WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance results critical

  1. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  2. Colorectal cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease: A critical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devendra; Desai; Nutan; Desai

    2014-01-01

    Colonoscopic surveillance is advocated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) for detection of dys-plasia. There are many issues regarding surveillance in IBD: the risk of colorectal cancer seems to be de-creasing in the majority of recently published studies, necessitating revisions of surveillance strategy; surveil-lance guidelines are not based on concrete evidence; commencement and frequency of surveillance, cost-effectiveness and adherence to surveillance have been issues that are only partly answered. The traditional technique of random biopsy is neither evidence-based nor easy to practice. Therefore, highlighting abnormal areas with newer technology and biopsy from these areas are the way forward. Of the newer technology, digital mucosal enhancement, such as high-definition white light endoscopy and chromoendoscopy(with magnification) have been incorporated in guidelines. Dyeless chromoendoscopy(narrow band imaging) has not yet shown potential, whereas some forms of digital chromoendoscopy(i-Scan more than Fujinon intelligent color enhancement) have shown promise for colonoscopic surveillance in IBD. Other techniquessuch as autofluorescence imaging, endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy need further evidence. Surveillance with genetic markers(tissue, serum or stool) is at an early stage. This article discusses changing epidemiology of colorectal cancer development in IBD and critically evaluates issues regarding colonoscopic surveillance in IBD.

  3. Critical Infrastructure Surveillance Using SecureWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Niedermeier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a secure wireless sensor network (WSN for the surveillance, monitoring and protection of critical infrastructures was developed. To guarantee the security of the system, the main focus was the implementation of a unique security concept, which includes both security on the communication level, as well as mechanisms that ensure the functional safety during its operation. While there are many theoretical approaches in various subdomains of WSNs—like network structures, communication protocols and security concepts—the construction, implementation and real-life application of these devices is still rare. This work deals with these aforementioned aspects, including all phases from concept-generation to operation of a secure wireless sensor network. While the key focus of this paper lies on the security and safety features of the WSN, the detection, localization and classification capabilities resulting from the interaction of the nodes’ different sensor types are also described.

  4. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  5. HIV surveillance in MENA: recent developments and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Riedner, Gabriele; Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide an overview of the current level of development and results from the national HIV surveillance systems of the 23 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to assess the quality of HIV surveillance systems in the period 2007–2011. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect the information about the structure, activities and the results of HIV surveillance systems from the National AIDS Programmes. Assessment of the quality was based on four indicators: timeliness of data collection, appropriateness of populations under surveillance, consistency of the surveillance sites and groups measured over time, and coverage of the surveillance system. Results Only in four countries did surveillance systems enable assessment of epidemic trends in the same populations and locations over time, such as in pregnant women (Morocco, Iran), injecting drug users (Iran, Pakistan), female sex workers (Djibouti, Morocco) and male sex workers (Pakistan). There is increasing evidence of HIV infection being firmly established in at least one of the populations most at risk of HIV in nine MENA countries, while lower risk populations show elevated HIV prevalence in South Sudan, Djibouti and some parts of Somalia. Conclusions The performance of HIV surveillance systems in several of the MENA countries has improved in recent years. The extent of HIV epidemics in the populations most at risk of HIV is still largely unknown in 10 countries. Multiple data sources that most of the countries still lack would enable indirectly estimation not only of the patterns of HIV epidemics but also the effectiveness of HIV responses. PMID:23434789

  6. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-05-27

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  7. Results of EMC market surveillance tests for UPS systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamaeki, J. [Safety Technology Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the first wide electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) market surveillance project in Finland in which the uninterruptible power systems (UPS) on the Finnish market are monitored. Altogether 11 UPS units are EMC tested and the results of these tests are described in this paper. The effect of basic characters of UPS on the level of electromagnetic interference are analysed. (orig.) 3 refs.

  8. [Risk factors in police activities: operational criticism in surveillance programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprani, Fabrizio; Moroni, Maria; Conte, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The planning of specific health surveillance programs for police officers is extremely complex due to difficulty in predictability and variety of occupational hazards. Even in the case of conventional occupational risk factors clearly identified by current regulations, particular working conditions may require specific assessment to effectively identify and quantify the risk of occupational exposure. An extensive program of health surveillance, aimed at promoting overall health and effectiveness of the operators, would be really desirable, in order to help better address a number of risks that cannot be easily predicted. The progressive increase in the average age of the working population and the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases, may also suggest the need for health surveillance procedures designed to verify continued unqualified suitability to police service, providing for the identification of diversified suitability profiles in relation to age and state of health: accordingly, in regard to our field of interest, there is a close link between medico-legal eligibility and occupational medicine.

  9. Asteroid Detection Results Using the Space Surveillance Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. Asteroid Detection Results Using the Space Surveillance Telescope...USA ABSTRACT From 1998-2013, MIT Lincoln Laboratory operated a highly successful near-Earth asteroid search program using...two 1-m optical telescopes located at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Experimental Test Site (ETS) in Socorro, N.M. In 2014, the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid

  10. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  11. [Surveillance of stage I testicular seminoma: 20 years oncological results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zores, T; Mouracade, P; Duclos, B; Saussine, C; Lang, H; Jacqmin, D

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the oncological results of a population of patients which undergo surveillance after diagnosis of stage I testicular seminoma (2, 5 and 8 years overall, specific and recurrence free survival). We also research recurrence risk factors. We have looked at the data of all patients treated in our center since 1993 for a grade I testicular seminoma. We focused on age at diagnosis, biological (tumoral markers) and pathological (tumor size, rete testis, lymphovascular, tunica albuginea or spermatic cord invasion) data. During surveillance, we noted the number, the localization and the interval until recurrence and death. We calculated 2, 5 and 8 years overall, specific and recurrence-free survival and searched recurrence risk factors. Sixty-nine patients (mean age: 37) were followed during a mean time of 97 months. Sixty-three per cent of the tumours were less than 4 cm (50 lesions). Lymphovascular, rete testis, spermatic cord and tunica albuginea invasion were present in respectively 21%, 33%, 4% and 29% of the cases. LDH and HCG were above normal rate in respectively 44 and 27% of the cases. Eighteen patients (23%) relapsed at a mean time of 12 months. Recurrence-free survival was respectively 81%, 77% and 77% at 2, 5 and 8 years. Tumor size4 cm was a recurrence risk factor (risk multiplied by 3). At the end of the study, 77 patients are alive (97.5%). Overall and specific survival was 97.5% at 2, 5 and 8 years. We show here the interest of surveillance in case of stage 1 testicular seminoma. The overall and specific survivals are the same as after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Furthermore, we confirm the role of tumor size to stratify recurrence risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. FY2004 CORROSION SURVEILLANCE RESULTS FOR L-BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VORMELKER, P

    2005-09-05

    This report documents the results of the L-Basin Corrosion Surveillance Program for the fiscal year 2004. Test coupons were removed from the basin on February 12, 2004, shipped to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and visually examined in a contaminated laboratory hood. Selected coupons were metallurgically characterized to establish the extent of general corrosion and pitting. Pitting was observed on galvanically coupled and on intentionally creviced coupons, thus demonstrating that localized concentration cells were formed during the exposure period. In these cases, the susceptibility to pitting was not attributed to aggressive basin water chemistry but to localized conditions (intentional crevices and galvanic coupling) that allowed the development of oxygen and/or metal ion concentration cells that produced locally aggressive waters. General oxidation was also observed on all of the coupons with localized corrosion observed on some of the coupons. These coupons were not pretreated to produce a protective oxide layer prior to exposure in the basin water. Non-protected coupons are more susceptible to corrosion than fuel cladding which has developed a protective oxide layer from high temperature reactor operations. However, the oxide on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored in L-Basin is not necessarily in pristine condition. Some of the oxide may have spalled off or been mechanically damaged prior to arrival at SRS. These areas on the fuel cladding would have the same susceptibility to corrosion as the coupons. Current observations from the test coupons demonstrate that, even with rigorously controlled basin water chemistry, localized aggressive conditions can develop in intentional crevice and galvanic samples. These results do illustrate the potential for corrosion induced degradation and thus the importance of a routine surveillance program similar to that conducted on the Uruguay fuel and on the surveillance coupons stored in L-Basin and future in

  13. Examining the social construction of surveillance: a critical issue for health visitors and public health nurses working with mothers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Megan; Peckover, Sue

    2017-08-17

    In this paper we will critically examine surveillance practices of health visitors (HV) in the UK and public health nurses (PHNs) in Canada. The practice and meaning of surveillance shifts and changes depending on the context and intent of relationships between mothers and HVs or PHNs. We present the context and practice of HVs in the UK and PHNs in Canada and provide a comprehensive literature review regarding surveillance of mothers within public health systems. We then present our critique of the meaning and practice of surveillance across different settings. Concepts from Foucault and discourse analysis are used to critically examine and discuss the meaning of surveillance RESULTS: Surveillance is a complex concept that shifts meaning and is socially and institutionally constructed through relations of power CONCLUSIONS: Health care providers need to understand the different meanings and practices associated with surveillance to effectively inform practice. Health care providers should be aware of how their positions of expert and privilege within health care systems affect relationships with mothers. A more comprehensive understanding of personal social and institutional aspects of surveillance will provide opportunities to reflect upon and change practices that are supportive of mothers and their families. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Asteroid Detection Results Using the Space Surveillance Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Jessica D.; Ushomirsky, Gregory; Woods, Deborah F.; Viggh, Herbert E. M.; Varey, Jacob; Cornell, Mark E.; Stokes, Grant

    2015-11-01

    From 1998-2013, MIT Lincoln Laboratory operated a highly successful near-Earth asteroid search program using two 1-m optical telescopes located at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Experimental Test Site (ETS) in Socorro, N.M. In 2014, the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) program successfully transitioned operations from the two 1-m telescopes to the 3.5-m Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) located at Atom Site on White Sands Missile Range, N.M. This paper provides a summary of first-year performance and results for the LINEAR program with SST and provides an update on recent improvements to the moving-object pipeline architecture that increase utility of SST data for NEO discovery and improve sensitivity to fast-moving objects. Ruprecht et al. (2014) made predictions for SST NEO search productivity as a function of population model. This paper assesses the NEO search performance of SST in the first 1.5 years of operation and compares results to model predictions.This work is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this article/presentation are those of the authors / presenters and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited.

  15. Surveillance strategies for detecting chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer and elk: results of a CWD surveillance workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Joly, Damien O.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wright, Scott D.; Otis, David L.; Werge, Rob W.; Miller, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a fatal brain disease of North American deer and elk, has recently emerged as an important wildlife management issue. Interest and concern over the spread of this disease and its potential impact on free-ranging cervid populations has increased with discovery of the disease in numerous states and provinces. Current studies suggest that CWD may adversely affect of these highly visible, socially desirable, and economically valuable species. Despite the lack of evidence that CWD affects humans or livestock, a significant concern has been the perceived risk to humans and livestock. Uncertainty about whether CWD poses a health risk to hunters and their families who consume venison has resulted in testing of free-ranging cervids for CWD. In response to many of these concerns, wildlife management agencies across the nation have undertaken surveillance programs to detect CWD in their cervid populations. The nation-wide costs for an extensive CWD surveillance program have been estimated at several million dollars. This document provides guidance on the development and conduct of scientifically sound surveillance programs to detect CWD in free-ranging deer and elk populations. These guidelines will not apply equally to all jurisdictions. In many cases local circumstances, resources, area(s) of concern, disease risk, animal and landscape ecology, political, social, and many other factors will influence the objectives, design, and conduct of CWD surveillance programs. Part I of this report discusses the importance of management goals, strategies, and disease risks in developing a surveillance program. Part II describes surveillance methods, steps in designing a sampling strategy to detect CWD, alternative collection methods, and statistical considerations. Part III describes costs (personnel, time, and money) associated with implementation of these plans that will influence program design. Part IV outlines research that is needed to further

  16. A reflective commentary of teaching critical thinking of privacy and surveillance in UK higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of data literacy and the need of raising and improving it through formal educational channel or public engagement has repeatedly been flagged up in each of the past Economic and Social Research Council-funded Data-Psst! Seminar I attended in 2014–2016. There is a real demand for action taking. I took advantage of the knowledge I learned from the Data-Psst seminars and devised a module teaching Level 5 undergraduate media students about critical issues in today’s data-centric digital society, including privacy and surveillance. In this article, I share how the class activities were devised and carried out, and how guided engagement with the current debate in privacy and surveillance were realised. I also draw on relevant pedagogical theories to discuss my educational approaches, student performance, the challenges of the project, and evaluate and reflect upon the outcomes. This report from the field provides fresh first-hand information about the data ethics of the younger public who are practising media arts and their behaviours and attitudes towards privacy and surveillance. This article shall open up the discussion about the role educators play in enriching public engagement with critical thinking about Big Data. The lessons learned can also contextualise the pedagogical implication of the recent scholarly research on Big Data and privacy, and provide a framework for constructing future collaborative or creative projects.

