics programs. This unique book can teach almost anyone to create beautiful sketches of celestial objects.

  9. Small Town Energy Program (STEP) Final Report revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Charles (Chuck) T.

    2014-01-02

    University Park, Maryland (“UP”) is a small town of 2,540 residents, 919 homes, 2 churches, 1 school, 1 town hall, and 1 breakthrough community energy efficiency initiative: the Small Town Energy Program (“STEP”). STEP was developed with a mission to “create a model community energy transformation program that serves as a roadmap for other small towns across the U.S.” STEP first launched in January 2011 in UP and expanded in July 2012 to the neighboring communities of Hyattsville, Riverdale Park, and College Heights Estates, MD. STEP, which concluded in July 2013, was generously supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The STEP model was designed for replication in other resource-constrained small towns similar to University Park - a sector largely neglected to date in federal and state energy efficiency programs. STEP provided a full suite of activities for replication, including: energy audits and retrofits for residential buildings, financial incentives, a community-based social marketing backbone and local community delivery partners. STEP also included the highly innovative use of an “Energy Coach” who worked one-on-one with clients throughout the program. Please see www.smalltownenergy.org for more information. In less than three years, STEP achieved the following results in University Park: • 30% of community households participated voluntarily in STEP; • 25% of homes received a Home Performance with ENERGY STAR assessment; • 16% of households made energy efficiency improvements to their home; • 64% of households proceeded with an upgrade after their assessment; • 9 Full Time Equivalent jobs were created or retained, and 39 contractors worked on STEP over the course of the project. Estimated Energy Savings - Program Totals kWh Electricity 204,407 Therms Natural Gas 24,800 Gallons of Oil 2,581 Total Estimated MMBTU Saved (Source Energy) 5,474 Total Estimated Annual Energy Cost Savings $61,343 STEP clients who

  10. STEP and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-09-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 1013 to one part in 1018 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

  11. STEP and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-01-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 10 13 to one part in 10 18 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels. (paper)

  12. One-step microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlen, Franz-Josef; Sankaranarayanan, Srikanth; Kar, Aravinda

    1997-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is a one-step rapid machining process to create miniaturized 3D parts, using the original sample material. An experimental setup where metal powder is fed to the laser beam-material interaction region has been built. The powder is melted and forms planar, 2D geometries as the substrate is moved under the laser beam in XY- direction. After completing the geometry in the plane, the substrate is displaced in Z-direction, and a new layer of material is placed on top of the just completed deposit. By continuous repetition of this process, 3D parts wee created. In particular, the impact of the focal spot size of the high power laser beam on the smallest achievable structures was investigated. At a translation speed of 51 mm/s a minimum material thickness of 590 micrometers was achieved. Also, it was shown that a small Z-displacement has a negligible influence on the continuity of the material deposition over this power range. A high power CO2 laser was used as energy source, the material powder under investigation was stainless steel SS304L. Helium was used as shield gas at a flow rate of 15 1/min. The incident CO2 laser beam power was varied between 300 W and 400 W, with the laser beam intensity distribute in a donut mode. The laser beam was focused to a focal diameter of 600 (Mu) m.

  13. Step 1: Learn about Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 1: Learn About Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... the whole family healthy! Here are four key steps to help you control your diabetes and live ...

  14. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean

    2012-06-01

    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  15. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  16. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Methods An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4 years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9 months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6 months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. Ethics and dissemination The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  17. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-03-24

    User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4 years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9 months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6 months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000457640. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  18. Community Colleges Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Corinne; Jervis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Jill Biden, Vice President Joe Biden's wife, has been teaching in community colleges for the past 18 years. Dr. Biden believes that community colleges are "…uniquely American institutions where anyone who walks through the door is one step closer to realizing the American dream." This is an inspiring sentiment. However, of all the…

  19. Effects of walking speed on the step-by-step control of step width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Katy H; Heitkamp, Lauren N; Horne, Joscelyn S; Dean, Jesse C

    2018-02-08

    Young, healthy adults walking at typical preferred speeds use step-by-step adjustments of step width to appropriately redirect their center of mass motion and ensure mediolateral stability. However, it is presently unclear whether this control strategy is retained when walking at the slower speeds preferred by many clinical populations. We investigated whether the typical stabilization strategy is influenced by walking speed. Twelve young, neurologically intact participants walked on a treadmill at a range of prescribed speeds (0.2-1.2 m/s). The mediolateral stabilization strategy was quantified as the proportion of step width variance predicted by the mechanical state of the pelvis throughout a step (calculated as R 2 magnitude from a multiple linear regression). Our ability to accurately predict the upcoming step width increased over the course of a step. The strength of the relationship between step width and pelvis mechanics at the start of a step was reduced at slower speeds. However, these speed-dependent differences largely disappeared by the end of a step, other than at the slowest walking speed (0.2 m/s). These results suggest that mechanics-dependent adjustments in step width are a consistent component of healthy gait across speeds and contexts. However, slower walking speeds may ease this control by allowing mediolateral repositioning of the swing leg to occur later in a step, thus encouraging slower walking among clinical populations with limited sensorimotor control. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial of Screening, Risk Modification, and Physical Therapy to Prevent Falls Among the Elderly Recently Discharged From the Emergency Department to the Community: The Steps to Avoid Falls in the Elderly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchar, David B; Duncan, Pamela W; Lien, Christopher T; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Lee, Mina; Gao, Fei; Sim, Rita; Eom, Kirsten

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial, tailored program of physical therapy to reduce the occurrence of falls among a heterogeneous group of high-risk elderly Singaporeans recently discharged from the emergency department (ED). Randomized controlled trial. Communities. Adults (N=354) aged ≥65 years who were seen in the ED for a fall or fall-related injuries and discharged home. The intervention primarily consisted of a tailored program of physical therapy focused on progressive training in strength, balance, and gait for a period of 3 months. Participants in the intervention group also received screening and follow-up for vision, polypharmacy, and environmental hazards. Participants in the control group received usual care prescribed by a physician and educational materials on falls prevention. The primary outcome measure was experiencing at least 1 fall during the 9-month study period (a 3-mo active intervention phase and a 6-mo maintenance phase). Secondary outcome measures were the occurrence of at least 1 injurious fall during the study period and a change in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score. Participants were assessed both after 3 and 9 months. During the 9-month study period, 37.8% of the control group and 30.5% of the intervention group fell at least once, which was not statistically significantly different (odds ratio [OR]=.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], .46-1.12; P=.146). The intervention group had statistically significantly fewer individuals with injurious falls (OR=.56; 95% CI, .32-.98; P=.041) and less deterioration in physical performance, reflected by a mean difference of 0.6 in SPPB scores (P=.029). Multivariate analyses indicated a strong interaction effect between the intervention and the presence of 2 or more major comorbidities; after accounting for this effect, the intervention program reduced the number of people experiencing at least 1 fall (OR=.34; 95% CI, .17-.67; P=.002). We observed that in this

  1. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  2. The NIST Step Class Library (Step Into the Future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Figure 6. Excerpt from a STEP exclange file based on the Geometry model 1be NIST STEP Class Libary Page 13 An issue of concern in this...Scheifler, R., Gettys, J., and Newman, P., X Window System: C Library and Protocol Reference. Digital Press, Bedford, Mass, 1988. [Schenck90] Schenck, D

  3. Step-by-Step Visual Manuals: Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    The types of handouts and manuals that are used in technology training vary. Some describe procedures in a narrative way without graphics; some employ step-by-step instructions with screen captures. According to Thirlway (1994), a training manual should be like a tutor that permits a student to learn at his own pace and gives him confidence for…

  4. On the Convexity of Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the convexity of Step out - Step in (SoSi) sequencing games, a class of relaxed sequencing games first analyzed by Musegaas, Borm, and Quant (2015). The proof makes use of a polynomial time algorithm determining the value and an optimal processing order for an

  5. Valve cam design using numerical step-by-step method

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Bakhracheva, Yuliya; Kabore, Ousman; Zelenskiy, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the numerical step-by-step method of cam profile design. The results of the study are used for designing the internal combustion engine valve gear. This method allows to profile the peak efficiency of cams in view of many restrictions, connected with valve gear serviceability and reliability.

  6. The bounded proof property via step algebras and step frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a semantic criterion for a specific rule-based calculus Ax axiomatizing a given logic L to have the so-called bounded proof property. This property is a kind of an analytic subformula property limiting the proof search space. Our main tools are one-step frames and one-step algebras. These

  7. Leading Change Step-by-Step: Tactics, Tools, and Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jody

    2010-01-01

    "Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…

  8. Prevention of anxiety and depression in the age group of 75 years and over: a randomised controlled trial testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a generic stepped care programme among elderly community residents at high risk of developing anxiety and depression versus usual care [ISRCTN26474556

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oppen Patricia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In frail elderly, the effects of depression and anxiety are deep encroaching. Indicated prevention studies, aimed at subjects with subthreshold disorder, have shown that well designed interventions are capable of reducing the incidence of depression and anxiety. In this randomised prevention trial for elderly, living in the community and suffering from subthreshold depression and anxiety, a stepped care programme was put together to be tested versus usual (GP care. Methods/design Design: randomised controlled trial. (See figure 1: organisation chart together with two other projects, this project is part of a national consortium that investigates the prevention of anxiety and depressive disorders in later life using a stepped care programme. The three projects have their own particular focus. This project is aimed at elderly living in the community. Inclusion: subjects with a high risk for depression and anxiety without clinical evidence of these syndromes. The participants are 75 years of age and over and have subthreshold symptoms of depression and or anxiety: they score above the cut-off point on the self-report Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale, but the criteria for a major depressive disorder or anxiety disorder (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder according to a validated interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI are not fulfilled. Outcomes: primary outcome: incidence of a depressive or anxiety disorder over a period of two years (MINI; secondary outcome: a positive influence of the intervention, a stepped care programme, on symptoms of depression and anxiety and on quality of life as assessed with the CES D, the HADS A and the SF36 respectively (i.e. stabilisation or improvement of symptoms [see table 1]. Measurements: Take place at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Trained independent evaluators assess depression and

  9. How School Principals Can Foster Effective Literacy Instruction: A Ten-Step Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchman, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    School principals can foster effective literacy instruction by orchestrating community collaboration in an ongoing cycle of literacy program development, implementation, evaluation, and revision outlined in this ten-step plan. The steps address forming a community advisory board, appointing a building literacy leader, forming a literacy team,…

  10. A small step for mankind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, C.; Koymans, R.L.C.; Kuiper, R.; Dams, D.; Hannemann, U.; Steffen, M.

    2010-01-01

    For many programming languages, the only formal semantics published is an SOS big-step semantics. Such a semantics is not suited for investigations that observe intermediate states, such as invariant techniques. In this paper, a construction is proposed that generates automatically a small-step SOS

  11. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  12. Microprocessor controller for stepping motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, B.G.; Thuot, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept for digital computer control of multiple stepping motors which operate in a severe electromagnetic pulse environment is presented. The motors position mirrors in the beam-alignment system of a 100-kJ CO 2 laser. An asynchronous communications channel of a computer is used to send coded messages, containing the motor address and stepping-command information, to the stepping-motor controller in a bit serial format over a fiber-optics communications link. The addressed controller responds by transmitting to the computer its address and other motor information, thus confirming the received message. Each controller is capable of controlling three stepping motors. The controller contains the fiber-optics interface, a microprocessor, and the stepping-motor driven circuits. The microprocessor program, which resides in an EPROM, decodes the received messages, transmits responses, performs the stepping-motor sequence logic, maintains motor-position information, and monitors the motor's reference switch. For multiple stepping-motor application, the controllers are connected in a daisy chain providing control of many motors from one asynchronous communications channel of the computer

  13. Adsorption-induced step formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, P.; Christoffersen, Ebbe; Lorensen, Henrik Qvist

    2001-01-01

    Through an interplay between density functional calculations, Monte Carlo simulations and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments, we show that an intermediate coverage of CO on the Pt(110) surface gives rise to a new rough equilibrium structure with more than 50% step atoms. CO is shown to bind...... so strongly to low-coordinated Pt atoms that it can break Pt-Pt bonds and spontaneously form steps on the surface. It is argued that adsorption-induced step formation may be a general effect, in particular at high gas pressures and temperatures....

  14. Step sites in syngas catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup-Nielsen, J.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2006-01-01

    Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative explanat......Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative...... explanation of the impact of step sites on catalyst activity and side reactions such as carbon formation. This leads to a discussion of principles for catalyst promotion....

  15. The primary steps of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, G.R.; Van Grondelle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The two important initial steps of photosynthesis-electron transfer and energy transfer occur with great speed and efficiency. New techniques in laser optics and genetic engineering age helping us to understand why. (author). 24 refs. 8 figs

  16. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  17. Marginal Experiments: Peter Brook and Stepping out Theatre Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article juxtaposes the recent work of Peter Brook with a Bristol-based mental health service-user collective--Stepping Out Theatre Company. Informed by field-work with the company, this chapter explores the aesthetic and political relationship between professional, experimental theatre work and community-based performance practice. Drawing…

  18. Microsoft® Office Access™ 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Steve; Lambert, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to build database solutions with Access 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build databases from scratch or from templatesExchange data with other databases and Office documentsCreate forms to simplify data entryUse filters and queries to find and analyze informationDesign rich reports that help make your data meaningfulHelp prevent data corruption and unauthorized access Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Files for building skills and practic

  19. Microsoft Windows Sharepoint Services 3.0 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Londer, Olga; Bleeker, Todd; Coventry, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Windows SharePoint Services to enable effective team collaboration. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build your own SharePoint site with easy-to-use templatesCreate lists and libraries to store informationAdd discussion boards, wikis, and blogsSet up Document and Meeting Workspaces for easy collaborationShare calendars, contacts, and data from Microsoft Office programsCustomize your pages with Web Parts Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Fi

  20. Linear, Step by Step Managerial Performance, versus Exponential Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George MOLDOVEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the transition from the potential management concept, which its authors approached by determining its dimension (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009b, to the linear, step by step performance concept, as an objective result of management process. In this way, we “answer” the theorists and practitioners, who support exponential management performance. The authors, as detractors of the exponential performance, are influenced by the current crisis (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009a, by the lack of organizational excellence in many companies, particularly in Romanian ones and also reaching “the finality” in the evolved companies, developed into an uncontrollable speed.

  1. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  2. A step-by-step methodology for enterprise interoperability projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmeta, Ricardo; Pazos, Verónica

    2015-05-01

    Enterprise interoperability is one of the key factors for enhancing enterprise competitiveness. Achieving enterprise interoperability is an extremely complex process which involves different technological, human and organisational elements. In this paper we present a framework to help enterprise interoperability. The framework has been developed taking into account the three domains of interoperability: Enterprise Modelling, Architecture and Platform and Ontologies. The main novelty of the framework in comparison to existing ones is that it includes a step-by-step methodology that explains how to carry out an enterprise interoperability project taking into account different interoperability views, like business, process, human resources, technology, knowledge and semantics.

  3. One step beyond: Different step-to-step transitions exist during continuous contact brachiation in siamangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fana Michilsens

    2012-02-01

    In brachiation, two main gaits are distinguished, ricochetal brachiation and continuous contact brachiation. During ricochetal brachiation, a flight phase exists and the body centre of mass (bCOM describes a parabolic trajectory. For continuous contact brachiation, where at least one hand is always in contact with the substrate, we showed in an earlier paper that four step-to-step transition types occur. We referred to these as a ‘point’, a ‘loop’, a ‘backward pendulum’ and a ‘parabolic’ transition. Only the first two transition types have previously been mentioned in the existing literature on gibbon brachiation. In the current study, we used three-dimensional video and force analysis to describe and characterize these four step-to-step transition types. Results show that, although individual preference occurs, the brachiation strides characterized by each transition type are mainly associated with speed. Yet, these four transitions seem to form a continuum rather than four distinct types. Energy recovery and collision fraction are used as estimators of mechanical efficiency of brachiation and, remarkably, these parameters do not differ between strides with different transition types. All strides show high energy recoveries (mean  = 70±11.4% and low collision fractions (mean  = 0.2±0.13, regardless of the step-to-step transition type used. We conclude that siamangs have efficient means of modifying locomotor speed during continuous contact brachiation by choosing particular step-to-step transition types, which all minimize collision fraction and enhance energy recovery.

  4. High accuracy step gauge interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byman, V.; Jaakkola, T.; Palosuo, I.; Lassila, A.

    2018-05-01

    Step gauges are convenient transfer standards for the calibration of coordinate measuring machines. A novel interferometer for step gauge calibrations implemented at VTT MIKES is described. The four-pass interferometer follows Abbe’s principle and measures the position of the inductive probe attached to a measuring head. The measuring head of the instrument is connected to a balanced boom above the carriage by a piezo translation stage. A key part of the measuring head is an invar structure on which the inductive probe and the corner cubes of the measuring arm of the interferometer are attached. The invar structure can be elevated so that the probe is raised without breaking the laser beam. During probing, the bending of the probe and the interferometer readings are recorded and the measurement face position is extrapolated to zero force. The measurement process is fully automated and the face positions of the steps can be measured up to a length of 2 m. Ambient conditions are measured continuously and the refractive index of air is compensated for. Before measurements the step gauge is aligned with an integrated 2D coordinate measuring system. The expanded uncertainty of step gauge calibration is U=\\sqrt{{{(64 nm)}2}+{{(88× {{10}-9}L)}2}} .

  5. FIRST STEP towards ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Production of tritium for weapons and fusion R and D programs and successful development of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technologies are important national goals. A conceptual design for an ICF facility to meet these goals is presented. FIRST STEP (Fusion, Inertial, Reduced-Requirements Systems Test for Special Nuclear Material, Tritium, and Energy Production) is a concept for a plant to produce SNM, tritium, and energy while serving as a test bed for ICF technology development. A credible conceptual design for an ICF SNM and tritium production facility that competes favorably with fission technology on the bases of cost, production quality, and safety was sought. FIRST STEP is also designed to be an engineering test facility that integrates systems required for an ICF power plant and that is intermediate in scale between proof-of-principle experiment and commercial power plant. FIRST STEP driver and pellet performance requirements are moderate and represent reasonable intermediate goals in an R and D plan for ICF commercialization. Repetition rate requirements for FIRST STEP are similar to those of commercial size plants and FIRST STEP can be used to integrate systems under realistic ICF conditions

  6. Colleges and Communities: Increasing Local Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    2001-01-01

    Community colleges in Appalachia are helping boost local economies and expand educational opportunities through the national Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI). At the heart of RCCI is a nine-step strategic planning process in which a community group moves from vision to action. Kentucky's Southeast Community College has promoted…

  7. The added value of a mobile application of Community Case Management on referral, re-consultation and hospitalization rates of children aged under 5 years in two districts in Northern Malawi: study protocol for a pragmatic, stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Victoria; O'Connor, Yvonne; Heavin, Ciara; Mastellos, Nikolaos; Tran, Tammy; O'Donoghue, John; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Ide, Nicole; Wu, Tsung-Shu Joseph; Chirambo, Griphin Baxter; Muula, Adamson S; Nyirenda, Moffat; Carlsson, Sven; Andersson, Bo; Thompson, Matthew

    2017-10-11

    There is evidence to suggest that frontline community health workers in Malawi are under-referring children to higher-level facilities. Integrating a digitized version of paper-based methods of Community Case Management (CCM) could strengthen delivery, increasing urgent referral rates and preventing unnecessary re-consultations and hospital admissions. This trial aims to evaluate the added value of the Supporting LIFE electronic Community Case Management Application (SL eCCM App) compared to paper-based CCM on urgent referral, re-consultation and hospitalization rates, in two districts in Northern Malawi. This is a pragmatic, stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial assessing the added value of the SL eCCM App on urgent referral, re-consultation and hospitalization rates of children aged 2 months and older to up to 5 years, within 7 days of the index visit. One hundred and two health surveillance assistants (HSAs) were stratified into six clusters based on geographical location, and clusters randomized to the timing of crossover to the intervention using simple, computer-generated randomization. Training workshops were conducted prior to the control (paper-CCM) and intervention (paper-CCM + SL eCCM App) in assigned clusters. Neither participants nor study personnel were blinded to allocation. Outcome measures were determined by abstraction of clinical data from patient records 2 weeks after recruitment. A nested qualitative study explored perceptions of adherence to urgent referral recommendations and a cost evaluation determined the financial and time-related costs to caregivers of subsequent health care utilization. The trial was conducted between July 2016 and February 2017. This is the first large-scale trial evaluating the value of adding a mobile application of CCM to the assessment of children aged under 5 years. The trial will generate evidence on the potential use of mobile health for CCM in Malawi, and more widely in other low- and middle

  8. From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicignano, Angelo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Masi, Paolo; Cavella, Silvana

    2015-10-01

    Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal-based food that is popular worldwide because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this review is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate the understanding of the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics, directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Owing to its unique flavor, color, composition and rheological properties, durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for pasta production. Although pasta is traditionally made from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical/physical characteristics of the final product may vary greatly. Starting from the same ingredients, there are a lot of different events in each step of pasta production that can result in the development of varieties of pasta with different characteristics. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance of the choice of raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Step by step parallel programming method for molecular dynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orii, Shigeo; Ohta, Toshio

    1996-07-01

    Parallel programming for a numerical simulation program of molecular dynamics is carried out with a step-by-step programming technique using the two phase method. As a result, within the range of a certain computing parameters, it is found to obtain parallel performance by using the level of parallel programming which decomposes the calculation according to indices of do-loops into each processor on the vector parallel computer VPP500 and the scalar parallel computer Paragon. It is also found that VPP500 shows parallel performance in wider range computing parameters. The reason is that the time cost of the program parts, which can not be reduced by the do-loop level of the parallel programming, can be reduced to the negligible level by the vectorization. After that, the time consuming parts of the program are concentrated on less parts that can be accelerated by the do-loop level of the parallel programming. This report shows the step-by-step parallel programming method and the parallel performance of the molecular dynamics code on VPP500 and Paragon. (author)

  10. Step-by-step phacoemulsification training program for ophthalmology residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yulan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to analyze the learning curve of phacoemulsification (phaco performed by residents without experience in performing extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE in a step-by-step training program (SBSTP. Materials and Methods: Consecutive surgical records of phaco performed from March 2009 to Sept 2011 by four residents without previous ECCE experience were retrospectively reviewed. The completion rate of the first 30 procedures by each resident was calculated. The main intraoperative phaco parameter records for the first 30 surgeries by each resident were compared with those for their last 30 surgeries. Intraoperative complications in the residents′ procedures were also recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 1013 surgeries were performed by residents. The completion rate for the first 30 phaco procedures was 79.2 μ 5.8%. The main reasons for halting the procedure were as follows: Anterior capsule tear, inability to crack the nucleus, and posterior capsular rupture during phaco or cortex removal. Cumulative dissipated energy of phaco power used during the surgeries was significantly less in the last 30 cases compared with the first 30 cases (30.10 μ 17.58 vs. 55.41 μ 37.59, P = 0.021. Posterior capsular rupture rate was 2.5 μ 1.2% in total (10.8 μ 4.2% in the first 30 cases and 1.7 μ 1.9% in the last 30 cases, P = 0.008; a statistically significant difference. Conclusion:The step-by-step training program might be a necessary process for a resident to transit from dependence to a self-supported operator. It is also an essential middle step between wet lab training to performing the entire phaco procedure on the patient both effectively and safely.

  11. Time step MOTA thermostat simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The report details the logic, program layout, and operating procedures for the time-step MOTA (Materials Open Test Assembly) thermostat simulation program known as GYRD. It will enable prospective users to understand the operation of the program, run it, and interpret the results. The time-step simulation analysis was the approach chosen to determine the maximum value gain that could be used to minimize steady temperature offset without risking undamped thermal oscillations. The advantage of the GYRD program is that it directly shows hunting, ringing phenomenon, and similar events. Programs BITT and CYLB are faster, but do not directly show ringing time

  12. A mechanism for leader stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, U.; Carlson, B. E.; Koehn, C.

    2013-12-01

    The stepping of negative leaders is well observed, but not well understood. A major problem consists of the fact that the streamer corona is typically invisible within a thunderstorm, but determines the evolution of a leader. Motivated by recent observations of streamer and leader formation in the laboratory by T.M.P. Briels, S. Nijdam, P. Kochkin, A.P.J. van Deursen et al., by recent simulations of these processes by J. Teunissen, A. Sun et al., and by our theoretical understanding of the process, we suggest how laboratory phenomena can be extrapolated to lightning leaders to explain the stepping mechanism.

  13. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions.

  14. Driver training in steps (DTS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    For some years now, it has been possible in the Netherlands to follow a Driver Training in Steps (DTS) as well as the regular driver training. The DTS is a structured training method with clear training objectives which are categorized in four modules. Although the DTS is considerably better than

  15. Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Kessel, C.; Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Schmidt, J.; Woolley, R.; Zatz, I.

    2002-01-01

    Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (DandD) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program

  16. An approach to next step device optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpietro, E.

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for ITER EDA were to achieve ignition with a good safety margin, and controlled long inductive burn. These requirements lead to a big device, which requested a too ambitious step to be undertaken by the world fusion community. More realistic objectives for a next step device shall be to demonstrate the net production of energy with a high energy gain factor (Q) and a high boot strap current fraction (>60%) which is required for a Fusion Power Plant (FPP). The Next Step Device (NSD) shall also allow operation flexibility in order to explore a large range of plasma parameters to find out the optimum concept for the fusion power plant prototype. These requirements could be too demanding for one single device and could probably be better explored in a strongly integrated world programme. The cost of one or more devices is the decisive factor for the choice of the fusion power development programme strategy. The plasma elongation and triangularity have a strong impact in the cost of the device and are limited by the plasma vertical position control issue. The distance between plasma separatrix and the toroidal field conductor does not vary a lot between devices. It is determined by the sum of the distance between first wall-plasma sepratrix and the thickness of the nuclear shield required to protect the toroidal field coil insultation. The thickness of the TF coil is determined by the allowable stresses and superconducting characteristics. The outer radius of the central solenoid is the result of an optimisation to provide the magnetic flux to inductively drive the plasma. Therefore, in order to achieve the objectives for Q and boot-strap current fractions at the minimum cost, the plasma aspect ratio and magnetic field value shall be determined. The paper will present the critical issues for the next device and will make considerations on the optimal way to proceed towards the realisation of the fusion power plant

  17. Stepping out: dare to step forward, step back, or just stand still and breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Mary Sue

    2012-01-01

    It is important to step out and make a difference. We have one of the most unique and diverse professions that allows for diversity in thought and practice, permitting each of us to grow in our unique niches and make significant contributions. I was frightened to 'step out' to go to culinary school at the age of 46, but it changed forever the way I look at my profession and I have since experienced the most enjoyable and innovative career. There are also times when it is important to 'step back' to relish the roots of our profession; to help bring food back into nutrition; to translate all of our wonderful science into a language of food that Canadians understand. We all need to take time to 'just stand still and breathe': to celebrate our accomplishments, reflect on our actions, ensure we are heading toward our vision, keep the profession vibrant and relevant, and cherish one another.

  18. 2-Step IMAT and 2-Step IMRT in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratengeier, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    In two dimensions, 2-Step Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy (2-Step IMAT) and 2-Step Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were shown to be powerful methods for the optimization of plans with organs at risk (OAR) (partially) surrounded by a target volume (PTV). In three dimensions, some additional boundary conditions have to be considered to establish 2-Step IMAT as an optimization method. A further aim was to create rules for ad hoc adaptations of an IMRT plan to a daily changing PTV-OAR constellation. As a test model, a cylindrically symmetric PTV-OAR combination was used. The centrally placed OAR can adapt arbitrary diameters with different gap widths toward the PTV. Along the rotation axis the OAR diameter can vary, the OAR can even vanish at some axis positions, leaving a circular PTV. The width and weight of the second segment were the free parameters to optimize. The objective function f to minimize was the root of the integral of the squared difference of the dose in the target volume and a reference dose. For the problem, two local minima exist. Therefore, as a secondary criteria, the magnitude of hot and cold spots were taken into account. As a result, the solution with a larger segment width was recommended. From plane to plane for varying radii of PTV and OAR and for different gaps between them, different sets of weights and widths were optimal. Because only one weight for one segment shall be used for all planes (respectively leaf pairs), a strategy for complex three-dimensional (3-D) cases was established to choose a global weight. In a second step, a suitable segment width was chosen, minimizing f for this global weight. The concept was demonstrated in a planning study for a cylindrically symmetric example with a large range of different radii of an OAR along the patient axis. The method is discussed for some classes of tumor/organ at risk combinations. Noncylindrically symmetric cases were treated exemplarily. The product of width and weight of

  19. A Step-by-Step Study of Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a guide to the development of formative assessments for school librarians participating in professional learning communities (PLC). It describes librarians' reading of assigned books, meeting with their PLCs, and incorporation of learned strategies in their daily instruction. Central library service readers' regular visits to…

  20. Energetics of highly kinked step edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the step edge free energy, the step edge stiffness and dimensionless inverse step edge stiffness of the highly kinked < 010> oriented step on a (001) surface of a simple square lattice within the framework of a solid-on-solid model. We have found an exact expression for the step

  1. Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs Past Issues / Fall ... 2 Diabetes" Articles Diabetes Is Serious But Manageable / Step 1: Learn About Diabetes / Step 2: Know Your ...

  2. Step-By-Step: Life Cycle Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste is an unavoidable by-product when nuclear technologies are used for electricity production and for beneficial practices in medicine, agriculture, research and industry. When the radioactivity of the waste is above a certain threshold, the waste requires special disposal methods. Through extensive research, standards and approaches have been developed for safely and securely preparing for and managing radioactive waste disposal. In the course of its journey from the point of generation to disposal, radioactive waste undergoes a number of predisposal management treatment steps to transform it into a safe, stable and manageable form suitable for transport, storage and disposal

  3. Blogging business step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur

    2014-01-01

    This kit includes: Essential industry and business-specific startup steps with worksheets, calculators, checklists and more. Entrepreneur Editors' Start Your Own Business, a guide to starting any business and surviving the first three years. Downloadable, customizable business letters, sales letters, and other sample documents. Entrepreneur's Small Business Legal Toolkit. Blogs are still one of the internet's fastest-growing phenomena–and one of the best and easiest ways to make money online. Packed with the latest blog tools, tricks, and up-and-coming trends, this fully revised edition teache

  4. Bridging the Cultural Gap: Ten Steps toward a More Multicultural Youth Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents ten steps toward a more multicultural youth library to help bridge cultural and linguistic gaps in public and school libraries. Topics include mission statements; physical environment; collection diversity; collaboration; bilingual materials; multicultural materials; community involvement; and appreciating diversity. (LRW)

  5. Robotic retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy: a step-by-step guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Porter, James; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig

    2014-08-01

    To describe a step-by-step guide for successful implementation of the retroperitoneal approach to robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patient is placed in the flank position and the table fully flexed to increase the space between the 12th rib and iliac crest. Access to the retroperitoneal space is obtained using a balloon-dilating device. Ports include a 12-mm camera port, two 8-mm robotic ports and a 12-mm assistant port placed in the anterior axillary line cephalad to the anterior superior iliac spine, and 7-8 cm caudal to the ipsilateral robotic port. Positioning and port placement strategies for successful technique include: (i) Docking robot directly over the patient's head parallel to the spine; (ii) incision for camera port ≈1.9 cm (1 fingerbreadth) above the iliac crest, lateral to the triangle of Petit; (iii) Seldinger technique insertion of kidney-shaped balloon dilator into retroperitoneal space; (iv) Maximising distance between all ports; (v) Ensuring camera arm is placed in the outer part of the 'sweet spot'. The retroperitoneal approach to RPN permits direct access to the renal hilum, no need for bowel mobilisation and excellent visualisation of posteriorly located tumours. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  6. Steps in Researching the Music in Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2007-01-01

    The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy.......The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy....

  7. Biomechanical influences on balance recovery by stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, E T; Robinovitch, S N

    1999-10-01

    Stepping represents a common means for balance recovery after a perturbation to upright posture. Yet little is known regarding the biomechanical factors which determine whether a step succeeds in preventing a fall. In the present study, we developed a simple pendulum-spring model of balance recovery by stepping, and used this to assess how step length and step contact time influence the effort (leg contact force) and feasibility of balance recovery by stepping. We then compared model predictions of step characteristics which minimize leg contact force to experimentally observed values over a range of perturbation strengths. At all perturbation levels, experimentally observed step execution times were higher than optimal, and step lengths were smaller than optimal. However, the predicted increase in leg contact force associated with these deviations was substantial only for large perturbations. Furthermore, increases in the strength of the perturbation caused subjects to take larger, quicker steps, which reduced their predicted leg contact force. We interpret these data to reflect young subjects' desire to minimize recovery effort, subject to neuromuscular constraints on step execution time and step length. Finally, our model predicts that successful balance recovery by stepping is governed by a coupling between step length, step execution time, and leg strength, so that the feasibility of balance recovery decreases unless declines in one capacity are offset by enhancements in the others. This suggests that one's risk for falls may be affected more by small but diffuse neuromuscular impairments than by larger impairment in a single motor capacity.

  8. The structure of stepped surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algra, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) as far as multiple scattering effects are concerned, is discussed. The ion fractions of lithium, sodium and potassium scattered from a copper (100) surface have been measured as a function of several experimental parameters. The ratio of the intensities of the single and double scattering peaks observed in ion scattering spectroscopy has been determined and ion scattering spectroscopy applied in the multiple scattering mode is used to determine the structure of a stepped Cu(410) surface. The average relaxation of the (100) terraces of this surface appears to be very small. The adsorption of oxygen on this surface has been studied with LEIS and it is indicated that oxygen absorbs dissociatively. (C.F.)