  17. [Influenza sentinel surveillance network improvement in Senegal and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, D; Niang, M; Dia, N; Sarr, F D; Goudiab, D; Senghor, M-L; Kiori, D; Faye, T; Espié, E; Ba, I O; Richard, V

    2015-02-01

    Influenza surveillance in Senegal was initially restricted to the identification of circulating strains. The network has recently been enhanced (i) to include epidemiological data from Dakar and other regions and (ii) to extend virological surveillance to other respiratory viruses. Epidemiological data from the sentinel sites is transmitted daily by mobile phone. The data include those for other febrile syndromes similar to influenza-like illnesses (ILI), corresponding to integrated approach. Also, clinical samples are randomly selected and analyzed for influenza and other respiratory viruses. There were 180,192 declared visits to the 11 sentinel sites between week 11-2012 and week 52-2013; 24% of the visits were for fever syndromes and 25% of the cases of fever syndrome were ILI. Rhinoviruses were the most frequent cause of ILI (19%), before adenoviruses (18%), enteroviruses (18%) and influenza A viruses (13%). Co-circulation and co-infection were frequent and were responsible for ILI peaks. In conclusion, it is clear that the greatest advantage of this system is the ease with which it can be implemented, thanks to the availability of mobile phones and mobile phone networks. We recommend this solution for other African countries, because it performs very well and provides rapid benefits in terms of public health decision-making.

  18. [Results of active surveillance in low and intermediate risk prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Carlos; Diaz Goizueta, Francisco Javier; Hernandez, Virginia; de la Morena, Jose Manuel; de la Peña, Enrique

    2014-06-01

    In this article we review the most significant published papers on active surveillance in prostate cancer and present the results of our case series. We used as main response variables the percentage of patients remaining in surveillance and the oncological results presented as global, cancer specific and metastasis free survivals. Globally, in published series 71.2% of patients included in active surveillance programs, 10-year overall survival is 68% in the series with longer follow up, and cancer-specific survival varies from 97% to 100%. In our series of 144 patients with median follow up of 3.2 years, 76.3% of the patients continue on surveillance. 24 patients (15.9%) stopped surveillance due to histological progression. 5 patients (21.3%) out of the 23 undergoing surgery presented unfavorable pathological criteria on prostatectomy specimen. No patient has died or developed metastases.

  19. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  20. Ultra long range surveillance camera for critical infrastructure protection research range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szustakowski, M.; Życzkowski, M.; Karol, M.; Kastek, M.; Dulski, R.; Bareła, J.; Markowski, P.; Kowalski, M.

    2013-10-01

    Visible, LLTV and anti-fog cameras have different abilities to capture external information, and combining these abilities of the three cameras can greatly improve the environment perception ability of intruders or emergency situations. Designed specifically for professional surveillance use, multi active pixel sensor camera of this type allows targets to be monitored at long distance and tracked using the proportional pan, tilt and zoom system. In the article the research results of the camera to determine realistic and standardized parameters, e.g. range of detection, recognition and identification of humans are described. The paper presents measuring equipment, procedures and results.

  1. Expatriates ill after travel: Results from the Geosentinel Surveillance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Poh-Lian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expatriates are a distinct population at unique risk for health problems related to their travel exposure. Methods We analyzed GeoSentinel data comparing ill returned expatriates with other travelers for demographics, travel characteristics, and proportionate morbidity (PM for travel-related illness. Results Our study included 2,883 expatriates and 11,910 non-expatriates who visited GeoSentinel clinics ill after travel. Expatriates were more likely to be male, do volunteer work, be long-stay travelers (>6 months, and have sought pre-travel advice. Compared to non-expatriates, expatriates returning from Africa had higher proportionate morbidity (PM for malaria, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and hepatitis E; expatriates from the Asia-Pacific region had higher PM for strongyloidiasis, depression, and anxiety; expatriates returning from Latin America had higher PM for mononucleosis and ingestion-related infections (giardiasis, brucellosis. Expatriates returning from all three regions had higher PM for latent TB, amebiasis, and gastrointestinal infections (other than acute diarrhea compared to non-expatriates. When the data were stratified by travel reason, business expatriates had higher PM for febrile systemic illness (malaria and dengue and vaccine-preventable infections (hepatitis A, and volunteer expatriates had higher PM for parasitic infections. Expatriates overall had higher adjusted odds ratios for latent TB and lower odds ratios for acute diarrhea and dermatologic illness. Conclusions Ill returned expatriates differ from other travelers in travel characteristics and proportionate morbidity for specific diseases, based on the region of exposure and travel reason. They are more likely to present with more serious illness.

  2. Embodiment and dementia: exploring critical narratives of selfhood, surveillance, and dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Pia; Martin, Wendy

    2013-05-01

    In the last decade there has been a notable increase in efforts to expand understandings of dementia by incorporating the body and theorizing its interrelationship with the larger social order. This emerging subfield of dementia studies puts the body and embodied practices at the center of explorations of how dementia is represented and/or experienced. This shift towards a greater recognition of the way that humans are embodied has expanded the horizon of dementia studies, providing the intellectual and narrative resources to examine experiences of dementia, and their interconnections with history, culture, power, and discourse. Our aim in this paper is to critically explore and review dimensions of this expanding research and literature, specifically in relation to three key narratives: (1) rethinking selfhood: exploring embodied dimensions; (2) surveillance, discipline, and the body in dementia and dementia care; and (3) embodied innovations in dementia care practice. We argue that this literature collectively destabilizes dementia as a taken-for-granted category and has generated critical texts on the interrelationship between the body and social and political processes in the production and expression of dementia.

  3. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  4. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  5. [Antimicrobial resistance surveillance: from the bottle plunged into the ocean to a critical evaluation of the methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codiţă, Irina; Serban, Roxana; Canton, Amalia; Pistol, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    . In Romania there are few data on antimicrobial resistance surveillance which could resist to a critical evaluation of representativity, reporting to adequate denominators, stratifying methodologies which would allow to follow trends, comparing data by wards, hospitals, counties, intercomparing data with other countries etc. Contacting the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System in 2001 was an initial modality to decrease the huge gap existing by that time, but could not remain the unique solution to develop in this direction. On the other hand, participating in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System is enforcing the involvement of all implicated professional categories, improving logistic and interdisciplinary collaboration, in order to set up a systematic surveillance. We are supporting the initiative of a critical evaluation of the existing situation, as of setting up a surveillance strategy in accordance with the targetted goals, starting from the recent recommendations of WHO and ESCMID Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Study Group. This initiative could contribute, together with the participation in the European antimicrobial resistance surveillance program, to the efficient turning account of the resources and uncoordinated and sometimes redundant efforts of different working groups including prestigious microbiology, infectious diseases and epidemiology specialists.

  6. The results of gynecologic surveillance in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Mosgaard, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to estimate the incidence rate of endometrial cancer (EC) and to evaluate the results of EC-surveillance in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families. Methods. All at-risk women recommended for EC-surveillance by the HNPCC-register-2959 women (19,334 women years......)-positive and AMS-like families (median age 64 (55-73) years, IR = 0.06 and 0.05 per 100 women years, respectively, p prevalent cancers, diagnosed at the first visit-and 6/13 based on symptoms....... In addition, five complex atypical hyperplasias and four ovarian cancers (OCs) were diagnosed. All these women were MMR mutation carriers. Conclusion. Based on 19,334 women years of EC-surveillance, our analysis provides a thorough estimation of the EC risk in women with an MMR mutation, or suspected...

  7. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  8. Critical Multitype Branching Systems: Extinction Results

    CERN Document Server

    Kevei, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We consider a critical branching particle system in $\\R^d$, composed of individuals of a finite number of types $i\\in\\{1,...,K\\}$. Each individual of type $i$ moves independently according to a symmetric $\\alpha_i$-stable motion. We assume that the particle lifetimes and offspring distributions are type-dependent. Under the usual independence assumptions in branching systems, we prove extinction theorems in the following cases: (1) all the particle lifetimes have finite mean, or (2) there is a type whose lifetime distribution has heavy tail, and the other lifetimes have finite mean. We get a more complex dynamics by assuming in case (2) that the most mobile particle type corresponds to a finite-mean lifetime: in this case, local extinction of the population is determined by an interaction of the parameters (offspring variability, mobility, longevity) of the long-living type and those of the most mobile type. The proofs are based on a precise analysis of the occupation times of a related Markov renewal process...

  9. Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) for Space Surveillance: Results and Simulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Poore, A.; Sheaff, C.; Aristoff, J.; Jah, M.

    2013-09-01

    With the anticipated installation of more accurate sensors and the increased probability of future collisions between space objects, the potential number of observable space objects is likely to increase by an order of magnitude within the next decade, thereby placing an ever-increasing burden on current operational systems. Moreover, the need to track closely-spaced objects due, for example, to breakups as illustrated by the recent Chinese ASAT test or the Iridium-Kosmos collision, requires new, robust, and autonomous methods for space surveillance to enable the development and maintenance of the present and future space catalog and to support the overall space surveillance mission. The problem of correctly associating a stream of uncorrelated tracks (UCTs) and uncorrelated optical observations (UCOs) into common objects is critical to mitigating the number of UCTs and is a prerequisite to subsequent space catalog maintenance. Presently, such association operations are mainly performed using non-statistical simple fixed-gate association logic. In this paper, we report on the salient features and the performance of a newly-developed statistically-robust system-level multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) system for advanced space surveillance. The multiple-frame assignment (MFA) formulation of MHT, together with supporting astrodynamics algorithms, provides a new joint capability for space catalog maintenance, UCT/UCO resolution, and initial orbit determination. The MFA-MHT framework incorporates multiple hypotheses for report to system track data association and uses a multi-arc construction to accommodate recently developed algorithms for multiple hypothesis filtering (e.g., AEGIS, CAR-MHF, UMAP, and MMAE). This MHT framework allows us to evaluate the benefits of many different algorithms ranging from single- and multiple-frame data association to filtering and uncertainty quantification. In this paper, it will be shown that the MHT system can provide superior

  10. Injuries in community-level Australian football: Results from a club-based injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Donaldson, Alex; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-11-01

    Far fewer injury surveillance systems exist within community sport than elite sport. As a result, most epidemiological data on sports injuries have limited relevance to community-level sporting populations. There is potential for data from community club-based injury surveillance systems to provide a better understanding of community sports injuries. This study aimed to describe the incidence and profile of community-level Australian football injuries reported using a club-based injury surveillance system. Prospective, epidemiological study. Sports trainers from five community-level Australian football leagues recorded injury data during two football seasons using the club-based system. An online surveillance tool developed by Sports Medicine Australia ('Sports Injury Tracker') was used for data collection. The injury incidence, profile and match injury rate were reported. Injury data for 1205 players were recorded in season one and for 823 players in season two. There was significant variability in injury incidence across clubs. However, aggregated data were consistent across football seasons, with an average of 0.7 injuries per player per season and 38-39 match injuries per 1000 h match exposure. A large proportion of injuries occurred during matches, involved the lower limb and resulted from contact. Data from the club-based system provided a profile of injuries consistent with previous studies in community-level Australian football. Moreover, injury incidence was consistent with other studies using similar personnel to record data. However, injury incidence was lower than that reported in studies using player self-report or healthcare professionals and may be an underestimate of true values. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term results of adjuvant irradiation or surveillance in stage I testicular seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Tsuneharu; Nonomura, Norio [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Saiki, Shigeru; Kotake, Toshihiko

    1998-07-01

    Excellent treatment results are obtained for stage I testicular seminoma treated with orchiectomy and prophylactic radiotherapy. In patients with stage I nonseminomatous testicular tumors, surveillance alone is successful, however, this treatment option for stage I testicular seminomas is controversial. There have been few reports of long-term follow-up of surveillance alone for patients with stage I testicular seminoma. To assess the appropriateness of this treatment option, a retrospective survey of stage I testicular seminoma was undertaken. Twenty-seven patients who underwent prophylactic radiation therapy (RT group) and 41 patients followed only by surveillance (S group) after high orchiectomy were evaluated. Their follow-up consisted of frequent clinical examinations, abdominal CT scans, chest x-rays and serum tumor markers. In the RT group, with a median follow-up period of 15 years, 1 patient (3.6%) had a recurrence in the lung at 4 months after orchiectomy and died, but the remaining 26 are alive with no evidence of disease (NED). In the S group, with a median follow-up period of 7.3 years, 5 (12.2%) relapsed in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, but all are alive with NED following chemotherapy. The remaining 36 are all alive without recurrence (follow-up period, 38 to 132 months). Although the relapse rate in the S group was relatively higher than in the RT group, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. If a frequent follow-up protocol is administered and followed by the patient, surveillance alone may be a recommended management for stage I testicular seminoma. (author)

  12. [Evaluation of the test results on hepatitis B pilot surveillance labortory in 9 provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-zhen; Cui, Fu-qiang; Gong, Xiao-hong

    2010-06-01

    To assess the test quality of HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HAV IgM in the laboratories of Hepatitis B pilot surveillance provinces. Blood serum from each of the Hepatitis B pilot surveillance provinces were collected to verify the test results. The Chemiluminescence Microparticle Immuno Assay (CMIA), ARCHITECT i2000 automatic light detector and test reagents produced by U.S.A. Abbott corporation were used in the retest. Using the Abbott reagent CMIA test results as the criteria, the domestic made ELISA reagents sensitivity, specificity, the total coincidence rate and Yoden index of HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HAV IgM were evaluated in Hepatitis B pilot surveillance provinces. In the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) reported Hepatitis B cases, the proportion of detecting HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM was 98.53% and 39.49% respectively. Through the verification test to the reported cases in Hepatitis B pilot surveillance provinces, the original and veritication diagnosis 01 the reported eases was quite different. Among 197 acute Hepatitis B reported cases, 56 cases were agreeable with diagnosis cretirea, accounting for 28.42%. Among 1046 chronic Hepatitis B reported cases, the verification diagnosis of 602 cases was consistent with the original diagnosis, accounting for 57.55%. By using Abbott reagent and CMIA method to test again, it was found that the verification test results using domesticmade reagent and ELISA assay were low consistency compared with the test results of Abbott reagent CMIA method. The detection result of home-made reagents by ELISA compared with the Abbott reagents CMIA, the sensitivity and the total coincidence rate of HBsAg were over 95%, Kappa value was 0.439, and specificity was only 50.00%. The sensitivity, the total coincidence rate and the specificity of Anti-HBc IgM were moderate level, Kappa value was 0.516. The sensitivity of Anti-HAV IgM were 20%, and the total coincidence and specificity were higher, Kappa value was 0

  13. Hepatitis E virus infection in Brazil: results of laboratory-based surveillance from 1998 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Passos-Castilho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Data on hepatitis E virus (HEV in Brazil are limited. We analyzed 15 years of HEV surveillance data in a major clinical laboratory in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The seroprevalence of HEV of 2,271 patients subjected to anti-HEV tests from 1998 to 2013 were analyzed. RESULTS: HEV seroprevalence was 2.1%, and the anti-HEV IgM positivity rate was 4.9%. Six hepatitis E patients were identified. CONCLUSIONS: HEV seroprevalence and detection rates appear to have increased in recent years. Hepatitis E should be investigated further and included in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis in Brazil.

  14. Hepatitis E virus infection in Brazil: results of laboratory-based surveillance from 1998 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Passos-Castilho; Anne de Sena; Mônica Renata Reinaldo; Celso Francisco Hernandes Granato

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Brazil are limited. We analyzed 15 years of HEV surveillance data in a major clinical laboratory in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The seroprevalence of HEV of 2,271 patients subjected to anti-HEV tests from 1998 to 2013 were analyzed. RESULTS: HEV seroprevalence was 2.1%, and the anti-HEV IgM positivity rate was 4.9%. Six hepatitis E patients were identified. CONCLUSIONS: HEV seroprevalence and detection rates appear to have increased in recent y...

  15. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease and injury in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICT). This paper examines drinking patterns across 20 PICTs. Design and Methods We synthesised published data from the STEPwise approach to surveillance or similar surveys for adults 25–64 years, and from the Global School‐Based Student Health surveys and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) for youth. We examined current and heavy drinking, and for adults also frequency of consumption. Using YRBSS, we studied trends in youth alcohol use in US‐affiliated PICTs between 2001 and 2013. Results Alcohol consumption in adults and youth varied considerably across PICTs. In eight PICT populations, over 60% of male adults were current drinkers. Male adults consumed alcohol more frequently and engaged in heavy drinking more than female adults. Similar gender differences occurred in current and heavy drinking among youth. Across 10 PICTs, current drinking prevalence in males 13–15 years ranged from 10% to over 40%. Declines in alcohol use among grade 9–12 students were observed in YRBSS, although the magnitude differed by island and sex. Discussion and Conclusions Alcohol consumption varies widely between PICTs. There are marked gender differences in use and abstention. There is scope in PICTs for implementation of best practice strategies to reduce alcohol‐related harm. These need to be gender responsive and cognisant of concerning patterns of youth drinking. Strengthening surveillance of alcohol use and its consequences is vital to inform and monitor the impact of national and regional policies. [Kessaram T, McKenzie J, Girin N, Roth A, Vivili P, Williams G, Hoy D. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:412–423] PMID:26358376

  16. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: a critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Elbers, Armin R.W.; Hendrikx, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden...... of the literature aimed at identifying disease surveillance strategies and methods that are currently suggested as best suited to target vector-borne diseases in order to guide future development of surveillance in the countries in question. Passive surveillance was found to be efficient for early detection...... of diseases during the early phase of introduction into a free country. However, its value diminished once the disease has been established in a territory. Detection of emerging diseases was found to be very context and area specific, and thus active surveillance designs need to take the available...

  17. Results of European post-marketing surveillance of bosentan in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, M; Segal, E S; Kiely, D G; Carlsen, J; Schwierin, B; Hoeper, M M

    2007-08-01

    After the approval of bosentan for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), European authorities required the introduction of a post-marketing surveillance system (PMS) to obtain further data on its safety profile. A novel, prospective, internet-based PMS was designed, which solicited reports on elevated aminotransferases, medical reasons for bosentan discontinuation and other serious adverse events requiring hospitalisation. Data captured included demographics, PAH aetiology, baseline functional status and concomitant PAH-specific medications. Safety signals captured included death, hospitalisation, serious adverse events, unexpected adverse events and elevated aminotransferases. Within 30 months, 4,994 patients were included, representing 79% of patients receiving bosentan in Europe. In total, 4,623 patients were naïve to treatment; of these, 352 had elevated aminotransferases, corresponding to a crude incidence of 7.6% and an annual rate of 10.1%. Bosentan was discontinued due to elevated aminotransferases in 150 (3.2%) bosentan-naïve patients. Safety results were consistent across subgroups and aetiologies. The novel post-marketing surveillance captured targeted safety data ("potential safety signals") from the majority of patients and confirmed that the incidence and severity of elevated aminotransferase levels in clinical practice was similar to that reported in clinical trials. These data complement those from randomised controlled clinical trials and provide important additional information on the safety profile of bosentan.

  18. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Results of the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walop Wikke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE is so rare in developed countries with measles immunization programs that national active surveillance is now needed to capture sufficient number of cases for meaningful analysis of data. Through the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP, the SSPE study was able to document a national incidence and determine the epidemiology of affected Canadian children. Methods Between 1997 and 2000, the CPSP surveyed monthly 1978 to 2294 Canadian pediatricians and sub-specialists for SSPE cases. The response rate varied from 82–86% over those years. Results Altogether, four SSPE cases were reported to the CPSP: one case before, two during and one after the study period. The incidence of SSPE in Canadian children was 0.06/million children/year. Of the four cases, diagnosed between ages four and 17 years, three children had measles infection in infancy. All children showed a progressive course of dementia, loss of motor skills and epilepsy. Two children were treated with isoprinosine and intraventricular interferon but died in less than three years from disease onset. One child did not have any treatment and died after seven years of illness. One child received intraventricular ribavirin and remains alive, but markedly impaired, nine years following diagnosis. Conclusion The CPSP has demonstrated that Canadian paediatricians and paediatric neurologists may encounter cases of SSPE. This report highlights the clinical course of affected Canadian children and provides a review of the disease and its management.

  19. A finiteness result for post-critically finite polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We show that the set of complex points in the moduli space of polynomials of degree d corresponding to post-critically finite polynomials is a set of algebraic points of bounded height. It follows that for any B, the set of conjugacy classes of post-critically finite polynomials of degree d with coefficients of algebraic degree at most B is a finite and effectively computable set. In the case d=3 and B=1 we perform this computation. The proof of the main result comes down to finding a relation between the "naive" height on the moduli space, and Silverman's critical height.

  20. Harmonising the virological surveillance of influenza in Europe: results of an 18-country survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerhoff, T.J.; Paget, W.J.; Aguilera, J.F.; Velden, J. van der

    2004-01-01

    The European influenza surveillance scheme (EISS) is based on a surveillance model that combines clinical and virological data in the general population. Eighteen countries in Europe report weekly influenza activity to EISS (http://www.eiss.org). A questionnaire on the virological data collection wa

  1. Hepatitis E virus infection in Brazil: results of laboratory-based surveillance from 1998 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Passos-Castilho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:Data on hepatitis E virus (HEV in Brazil are limited. We analyzed 15 years of HEV surveillance data in a major clinical laboratory in São Paulo, Brazil.METHODS:The seroprevalence of HEV of 2,271 patients subjected to anti-HEV tests from 1998 to 2013 were analyzed.RESULTS:HEV seroprevalence was 2.1%, and the anti-HEV IgM positivity rate was 4.9%. Six hepatitis E patients were identified.CONCLUSIONS:HEV seroprevalence and detection rates appear to have increased in recent years. Hepatitis E should be investigated further and included in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis in Brazil.

  2. The Reality in the Surveillance of Breast Cancer Survivors—Results of a Patient Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stemmler Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: International guidelines for the surveillance of breast cancer patients recommend a minimized clinical follow-up including routine history and physical examination and regularly scheduled mammograms. However, the abandonment of scheduled follow-up examinations in breast cancer survivors remains a contradiction to established follow-up guidelines for other solid tumours.Patients and Methods: We report the patients’ view on the basis of a survey performed in two separate geographical areas in Germany. The questionnaires were sent out to 2.658 patients with a history of breast cancer.Results: A total of 801 patients (30.1% responded to the questionnaire. The results of the survey can be summarized in two major categories: First, necessity for surveillance was affi rmed by a majority (>95%, and 47.8% of the organized patients answered that there was a need for more intensive diagnostic effort during follow-up. The main expectation from an intensified follow-up was the increased feeling of security as expressed by >80% of the women. Second, the present survey indicates that most of the regularly scheduled follow-up visits were expanded using extensive laboratory and imaging procedures exceeding the quantity of examinations recommended in the present follow-up guidelines.Conclusion: Despite the fact that only one third of the patients responded to the questionnaire, the survey indicates that a majority of physicians who treated these patients still do not accept the present follow-up guidelines. To some extent this may be explained by the observation that patients and possibly also their doctors trust that intensified follow-up increases diagnostic security and survival. Since considerable changes in the treatment options of breast cancer have been made during the last decades a new trial of investigations in follow-up is warranted.