  9. A step toward nuclear sanity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, K.; Long, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that Reykjavik formally ended as a diplomatic failure, but it has begun an overdue revolution in perceptions. At long last, both superpowers have the in concrete terms that vastly smaller nuclear arsenals would make them safer. Implicitly, they are saying that nuclear weapons are not useful weapons. Those insights are a prerequisite to nuclear sanity. The United States has proposed to eliminate all strategic ballistic missiles, on land and submarines, in two five-year steps. During that period, we (and presumably the Soviet Union) would develop missile defenses to be deployed in ten years. The first part of this plan makes excellent sense. Ballistic missiles explode on their targets ten to thirty minutes after launch. Today's huge and accurate missile arsenals have forced both superpowers to adopt a hair-trigger stance: they might launch missiles simply on warning of attack

  10. Steps towards an evolutionary physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiezzi, E

    2006-01-01

    If thermodynamics is to physics as logic is to philosophy, recent theoretical advancements lend new coherence to the marvel and dynamism of life on Earth. Enzo Tiezzi's "Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics" is a primer and guide, to those who would to stand on the shoulders of giants to attain this view: Heisenberg, Planck, Bateson, Varela, and Prigogine as well as notable contemporary scientists. The adventure of such a free and enquiring spirit thrives not so much on answers as on new questions. The book offers a new gestalt on the uncertainty principle and concept of probability. A wide range of examples, enigmas, and paradoxes lead one's imagination on an exquisite dance. Among the applications are: songs and shapes of nature, oscillatory reactions, orientors, goal functions and configurations of processes, and "dissipative structures and the city". Ecodynamics is a new science, which proposes a cross-fertilization between Charles Darwin and Ilya Prigogine. As an enigma in thermodynamics, Entropy forms ...

  11. Boris push with spatial stepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, G; Stoltz, P H; Cary, J R; Wurtele, J

    2003-01-01

    The Boris push is commonly used in plasma physics simulations because of its speed and stability. It is second-order accurate, requires only one field evaluation per time step, and has good conservation properties. However, for accelerator simulations it is convenient to propagate particles in z down a changing beamline. A 'spatial Boris push' algorithm has been developed which is similar to the Boris push but uses a spatial coordinate as the independent variable, instead of time. This scheme is compared to the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm, for two simplified muon beam lattices: a uniform solenoid field, and a 'FOFO' lattice where the solenoid field varies sinusoidally along the axis. Examination of the canonical angular momentum, which should be conserved in axisymmetric systems, shows that the spatial Boris push improves accuracy over long distances

  12. Preimages for Step-Reduced SHA-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Kazumaro; Guo, Jian; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present preimage attacks on up to 43-step SHA-256 (around 67% of the total 64 steps) and 46-step SHA-512 (around 57.5% of the total 80 steps), which significantly increases the number of attacked steps compared to the best previously published preimage attack working for 24 steps....... The time complexities are 2^251.9, 2^509 for finding pseudo-preimages and 2^254.9, 2^511.5 compression function operations for full preimages. The memory requirements are modest, around 2^6 words for 43-step SHA-256 and 46-step SHA-512. The pseudo-preimage attack also applies to 43-step SHA-224 and SHA-384...

  13. Linking pedestrian flow characteristics with stepping locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayue; Boltes, Maik; Seyfried, Armin; Zhang, Jun; Ziemer, Verena; Weng, Wenguo

    2018-06-01

    While properties of human traffic flow are described by speed, density and flow, the locomotion of pedestrian is based on steps. To relate characteristics of human locomotor system with properties of human traffic flow, this paper aims to connect gait characteristics like step length, step frequency, swaying amplitude and synchronization with speed and density and thus to build a ground for advanced pedestrian models. For this aim, observational and experimental study on the single-file movement of pedestrians at different densities is conducted. Methods to measure step length, step frequency, swaying amplitude and step synchronization are proposed by means of trajectories of the head. Mathematical models for the relations of step length or frequency and speed are evaluated. The problem how step length and step duration are influenced by factors like body height and density is investigated. It is shown that the effect of body height on step length and step duration changes with density. Furthermore, two different types of step in-phase synchronization between two successive pedestrians are observed and the influence of step synchronization on step length is examined.

  14. Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    Jan 1, 1997 ... This manual presents a practical step-by-step guide for assessing various aspects of natural food sources of vitamin A within a community and is essential for any research program involved in alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

  15. Steps towards the Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.

    2012-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the Standard Model. The study of sub-leading effects in neutrino oscillations has begun with the race to measure θ 13 . A consensus is emerging within the international community that a novel neutrino source is required to allow sensitive searches for leptonic CP violation to be carried out and the neutrino mass-hierarchy to be determined. The Neutrino Factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to out-perform the other proposed facilities. The physics case for the Neutrino Factory will be reviewed and the baseline design of the facility being developed by the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration will be described.

  16. Biophysical Interactions within Step-Pool Mountain Streams Following Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A.; Chin, A.; O'Dowd, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Recovery of riverine ecosystems following disturbance is driven by a variety of interacting processes. Wildfires pose increasing disturbances to riverine landscapes, with rising frequencies and magnitudes owing to warming climates and increased fuel loads. The effects of wildfire include loss of vegetation, elevated runoff and flash floods, erosion and deposition, and changing biological habitats and communities. Understanding process interactions in post-fire landscapes is increasingly urgent for successful management and restoration of affected ecosystems. In steep channels, steps and pools provide prominent habitats for organisms and structural integrity in high energy environments. Step-pools are typically stable, responding to extreme events with recurrence intervals often exceeding 50 years. Once wildfire occurs, however, intensification of post-fire flood events can potentially overpower the inherent stability of these systems, with significant consequences for aquatic life and human well-being downstream. This study examined the short-term response of step-pool streams following the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire in Colorado. We explored interacting feedbacks among geomorphology, hydrology, and ecology in the post-fire environment. At selected sites with varying burn severity, we established baseline conditions immediately after the fire with channel surveys, biological assessment using benthic macroinvertebrates, sediment analysis including pebble counts, and precipitation gauging. Repeat measurements after major storm events over several years enabled analysis of the interacting feedbacks among post-fire processes. We found that channels able to retain the step-pool structure changed less and facilitated recovery more readily. Step habitats maintained higher percentages of sensitive macroinvertebrate taxa compared to pools through post-fire floods. Sites burned with high severity experienced greater reduction in the percentage of sensitive taxa. The decimation of

  17. Steps to Advanced CANDU 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yongshick; Brooks, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    The CANDU nuclear power system was developed from merging of AECL heavy water reactor technology with Ontario Hydro electrical power station expertise. The original four units of Ontario Hydro's Pickering Generating Station are the first full-scale commercial application of the CANDU system. AECL and Ontario Hydro then moved to the next evolutionary step, a more advanced larger scale design for four units at the Bruce Generating Station. CANDU 600 followed as a single unit nuclear electric power station design derived from an amalgam of features of the multiple unit Pickering and Bruce designs. The design of the CANDU 600 nuclear steam supply system is based on the Pickering design with improvements derived from the Bruce design. For example, most CANDU 600 auxiliary systems are based on Bruce systems, whereas the fuel handling system is based on the Pickering system. Four CANDU 600 units are in operation, and five are under construction in Romania. For the additional four units at Pickering Generating Station 'B', Ontario Hydro selected a replica of the Pickering 'A' design with limited design changes to maintain a high level of standardization across all eight units. Ontario Hydro applied a similar policy for the additional four units at Bruce Generating Station 'B'. For the four unit Darlington station, Ontario Hydro selected a design based on Bruce with improvements derived from operating experience, the CANDU 600 design and development programs

  18. Multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    In recent years a variety of statistical theories has been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton models'; these are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relation between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates are highlighted. A command framework is sketched that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high energy-tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imagined that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expression for MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as a variant of essentially one and the same theory. 113 refs.; 25 figs.; 9 tabs

  19. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  20. Step dynamics and terrace-width distribution on flame-annealed gold films: The effect of step-step interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoni, Nira; Ayal, Shai; Millo, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Dynamics of atomic steps and the terrace-width distribution within step bunches on flame-annealed gold films are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. The distribution is narrower than commonly observed for vicinal planes and has a Gaussian shape, indicating a short-range repulsive interaction between the steps, with an apparently large interaction constant. The dynamics of the atomic steps, on the other hand, appear to be influenced, in addition to these short-range interactions, also by a longer-range attraction of steps towards step bunches. Both types of interactions promote self-ordering of terrace structures on the surface. When current is driven through the films a step-fingering instability sets in, reminiscent of the Bales-Zangwill instability

  1. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  2. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means, in...

  3. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2017-01-01

    presents a review of safety effects from step-by-step driving licence schemes. Most of the investigated schemes consist of a step-by-step driving licence with Step 1) various tests and education, Step 2) a period where driving is only allowed together with an experienced driver and Step 3) driving without...... companion is allowed but with various restrictions and, in some cases, additional driving education and tests. In general, a step-by-step driving licence improves traffic safety even though the young people are permitted to drive a car earlier on. The effects from driving with an experienced driver vary......Young novice car drivers are much more accident-prone than other drivers - up to 10 times that of their parents' generation. A central solution to improve the traffic safety for this group is implementation of a step-by-step driving licence. A number of countries have introduced a step...

  4. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  5. Further steps towards healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In many areas of the world, lack of money, time, and education compels women to perform their household duties and neglect their health care regardless of how sick they are. In response to this situation, the World Health Organization created a "Healthy Women Counselling Guide" (HWCG) package consisting of 1) a document that describes background research conducted in Nigeria, Kenya, and Sierra Leone; 2) a document that chronicles the development of radio and illustration materials; 3) sample audiocassette tapes from the three country teams; 4) two illustrated booklets and a calendar supporting the radio tapes; and 5) a user's guide. The pretested materials in the HWCG were designed with community input for rural women. The sample tape from Kenya focuses on malaria and that from Nigeria on vesicovaginal fistula. The Nigerian team also produced a booklet on adolescent childbirth. The Sierra Leone team prepared a calendar illustrated with information about a variety of ways to obtain good health. A further HWCG series is being developed in India on alcohol abuse. The HWCG package was developed for policy-makers, nongovernmental organizations, and other individuals and agencies concerned with improving women's health. Additional HWCC activities will involve wider dissemination of the material that has been developed, exchanges among teams to determine cross-cultural applicability and adaptability of the material, and studies of the impact of the HWCG process.

  6. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  7. Designing for Communities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Mark Boulton's small design firm won the project to redesign drupal.org home to the Drupal open source content management project and its community of over 400,000 users and developers. Designing for open source communities has its challenges: it is a developer-centric environment where discussion, debate and consensus rules and where design processes are often viewed sceptically. To help dispel some misconceptions behind the design process, Mark's team worked completely openly with the Drupal community - and broader the web design community - throughout the project. This talk will walk through some of the challenges and solutions for designing for large communities. Mark will share the successes - and the horror stories - of how a traditional design process was challenged every step of the way and how the Drupal community became an integral part of that new process. Mark and his team will be working with the Communication Group on an open project to r...

  8. Step-grandparenthood in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahirun, Jenjira J; Park, Sung S; Seltzer, Judith A

    2018-01-18

    This study provides new information about the demography of step-grandparenthood in the United States. Specifically, we examine the prevalence of step-grandparenthood across birth cohorts and for socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups. We also examine lifetime exposure to the step-grandparent role. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Health and Retirement Study, we use percentages to provide first estimates of step-grandparenthood and to describe demographic and socioeconomic variation in who is a step-grandparent. We use life tables to estimate the exposure to step-grandparenthood. The share of step-grandparents is increasing across birth cohorts. However, individuals without a college education and non-Whites are more likely to become step-grandparents. Exposure to the step-grandparent role accounts for approximately 15% of total grandparent years at age 65 for women and men. A growing body of research finds that grandparents are increasingly instrumental in the lives of younger generations. However, the majority of this work assumes that these ties are biological, with little attention paid to the role of family complexity across three generations. Understanding the demographics of step-grandparenthood sheds light on the family experiences of an overlooked, but growing segment of the older adult population in the United States. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The micro-step motor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Myung Kook; Choi, Bung Hun; Choi, Young Hyun; Cheon, Jong Gu

    2004-11-01

    The developed micro-step motor controller can handle 4 axes stepping motor drivers simultaneously and provide high power bipolar driving mechanism with constant current mode. It can be easily controlled by manual key functions and the motor driving status is displayed by the front panel VFD. Due to the development of several kinds of communication and driving protocol, PC can operate even several micro-step motor controllers at once by multi-drop connection

  10. Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E

    2014-10-14

    An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.

  11. Step-wise stimulated martensitic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, G.; Riva, G.

    1991-01-01

    NiTi alloys, widely known both for their shape memory properties and for unusual pseudoelastic behaviour, are now on the forefront attention for step-wise induced memory processes, thermal or stress stimulated. Literature results related to step-wise stimulated martensite (direct transformation) are examined and contrasted with step-wise thermal stimulated parent phase (reverse transformation). Hypothesis are given to explain the key characters of both transformations, a thermodynamic model from first principles being till now lacking

  12. Microprocessor-based stepping motor driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1979-09-01

    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory requires a versatile stepping motor driver to do beam diagnostic measurements. A driver controlled by a microprocessor that can move eight stepping motors simultaneously was designed. The driver can monitor and respond to clockwise- and counterclockwise-limit switches, and it can monitor a 0- to 10-V dc position signal. The software controls start and stop ramping and maximum stepping rates. 2 figures, 1 table

  13. Steps and dislocations in cubic lyotropic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, S; Pieranski, P

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown recently that lyotropic systems are convenient for studies of faceting, growth or anisotropic surface melting of crystals. All these phenomena imply the active contribution of surface steps and bulk dislocations. We show here that steps can be observed in situ and in real time by means of a new method combining hygroscopy with phase contrast. First results raise interesting issues about the consequences of bicontinuous topology on the structure and dynamical behaviour of steps and dislocations

  14. Starting a new residency program: a step-by-step guide for institutions, hospitals, and program directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barajaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although our country faces a looming shortage of doctors, constraints of space, funding, and patient volume in many existing residency programs limit training opportunities for medical graduates. New residency programs need to be created for the expansion of graduate medical education training positions. Partnerships between existing academic institutions and community hospitals with a need for physicians can be a very successful means toward this end. Baylor College of Medicine and The Children's Hospital of San Antonio were affiliated in 2012, and subsequently, we developed and received accreditation for a new categorical pediatric residency program at that site in 2014. We share below a step-by-step guide through the process that includes building of the infrastructure, educational development, accreditation, marketing, and recruitment. It is our hope that the description of this process will help others to spur growth in graduate medical training positions.

  15. Smart Steps to Sustainability 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart Steps to Sustainability provides small business owners and managers with practical advice and tools to implementsustainable and environmentally-preferable business practices that go beyond compliance.

  16. Role of step stiffness and kinks in the relaxation of vicinal (001) with zigzag [110] steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, B.; Hamouda, Ajmi BH.; Einstein, TL.

    2017-08-01

    We present a kinetic Monte Carlo study of the relaxation dynamics and steady state configurations of 〈110〉 steps on a vicinal (001) simple cubic surface. This system is interesting because 〈110〉 (fully kinked) steps have different elementary excitation energetics and favor step diffusion more than 〈100〉 (nominally straight) steps. In this study we show how this leads to different relaxation dynamics as well as to different steady state configurations, including that 2-bond breaking processes are rate determining for 〈110〉 steps in contrast to 3-bond breaking processes for 〈100〉-steps found in previous work [Surface Sci. 602, 3569 (2008)]. The analysis of the terrace-width distribution (TWD) shows a significant role of kink-generation-annihilation processes during the relaxation of steps: the kinetic of relaxation, toward the steady state, is much faster in the case of 〈110〉-zigzag steps, with a higher standard deviation of the TWD, in agreement with a decrease of step stiffness due to orientation. We conclude that smaller step stiffness leads inexorably to faster step dynamics towards the steady state. The step-edge anisotropy slows the relaxation of steps and increases the strength of step-step effective interactions.

  17. US fusion community discussion on fusion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    On April 26 - May 1, 1998, a US Fusion Community Forum for Major Next-Step Experiments was held at Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Both the Single Integrated Step strategy and the Multiple Machine strategy have substantial support from the about 180 scientists and engineers who participated

  18. Sintering uranium oxide using a preheating step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.J.; Nivas, Y.; Packard, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Compacted pellets of uranium oxide or uranium oxide with one or more additives are heated in a kiln in a process having a preheating step, a sintering step, a reduction step, and a cooling step in a controlled atmosphere. The process is practiced to give a range of temperature and atmosphere conditions for obtaining optimum fluoride removal from the compacted pellets along with optimum sintering in a single process. The preheating step of this process is conducted in a temperature range of about 600 0 to about 900 0 C and the pellets are held for at least twenty min, and preferably about 60 min, in an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 10 to about 75 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The sintering step is conducted at a temperature in the range of about 900 0 C to 1500 0 C in the presence of an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 0.5 to about 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The reduction step reduces the oxygen to metal ratio of the pellets to a range of about 1.98 to 2.10:1 and this is accomplished by gradually cooling the pellets for about 30 to about 120 min from the temperature of the sintering step to about 1100 0 C in an atmosphere of about 10 to 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. Thereafter the pellets are cooled to about 100 0 C under a protective atmosphere, and in one preferred practice the same atmosphere used in the reduction step is used in the cooling step. The preheating, sintering and reduction steps may also be conducted with their respective atmospheres having an initial additional component of water vapor and the water vapor can comprise up to about 20 vol %

  19. Using communities that care for community child maltreatment prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M; Haggerty, Kevin P; de Haan, Benjamin; Catalano, Richard F; Vann, Terri; Vinson, Jean; Lansing, Michaele

    2016-03-01

    The prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders among children and adolescents is a national priority. One mode of implementing community-wide MEB prevention efforts is through evidence-based community mobilization approaches such as Communities That Care (CTC). This article provides an overview of the CTC framework and discusses the adaptation process of CTC to prevent development of MEBs through preventing child abuse and neglect and bolstering child well-being in children aged 0 to 10. Adaptations include those to the intervention itself as well as those to the evaluation approach. Preliminary findings from the Keeping Families Together pilot study of this evolving approach suggest that the implementation was manageable for sites, and community board functioning and community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in pilot sites looks promising. Implications and next steps are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. A step-by-step framework to assess benefits of established temperate marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Götz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs have been advocated as a solution to the challenges of both conservation and modern fishery management, but their application remains controversial, partly because there are only general guidelines for evaluating their effectiveness. We propose a framework to specifically evaluate established MPAs in six steps. We tested the approach by reviewing published research and unpublished information on the Goukamma MPA in the centre of the South African temperate south coast. Information reviewed included effects on the structure of fish populations, catch and abundance indices of fish species, and ecosystem effects. We investigated factors that determine the usefulness of a MPA in fisheries management, including the movement behaviour of adult fishes, larval dispersal and fisher-displacement patterns. We found that differences in the rates of exploitation across the MPA border resulted in differences in abundance, size and condition of the main target species, roman (Chrysoblephus laticeps. The diversity and abundance of non-target fish species, and the composition of the benthic invertebrate community, were affected by the cessation of fishing. The potential for "spillover" of adult roman might be limited to the vicinity of the MPA by their small home range, but there is potential for self-seeding and dispersal of roman eggs and larvae over wider areas. These theoretical considerations were confirmed by an analysis of catch data from before and after MPA implementation. The framework presented here may help to identify and fill gaps in the knowledge of established MPAs along South Africa's temperate south coast.

  1. Microcomputer-based stepping-motor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.

    1983-04-01

    A microcomputer-controlled stepping motor is described. A Motorola MC68701 microcomputer unit is interfaced to a Cybernetic CY500 stored-program controller that outputs through Motorola input/output isolation modules to the stepping motor. A complex multifunction controller with enhanced capabilities is thus available with a minimum number of parts

  2. Step-Up DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam P.; Gorji, Saman A.

    2017-01-01

    on the general law and framework of the development of next-generation step-up dc-dc converters, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various step-up dc-dc converters based on their characteristics and voltage-boosting techniques. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these voltage...

  3. Step-wise refolding of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumoto, Kouhei; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Chen, Linda

    2010-04-01

    Protein refolding is still on trial-and-error basis. Here we describe step-wise dialysis refolding, in which denaturant concentration is altered in step-wise fashion. This technology controls the folding pathway by adjusting the concentrations of the denaturant and other solvent additives to induce sequential folding or disulfide formation.

  4. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevincli, Haldun; Brandbyge, Mads

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance...

  5. Random Walks with Anti-Correlated Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Dirk; Noga, John

    2005-01-01

    We conjecture the expected value of random walks with anti-correlated steps to be exactly 1. We support this conjecture with 2 plausibility arguments and experimental data. The experimental analysis includes the computation of the expected values of random walks for steps up to 22. The result shows the expected value asymptotically converging to 1.

  6. Steps in Performing a Communication Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincoff, Michael Z.; And Others

    This paper develops the step-by-step processes necessary to conduct a communication audit in order to determine the communication effectiveness of an organization. The authors stress the responsibilities of both the audit team and the organization's top management as they interact during progressive phases of the audit. Emphasis is placed on…

  7. Step patterns on vicinal reconstructed surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilfan, Igor

    1996-04-01

    Step patterns on vicinal (2 × 1) reconstructed surfaces of noble metals Au(110) and Pt(110), miscut towards the (100) orientation, are investigated. The free energy of the reconstructed surface with a network of crossing opposite steps is calculated in the strong chirality regime when the steps cannot make overhangs. It is explained why the steps are not perpendicular to the direction of the miscut but form in equilibrium a network of crossing steps which make the surface to look like a fish skin. The network formation is the consequence of competition between the — predominantly elastic — energy loss and entropy gain. It is in agreement with recent scanning tunnelling microscopy observations on vicinal Au(110) and Pt(110) surfaces.

  8. Community Capacity Building for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Traverso-Yepez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a great deal of literature examining the benefits and relevance of community participation and community capacity building in health promotion and disease prevention endeavors. Academic literature embracing principles and commitment to community participation in health promotion practices often neglects the complexities involved and the flexibility required to work within this approach. This article addresses some of these challenges through a case study of two projects funded by Provincial Wellness Grants in Newfoundland and Labrador, a province in Canada with a strong tradition of community ties and support systems. In addition to addressing the unique circumstances of the community groups, this research allowed the authors to examine the situational context and power relations involved in the provision of services as well as the particular forms of subjectivity and citizenship that the institutional practices support. Recognizing this complex interdependency is an important step in creating more effective intervention practices.

  9. The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP): a test of state-and-transition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver; Mark Brunson; Steve C. Bunting; Jeanne Chambers; Nora Devoe; Paul Doescher; James Grace; Dale Johnson; Steve Knick; Richard Miller; Mike Pellant; Fred Pierson; David Pyke; Kim Rollins; Bruce Roundy; Eugene Schupp; Robin Tausch; David Turner

    2010-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is a comprehensive, integrated, long-term study that evaluates the ecological effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments designed to reduce fuel and to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities of the Great Basin and surrounding areas. SageSTEP has several features that make it ideal for testing...

  10. Community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the oil and gas companies with the Northern communities regarding drilling activities was an important aspect of oil and gas operations conducted in the Beaufort Sea. During the 1960s the industry and aboriginal people basically ignored each other. Later, the industry put more emphasis on community consultation until finally two-way communication was established. Respect for the land and the environment were very important to aboriginal people who depended on the land and its resources for their traditional way of life. Community relations policies by the various companies involved in the area, and the impact they have had on their respective communities were recounted. Not all efforts were successful, however, the companies and the communities learned from their experiences, and by the time operations ceased, the communities seemed to be more appreciative of the ways they were being treated by the oil companies. 22 figs

  11. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    As its point of departure this working paper takes the multitude of different uses and meanings of the concept of community in local politics in Cape Town. Instead of attempting to define it in substantive terms, the paper takes a social constructivist approach to the study of community...... is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local residents...... lay claim on the state, as well as how it enters into local power struggles between different political groups within the township. In the third part, the paper explores how the meanings of community and the struggles to realise it have changed as South Africa, nationally and locally, has become...

  12. A successful backward step correlates with hip flexion moment of supporting limb in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yahiko

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the positional relationship between the center of mass (COM) and the center of pressure (COP) at the time of step landing, and to examine their relationship with the joint moments exerted by the supporting limb, with regard to factors of the successful backward step response. The study population comprised 8 community-dwelling elderly people that were observed to take successive multi steps after the landing of a backward stepping. Using a motion capture system and force plate, we measured the COM, COP and COM-COP deviation distance on landing during backward stepping. In addition, we measured the moment of the supporting limb joint during backward stepping. The multi-step data were compared with data from instances when only one step was taken (single-step). Variables that differed significantly between the single- and multi-step data were used as objective variables and the joint moments of the supporting limb were used as explanatory variables in single regression analyses. The COM-COP deviation in the anteroposterior was significantly larger in the single-step. A regression analysis with COM-COP deviation as the objective variable obtained a significant regression equation in the hip flexion moment (R2 = 0.74). The hip flexion moment of supporting limb was shown to be a significant explanatory variable in both the PS and SS phases for the relationship with COM-COP distance. This study found that to create an appropriate backward step response after an external disturbance (i.e. the ability to stop after 1 step), posterior braking of the COM by a hip flexion moment are important during the single-limbed standing phase.

  13. Biclique communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for detecting communities in bipartite networks. Based on an extension of the k-clique community detection algorithm, we demonstrate how modular structure in bipartite networks presents itself as overlapping bicliques. If bipartite information is available, the biclique...... community detection algorithm retains all of the advantages of the k-clique algorithm, but avoids discarding important structural information when performing a one-mode projection of the network. Further, the biclique community detection algorithm provides a level of flexibility by incorporating independent...

  14. Microfluidic step-emulsification in axisymmetric geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, I; Ricouvier, J; Yazhgur, P; Tabeling, P; Leshansky, A M

    2017-10-25

    Biphasic step-emulsification (Z. Li et al., Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1023) is a promising microfluidic technique for high-throughput production of μm and sub-μm highly monodisperse droplets. The step-emulsifier consists of a shallow (Hele-Shaw) microchannel operating with two co-flowing immiscible liquids and an abrupt expansion (i.e., step) to a deep and wide reservoir. Under certain conditions the confined stream of the disperse phase, engulfed by the co-flowing continuous phase, breaks into small highly monodisperse droplets at the step. Theoretical investigation of the corresponding hydrodynamics is complicated due to the complex geometry of the planar device, calling for numerical approaches. However, direct numerical simulations of the three dimensional surface-tension-dominated biphasic flows in confined geometries are computationally expensive. In the present paper we study a model problem of axisymmetric step-emulsification. This setup consists of a stable core-annular biphasic flow in a cylindrical capillary tube connected co-axially to a reservoir tube of a larger diameter through a sudden expansion mimicking the edge of the planar step-emulsifier. We demonstrate that the axisymmetric setup exhibits similar regimes of droplet generation to the planar device. A detailed parametric study of the underlying hydrodynamics is feasible via inexpensive (two dimensional) simulations owing to the axial symmetry. The phase diagram quantifying the different regimes of droplet generation in terms of governing dimensionless parameters is presented. We show that in qualitative agreement with experiments in planar devices, the size of the droplets generated in the step-emulsification regime is independent of the capillary number and almost insensitive to the viscosity ratio. These findings confirm that the step-emulsification regime is solely controlled by surface tension. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with in-house experiments with the axisymmetric

  15. 12-Step Interventions and Mutual Support Programs for Substance Use Disorders: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Ingalsbe, Michelle H.; Benbow, James; Daley, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    Social workers and other behavioral health professionals are likely to encounter individuals with substance use disorders in a variety of practice settings outside of specialty treatment. 12-Step mutual support programs represent readily available, no cost community-based resources for such individuals; however, practitioners are often unfamiliar with such programs. The present article provides a brief overview of 12-Step programs, the positive substance use and psychosocial outcomes associated with active 12-Step involvement, and approaches ranging from ones that can be utilized by social workers in any practice setting to those developed for specialty treatment programs to facilitate engagement in 12-Step meetings and recovery activities. The goal is to familiarize social workers with 12-Step approaches so that they are better able to make informed referrals that match clients to mutual support groups that best meet the individual’s needs and maximize the likelihood of engagement and positive outcomes. PMID:23731422

  16. The Value of Step-by-Step Risk Assessment for Unmanned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2018-01-01

    The new European legislation expected in 2018 or 2019 will introduce a step-by-step process for conducting risk assessments for unmanned aircraft flight operations. This is a relatively simple approach to a very complex challenge. This work compares this step-by-step process to high fidelity risk...... modeling, and shows that at least for a series of example flight missions there is reasonable agreement between the two very different methods....

  17. Pendekatan Pelatihan On-Site dan Step by Step untuk Optimalisasi Fungsi Guru dalam Pembelajaran

    OpenAIRE

    Moch. Sholeh Y.A. Ichrom

    2016-01-01

    Remoteness of programme content from teachers' real work situation and unsuitability of approach employed were suspected as main reasons contributing to the failure of many inservise teacher training programmes. A step by step, onsite teacher training (SSOTT) model was tried out in this experiment to study if the weakness of inservise programmes could be rectified. As it was tried out in relation with kindergarten mathemathics it was then called SSOTT-MTW (Step by Step Onsite Teacher Training...

  18. Pendekatan Pelatihan On-Site Dan Step by Step Untuk Optimalisasi Fungsi Guru Dalam Pembelajaran

    OpenAIRE

    Ichrom, Moch. Sholeh Y.A

    1996-01-01

    Remoteness of programme content from teachers' real work situation and unsuitability of approach employed were suspected as main reasons contributing to the failure of many inservise teacher training programmes. A step by step, onsite teacher training (SSOTT) model was tried out in this experiment to study if the weakness of inservise programmes could be rectified. As it was tried out in relation with kindergarten mathemathics it was then called SSOTT-MTW (Step by Step Onsite Teacher Training...

  19. Small Steps Forward Through Critical Appraisal (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available As a vocal proponent of evidence based information practice, I have actively encouraged my co‐workers and anyone else who might listen, to take small steps in order to move towards incorporating research evidence into their decision making. I prompt colleagues to search in databases for research articles that may be useful, gather these articles and incorporate research results as part of their decision making process. I am often told of the difficulties faced despite one’s best attempts to make their practice more evidence‐based. A major difficulty is access to the research itself since librarians and information professionals often lack access to databases and journals in our field, particularly those of us working outside of academic libraries. An even more daunting question is how to critically read the existing research to determine whether it is valuable in a specific situation. Not all research is good, and how do we sort out the good from the bad? This inaugural issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice brings us one small step closer to addressing some of these concerns by equipping practitioners with information to help in their decision making process. Every issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice will incorporate approximately 10 evidence summaries to help readers sort through recently published research and determine if that research was done well. Evidence summaries provide a critical appraisal synthesis for a specific research article, so that practitioners may more readily determine if the evidence in that research study is valid and reliable, and whether they can apply it to their own practice. Evidence summaries are indeed a small step, but an important one. Published in an open‐access forum, these summaries will address three barriers to evidence based practice that we have faced in the past. First of all, they will bring awareness of previously published research to readers who may

  20. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevinçli, H.; Brandbyge, M.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance in the range between 5% and 47%. We also consider the transmission across linear kinks formed by adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the bends and find that individual kinks suppress thermal conduction substantially, especially at high temperatures. Our analysis show that substrate irregularities can be detrimental for thermal conduction even for small step heights.

  1. Two-step chemical decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    An improved two-step chemical decontamination technique was recently developed at INEL. This memorandum documents the addition of this technology to the SRTC arsenal of decontamination technology. A two-step process using NAOH, KMnO 4 followed by HNO 3 was used for cleaning doorstops (small casks) in the SRTC High Level Caves in 1967. Subsequently, more aggressive chemical techniques have been found to be much more effective for our applications. No further work on two-step technology is planned

  2. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  3. New Step Underground in Universe Origins Quest

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Europe's top particle physics research center has taken a major step in its plan to build the world's biggest "particle smasher" which it hopes will eventually unlock the secrets of the origins of the universe (½ page)

  4. NextSTEP Hybrid Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextSTEP Phase I Hybrid Life Support Systems (HLSS) effort assessed options, performance, and reliability for various mission scenarios using contractor-developed...

  5. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes means you have glucose ( ...

  6. Self-Adaptive Step Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the standard firefly algorithm, each firefly has the same step settings and its values decrease from iteration to iteration. Therefore, it may fall into the local optimum. Furthermore, the decreasing of step is restrained by the maximum of iteration, which has an influence on the convergence speed and precision. In order to avoid falling into the local optimum and reduce the impact of the maximum of iteration, a self-adaptive step firefly algorithm is proposed in the paper. Its core idea is setting the step of each firefly varying with the iteration, according to each firefly’s historical information and current situation. Experiments are made to show the performance of our approach compared with the standard FA, based on sixteen standard testing benchmark functions. The results reveal that our method can prevent the premature convergence and improve the convergence speed and accurateness.

  7. Two steps sintering alumina doped with niobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.B.; Hatzfeld, J.; Heck, M.; Pokorny, A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, high surface area commercial alumina was doped with niobia and sintered in two steps in order to obtain dense materials with lower processing temperatures. The powders were milled and uniaxially pressed (200 MPa). The first step of sintering took place at 1100°C for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours, followed by the second step at 1350°C for 3 hours. The relative density, porosity and water absorption of the samples were determined by the Archimedes method. The crystalline phases were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the morphology of the samples after sintering, evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the use of niobia combined with the two steps sintering promotes an increase in the density of the material, even at lower sintering temperatures. (author)

  8. Nine Steps to a Successful Lighting Retrofit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Presents the steps needed to successfully design a lighting retrofit of school classrooms. Tips cover budgeting, technology, financing, contractor selection, assessing area function, and choosing a light source. (GR)

  9. Robust Detection of Stepping-Stone Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Ting; Tong, Lang

    2006-01-01

    The detection of encrypted stepping-stone attack is considered. Besides encryption and padding, the attacker is capable of inserting chaff packets and perturbing packet timing and transmission order...

  10. Community noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  11. IT project management 30 steps to success

    CERN Document Server

    Doraiswamy, Premanand

    2011-01-01

    This pocket guide is designed to help IT project managers to succeed, and is based on the author's years of experience in IT project management. The guide's step-by-step approach will enable those new to IT project management, or intending to make a career in this field, to master the essential skills. For seasoned professionals, the pocket guide offers an invaluable concise reference guide.