  3. Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease: potential roles of birth defects surveillance programs--United States, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    In September 2011, the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) approved the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (SACHDNC) 2010 recommendation that all newborns be screened for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) using pulse oximetry, a noninvasive test of blood oxygenation, to prevent mortality and morbidity. CDC partnered with the National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) to conduct a survey designed to assess state birth defect surveillance programs' potential roles, capabilities, and readiness to assist with newborn screening activities for CCHD. States were surveyed in November 2010, after the initial SACHDNC recommendation, and again in November 2011, after the Secretary's approval. From 2010 to 2011, the number of birth defects surveillance programs involved in CCHD screening increased from one to 10. Barriers exist, such as the lack of legislative authority, staffing, funding, and informatics infrastructure. Sixty-seven percent of programs take an average of more than 12 months to collect complete data on birth defect cases, including congenital heart defects. An assessment of state birth defects programs' existing data and capability to lead the evaluation of screening for CCHD is warranted.

  4. Impact of postdischarge surveillance on surgical site infection rates for several surgical procedures: results from the nosocomial surveillance network in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniën, Judith; Wille, Jan C; Snoeren, Ruud L M M; Hof, Susan van den

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the number of surgical site infections (SSIs) registered after hospital discharge with respect to various surgical procedures and to identify the procedures for which postdischarge surveillance (PDS) is most important. DESIGN: Prospective SSI surveillance with voluntary PDS.

  5. Cancer Incidence - Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registries Limited-Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SEER Limited-Use cancer incidence data with associated population data. Geographic areas available are county and SEER registry. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and...

  6. Results of the epidemiological surveillance of diabetes mellitus in hospitals in Peru, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Willy; Grupo Temático de Vigilancia de las Enfermedades no Transmisibles, Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico cirujano, magister en Epidemiología; López, Tania; Grupo Temático de Vigilancia de las Enfermedades no Transmisibles, Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico salubrista.; Revilla, Luis; Grupo Temático de Vigilancia de las Enfermedades no Transmisibles, Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico epidemiólogo.; More, Luis; Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital Nacional Santa Rosa. Lima, Perú. especialista en Endocrinología.; Huamaní, María; Oficina de Epidemiología y Salud Ambiental, Hospital Nacional Santa Rosa. Lima, Perú. licenciada en Enfermería.; Pozo, Milagros; Unidad de Epidemiología y Salud Ambiental, Hospital General de Huacho. Huacho, Perú. médico salubrista.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the findings of a year of epidemiological surveillance in pilot hospitals in Peru belonging to the diabetes surveillance (DS) system. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study involving diabetic patients in the DS system from 18 hospitals during 2012. The DS database was assessed and epidemiological and laboratory variables were obtained including age, sex, type of diabetes, complications, comorbidity, microalbuminuria, fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglo...

  7. Akt signaling is critical for memory CD8(+) T-cell development and tumor immune surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel, Anne; Willoughby, Jane E; Buchan, Sarah L; Leonard, Henry J; Thirdborough, Stephen M; Al-Shamkhani, Aymen

    2017-02-14

    Memory CD8(+) T cells confer long-term immunity against tumors, and anticancer vaccines therefore should maximize their generation. Multiple memory CD8(+) T-cell subsets with distinct functional and homing characteristics exist, but the signaling pathways that regulate their development are ill defined. Here we examined the role of the serine/threonine kinase Akt in the generation of protective immunity by CD8(+) T cells. Akt is known to be activated by the T-cell antigen receptor and the cytokine IL-2, but its role in T-cell immunity in vivo has not been explored. Using CD8(+) T cells from pdk1(K465E/K465E) knockin mice, we found that decreased Akt activity inhibited the survival of T cells during the effector-to-memory cell transition and abolished their differentiation into C-X-C chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3)(lo)CD43(lo) effector-like memory cells. Consequently, antitumor immunity by CD8(+) T cells that display defective Akt signaling was substantially diminished during the memory phase. Reduced memory T-cell survival and altered memory cell differentiation were associated with up-regulation of the proapoptotic protein Bim and the T-box transcription factor eomesodermin, respectively. These findings suggest an important role for effector-like memory CD8(+) T cells in tumor immune surveillance and identify Akt as a key signaling node in the development of protective memory CD8(+) T-cell responses.

  8. Results of the influenza virus surveillance in wild birds in Western part of Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marchenko V Yu; Otgonbaatar D; Shestopalov AM; Alekseev A Yu; Tserennorov D; Yurlov AK; Susloparov IM; Sharshov KA; Ilyinykh FA; Zolotykh SI; Abmed D

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present results of virological study of wild birds inhabiting Western Mongolia. Methods: Over a period of 2003-2008, we isolated 13 influenza A viruses: H1N1, H3N6, H13N8 and H4N6 subtypes. We did not isolate any H5N1 subtype, that still cause epizooty in wild birds and poultry.Results: We revealed taxonomic and ecological heterogeneity of the birds involved in maintenance of circulation of influenza viruses in the given territory. Influenza viruses were isolated from birds of 6 orders; among them there are species preferring water and semi-aquatic biotopes, one species preferring dry plain region, and also one species which can inhabit both dry and water biotopes.Conclusions: Representatives of all main orders of Western Mongolia avifauna are involved in support of influenza A virus circulation, highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses were registered in Mongolia thus it's necessary to continue permanent influenza virus surveillance in wild birds' populations.

  9. A Critical Assessment of Officially Reported Chagas Disease Surveillance Data in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Ellen M; Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Ernst, Kacey C; Sterling, Charles R; Brown, Heidi E

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease, a disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, disproportionately affects poor people throughout Latin America. In Mexico, assessments of officially reported burden have not been previously reported. To evaluate discontinuity between surveillance data and data from other sources, we used data from the Mexican Ministry of Health to describe the distribution of reported Chagas disease over time in Mexico and compare it with estimates from the literature. We summarized age and sex differences for Chagas cases and mortality for 1995-2013 and 1982-2010, respectively. We examined the spatial distribution of Chagas disease over time with respect to disease burden. We further compared officially reported figures with estimates from the literature. Among 6,494 officially reported cases, rates of Chagas disease were highest in adults aged 25-44 years (47.3%). Mortality was highest in adults aged ≥45 years (423/495, 85.5%). The data indicated increasing temporal trends for incidence and mortality. The greatest burden occurred in southern states, with increasing spatial distribution over time. Fewer than 900 cases and 40 deaths were officially reported annually, in contrast to estimates from the literature of approximately 69,000 new cases and 25,000 deaths annually. While increasing trends in officially reported data have been observed, large discrepancies in case estimates compromise our understanding of Chagas disease epidemiology. Reported cases based on current practices are not enough to correctly assess the Chagas disease burden and spatial distribution in Mexico. Understanding the true epidemiology of this disease will lead to more focused and successful control and prevention strategies to decrease disease burden.

  10. Postmarketing surveillance of new food ingredients: results from the program with the fat replacer olestra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, G S; Kuter, D J; Roll, K T; Taylor, S L; Zorich, N L

    2001-04-01

    Market introduction of savory snacks containing olestra offered an opportunity to evaluate the safety of olestra in a free-living population and thereby compare the outcome to the previously established safety profile determined in clinical trials in which subjects were required to eat predetermined amounts at prescribed intervals. Therefore, a multifaceted postmarketing surveillance program was designed to evaluate consumer experience and safety of olestra in the marketplace. Customer comments were solicited through toll-free telephone numbers. Collected data were evaluated by both internal and external medical experts. About 10% of toll-free telephone calls reported health effects, most of which were gastrointestinal (GI) in nature. Clinical studies were designed and conducted to determine potential GI effects under the range of consumption patterns reported by toll-free calls. Health effects reported were those found commonly in the general population and analyses of the data found no biological reason to conclude that serious or meaningful health effects were the result of olestra consumption.

  11. Standard Practice for Analysis and Interpretation of Light-Water Reactor Surveillance Results, E706(IA)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the methodology, summarized in Annex A1, to be used in the analysis and interpretation of neutron exposure data obtained from LWR pressure vessel surveillance programs; and, based on the results of that analysis, establishes a formalism to be used to evaluate present and future condition of the pressure vessel and its support structures (1-70). 1.2 This practice relies on, and ties together, the application of several supporting ASTM standard practices, guides, and methods (see Master Matrix E 706) (1, 5, 13, 48, 49). In order to make this practice at least partially self-contained, a moderate amount of discussion is provided in areas relating to ASTM and other documents. Support subject areas that are discussed include reactor physics calculations, dosimeter selection and analysis, and exposure units. Note 1—(Figure 1 is deleted in the latest update. The user is refered to Master Matrix E 706 for the latest figure of the standards interconnectivity). 1.3 This practice is restri...

  12. Networking dual-surveillance/dual-pair-tele-paths for critical urban areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsu; Li-Yen

    2008-01-01

    Providing a reliable and efficient communication infrastructure for critical regions is generally a strategy used to enhance regional safety or to sustain regional development. For such purposes, the spider-web network is prototyped as a cellular telecommunication infrastructure for its advantages including being interference-free, possessing fault-tolerance, having security management, and countering radio's multipath effects. Besides, it is used to develop area-based-street-SCADA (supervisory control and ...

  13. FY2005 AND FY2006 CORROSION SURVEILLANCE RESULTS FOR L BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C

    2008-01-30

    This report documents the results of the L-Basin Corrosion Surveillance Program for the fiscal years 2005 and 2006. The water quality and basin conditions for the coupon immersion period are compared to the corrosion evaluation results from detailed metallurgical analysis of the coupons. Test coupons were removed from the basin on two occasions, March 29, 2005 and May 23, 2006, examined and photographed. Selected coupons were metallurgically characterized to evaluate the extent of general corrosion and pitting. Crystallographic and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis were performed on a typical specimen, as-removed from the basin, to characterize the surface debris. Marked changes were noted in both the 2005 and 2006 specimens compared to previous years corrosion results. A new pitting incidence has occurred on the faces of the aluminum coupons compared to localized pitting at crevice regions only on specimens withdrawn in 2003 and 2004. The pitting incidence is attributed to sand filter fines that entered the basin on July 27, 2004 from an inadvertent backflush of the new sand filter. Pitting rate results show a trend of slowing down over time which is consistent with aluminum pit kinetics. Average pit growth rates were equal to or lower in all 2006 aluminum coupons than those removed in 2005. A trend line shows that pitting corrosion rates on Al1100, 6061, and 6063 coupons are slowing down since pit depth measurements were initiated in 2003. No impact to stored spent fuel is expected from the debris. The storage configuration of the majority of L-Basin spent fuel, in bundles, should provide a measure of isolation from debris settling in the basin.

  14. Regional Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Among Critically Ill Children in a State With Mandated Active Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Rosie D; Trick, William E; Hayden, Mary K; Lolans, Karen; Fogg, Louis; Logan, Latania K; Shulman, Stanford T; Weinstein, Robert A; Lin, Michael Y

    2016-12-01

    In theory, active surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) reduces MRSA spread by identifying all MRSA-colonized patients and placing them under contact precautions. In October 2007, Illinois mandated active MRSA surveillance in all intensive care units, including neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). We evaluated MRSA trends in a large metropolitan region in the wake of this law. Chicago hospitals with a NICU or PICU were recruited for 8 single-day point prevalence surveys that occurred twice-yearly between June 2008 and July 2011 and then yearly in 2012 to 2013. Samples from all patients were cultured for MRSA (nose and umbilicus for neonates, nose and groin for pediatric patients). Hospital-reported admission MRSA-screening results also were obtained. Point prevalence cultures were screened for MRSA by using broth enrichment, chromogenic agar, and standard confirmatory methods. All eligible hospitals (N = 10) participated (10 NICUs, 6 PICUs). Hospital-reported adherence to state-mandated MRSA screening at admission was high (95% for NICUs, 94% for PICUs). From serial point prevalence surveys, overall MRSA prevalences in the NICUs and PICUs were 4.2% (89 of 2101) and 5.7% (36 of 632), respectively. MRSA colonization prevalences were unchanged in the NICUs (year-over-year risk ratio [RR], 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-1.12]; P = .45) and trended toward an increase in the PICUs (RR, 1.25 [95% CI, 0.72-2.12]; P = .053). We estimated that 81% and 40% of MRSA-positive patients in the NICUs and PICUs, respectively, had newly acquired MRSA. In a region with mandated active MRSA surveillance, we found ongoing unchanged rates of MRSA colonization and acquisition among NICU and PICU patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [Influenza surveillance in nine consecutive seasons, 2003-2012: results from National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty Of Medicine, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay Ciblak, Meral; Kanturvardar Tütenyurd, Melis; Asar, Serkan; Tulunoğlu, Merve; Fındıkçı, Nurcihan; Badur, Selim

    2012-10-01

    Influenza is a public health problem that affects 5-20% of the world population annually causing high morbidity and mortality especially in risk groups. In addition to determining prevention and treatment strategies with vaccines and antivirals, surveillance data plays an important role in combat against influenza. Surveillance provides valuable data on characteristics of influenza activity, on types, sub-types, antigenic properties and antiviral resistance profile of circulating viruses in a given region. The first influenza surveillance was initiated as a pilot study in 2003 by now named National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine. Surveillance was launched at national level by Ministry of Health in 2004 and two National Influenza Laboratories, one in Istanbul and the other in Ankara, have been conducting surveillance in Turkey. Surveillance data obtained for nine consecutive years, 2003-2012, by National Influenza Reference Laboratory in Istanbul Faculty of Medicine have been summarized in this report. During 2003-2012 influenza surveillance seasons, a total of 11.077 nasal swabs collected in viral transport medium were sent to the National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul for analysis. Immun-capture ELISA followed by MDCK cell culture was used for detection of influenza viruses before 2009 and real-time RT-PCR was used thereafter. Antigenic characterizations were done by hemagglutination inhibition assay with the reactives supplied by World Health Organization. Analysis of the results showed that influenza B viruses have entered the circulation in 2005-2006 seasons, and have contributed to the epidemics at increasing rates every year except in the 2009 pandemic season. Influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages were cocirculating for two seasons. For other seasons either lineage was in circulation. Antigenic characterization revealed that circulating B viruses matched the vaccine composition either partially or totally for only

  16. PNNL Results from 2010 CALIBAN Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2011-10-28

    This document reports the results of the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) and fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on September 20-23, 2010. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique (CEA) Valduc Center near Dijon, France on September 20-23, 2010. The intercomparison exercise was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as the lead Laboratory. PNNL was one of six invited DOE Laboratory participants. The other participating Laboratories were: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 National Security Complex at Oak Ridge, and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The goals of PNNL's participation in the intercomparison exercise were to test and validate the procedures and algorithm currently used for the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeters (PNADs) on the metallic reactor, CALIBAN, to test exposures to PNADs from the side and from behind a phantom, and to test PNADs that were taken from a historical batch of Hanford PNADs that had varying degrees of degradation of the bare indium foil. Similar testing of the PNADs was done on the Valduc SILENE test reactor in 2009 (Hill and Conrady, 2010). The CALIBAN results are reported here.

  17. Health behaviour surveillance of Health Sciences students in Northern Germany: Design and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tobisch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHealth of students have most often been neglected in recent studies, although students face a transition of life during their studies which has strong implications on health.  During that time, universities play a key role as a setting where future professionals develop independence and learn skills possibly affecting their development and health. Nevertheless, less in known about this group in society and consequently, the aim of this research project was to monitor health of Health Sciences students through a long-term health surveillance system.MethodsSince 2014, an almost complete convenience sample of Health Sciences students is surveyed twice a year at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. A paper-pencil questionnaire, which includes questions about socio-demographics, well-being, health-promoting and health-risk behaviours, is administered during courses.ResultsOur first surveys achieved response rates of more than 97%. Up to 83% of enrolled students were reached. Undergraduate Health Sciences students reported health-risk behaviours, e.g. binge-drinking on 1 to 2 days (33.9%, regular cannabis use (4.2%, regular cognitive-enhancement (4.0%. Moreover, unhealthy diet was prevalent but almost all students were physically active.ConclusionsA short paper-pencil questionnaire administered during courses and conducted according to standardized processes provides complete data on students’ health with little effort. Trends can be determined, which assist in making decision whether to take action in prevention and/or to evaluate campaigns. These first results show the need for a more targeted health promotion action for students.

  18. Results of a market surveillance study in The Netherlands on break-mark tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, D.M.; Groot, D.W.; van der Steen, J.C.; de Kaste, D.; Frijlink, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    A representative market surveillance study on break-mark tablets for human use, having a marketing authorization (MA) in The Netherlands (NL), was carried out. The uniformity of mass of subdivided break-mark tablets into halves was assessed according to Ph.Eur.5.5, now current; and for comparison al

  19. Sexual orientation and sexual behavior: results from the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Susan M; Rothman, Emily F; Zhang, Zi

    2007-01-01

    Few population-based surveys in the United States include sexual orientation as a demographic variable. As a result, estimating the proportion of the U.S. population that is gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) is a substantial challenge. Prior estimates vary widely, from 1-21%. In 2001, questions on sexual orientation and sexual behavior were added to the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (MA BRFSS) and have been asked continually since that time. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adults in Massachusetts identifying as GLB and providing a demographic description of this group. The study also examined the correlation of reported sexual behavior and sexual identity within this group. Overall, 1.9% of Massachusetts adults identified as gay or lesbian and 1.0% of Massachusetts adults identified as bisexual. Of those identifying as gay or lesbian, 95.4% reported sexual behavior concordant with this identification, and 99.4% of respondents identifying as heterosexual reported behavior concordant with heterosexual sexual orientation. Among those reporting a GLB sexual orientation, men were more likely than women to identify as gay, and women were more likely than men to identify as bisexual. Younger adults (18-25 years old) were more likely than people in other age groups to identify as bisexual. Respondents with 4 or more years of education were more likely to identify as gay or lesbian than those in all other education categories. The addition of sexual orientation to population-based surveys will allow for research on the health of GLB adults and provide critical information for those charged with the creation of public policy regarding sexual orientation.

  20. Management of Male Breast Cancer in the United States: A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Emma C., E-mail: emma.fields@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); DeWitt, Peter [Colorado Biostatistics Consortium, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Fisher, Christine M.; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To analyze the stage-specific management of male breast cancer (MBC) with surgery and radiation therapy (RT) and relate them to outcomes and to female breast cancer (FBC). Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for all primary invasive MBC and FBC diagnosed from 1973 to 2008. Analyzable data included age, race, registry, grade, stage, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, type of surgery, and use of RT. Stage was defined as localized (LocD): confined to the breast; regional (RegD): involving skin, chest wall, and/or regional lymph nodes; and distant: M1. The primary endpoint was cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: A total of 4276 cases of MBC and 718,587 cases of FBC were identified. Male breast cancer constituted 0.6% of all breast cancer. Comparing MBC with FBC, mastectomy (M) was used in 87.4% versus 38.3%, and breast-conserving surgery in 12.6% versus 52.6% (P<10{sup −4}). For males with LocD, CSS was not significantly different for the 4.6% treated with lumpectomy/RT versus the 70% treated with M alone (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-3.61; P=.57). Postmastectomy RT was delivered in 33% of males with RegD and was not associated with an improvement in CSS (HR 1.11; 95% CI 0.88-1.41; P=.37). There was a significant increase in the use of postmastectomy RT in MBC over time: 24.3%, 27.2%, and 36.8% for 1973-1987, 1988-1997, and 1998-2008, respectively (P<.0001). Cause-specific survival for MBC has improved: the largest significant change was identified for men diagnosed in 1998-2008 compared with 1973-1987 (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.60-0.88; P=.0004). Conclusions: Surgical management of MBC is dramatically different than for FBC. The majority of males with LocD receive M despite equivalent CSS with lumpectomy/RT. Postmastectomy RT is greatly underutilized in MBC with RegD, although a CSS benefit was not demonstrated. Outcomes for MBC are improving, attributable to improved

  1. Latex allergy symptoms among health care workers: results from a university health and safety surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, Carol; Duncan, Jacqueline; Archibong, Emma; Østbye, Truls; Pompeii, Lisa A; Dement, John

    2011-01-01

    We sought to describe risk factors for latex glove allergy symptoms among health care workers by combining data from an active clinical surveillance program and a comprehensive occupational health surveillance system. A total of 4,584 employers completed a latex allergy questionnaire. Six percent (n = 276) of subjects reported symptoms consistent with latex allergy. Years of latex glove use was a significant risk factor for latex allergy symptoms even after controlling for the effects of atopy, gender, age, race, fruit, and other allergies. Nurses, medical or lab technicians, physician's assistants, other clinical professionals, and housekeepers had the highest prevalence of latex glove allergy symptoms. Forty subjects (0.87%) who were confirmed as having latex sensitization. Sensitizsation may have been underestimated due to use of specific IgE antibody, less sensitive than skin-prick testing, and tiered design leading to laboratory assessment on a subset of the cohort. This surveillance program identified risk factors for latex allergy symptoms. Our findings provide a basis for tailoring future prevention strategies.

  2. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  3. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  4. Levodopa therapy with entacapone in daily clinical practice: results of a post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupsch, Andreas; Trottenberg, Thomas; Bremen, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor entacapone is given in combination with levodopa/dopa decarboxylase inhibitor for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experiencing end-of-dose wearing-off. This 4-week post-marketing surveillance study was undertaken to assess patients' responses to levodopa combined with entacapone in a real clinical practice setting. Overall, 466 patients with idiopathic PD treated with levodopa and experiencing symptoms of wearing-off were recruited. Both physicians and patients recorded the response to therapy, including improvements and side-effects. Following initiation of entacapone treatment, the average daily levodopa dose was reduced from 510 to 453 mg. Physician assessment of entacapone efficacy was judged to be "very good" or "good" in 77.6% of the patients, and tolerability was considered to be "very good" or "good" in 92.4% of patients, with only 12 patients (2.6%) withdrawing from the study. Compared with baseline, there was a decrease in the mean duration of daily 'off' time from 3.0 to 1.3 h per day during the treatment period. Adverse events were in line with those previously reported, with diarrhoea being the most frequent event. The percentage of patients suffering from dyskinesia decreased from 46 to 34%, and of those patients still suffering from dyskinesia, the average daily duration of dyskinesia was reduced from 2.2 to 1.7 h. The use of adjunct dopamine agonists decreased from 67 to 59%. At study end, the percentage of patients who rated their quality of life (QoL) as "very good" or "good" increased from 12.1 to 51.7% and the percentage of patients who rated their QoL as "bad" or "very bad" decreased from 40 to 10.7%. In summary, the results of this survey conducted in real clinical practice support the findings of previous clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy and tolerability of entacapone, as well as the benefits of improved QoL, for patients achieved with entacapone.

  5. Common cold symptoms in children: results of an Internet-based surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troullos, Emanuel; Baird, Lisa; Jayawardena, Shyamalie

    2014-06-19

    Conducting and analyzing clinical studies of cough and cold medications is challenging due to the rapid onset and short duration of the symptoms. The use of Internet-based surveillance tools is a new approach in clinical studies that is gradually becoming popular and may become a useful method of recruitment. As part of an initiative to assess the safety and efficacy of cough and cold ingredients in children 6-11 years of age, a surveillance program was proposed as a means to identify and recruit pediatric subjects for clinical studies. The objective of the study was to develop an Internet-based surveillance system and to assess the feasibility of using such a system to recruit children for common cold clinical studies, record the natural history of their cold symptoms, and determine the willingness of parents to have their children participate in clinical studies. Healthy potential subjects were recruited via parental contact online. During the 6-week surveillance period, parents completed daily surveys to record details of any cold symptoms in their children. If a child developed a cold, symptoms were followed via survey for 10 days. Additional questions evaluated the willingness of parents to have their children participate in a clinical study shortly after onset of symptoms. The enrollment target of 248 children was reached in approximately 1 week. Children from 4 distinct geographic regions of the United States were recruited. Parents reported cold symptoms in 163 children, and 134 went on to develop colds. The most prevalent symptoms were runny nose, stuffed-up nose, and sneezing. The most severe symptoms were runny nose, stuffed-up nose, and sore/scratchy throat. The severity of most symptoms peaked 1-2 days after onset. Up to 54% of parents expressed willingness to bring a sick child to a clinical center shortly after the onset of symptoms. Parents found the Internet-based surveys easy to complete. Internet-based surveillance and recruitment can be useful

  6. [Long term results after invasive treatment of critical limb ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsa, Zoltán; Kuti, Ferenc; Berta, Balázs; Tóth, Károly; Bánsághi, Zoltán; Vámosi, Zoltán; Hüttl, Kálmán