  12. Steps in formulating an environmental monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This section describes the process of establishing a complete equipment environmental monitoring program; the step by step process is also illustrated in Table 3 of the Summary. The following decisions must be made in defining the program: an initial characterization of plant environment, how to integrate with existing programs to realize the maximum benefits, identification of the specific monitoring locations, determining the monitoring techniques, frequency of recording data, monitoring duration, quality assurance requirements, and finally, establishing the recordkeeping requirements

  13. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  14. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  15. Does my step look big in this? A visual illusion leads to safer stepping behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Elliott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tripping is a common factor in falls and a typical safety strategy to avoid tripping on steps or stairs is to increase foot clearance over the step edge. In the present study we asked whether the perceived height of a step could be increased using a visual illusion and whether this would lead to the adoption of a safer stepping strategy, in terms of greater foot clearance over the step edge. The study also addressed the controversial question of whether motor actions are dissociated from visual perception. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 21 young, healthy subjects perceived the step to be higher in a configuration of the horizontal-vertical illusion compared to a reverse configuration (p = 0.01. During a simple stepping task, maximum toe elevation changed by an amount corresponding to the size of the visual illusion (p<0.001. Linear regression analyses showed highly significant associations between perceived step height and maximum toe elevation for all conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The perceived height of a step can be manipulated using a simple visual illusion, leading to the adoption of a safer stepping strategy in terms of greater foot clearance over a step edge. In addition, the strong link found between perception of a visual illusion and visuomotor action provides additional support to the view that the original, controversial proposal by Goodale and Milner (1992 of two separate and distinct visual streams for perception and visuomotor action should be re-evaluated.

  16. Recovery of forward stepping in spinal cord injured patients does not transfer to untrained backward stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Renato; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka; Molinari, Marco; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2004-08-01

    Six spinal cord injured (SCI) patients were trained to step on a treadmill with body-weight support for 1.5-3 months. At the end of training, foot motion recovered the shape and the step-by-step reproducibility that characterize normal gait. They were then asked to step backward on the treadmill belt that moved in the opposite direction relative to standard forward training. In contrast to healthy subjects, who can immediately reverse the direction of walking by time-reversing the kinematic waveforms, patients were unable to step backward. Similarly patients were unable to perform another untrained locomotor task, namely stepping in place on the idle treadmill. Two patients who were trained to step backward for 2-3 weeks were able to develop control of foot motion appropriate for this task. The results show that locomotor improvement does not transfer to untrained tasks, thus supporting the idea of task-dependent plasticity in human locomotor networks.

  17. Comparison of step-by-step kinematics of resisted, assisted and unloaded 20-m sprint runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Gamble, Paul

    2018-03-26

    This investigation examined step-by-step kinematics of sprint running acceleration. Using a randomised counterbalanced approach, 37 female team handball players (age 17.8 ± 1.6 years, body mass 69.6 ± 9.1 kg, height 1.74 ± 0.06 m) performed resisted, assisted and unloaded 20-m sprints within a single session. 20-m sprint times and step velocity, as well as step length, step frequency, contact and flight times of each step were evaluated for each condition with a laser gun and an infrared mat. Almost all measured parameters were altered for each step under the resisted and assisted sprint conditions (η 2  ≥ 0.28). The exception was step frequency, which did not differ between assisted and normal sprints. Contact time, flight time and step frequency at almost each step were different between 'fast' vs. 'slow' sub-groups (η 2  ≥ 0.22). Nevertheless overall both groups responded similarly to the respective sprint conditions. No significant differences in step length were observed between groups for the respective condition. It is possible that continued exposure to assisted sprinting might allow the female team-sports players studied to adapt their coordination to the 'over-speed' condition and increase step frequency. It is notable that step-by-step kinematics in these sprints were easy to obtain using relatively inexpensive equipment with possibilities of direct feedback.

  18. Step UP: Retaining High-Risk Students and Transforming the College Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Susan; Gale, Melodie; Walton, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Step UP addresses retention of high-risk students through tapping into Howard Community College's finest qualities. The program encourages employees from all constituencies to engage and connect with students in a unique and personal way by implementing life coaching skills.

  19. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  20. Symplectic integrators with adaptive time steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. S.; Finn, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there have been many attempts to construct symplectic integrators with variable time steps, with rather disappointing results. In this paper, we identify the causes for this lack of performance, and find that they fall into two categories. In the first, the time step is considered a function of time alone, Δ = Δ(t). In this case, backward error analysis shows that while the algorithms remain symplectic, parametric instabilities may arise because of resonance between oscillations of Δ(t) and the orbital motion. In the second category the time step is a function of phase space variables Δ = Δ(q, p). In this case, the system of equations to be solved is analyzed by introducing a new time variable τ with dt = Δ(q, p) dτ. The transformed equations are no longer in Hamiltonian form, and thus do not benefit from integration methods which would be symplectic for Hamiltonian systems. We analyze two methods for integrating the transformed equations which do, however, preserve the structure of the original equations. The first is an extended phase space method, which has been successfully used in previous studies of adaptive time step symplectic integrators. The second, novel, method is based on a non-canonical mixed-variable generating function. Numerical trials for both of these methods show good results, without parametric instabilities or spurious growth or damping. It is then shown how to adapt the time step to an error estimate found by backward error analysis, in order to optimize the time-stepping scheme. Numerical results are obtained using this formulation and compared with other time-stepping schemes for the extended phase space symplectic method.

  1. Effect of One-Step and Multi-Steps Polishing System on Enamel Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Sumali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The final procedures of orthodontic treatment are bracket debonding and cleaning the remaining adhesive. Multi-step polishing system is the most common method used. The disadvantage of that system is long working time, because of the stages that should be done. Therefore, dental material manufacturer make an improvement to the system, to reduce several stages into one stage only. This new system is known as one-step polishing system. Objective: To compare the effect of one-step and multi-step polishing system on enamel roughness after orthodontic bracket debonding. Methods: Randomized control trial was conducted included twenty-eight maxillary premolar randomized into two polishing system; one-step OptraPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent and multi-step AstroPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent. After bracket debonding, the remaining adhesive on each group was cleaned by subjective polishing system for ninety seconds using low speed handpiece. The enamel roughness was subjected to profilometer, registering two roughness parameters (Ra, Rz. Independent t-test was used to analyze the mean score of enamel roughness in each group. Results: There was no significant difference of enamel roughness between one-step and multi-step polishing system (p>0.005. Conclusion: One-step polishing system can produce a similar enamel roughness to multi-step polishing system after bracket debonding and adhesive cleaning.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.136

  2. Influence of step complexity and presentation style on step performance of computerized emergency operating procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Song [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Zhizhong [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: zzli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Song Fei; Luo Wei; Zhao Qianyi; Salvendy, Gavriel [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    With the development of information technology, computerized emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are taking the place of paper-based ones. However, ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately since the industrial practice is quite limited yet. This study examined the influence of step complexity and presentation style of EOPs on step performance. A simulated computerized EOP system was developed in two presentation styles: Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination. Step complexity was quantified by a complexity measure model based on an entropy concept. Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. The results of data analysis on the experiment data indicate that step complexity and presentation style could significantly influence step performance (both step error rate and operation time). Regression models were also developed. The regression analysis results imply that operation time of a step could be well predicted by step complexity while step error rate could only partly predicted by it. The result of a questionnaire investigation implies that step error rate was influenced not only by the operation task itself but also by other human factors. These findings may be useful for the design and assessment of computerized EOPs.

  3. Rapid decay of vacancy islands at step edges on Ag(111): step orientation dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Mingmin; Thiel, P A; Jenks, Cynthia J; Evans, J W

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established that vacancy islands or pits fill much more quickly when they are in contact with a step edge, such that the common boundary is a double step. The present work focuses on the effect of the orientation of that step, with two possibilities existing for a face centered cubic (111) surface: A- and B-type steps. We find that the following features can depend on the orientation: (1) the shapes of islands while they shrink; (2) whether the island remains attached to the step edge; and (3) the rate of filling. The first two effects can be explained by the different rates of adatom diffusion along the A- and B-steps that define the pit, enhanced by the different filling rates. The third observation-the difference in the filling rate itself-is explained within the context of the concerted exchange mechanism at the double step. This process is facile at all regular sites along B-steps, but only at kink sites along A-steps, which explains the different rates. We also observe that oxygen can greatly accelerate the decay process, although it has no apparent effect on an isolated vacancy island (i.e. an island that is not in contact with a step).

  4. Seven steps to curb global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John

    2007-01-01

    Based on best current estimates that the world needs to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 70% by 2050, and that there is at best a 10-year window of opportunity available to initiate the enormous changes needed, this paper proposes a set of seven self-contained steps that can be taken at a global level to tackle the problem with some prospect of success. The steps are self-financing and practicable, in that they are based on existing technologies. They involve agreement to create a new international agency charged with formulating and policing a global carbon pricing regime; a complementary step involving global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions utilizing satellite resources; taking steps to compensate developing countries for preserving rainforest as carbon sinks; the dismantling of newly created trade barriers holding back global trade in biofuels; global promotion of a transition to renewable sources of electricity through facilitation of grid interconnections with independent power producers; a global moratorium on the building of new coal-fired power stations; and recycling of carbon revenues to promote uptake of renewable energy sources in developing countries, particularly Brazil, India and China. Taken as a group, it is argued that these steps are both necessary and sufficient. They call for institutional innovations at a global level that are politically difficult but feasible, given the magnitude of the problems addressed

  5. Strength evaluation code STEP for brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi.

    1997-12-01

    In a structural design using brittle materials such as graphite and/or ceramics it is necessary to evaluate the strength of component under complex stress condition. The strength of ceramic materials is said to be influenced by the stress distribution. However, in the structural design criteria simplified stress limits had been adopted without taking account of the strength change with the stress distribution. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the strength of component on the basis of the fracture model for brittle material. Consequently, the strength evaluation program, STEP, on a brittle fracture of ceramic materials based on the competing risk theory had been developed. Two different brittle fracture modes, a surface layer fracture mode dominated by surface flaws and an internal fracture mode by internal flaws, are treated in the STEP code in order to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture. The STEP code uses stress calculation results including complex shape of structures analyzed by the generalized FEM stress analysis code, ABAQUS, so as to be possible to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture for the structures having complicate shapes. This code is, therefore, useful to evaluate the structural integrity of arbitrary shapes of components such as core graphite components in the HTTR, heat exchanger components made of ceramics materials etc. This paper describes the basic equations applying to the STEP code, code system with a combination of the STEP and the ABAQUS codes and the result of the verification analysis. (author)

  6. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  7. COMMUNITY OPHTHALMOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... The Role of Research in Social Marketing: The Community Eye. Outreach Clinic .... Serious thought was given to the possibility of establishing static eye care .... Information obtained included vital statistics, work history, job.

  8. A step-defined sedentary lifestyle index: <5000 steps/day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Craig, Cora L; Thyfault, John P; Spence, John C

    2013-02-01

    Step counting (using pedometers or accelerometers) is widely accepted by researchers, practitioners, and the general public. Given the mounting evidence of the link between low steps/day and time spent in sedentary behaviours, how few steps/day some populations actually perform, and the growing interest in the potentially deleterious effects of excessive sedentary behaviours on health, an emerging question is "How many steps/day are too few?" This review examines the utility, appropriateness, and limitations of using a reoccurring candidate for a step-defined sedentary lifestyle index: 10 000) to lower (sedentary lifestyle index for adults is appropriate for researchers and practitioners and for communicating with the general public. There is little evidence to advocate any specific value indicative of a step-defined sedentary lifestyle index in children and adolescents.

  9. A Coordinated Approach to Communicating Pediatric-Related Information on Pandemic Influenza at the Community Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2009-12-16

    The purpose of this document is to provide a suggested approach, based on input from pediatric stakeholders, to communicating pediatric-related information on pandemic influenza at the community level in a step-by-step manner.

  10. Awareness about “Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding” among Medical and Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakrani, Vandana A.; Rathod (Waghela), Hetal K.; Mammulwar, Megha S.; Bhawalkar, Jitendra S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a vital intervention supported by World Health Organization and UNICEF to reduce infant mortality and has been included as a part of the curriculum in nursing and medical courses. To know the extent of knowledge of students about BFHI along with its understanding and to find out the gap in their knowledge about BFHI steps. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among the nursing (4th year) and medical students (3rd year MBBS) about ten steps of BFHI by a pretested and predesigned questionnaire. After ethical clearance, information was collected about their awareness and correct understanding concerning ten steps. Results: A total of 102 (51.6%) medical and 96 (48.4%) nursing students comprising of 57 (28.8%) males and 141 (71.2%) females were interviewed, had similar mean score about the ten steps of BFHI. Female respondents 82.3% had best understood the step 2 (training), as compared to males 80.7%. About step 6 (no supplements) 94.3% females and 86% males had well understood the step. Step 7 (rooming in) was known to 85.8% females and 54.4% males respectively. Step 9 (no pacifiers) was known to 80.1% females while among males 56.1% were aware. There was statistically significant difference in their knowledge about the steps 2 and 4 (skin to skin), 5 (counseling), 7, and 9 as females were more aware about these steps than males. The least understood steps in medical and nursing students were step 1 (written policy) (15.7%, 15.6%), step 3 (prenatal education) (27.5%, 29.2%), step 8 (cues) (10.8%, 24%) and step ten (community support) (8.8%, 11.5%) respectively. Conclusions: BFHI is one of the successful international efforts undertaken to promote, protect and support breast feeding. Acquiring knowledge about the same by medical and nursing students is most crucial tool for better practices by them in the future. Continued medical education, workshops and seminars by lactation specialists

  11. Community concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  12. Community expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, L.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between the nuclear generator and the local community has been one of stability and co-operation. However in more recent times (2000-2003) the nuclear landscape has had several major issues that directly effect the local nuclear host communities. - The associations mandate is to be supportive of the nuclear industry through ongoing dialogue, mutual cooperation and education, - To strengthen community representation with the nuclear industry and politically through networking with other nuclear host communities. As a result of these issues, the Mayors of a number of communities started having informal meetings to discuss the issues at hand and how they effect their constituents. These meetings led to the official formation of the CANHC with representation from: In Canada it is almost impossible to discuss decommissioning and dismantling of Nuclear Facilities without also discussing Nuclear Waste disposal for reasons that I will soon make clear. Also I would like to briefly touch on how and why expectation of communities may differ by geography and circumstance. (author)

  13. Comparing the efficacy of metronome beeps and stepping stones to adjust gait: steps to follow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Paulina J M; Roerdink, Melvyn; Peper, C E

    2011-03-01

    Acoustic metronomes and visual targets have been used in rehabilitation practice to improve pathological gait. In addition, they may be instrumental in evaluating and training instantaneous gait adjustments. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two cue types in inducing gait adjustments, viz. acoustic temporal cues in the form of metronome beeps and visual spatial cues in the form of projected stepping stones. Twenty healthy elderly (aged 63.2 ± 3.6 years) were recruited to walk on an instrumented treadmill at preferred speed and cadence, paced by either metronome beeps or projected stepping stones. Gait adaptations were induced using two manipulations: by perturbing the sequence of cues and by imposing switches from one cueing type to the other. Responses to these manipulations were quantified in terms of step-length and step-time adjustments, the percentage correction achieved over subsequent steps, and the number of steps required to restore the relation between gait and the beeps or stepping stones. The results showed that perturbations in a sequence of stepping stones were overcome faster than those in a sequence of metronome beeps. In switching trials, switching from metronome beeps to stepping stones was achieved faster than vice versa, indicating that gait was influenced more strongly by the stepping stones than the metronome beeps. Together these results revealed that, in healthy elderly, the stepping stones induced gait adjustments more effectively than did the metronome beeps. Potential implications for the use of metronome beeps and stepping stones in gait rehabilitation practice are discussed.

  14. Control Software for Piezo Stepping Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Joel F.

    2013-01-01

    A control system has been developed for the Space Interferometer Mission (SIM) piezo stepping actuator. Piezo stepping actuators are novel because they offer extreme dynamic range (centimeter stroke with nanometer resolution) with power, thermal, mass, and volume advantages over existing motorized actuation technology. These advantages come with the added benefit of greatly reduced complexity in the support electronics. The piezo stepping actuator consists of three fully redundant sets of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs), two sets of brake PZTs, and one set of extension PZTs. These PZTs are used to grasp and move a runner attached to the optic to be moved. By proper cycling of the two brake and extension PZTs, both forward and backward moves of the runner can be achieved. Each brake can be configured for either a power-on or power-off state. For SIM, the brakes and gate of the mechanism are configured in such a manner that, at the end of the step, the actuator is in a parked or power-off state. The control software uses asynchronous sampling of an optical encoder to monitor the position of the runner. These samples are timed to coincide with the end of the previous move, which may consist of a variable number of steps. This sampling technique linearizes the device by avoiding input saturation of the actuator and makes latencies of the plant vanish. The software also estimates, in real time, the scale factor of the device and a disturbance caused by cycling of the brakes. These estimates are used to actively cancel the brake disturbance. The control system also includes feedback and feedforward elements that regulate the position of the runner to a given reference position. Convergence time for smalland medium-sized reference positions (less than 200 microns) to within 10 nanometers can be achieved in under 10 seconds. Convergence times for large moves (greater than 1 millimeter) are limited by the step rate.

  15. Do lightning positive leaders really "step"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, D.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known for some time that positive leaders exhibit impulsive charge motion and optical emissions as they extend. However, laboratory and field observations have not produced any evidence of a process analogous to the space leader mechanism of negative leader extension. Instead, observations have suggested that the positive leader tip undergoes a continuous to intermittent series of corona streamer bursts, each burst resulting in a small forward extension of the positive leader channel. Traditionally, it has been held that lightning positive leaders extend in a continuous or quasi-continuous fashion. Lately, however, many have become concerned that this position is incongruous with observations of impulsive activity during lightning positive leader extension. It is increasingly suggested that this impulsive activity is evidence that positive leaders also undergo "stepping". There are two issues that must be addressed. The first issue concerns whether or not the physical processes underlying impulsive extension in negative and positive leaders are distinct. We argue that these processes are in fact physically distinct, and offer new high-speed video evidence to support this position. The second issue regards the proper use of the term "step" as an identifier for the impulsive forward extension of a leader. Traditional use of this term has been applied only to negative leaders, due primarily to their stronger impulsive charge motions and photographic evidence of clearly discontinuous forward progression of the luminous channel. Recently, due to the increasing understanding of the distinct "space leader" process of negative leader extension, the term "step" has increasingly come to be associated with the space leader process itself. Should this emerging association, "step" = space leader attachment, be canonized? If not, then it seems reasonable to use the term "step" to describe impulsive positive leader extension. If, however, we do wish to associate the

  16. One-step fabrication of multifunctional micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenlong; Liu, Mei; Liu, Limei; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Li, Christopher Y.

    2015-08-01

    Although artificial micromotors have undergone tremendous progress in recent years, their fabrication normally requires complex steps or expensive equipment. In this paper, we report a facile one-step method based on an emulsion solvent evaporation process to fabricate multifunctional micromotors. By simultaneously incorporating various components into an oil-in-water droplet, upon emulsification and solidification, a sphere-shaped, asymmetric, and multifunctional micromotor is formed. Some of the attractive functions of this model micromotor include autonomous movement in high ionic strength solution, remote control, enzymatic disassembly and sustained release. This one-step, versatile fabrication method can be easily scaled up and therefore may have great potential in mass production of multifunctional micromotors for a wide range of practical applications.Although artificial micromotors have undergone tremendous progress in recent years, their fabrication normally requires complex steps or expensive equipment. In this paper, we report a facile one-step method based on an emulsion solvent evaporation process to fabricate multifunctional micromotors. By simultaneously incorporating various components into an oil-in-water droplet, upon emulsification and solidification, a sphere-shaped, asymmetric, and multifunctional micromotor is formed. Some of the attractive functions of this model micromotor include autonomous movement in high ionic strength solution, remote control, enzymatic disassembly and sustained release. This one-step, versatile fabrication method can be easily scaled up and therefore may have great potential in mass production of multifunctional micromotors for a wide range of practical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Videos S1-S4 and Fig. S1-S3. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03574k

  17. STEP - Product Model Data Sharing and Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri

    1998-01-01

    During the last fifteen years, a very large effort to standardize the product models employed in product design, manufacturing and other life-cycle phases has been undertaken. This effort has the acronym STEP, and resulted in the International Standard ISO-10303 "Industrial Automation Systems...... - Product Data Representation and Exchange", featuring at present some 30 released parts, and growing continuously. Many of the parts are Application Protocols (AP). This article presents an overview of STEP, based upon years of involvement in three ESPRIT projects, which contributed to the development...

  18. One-step lowrank wave extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Sindi, Ghada Atif

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation is at the heart of modeling, imaging, and Full waveform inversion. Spectral methods gained well deserved attention due to their dispersion free solutions and their natural handling of anisotropic media. We propose a scheme a modified one-step lowrank wave extrapolation using Shanks transform in isotropic, and anisotropic media. Specifically, we utilize a velocity gradient term to add to the accuracy of the phase approximation function in the spectral implementation. With the higher accuracy, we can utilize larger time steps and make the extrapolation more efficient. Applications to models with strong inhomogeneity and considerable anisotropy demonstrates the utility of the approach.

  19. Comparison study on mechanical properties single step and three step artificial aging on duralium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamroh, Dewi Izzatus; Puspitasari, Poppy; Andoko, Sasongko, M. Ilman N.; Yazirin, Cepi

    2017-09-01

    Duralium is kind of non-ferro alloy that used widely in industrial. That caused its properties such as mild, high ductility, and resistance from corrosion. This study aimed to know mechanical properties of duralium on single step and three step articial aging process. Mechanical properties that discussed in this study focused on toughness value, tensile strength, and microstructure of duralium. Toughness value of single step artificial aging was 0.082 joule/mm2, and toughness value of three step artificial aging was 0,0721 joule/mm2. Duralium tensile strength of single step artificial aging was 32.36 kgf/mm^2, and duralium tensile strength of three step artificial aging was 32,70 kgf/mm^2. Based on microstructure photo of duralium of single step artificial aging showed that precipitate (θ) was not spreading evenly indicated by black spot which increasing the toughness of material. While microstructure photo of duralium that treated by three step artificial aging showed that it had more precipitate (θ) spread evenly compared with duralium that treated by single step artificial aging.

  20. Crowdsourcing step-by-step information extraction to enhance existing how-to videos

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phu Tran; Weir, Sarah; Guo, Philip J.; Miller, Robert C.; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Kim, Ju Ho

    2014-01-01

    Millions of learners today use how-to videos to master new skills in a variety of domains. But browsing such videos is often tedious and inefficient because video player interfaces are not optimized for the unique step-by-step structure of such videos. This research aims to improve the learning experience of existing how-to videos with step-by-step annotations. We first performed a formative study to verify that annotations are actually useful to learners. We created ToolScape, an interac...

  1. Using Aspen plus in thermodynamics instruction a step-by-step guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Stanley I

    2015-01-01

    A step-by-step guide for students (and faculty) on the use of Aspen in teaching thermodynamics Used for a wide variety of important engineering tasks, Aspen Plus software is a modeling tool used for conceptual design, optimization, and performance monitoring of chemical processes. After more than twenty years, it remains one of the most popular and powerful chemical engineering simulation programs used both industrially and academically. Using Aspen Plus in Thermodynamics Instruction: A Step by Step Guide introduces the reader to the use of Aspen Plus in courses in thermodynamics. It prov

  2. A template for integrated community sustainability planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Christopher; Hanna, Kevin; Dale, Ann

    2009-08-01

    This article describes a template for implementing an integrated community sustainability plan. The template emphasizes community engagement and outlines the components of a basic framework for integrating ecological, social and economic dynamics into a community plan. The framework is a series of steps that support a sustainable community development process. While it reflects the Canadian experience, the tools and techniques have applied value for a range of environmental planning contexts around the world. The research is case study based and draws from a diverse range of communities representing many types of infrastructure, demographics and ecological and geographical contexts. A critical path for moving local governments to sustainable community development is the creation and implementation of integrated planning approaches. To be effective and to be implemented, a requisite shift to sustainability requires active community engagement processes, political will, and a commitment to political and administrative accountability, and measurement.

  3. Step growth of two flexible ABf monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Colin; Fawcett, Allan H.; Hetherington, Cecil R.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional lattice model was used to simulate the competition between the growth of hyperbranched structures and cycle formation that occurs when flexible ABf monomers undergo step growth. The monomers in the model are mapped onto several lattice sites. The effect of functionality...

  4. The partner selection process : Steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duijsters, G.M.; de Man, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  5. The partner selection process : steps, effectiveness, governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duisters, D.; Duysters, G.M.; Man, de A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the right partner is important for creating value in alliances. Even though prior research suggests that a structured partner selection process increases alliance success, empirical research remains scarce. This paper presents an explorative empirical study that shows that some steps in

  6. Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS): Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, R.; Loughney, J.; van den Bosch, S.; Hancock, R.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Loughney, J.; van den Bosch, S.

    The Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS) working group is considering protocols for signaling information about a data flow along its path in the network. The NSIS suite of protocols is envisioned to support various signaling applications that need to install and/or manipulate such state in the network.

  7. Steps You Can Take to Prevent Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast discusses the main steps people can take to reduce their risk of getting cancer.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  8. Randomness in multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose a quantum-statistical framework that provides an integrated perspective on the differences and similarities between the many current models for multi-step direct reactions in the continuum. It is argued that to obtain a statistical theory two physically different approaches are conceivable to postulate randomness, respectively called leading-particle statistics and residual-system statistics. They present a new leading-particle statistics theory for multi-step direct reactions. It is shown that the model of Feshbach et al. can be derived as a simplification of this theory and thus can be founded solely upon leading-particle statistics. The models developed by Tamura et al. and Nishioka et al. are based upon residual-system statistics and hence fall into a physically different class of multi-step direct theories, although the resulting cross-section formulae for the important first step are shown to be the same. The widely used semi-classical models such as the generalized exciton model can be interpreted as further phenomenological simplification of the leading-particle statistics theory

  9. Tandem mirror next step conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made to define the features of the experimental mirror fusion device - The Tandem Mirror Next Step, or TMNS - that will bridge the gap between present mirror confinement experiments and a power-producing reactor. We outline the project goals, describe some initial device parameters, and relate the technological requirements to ongoing development programs

  10. Comparison of step-by-step kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland

    2018-01-04

    The aim of this study was to compare kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players. Seventeen subjects performed seven 30m sprints every 30s in one session. Kinematics were measured with an infrared contact mat and laser gun, and running times with an electronic timing device. The main findings were that sprint times increased in the repeated sprint ability test. The main changes in kinematics during the repeated sprint ability test were increased contact time and decreased step frequency, while no change in step length was observed. The step velocity increased in almost each step until the 14, which occurred around 22m. After this, the velocity was stable until the last step, when it decreased. This increase in step velocity was mainly caused by the increased step length and decreased contact times. It was concluded that the fatigue induced in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players resulted in decreased step frequency and increased contact time. Employing this approach in combination with a laser gun and infrared mat for 30m makes it very easy to analyse running kinematics in repeated sprints in training. This extra information gives the athlete, coach and sports scientist the opportunity to give more detailed feedback and help to target these changes in kinematics better to enhance repeated sprint performance.

  11. A step in the right direction: new flow depth relationships for stepped spillway design

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common deficiency for embankment dams changing from a low hazard to a high hazard dam is inadequate spillway capacity. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are a popular method to address this issue. Stepped spillway research has gained momentum in recent years due to the need for d...

  12. Fostering Autonomy through Syllabus Design: A Step-by-Step Guide for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Espinosa, Alexánder

    2016-01-01

    Promoting learner autonomy is relevant in the field of applied linguistics due to the multiple benefits it brings to the process of learning a new language. However, despite the vast array of research on how to foster autonomy in the language classroom, it is difficult to find step-by-step processes to design syllabi and curricula focused on the…

  13. Integrated Marketing for Colleges, Universities, and Schools: A Step-by-Step Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Robert A.

    This book offers a step-by-step approach to marketing for educational institutions, especially colleges and universities. The book is organized into three broad sections. Section 1 makes the case for marketing in six chapters which address: (1) challenges which are or will affect colleges and universities; (2) the role of institutional mission,…

  14. Steps, Choices and Moral Accounting: Observations from a Step-Counting Campaign in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm, Nanna; Shklovski, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary work is a contributing factor to growing obesity levels worldwide. Research shows that step-counters can offer a way to motivate greater physical mobility. We present an in-situ study of a nation-wide workplace step-counting campaign. Our findings show that in the context of the workplace...

  15. Listen to Me Listen to You: A Step-By-Step Guide to Communication Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzman, Mandy; Kotzman, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This step-by-step guide is a companion to the popular "Listen to Me, Listen to You: A Practical Guide to Self-Awareness, Communication Skills and Conflict Management" (New Expanded Edition, Penguin Books, 2007). It is designed for use by anyone working in communication skills and personal development training. Resource material is grouped under…

  16. Action research: A practical step-by-step guide for Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings, the extensionists will be able to identify the action required to improve upon the existing situation. This calls for knowledge and skills in action oriented research. This paper provides simple, easy to follow, step-by-step guidelines which should be suitable for many situations in extension research ...

  17. Accuracy of Single-Step versus 2-Step Double-Mix Impression Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Herrera, Francyle Simões

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the accuracy of dies obtained from single-step and 2-step double-mix impressions. Material and Methods. Impressions (n = 10) of a stainless steel die simulating a complete crown preparation were performed using a polyether (Impregum Soft Heavy and Light body) and a vinyl...

  18. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra O'Connell

    Full Text Available Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities.Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video.All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025. The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P < 0.01 for both. The ActivPAL™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the cycling exercises (P < 0.001 for both.As a number of false positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the authors conclude that non-stepping

  19. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Quinlan, Leo R

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities. Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2)™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video. All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025). The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P positive steps during the cycling exercises (P positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the authors conclude that non-stepping physical activities can result in the false detection of steps. This can negatively affect the quantification of physical

  20. Designed communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2013-01-01

    In current residential spaces there seem to be an increasing emphasis on small-scale communities. A number of new, high profiled residential complexes thus seek to promote new ways of social living by rethinking architectural design, typologies and concepts. In this paper I explore the emergence ...

  1. Walkable Communities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and discusses the benefits of walkable communities, as they relate to health, the environment, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  2. Interfirm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . These results yield a paradox which the present paper aims to address. Based on an in-depth case study of how a high-tech small firm organizes its interfirm activity, I show how a hybrid social relation, that is neither weak nor strong, is a useful conception for interfirm communities. Hereby, the study also...

  3. Stepped piezoresistive microcantilever designs for biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohd Zahid; Cho, Chongdu; Urban, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of a piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor strongly depends on its ability to convert the surface stress-induced deflections into large resistance change. To improve the sensitivity, we present stepped microcantilever biosensor designs that show significant resistance change compared with commonly used rectangular designs. The cantilever is made of silicon dioxide with a u-shaped silicon piezoresistor. The surface stress-induced deflections, bimorph deflection, fundamental resonant frequency and self-heating properties of the cantilever are studied using the FEM software. The surface stress-induced deflections are compared against the analytical model derived in this work. Results show that stepped designs have better signal-to-noise ratio than the rectangular ones and cantilevers with l/L between 0.5 and 0.75 are better designs for improving sensitivity. (paper)

  4. Step-Up DC-DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Siwakoti, Yam P.; Gorji, Saman A.

    2017-01-01

    on the general law and framework of the development of next-generation step-up dc-dc converters, this paper aims to comprehensively review and classify various step-up dc-dc converters based on their characteristics and voltage-boosting techniques. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these voltage......DC-DC converters with voltage boost capability are widely used in a large number of power conversion applications, from fraction-of-volt to tens of thousands of volts at power levels from milliwatts to megawatts. The literature has reported on various voltage-boosting techniques, in which......-boosting techniques and associated converters are discussed in detail. Finally, broad applications of dc-dc converters are presented and summarized with comparative study of different voltage-boosting techniques....

  5. Extra cogeneration step seen boosting output 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, P.

    1984-10-08

    Cogenerators can now buy a prototype 6.5 MW, pre-packaged cogeneration system that incorporates an added step to its cycle to reduce fuel use by 21%. Larger, custom-designed systems will be on the market in 1985. Fayette Manufacturing Co. will offer the Kalina Cycle system at a discount price of $8.2 million (1200/kW) until the systems are competitive with conventional units. The system varies from conventional cogeneration systems by adding a distillation step, which permits the use of two fluids for the turbine steam and operates at a higher thermodynamic efficiency, with boiling occuring at high temperature and low pressure. Although theoretically correct, DOE will withhold judgment on the system's efficiency until the first installation is operating.

  6. The stair-step approach in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakyan, Hayk

    2018-01-01

    This book is intended as a teacher’s manual and as an independent-study handbook for students and mathematical competitors. Based on a traditional teaching philosophy and a non-traditional writing approach (the stair-step method), this book consists of new problems with solutions created by the authors. The main idea of this approach is to start from relatively easy problems and “step-by-step” increase the level of difficulty toward effectively maximizing students' learning potential. In addition to providing solutions, a separate table of answers is also given at the end of the book. A broad view of mathematics is covered, well beyond the typical elementary level, by providing more in depth treatment of Geometry and Trigonometry, Number Theory, Algebra, Calculus, and Combinatorics.

  7. Congenital Symmastia: A 3-Step Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaka, Mohamed Saad; Allam, Atef A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Congenital symmastia is a medial confluence of the breasts. It is a rare anomaly with few reports in the literature and no standard treatment. In this article, we present a case of congenital symmastia treated by 3 steps: liposuction, fixation of the skin to the chest wall in the area of the intermammary sulcus, and postoperative intermammary compression. A successful result was achieved with normal cleavage between the breasts. So, this is considered the ideal treatment for this con...

  8. Congenital Symmastia: A 3-Step Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Atef A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Congenital symmastia is a medial confluence of the breasts. It is a rare anomaly with few reports in the literature and no standard treatment. In this article, we present a case of congenital symmastia treated by 3 steps: liposuction, fixation of the skin to the chest wall in the area of the intermammary sulcus, and postoperative intermammary compression. A successful result was achieved with normal cleavage between the breasts. So, this is considered the ideal treatment for this condition. PMID:28293510

  9. STeP : Sicurezza Tutela e Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Carlesi, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Organizzazione del corso di formazione sulla sicurezza dei dati e l'applicazione del 'Codice in materia di protezione dei dati personali - D.lgs. 196/2003', 'STeP: Sicurezza Tutela e Privacy'. Il corso, suddiviso in due giornate (di 4 ore) ? stato rivolto principalmente ai respondabili del trattamento dei dati personali, agli addetti al trattamento ed ai responsabili della sicurezza dei sistemi informatici. Il corso si prefigge di fornire un quadro completo della normativa ( D.Lgs. 196/2003) ...

  10. Tandem mirror next step: remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Hanson, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    This study of the next proposed experiment in the Mirror Fusion Program, the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS), has included serious consideration of the maintenance requirements of such a large source of high energy neutrons with its attendant throughput of tritium. Although maintenance will be costly in time and money, our conclusion is that with careful attention to a design for maintenance plan such a device can be reliably operated

  11. NEW STEPS IN SKETCHING MACHINE PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tocariu Liliana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new and main steps in sketching machine part, by using the Solid Edge program. The traditional method applied in the technical drawing is appreciably altered in the case of the computer-assisted and modern design. These modifications involve others: e.g., use of classic drawing rule in tool sketching. The author deals with them from three points of view, namely: technical drawing, technical education and advantages.

  12. Voltage-Step Transient on Circular Electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wein, Ondřej; Tovčigrečko, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2011), s. 1065-1075 ISSN 0021-891X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0428; GA ČR GA104/09/0972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ohmic loss * voltage-step transient * cottrell asymptote Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.745, year: 2011

  13. Steps towards an integrated eco‐economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Chris; Christensen, Bo Allesøe

    2014-01-01

    as an attempt to develop an integrated eco-economy, which transcends established borders between public and private organizations, private and community enterprise and between rural and urban spatial development. The specific aim of the paper is to demonstrate how modernization has decoupled urban and rural...

  14. Steps towards food web management on farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the report of four years of research on the functional group composition of the animal community in relation to farm and ecological infrastructure (E.I.) management on organic arable farms. The results are mainly based on abundance data of ground dwelling arthropods obtained

  15. Toward a global space exploration program: A stepping stone approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; McKay, Chris; Rummel, John D.; Foing, Bernard H.; Neal, Clive R.; Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Ansdell, Megan; Peter, Nicolas; Zarnecki, John; Mackwell, Steve; Perino, Maria Antionetta; Billings, Linda; Mankins, John; Race, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of space exploration in future planning, the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration (PEX) was chartered to provide independent scientific advice to support the development of exploration programs and to safeguard the potential scientific assets of solar system objects. In this report, PEX elaborates a stepwise approach to achieve a new level of space cooperation that can help develop world-wide capabilities in space science and exploration and support a transition that will lead to a global space exploration program. The proposed stepping stones are intended to transcend cross-cultural barriers, leading to the development of technical interfaces and shared legal frameworks and fostering coordination and cooperation on a broad front. Input for this report was drawn from expertise provided by COSPAR Associates within the international community and via the contacts they maintain in various scientific entities. The report provides a summary and synthesis of science roadmaps and recommendations for planetary exploration produced by many national and international working groups, aiming to encourage and exploit synergies among similar programs. While science and technology represent the core and, often, the drivers for space exploration, several other disciplines and their stakeholders (Earth science, space law, and others) should be more robustly interlinked and involved than they have been to date. The report argues that a shared vision is crucial to this linkage, and to providing a direction that enables new countries and stakeholders to join and engage in the overall space exploration effort. Building a basic space technology capacity within a wider range of countries, ensuring new actors in space act responsibly, and increasing public awareness and engagement are concrete steps that can provide a broader interest in space exploration, worldwide, and build a solid basis for program sustainability. By engaging

  16. Step Density Profiles in Localized Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roeck, Wojciech; Dhar, Abhishek; Huveneers, François; Schütz, Marius

    2017-06-01

    We consider two types of strongly disordered one-dimensional Hamiltonian systems coupled to baths (energy or particle reservoirs) at the boundaries: strongly disordered quantum spin chains and disordered classical harmonic oscillators. These systems are believed to exhibit localization, implying in particular that the conductivity decays exponentially in the chain length L. We ask however for the profile of the (very slowly) transported quantity in the steady state. We find that this profile is a step-function, jumping in the middle of the chain from the value set by the left bath to the value set by the right bath. This is confirmed by numerics on a disordered quantum spin chain of 9 spins and on much longer chains of harmonic oscillators. From theoretical arguments, we find that the width of the step grows not faster than √{L}, and we confirm this numerically for harmonic oscillators. In this case, we also observe a drastic breakdown of local equilibrium at the step, resulting in a heavily oscillating temperature profile.

  17. Microsoft® Visual Basic® 2010 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Halvorson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Your hands-on, step-by-step guide to learning Visual Basic® 2010. Teach yourself the essential tools and techniques for Visual Basic® 2010-one step at a time. No matter what your skill level, you'll find the practical guidance and examples you need to start building professional applications for Windows® and the Web. Discover how to: Work in the Microsoft® Visual Studio® 2010 Integrated Development Environment (IDE)Master essential techniques-from managing data and variables to using inheritance and dialog boxesCreate professional-looking UIs; add visual effects and print supportBuild com

  18. Free roaming dogs and the communities' knowledge, attitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free roaming dogs and the communities' knowledge, attitude and practices of ... Understanding the dynamics of free roaming dog populations is, thus, a step to ... and other related costs), public health impact and social value of the disease.

  19. Effect of the Backward-Facing Step Location on the Aerodynamics of a Morphing Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Mishriky

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, aircraft morphing technology has drawn a lot of attention in the aerospace community, because it is likely to improve the aerodynamic performance and the versatility of aircraft at different flight regimes. With the fast paced advancements in this field, a parallel stream of research is studying different materials and designs to develop reliable morphing skins. A promising candidate for a viable morphing skin is the sliding skin, where two or more rigid surfaces remain in contact and slide against each other during morphing. The overlapping between each two panels create a backward-facing step on the airfoil surface which has a critical effect on the aerodynamics of the wing. This paper presents a numerical study of the effect of employing a backward-facing step on the suction side of a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA 2412 airfoil at a high Reynolds number of 5.9 × 106. The effects of the step location on the lift coefficient, drag coefficient and critical angle of attack are studied to find a favorable location for the step along the chord-wise direction. Results showed that employing a step on the suction side of the NACA 2412 airfoil can adversely affect the aforementioned aerodynamic properties. A drop of 21.1% in value of the lift coefficient and an increase of 120.8% in the drag coefficient were observed in case of a step located at 25% of the chord length. However, these effects are mitigated by shifting the step location towards the trailing edge. Introducing a step on the airfoil caused the airfoil’s thickness to change, which in turn has affected the transition point of the viscous boundary layer from laminar to turbulent. The location of the step, prior or post the transition point, has a noteworthy effect on the pressure and shear stress distribution, and consequently on the values of the lift and drag coefficients.

  20. The construction of geological model using an iterative approach (Step 1 and Step 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kumazaki, Naoki; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Endo, Yoshinobu; Amano, Kenji

    2005-03-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is to establish appropriate methodologies for reliably investigating and assessing the deep subsurface. This report documents the results of geological modeling of Step 1 and Step 2 using the iterative investigation approach at the site-scale (several 100m to several km in area). For the Step 1 model, existing information (e.g. literature), and results from geological mapping and reflection seismic survey were used. For the Step 2 model, additional information obtained from the geological investigation using existing borehole and the shallow borehole investigation were incorporated. As a result of this study, geological elements that should be represented in the model were defined, and several major faults with trends of NNW, EW and NE trend were identified (or inferred) in the vicinity of the MIU-site. (author)

  1. Follow These Step-by-Step Instructions to Prevent Avoidable Tumbles at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Robert; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Almost a quarter of disabling work injuries among school employees are caused by slips and falls. Outlines prevention steps and safety programs that can help lower the possibilities of accidents from falls in schools. (MD)

  2. Stepwise hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow analysis on site scale (Step 0 and Step 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori

    2005-05-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. To achieve this goal, a variety of investigations, analysis, and evaluations have been conducted using an iterative approach. In this study, hydrogeological modeling and ground water flow analyses have been carried out using the data from surface-based investigations at Step 0 and Step 1, in order to synthesize the investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model, and to specify items for further investigation. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) As the investigation progresses Step 0 to Step 1, the understanding of groundwater flow was enhanced from Step 0 to Step 1, and the hydrogeological model could be revised, 2) The importance of faults as major groundwater flow pathways was demonstrated, 3) Geological and hydrogeological characteristics of faults with orientation of NNW and NE were shown to be especially significant. The main item specified for further investigations is summarized as follows: geological and hydrogeological characteristics of NNW and NE trending faults are important. (author)

  3. Stepping stability: effects of sensory perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krebs David E

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few tools exist for quantifying locomotor stability in balance impaired populations. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a technique for quantifying stability of stepping in healthy people and people with peripheral (vestibular hypofunction, VH and central (cerebellar pathology, CB balance dysfunction by means a sensory (auditory perturbation test. Methods Balance impaired and healthy subjects performed a repeated bench stepping task. The perturbation was applied by suddenly changing the cadence of the metronome (100 beat/min to 80 beat/min at a predetermined time (but unpredictable by the subject during the trial. Perturbation response was quantified by computing the Euclidian distance, expressed as a fractional error, between the anterior-posterior center of gravity attractor trajectory before and after the perturbation was applied. The error immediately after the perturbation (Emax, error after recovery (Emin and the recovery response (Edif were documented for each participant, and groups were compared with ANOVA. Results Both balance impaired groups exhibited significantly higher Emax (p = .019 and Emin (p = .028 fractional errors compared to the healthy (HE subjects, but there were no significant differences between CB and VH groups. Although response recovery was slower for CB and VH groups compared to the HE group, the difference was not significant (p = .051. Conclusion The findings suggest that individuals with balance impairment have reduced ability to stabilize locomotor patterns following perturbation, revealing the fragility of their impairment adaptations and compensations. These data suggest that auditory perturbations applied during a challenging stepping task may be useful for measuring rehabilitation outcomes.

  4. Ten steps to successful poster presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardicre, Jayne; Devitt, Patric; Coad, Jane

    Receiving a letter confirming acceptance for you to present a poster at a conference can evoke mixed emotions. Joy, panic, fear and dread are among the many possible emotions and this is not exclusive to first time presenters. Developing an effective poster presentation is a skill that you can learn and can provide a rewarding way to present your work in a manner less intimidating than oral presentation (Shelledy, 2004). The key to successful poster presentation is meticulous, timely, well informed preparation. This article outlines ten steps to help guide you through the process to maximize your success.

  5. Working together in future: next steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, S.

    2001-01-01

    Some questions about public trust have to find answers: the language of safety, how much is enough, how much is too much for stake holder interaction, how do you deal with the issue of responding, i.e. demonstrating action on issues when the licensing decision is not what public groups want, how do you measure the success of consultations, what are the indicators for trust, benchmarking and measuring public perceptions, need for consistency of approach (can determine public confidence by differences between countries) are so many questions that could help for next steps. (N.C.)

  6. HETC-3STEP included fragmentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    High Energy Transport Code (HETC) based on the cascade-evaporation model is modified to calculate the fragmentation cross section. For the cascade process, nucleon-nucleon cross sections are used for collision computation; effective in-medium-corrected cross sections are adopted instead of the original free-nucleon collision. The exciton model is adopted for improvement of backward nucleon-emission cross section for low-energy nucleon-incident events. The fragmentation reaction is incorporated into the original HETC as a subroutine set by the use of the systematics of the reaction. The modified HETC (HETC-3STEP/FRG) reproduces experimental fragment yields to a reasonable degree. (author)

  7. Angular momentum in multi-step photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Adachi, Hajime; Kuwako, Akira; Nittoh, Koichi; Araki, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takashi; Yoguchi, Itaru.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of the angular momenta on the multi-step laser-ionization efficiency was investigated numerically for cases with and without the hyperfine interactions. For either cases the ionization efficiency proved to depend appreciably on the values of J in the excitation ladder. In this respect, we elaborated a simple and efficient method of determining J, which was based on the laser polarization dependence of the excitation rate. Application of this method to a couple of real excitation ladders proved its usefulness and reliability. (author)

  8. Electronic dental records: start taking the steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoff, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Converting paper patient records charts into their electronic counterparts (EDRs) not only has many advantages, but also could become a legal requirement in the future. Several steps key to a successful transition includes assessing the needs of the dental team and what they require as a part of the implementation Existing software and hardware must be evaluated for continued use and expansion. Proper protocols for information transfer must be established to ensure complete records while maintaining HIPAA regulations regarding patient privacy. Reduce anxiety by setting realistic dead-lines and using trusted back-up methods.

  9. The quality step; La demarche qualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellenoue, K. [Awiplan (France); Noyon, N. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Bourmeau, E. [OVAL, France (FR)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The 25 and 26 may 2000, took place at Lille two discussion days on the quality step concerning the collecting, processing and valorization of the domestic wastes, facing the environmental and energy policy. The organic wastes concerned were the domestic wastes and also the wastes from the gardens. This document presents all the papers discussed during these two days and makes the state of the art in the domain. A special interest is given to the quality insurance management, its objectives and its operating. Many european examples and the QUALORG program are provided and analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  10. Stability study in one step steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, P.

    1990-01-01

    The TWO program is presented developed for the behaviour limit calculation stable in one step steam generators for the case of Density Waves phenomenom. The program is based on a nodal model which, using Laplace transformation equations, allows to study the system's transfer functions and foresee the beginning of the unstable behaviour. This program has been satisfactorily validated against channels data uniformly heated in the range from 4.0 to 6.0 Mpa. Results on the CAREM reactor's steam generator analysis are presented. (Author) [es

  11. RFID in libraries a step toward interoperability

    CERN Document Server

    Ayre, Lori Bowen

    2012-01-01

    The approval by The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) of a new standard for RFID in libraries is a big step toward interoperability among libraries and vendors. By following this set of practices and procedures, libraries can ensure that an RFID tag in one library can be used seamlessly by another, assuming both comply, even if they have different suppliers for tags, hardware, and software. In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Lori Bowen Ayre, an experienced implementer of automated materials handling systems, Provides background on the evolution of the standard

  12. Effectiveness of a step-by-step oral recount before a practical simulation of fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagge, Marcelo; Uliana, Christiano Saliba; Fischer, Sergei Taggesell; Kojima, Kodi Edson

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a step-by-step oral recount by residents before the final execution of a practical exercise simulating a surgical fixation of a radial diaphyseal fracture. The study included 10 residents of orthopaedics and traumatology (four second- year and six first-year residents) divided into two groups with five residents each. All participants initially gathered in a room in which a video was presented demonstrating the practical exercise to be performed. One group (Group A) was referred directly to the practical exercise room. The other group (Group B) attended an extra session before the practical exercise, in which they were invited by instructors to recount all the steps that they would perform during the practical exercise. During this session, the instructors corrected the residents if any errors in the step-by-step recount were identified, and clarified questions from them. After this session, both Groups A and B gathered in a room in which they proceeded to the practical exercise, while being video recorded and evaluated using a 20-point checklist. Group A achieved a 57% accuracy, with results in this group ranging from 7 to 15 points out of a total of a possible 20 points. Group B achieved an 89% accuracy, with results in this group ranging from 15 to 20 points out of 20. An oral step-by-step recount by the residents before the final execution of a practical simulation exercise of surgical fixation of a diaphyseal radial fracture improved the technique and reduced the execution time of the exercise. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ONE-STEP AND TWO-STEP CALIBRATION OF A PORTABLE PANORAMIC IMAGE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-C. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Portable Panoramic Image Mapping System (PPIMS is proposed for rapid acquisition of three-dimensional spatial information. By considering the convenience of use, cost, weight of equipment, precision, and power supply, the designed PPIMS is equipped with 6 circularly arranged cameras to capture panoramic images and a GPS receiver for positioning. The motivation for this design is to develop a hand-held Mobile Mapping System (MMS for some difficult accessing areas by vehicle MMS, such as rugged terrains, forest areas, heavily damaged disaster areas, and crowed places etc. This PPIMS is in fact a GPS assisted close-range photogrammetric system. Compared with the traditional close-range photogrammetry, PPIMS can reduce the need of ground control points significantly. Under the condition of knowing the relative geometric relationships of the equipped sensors, the elements of exterior orientation of each captured image can be solved. However, the procedure of a system calibration should be done accurately to determine the relative geometric relationships of multi-cameras and the GPS antenna center, before the PPIMS can be applied for geo-referenced mapping. In this paper, both of one-step and two-step calibration procedures for PPIMS are performed to determine the lever-arm offsets and boresight angles among cameras and GPS. The performance of the one-step and two-step calibration is evaluated through the analysis of the experimental results. The comparison between these two calibration procedures was also conducted. The two-step calibration method outperforms the one-step calibration method in terms of calibration accuracy and operation convenience. We expect that the proposed two-step calibration procedure can also be applied to other platform-based MMSs.

  14. 40 CFR 35.917 - Facilities planning (step 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Facilities planning (step 1). 35.917... Facilities planning (step 1). (a) Sections 35.917 through 35.917-9 establish the requirements for facilities... the facilities planning provisions of this subpart before award of step 2 or step 3 grant assistance...

  15. 48 CFR 14.503-1 - Step one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step one. 14.503-1 Section... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Two-Step Sealed Bidding 14.503-1 Step one. (a) Requests for... use the two step method. (3) The requirements of the technical proposal. (4) The evaluation criteria...

  16. 48 CFR 14.503-2 - Step two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step two. 14.503-2 Section... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Two-Step Sealed Bidding 14.503-2 Step two. (a) Sealed bidding... submitting acceptable technical proposals in step one; (2) Include the provision prescribed in 14.201-6(t...

  17. Electric-current-induced step bunching on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Yoshikazu; Aizawa, Noriyuki

    2000-01-01

    We experimentally investigated step bunching induced by direct current on vicinal Si(111)'1x1' surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The scaling relation between the average step spacing l b and the number of steps N in a bunch, l b ∼N -α , was determined for four step-bunching temperature regimes above the 7x7-'1x1' transition temperature. The step-bunching rate and scaling exponent differ between neighboring step-bunching regimes. The exponent α is 0.7 for the two regimes where the step-down current induces step bunching (860-960 and 1210-1300 deg. C), and 0.6 for the two regimes where the step-up current induces step bunching (1060-1190 and >1320 deg. C). The number of single steps on terraces also differs in each of the four temperature regimes. For temperatures higher than 1280 deg. C, the prefactor of the scaling relation increases, indicating an increase in step-step repulsion. The scaling exponents obtained agree reasonably well with those predicted by theoretical models. However, they give unrealistic values for the effective charges of adatoms for step-up-current-induced step bunching when the 'transparent' step model is used

  18. The Polytopic-k-Step Fibonacci Sequences in Finite Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Deveci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences, the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences modulo m, and the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences in finite groups. Also, we examine the periods of the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences in semidihedral group SD2m.

  19. Efficiently computing exact geodesic loops within finite steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shi-Qing; He, Ying; Fu, Chi-Wing

    2012-06-01

    Closed geodesics, or geodesic loops, are crucial to the study of differential topology and differential geometry. Although the existence and properties of closed geodesics on smooth surfaces have been widely studied in mathematics community, relatively little progress has been made on how to compute them on polygonal surfaces. Most existing algorithms simply consider the mesh as a graph and so the resultant loops are restricted only on mesh edges, which are far from the actual geodesics. This paper is the first to prove the existence and uniqueness of geodesic loop restricted on a closed face sequence; it contributes also with an efficient algorithm to iteratively evolve an initial closed path on a given mesh into an exact geodesic loop within finite steps. Our proposed algorithm takes only an O(k) space complexity and an O(mk) time complexity (experimentally), where m is the number of vertices in the region bounded by the initial loop and the resultant geodesic loop, and k is the average number of edges in the edge sequences that the evolving loop passes through. In contrast to the existing geodesic curvature flow methods which compute an approximate geodesic loop within a predefined threshold, our method is exact and can apply directly to triangular meshes without needing to solve any differential equation with a numerical solver; it can run at interactive speed, e.g., in the order of milliseconds, for a mesh with around 50K vertices, and hence, significantly outperforms existing algorithms. Actually, our algorithm could run at interactive speed even for larger meshes. Besides the complexity of the input mesh, the geometric shape could also affect the number of evolving steps, i.e., the performance. We motivate our algorithm with an interactive shape segmentation example shown later in the paper.

  20. REVIEW: A STEP AWAY FROM PARADISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Konchok Gelek (Dkon mchog dge legs དཀོན་མཆོག་དགེ་ལེགས། (Gengqiu Gelai 更求格来

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas K. Shor. 2012. A Step Away from Paradise: A Tibetan Lama's Extraordinary Journey to a Land of Immortality. [Kindle version]. ASIN B006TR0Y7W (7.03USD; ISBN 0999291890 (paperback 19.95USD. The author was fascinated by the account of Tulshuk Lingpa's disciple, Dorje Wangmo, a Bhutanese nun and a disciple who abandoned her worldly possessions to pursue the land of dreams and imagined paradise. The author dug deeper by interviewing Kungsang, Tulshuk Lingpa's son, and other key disciples who were participants in the search of the same hidden realm on the slope of a glacier. Elements of this tale resemble magical realism with its narration detailing participants' experiences of magic, a parallel world, and a portal to the hidden land. The story centers on a continuing search for locating this paradise with each step holding the possibility of drawing nearer to the destination. This holds readers' curiosity to the end. In 1962, Tulshuk Lingpa led 300 followers from Sikkim and Bhutan to an adjacent area along the Nepal-Sikkim border. He then took a few close disciples to Kangchenjunga, a remote area located on the border between Sikkim and Nepal, and attempted to pass through a gate that he believed led to a heavenly place, paralleling our own existence. At that moment, an avalanche enveloped them, killing Tulshuk and injuring the two others with him. ...

  1. Step-Up: Promoting Youth Mental Health and Development in Inner-City High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea, Stacey; Pardo, Gisselle; Conover, Kelly; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary

    2012-06-01

    African American and Latino youth who reside in inner-city communities are at heightened risk for compromised mental health, as their neighborhoods are too often associated with serious stressors, including elevated rates of poverty, substance abuse, community violence, as well as scarce youth-supportive resources, and mental health care options. Many aspects of disadvantaged urban contexts have the potential to thwart successful youth development. Adolescents with elevated mental health needs may experience impaired judgment, poor problem-solving skills, and conflictual interpersonal relationships, resulting in unsafe sexual behavior and drug use. However, mental health services are frequently avoided by urban adolescents who could gain substantial benefit from care. Thus, the development of culturally sensitive, contextually relevant and effective services for urban, low-income African American and Latino adolescents is critical. Given the complexity of the mental health and social needs of urban youth, novel approaches to service delivery may need to consider individual (i.e., motivation to succeed in the future), family (i.e., adult support within and outside of the family), and community-level (i.e., work and school opportunities) clinical components. Step-Up, a high school-based mental health service delivery model has been developed to bolster key family, youth and school processes related to youth mental health and positive youth development. Step-Up (1) intervenes with urban minority adolescents across inner-city ecological domains; (2) addresses multiple levels (school, family and community) in order to target youth mental health difficulties; and (3) provides opportunities for increasing youth social problem-solving and life skills. Further, Step-Up integrates existing theory-driven, evidence-based interventions. This article describes Step-Up clinical goals, theoretical influences, as well as components and key features, and presents preliminary data on

  2. Tracking Steps on Apple Watch at Different Walking Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Moran, Matthew Duffy; Renninger, Mitchell D; Rhudy, Matthew B; Dreisbach, Scott B; Gift, Kristin M

    2018-04-09

    QUESTION: How accurate are the step counts obtained from Apple Watch? In this validation study, video steps vs. Apple Watch steps (mean ± SD) were 2965 ± 144 vs. 2964 ± 145 steps; P Apple Watch steps when compared with the manual counts obtained from video recordings. Our study is one of the initial studies to objectively validate the accuracy of the step counts obtained from Apple watch at different walking speeds. Apple Watch tested to be an extremely accurate device for measuring daily step counts for adults.

  3. Time step length versus efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan; Valtavirta, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Time step length largely affects efficiency of MC burnup calculations. • Efficiency of MC burnup calculations improves with decreasing time step length. • Results were obtained from SIE-based Monte Carlo burnup calculations. - Abstract: We demonstrate that efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations can be largely affected by the selected time step length. This study employs the stochastic implicit Euler based coupling scheme for Monte Carlo burnup calculations that performs a number of inner iteration steps within each time step. In a series of calculations, we vary the time step length and the number of inner iteration steps; the results suggest that Monte Carlo burnup calculations get more efficient as the time step length is reduced. More time steps must be simulated as they get shorter; however, this is more than compensated by the decrease in computing cost per time step needed for achieving a certain accuracy

  4. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2012-01-01

    Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056

  5. Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Gorm Hansen, Katrine

    ”Online Communities” er et medie for brugere og fagfolk, hvor de kan mødes digitalt for at dele erfaringer, og dette kan anvendes som inspiration indenfor Brugerdreven Innovation. Via ”desk research” kan virksomheder opnå adgang til varierende mængder af brugere på en forholdsvist enkelt måde. I...... denne rapport beskrives eksperimentets opbygning, resultater og mulige værdi. Vi håber hermed på at kunne give praktisk indsigt i, hvorledes virksomheder fra byggematerialeindustrien kan agere i online communities....

  6. Changes in step-width during dual-task walking predicts falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, E; Moe-Nilssen, R; Ramnemark, A; Lundin-Olsson, L

    2010-05-01

    The aim was to evaluate whether gait pattern changes between single- and dual-task conditions were associated with risk of falling in older people. Dual-task cost (DTC) of 230 community living, physically independent people, 75 years or older, was determined with an electronic walkway. Participants were followed up each month for 1 year to record falls. Mean and variability measures of gait characteristics for 5 dual-task conditions were compared to single-task walking for each participant. Almost half (48%) of the participants fell at least once during follow-up. Risk of falling increased in individuals where DTC for performing a subtraction task demonstrated change in mean step-width compared to single-task walking. Risk of falling decreased in individuals where DTC for carrying a cup and saucer demonstrated change compared to single-task walking in mean step-width, mean step-time, and step-length variability. Degree of change in gait characteristics related to a change in risk of falling differed between measures. Prognostic guidance for fall risk was found for the above DTCs in mean step-width with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.5 and a positive likelihood ratio of 2.3, respectively. Findings suggest that changes in step-width, step-time, and step-length with dual tasking may be related to future risk of falling. Depending on the nature of the second task, DTC may indicate either an increased risk of falling, or a protective strategy to avoid falling. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Marketing: A Definition for Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Philip; Goldgehn, Leslie A.

    1981-01-01

    Defines marketing and discusses the eight steps of the marketing process. Emphasizes the necessity of having one individual or committee responsible for coordinating marketing functions. Notes that marketing's success depends on its acceptance by all levels of the institution. Lists the benefits of implementing marketing in a community college.…

  8. Steps towards an integrated eco-economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Chris; Christensen, Bo Allesøe

    Twenty years ago, the Danish city Randers still suffered from the effects of an economic restructuring process, which had closed many of the traditional industries of the city. In many ways, the challenge for the city of Randers was to reinvent itself. Today, an overall renaissance of the city is...... in Randers constitutes a case of an integrated rural and urban eco-economy, which transcends established borders between public and private organisations, private and community enterprise and between rural and urban spatial development....

  9. Sutureless Cataract Surgery: Principles and Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sandford-Smith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cataracts cause about 50% of world blindness. There is little likelihood of effective prevention becoming available in the next few years and so the only treatment will remain surgical. For many of the other major causes of world blindness, like trachoma, xerophthalmia and onchocerciasis, the remedy is community-based, not hospital-based, and requires prevention rather than treatment. The prevalence of blinding cataract will only increase as people live longer, so cataract will continue to be, by far, the most important treatable cause of blindness.

  10. University of Aarhus - the stepping stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kent T.

    is currently facing major challenges. Changes in the Danish University Act and a strong political wish for closer partnerships between the private business community, the public sector and the country's universities have gradually altered the role of the universities in Denmark today. This paper looks more...... closely at the history of the University of Aarhus, the importance of the University for the Aarhus region, and the opportunities and barriers facing an "old" comprehensive University in its attempts to adapt to the new role of universities in the knowledge society....

  11. Digital project management the complete step-by-step guide to a successful launch

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Taylor

    2016-01-01

    The digital world is growing and changing at a rate that can seem overwhelming to those project managers who have to keep up with it to build customer-facing solutions and applications. It's rare for project managers working in this field to be provided with much direction or a process by which to carry out a project, and there has been next to nothing available specific to these types of projects in the literary marketplace. Digital Project Management: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide to a Successful Launch was developed to fill this gap by providing the knowledge, best practices and proven steps to consistently managing these types of project successfully from end-to-end now, and in the future with just minor adjustments to adapt to changes in technology.

  12. Step-by-step manual for planning and performing bifurcation PCI: a resource-tailored approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milasinovic, Dejan; Wijns, William; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Hellig, Farrel; Mohamed, Awad; Stankovic, Goran

    2018-02-02

    As bifurcation PCI can often be resource-demanding due to the use of multiple guidewires, balloons and stents, different technical options are sometimes being explored, in different local settings, to meet the need of optimally treating a patient with a bifurcation lesion, while being confronted with limited material resources. Therefore, it seems important to keep a proper balance between what is recognised as the contemporary state of the art, and what is known to be potentially harmful and to be discouraged. Ultimately, the resource-tailored approach to bifurcation PCI may be characterised by the notion of minimum technical requirements for each step of a successful procedure. Hence, this paper describes the logical sequence of steps when performing bifurcation PCI with provisional SB stenting, starting with basic anatomy assessment and ending with the optimisation of MB stenting and the evaluation of the potential need to stent the SB, suggesting, for each step, the minimum technical requirement for a successful intervention.

  13. Lyondell develops one step isobutylene process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Houston, has developed a one step process to convert normal butylenes to isobutylene, a key component of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is expected to become the additive of choice among U.S. refiners to blend oxygenated gasolines required by 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Lyondell Pres. and Chief Executive Officer Bob Gower the the new process could help assure adequate supplies of MTBE to meet U.S. demand for cleaner burning fuels. Lyondell estimates the capital cost of building a grassroots plant to produce isobutylene with the new process would be less than half the cost of a grassroot plant to produce isobutylene with existing technology starting with normal butane

  14. Experimental results from a stepped frequency GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Signore

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a nationally funded project, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR has been developed by the Italian Consortium for Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems (CO.RI.S.T.A.. The system was described in a previous paper (Alberti et al., 2002. As new aspects, the system is a stepped frequency GPR that can work both in gated and ungated mode, and the antennas can be moved automatically in a controlled fashion. As aspects of geophysical interest, the system is exploitable in situations wherein a high resolution and a shallow penetration in the soil (a few meters are required. Possibly, this is an example of probing a landscape. This paper completes the results of Alberti et al. (2002, wherein laboratory tests where described, by providing the main results obtained during an outdoor experimental campaign, performed fi rst in a controlled site and then in an archaeological site.

  15. Electron work function of stepped tungsten surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahl-Urban, B.

    1976-03-01

    The electron work function of tungsten (110) vicinal faces was measured with the aid of thermionic emission, and its dependence on the crystallographic orientation and the surface structure was investigated. The thermionic measurements were evaluated with the aid of the Richardson plot. The real temperature of the emitting tungsten faces was determined with an accuracy of +- 0.5% in the range between 2,200 and 2,800 K. The vicinal faces under investigation have been prepared with an orientation exactness of +- 15'. In the tungsten (110) vicinal faces under investigation, a strong dependence of the temperature coefficient d PHI/dT of the work function on the crystallographic orientation was found. A strong influence of the edge structure as well as of the step density on the temperature coefficient was observed. (orig./HPOE) [de

  16. Classical and special relativity in four steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The most fundamental and pedagogically useful path to the space-time transformations of both classical and special relativity is to postulate the principle of relativity, derive the generalised or Ignatowsky transformation which contains both, then apply two different second postulates that give either the Galilean or Lorentz transformation. What is new here is (a) a simple two-step derivation of the Ignatowsky transformation, (b) a second postulate of universal time which yields the Galilean transformation, and (c) a different second postulate of finite universal lightspeed to give the Lorentz transformation using a simple Ignatowsky transformation of a light wave. This method demonstrates that the fundamental difference between Galilean and Lorentz transformations is not that lightspeed is universal (which is true for both) but whether the model requires lightspeed to be infinite or finite (as once mentioned by Einstein).

  17. Railgun-type two step accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Maeda, Hikosuke; Onozuka, Masanori; Oda, Yasutsugu; Azuma, Kingo.

    1995-01-01

    In the two step-type railgun accelerator used in an experimental nuclear fusion device of the present invention, energy of laser beams to be irradiated in an acceleration gas behind a flying object can be reduced, and the voltage applied between the rails can be lowered. Charged particles are generated and supplied to the acceleration gas behind the flying object by a charged particle generating and supplying device so as to promote generation of plasmas caused by irradiation of laser beams. As a result, dielectric break down is caused between the rails by a Paschen's law by application of voltage lower than dielectric breakdown voltage, thereby enabling to generate plasmas easily. Accordingly, the energy of laser beams can be suppressed and the voltage applied between the rails can be lowered. (I.S.)