    2017-03-01

    Surgical tibial bypass for critical limb ischemia is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and graft failure, whereas percutaneous angioplasty and stenting has promising results. The objective of this study was the investigation of the long term results of below-knee percutaneous angioplasty for restoring straight inline arterial flow in patients with critical limb ischemia. The clinical and angiographic data of 281 consecutive patients with critical limb ischemia treated by PTA between 2008 and 2011 was evaluated in a prospective register. The aim of the revascularization was to achieve a straight inline flow to the wound with balloon angioplasty. Stent implantation was done in the case of recoil and flow limiting dissection. Primary end points were clinical success (relief of resting pain, healing of ulceration, limb survival) and major adverse events (death, myocardial infarction, major unplanned amputation, need for surgical revascularization, or major bleeding). Secondary end points were the angiographic result of the intervention, procedural data and consumption of angioplasty equipment. The impact of diabetic leg syndrome and the result of the angioplasty on the limb salvage was also investigated. We have analysed the impact of major amputation on long term mortality. Mean age of patients was 72.5 ± 10.6 years and the follow-up period was 40.8 ± 9.7 months. Technical success was reached in 255 (90.7%) of the patient's: 255 limbs straight inline flow with good angiographic result was restored to at least one tibial vessel. Balloon angioplasty, stent implantation and rotational atherectomy was performed in 278 (98.9%), 74 (26.3%) and 2 patients (0.7%). From clinical end points the rest pain was ceased in 56.6%, the ulcer and the gangrena was healed in 73.5% and 46.5%. The long term limb survival was 73.5%; 65.8% in diabetic and 89.6% in non-diabetic leg syndrome (p = 0.001). The major adverse events at long-term follow-up occured in 122 (43

  7. Changes to Irradiation Conditions of VVER-1000 Surveillance Specimens Resulting from Fuel Assemblies with Greater Fuel Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panferov Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the work was to obtain experimental data on the influence of newtype fuel assemblies with higher fuel rods on the irradiation conditions of surveillance specimens installed on the baffe of VVER-1000. For this purpose, two surveillance sets with container assemblies of the same design irradiated in reactors with different fuel assemblies in the core were investigated. Measurements of neutron dosimeters from these sets and retrospective measurements of 54Mn activity accumulated in each irradiated specimen allow a detailed distribution of the fast neutron flux in the containers to be obtained. Neutron calculations have been done using 3D discrete ordinate code KATRIN. On the basis of the obtained results, a change of the lead factor due to newtype fuel assemblies was evaluated for all types of VVER-1000 container assemblies.

  8. Changes to Irradiation Conditions of VVER-1000 Surveillance Specimens Resulting from Fuel Assemblies with Greater Fuel Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panferov, Pavel; Kochkin, Viacheslav; Erak, Dmitry; Makhotin, Denis; Reshetnikov, Alexandr; Timofeev, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the work was to obtain experimental data on the influence of newtype fuel assemblies with higher fuel rods on the irradiation conditions of surveillance specimens installed on the baffe of VVER-1000. For this purpose, two surveillance sets with container assemblies of the same design irradiated in reactors with different fuel assemblies in the core were investigated. Measurements of neutron dosimeters from these sets and retrospective measurements of 54Mn activity accumulated in each irradiated specimen allow a detailed distribution of the fast neutron flux in the containers to be obtained. Neutron calculations have been done using 3D discrete ordinate code KATRIN. On the basis of the obtained results, a change of the lead factor due to newtype fuel assemblies was evaluated for all types of VVER-1000 container assemblies.

  9. Assessment of a syndromic surveillance system based on morbidity data: results from the Oscour network during a heat wave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Josseran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance systems have been developed in recent years and are now increasingly used by stakeholders to quickly answer questions and make important decisions. It is therefore essential to evaluate the quality and utility of such systems. This study was designed to assess a syndromic surveillance system based on emergency departments' (ED morbidity rates related to the health effects of heat waves. This study uses data collected during the 2006 heat wave in France. METHODS: Data recorded from 15 EDs in the Ile-de-France (Paris and surrounding area from June to August, 2006, were transmitted daily via the Internet to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Items collected included diagnosis (ICD10, outcome, and age. Several aspects of the system have been evaluated (data quality, cost, flexibility, stability, and performance. Periods of heat wave are considered the most suitable time to evaluate the system. RESULTS: Data quality did not vary significantly during the period. Age, gender and outcome were completed in a comprehensive manner. Diagnoses were missing or uninformative for 37.5% of patients. Stability was recorded as being 99.49% for the period overall. The average cost per day over the study period was estimated to be euro287. Diagnoses of hyperthermia, malaise, dehydration, hyponatremia were correlated with increased temperatures. Malaise was most sensitive in younger and elderly adults but also the less specific. However, overall syndrome groups were more sensitive with comparable specificity than individual diagnoses. CONCLUSION: This system satisfactorily detected the health impact of hot days (observed values were higher than expected on more than 90% of days on which a heat alert was issued. Our findings should reassure stakeholders about the reliability of health impact assessments during or following such an event. These evaluations are essential to establish the validity of the results of

  10. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  11. Safety and Antihypertensive Effect of Selara® (Eplerenone: Results from a Postmarketing Surveillance in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Takahashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prospective postmarketing surveillance of Selara (eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, was performed to confirm its safety and efficacy for hypertension treatment in Japan. The change in blood pressure after initiation of eplerenone treatment was also examined. Patients with essential hypertension who were eplerenone-naïve were recruited regardless of the use of other antihypertensive drugs. For examination of changes in blood pressure, patients were excluded if eplerenone was contraindicated or used off-label. Patients received 50–100 mg of eplerenone once daily and were observed for 12 weeks. No treatments including antihypertensive drugs were restricted during the surveillance period. Across Japan, 3,166 patients were included for safety analysis. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 2.4%. The major adverse drug reactions observed were hyperkalemia (0.6%, dizziness, renal impairment, and increased serum potassium (0.2% each. The mean systolic blood pressure decreased from 152.1±19.0 mmHg to 134.8±15.2 mmHg at week 12, and the mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 85.8±13.7 mmHg to 77.7±11.4 mmHg. There were no significant new findings regarding the type or incidence of adverse reactions, and eplerenone had a clinically significant antihypertensive effect, leading to favorable blood pressure control.

  12. [Results of a post-marketing surveillance of meropenem administered over 2 g/day for serious infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakisaka, Koji; Tani, Shunsuke; Ishibashi, Kazuo; Nukui, Kazuhiko; Nagao, Munehiko

    2015-10-01

    The post-marketing surveillance of meropenem (Meropen®) administered over 2g/day for serious infectious diseases was conducted between August 2011 and June 2013 to evaluate safety and efficacy under actual clinical use. There were 382 and 322 evaluable cases for safety and efficacy respectively, of 399 case cards collected from 87 institutions. In safety analysis, the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with use of meropenem (including abnormal laboratory findings) was 19.1% (73/382 cases), and the main ADRs were hepatic function abnormal, aspartate aminotransferase increased, alanine aminotransferase increased, liver disorder, and diarrhoea, which were similar to these observed in the post-marketing surveillances of meropenem conducted before. In efficacy analysis, the efficacy was 73.6% (237/322 cases), which is as same as 71.4% (3214/4504 cases) of post-marketing surveillance of meropenem conducted after first approval under 2 g/day for infectious diseases. These results confirmed meropenem (Meropen®) is one of the useful antimicrobial agents for serious infectious diseases.

  13. The Critical Role of Early Dengue Surveillance and Limitations of Clinical Reporting – Implications for Non-Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Jui-Hung; Chen, Chaur-Dong; Chu, Yin-Hsia; Cheng, Hau-Yuan; Liu, Jien-Wei; Shih, Fuh-Yuan; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lin, Chien-Chou; Tsai, Wu-Hsiung; Ku, Chia-Chi; Ho, Chi-Kung; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing dengue burden and epidemic severity worldwide have highlighted the need to improve surveillance. In non-endemic areas such as Taiwan, where outbreaks start mostly with imported cases from Southeast Asia, a closer examination of surveillance dynamics to detect cases early is necessary. To evaluate problems with dengue surveillance and investigate the involvement of different factors at various epidemic stages, we investigated 632 laboratory-confirmed indigenous dengue cases in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan during 2009–2010. The estimated sensitivity of clinical surveillance was 82.4% (521/632). Initially, the modified serological surveillance (targeting only the contacts of laboratory-confirmed dengue cases) identified clinically unrecognized afebrile cases in younger patients who visited private clinics and accounted for 30.4% (35/115) of the early-stage cases. Multivariate regression indicated that hospital/medical center visits [Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 11.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.3–21.4], middle epidemic stage [aOR: 2.4 (1.2–4.7)], fever [aOR: 2.3 (2.3–12.9)], and musculo-articular pain [aOR: 1.9 (1.05–3.3)] were significantly associated with clinical reporting. However, cases with pruritus/rash [aOR: 0.47 (0.26–0.83)] and diarrhea [aOR: 0.47 (0.26–0.85)] were underreported. In conclusion, multiple factors contributed to dengue surveillance problems. To prevent a large-scale epidemic and minimize severe dengue cases, there is a need for integrated surveillance incorporating entomological, clinical, serological, and virological surveillance systems to detect early cases, followed by immediate prevention and control measures and continuous evaluation to ensure effectiveness. This effort will be particularly important for an arbovirus, such as Zika virus, with a high asymptomatic infection ratio. For dengue- non-endemic countries, we recommend serological surveillance be implemented in areas with high Aedes mosquito indices or many

  14. Previous antibiotic exposure and antimicrobial resistance in invasive pneumococcal disease: results from prospective surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Stefan P; Rudnick, Wallis; Shigayeva, Altynay; Green, Karen; Baqi, Mahin; Gold, Wayne L; Lovinsky, Reena; Muller, Matthew P; Powis, Jeff E; Rau, Neil; Simor, Andrew E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Low, Donald E; McGeer, Allison

    2014-10-01

    Estimating the risk of antibiotic resistance is important in selecting empiric antibiotics. We asked how the timing, number of courses, and duration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months affected antibiotic resistance in isolates causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We conducted prospective surveillance for IPD in Toronto, Canada, from 2002 to 2011. Antimicrobial susceptibility was measured by broth microdilution. Clinical information, including prior antibiotic use, was collected by chart review and interview with patients and prescribers. Clinical information and antimicrobial susceptibility were available for 4062 (90%) episodes; 1193 (29%) of episodes were associated with receipt of 1782 antibiotic courses in the prior 3 months. Selection for antibiotic resistance was class specific. Time elapsed since most recent antibiotic was inversely associated with resistance (cephalosporins: adjusted odds ratio [OR] per day, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], .96-1.00; P = .02; macrolides: OR, 0.98; 95% CI, .96-.99; P = .005; penicillins: OR [log(days)], 0.62; 95% CI, .44-.89; P = .009; fluoroquinolones: profile penalized-likelihood OR [log(days)], 0.62; 95% CI, .39-1.04; P = .07). Risk of resistance after exposure declined most rapidly for fluoroquinolones and penicillins and reached baseline in 2-3 months. The decline in resistance was slowest for macrolides, and in particular for azithromycin. There was no significant association between duration of therapy and resistance for any antibiotic class. Too few patients received multiple courses of the same antibiotic class to assess the significance of repeat courses. Time elapsed since last exposure to a class of antibiotics is the most important factor predicting antimicrobial resistance in pneumococci. The duration of effect is longer for macrolides than other classes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved

  15. Context Is Everything: Harmonization of Critical Food Microbiology Descriptors and Metadata for Improved Food Safety and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Griffiths

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of food networks increases opportunities for the spread of foodborne pathogens beyond borders and jurisdictions. High resolution whole-genome sequencing (WGS subtyping of pathogens promises to vastly improve our ability to track and control foodborne disease, but to do so it must be combined with epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and other health care data (called “contextual data” to be meaningfully interpreted for regulatory and health interventions, outbreak investigation, and risk assessment. However, current multi-jurisdictional pathogen surveillance and investigation efforts are complicated by time-consuming data re-entry, curation and integration of contextual information owing to a lack of interoperable standards and inconsistent reporting. A solution to these challenges is the use of ‘ontologies’ - hierarchies of well-defined and standardized vocabularies interconnected by logical relationships. Terms are specified by universal IDs enabling integration into highly regulated areas and multi-sector sharing (e.g., food and water microbiology with the veterinary sector. Institution-specific terms can be mapped to a given standard at different levels of granularity, maximizing comparability of contextual information according to jurisdictional policies. Fit-for-purpose ontologies provide contextual information with the auditability required for food safety laboratory accreditation. Our research efforts include the development of a Genomic Epidemiology Ontology (GenEpiO, and Food Ontology (FoodOn that harmonize important laboratory, clinical and epidemiological data fields, as well as existing food resources. These efforts are supported by a global consortium of researchers and stakeholders worldwide. Since foodborne diseases do not respect international borders, uptake of such vocabularies will be crucial for multi-jurisdictional interpretation of WGS results and data sharing.