  18. Railgun-type two step accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Maeda, Hikosuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Onozuka, Masanori; Oda, Yasutsugu; Azuma, Kingo

    1995-10-13

    In the two step-type railgun accelerator used in an experimental nuclear fusion device of the present invention, energy of laser beams to be irradiated in an acceleration gas behind a flying object can be reduced, and the voltage applied between the rails can be lowered. Charged particles are generated and supplied to the acceleration gas behind the flying object by a charged particle generating and supplying device so as to promote generation of plasmas caused by irradiation of laser beams. As a result, dielectric break down is caused between the rails by a Paschen`s law by application of voltage lower than dielectric breakdown voltage, thereby enabling to generate plasmas easily. Accordingly, the energy of laser beams can be suppressed and the voltage applied between the rails can be lowered. (I.S.).

  19. Generating regionalized neuronal cells from pluripotency, a step-by-step protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnete eKirkeby

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells possess the potential to generate cells for regenerative therapies in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, and constitute an excellent cell source for studying human neural development and disease modeling. Protocols for neural differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells have undergone significant progress during recent years, allowing for rapid and synchronized neural conversion. Differentiation procedures can further be combined with accurate and efficient positional patterning to yield regionalized neural progenitors and subtype-specific neurons corresponding to different parts of the developing human brain. Here, we present a step-by-step protocol for neuralization and regionalization of human pluripotent cells for transplantation studies or in vitro analysis.

  20. Microsoft® Office Visio® 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create professional-looking business and technical diagrams with Visio 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build organization charts, floor plans, and other diagramsAdd color, text, and other effectsConnect shapes and create effective flowchartsVisualize and analyze data with new PivotDiagramsInsert and modify diagrams in other Microsoft Office documentsCreate your own shapes and templates and build custom diagrams Your all-in-one learning experience in

  1. Microsoft® Office Excel® 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Frye, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to organize, analyze, and present data with Excel 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Create formulas, calculate values, and analyze dataPresent information visually with graphics, charts, and diagramsBuild PivotTable dynamic views-even easier with new data tablesReuse information from databases and other documentsShare spreadsheets for review and manage changesCreate macros to automate repetitive tasks and simplify your work Your all-in-one learning expe

  2. Domestic violence in Ghana: an initial step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofei-aboagye, R O

    1994-01-01

    This article aims to expose the anxiety of abused women in Ghana by defining domestic violence within their culture. A survey conducted among 50 women clients of the Legal Aid Clinic of the International Federation of Women Lawyers in Ghana revealed that wife beating, to some extent, is an acceptable norm of the society. These battered women are more likely to define their experiences as a form of discipline at the hands of their husbands rather than domestic violence or wife battering. An examination of their social practices demonstrates that tradition is the most important reason why Ghanaian women accept the obvious disparity between their lifestyles and that of their male counterparts. Their traditional folk tales narrates stories about a man beating his wife to maintain law and order; while Ghanaian folk and highlife songs revolve around themes that encourage this mastery of wives and male superiority. The existence of domestic violence in all Ghanaian communities highlights the need for social reforms and substantive equality for Ghanaian women. Initial solutions include emphasis on public education, which fosters awareness and social change through women's organizations that work within communities. Once educational efforts have been established, long-term solutions such as adopting legislation to help battered women, as well as educating the police and the judiciary about domestic violence can then be integrated into Ghanaian society.

  3. The moon as a stepping stone for a spacefaring civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhaup, K.

    2008-09-01

    After Columbia In early 2004, U.S. president George Bush introduced the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). Conceived in the aftermath of the Columbia tragedy, it called for NASA to first return astronauts to the moon by 2020 and then send crews to Mars and beyond thereafter. Bush's plan has once again enlivened the long-lasting discussion of manned spaceflight vs. robotic exploration. Also, the plan to use the moon as a stepping stone has come under scrutiny and is being debated. Alternate approaches minimizing or deleting manned lunar exploration in the frame of the VSE were proposed. Fig. 1 A composite manned spacecraft departing Earth orbit en route to the moon. Image: NASA. In order to assess the value of us going back to the moon, it is necessary to debate without bias the meaning of human spaceflight in general and to discuss the role of science in future efforts. Lunar disenchantment Whithin the scientific community, manned exploration programs are put into question time and again. It is demanded that in light of supposedly immense costs any endeavour concerning this matter shall be justified by an indisputable scientific return — and in current debates, scientific value is not recognized in such a way that funding appears well-invested. It is lamented that funds are drawn from what is considered real science. In the past, robotic exploration has opended our eyes to the many wonders of the solar system. Through the eyes of Cassini , Mars Express, and other successful spacecraft, we have seen exotic landscapes—yet on second sight, some appeared all too familiar. BepiColombo will fly to Mercury to unravel its mysteries and the Jovian system may receive a new earthly visitor in the not too distant future. By means of machines like Spirit and Opportunity, we have roamed the surfaces of Mars—without actually ever setting foot there. Therefore, the question is often asked, "Why send crews?" Fig. 2 The upcoming Lunar Reconnisance Orbiter (LRO) as it circles

  4. Compensatory stepping responses in individuals with stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Bimal; Mansfield, Avril; Inness, Elizabeth L; McIlroy, William E

    2011-05-01

    Impaired postural control and a high incidence of falls are commonly observed following stroke. Compensatory stepping responses are critical to reactive balance control. We hypothesize that, following a stroke, individuals with unilateral limb dyscontrol will be faced with the unique challenge of controlling such rapid stepping reactions that may eventually be linked to the high rate of falling. The objectives of this exploratory pilot study were to investigate compensatory stepping in individuals poststroke with regard to: (1) choice of initial stepping limb (paretic or non-paretic); (2) step characteristics; and (3) differences in step characteristics when the initial step is taken with the paretic vs. the non-paretic limb. Four subjects following stroke (38-165 days post) and 11 healthy young adults were recruited. Anterior and posterior perturbations were delivered by using a weight drop system. Force plates recorded centre-of-pressure excursion prior to the onset of stepping and step timing. Of the four subjects, three only attempted to step with their non-paretic limb and one stepped with either limb. Time to foot-off was generally slow, whereas step onset time and swing time were comparable to healthy controls. Two of the four subjects executed multistep responses in every trial, and attempts to force stepping with the paretic limb were unsuccessful in three of the four subjects. Despite high clinical balance scores, these individuals with stroke demonstrated impaired compensatory stepping responses, suggesting that current clinical evaluations might not accurately reflect reactive balance control in this population.

  5. Securing nuclear warheads and materials: seven steps for immediate action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in improving security and accounting for nuclear weapons and weapons-usable nuclear material worldwide, both by states' own domestic actions and through international cooperation. Thousands of nuclear warheads and hundreds of tons of nuclear material are demonstrably more secure than they were before, and through programs such as the U.S.-Russian Highly Enriched Uranium (He) Purchase Agreement, enough potentially vulnerable bomb material for thousands of nuclear weapons has been verifiably destroyed. Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, the international community has attempted to expand and accelerate these efforts. But much more remains to be done. This paper summarizes a recent report from Harvard University, which recommended seven further steps for immediate action in U.S.-Russian and international cooperation. It covers two recommendations that may be of particular interest to this audience in detail. The first is a proposed program to remove nuclear material entirely from many of the most vulnerable sites around the world (by offering incentives targeted to the needs of each facility to give up the material at that site). The second is a suggestion that participants in the global partnership against the spread of weapons and materials of mass destruction announced at the June 2002 Group of Eight summit make a political commitment to meet stringent security standards for nuclear materials on their territories, and urge (and assist) other states to do likewise. (author)

  6. Stepping Into Science Data: Data Visualization in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnik, S.

    2017-12-01

    Have you ever seen people get really excited about science data? Navteca, along with the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO), within the Earth Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate have been exploring virtual reality (VR) technology for the next generation of Earth science technology information systems. One of their first joint experiments was visualizing climate data from the Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS) in VR, and the resulting visualizations greatly excited the scientific community. This presentation will share the value of VR for science, such as the capability of permitting the observer to interact with data rendered in real-time, make selections, and view volumetric data in an innovative way. Using interactive VR hardware (headset and controllers), the viewer steps into the data visualizations, physically moving through three-dimensional structures that are traditionally displayed as layers or slices, such as cloud and storm systems from NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM). Results from displaying this precipitation and cloud data show that there is interesting potential for scientific visualization, 3D/4D visualizations, and inter-disciplinary studies using VR. Additionally, VR visualizations can be leveraged as 360 content for scientific communication and outreach and VR can be used as a tool to engage policy and decision makers, as well as the public.

  7. In Line for the Presidency: The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) Leadership Competencies and the Career Development of Women Leaders in Community College Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Autumn Rene

    2017-01-01

    Though women make up the majority of community college students, faculty and staff, only 36% of community college presidents nationwide are female. With a significant number of presidential retirements on the horizon, there could be many opportunities for women in line for a community college presidency to take the next step along their career…

  8. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  9. One False Step: "Detroit," "Step" and Movies of Rising and Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    "Detroit" and "Step" are two recent movies in the context of urban riots in protest of police brutality. They refer to time periods separated by half a century, but there are common themes in the two that seem appropriate to both times. The movies are not primarily concerned with the riot events, but the riot is a major…

  10. From quality control to quality systems in x-ray radiology. Step by step approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendrutis Morkunas; Julius Ziliukas

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Quality systems in x-ray radiology as in any area of medical exposure is an important tool of optimization of radiation protection. Creation of these systems is related with a number of problems: limited resources, lack of knowledge and experience, negative attitude of hospitals staff and administration, lack of advice from outside. Problems related with transitionary period might be softened by the step by step approach. The following steps might be indicated: providing information on quality systems to hospital staff and administration, simple quality control procedures done by outside experts in hospitals, preparation of quality related procedures by hospital staff, practical implementation of quality control procedures done by hospital staff, preparation of quality manual by hospital staff, its integration into common quality system of hospital (if it is available) and constant development, measurements of performance indicators (e.g., patients' doses) and introduction of corrective measures if necessary, dissemination of experience by expert organizations and more advanced hospitals. These steps are to be discussed in the presentations based on Lithuanian experience since 1998.

  11. Pendekatan Pelatihan On-Site dan Step by Step untuk Optimalisasi Fungsi Guru dalam Pembelajaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Sholeh Y.A. Ichrom

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Remoteness of programme content from teachers' real work situation and unsuitability of approach employed were suspected as main reasons contributing to the failure of many inservise teacher training programmes. A step by step, onsite teacher training (SSOTT model was tried out in this experiment to study if the weakness of inservise programmes could be rectified. As it was tried out in relation with kindergarten mathemathics it was then called SSOTT-MTW (Step by Step Onsite Teacher Training-Methemathics Their Way model. Eighty four kindergartens were involved, in which 84 teachers and 877 pupils were recruited as experimental subjects. The teachers were devided into three group. One group was instructed by using One Period Teacher Training (OPOTT-MTW model, second group was trained with SSOTT-MTW model and the last group was given no training (NTT at all. Result of the experiment showed that the other groups. It was also shown that pupil and parents participation in teaching-learning activities also significantly improved.

  12. Ethnography, Step by Step (2nd Edition), by David M. Fetterman, Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage, 1998..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer C.; Buell, James

    2000-01-01

    Reviews this edition, which like the first is primarily an organized presentation of fieldwork vignettes and instructive examples from research and evaluation contexts. The presentation is organized by the steps involved in ethnographic fieldwork. This edition is updated with references to electronic technology. (SLD)

  13. Stepping movement analysis of control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yantao; Zu Hongbiao

    2013-01-01

    Background: Control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is one of the important safety-related equipment for nuclear power plants. Purpose: The operating parameters of stepping movement, including lifting loads, step distance and step velocity, are all critical design targets. Methods: FEA and numerical simulation are used to analyze stepping movement separately. Results: The motion equations of the movable magnet in stepping movement are established by load analysis. Gravitation, magnetic force, fluid resistance and spring force are all in consideration in the load analysis. The operating parameters of stepping movement are given. Conclusions: The results, including time history curves of force, speed and etc, can positively used in the design of CRDM. (authors)

  14. Patient-Oriented Design of Online Support Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Krcmar, Helmut;Leimeister, Jan Marco

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the process of designing and implementing an online support community for patients. After an introduction we describe a process for translating the socio-technical needs of cancer patients into system requirements as well as the development steps towards a functioning community platform for cancer patients. We combine a generic iterative process model for systems development with a prototyping approach towards an engineering process model for community platforms for canc...

  15. Accurate step-FMCW ultrasound ranging and comparison with pulse-echo signaling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Shyam; Singh, Rahul S.; Lee, Michael; Cox, Brian P.; Culjat, Martin O.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Lee, Hua

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a method setup for high-frequency ultrasound ranging based on stepped frequency-modulated continuous waves (FMCW), potentially capable of producing a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to traditional pulse-echo signaling. In current ultrasound systems, the use of higher frequencies (10-20 MHz) to enhance resolution lowers signal quality due to frequency-dependent attenuation. The proposed ultrasound signaling format, step-FMCW, is well-known in the radar community, and features lower peak power, wider dynamic range, lower noise figure and simpler electronics in comparison to pulse-echo systems. In pulse-echo ultrasound ranging, distances are calculated using the transmit times between a pulse and its subsequent echoes. In step-FMCW ultrasonic ranging, the phase and magnitude differences at stepped frequencies are used to sample the frequency domain. Thus, by taking the inverse Fourier transform, a comprehensive range profile is recovered that has increased immunity to noise over conventional ranging methods. Step-FMCW and pulse-echo waveforms were created using custom-built hardware consisting of an arbitrary waveform generator and dual-channel super heterodyne receiver, providing high SNR and in turn, accuracy in detection.

  16. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-01-01

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  17. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  18. Continuous versus step-by-step scanning mode of a novel 3D scanner for CyberKnife measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Kafi, M Abdullah; Mwidu, Umar; Moftah, Belal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the continuous versus step-by-step scanning mode of a commercial circular 3D scanner for commissioning measurements of a robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system. The 3D scanner was used for profile measurements in step-by-step and continuous modes with the intent of comparing the two scanning modes for consistency. The profile measurements of in-plane, cross-plane, 15 degree, and 105 degree were performed for both fixed cones and Iris collimators at depth of maximum dose and at 10 cm depth. For CyberKnife field size, penumbra, flatness and symmetry analysis, it was observed that the measurements with continuous mode, which can be up to 6 times faster than step-by-step mode, are comparable and produce scans nearly identical to step-by-step mode. When compared with centered step-by-step mode data, a fully processed continuous mode data gives rise to maximum of 0.50% and 0.60% symmetry and flatness difference respectfully for all the fixed cones and Iris collimators studied. - Highlights: • D scanner for CyberKnife beam data measurements. • Beam data analysis for continuous and step-by-step scan modes. • Faster continuous scanning data are comparable to step-by-step mode scan data.

  19. Step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces of intra-individual fastest sprinting in a single session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Ryu; Mizutani, Mirai; Matsuo, Akifumi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces during the acceleration phase for characterising intra-individual fastest sprinting within a single session. Step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces produced by 15 male athletes were measured over a 50-m distance during repeated (three to five) 60-m sprints using a long force platform system. Differences in measured variables between the fastest and slowest trials were examined at each step until the 22nd step using a magnitude-based inferences approach. There were possibly-most likely higher running speed and step frequency (2nd to 22nd steps) and shorter support time (all steps) in the fastest trial than in the slowest trial. Moreover, for the fastest trial there were likely-very likely greater mean propulsive force during the initial four steps and possibly-very likely larger mean net anterior-posterior force until the 17th step. The current results demonstrate that better sprinting performance within a single session is probably achieved by 1) a high step frequency (except the initial step) with short support time at all steps, 2) exerting a greater mean propulsive force during initial acceleration, and 3) producing a greater mean net anterior-posterior force during initial and middle acceleration.

  20. Transition...One Small Step for a Young Girl, a Giant Leap for an Educational Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Shanta

    2017-01-01

    Can single-gender education foster student success? Can it work in a public setting? These questions have been asked many times over the past few decades. The answers have been inconclusive, with some studies saying that single-gender education truly works and others saying that it does not. The basis of the success or failure of single-gender…

  1. Steps Forward and New Challenges: Indigenous Communities and Mother-Tongue Education in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Two international conferences held in southern Africa in 2005 gathered education and language experts to discuss practical, theoretical, and political aspects of the development of African languages for education. Despite the diversity of the participants, there was unanimous agreement that the economic and social benefits of providing…

  2. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy using the Da Vinci Si system: how to improve surgeon autonomy. Our step-by-step technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Hugo H; Storey, Raul E; Rose, Marc C

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we describe several steps to improve surgeon autonomy during a Left Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy (RALRN), using the Da Vinci Si system. Our kidney cancer program is based on 2 community hospitals. We use the Da Vinci Si system. Access is obtained with the following trocars: Two 8 mm robotic, one 8 mm robotic, bariatric length (arm 3), 15 mm for the assistant and 12 mm for the camera. We use curved monopolar scissors in robotic arm 1, Bipolar Maryland in arm 2, Prograsp Forceps in arm 3, and we alternate throughout the surgery with EndoWrist clip appliers and the vessel sealer. Here, we described three steps and the use of 3 robotic instruments to improve surgeon autonomy. Step 1: the lower pole of the kidney was dissected and this was retracted upwards and laterally. This maneuver was performed using the 3rd robotic arm with the Prograsp Forceps. Step 2: the monopolar scissors was replaced (robotic arm 1) with the robotic EndoWrist clip applier, 10 mm Hem-o-Lok. The renal artery and vein were controlled and transected by the main surgeon. Step 3: the superior, posterolateral dissection and all bleeders were carefully coagulated by the surgeon with the EndoWrist one vessel sealer. We have now performed 15 RALRN following these steps. Our results were: blood loss 300 cc, console time 140 min, operating room time 200 min, anesthesia time 180 min, hospital stay 2.5 days, 1 incisional hernia, pathology: (13) RCC clear cell, (1) chromophobe and (1) papillary type 1. Tumor Stage: (5) T1b, (8) T2a, (2) T2b. We provide a concise, step-by-step technique for radical nephrectomy (RN) using the Da Vinci Si robotic system that may provide more autonomy to the surgeon, while maintaining surgical outcome equivalent to standard laparoscopic RN.

  3. Effectiveness of "Step into Health" program in Qatar: a pedometer-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Mohamed G; Al-Mohannadi, Abdulla S; Sayegh, Suzan

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the impact of a one-year pedometer-based intervention on increasing the physical activity level among adult population in Qatar. This longitudinal study was conducted over a one-year period and included a total of 268 adults aged between 18-64 years old. Data were extracted and used from the "Step into Health" (SIH) program, a community-based program launched in 2012, as an approach to improve physical activity in Qatar. Walking intervention encouraged members of SIH to accumulate 10,000 steps or more per day and monitor their progress through a pedometer supported by a self-monitoring online account and a reinforcement system. This study shows a significant increase in average daily steps from 3933±3240 steps/day at baseline into 7507±5416 steps/week at the 12th month (P<0.001). It was found that 18.6% of participants met the daily target of 10,000 steps or more; however, there was a considerable increase of 39.2% by the 12th month. Females showed an increase in their physical activity; still, they remain less active than males. It was found that non-Arabs subgroup were more active than Arabs. Interestingly, older members (≥50 years old) were more active throughout the study period. Pedometer program was found to be effective in increasing the level of physical activity among participants. A decline in physical activity has been observed during hot weather, while re-enforcement campaign had a positive impact on the number of steps/day.

  4. Walking to meet physical activity guidelines in knee osteoarthritis: is 10,000 steps enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel K; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Felson, David T; Gross, K Doug; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael; Lewis, Cora E; Torner, James; Neogi, Tuhina

    2013-04-01

    To study if step goals (eg, walking 10,000 steps a day) approximate meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Cross-sectional observational cohort. Community. People with or at high risk of knee OA (N=1788). None. Objective physical activity data were collected over 7 consecutive days from people with or at high risk of knee OA participating in the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study. Using activity monitor data, we determined the proportion that (1) walked ≥10,000 steps per day, (2) met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines, and (3) achieved both recommendations. Of the subjects studied (mean age ± SD, 67±8y; mean body mass index ± SD, 31±6kg/m(2); 60% women), 16.7% of men and 12.6% of women walked ≥10,000 steps per day, while 6% of men and 5% of women met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Of those walking ≥10,000 steps per day, 16.7% and 26.7% of men and women, respectively, also met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Among this sample of older adults with or at high risk of knee OA, walking ≥10,000 steps a day did not translate into meeting public health guidelines. These findings highlight the disparity between the number of steps believed to be needed per day and the recommended time-intensity guidelines to achieve positive health benefits. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Positive steps turning into a process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božičević Goran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of the research conducted in Croatia for QPSW in 2003 is there is no systematic, accountable and structural confrontation with the past in Croatia, but there is growing concern within the civil society about the problems incurred by the lack of such a confrontation. Two different approaches can be discerned: individual work with particular persons or target groups and advocacy that could influence the alteration of the public opinion and decision-making. Both levels are necessary and they should unfold simultaneously. The systematization and regional cooperation of documentation centers, cooperation between victim organizations and peace initiatives, the inclusion of former warriors into peace building processes the cooperation of artists and activists - represent some of the new and promising steps on the civilian scene in Croatia. The constant strengthening of the independent media and the judiciary, coupled with constant efforts on both levels - the personal and the public - raises hopes that the confrontation with the past in Croatia is a process and not a trend.

  6. Universal Design: A Step toward Successful Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Kelly; Weir, Patricia L.; Azar, Dory; Azar, Nadia R.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of aging successfully has become increasingly important as demographics shift towards an aging population. Successful aging has been defined to include (1) a low probability of disease and disease-related disability; (2) a high level of physical and cognitive functioning; and (3) an active engagement in life. The built environment can create opportunities or constraints for seniors to participate in social and productive activities. Universally designed spaces are more easily accessed and used by a spectrum of people without specialized adaptations. Thus, a universally designed environment creates opportunities for older adults to participate in these activities without the stigmatization associated with adapted or accessible designs. Providing older adults with specific universal design options (e.g., lever handle faucets) has the potential to increase the ease of completing activities of daily living, which promotes a continual engagement in life. Literature regarding universal design is promising; however, its theory requires further attention from professionals designing the built environment, evidence of the significance of its application from academics, and the embracement of its core principles from society. Overall, universal design has the potential to provide a stepping stone toward successful aging. PMID:23431446

  7. Neuregulin: First Steps Towards a Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, D. S.; Malone, C. C.; Karr, L. J.

    2003-01-01

    Neuregulins are growth factor domain proteins with diverse bioactivities, such as cell proliferation, receptor binding, and differentiation. Neureguh- 1 binds to two members of the ErbB class I tyrosine kinase receptors, ErbB3 and ErbB4. A number of human cancers overexpress the ErbB receptors, and neuregulin can modulate the growth of certain cancer types. Neuregulin-1 has been shown to promote the migration of invasive gliomas of the central nervous system. Neuregulin has also been implicated in schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis and abortive cardiac abnormalities. The full function of neuregulin-1 is not known. In this study we are inserting a cDNA clone obtained from American Type Culture Collection into E.coli expression vectors to express neuregulin- 1 protein. Metal chelate affinity chromatography is used for recombinant protein purification. Crystallization screening will proceed for X-ray diffraction studies following expression, optimization, and protein purification. In spite of medical and scholarly interest in the neuregulins, there are currently no high-resolution structures available for these proteins. Here we present the first steps toward attaining a high-resolution structure of neuregulin- 1, which will help enable us to better understand its function

  8. Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP), phase B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP) Phase 2 effort includes preliminary design and activities plan preparation that will allow smooth and time transition into a Prototype Phase and then into Phases 3, 4, and 5. A Concurrent Engineering approach using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, is being applied to define an oxygen-hydrogen engine. The baseline from Phase 1/1' studies was used as a point of departure for trade studies and analyses. Existing STME system models are being enhanced as more detailed module/component characteristics are determined. Preliminary designs for the open expander, closed expander, and gas generator cycles were prepared, and recommendations for cycle selection made at the Design Concept Review (DCR). As a result of July '90 DCR, and information subsequently supplied to the Technical Review Team, a gas generator cycle was selected. Results of the various Advanced Development Programs (ADP's) for the Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) were contributive to this effort. An active vehicle integration effort is supplying the NASA, Air Force, and vehicle contractors with engine parameters and data, and flowing down appropriate vehicle requirements. Engine design and analysis trade studies are being documented in a data base that was developed and is being used to organize information. To date, seventy four trade studies were input to the data base.

  9. Time to pause before the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Many scientists, who have staunchly supported ITER for years, are coming to realize it is time to further rethink fusion energy's development strategy. Specifically, as was suggested by Grant Logan and Dale Meade, and in keeping with the restructuring of 1996, a theme of better, cheaper, faster fusion would serve the program more effectively than ''demonstrating controlled ignition...and integrated testing of the high-heat-flux and nuclear components required to utilize fusion energy...'' which are the important ingredients of ITER's objectives. The author has personally shifted his view for a mixture of technical and political reasons. On the technical side, he senses that through advanced tokamak research, spherical tokamak research, and advanced stellarator work, scientists are coming to a new understanding that might make a burning-plasma device significantly smaller and less expensive. Thus waiting for a few years, even ten years, seems prudent. Scientifically, there is fascinating physics to be learned through studies of burning plasma on a tokamak. And clearly if one wishes to study burning plasma physics in a sustained plasma, there is no other configuration with an adequate database on which to proceed. But what is the urgency of moving towards an ITER-like step focused on burning plasma? Some of the arguments put forward and the counter arguments are discussed here

  10. Real Convergence, Steps from Adherence to Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Busu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The macroeconomic model Solow-Swan shows that the marginal rates of capital, technology and labor force, with positive values, have the capacity to stimulate the economic growth of the emergent economies, as in the case of Romania, for the 2005-2014 period, facilitating the determination of specific correlations between macroeconomic indicators to analyze the convergence towards the average European Union (EU. The economic theory, highlighted in particular by the Solow-Swan model, was applied in the current paper, to determine the potential of real convergence. Moreover, the statistics for the period 2005-2014 facilitated the analysis of the growth and recession factors specific to economies of Central and Eastern Europe and placed Romania amongst the EU countries with emergent economies and potential of economic growth. The European Commission’s reports regarding the macroeconomic imbalance procedure draw attention on the same indicators presented in the article to address proper recommendations and support corrective measures. Making a step from nominal to real convergence, the latter derives naturally from the need to recoup the gaps in comparison with developed economies amongst countries of the Euro Area.

  11. Deposition Diagnostics for Next-step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Bader, A.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    The scale-up of deposition in next-step devices such as ITER will pose new diagnostic challenges. Codeposition of hydrogen with carbon needs to be characterized and understood in the initial hydrogen phase in order to mitigate tritium retention and qualify carbon plasma facing components for DT operations. Plasma facing diagnostic mirrors will experience deposition that is expected to rapidly degrade their reflectivity, posing a new challenge to diagnostic design. Some eroded particles will collect as dust on interior surfaces and the quantity of dust will be strictly regulated for safety reasons - however diagnostics of in-vessel dust are lacking. We report results from two diagnostics that relate to these issues. Measurements of deposition on NSTX with 4 Hz time resolution have been made using a quartz microbalance in a configuration that mimics that of a typical diagnostic mirror. Often deposition was observed immediately following the discharge suggesting that diagnostic shutters should be closed as soon as possible after the time period of interest. Material loss was observed following a few discharges. A novel diagnostic to detect surface particles on remote surfaces was commissioned on NSTX

  12. One step processing for future diesel specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    The trend in diesel fuel specifications is to limit the sulfur level to less than 0.05 wt- per cent. Many regions have also specified that diesel fuels must have lower aromatic levels, higher cetane numbers, and lower distillation end points. These changes will require significant refinery investment to meet the new diesel fuel specifications. The changes may also significantly affect the value of synthetic crude stocks. UOP has developed a new hydroprocessing catalyst which makes it possible to meet the new diesel specifications in one single processing step and at minimal cost. The catalyst saturates aromatics while opening ring structures at the same time. By selectively cracking heavy components into the diesel range with minimal cracking to gas or naphtha, heavier feedstocks can be upgraded to diesel, and refinery diesel yield can be augmented. Synthetic crude distillate is often high in aromatics and low in cetane number. This new UOP hydroprocessing system will allow synthetic crude producers and refiners to produce diesel fuels with higher cetane numbers, high-quality distillate blendstocks and distillate fuels. 26 figs

  13. Space Drive Physics: Introduction and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, M. G.

    Research toward the visionary goal of propellantless ``space drives'' is introduced, covering key physics issues and a listing of roughly 2-dozen approaches. The targeted advantage of a space drive is to circumvent the propellant constraints of rockets and the maneuvering limits of light sails by using the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space for propulsion. At present, the scientific foundations from which to engineer a space drive have not been discovered and, objectively, might be impossible. Although no propulsion breakthroughs appear imminent, the subject has matured to where the relevant questions have been broached and are beginning to be answered. The critical make-break issues include; conservation of momentum, uncertain sources of reaction mass, and the net-external thrusting requirement. Note: space drives are not necessarily faster- than-light devices. Speed limits are a separate, unanswered issue. Relevant unsolved physics includes; the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, coupling of gravitation and electromagnetism, and the nature of the quantum vacuum. The propulsion approaches span mostly stages 1 through 3 of the scientific method (defining the problem, collecting data, and articulating hypotheses), while some have matured to stage 4 (testing hypotheses). Nonviable approaches include `stiction drives,' `gyroscopic antigravity,' and `lifters.' No attempt is made to gauge the prospects of the remaining approaches. Instead, a list of next-step research questions is derived from the examination of these goals, unknowns, and concepts.

  14. Destruction as a Step in Heidegger's Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J Safian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues in Heidegger’s philosophy is his claim that western philosophy tradition has overlooked the issue of Being. Heidegger’s attempt is to reveal the origins of this negligence by means of destruction. However, it seems that through such claim Heidegger aims to destroy and disvalue this tradition. In addition to defining and explaining destruction, our purpose in this article is to show that Heidegger’s goal is not to destroy the tradition of philosophy but the term destruction refers to a process which is a step in Heidegger’s phenomenology by means of which one can conceive and perceive Being better because only through such destruction ontology can fully assure itself in a phenomenological way of the genuine character of its concepts. The necessity of doing destruction in Heidegger’s thought has also been discussed and his persistence on it has been shown in two of his works, one belongs to early and another to later Heidegger.

  15. Developing Learning Communities: Using Communities of Practice within Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawthom, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The idea that communities need to be inclusive is almost axiomatic. The process, whereby, community members engage in inclusive practices is far less understood. Similarly, UK universities are being encouraged to include the wider community and extent campus boundaries. Here, I suggest a particular theoretical lens which sheds light on engagement…

  16. First Steps in Using REBT in Life Coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2011-01-01

    This step-by-step guide shows the Life Coach how to help coachees deal with any emotional problems that might prevent them from achieving their life goals, using the theory and practice of REBT adapted to a coaching setting.

  17. Uncertainty Principles on Two Step Nilpotent Lie Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We extend an uncertainty principle due to Cowling and Price to two step nilpotent Lie groups, which generalizes a classical theorem of Hardy. We also prove an analogue of Heisenberg inequality on two step nilpotent Lie groups.

  18. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    KAUST Repository

    Christlieb, Andrew; Macdonald, Colin; Ong, Benjamin; Spiteri, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step

  19. Performance of an attention-demanding task during treadmill walking shifts the noise qualities of step-to-step variation in step width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabiner, Mark D; Marone, Jane R; Wyatt, Marilynn; Sessoms, Pinata; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2018-06-01

    The fractal scaling evident in the step-to-step fluctuations of stepping-related time series reflects, to some degree, neuromotor noise. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the fractal scaling of step width, step width and step width variability are affected by performance of an attention-demanding task. We hypothesized that the attention-demanding task would shift the structure of the step width time series toward white, uncorrelated noise. Subjects performed two 10-min treadmill walking trials, a control trial of undisturbed walking and a trial during which they performed a mental arithmetic/texting task. Motion capture data was converted to step width time series, the fractal scaling of which were determined from their power spectra. Fractal scaling decreased by 22% during the texting condition (p Step width and step width variability increased 19% and five percent, respectively (p step width fractal scaling. The change of the fractal scaling of step width is consistent with increased cognitive demand and suggests a transition in the characteristics of the signal noise. This may reflect an important advance toward the understanding of the manner in which neuromotor noise contributes to some types of falls. However, further investigation of the repeatability of the results, the sensitivity of the results to progressive increases in cognitive load imposed by attention-demanding tasks, and the extent to which the results can be generalized to the gait of older adults seems warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Compliant walking appears metabolically advantageous at extreme step lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Bertram, John E A

    2018-05-19

    Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases. 10 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill using progressively increasing step lengths (100%, 120%, 140% and 160% of preferred step length), in both normal and compliant leg walking as energy expenditure was recorded via indirect calorimetry. Leg compliance was controlled by lowering the center-of-mass trajectory during stance, forcing the leg to flex and extend as the body moved over the foot contact. For normal step lengths, compliant leg walking was more costly than normal walking gait, but compliant leg walking energetic cost did not increase as rapidly for longer step lengths. This led to an intersection between normal and compliant walking cost curves at 114% relative step length (regression analysis; r 2  = 0.92 for normal walking; r 2  = 0.65 for compliant walking). Compliant leg walking is less energetically demanding at longer step lengths where a spontaneous shift to compliant walking has been observed, suggesting the human motor control system is sensitive to energetic requirements and will employ alternate movement patterns if advantageous strategies are available. The transition could be attributed to the interplay between (i) leg work controlling body travel during single stance and (ii) leg work to control energy loss in the step-to-step transition. Compliant leg walking requires more stance leg work at normal step lengths, but involves less energy loss at the step-to-step transition for very long steps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Required Steps of Managing International Equity Placement Strategic Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Wandebori, Harimukti; de Bruijn, Erik Joost; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to unravel the steps of managing international equity placement strategic alliance (IEPSA). The steps of managing an IEPSA are obtained by conducting theoretical review. The theoretical reviews consist of theory of strategic alliance; definition, classification, and finding definition of an IEPSA, political and analytical considerations and the necessary steps. These steps of managing IEPSA can be classified into analyzing of macro consideration, micro considera...