  16. Exact Results for Quenched Bond Randomness at Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Gesualdo

    2017-06-01

    We introduce an exact replica method for the study of critical systems with quenched bond randomness in two dimensions. For the q -state Potts model, we show that a line of renormalization group fixed points interpolates from weak to strong randomness as q -2 grows from small to large values. This theory exhibits a q -independent sector, and allows at the same time for a correlation length exponent which keeps the Ising value and continuously varying magnetization exponent and effective central charge. These findings appear to solve long-standing numerical and theoretical puzzles, and to illustrate the peculiarities which may characterize the conformal field theories of random fixed points.

  17. Critical infrastructure protection research results of the first critical infrastructure protection research project in Hungary

    CERN Document Server

    Padányi, József

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research in the recognition of vulnerabilities of national systems and assets which gained special attention for the Critical Infrastructures in the last two decades. The book concentrates on R&D activities in the relation of Critical Infrastructures focusing on enhancing the performance of services as well as the level of security. The objectives of the book are based on a project entitled "Critical Infrastructure Protection Researches" (TÁMOP-4.2.1.B-11/2/KMR-2011-0001) which concentrated on innovative UAV solutions, robotics, cybersecurity, surface engineering, and mechatrinics and technologies providing safe operations of essential assets. This report is summarizing the methodologies and efforts taken to fulfill the goals defined. The project has been performed by the consortium of the Óbuda University and the National University of Public Service.

  18. Need for surveillance of concomitant peripheral artery disease in patients with coronary disease: results of the AGATHA survey in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui Hian Sim; Kok Han Chee; Inderjit Singh; Choon Kiat Ang; Houng Bang Liew; Kim Heung Tan; Omar Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Background For patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), co-existence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) predicts increased mortality, and such patients are also more likely to benefit from aggressive therapy. Surveillance of PAD is often neglected at health clinics. Our aim is to highlight the importance and ease of surveillance of PAD in patients with CVD. Objective To determine the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic PAD in a Malaysian patient population with documented CVD. Methods and Results A total of 393 subjects with established CVD were recruited from three centres (85 women and 308 men), as part of a larger international (AGATHA) survey. PAD, determined by presence of claudicant symptoms on interview and/or abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI)score of less than 0.9, was present in 21.4% of patients - of whom 64% were asymptomatic. Abnormal ABI is associated with higher systolic blood pressure and number of arterial beds affected. Conclusions Concomitant PAD is prevalent among CVD patients in Malaysia. ABI screening is simple and yields a high proportion of patients with extensive atherosclerosis who may require more aggressive atherosclerotic risk management.

  19. Applicable regulations and development of surveillance experiments of criticality approach in the TRIGA III Mark reactor; Normativa aplicable y desarrollo de experimentos de vigilancia de aproximacion a criticidad en el reactor Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, J.L.; Aguilar H, F.; Rivero G, T.; Sainz M, E. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Automatizacion, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In the procedure elaborated to repair the vessel of TRIGA III Mark reactor is required to move toward two tanks of temporal storage the fuel elements which are in operation and the spent fuel elements which are in decay inside the reactor pool. The National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) has requested as protection measure that it is carried out a surveillance of the criticality approach of the temporal storages. This work determines the main regulation aspects that entails an experiment of criticality approach, moreover, informing about the results obtained in the developing of this experiments. The regulation aspects are not exclusives for this work in the TRIGA Mark III reactor but they also apply toward any assembling of fissile material. (Author)

  20. Effects of infectious young stock on results of certification, surveillance and control programmes for paratuberculosis in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M F; Groenendaal, H

    2012-01-27

    In many epidemiological models for paratuberculosis, it is assumed that infected young stock (stock from adult cattle (≥ 2 years) would largely prevent postnatal infections, provided that uninfected adult cattle are highly resistant to infection. However, this assumption is in contrast with observed faecal shedding of MAP in young stock. Consequently, this assumption may have resulted in an underestimation of the effects of MAP transmission in herds participating in certification-, surveillance-, and control programmes for paratuberculosis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term effects of transmission of MAP amongst young stock on key output parameters of certification-, surveillance-, and control programmes for paratuberculosis in simulated closed dairy herds. Closed Dutch dairy herds participating in a paratuberculosis programme were simulated with a stochastic model, JohneSSim. Various test schemes, preventive management measures, distributions of age at onset of faecal shedding and rates of effective contacts between young stock were simulated. The results indicate that transmission of MAP amongst young stock has no relevant effects on the animal-level prevalence and milk quality of herds that are certified in a paratuberculosis programme. However, transmission of MAP amongst young stock increased the economic losses due to paratuberculosis and costs of participation in a programme. Moreover, it substantially decreased the beneficial effect of the separation of young stock from adult cattle on the probability of being certified. However, even in the presence of transmission of MAP amongst young stock, preventive management measures to separate young stock from adult cattle remain important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Communicable diseases prioritized for surveillance and epidemiological research: results of a standardized prioritization procedure in Germany, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Balabanova

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To establish strategic priorities for the German national public health institute (RKI and guide the institute's mid-term strategic decisions, we prioritized infectious pathogens in accordance with their importance for national surveillance and epidemiological research. METHODS: We used the Delphi process with internal (RKI and external experts and a metric-consensus approach to score pathogens according to ten three-tiered criteria. Additional experts were invited to weight each criterion, leading to the calculation of a median weight by which each score was multiplied. We ranked the pathogens according to the total weighted score and divided them into four priority groups. RESULTS: 127 pathogens were scored. Eighty-six experts participated in the weighting; "Case fatality rate" was rated as the most important criterion. Twenty-six pathogens were ranked in the highest priority group; among those were pathogens with internationally recognised importance (e.g., Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Influenza virus, Hepatitis C virus, Neisseria meningitides, pathogens frequently causing large outbreaks (e.g., Campylobacter spp., and nosocomial pathogens associated with antimicrobial resistance. Other pathogens in the highest priority group included Helicobacter pylori, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Varicella zoster virus and Hantavirus. DISCUSSION: While several pathogens from the highest priority group already have a high profile in national and international health policy documents, high scores for other pathogens (e.g., Helicobacter pylori, Respiratory syncytial virus or Hantavirus indicate a possible under-recognised importance within the current German public health framework. A process to strengthen respective surveillance systems and research has been started. The prioritization methodology has worked well; its modular structure makes it potentially useful for other settings.

  2. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  3. Vector borne infections in Italy: results of the integrated surveillance system for West Nile disease in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Iannetti, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Bella, Antonino; Di Sabatino, Daria; Bruno, Rossana; Sauro, Francesca; Martini, Vanessa; Santucci, Vincenzo Ugo; Declich, Silvia; Calistri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND) is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  4. RESULTS OF LONG-TERM (2006-2016 AVIAN INFLUENZA SURVEILLANCE IN WILD BIRDS OF UVS NUUR LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shestopalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to analyze the long-term results of the avian influenza virus surveillance monitoring of influenza virus in birds of one of the key Northern Eurasia points Lake. Uvs Nuur, the Republic of Tyva. Methods. The analysis of the available sources and our own research results is conducted. We used MEGA 5.2 software to construct a phylogenetic dendrogram. Tree topology is constructed by the method of maximum likelihood. Genetic distance matrix is calculated using the Kimura two-parameter metric method. Results. We conducted a biogeographical analysis of the Great Lakes basin, and an overview of the literature and the original results of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza circulation and molecular epidemiology at Uvs Nuur Lake. Conclusion. Long-term observations at Lake Uvs Nuur revealed the important role of the biogeocoenose for the preservation and evolution of influenza A virus in wild bird populations. Planned ecological and virological monitoring is the basis for correct conclusions about the dynamics of epizootic process, infection control, as well as for the evaluation of the epidemic and pandemic potential of novel viral strains.

  5. The results of virological surveillance for intrauterine infections in Saint-Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Murina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of researchis the determiningthe etiological structure ofintrauterine infections in Saint-Petersburg pediatric patients, pregnant women andinfants born to them using a variety of virological methods.Methods: serum from 164 children aged from 1 month to 14 years with diagnosis of «intrauterine infection». Serum from 80 pregnant women, collected in each trimester (total – 240 samples, their 42 children (at the age of 1–2 and 4–6  months of life, total – 82 samples. Immunoglobulin Mand G (IgM and IgGto herpes virus type 1, cytomegalovirus (CMV, Toxoplasma gondii, mycoplasma and chlamydia, rubella, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and parvovirus B19, as well as IgG avidity,were determined by ELISA in all these samples. Theimmunoblot (Western blot, using the «Immunoblot2000» with test kits from «Euroimmun AG» (Germany, was applied to confirm cases. Statistical analysis wasperformed with theprograms Microsoft Excel, Statistica6.Results: cytomegalovirus, herpes virus 1st type and Epstein-Barr virus infections are dominate in the structure of intrauterine ones (45%, 23% and 14%, respectively. Laboratory evidence ofreactivationof cytomegalovirus (35% ofpregnant womenin the 2nd and/or 3rd trimesters and acuteparvovirus infection (15% of cases were found. Specific IgM to cytomegalovirus were detected in 6,2% ofchildren in the firstsix months of life.Conclusions: with the aim of early detection of cytomegalovirus reactivation and acute parvovirus infection it isnecessary to monitor pregnant women with the definition of specific IgM, IgG and avidity IgG. The procedure to using immunoblotting in the diagnosis of intrauterine infectionsneeds to be further study.

  6. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  7. [Risk evaluation and health surveillance in hospitals: a critical review and contributions regarding experience obtained at the S. Gerardo dei Tintori Hospital in Monza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, G; Arduca, A; Latocca, R; Sirtori, G

    1998-01-01

    The incorporation into Italian legislation of the European Community directives on the improvement of health and safety at work has promoted a vast effort in order to revise the surveillance approach in many facilities, including hospitals. At the S. Gerardo Hospital in Monza, the required risk evaluation was performed in 1995. The paper here reports the results of environmental and work organization inspection, literature review and the proposal of a surveillance program. S. Gerardo Hospital is a large facility with 2,547 employees. Major structural problems are associated with fire prevention and the continuous change required for the development of a modern hospital. Relevant risk in health care are: biological risk, in particular hepatitis B and AIDS virus, teratogenic viruses (rubella, cytomegalovirus and varicella-zoster) and the renewed possibility of tuberculosis infection, often multi-drug resistant; chemical hazards, in particular use and exposure to antineoplastic and antiviral agents, sterilants like ethylene oxide and formaldheyde; physical risk, well-known for ionizing radiations, but important also for non-ionizing radiations; manual lifting (patients in particular) which makes nurses one of the occupations most affected by low back pain; psycho-social risk, with particular reference to stress in emergency departments and everywhere a strong psychological engagement is required. Also the risk of non-health personnel, office areas, food preparation, housekeeping, maintenance, central supplies and laundry was assessed. Health surveillance programs for the exposed and preventive medicine programs according international standards for all workers are presented.