  2. The effects of age and step length on joint kinematics and kinetics of large out-and-back steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Brian W; Ashton-Miller, James A; Alexander, Neil B

    2008-06-01

    Maximum step length (MSL) is a clinical test that has been shown to correlate with age, various measures of fall risk, and knee and hip joint extension speed, strength, and power capacities, but little is known about the kinematics and kinetics of the large out-and-back step utilized. Body motions and ground reaction forces were recorded for 11 unimpaired younger and 10 older women while attaining maximum step length. Joint kinematics and kinetics were calculated using inverse dynamics. The effects of age group and step length on the biomechanics of these large out-and-back steps were determined. Maximum step length was 40% greater in the younger than in the older women (P<0.0001). Peak knee and hip, but not ankle, angle, velocity, moment, and power were generally greater for younger women and longer steps. After controlling for age group, step length generally explained significant additional variance in hip and torso kinematics and kinetics (incremental R2=0.09-0.37). The young reached their peak knee extension moment immediately after landing of the step out, while the old reached their peak knee extension moment just before the return step liftoff (P=0.03). Maximum step length is strongly associated with hip kinematics and kinetics. Delays in peak knee extension moment that appear to be unrelated to step length, may indicate a reduced ability of older women to rapidly apply force to the ground with the stepping leg and thus arrest the momentum of a fall.

  3. Statistical theory of multi-step compound and direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feshbach, H.; Kerman, A.; Koonin, S.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of nuclear reactions is extended so as to include a statistical treatment of multi-step processes. Two types are distinguished, the multi-step compound and the multi-step direct. The wave functions for the system are grouped according to their complexity. The multi-step direct process involves explicitly those states which are open, while the multi-step compound involves those which are bound. In addition to the random phase assumption which is applied differently to the multi-step direct and to the multi-step compound cross-sections, it is assumed that the residual interaction will have non-vanishing matrix elements between states whose complexities differ by at most one unit. This is referred to as the chaining hypothesis. Explicit expressions for the double differential cross-section giving the angular distribution and energy spectrum are obtained for both reaction types. The statistical multi-step compound cross-sections are symmetric about 90 0 . The classical statistical theory of nuclear reactions is a special limiting case. The cross-section for the statistical multi-step direct reaction consists of a set of convolutions of single-step direct cross-sections. For the many step case it is possible to derive a diffusion equation in momentum space. Application is made to the reaction 181 Ta(p,n) 181 W using the statistical multi-step compound formalism

  4. Diffeomorphic image registration with automatic time-step adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Klein, S.; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated Euler's time-step adjustment scheme for diffeomorphic image registration using stationary velocity fields (SVFs). The proposed variational problem aims at bounding the inverse consistency error by adaptively adjusting the number of Euler's step required to r...... accuracy as a fixed time-step scheme however at a much less computational cost....

  5. FEM simulation of multi step forming of thick sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.H.; Huetink, Han

    2004-01-01

    A case study has been performed on the forming of an industrial product. This product, a bracket, is made of 5mm thick sheet in multiple steps. The process exists of a bending step followed by a drawing and a flanging step. FEM simulations have been used to investigate this forming process. First,

  6. Thermal fatigue in mixing tees: A step by step simplified procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Following the CIVAUX 1 incident of a leak on RHR system, EDF has developed a step by step procedure to screen and analyse similar locations: mixing tees with long duration at high ΔT between the 2 fluids. The paper present the procedure, the background of the methodology and few R and D work that support this procedure. The procedure is based on: screening criteria on maximum DT and minimum duration. screening criteria without any duration consideration, only DT and material. a simplified and conservative estimation of a usage factor. a detailed analysis of usage factor and crack growth rate, based on specific data collection of operating transients. Around that procedure EDF launched an R and D program on fatigue curves and fatigue reduction factors for high cycle fatigue. The procedure is compared with field experience and recent R and D fatigue tests. (author)

  7. Evaluating Web-Scale Discovery Services: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Deodato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a web-scale discovery service is a large and important undertaking that involves a significant investment of time, staff, and resources. Finding the right match begins with a thorough and carefully planned evaluation process. In order to be successful, this process should be inclusive, goal-oriented, data-driven, user-centered, and transparent. The following article offers a step-by-step guide for developing a web-scale discovery evaluation plan rooted in these five key principles based on best practices synthesized from the literature as well as the author’s own experiences coordinating the evaluation process at Rutgers University. The goal is to offer academic libraries that are considering acquiring a web-scale discovery service a blueprint for planning a structured and comprehensive evaluation process.

  8. Step-by-step approach to convective cooling of laser disc amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourque, R.F.

    1979-04-01

    A step by step approach is presented to the problem of gas cooling of laser glass amplifiers. The basic equations are given for glass conduction, thermal stress, gas convection, and heat exchanger and blower design. An example calculation is then carried out for helium gas at one atmosphere with the gas flow in the direction orthogonal to the optical path. It is found that pumping powers and temperatures are acceptable for this case. Results are also presented for helium in the slant direction and for nitrogen in both directions. Included also are the effects on pumping power of gas temperature rise, gas pressure, flashtube rep rate, and flow channel width. It is found that, based on temperature rise and pumping power, nitrogen is as viable a coolant as helium

  9. A step-by-step solution for embedding user-controlled cines into educational Web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornfeld, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this article is to introduce a simple method for embedding user-controlled cines into a Web page using a simple JavaScript. Step-by-step instructions are included and the source code is made available. This technique allows the creation of portable Web pages that allow the user to scroll through cases as if seated at a PACS workstation. A simple JavaScript allows scrollable image stacks to be included on Web pages. With this technique, you can quickly and easily incorporate entire stacks of CT or MR images into online teaching files. This technique has the potential for use in case presentations, online didactics, teaching archives, and resident testing.

  10. Computer aided virtual manufacturing using Creo parametric easy to learn step by step guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kanife, Paul Obiora

    2016-01-01

    Providing a step-by-step guide for the implementation of virtual manufacturing using Creo Parametric software (formerly known as Pro-Engineer), this book creates an engaging and interactive learning experience for manufacturing engineering students. Featuring graphic illustrations of simulation processes and operations, and written in accessible English to promote user-friendliness, the book covers key topics in the field including: the engraving machining process, face milling, profile milling, surface milling, volume rough milling, expert machining, electric discharge machining (EDM), and area turning using the lathe machining process. Maximising reader insights into how to simulate material removal processes, and how to generate cutter location data and G-codes data, this valuable resource equips undergraduate, postgraduate, BTech and HND students in the fields of manufacturing engineering, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) with transferable skills and knowledge. This book is...

  11. Constructing an exposure chart: step by step (based on standard procedures)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jocelyn L; Cansino, Percedita T.; Taguibao, Angileo P.

    2000-01-01

    An exposure chart is very important in conducting radiographic inspection of materials. By using an accurate exposure chart, an inspector is able to avoid a trial and error way of determining correct time to expose a specimen, thereby producing a radiograph that has an acceptable density based on a standard. The chart gives the following information: x-ray machine model and brand, distance of the x-ray tube from the film, type and thickness of intensifying screens, film type, radiograph density, and film processing conditions. The methods of preparing an exposure chart are available in existing radiographic testing manuals. These described methods are presented in step by step procedures, covering the actual laboratory set-up, data gathering, computations, and transformation of derived data into Characteristic Curve and Exposure Chart

  12. Positive steps toward non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, G.

    1979-08-30

    Russel W. Fox and Mason Willrich in their paper, International Custody of Plutonium Stocks: A First Step Toward an International Regime for Sensitive Nuclear Energy Activities, advocate placing excess plutonium in an international custodial facility; critical criteria governing releases are outlined so that, on one hand the owners can have high confidence that their plutonium will be returned promptly, under appropriate circumstances, and on the other hand, all the other participating and concerned countries can have confidence in the assurance that plutonium will be released only for immediate use in a defined and approved civil purpose. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute in the 1978 issue of its Year Book, recognizes a move towards a more positive approach to the problem of nuclear proliferation. It is noted that the non-proliferation strategies of the main supply countries have largely concentrated on a two-pronged approach of technology denials with tightening of safeguards. But already, enrichment, reprocessing, and breeder reactor programs extend far beyond the five nuclear weapon states. History testifies to the limitations of a policy of technical denials. SIPRI recognizes that another way to dissuade non-nuclear weapon states from creating their own enrichment or reprocessing plants would be to establish an open market for these services, a market characterized by diversity and competition. So far, there has been no case where a country has developed nuclear explosives by diverting material from a civil power station. Development of nuclear weapons by various countries is briefly noted and areas where strengthening of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is needed are noted. (MCW)

  13. The magnesium chelation step in chlorophyll biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.

    1990-11-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the biogenesis of energy transducing membranes requires the coordinate synthesis of prosthetic groups, proteins, and various lipids. Two of the major prosthetic groups, chlorophyll and heme, share a common biosynthetic pathway that diverges at the point of metal insertion into protoporphyrin IX (Proto). Insertion of iron leads to the formation of hemes, while insertion of magnesium is the first step unique to chlorophyll formation. This project is directed toward identifying the enzyme(s) responsible for magnesium chelation and elucidating the mechanism which regulates the flux of precursors through the branch point enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Using intact chloroplasts from greening cucumber cotyledons, we have confirmed the ATP requirement for Mg-Proto formation. Use of non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs, uncouplers and ionophores has led to the conclusions that ATP hydrolysis is necessary, but that this hydrolysis is not linked to the requirement for membrane intactness by transmembrane ion gradients or electrical potentials. The enzyme(s) are flexible with respect to the porphyrin substrate specificity, accepting porphyrins with -vinyl, -ethyl, or -H substituents at the 2 and 4 positions. The activity increases approximately four-fold during greening. Possible physiological feedback inhibitors such as heme, protochlorophyllide, and chlorophyllide had no specific effect on the activity. The activity has now been assayed in barely, corn and peas, with the system from peas almost ten-fold more active than the cucumber system. Work is continuing in pea chloroplasts with the development of a continuous assay and investigation of the feasibility of characterizing an active, organelle-free preparation. 6 figs.

  14. Interstellar Probe: First Step to the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, R. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    a robotic craft can be built, and could be built and launched soon - to enable our first deliberate step to the stars.

  15. MARKETING CONSIDERATIONS ON BRAND COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-C. Budac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most consumers spend an important part of their free time looking for online information about the brands before taking a decision to purchase. The Internet is the main factor which has led to a considerable increase of the time allotted by consumers for search and comparing information about brands, as a step preceding the decision to purchase and also one of the most important factors that influence the interaction between the brand and the consumer. Although the general trend is that the public to become more active and more involved in the choice of the brand, consumer's responses to its messages obviously depend on cultural, social or economic factors. The work has the purpose to clarify what brand community means and how it appeared - if it was really built from scratch or it has already existed in a latent way and it must only be recognized - the characteristics of successful communities, which of the objectives of the brands can be achieved by means of these groups, what is the role of social media in the development of these communities, what kind of types of mem¬bers are likely to be encountered inside of the online communities and what is their proportion for each and which are the research methodologies that can give support to companies in monitoring these groups.

  16. USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.

  17. A Step-by-Step Framework on Discrete Events Simulation in Emergency Department; A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahsa; Moftian, Nazila; Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman; Samad-Soltani, Taha

    2017-04-01

    To systematically review the current literature of simulation in healthcare including the structured steps in the emergency healthcare sector by proposing a framework for simulation in the emergency department. For the purpose of collecting the data, PubMed and ACM databases were used between the years 2003 and 2013. The inclusion criteria were to select English-written articles available in full text with the closest objectives from among a total of 54 articles retrieved from the databases. Subsequently, 11 articles were selected for further analysis. The studies focused on the reduction of waiting time and patient stay, optimization of resources allocation, creation of crisis and maximum demand scenarios, identification of overcrowding bottlenecks, investigation of the impact of other systems on the existing system, and improvement of the system operations and functions. Subsequently, 10 simulation steps were derived from the relevant studies after an expert's evaluation. The 10-steps approach proposed on the basis of the selected studies provides simulation and planning specialists with a structured method for both analyzing problems and choosing best-case scenarios. Moreover, following this framework systematically enables the development of design processes as well as software implementation of simulation problems.

  18. Acomparative Study Comparing Low-dose Step-up Versus Step-down in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Resistant to Clomiphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Peivandi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS is one of the most common cause of infertility in women. clomiphene is the first line of treatment. however 20% of patients are resistant to clomiphene. because of follicular hypersensitivity to gonadotropins in pcod, multiple follicular growth and development occurs which is cause of OHSS and multiple pregnancy. Our aim of this random and clinical study was comparation between step-down and low dose step-up methods for induction ovulation in clomiphene resistant. Methods: 60 cases were included 30 women in low-dose step-up group and 30 women in step-down group. In low-dose step-up HMG 75u/d and in step-down HMG 225u/d was started on 3th days of cycle, monitoring with vaginal sonography was done on 8th days of cycle. When follicle with>14 mm in diameter was seen HMG dose was continued in low-dose step-up and was decreased in step-down group. When follicle reached to 18mm in diameter, amp HCG 10000 unit was injected and IUI was performed 36 hours later. Results: Number of HMG ampules, number of follicles> 14mm on the day of HCG injection and level of serum estradiol was greater in low dose step up protocol than step down protocol(p<0/0001. Ovulation rate and pregnancy rate was greater in lowdose step up group than step down group with significant difference (p<0/0001. Conclusion: Our study showed that low-dose step-up regimen with HMG is effective for stimulating ovulation and clinical pregnancy but in view of monofollicular growth, the step down method was more effective and safe. In our study multifolliular growth in step-up method was higher than step-down method. We can predict possibility of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome syndrome in highly sensitive PCOS patients.

  19. Step-to-step variability in treadmill walking: influence of rhythmic auditory cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Terrier

    Full Text Available While walking, human beings continuously adjust step length (SpL, step time (SpT, step speed (SpS = SpL/SpT and step width (SpW by integrating both feedforward and feedback mechanisms. These motor control processes result in correlations of gait parameters between consecutive strides (statistical persistence. Constraining gait with a speed cue (treadmill and/or a rhythmic auditory cue (metronome, modifies the statistical persistence to anti-persistence. The objective was to analyze whether the combined effect of treadmill and rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC modified not only statistical persistence, but also fluctuation magnitude (standard deviation, SD, and stationarity of SpL, SpT, SpS and SpW. Twenty healthy subjects performed 6 × 5 min. walking tests at various imposed speeds on a treadmill instrumented with foot-pressure sensors. Freely-chosen walking cadences were assessed during the first three trials, and then imposed accordingly in the last trials with a metronome. Fluctuation magnitude (SD of SpT, SpL, SpS and SpW was assessed, as well as NonStationarity Index (NSI, which estimates the dispersion of local means in the times series (SD of 20 local means over 10 steps. No effect of RAC on fluctuation magnitude (SD was observed. SpW was not modified by RAC, what is likely the evidence that lateral foot placement is separately regulated. Stationarity (NSI was modified by RAC in the same manner as persistent pattern: Treadmill induced low NSI in the time series of SpS, and high NSI in SpT and SpL. On the contrary, SpT, SpL and SpS exhibited low NSI under RAC condition. We used relatively short sample of consecutive strides (100 as compared to the usual number of strides required to analyze fluctuation dynamics (200 to 1000 strides. Therefore, the responsiveness of stationarity measure (NSI to cued walking opens the perspective to perform short walking tests that would be adapted to patients with a reduced gait perimeter.

  20. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel

    2017-03-13

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step size for ground-motion simulations due to numerical stability conditions. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time stepping scheme to adapt the time step to the element size, allowing nearoptimal time steps everywhere in the mesh. This can potentially lead to significantly faster simulation runtimes.

  1. Finding overlapping communities in multilayer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiyi; Suzumura, Toyotaro; Ji, Hongyu; Hu, Guangmin

    2018-01-01

    Finding communities in multilayer networks is a vital step in understanding the structure and dynamics of these layers, where each layer represents a particular type of relationship between nodes in the natural world. However, most community discovery methods for multilayer networks may ignore the interplay between layers or the unique topological structure in a layer. Moreover, most of them can only detect non-overlapping communities. In this paper, we propose a new community discovery method for multilayer networks, which leverages the interplay between layers and the unique topology in a layer to reveal overlapping communities. Through a comprehensive analysis of edge behaviors within and across layers, we first calculate the similarities for edges from the same layer and the cross layers. Then, by leveraging these similarities, we can construct a dendrogram for the multilayer networks that takes both the unique topological structure and the important interplay into consideration. Finally, by introducing a new community density metric for multilayer networks, we can cut the dendrogram to get the overlapping communities for these layers. By applying our method on both synthetic and real-world datasets, we demonstrate that our method has an accurate performance in discovering overlapping communities in multilayer networks.

  2. Testing a stepped care model for binge-eating disorder: a two-step randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Koszycki, Diana; Brugnera, Agostino; Chyurlia, Livia; Hammond, Nicole; Francis, Kylie; Ritchie, Kerri; Ivanova, Iryna; Proulx, Genevieve; Wilson, Brian; Beaulac, Julie; Bissada, Hany; Beasley, Erin; Mcquaid, Nancy; Grenon, Renee; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Compare, Angelo; Balfour, Louise

    2018-05-24

    A stepped care approach involves patients first receiving low-intensity treatment followed by higher intensity treatment. This two-step randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a sequential stepped care approach for the psychological treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). In the first step, all participants with BED (n = 135) received unguided self-help (USH) based on a cognitive-behavioral therapy model. In the second step, participants who remained in the trial were randomized either to 16 weeks of group psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy (GPIP) (n = 39) or to a no-treatment control condition (n = 46). Outcomes were assessed for USH in step 1, and then for step 2 up to 6-months post-treatment using multilevel regression slope discontinuity models. In the first step, USH resulted in large and statistically significant reductions in the frequency of binge eating. Statistically significant moderate to large reductions in eating disorder cognitions were also noted. In the second step, there was no difference in change in frequency of binge eating between GPIP and the control condition. Compared with controls, GPIP resulted in significant and large improvement in attachment avoidance and interpersonal problems. The findings indicated that a second step of a stepped care approach did not significantly reduce binge-eating symptoms beyond the effects of USH alone. The study provided some evidence for the second step potentially to reduce factors known to maintain binge eating in the long run, such as attachment avoidance and interpersonal problems.

  3. Development process and data management of TurnSTEP, a STEP-compliant CNC system for turning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, I.; Suh, S.-H; Kim, K.; Song, M.S.; Jang, M.; Lee, B.-E.

    2006-01-01

    TurnSTEP is one of the earliest STEP-compliant CNC systems for turning. Based on the STEP-NC data model formalized as ISO 14649-12 and 121, it is designed to support intelligent and autonomous control of NC machines for e-manufacturing. The present paper introduces the development process and data

  4. Measuring disaster-resilient communities: a case study of coastal communities in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Shesh Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability reduction and resilience building of communities are central concepts in recent policy debates. Although there are fundamental linkages, and complementarities exist between the two concepts, recent policy and programming has focused more on the latter. It is assumed here that reducing underlying causes of vulnerabilities and their interactions with resilience elements is a prerequisite for obtaining resilience capabilities. An integrated approach, incorporating both the vulnerability and resilience considerations, has been taken while developing an index for measuring disaster-resilient communities. This study outlines a method for measuring community resilience capabilities using process and outcome indicators in 43 coastal communities in Indonesia. An index was developed using ten process and 25 outcome indicators, selected on the basis of the ten steps of the Integrated Community Based Risk Reduction (ICBRR) process, and key characteristics of disaster resilient communities were taken from various literatures. The overall index value of all 43 communities was 63, whereas the process and outcome indicator values were measured as 63 and 61.5 respectively. The core components of this index are process and outcome indicators. The tool has been developed with an assumption that both the process and outcome indicators are equally important in building disaster-resilient communities. The combination of both indicators is an impetus to quality change in the community. Process indicators are important for community understanding, ownership and the sustainability of the programme; whereas outcome indicators are important for the real achievements in terms of community empowerment and capacity development. The process of ICBRR approach varies by country and location as per the level of community awareness and organisational strategy. However, core elements such as the formation of community groups, mobilising those groups in risk assessment and planning

  5. OSIRIS (the first step). A user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engberg, D.

    1999-01-01

    The OSIRIS Project will explore the instrumental horizons available with the cold neutrons from a pulsed source and especially the totally new avenues available to polarised neutrons on these sources. On pulsed sources, polarisation techniques offer great potential for high resolution studies, and only lack of opportunity has left the field unexploited. On OSIRIS, the fundamentally novel methods developed on IRIS will be combined with proven and extended neutron polarising techniques. The high flux available at ISIS, coupled to the advanced design of the OSIRIS guide, will provide the means to take this field to its next evolutionary stage. By exploiting the combination of sharp pulses, white beams and cold neutrons from ISIS, high resolution measurements, both dynamic and structural, can be carried out using both unpolarised and polarised neutrons. The OSIRIS Project is an international collaboration involving India, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The project has three well-defined phases; phase 1: Extraction of a second cold beam guide from the IRIS beam line; phase 2: large d-spacing powder diffraction, incident beam polarised powder diffraction; phase 3: high resolution spectroscopy, spectroscopy polarisation analysis, diffraction polarisation analysis. This is the user manual for the first step of the OSIRIS project, which means that phase 2 is now almost finished, i.e. we have a high resolution large d-spacing diffractometer, but the incident beam polarisation is as of yet only used for tests. You can find more information on the Osiris web-pages at . This document is also available in an html version at that address. This document is divided into five different parts. First, this short introduction, then what you need to think about before your arrive at ISIS, thereafter, the different parts of the instrument are described, together with some examples of sample environments. Fourthly, the actual running of an experiment is dealt

  6. Preparation for Compensatory Forward Stepping in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laurie A.; St George, Rebecca J.; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Nutt, John G.; Horak, Fay B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize preparation for compensatory stepping in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) compared with healthy control subjects, and to determine whether levodopa medication improves preparation or the execution phases of the step. Design Observational study. Setting Outpatient neuroscience laboratory. Participants Nineteen participants with idiopathic PD tested both in the on and off levodopa states and 17 healthy subjects. Intervention Moveable platform with posterior translations of 24cm at 56cm/s. Main Outcome Measures Compensatory steps forward, in response to a backward surface translation (24cm amplitude at 56cm/s), were categorized according to the presence of an anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) before stepping: no APA, single APA, or multiple APAs. The following step parameters were calculated: step latency, step length, center of mass (CoM) average velocity, and CoM displacement at the step initiation. Results Lateral APAs were evident in 57% and 42% of trials for people with PD in the off and on medication states, respectively, compared with only 10% of trials for control subjects. Compared with subjects with PD who did not have APAs, those subjects with PD who did make an APA prior to stepping had significantly later (mean ± SEM, 356 ± 16ms vs 305 ± 8ms) and shorter (mean ± SEM, 251 ± 27mm vs 300 ± 16mm) steps, their CoM was significantly farther forward (185 ± 7mm vs 171 ± 5mm) at foot-off, and they took significantly more steps to regain equilibrium. Levodopa did not affect the preparation or execution phase of compensatory stepping. Poor axial scores and reports of freezing in the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale were associated with use of 1 or more APAs before compensatory stepping. Conclusions Lateral postural preparation prior to compensatory stepping in subjects with PD was associated with inefficient balance recovery from external perturbations. PMID:20801249

  7. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elton

    2004-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  8. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elton

    2003-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  9. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Jr, Elton L

    2007-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  10. Community Mentoring: A Tool for Successful Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring occurs in an ad hoc and largely invisible manner in communities. This mentoring happens through modeling, storytelling, and asking open-ended questions. If Extension specialists and agents were more conscious and intentional about teaching community members and leaders about community mentoring, they would be more successful in resolving…

  11. Keeping "Community" in a Community Land Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Karen A.; Galande, Mugdha

    2011-01-01

    This instrumental case study examined the role of grassroots community organizing in a community land trust (CLT) in a southern U.S. city. Twenty-nine homeowners, renters, board members, community members, and current and former CLT employees were interviewed. In addition, two focus groups of 11 and six participants composed of CLT residents and…

  12. Dynamic graphs, community detection, and Riemannian geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, Craig; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Visweswara Sathanur, Arun

    2018-03-29

    A community is a subset of a wider network where the members of that subset are more strongly connected to each other than they are to the rest of the network. In this paper, we consider the problem of identifying and tracking communities in graphs that change over time {dynamic community detection} and present a framework based on Riemannian geometry to aid in this task. Our framework currently supports several important operations such as interpolating between and averaging over graph snapshots. We compare these Riemannian methods with entry-wise linear interpolation and that the Riemannian methods are generally better suited to dynamic community detection. Next steps with the Riemannian framework include developing higher-order interpolation methods (e.g. the analogues of polynomial and spline interpolation) and a Riemannian least-squares regression method for working with noisy data.

  13. Modulation of EMG-EMG Coherence in a Choice Stepping Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippei Nojima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The voluntary step execution task is a popular measure for identifying fall risks among elderly individuals in the community setting because most falls have been reported to occur during movement. However, the neurophysiological functions during this movement are not entirely understood. Here, we used electromyography (EMG to explore the relationship between EMG-EMG coherence, which reflects common oscillatory drive to motoneurons, and motor performance associated with stepping tasks: simple reaction time (SRT and choice reaction time (CRT tasks. Ten healthy elderly adults participated in the study. Participants took a single step forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus. EMG-EMG coherence was analyzed for 1000 ms before the presentation of the stimulus (stationary standing position from proximal and distal tibialis anterior (TA and soleus (SOL muscles. The main result showed that all paired EMG-EMG coherences in the alpha and beta frequency bands were greater in the SRT than the CRT task. This finding suggests that the common oscillatory drive to the motoneurons during the SRT task occurred prior to taking a step, whereas the lower value of corticospinal activity during the CRT task prior to taking a step may indicate an involvement of inhibitory activity, which is consistent with observations from our previous study (Watanabe et al., 2016. Furthermore, the beta band coherence in intramuscular TA tended to positively correlate with the number of performance errors that are associated with fall risks in the CRT task, suggesting that a reduction in the inhibitory activity may result in a decrease of stepping performance. These findings could advance the understanding of the neurophysiological features of postural adjustments in elderly individuals.

  14. Elderly fallers enhance dynamic stability through anticipatory postural adjustments during a choice stepping reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Tisserand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the case of disequilibrium, the capacity to step quickly is critical to avoid falling for elderly. This capacity can be simply assessed through the choice stepping reaction time test (CSRT, where elderly fallers (F take longer to step than elderly non-fallers (NF. However, reasons why elderly F elongate their stepping time remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to assess the characteristics of anticipated postural adjustments (APA that elderly F develop in a stepping context and their consequences on the dynamic stability. 44 community-dwelling elderly subjects (20 F and 22 NF performed a CSRT where kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected. Variables were analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVAs. Results for F compared to NF showed that stepping time is elongated, due to a longer APA phase. During APA, they seem to use two distinct balance strategies, depending on the axis: in the anteroposterior direction, we measured a smaller backward movement and slower peak velocity of the center of pressure (CoP; in the mediolateral direction, the CoP movement was similar in amplitude and peak velocity between groups but lasted longer. The biomechanical consequence of both strategies was an increased margin of stability (MoS at foot-off, in the respective direction. By elongating their APA, elderly F use a safer balance strategy that prioritizes dynamic stability conditions instead of the objective of the task. Such a choice in balance strategy probably comes from muscular limitations and/or a higher fear of falling and paradoxically indicates an increased risk of fall.

  15. Considering Resilience: Steps Towards an Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kallaos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As threats from climate change related hazards increase in cities around the world, communities are faced with an urgent requirement for self-evaluation. It is essential to expose and assess potential hazards facing cities, as well as to consider potential impacts and responses. While the promotion of efficiency and promise of protection have been common approaches to hazards in the past, recent events have exposed weaknesses in existing tactics. It has also become more apparent that existing mitigation efforts will be insufficient to prevent some level of climate change, associated hazards, and impacts. Complete protection against all threats is not only impossible but potentially hazardous, as extreme or unanticipated events can exceed the capacity for defence, potentially resulting in catastrophic failures. From this realization of the fallibility of the existing paradigm, resilience has emerged as a useful concept for framing the response of cities to an expanding collection of potential threats. The aim of this article is to consider resilience as it applies to cities, their architecture and infrastructure systems, subsystems, and components, as well as their inhabitants. Resilience characteristics are identified and considered in order to inform the eventual development of a resilience framework with which to assess architecture and infrastructure resilience. This state of the art is instrumental to determine the conditions under which architecture and infrastructure resilience can be defined and measured, in order to guide the consideration of attributes and determine suitable criteria to select and elaborate indicators to help guide future actions and investments.   Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm

  16. Integrated Modelling - the next steps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. V.

    2010-12-01

    modelling demonstrations and to achieve a critical mass of accessible linkable models. These models will be spread across the world and there will need to be a search mechanism to find them. If the benefits of integrated modelling are to become widely available, ways will have to be found to automate and hide the linking process. All the above will require considerable resources. It is proposed to build these resources by creating an international community of practice based upon the open source model. The talk will expand upon the research and development required.

  17. Considerations for the independent reaction times and step-by-step methods for radiation chemistry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with the water molecules of the tissues mostly by ionizations and excitations, which result in the formation of the radiation track structure and the creation of radiolytic species such as H.,.OH, H2, H2O2, and e-aq. After their creation, these species diffuse and may chemically react with the neighboring species and with the molecules of the medium. Therefore radiation chemistry is of great importance in radiation biology. As the chemical species are not distributed homogeneously, the use of conventional models of homogeneous reactions cannot completely describe the reaction kinetics of the particles. Actually, many simulations of radiation chemistry are done using the Independent Reaction Time (IRT) method, which is a very fast technique to calculate radiochemical yields but which do not calculate the positions of the radiolytic species as a function of time. Step-by-step (SBS) methods, which are able to provide such information, have been used only sparsely because these are time-consuming in terms of calculation. Recent improvements in computer performance now allow the regular use of the SBS method in radiation chemistry. The SBS and IRT methods are both based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). In this paper, several sampling algorithms of the GFDE and for the IRT method are presented. We show that the IRT and SBS methods are exactly equivalent for 2-particles systems for diffusion and partially diffusion-controlled reactions between non-interacting particles. We also show that the results obtained with the SBS simulation method with periodic boundary conditions are in agreement with the predictions by classical reaction kinetics theory, which is an important step towards using this method for modelling of biochemical networks and metabolic pathways involved in oxidative stress. Finally, the first simulation results obtained with the code RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks) are presented.

  18. Microsoft® SQL Server® 2008 Analysis Services Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Teach yourself to use SQL Server 2008 Analysis Services for business intelligence-one step at a time. You'll start by building your understanding of the business intelligence platform enabled by SQL Server and the Microsoft Office System, highlighting the role of Analysis Services. Then, you'll create a simple multidimensional OLAP cube and progressively add features to help improve, secure, deploy, and maintain an Analysis Services database. You'll explore core Analysis Services 2008 features and capabilities, including dimension, cube, and aggregation design wizards; a new attribute relatio

  19. Statistics translated a step-by-step guide to analyzing and interpreting data

    CERN Document Server

    Terrell, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Written in a humorous and encouraging style, this text shows how the most common statistical tools can be used to answer interesting real-world questions, presented as mysteries to be solved. Engaging research examples lead the reader through a series of six steps, from identifying a researchable problem to stating a hypothesis, identifying independent and dependent variables, and selecting and interpreting appropriate statistical tests. All techniques are demonstrated both manually and with the help of SPSS software. The book provides students and others who may need to read and interpret sta

  20. Microsoft® SQL Server® 2008 MDX Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Bryan; Consulting, Hitachi

    2009-01-01

    Teach yourself the Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) query language-one step at a time. With this practical, learn-by-doing tutorial, you'll build the core techniques for using MDX with Analysis Services to deliver high-performance business intelligence solutions. Discover how to: Construct and execute MDX queriesWork with tuples, sets, and expressionsBuild complex sets to retrieve the exact data users needPerform aggregation functions and navigate data hierarchiesAssemble time-based business metricsCustomize an Analysis Services cube through the MDX scriptImplement dynamic security to cont

  1. Microsoft® SQL Server® 2008 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Hotek, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Teach yourself SQL Server 2008-one step at a time. Get the practical guidance you need to build database solutions that solve real-world business problems. Learn to integrate SQL Server data in your applications, write queries, develop reports, and employ powerful business intelligence systems.Discover how to:Install and work with core components and toolsCreate tables and index structuresManipulate and retrieve dataSecure, manage, back up, and recover databasesApply tuning plus optimization techniques to generate high-performing database applicationsOptimize availability through clustering, d

  2. A simple, compact, and rigid piezoelectric step motor with large step size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Lu, Qingyou

    2009-08-01

    We present a novel piezoelectric stepper motor featuring high compactness, rigidity, simplicity, and any direction operability. Although tested in room temperature, it is believed to work in low temperatures, owing to its loose operation conditions and large step size. The motor is implemented with a piezoelectric scanner tube that is axially cut into almost two halves and clamp holds a hollow shaft inside at both ends via the spring parts of the shaft. Two driving voltages that singly deform the two halves of the piezotube in one direction and recover simultaneously will move the shaft in the opposite direction, and vice versa.

  3. Elasto-plastic benchmark calculations. Step 1: verification of the numerical accuracy of the computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, F.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the design of nuclear reactors components operating at elevated temperature, design criteria need a level of realism in the prediction of inelastic structural behaviour. This concept leads to the necessity of developing non linear computer programmes, and, as a consequence, to the problems of verification and qualification of these tools. Benchmark calculations allow to carry out these two actions, involving at the same time an increased level of confidence in complex phenomena analysis and in inelastic design calculations. With the financial and programmatic support of the Commission of the European Communities (CEE) a programme of elasto-plastic benchmark calculations relevant to the design of structural components for LMFBR has been undertaken by those Member States which are developing a fast reactor project. Four principal progressive aims were initially pointed out that brought to the decision to subdivide the Benchmark effort in a calculations series of four sequential steps: step 1 to 4. The present document tries to summarize Step 1 of the Benchmark exercise, to derive some conclusions on Step 1 by comparison of the results obtained with the various codes and to point out some concluding comments on the first action. It is to point out that even if the work was designed to test the capabilities of the computer codes, another aim was to increase the skill of the users concerned

  4. The STEP database through the end-users eyes--USABILITY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Smita; Tuleu, Catherine

    2015-08-15

    The user-designed database of Safety and Toxicity of Excipients for Paediatrics ("STEP") is created to address the shared need of drug development community to access the relevant information of excipients effortlessly. Usability testing was performed to validate if the database satisfies the need of the end-users. Evaluation framework was developed to assess the usability. The participants performed scenario based tasks and provided feedback and post-session usability ratings. Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) was performed to prioritize the problems and improvements to the STEP database design and functionalities. The study revealed several design vulnerabilities. Tasks such as limiting the results, running complex queries, location of data and registering to access the database were challenging. The three critical attributes identified to have impact on the usability of the STEP database included (1) content and presentation (2) the navigation and search features (3) potential end-users. Evaluation framework proved to be an effective method for evaluating database effectiveness and user satisfaction. This study provides strong initial support for the usability of the STEP database. Recommendations would be incorporated into the refinement of the database to improve its usability and increase user participation towards the advancement of the database. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing preferred step rate during running reduces plantar pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, James M; Bonanno, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Increasing preferred step rate during running is a commonly used strategy in the management of running-related injuries. This study investigated the effect of different step rates on plantar pressures during running. Thirty-two healthy runners ran at a comfortable speed on a treadmill at five step rates (preferred, ±5%, and ±10%). For each step rate, plantar pressure data were collected using the pedar-X in-shoe system. Compared to running with a preferred step rate, a 10% increase in step rate significantly reduced peak pressure (144.5±46.5 vs 129.3±51 kPa; P=.033) and maximum force (382.3±157.6 vs 334.0±159.8 N; P=.021) at the rearfoot, and reduced maximum force (426.4±130.4 vs 400.0±116.6 N; P=.001) at the midfoot. In contrast, a 10% decrease in step rate significantly increased peak pressure (144.5±46.5 vs 161.5±49.3 kPa; P=.011) and maximum force (382.3±157.6 vs 425.4±155.3 N; P=.032) at the rearfoot. Changing step rate by 5% provided no effect on plantar pressures, and no differences in plantar pressures were observed at the medial forefoot, lateral forefoot or hallux between the step rates. This study's findings indicate that increasing preferred step rate by 10% during running will reduce plantar pressures at the rearfoot and midfoot, while decreasing step rate by 10% will increase plantar pressures at the rearfoot. However, changing preferred step rate by 5% will provide no effect on plantar pressures, and forefoot pressures are unaffected by changes in step rate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Medicine as a Community of Practice: Implications for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Steinert, Yvonne

    2018-02-01

    The presence of a variety of independent learning theories makes it difficult for medical educators to construct a comprehensive theoretical framework for medical education, resulting in numerous and often unrelated curricular, instructional, and assessment practices. Linked with an understanding of identity formation, the concept of communities of practice could provide such a framework, emphasizing the social nature of learning. Individuals wish to join the community, moving from legitimate peripheral to full participation, acquiring the identity of community members and accepting the community's norms.Having communities of practice as the theoretical basis of medical education does not diminish the value of other learning theories. Communities of practice can serve as the foundational theory, and other theories can provide a theoretical basis for the multiple educational activities that take place within the community, thus helping create an integrated theoretical approach.Communities of practice can guide the development of interventions to make medical education more effective and can help both learners and educators better cope with medical education's complexity. An initial step is to acknowledge the potential of communities of practice as the foundational theory. Educational initiatives that could result from this approach include adding communities of practice to the cognitive base; actively engaging students in joining the community; creating a welcoming community; expanding the emphasis on explicitly addressing role modeling, mentoring, experiential learning, and reflection; providing faculty development to support the program; and recognizing the necessity to chart progress toward membership in the community.

  7. On Community Education and Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Dušana Findeisen introduces community education and development. She particularly insists upon the fact that in the future our life will not be organised around a paid full time job and that we will be forced into searching other ways of getting involved into society and to acquire our social identity. Community education is one of the ways we could eventually choose. Since community development education in Slovenia has not developed yet the author begins by describing some basic concepts like community and history of community education and community development movement. Further on, she introduces the Andragogical Summer School based in a small Slovenian town, its aim being to encourage Slovenian adult educators to encourage community development projects.

  8. Step-by-Step Simulation of Radiation Chemistry Using Green Functions for Diffusion-Influenced Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiolytic species are formed approximately 1 ps after the passage of ionizing radiation through matter. After their formation, they diffuse and chemically react with other radiolytic species and neighboring biological molecules, leading to various oxidative damage. Therefore, the simulation of radiation chemistry is of considerable importance to understand how radiolytic species damage biological molecules [1]. The step-by-step simulation of chemical reactions is difficult, because the radiolytic species are distributed non-homogeneously in the medium. Consequently, computational approaches based on Green functions for diffusion-influenced reactions should be used [2]. Recently, Green functions for more complex type of reactions have been published [3-4]. We have developed exact random variate generators of these Green functions [5], which will allow us to use them in radiation chemistry codes. Moreover, simulating chemistry using the Green functions is which is computationally very demanding, because the probabilities of reactions between each pair of particles should be evaluated at each timestep [2]. This kind of problem is well adapted for General Purpose Graphic Processing Units (GPGPU), which can handle a large number of similar calculations simultaneously. These new developments will allow us to include more complex reactions in chemistry codes, and to improve the calculation time. This code should be of importance to link radiation track structure simulations and DNA damage models.

  9. Step-by-Step robotic heminephrectomy for duplicated renal collecting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Zargar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A duplicated renal collecting system is a relatively common congenital anomaly rarely presenting in adults. Aim In this video we demonstrate our step-by-step technique of Robotic heminephrectomy in a patient with non-functioning upper pole moiety. Materials and Methods Following cystoscopy and ureteral catheter insertion the patient was placed in 600 modified flank position with the ipsilateral arm positioned at the side of the patient. A straight-line, three arm robotic port configuration was employed. The robot was docked at a 90-degree angle, perpendicular to the patient. Following mobilization the colon and identifying both ureters of the duplicated system, the ureters were followed cephalically toward, hilar vessels where the hilar anatomy was identified. The nonfunctioning pole vasculature was ligated using hem-o-lok clips. The ureter was sharply divided and the proximal ureteral stump was passed posterior the renal hilum. Ureteral stump was used as for retraction and heminephrectomy is completed along the line demarcating the upper and lower pole moieties. Renorrhaphy was performed using 0-Vicryl suture with a CT-1 needle. The nonfunctioning pole ureter was then dissected caudally toward the bladder hiatus, ligated using clips, and transected. Results The operating time was 240 minutes and blood loss was 100 cc. There was no complication post-operatively. Conclusions Wrist articulation and degree of freedom offered by robotic platform facilitates successful performance of minimally invasive heminephrectomy in the setting of an atrophic and symptomatic renal segment.

  10. Step-by-Step Model for the Study of the Apriori Algorithm for Predictive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grigore ROŞCA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper was to develop an educational oriented application based on the Data Mining Apriori Algorithm which facilitates both the research and the study of data mining by graduate students. The application could be used to discover interesting patterns in the corpus of data and to measure the impact on the speed of execution as a function of problem constraints (value of support and confidence variables or size of the transactional data-base. The paper presents a brief overview of the Apriori Algorithm, aspects about the implementation of the algorithm using a step-by-step process, a discussion of the education-oriented user interface and the process of data mining of a test transactional data base. The impact of some constraints on the speed of the algorithm is also experimentally measured without a systematic review of different approaches to increase execution speed. Possible applications of the implementation, as well as its limits, are briefly reviewed.

  11. Picture archiving and communication system planning as a whole practice in step by step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Min; Luo Song; Lei Weiyong; Wen Hongyu; Wu Hongxing; Wang Xiaolin; Wang Xuejian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the whole design and to carry through the implement project in building picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Methods: All modalities with or without DICOM were integrated into PACS to store the whole images and share those resources. Windows NT and SQL 7.0 were used on the servers to store all kinds of patient image files, and those images could be viewed on all the web-based clinical workstations and the license was up to 100. RAID 5 online HDD which had the capability to store images for 3 months and DLT long term archive storage up to 7 T in size were built in the system. The PACS already finished the integration with RIS and HIS to expand images to the whole hospital and ready to be an imaging center of one area. Results: The founded typical PACS connected hospital equipments at present and realized primary no-film mode in department of radiology. The PACS had extended to the whole hospital clinical rooms, surgery, and emergency treatment room, etc. The PACS was connected to the HIS and networks of other hospitals. The center of image data was established, realizing the connection among the center of image data together with current area and other area hospitals. The PACS was easy to use for the doctors and improved the work efficiency. Conclusion: The practice has proved that current project related PACS planning as a whold practice in step by step is viable and successful

  12. Community-based tourism in practice: evidence from three coastal communities in Bohuslän, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Kristina N.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Local involvement in tourism development is defined as a key issue for sustainable tourism, however it is often questioned and less seldom implemented in reality. Reasons behind this condition are lack of knowledge and practical experience on community-based tourism as a bottom-up approach. In this paper it is argued that local involvement in tourism development is both a democratic right and a strategic destination management tool. The paper scrutinizes a process of collaboration and local participation in a tourism development project within three coastal communities on the Swedish West Coast. A mixed-methods approach was employed in the project with the specific aim of investigating attitudes to the community and tourism development and of involving community stakeholders in exploring alternative avenues of tourism development. The article describes four phases of the process of local involvement in a tourism development project: step 1, formation of a representative project group and negotiation of community-based approach; step 2, consulting local stakeholders and employing a mixed-methods approach; step 3, elaborating results with local stakeholders; step 4, increased community collaboration.

  13. Further step beyond green - From distractive, to balance, towards restorative built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelRahman AbdelNaeem AbdelLatif Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Many new movements, like biophilic design, have recently gained much momentum within the building community, which provide further step beyond green to restore beneficial contacts between people and natural environment. While the green movement has often focused on the means, biophilic design tends toward emphasizing the end results, establishing natural-based habitats for humans to live and work. Biophilic Design incorporates green building ideas, but considers that true sustainability must include quality of life issues involving human physiological & psychological-health and well-being. So, Biophilic design incorporates elements derived from nature in order to maximize human functioning and health.

  14. Dynamic balance and stepping versus tai chi training to improve balance and stepping in at-risk older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnodim, Joseph O; Strasburg, Debra; Nabozny, Martina; Nyquist, Linda; Galecki, Andrzej; Chen, Shu; Alexander, Neil B

    2006-12-01

    To compare the effect of two 10-week balance training programs, Combined Balance and Step Training (CBST) versus tai chi (TC), on balance and stepping measures. Prospective intervention trial. Local senior centers and congregate housing facilities. Aged 65 and older with at least mild impairment in the ability to perform unipedal stance and tandem walk. Participants were allocated to TC (n = 107, mean age 78) or CBST, an intervention focused on improving dynamic balance and stepping (n = 106, mean age 78). At baseline and 10 weeks, participants were tested in their static balance (Unipedal Stance and Tandem Stance (TS)), stepping (Maximum Step Length, Rapid Step Test), and Timed Up and Go (TUG). Performance improved more with CBST than TC, ranging from 5% to 10% for the stepping tests (Maximum Step Length and Rapid Step Test) and 9% for TUG. The improvement in TUG represented an improvement of more than 1 second. Greater improvements were also seen in static balance ability (in TS) with CBST than TC. Of the two training programs, in which variants of each program have been proven to reduce falls, CBST results in modest improvements in balance, stepping, and functional mobility versus TC over a 10-week period. Future research should include a prospective comparison of fall rates in response to these two balance training programs.

  15. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2109 Step 2+3. The Regional Administrator may award a Step 2+3 grant which will provide the Federal share of an allowance under appendix B and the...

  16. An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm for aerodynamic flows

    OpenAIRE

    Niemann-Tuitman, B.E.; Veldman, A.E.P.

    1997-01-01

    An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm with applications to aerodynamic flows is presented. In the algorithm, in different parts of the computational domain different time steps are taken, and the flow is synchronized at the so-called synchronization levels. The algorithm is validated for aerodynamic turbulent flows. For two-dimensional flows speedups in the order of five with respect to single time stepping are obtained.

  17. Mapping the ecological networks of microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yandong; Angulo, Marco Tulio; Friedman, Jonathan; Waldor, Matthew K; Weiss, Scott T; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2017-12-11

    Mapping the ecological networks of microbial communities is a necessary step toward understanding their assembly rules and predicting their temporal behavior. However, existing methods require assuming a particular population dynamics model, which is not known a priori. Moreover, those methods require fitting longitudinal abundance data, which are often not informative enough for reliable inference. To overcome these limitations, here we develop a new method based on steady-state abundance data. Our method can infer the network topology and inter-taxa interaction types without assuming any particular population dynamics model. Additionally, when the population dynamics is assumed to follow the classic Generalized Lotka-Volterra model, our method can infer the inter-taxa interaction strengths and intrinsic growth rates. We systematically validate our method using simulated data, and then apply it to four experimental data sets. Our method represents a key step towards reliable modeling of complex, real-world microbial communities, such as the human gut microbiota.

  18. Step width alters iliotibial band strain during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey A; Campbell, Samuel; Derrick, Timothy R

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the effect of step width during running on factors related to iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics were recorded from 15 healthy recreational runners during overground running under various step width conditions (preferred and at least +/- 5% of their leg length). Strain and strain rate were estimated from a musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity. Greater ITB strain and strain rate were found in the narrower step width condition (p running, especially in persons whose running style is characterized by a narrow step width, may be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of running-related ITB syndrome.

  19. PIV Study of Aeration Efficient of Stepped Spillway System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, M. A.; Jamil, R.; Rozainy, M. R.; Zainol, M. A.; Adlan, M. N.; Keong, C. W.

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates the three-dimensional (3D) simulation of Cascade aerator system using Lattice Boltzmann simulation and laboratory experiment was carried out to investigate the flow, aeration and cavitation in the spillway. Different configurations of stepped spillway are designed in this project in order to investigate the relationship between the configurations of stepped spillway and cavitation in the flow. The aeration in the stepped spillway will also be investigated. The experimental result will be compared with the simulated result at the end of this project. The figure of flow pattern at the 3rd step in simulation and experiment for Set 1 and Set 2 are look similar between LBM simulation and the experiment findings. This will provide a better understanding of the cavitation, aeration and flow in different configurations of the stepped spillway. In addition the occurrence of negative pressure region in the stepped spillway, increases the possibility of cavitation to occur. The cavitation will damage the structure of the stepped spillway. Furthermore, it also founds that increasing in barrier thickness of the stepped spillway will improve the aeration efficiency and reduce the cavitation in stepped spillway.

  20. Considering dominance in reduced single-step genomic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, J; Edel, C; Pimentel, E C G; Emmerling, R; Götz, K-U

    2018-06-01

    Single-step models including dominance can be an enormous computational task and can even be prohibitive for practical application. In this study, we try to answer the question whether a reduced single-step model is able to estimate breeding values of bulls and breeding values, dominance deviations and total genetic values of cows with acceptable quality. Genetic values and phenotypes were simulated (500 repetitions) for a small Fleckvieh pedigree consisting of 371 bulls (180 thereof genotyped) and 553 cows (40 thereof genotyped). This pedigree was virtually extended for 2,407 non-genotyped daughters. Genetic values were estimated with the single-step model and with different reduced single-step models. Including more relatives of genotyped cows in the reduced single-step model resulted in a better agreement of results with the single-step model. Accuracies of genetic values were largest with single-step and smallest with reduced single-step when only the cows genotyped were modelled. The results indicate that a reduced single-step model is suitable to estimate breeding values of bulls and breeding values, dominance deviations and total genetic values of cows with acceptable quality. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Foot and Ankle Kinematics During Descent From Varying Step Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Emily E; O'Connor, Kristian; Keenan, Kevin G; Cobb, Stephen C

    2017-12-01

    In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause of injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A 7-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm), and continued walking. As step height increased, landing strategy transitioned from the rearfoot to the forefoot, and the rearfoot, lateral and medial midfoot, and medial forefoot became more plantar flexed. During weight acceptance, sagittal plane range of motion of the rearfoot, lateral midfoot, and medial and lateral forefoot increased as step height increased. The changes in landing strategy and distal foot function suggest a less stable ankle position at initial contact and increased demand on the distal foot at initial contact and through the weight acceptance phase of transition step negotiation as step height increases.

  2. Atomic-scale friction on stepped surfaces of ionic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Pascal; Gnecco, Enrico; Krok, Franciszek; Budzioch, Janusz; Walczak, Lukasz; Konior, Jerzy; Szymonski, Marek; Meyer, Ernst

    2011-05-06

    We report on high-resolution friction force microscopy on a stepped NaCl(001) surface in ultrahigh vacuum. The measurements were performed on single cleavage step edges. When blunt tips are used, friction is found to increase while scanning both up and down a step edge. With atomically sharp tips, friction still increases upwards, but it decreases and even changes sign downwards. Our observations extend previous results obtained without resolving atomic features and are associated with the competition between the Schwöbel barrier and the asymmetric potential well accompanying the step edges.

  3. Determinants of limb preference for initiating compensatory stepping poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Avril; Inness, Elizabeth L; Lakhani, Bimal; McIlroy, William E

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the determinants of limb preference for initiating compensatory stepping poststroke. Retrospective chart review. Inpatient rehabilitation. Convenience sample of individuals admitted to inpatient rehabilitation with poststroke hemiparesis. Not applicable. Compensatory stepping responses were evoked using a lean-and-release postural perturbation. The limb used to initiate compensatory stepping was determined. The relationships between stepping with the paretic limb and premorbid limb dominance, weight bearing on the paretic limb in quiet standing, ability to bear weight on the paretic limb, preperturbation weight bearing on the paretic limb, and lower-limb motor recovery scores were determined. The majority (59.1%) of responses were steps initiated with the nonparetic limb. Increased lower-limb motor recovery scores and preperturbation weight bearing on the nonparetic limb were significantly related to increased frequency of stepping with the paretic limb. When the preferred limb was physically blocked, an inappropriate response was initiated in 21% of trials (ie, nonstep responses or an attempt to step with the blocked limb). This study reveals the challenges that individuals with poststroke hemiparesis face when executing compensatory stepping responses to prevent a fall after a postural perturbation. The inability or challenges to executing a compensatory step with the paretic limb may increase the risk for falls poststroke. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A theory of the stepped leader in lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowke, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    There is no generally accepted explanation of the stepped leader behaviour in terms of basic physical processes. Existing theories generally involve significant gas heating within the stepped leader. In the present paper, the stepped nature of the leader is proposed to arise due to a combination of two physical phenomena. Electron transport is dominant over ion transport, during the luminous step stage, because electron mobilities are about 100 times larger than ion mobilities, and the streamer front velocity is determined by electron ionization effects. During the dark time between steps, there are only ions and charge transport is very much slower. The second effect leading to stepped behaviour arises because the electric field required for electric breakdown in air prior to a discharge is ∼30kV/cm, and is very much higher than the electric field of 5kV/cm that is required to sustain a glow discharge in air. During the luminous step stage, electrons tend to produce space charges to make a uniform field in the streamer of ∼5kV/cm. During the dark time between steps, there are no electrons but only ions. Time is required for ion drift to produce a space charge sheath of negative ions at the head of the streamer to produce a field of ∼30kV/cm sufficient for electron ionization to produce a new luminous step

  5. The Performance of Step-Wise Group Screening Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Manene

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the performance of step-wise group screening designs in which group-factors contain an equal number of factors in the initial step.  A usual assumption in group screening designs is that the directions of possible effects are known a-priori. In practice, however, this assumption is unreasonable. We shall examine step-wise group screening designs without errors in observations when this assumption is relaxed. We shall consider cancellations of effects within group-factors. The performance of step-wise group-screening designs shall then be compared with the performance of multistage group screening designs.

  6. "Step-by-step we are stronger": women's empowerment through photovoice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lynne

    2011-04-01

    Photovoice, as one method of participatory action research, has been used to better understand local realities and promote health in many countries and with diverse populations. It has been especially effective as a process for women to explore health and contextual issues often related to oppression and marginalization. This article discusses the impact of a photovoice process on a small group of lone mothers carrying out a community health assessment in eastern Canada. According to the women, their level of empowerment increased considerably in the 2 years of the study and their stories of the project's impact provide the evidence.

  7. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-30

    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke.  Created: 9/30/2013 by Division of Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 9/30/2013.

  8. Community development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure

  9. One step forward, two steps back? The GMC, the common law and 'informed' consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovargue, Sara; Miola, José

    2010-08-01

    Until 2008, if doctors followed the General Medical Council's (GMC's) guidance on providing information prior to obtaining a patient's consent to treatment, they would be going beyond what was technically required by the law. It was hoped that the common law would catch up with this guidance and encourage respect for patients' autonomy by facilitating informed decision-making. Regrettably, this has not occurred. For once, the law's inability to keep up with changing medical practice and standards is not the problem. The authors argue that while the common law has moved forward and started to recognise the importance of patient autonomy and informed decision-making, the GMC has taken a step back in their 2008 guidance on consent. Indeed, doctors are now required to tell their patients less than they were in 1998 when the last guidance was produced. This is an unfortunate development and the authors urge the GMC to revisit their guidance.

  10. A step-by-step guide for countries conducting a Technology Needs Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Narkeviciute, Rasa; Rogat Castillo, Jorge Enrique

    . For this new TNA Phase II (2015-2017), we reflect upon experience from the 36 countries in the TNA Phase I (2010-2013) and offer country case-study examples to help illustrate how the project can be organised and implemented. Links to the full electronic (.pdf) versions of the guidance documents are provided......The purpose of this document is to summarise the various steps in the implementation of a TNA, serving as the ‘go-to’ document for national coordinators and consultants. It also points to the various materials that are available to further guide and support project management and methodology...... in this guidance note and can be downloaded from the TNA project website www.tech-action.org under ‘Publications’....

  11. A small step in VLC systems - a big step in Li-Fi implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rîurean, S. M.; Nagy, A. A.; Leba, M.; Ionica, A. C.

    2018-01-01

    Light is part of our sustainable environmental life so, using it would be the handiest and cheapest way for wireless communication. Since ever, light has been used to send messages in different ways and now, due to the high technological improvements, bits through light, at high speed on multiple paths, allow humans to communicate. Using the lighting system both for illumination and communication represents lately one of the worldwide main research issues with several implementations with real benefits. This paper presents a viable VLC system, that proves its sustainability for sending by light information not only few millimetres but meters away. This system has multiple potential applications in different areas where other communication systems are bottlenecked, too expensive, unavailable or even forbidden. Since a Li-Fi fully developed system requires bidirectional, multiple access communication, there are still some challenges towards a functional Li-Fi wireless network. Although important steps have been made, Li-Fi is still under experimental stage.

  12. Comparison of single-step and two-step purified coagulants from Moringa oleifera seed for turbidity and DOC removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J; Ghebremichael, K; Beltrán-Heredia, J

    2010-08-01

    The coagulant proteins from Moringa oleifera purified with single-step and two-step ion-exchange processes were used for the coagulation of surface water from Meuse river in The Netherlands. The performances of the two purified coagulants and the crude extract were assessed in terms of turbidity and DOC removal. The results indicated that the optimum dosage of the single-step purified coagulant was more than two times higher compared to the two-step purified coagulant in terms of turbidity removal. And the residual DOC in the two-step purified coagulant was lower than in single-step purified coagulant or crude extract. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vygotsky's Principle "One Step in Learning - One Hundred Steps In Development": From Idea To Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaretsky V.K.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews Lev Vygotsky’s published works to trace the evolution of his understanding of child development. The authors believe that his assumption that one step in learning may mean one hundred steps in development, is as important as the two other key postulates of the cultural-historical theory: the principle that learning precedes development and the concept of zone of proximal development. The authors provide a rationale for utilization of these assumptions in the practice of development-facilitating psychological and educational assistance. A mechanism of this learning-development relationship is hypothesized. The article outlines a multidimensional model of the zone of proximal development illustrating the above mechanism. This model is one of the conceptual tools of the Reflection and Activity Approach helping children overcome learning difficulties and promoting their development. Having given the account of how they proceeded “from the idea to the problem” and “from the idea to the mechanism”, the authors provide case studies showing how this mechanism allows working with learning difficulties to trigger simultaneous improvement in multiple developmental dimensions. The article reports on the experience of running special Summer Schools for children with learning difficulties, implementing the “Chess for General Development” Project, and assisting orphaned children with severe somatic conditions. A case study of a female college student displaying signs of the learned helplessness syndrome is presented. The authors infer that Vygotsky’s idea of a specific relationship between learning and development may be of fundamental theoretical and practical value, especially for working with children with special needs.

  14. Rediscovering community: Interethnic relationships and community gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August John Hoffman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Community service work, volunteerism and mentoring have recently become popular topics of research as effective methods in improving self-esteem and civic responsibility. In the current study we explored the relationship between participation in a community service gardening program and ethnocentrism. We hypothesised that an inverse correlation would emerge where students who participated in a community service-gardening program would increase their perceptions of the importance of community service work and decrease their scores in ethnocentrism. Results of the paired samples t-test strongly support the hypothesis that community service gardening work significantly reduces reports of ethnocentrism: t(10 = -2.52, (p < .03 for community college students. The ramifications of the study and ramifications for future research are offered.

  15. Community Involvement - Outreach / Development

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Tonya Aiken: Horse Program Success. Kyle Cecil: Natural Resources and the Extension Educator. Karol Dyson: Building Strong Communities through Empowerment. Lisa Dennis: "Food Smart". Theresa M. Ferrari: Community Service Experiences & 4-H Teens. t. Stacey Harper: Connecting the Youth with the Community. Joseph G. Hiller: Extension Work in Indian Country. Alice P. Kersey: Outreach to the NR Community. Carla M. Sousa: Learning from Latino Community Efforts.

  16. One step versus two step approach for gestational diabetes screening: systematic review and meta-analysis of the randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Caissutti, Claudia; Khalifeh, Adeeb; Meltzer, Sara; Scifres, Christina; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Kelekci, Sefa; Sevket, Osman; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2017-12-03

    To compare both the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes by either the one-step or the two-step approaches. Electronic databases were searched from their inception until June 2017. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the one-step with the two-step approaches for the screening and diagnosis of GDM. The primary outcome was the incidence of GDM. Three RCTs (n = 2333 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. 910 were randomized to the one step approach (75 g, 2 hrs), and 1423 to the two step approach. No significant difference in the incidence of GDM was found comparing the one step versus the two step approaches (8.4 versus 4.3%; relative risk (RR) 1.64, 95%CI 0.77-3.48). Women screened with the one step approach had a significantly lower risk of preterm birth (PTB) (3.7 versus 7.6%; RR 0.49, 95%CI 0.27-0.88), cesarean delivery (16.3 versus 22.0%; RR 0.74, 95%CI 0.56-0.99), macrosomia (2.9 versus 6.9%; RR 0.43, 95%CI 0.22-0.82), neonatal hypoglycemia (1.7 versus 4.5%; RR 0.38, 95%CI 0.16-0.90), and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (4.4 versus 9.0%; RR 0.49, 95%CI 0.29-0.84), compared to those randomized to screening with the two step approach. The one and the two step approaches were not associated with a significant difference in the incidence of GDM. However, the one step approach was associated with better maternal and perinatal outcomes.

  17. On the equivalence between small-step and big-step abstract machines: a simple application of lightweight fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    -step specification. We illustrate this observation here with a recognizer for Dyck words, the CEK machine, and Krivine’s machine with call/cc. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our current work on small-step abstract machines as obtained by refocusing a function implementing a reduction semantics (a...... syntactic correspondence), and big-step abstract machines as obtained by CPStransforming and then defunctionalizing a function implementing a big-step semantics (a functional correspondence). © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Determination of the step dipole moment and the step line tension on Ag(0 0 1) electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltramo, G.L.; Ibach, H.; Linke, U.; Giesen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using impedance spectroscopy, we determined the step dipole moment and the potential dependence of the step line tension of silver electrodes in contact with an electrolyte: (0 0 1) and vicinal surfaces (1 1 n) with n = 5, 7, 11 in 10 mM ClO 4 - -solutions were investigated. The step dipole moment is determined from the shift of the potential of zero charge (pzc) as a function of the surface step density. The dipole moment per step atom was found to be 3.5 ± 0.5 x 10 -3 e A. From the pzc and the potential dependence of the capacitance curves, the potential dependence of the surface tension of the vicinal surfaces is determined. The line tension of the steps is then calculated from the difference between the surface tensions of stepped (1 1 n) and the nominally step-free (0 0 1) surfaces. The results are compared to a previous study on Au(1 1 n) surfaces. For gold, the step line tension decreases roughly linear with potential, whereas a parabolic shape is observed for silver

  19. Valuing Euro rating-triggered step-up telecom bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.A. Mentink; A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe value rating-triggered step-up bonds with three methods: (i) the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull (1997, JLT) framework, (ii) a similar framework using historical probabilities and (iii) as plain vanilla bonds. We find that the market seems to value single step-up bonds according to the JLT

  20. Valuing Euro Rating-Triggered Step-Up Telecom Bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.A. Mentink; A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe value rating-triggered step-up bonds with three methods: (i) the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull (1997, JLT) framework, (ii) a similar framework using historical probabilities and (iii) as plain vanilla bonds. We find that the market seems to value single step-up bonds according to the JLT

  1. Storybridging : Four steps for constructing effective health narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeijinga, A.; Hoeken, Hans; Sanders, José

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop a practical step-by-step approach to constructing narrative health interventions in response to the mixed results and wide diversity of narratives used in health-related narrative persuasion research. Method: Development work was guided by essential narrative characteristics as

  2. Experimental investigation of stepped solar still with continuous water circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agouz, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between modified stepped and conventional solar still was carried out. • Effect of storage tank and cotton absorber on productivity was investigated. • Efficiency for modified stepped still is higher than conventional still by 20%. • The day and night efficiency increases by 5% and 3.5% for salt and sea water. - Abstract: This paper presents a modification of stepped solar still with continuous water circulation using a storage tank for sea and salt water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) of seawater and salt water before desalination is 57,100 and 2370 mg/l. A comparison study between modified stepped and conventional solar still was carried out to evaluate the developed desalination system performance under the same climate conditions. The effect of installing a storage tank and cotton black absorber for modified stepped solar still on the distillate productivity was investigated. The results indicate that, the productivity of the modified stepped still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 43% and 48% for sea and salt water with black absorber respectively, while 53% and 47% of sea and salt water, respectively with cotton absorber. Also, the daily efficiency for modified stepped still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 20%. The maximum efficiency of modified stepped still is occurring at a feed water flow rate of 1 LPM for sea water and 3 LPM for salt water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) of seawater and salt water after desalination is 41, and 27 mg/l

  3. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  4. Factors affecting GEBV accuracy with single-step Bayesian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Mrode, Raphael; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Li, Bugao; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2018-01-01

    A single-step approach to obtain genomic prediction was first proposed in 2009. Many studies have investigated the components of GEBV accuracy in genomic selection. However, it is still unclear how the population structure and the relationships between training and validation populations influence GEBV accuracy in terms of single-step analysis. Here, we explored the components of GEBV accuracy in single-step Bayesian analysis with a simulation study. Three scenarios with various numbers of QTL (5, 50, and 500) were simulated. Three models were implemented to analyze the simulated data: single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP; SSGBLUP), single-step BayesA (SS-BayesA), and single-step BayesB (SS-BayesB). According to our results, GEBV accuracy was influenced by the relationships between the training and validation populations more significantly for ungenotyped animals than for genotyped animals. SS-BayesA/BayesB showed an obvious advantage over SSGBLUP with the scenarios of 5 and 50 QTL. SS-BayesB model obtained the lowest accuracy with the 500 QTL in the simulation. SS-BayesA model was the most efficient and robust considering all QTL scenarios. Generally, both the relationships between training and validation populations and LD between markers and QTL contributed to GEBV accuracy in the single-step analysis, and the advantages of single-step Bayesian models were more apparent when the trait is controlled by fewer QTL.

  5. Step Detection Robust against the Dynamics of Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan-hee; Choi, Suji; Lee, Myeong-jin

    2015-01-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for robust step detection irrespective of step mode and device pose in smartphone usage environments. The dynamics of smartphones are decoupled into a peak-valley relationship with adaptive magnitude and temporal thresholds. For extracted peaks and valleys in the magnitude of acceleration, a step is defined as consisting of a peak and its adjacent valley. Adaptive magnitude thresholds consisting of step average and step deviation are applied to suppress pseudo peaks or valleys that mostly occur during the transition among step modes or device poses. Adaptive temporal thresholds are applied to time intervals between peaks or valleys to consider the time-varying pace of human walking or running for the correct selection of peaks or valleys. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed step detection algorithm shows more than 98.6% average accuracy for any combination of step mode and device pose and outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26516857

  6. The LHCb Inner Tracker Module Production Steps and Quality Assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Bettler, M O; Esperante, D; Fauland, P; van Hunen, J; Knecht, M; Koestner, S; Tran, M T; Perez Trigo, E; Vazquez, P; Voss, H

    2010-01-01

    This note describes the various production step for the LHCb Inner Tracker silicon modules. We quickly sketch where the various items are produced and mention their acceptance criteria where applicable. A detail description is given of the various production and testing steps of the silicon detector modules in Lausanne and at CERN.

  7. An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm for aerodynamic flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann-Tuitman, B.E.; Veldman, A.E.P.

    1997-01-01

    An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm with applications to aerodynamic flows is presented. In the algorithm, in different parts of the computational domain different time steps are taken, and the flow is synchronized at the so-called synchronization levels. The algorithm is validated for

  8. 49 CFR 38.99 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds. 38.99 Section 38.99 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.99 Floors, steps and thresholds...

  9. Stepping Motor - Hydraulic Motor Servo Drives for an NC Milling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the retrofit design of the control system of an NC milling machine with a stepping motor and stepping motor - actuated hydraulic motor servo mechanism on the machines X-axis is described. The servo designed in the course of this study was tested practically and shown to be linear - the velocity following errors ...

  10. Stepping Stones to Evaluating Your Own School Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Jeri; Carnahan, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Stepping Stones to Literacy is a tool for elementary school improvement teams to evaluate and strengthen their reading programs. Each Stepping Stone is a guided activity to stimulate reflection and guide systematic inquiry. It is a collaborative, active research approach to evaluation (Levesque & Hinton 2001). The goal is to eliminate the gap…

  11. Direct NO decomposition over stepped transition-metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Hanne; Bligaard, Thomas; Christensen, Claus H.

    2007-01-01

    We establish the full potential energy diagram for the direct NO decomposition reaction over stepped transition-metal surfaces by combining a database of adsorption energies on stepped metal surfaces with known Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations for the activation barriers of dissociation...

  12. A structured four-step curriculum in basic laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Bjerrum, Flemming; Maagaard, Mathilde

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a 4-step curriculum in basic laparoscopy consisting of validated modules integrating a cognitive component, a practical component and a procedural component.......The objective of this study was to develop a 4-step curriculum in basic laparoscopy consisting of validated modules integrating a cognitive component, a practical component and a procedural component....

  13. Self Blocking of CO Dissociation on a Stepped Ruthenium Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm; Johansson, Martin; Mowbray, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    The influence of steps on CO reactions has been studied on a Ru(0 1 (1) over bar 5 4) single crystal with a step density of 4%. Based on temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and oxygen titration experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we show that the CO dissociation...

  14. Postural inflexibility in PD: does it affect compensatory stepping?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, K.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Geurts, A.C.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) impairs the ability to shape postural responses to contextual factors. It is unknown whether such inflexibility pertains to compensatory steps to overcome balance perturbations. Participants were instructed to recover balance in response to a platform translation. A step was

  15. Charge equilibration and potential steps in organic semiconductor multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocks, G.; Cakir, Deniz; Bokdam, Menno; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Fahlman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial potential steps ∼0.5 eV are frequently observed in organic multilayers of donor and acceptor molecules. Often such potential steps depend on the order in which the individual layers are deposited, or on which substrate they are deposited. In this paper we outline a model for these

  16. Two-Step Macrocycle Synthesis by Classical Ugi Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelraheem, Eman M M; Khaksar, Samad; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; Shaabani, Shabnam; Dömling, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The direct nonpeptidic macrocycle synthesis of α-isocyano-ω-amines via the classical Ugi four-component reaction (U-4CR) is introduced. Herein an efficient and flexible two-step procedure to complex macrocycles is reported. In the first step, the reaction between unprotected diamines and

  17. Characterization of Mo/Si multilayer growth on stepped topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Toine; Louis, Eric; Zoethout, E.; Goldberg, K.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with nanoscale bilayer thicknesses have been deposited on stepped substrate topographies, using various deposition angles. The multilayer morphology at the step-edge region was studied by cross section transmission electron microscopy. A transition from a continuous- to

  18. Two Step Wittig/Dihydroxylation Synthetic Route to Higher Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation......Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation...

  19. Single-step digital backpropagation for nonlinearity mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secondini, Marco; Rommel, Simon; Meloni, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinearity mitigation based on the enhanced split-step Fourier method (ESSFM) for the implementation of low-complexity digital backpropagation (DBP) is investigated and experimentally demonstrated. After reviewing the main computational aspects of DBP and of the conventional split-step Fourier...... in the computational complexity, power consumption, and latency with respect to a simple feed-forward equalizer for bulk dispersion compensation....

  20. Disciplinary Counseling: The First Step toward Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    The oral reprimand is seen as the most important step in a corrective discipline procedure. Steps of disciplinary counseling include: always counsel in a private place; identify the problem; identify the desired behavior; define the consequences; get commitment from employee; identify session as oral reprimand; and monitor and follow up.(MLW)

  1. Using the critical incident technique in community-based participatory research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkora, Jeffrey; Stupar, Lauren; O'Donnell, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Successful community-based participatory research involves the community partner in every step of the research process. The primary study for this paper took place in rural, Northern California. Collaborative partners included an academic researcher and two community based resource centers that provide supportive services to people diagnosed with cancer. This paper describes our use of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) to conduct Community-based Participatory Research. We ask: Did the CIT facilitate or impede the active engagement of the community in all steps of the study process? We identified factors about the Critical Incident Technique that were either barriers or facilitators to involving the community partner in every step of the research process. Facilitators included the CIT's ability to accommodate involvement from a large spectrum of the community, its flexible design, and its personal approach. Barriers to community engagement included training required to conduct interviews, depth of interview probes, and time required. Overall, our academic-community partners felt that our use of the CIT facilitated community involvement in our Community-Based Participatory Research Project, where we used it to formally document the forces promoting and inhibiting successful achievement of community aims.

  2. [Community health in primary health care teams: a management objective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot Adell, Carme; Pasarin Rua, Maribel; Canela Soler, Jaume; Sala Alvarez, Clara; Escosa Farga, Alex

    2016-12-01

    To describe the process of development of community health in a territory where the Primary Health Care board decided to include it in its roadmap as a strategic line. Evaluative research using qualitative techniques, including SWOT analysis on community health. Two-steps study. Primary care teams (PCT) of the Catalan Health Institute in Barcelona city. The 24 PCT belonging to the Muntanya-Dreta Primary Care Service in Barcelona city, with 904 professionals serving 557,430 inhabitants. Application of qualitative methodology using SWOT analysis in two steps (two-step study). Step 1: Setting up a core group consisting of local PCT professionals; collecting the community projects across the territory; SWOT analysis. Step 2: From the needs identified in the previous phase, a plan was developed, including a set of training activities in community health: basic, advanced, and a workshop to exchange experiences from the PCTs. A total of 80 team professionals received specific training in the 4 workshops held, one of them an advanced level. Two workshops were held to exchange experiences with 165 representatives from the local teams, and 22 PCTs presenting their practices. In 2013, 6 out of 24 PCTs have had a community diagnosis performed. Community health has achieved a good level of development in some areas, but this is not the general situation in the health care system. Its progression depends on the management support they have, the local community dynamics, and the scope of the Primary Health Care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. EarthConnections: Integrating Community Science and Geoscience Education Pathways for More Resilient Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    To develop a diverse geoscience workforce, the EarthConnections collective impact alliance is developing regionally focused, Earth education pathways. These pathways support and guide students from engagement in relevant, Earth-related science at an early age through the many steps and transitions to geoscience-related careers. Rooted in existing regional activities, pathways are developed using a process that engages regional stakeholders and community members with EarthConnections partners. Together they connect, sequence, and create multiple learning opportunities that link geoscience education and community service to address one or more local geoscience issues. Three initial pilots are demonstrating different starting points and strategies for creating pathways that serve community needs while supporting geoscience education. The San Bernardino pilot is leveraging existing academic relationships and programs; the Atlanta pilot is building into existing community activities; and the Oklahoma Tribal Nations pilot is co-constructing a pathway focus and approach. The project is using pathway mapping and a collective impact framework to support and monitor progress. The goal is to develop processes and activities that can help other communities develop similar community-based geoscience pathways. By intertwining Earth education with local community service we aspire to increase the resilience of communities in the face of environmental hazards and limited Earth resources.

  4. Linear micromechanical stepping drive for pinhole array positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Hoffmann, Martin; Grewe, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    A compact linear micromechanical stepping drive for positioning a 7 × 5.5 mm 2 optical pinhole array is presented. The system features a step size of 13.2 µm and a full displacement range of 200 µm. The electrostatic inch-worm stepping mechanism shows a compact design capable of positioning a payload 50% of its own weight. The stepping drive movement, step sizes and position accuracy are characterized. The actuated pinhole array is integrated in a confocal chromatic hyperspectral imaging system, where coverage of the object plane, and therefore the useful picture data, can be multiplied by 14 in contrast to a non-actuated array. (paper)

  5. Stepped-frequency radar sensors theory, analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the theory, analysis and design of microwave stepped-frequency radar sensors. Stepped-frequency radar sensors are attractive for various sensing applications that require fine resolution. The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter describes the fundamentals of radar sensors including applications followed by a review of ultra-wideband pulsed, frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW), and stepped-frequency radar sensors. The second chapter discusses a general analysis of radar sensors including wave propagation in media and scattering on targets, as well as the radar equation. The third chapter addresses the analysis of stepped-frequency radar sensors including their principles and design parameters. Chapter 4 presents the development of two stepped-frequency radar sensors at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies based on microwave integrated circuits (MICs), microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) and printed-circuit antennas, and discusses their signal processing....

  6. Performance analysis in stepped solar still for effluent desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velmurugan, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Infant Jesus College of Engineering, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu 628 851 (India); Naveen Kumar, K.J.; Noorul Haq, T.; Srithar, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu 625 015 (India)

    2009-09-15

    In this work, a stepped solar still and an effluent settling tank are fabricated and tested for desalinating the textile effluent. The effluent is purified in an effluent settling tank. In this tank, large and fine solid particles are settled and clarified. The settled effluents are used as raw water in the stepped solar still. For better performance, the stepped solar still consists of 50 trays with two different depths. First 25 trays with 10 mm height and the next 25 trays with 5 mm height are used. Fin, sponge, pebble and combination of the above are used for enhancing the productivity of the stepped solar still. A maximum increase in productivity of 98% occurs in stepped solar still when fin, sponge and pebbles are used in this basin. Theoretical analysis agrees well with experimental results. (author)

  7. Two-step variable selection in quantile regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Yali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-step variable selection procedure for high dimensional quantile regressions, in which the dimension of the covariates, pn is much larger than the sample size n. In the first step, we perform ℓ1 penalty, and we demonstrate that the first step penalized estimator with the LASSO penalty can reduce the model from an ultra-high dimensional to a model whose size has the same order as that of the true model, and the selected model can cover the true model. The second step excludes the remained irrelevant covariates by applying the adaptive LASSO penalty to the reduced model obtained from the first step. Under some regularity conditions, we show that our procedure enjoys the model selection consistency. We conduct a simulation study and a real data analysis to evaluate the finite sample performance of the proposed approach.

  8. Effects of the lateral amplitude and regularity of upper body fluctuation on step time variability evaluated using return map analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidori, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the lateral amplitude and regularity of upper body fluctuation on step time variability. Return map analysis was used to clarify the relationship between step time variability and a history of falling. Eleven healthy, community-dwelling older adults and twelve younger adults participated in the study. All of the subjects walked 25 m at a comfortable speed. Trunk acceleration was measured using triaxial accelerometers attached to the third lumbar vertebrae (L3) and the seventh cervical vertebrae (C7). The normalized average magnitude of acceleration, the coefficient of determination ($R^2$) of the return map, and the step time variabilities, were calculated. Cluster analysis using the average fluctuation and the regularity of C7 fluctuation identified four walking patterns in the mediolateral (ML) direction. The participants with higher fluctuation and lower regularity showed significantly greater step time variability compared with the others. Additionally, elderly participants who had fallen in the past year had higher amplitude and a lower regularity of fluctuation during walking. In conclusion, by focusing on the time evolution of each step, it is possible to understand the cause of stride and/or step time variability that is associated with a risk of falls.

  9. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (pstresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bio-inspired step-climbing in a hexapod robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Ya-Cheng; Yu, Wei-Shun; Huang, Ke-Jung; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the observation that the cockroach changes from a tripod gait to a different gait for climbing high steps, we report on the design and implementation of a novel, fully autonomous step-climbing maneuver, which enables a RHex-style hexapod robot to reliably climb a step up to 230% higher than the length of its leg. Similar to the climbing strategy most used by cockroaches, the proposed maneuver is composed of two stages. The first stage is the ‘rearing stage,’ inclining the body so the front side of the body is raised and it is easier for the front legs to catch the top of the step, followed by the ‘rising stage,’ maneuvering the body's center of mass to the top of the step. Two infrared range sensors are installed on the front of the robot to detect the presence of the step and its orientation relative to the robot's heading, so that the robot can perform automatic gait transition, from walking to step-climbing, as well as correct its initial tilt approaching posture. An inclinometer is utilized to measure body inclination and to compute step height, thus enabling the robot to adjust its gait automatically, in real time, and to climb steps of different heights and depths successfully. The algorithm is applicable for the robot to climb various rectangular obstacles, including a narrow bar, a bar and a step (i.e. a bar of infinite width). The performance of the algorithm is evaluated experimentally, and the comparison of climbing strategies and climbing behaviors in biological and robotic systems is discussed. (paper)

  11. Increasing Running Step Rate Reduces Patellofemoral Joint Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Rachel L.; Thelen, Darryl G.; Wille, Christa M.; Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Increasing step rate has been shown to elicit changes in joint kinematics and kinetics during running, and has been suggested as a possible rehabilitation strategy for runners with patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this study was to determine how altering step rate affects internal muscle forces and patellofemoral joint loads, and then to determine what kinematic and kinetic factors best predict changes in joint loading. Methods We recorded whole body kinematics of 30 healthy adults running on an instrumented treadmill at three step rate conditions (90%, 100%, and 110% of preferred step rate). We then used a 3D lower extremity musculoskeletal model to estimate muscle, patellar tendon, and patellofemoral joint forces throughout the running gait cycles. Additionally, linear regression analysis allowed us to ascertain the relative influence of limb posture and external loads on patellofemoral joint force. Results Increasing step rate to 110% of preferred reduced peak patellofemoral joint force by 14%. Peak muscle forces were also altered as a result of the increased step rate with hip, knee and ankle extensor forces, and hip abductor forces all reduced in mid-stance. Compared to the 90% step rate condition, there was a concomitant increase in peak rectus femoris and hamstring loads during early and late swing, respectively, at higher step rates. Peak stance phase knee flexion decreased with increasing step rate, and was found to be the most important predictor of the reduction in patellofemoral joint loading. Conclusion Increasing step rate is an effective strategy to reduce patellofemoral joint forces and could be effective in modulating biomechanical factors that can contribute to patellofemoral pain. PMID:23917470

  12. Mixture models with entropy regularization for community detection in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenhai; Yin, Xianjun; Jia, Caiyan; Wang, Xiaoyang

    2018-04-01

    Community detection is a key exploratory tool in network analysis and has received much attention in recent years. NMM (Newman's mixture model) is one of the best models for exploring a range of network structures including community structure, bipartite and core-periphery structures, etc. However, NMM needs to know the number of communities in advance. Therefore, in this study, we have proposed an entropy regularized mixture model (called EMM), which is capable of inferring the number of communities and identifying network structure contained in a network, simultaneously. In the model, by minimizing the entropy of mixing coefficients of NMM using EM (expectation-maximization) solution, the small clusters contained little information can be discarded step by step. The empirical study on both synthetic networks and real networks has shown that the proposed model EMM is superior to the state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Validity of the Stages of Change in Steps instrument (SoC-Step) for achieving the physical activity goal of 10,000 steps per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Duncan, Mitch J; Caperchione, Cristina M; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Maeder, Anthony J; Savage, Trevor N; Mummery, W Kerry

    2015-11-30

    Physical activity (PA) offers numerous benefits to health and well-being, but most adults are not sufficiently physically active to afford such benefits. The 10,000 steps campaign has been a popular and effective approach to promote PA. The Transtheoretical Model posits that individuals have varying levels of readiness for health behavior change, known as Stages of Change (Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance). Few validated assessment instruments are available for determining Stages of Change in relation to the PA goal of 10,000 steps per day. The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion-related validity of the SoC-Step, a brief 10,000 steps per day Stages of Change instrument. Participants were 504 Australian adults (176 males, 328 females, mean age = 50.8 ± 13.0 years) from the baseline sample of the Walk 2.0 randomized controlled trial. Measures included 7-day accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X), height, weight, and self-reported intention, self-efficacy, and SoC-Step: Stages of Change relative to achieving 10,000 steps per day. Kruskal-Wallis H tests with pairwise comparisons were used to determine whether participants differed by stage, according to steps per day, general health, body mass index, intention, and self-efficacy to achieve 10,000 steps per day. Binary logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that participants in Maintenance or Action stages would have greater likelihood of meeting the 10,000 steps goal, in comparison to participants in the other three stages. Consistent with study hypotheses, participants in Precontemplation had significantly lower intention scores than those in Contemplation (p = 0.003) or Preparation (p per day (OR = 3.11; 95 % CI = 1.66,5.83) compared to those in Precontemplation, Contemplation, or Preparation. Intention (p per day. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12611000157976 World Health Organization Universal Trial

  14. Antibiotics promote aggregation within aquatic bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCorno

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of antibiotics (AB into the environment poses several threats for human health due to potential development of ABresistant natural bacteria. Even though the use of low-dose antibiotics has been promoted in health care and farming, significant amounts of AB are observed in aquatic environments. Knowledge on the impact of AB on natural bacterial communities is missing both in terms of spread and evolution of resistance mechanisms, and of modifications of community composition and productivity. New approaches are required to study the response of microbial communities rather than individual resistance genes. In this study a chemostat-based experiment with 4 coexisting bacterial strains has been performed to mimicking the response of a freshwater bacterial community to the presence of antibiotics in low and high doses. Bacterial abundance rapidly decreased by 75% in the presence of AB, independently of their concentration, and remained constant until the end of the experiment. The bacterial community was mainly dominated by Aeromonas hydrophila and Brevundimonas intermedia while the other two strains, Micrococcus luteus and Rhodococcus sp. never exceed 10%. Interestingly, the bacterial strains, which were isolated at the end of the experiment, were not AB-resistant, while reassembled communities composed of the 4 strains, isolated from treatments under AB stress, significantly raised their performance (growth rate, abundance in the presence of AB compared to the communities reassembled with strains isolated from the treatment without AB. By investigating the phenotypic adaptations of the communities subjected to the different treatments, we found that the presence of AB significantly increased co-aggregation by 5-6 fold.These results represent the first observation of co-aggregation as a successful strategy of AB resistance based on phenotype in aquatic bacterial communities, and can represent a fundamental step in the understanding of

  15. How many steps/day are enough? for adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe David A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical activity guidelines from around the world are typically expressed in terms of frequency, duration, and intensity parameters. Objective monitoring using pedometers and accelerometers offers a new opportunity to measure and communicate physical activity in terms of steps/day. Various step-based versions or translations of physical activity guidelines are emerging, reflecting public interest in such guidance. However, there appears to be a wide discrepancy in the exact values that are being communicated. It makes sense that step-based recommendations should be harmonious with existing evidence-based public health guidelines that recognize that "some physical activity is better than none" while maintaining a focus on time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Thus, the purpose of this review was to update our existing knowledge of "How many steps/day are enough?", and to inform step-based recommendations consistent with current physical activity guidelines. Normative data indicate that healthy adults typically take between 4,000 and 18,000 steps/day, and that 10,000 steps/day is reasonable for this population, although there are notable "low active populations." Interventions demonstrate incremental increases on the order of 2,000-2,500 steps/day. The results of seven different controlled studies demonstrate that there is a strong relationship between cadence and intensity. Further, despite some inter-individual variation, 100 steps/minute represents a reasonable floor value indicative of moderate intensity walking. Multiplying this cadence by 30 minutes (i.e., typical of a daily recommendation produces a minimum of 3,000 steps that is best used as a heuristic (i.e., guiding value, but these steps must be taken over and above habitual activity levels to be a true expression of free-living steps/day that also includes recommendations for minimal amounts of time in MVPA. Computed steps/day translations of time in

  16. Community Bioethics: The Health Decisions Community Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tom; Mrgudic, Kate

    1993-01-01

    Sees health care decision making posing variety of complex issues for individuals, families, and providers. Describes Health Decisions Community Council (HDCC), community-based bioethics committee established to offer noninstitutional forum for discussion of health care dilemmas. Notes that social work skills and values for autonomy and…

  17. University-Community Research Partnership for Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses the existing university–community partnership in research in Tanzania and proposes a bottom-top model instead of the traditional top-bottom approach which works with perceived needs of communities rather than real needs. Given their core missions, many universities assume that they achieve their ...

  18. Homeless adults engagement in art: first steps towards identity, recovery and social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yvonne; Gray, Marion; McGinty, Sue; Ebringer, Sally

    2011-12-01

    The Australian policy on homelessness identifies participation in structured activities as the first step towards social inclusion and increasing the likelihood of permanently leaving a homeless lifestyle. Art interventions increase interpersonal function and social participation and provide a means of expression and transformation with people who are homeless. This study explores the value of an art programme provided by a non-government agency for homeless adults. Qualitative methods including participant observation and purposive interviews were analysed inductively and thematically to gain an understanding of the participants' experience of art and its value. Interviews with stakeholders provided additional information and triangulation of the data. The study demonstrates that art occupations provide a starting point for participation in community and a positive experience that encourages the construction of new identities, routines and roles. Furthermore, art provides an alternative from the problems associated with homelessness, mental health and substance abuse and allows for public recognition and social inclusion. Health professionals should work towards the social inclusion of homeless people through providing occupational opportunities for participation in safe settings as a first step to community engagement. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  19. Predicting falls in older adults using the four square step test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Kimberly; Skornyakov, Elena

    2017-10-01

    The Four Square Step Test (FSST) is a performance-based balance tool involving stepping over four single-point canes placed on the floor in a cross configuration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate properties of the FSST in older adults who lived independently. Forty-five community dwelling older adults provided fall history and completed the FSST, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Tinetti in random order. Future falls were recorded for 12 months following testing. The FSST accurately distinguished between non-fallers and multiple fallers, and the 15-second threshold score accurately distinguished multiple fallers from non-multiple fallers based on fall history. The FSST predicted future falls, and performance on the FSST was significantly correlated with performance on the BBS, TUG, and Tinetti. However, the test is not appropriate for older adults who use walkers. Overall, the FSST is a valid yet underutilized measure of balance performance and fall prediction tool that physical therapists should consider using in ambulatory community dwelling older adults.

  20. Developing Boundary/PMI Solutions for Next-Step Fusion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Leonard, A. W.; Thomas, D. M.; Allen, S. L.; Hill, D. N.; Unterberg, Z.

    2014-10-01

    The path towards next-step fusion development requires increased emphasis on the boundary/plasma-material interface. The new DIII-D Boundary/Plasma-Material Interactions (PMI) Center has been established to address these critical issues on a timescale relevant to the design of FNSF, adopting the following transformational approaches: (1) Develop and test advanced divertor configurations on DIII-D compatible with core plasma high performance operational scenarios in FNSF; (2) Validate candidate reactor PFC materials at reactor-relevant temperatures in DIII-D high-performance plasmas, in collaboration with the broad material research/development community; (3) Integrate validated boundary-materials interface with high performance plasmas to provide viable boundary/PMI solutions for next-step fusion devices. This program leverages unique DIII-D capabilities, promotes synergistic programs within the broad PMI community, including linear material research facilities. It will also enable us to build a compelling bridge for the US research on long-pulse facilities. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC05-00OR2725.

  1. Stepping to the Beat: Feasibility and Potential Efficacy of a Home-Based Auditory-Cued Step Training Program in Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Wright

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHemiparesis after stroke typically results in a reduced walking speed, an asymmetrical gait pattern and a reduced ability to make gait adjustments. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of home-based training involving auditory cueing of stepping in place.MethodsTwelve community-dwelling participants with chronic hemiparesis completed two 3-week blocks of home-based stepping to music overlaid with an auditory metronome. Tempo of the metronome was increased 5% each week. One 3-week block used a regular metronome, whereas the other 3-week block had phase shift perturbations randomly inserted to cue stepping adjustments.ResultsAll participants reported that they enjoyed training, with 75% completing all training blocks. No adverse events were reported. Walking speed, Timed Up and Go (TUG time and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI scores (median [inter-quartile range] significantly improved between baseline (speed = 0.61 [0.32, 0.85] m⋅s−1; TUG = 20.0 [16.0, 39.9] s; DGI = 14.5 [11.3, 15.8] and post stepping training (speed = 0.76 [0.39, 1.03] m⋅s−1; TUG = 16.3 [13.3, 35.1] s; DGI = 16.0 [14.0, 19.0] and was maintained at follow-up (speed = 0.75 [0.41, 1.03] m⋅s−1; TUG = 16.5 [12.9, 34.1] s; DGI = 16.5 [13.5, 19.8].ConclusionThis pilot study suggests that auditory-cued stepping conducted at home was feasible and well-tolerated by participants post-stroke, with improvements in walking and functional mobility. No differences were detected between regular and phase-shift training with the metronome at each assessment point.

  2. StepByStep : design of an interactive pictorial activity game for teaching generalization skills to children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruarin, A.; Westenberg, M.A.; Barakova, E.I.; Anacleto, J.C.; Clua, E.W.G.; Correa da Silva, F.S.; Fels, S.; Yang, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Translating acquired behavioral skills from training environments to daily-life situations is difficult for children with autism. This study introduces the StepByStep platform, in which pictorial activity schedules are implemented. Design decisions that increase the sameness in the environment and

  3. The Effects of Multiple-Step and Single-Step Directions on Fourth and Fifth Grade Students' Grammar Assessment Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerik, Matthew B.

    2006-01-01

    The mean scores of English Language Learners (ELL) and English Only (EO) students in 4th and 5th grade (N = 110), across the teacher-administered Grammar Skills Test, were examined for differences in participants' scores on assessments containing single-step directions and assessments containing multiple-step directions. The results indicated no…

  4. A Spiral Step-by-Step Educational Method for Cultivating Competent Embedded System Engineers to Meet Industry Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing,Lei; Cheng, Zixue; Wang, Junbo; Zhou, Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Embedded system technologies are undergoing dramatic change. Competent embedded system engineers are becoming a scarce resource in the industry. Given this, universities should revise their specialist education to meet industry demands. In this paper, a spirally tight-coupled step-by-step educational method, based on an analysis of industry…

  5. Perinatal Depression Algorithm: A Home Visitor Step-by-Step Guide for Advanced Management of Perinatal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszewski, Audrey; Wichman, Christina L.; Doering, Jennifer J.; Maletta, Kristyn; Hammel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood professionals do many things to support young families. This is true now more than ever, as researchers continue to discover the long-term benefits of early, healthy, nurturing relationships. This article provides an overview of the development of an advanced practice perinatal depression algorithm created as a step-by-step guide…

  6. On the Equivalence between Small-Step and Big-Step Abstract Machines: A Simple Application of Lightweight Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    -step specification. We illustrate this observation here with a recognizer for Dyck words, the CEK machine, and Krivine's machine with call/cc. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our current work on small-step abstract machines as obtained by refocusing a function implementing a reduction semantics (a...

  7. Step by step. How to install CopperCore, how to publish and run a UoL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Through these four documents the full installation process of CopperCore is described in detailed. Step by step, and full supported with screenshots, it's shown how to install Cc, how to publish a UoL with Cc and Clicc, how to run a UoL and to exit of Cc and Clicc

  8. Steps That Count: Physical Activity Recommendations, Brisk Walking, and Steps Per Minute-How Do They Relate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillay, J.; Kolbe-Alexander, T.L.; Proper, K.I.; van Mechelen, W.; Lambert, E.V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brisk walking is recommended as a form of health-enhancing physical activity. This study determines the steps/minute rate corresponding to self-paced brisk walking (SPBW); a predicted steps/minute rate for moderate physical activity (MPA) and a comparison of the 2 findings. Methods: A

  9. Human exposure assessment for biocides in the EU development of step by step guidance and worked examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen-Ebben, R.M.G.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Directive 98/8/EC(1) concerns EU harmonisation of placing biocidal products on the market. In the present short paper the preliminary results of an ongoing project are presented in which step by step guidance on human exposure assessment with worked examples is developed. For all 23 biocidal product

  10. The Implications of the Arbitration Convention : A step back for the European Community or a step forward for elimination of transfer pricing related double taxation?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernath, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    It was assumed in the mid 1990s that 60% of all global trade took place within a group of enterprises. With increased globalisation leading to an increase in mergers and acquisitions this figure is most likely higher. Thus intra-company and intra-group transactions form a major part of business. These transactions, due to the association between the enterprises, may not always reflect the conditions that a market with independent actors would dictate. There are various reasons for this, which...

  11. Significant improvements of electrical discharge machining performance by step-by-step updated adaptive control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wu, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Mu, Xin; Dou, Yunping

    2018-02-01

    In order to obtain improved electrical discharge machining (EDM) performance, we have dedicated more than a decade to correcting one essential EDM defect, the weak stability of the machining, by developing adaptive control systems. The instabilities of machining are mainly caused by complicated disturbances in discharging. To counteract the effects from the disturbances on machining, we theoretically developed three control laws from minimum variance (MV) control law to minimum variance and pole placements coupled (MVPPC) control law and then to a two-step-ahead prediction (TP) control law. Based on real-time estimation of EDM process model parameters and measured ratio of arcing pulses which is also called gap state, electrode discharging cycle was directly and adaptively tuned so that a stable machining could be achieved. To this end, we not only theoretically provide three proved control laws for a developed EDM adaptive control system, but also practically proved the TP control law to be the best in dealing with machining instability and machining efficiency though the MVPPC control law provided much better EDM performance than the MV control law. It was also shown that the TP control law also provided a burn free machining.

  12. Guidelines on stepping up the authentication component in AAIs implementing the AARC BPA (AARC-G029)

    OpenAIRE

    AARC Consortium Partners; AppInt members

    2018-01-01

    A number of research community use cases require users to verify their identity by using more than one type of credentials, for instance using password authentication, together with some physical object such as a phone or usb stick that generates tokens/pins, etc. At the same time, there are services that may require an already logged in user to re-authenticate using a stronger authentication mechanism when accessing sensitive resources. Authentication step-up is then needed to improve the or...

  13. Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of CFD Simulations Applied to Backward Facing Step-Application of CFD Uncertainty Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis E.; LLie, Marcel; Shallhorn, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow field and there is no standard method for evaluating uncertainty in the CFD community. This paper describes an approach to -validate the . uncertainty in using CFD. The method will use the state of the art uncertainty analysis applying different turbulence niodels and draw conclusions on which models provide the least uncertainty and which models most accurately predict the flow of a backward facing step.

  14. Final repository searching in Germany - what are the next steps?; Endlagerstandortsuche in Deutschland. Wie geht's weiter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neles, Julia Mareike [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany). Bereich Nukleartechnik und Anlagensicherheit

    2016-07-01

    Up to now (2016) the question of final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is still open in Germany. The Commission of radioactive waste disposal has finalized its report including recommendations for the further process. The next step will be the site selection procedure based on a ''white map''. The protest of several Federal states and communities against repository sites in their region is already developing.

  15. Community energy plan : village of Burns Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, B.

    2008-09-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on the lives of Canadians and their economies. In northern British Columbia, the ability to grow, process and transport food will likely change. The rising cost of fuel and other natural resources will create a need for more resilient communities. This report presented a community energy plan for Burns Lake in order to provide the first steps toward building on an already resilient community. The report answered questions about Burns Lake's energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as the community's views on energy issues. The report provided background information on the Village of Burns Lake and discussed climate change in Burns Lake, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions. The report also described community engagement by way of a questionnaire on fuel prices, homes and public opinion in Burns Lake. A strategy was also outlined. It was concluded that the village of Burns Lake is well positioned to face challenges regarding future energy use. The community is looking to the municipality for support and leadership, in order to deliver through active opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  16. Community-Wide Zero Energy Ready Home Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beggs, T. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    This report outlines the steps a developer can take when creating and implementing high performance standards such as the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) standards on a community-wide scale. The report also describes the specific examples of how this process is underway in the Stapleton community in Denver, Colorado, by the developer Forest City.

  17. Appreciative Organizing: Charting a Course for Community Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Shelly A. Parini-Runge

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of Appreciative Organizing (AO), a term coined by the author in her graduate work to describe the roles that dialogue, listening, storytelling, community networks, social bonding, and leadership play in designing and leading meaningful community engagement initiatives that result in transformative partnerships. It offers constructive steps and a real-life example of how AO was used to strengthen relationships between an institution of higher learning and...

  18. Faith community nursing: real care, real cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaworth, Rosalee C; Sailors, Ronnette

    2014-01-01

    At a time when healthcare costs are increasing more than other aspects of the economy, churches are stepping up to help fill needs through congregational health ministries. Faith Community Nursing (FCN) is a rapidly growing health service in the churches of many denominations. This article documents healthcare services and financial savings provided by FCNs and health ministries, showing the critical role faith community nursing can play in containing healthcare costs.

  19. Comparative analysis of single-step and two-step biodiesel production using supercritical methanol on laboratory-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, Radoslav D.; Tomić, Milan D.; Kiss, Ferenc E.; Martinovic, Ferenc L.; Simikić, Mirko Ð.; Molnar, Tibor T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-step supercritical transesterification compared to the two-step process. • Two-step process: oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification. • Experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. • Higher biodiesel yields in two-step process at milder reaction conditions. • Two-step process has potential to be cost-competitive with the single-step process. - Abstract: Single-step supercritical transesterification and two-step biodiesel production process consisting of oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification were studied and compared. For this purpose, comparative experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor and optimal reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio and time) were determined. Results indicate that in comparison to a single-step transesterification, methyl esterification (second step of the two-step process) produces higher biodiesel yields (95 wt% vs. 91 wt%) at lower temperatures (270 °C vs. 350 °C), pressures (8 MPa vs. 12 MPa) and methanol to oil molar ratios (1:20 vs. 1:42). This can be explained by the fact that the reaction system consisting of free fatty acid (FFA) and methanol achieves supercritical condition at milder reaction conditions. Furthermore, the dissolved FFA increases the acidity of supercritical methanol and acts as an acid catalyst that increases the reaction rate. There is a direct correlation between FFA content of the product obtained in hydrolysis and biodiesel yields in methyl esterification. Therefore, the reaction parameters of hydrolysis were optimized to yield the highest FFA content at 12 MPa, 250 °C and 1:20 oil to water molar ratio. Results of direct material and energy costs comparison suggest that the process based on the two-step reaction has the potential to be cost-competitive with the process based on single-step supercritical transesterification. Higher biodiesel yields, similar or lower energy

  20. Salt Lake Community College Veterans Services: A Model of Serving Veterans in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Aaron; Foster, Michael; Head, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the birth and growth of a veterans' program in Salt Lake City, Utah, and discusses next steps in spurring additional innovations and advancements to improve service for student veterans in community colleges.