  8. Towards harmonisation of critical laboratory result management - review of the literature and survey of australasian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ca; Horvath, Ar

    2012-11-01

    Timely release and communication of critical test results may have significant impact on medical decisions and subsequent patient outcomes. Laboratories therefore have an important responsibility and contribution to patient safety. Certification, accreditation and regulatory bodies also require that laboratories follow procedures to ensure patient safety, but there is limited guidance on best practices. In Australasia, no specific requirements exist in this area and critical result reporting practices have been demonstrated to be heterogeneous worldwide.Recognising the need for agreed standards and critical limits, the AACB started a quality initiative to harmonise critical result management throughout Australasia. The first step toward harmonisation is to understand current laboratory practices. Fifty eight Australasian laboratories responded to a survey and 36 laboratories shared their critical limits. Findings from this survey are compared to international practices reviewed in various surveys conducted elsewhere. For the successful operation of a critical result management system, critical tests and critical limits must be defined in collaboration with clinicians. Reporting procedures must include how critical results are identified; who can report and who can receive critical results; what is an acceptable timeframe within which results must be delivered or, if reporting fails, what escalation procedures should follow; what communication channels or systems should be used; what should be recorded and how; and how critical result procedures should be maintained and evaluated to assess impact on outcomes.In this paper we review the literature of current standards and recommendations for critical result management. Key elements of critical result reporting are discussed in view of the findings of various national surveys on existing laboratory practices, including data from our own survey in Australasia. Best practice recommendations are made that laboratories

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bloodstream Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus: Global Results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial, 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amsterdam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST commenced in 2004 to monitor the activity of tigecycline, a new glycylcycline and numerous comparators against major hospital-and community-associated pathogens. In this report we examine the efficacy of tigecycline and comparators against isolates of Staphylococcus aureus collected from blood. Approach: Almost 4000 blood-derived isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from participating centers globally between 2004-2008. Results: All isolates were susceptible to tigecycline (MIC90 0.25 mg L-1 and linezolid (MIC90 4 mg L-1; 99.9% of isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (MIC90 1 mg L-1. Tigecycline and linezolid activity were unaffected by resistance to methicillin, ICU vs non-ICU isolate collection or the age of patients from which the isolates were collected. Although 95.3% of MSSA were levofloxacin susceptible, only 14.4% of MRSA isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin in this study. Conclusion: Tigecycline is shown here to be active against S. aureus isolates collected from blood and is unaffected by methicillin resistance. However, tigecycline is not as yet approved for the treatment of bacteremic infections.

  10. Safety and efficacy of adapalene gel 0.1% in acne vulgaris: Results of a post-marketing surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy S

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adapalene is a novel retinoid indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. The drug was introduced in India in 2001. Aims: A post-marketing surveillance study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of adapalene gel 0.1% when used as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-acne agents in Indian patients of acne vulgaris. Material and Methods: A 12-week, multicentre, open-label, non-comparative study involving 571 patients from 21 centers across India was conducted between January and September of 2002. Concomitant prescription of other anti-acne drugs was permitted, if needed. Results: Of the 571 patients, 441 completed the treatment as per protocol. At the end of therapy, 96.3% of patients showed an improvement in their acne from baseline, with greater than 75% improvement seen in two-thirds of patients. Adverse events were reported in 24% of the patients, none of which were serious. The tolerability of therapy was rated as excellent/good in 81% of patients by physicians and in 78% by the patients. Conclusion: Adapalene gel 0.1% is a safe and effective topical agent in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris in Indian patients. It may be safely combined with other topical and oral anti-acne agents.

  11. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Alan P

    2015-01-01

    .... Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation...

  12. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 - First results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W; Ayala, F; Bircher, AJ; Brasch, J; Coenraads, PJ; Schuttelaar, Marielouise; Elsner, P; Fartasch, M; Mahler, V.; Fortina, AB; Frosch, PJ; Fuchs, T; Johansen, JD; Menne, T; Jolanki, R; Krecisz, B; Kiec-Swierczynska, M; Larese, F; Orton, D; Peserico, A; Rantanen, T; Schnuch, A

    2005-01-01

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series,

  13. The European baseline series in 10 European Countries, 2005/2006 : Results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Rämsch, Christiane; Aberer, Werner; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Beliauskiene, Aiste; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Bircher, Andreas; Brasch, Jochen; Chowdhury, Mahbub M U; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Cooper, Sue; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Elsner, Peter; English, John S C; Fartasch, Manigè; Mahler, Vera; Frosch, Peter J; Fuchs, Thomas; Gawkrodger, David J; Gimènez-Arnau, Ana-Maria; Green, Cathy M; Horne, Helen L; Jolanki, Riitta; King, Codagh M; Krêcisz, Beata; Kiec-Swierczynska, Marta; Ormerod, Anthony D; Orton, David I; Peserico, Andrea; Rantanen, Tapio; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Sansom, Jane E; Simon, Dagmar; Statham, Barry N; Wilkinson, Mark; Schnuch, Axel

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continual surveillance based on patch test results has proved useful for the identification of contact allergy. OBJECTIVES: To provide a current view on the spectrum of contact allergy to important sensitizers across Europe. PATIENTS/METHODS: Clinical and patch test data of 19 793 patien

  14. The European baseline series in 10 European Countries, 2005/2006 : Results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Rämsch, Christiane; Aberer, Werner; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Beliauskiene, Aiste; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Bircher, Andreas; Brasch, Jochen; Chowdhury, Mahbub M U; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Cooper, Sue; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Elsner, Peter; English, John S C; Fartasch, Manigè; Mahler, Vera; Frosch, Peter J; Fuchs, Thomas; Gawkrodger, David J; Gimènez-Arnau, Ana-Maria; Green, Cathy M; Horne, Helen L; Jolanki, Riitta; King, Codagh M; Krêcisz, Beata; Kiec-Swierczynska, Marta; Ormerod, Anthony D; Orton, David I; Peserico, Andrea; Rantanen, Tapio; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Sansom, Jane E; Simon, Dagmar; Statham, Barry N; Wilkinson, Mark; Schnuch, Axel

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continual surveillance based on patch test results has proved useful for the identification of contact allergy. OBJECTIVES: To provide a current view on the spectrum of contact allergy to important sensitizers across Europe. PATIENTS/METHODS: Clinical and patch test data of 19 793 patien

  15. Bayesian pretest probability estimation for primary malignant bone tumors based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benndorf, Matthias; Neubauer, Jakob; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar

    2017-03-01

    In the diagnostic process of primary bone tumors, patient age, tumor localization and to a lesser extent sex affect the differential diagnosis. We therefore aim to develop a pretest probability calculator for primary malignant bone tumors based on population data taking these variables into account. We access the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute, 2015 release) database and analyze data of all primary malignant bone tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2012. We record age at diagnosis, tumor localization according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-O-3) and sex. We take relative probability of the single tumor entity as a surrogate parameter for unadjusted pretest probability. We build a probabilistic (naïve Bayes) classifier to calculate pretest probabilities adjusted for age, tumor localization and sex. We analyze data from 12,931 patients (647 chondroblastic osteosarcomas, 3659 chondrosarcomas, 1080 chordomas, 185 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas, 2006 Ewing's sarcomas, 281 fibroblastic osteosarcomas, 129 fibrosarcomas, 291 fibrous malignant histiocytomas, 289 malignant giant cell tumors, 238 myxoid chondrosarcomas, 3730 osteosarcomas, 252 parosteal osteosarcomas, 144 telangiectatic osteosarcomas). We make our probability calculator accessible at http://ebm-radiology.com/bayesbone/index.html . We provide exhaustive tables for age and localization data. Results from tenfold cross-validation show that in 79.8 % of cases the pretest probability is correctly raised. Our approach employs population data to calculate relative pretest probabilities for primary malignant bone tumors. The calculator is not diagnostic in nature. However, resulting probabilities might serve as an initial evaluation of probabilities of tumors on the differential diagnosis list.

  16. Effects of sex on the incidence and prognosis of spinal meningiomas: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwick, Harrison J; Shamji, Mohammed F

    2015-09-01

    Most spinal meningiomas are intradural lesions in the thoracic spine that present with both local pain and myelopathy. By using the large prospective Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, the authors studied the incidence of spinal meningiomas and examined demographic and treatment factors predictive of death. Using SEER*Stat software, the authors queried the SEER database for cases of spinal meningioma between 2000 and 2010. From the results, tumor incidence and demographic statistics were computed; incidence was analyzed as a function of tumor location, pathology, age, sex, and malignancy code. Survival was analyzed by using a Cox proportional hazards ratio in SPSS for age, sex, marital status, primary site, size quartile, treatment modality, and malignancy code. In this analysis, significance was set at a p value of 0.05. The 1709 spinal meningiomas reported in the SEER database represented 30.7% of all primary intradural spinal tumors and 7.9% of all meningiomas. These meningiomas occurred at an age-adjusted incidence of 0.193 (95% CI 0.183-0.202) per 100,000 population and were closely related to sex (337 [19.7%] male patients and 1372 [80.3%] female patients). The Cox hazard function for mortality in males was higher (2.4 [95% CI1.7-3.5]) and statistically significant, despite the lower lesion incidence in males. All-cause survival was lowest in patients older than 80 years. Primary site and treatment modality were not significant predictors of mortality. Spinal meningiomas represent a significant fraction of all primary intradural spinal tumors and of all meningiomas. The results of this study establish the association of lesion incidence and survival with sex, with a less frequent incidence in but greater mortality among males.

  17. Surveillance Programme for Healthcare Associated Infections in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Implementation and the first three years' results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoveze, M C; Assis, D B; Freire, M P; Madalosso, G; Ferreira, S A; Valente, M G; Fortaleza, C M C B

    2010-12-01

    Governmental programmes should be developed to collect and analyse data on healthcare associated infections (HAIs). This study describes the healthcare setting and both the implementation and preliminary results of the Programme for Surveillance of Healthcare Associated Infections in the State of São Paulo (PSHAISP), Brazil, from 2004 to 2006. Characterisation of the healthcare settings was carried out using a national database. The PSHAISP was implemented using components for acute care hospitals (ACH) or long term care facilities (LTCF). The components for surveillance in ACHs were surgical unit, intensive care unit and high risk nursery. The infections included in the surveillance were surgical site infection in clean surgery, pneumonia, urinary tract infection and device-associated bloodstream infections. Regarding the LTCF component, pneumonia, scabies and gastroenteritis in all inpatients were reported. In the first year of the programme there were 457 participating healthcare settings, representing 51.1% of the hospitals registered in the national database. Data obtained in this study are the initial results and have already been used for education in both surveillance and the prevention of HAI. The results of the PSHAISP show that it is feasible to collect data from a large number of hospitals. This will assist the State of São Paulo in assessing the impact of interventions and in resource allocation.

  18. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McDonald, Mark W., E-mail: mwmcdona@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Chang, Andrew L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  19. Contact allergy to ingredients of topical medications : results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Cooper, Susan M.; Wilkinson, Mark; Sanchez Perez, Javier; Schnuch, Axel; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to give an overview of the prevalence of contact allergy to active ingredients and excipients of topical medications across Europe. MethodsRetrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies () with substances applied to

  20. Reducing surgical site infection incidence through a network: results from the French ISO-RAISIN surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astagneau, P; L'Hériteau, F; Daniel, F; Parneix, P; Venier, A-G; Malavaud, S; Jarno, P; Lejeune, B; Savey, A; Metzger, M-H; Bernet, C; Fabry, J; Rabaud, C; Tronel, H; Thiolet, J-M; Coignard, B

    2009-06-01

    Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are a key target for nosocomial infection control programmes. We evaluated the impact of an eight-year national SSI surveillance system named ISO-RAISIN (infection du site opératoire - Réseau Alerte Investigation Surveillance des Infections). Consecutive patients undergoing surgery were enrolled during a three-month period each year and surveyed for 30 days following surgery. A standardised form was completed for each patient including SSI diagnosis according to standard criteria, and several risk factors such as wound class, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, operation duration, elective/emergency surgery, and type of surgery. From 1999 to 2006, 14,845 SSIs were identified in 964,128 patients (overall crude incidence: 1.54%) operated on in 838 participating hospitals. The crude overall SSI incidence decreased from 2.04% to 1.26% (P<0.001; relative reduction: -38%) and the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system (NNIS)-0 adjusted SSI incidence from 1.10% to 0.74% (P<0.001; relative reduction: -33%). The most significant SSI incidence reduction was observed for hernia repair and caesarean section, and to a lesser extent, cholecystectomy, hip prosthesis arthroplasty, and mastectomy. Active surveillance striving for a benchmark throughout a network is an effective strategy to reduce SSI incidence.

  1. Healthcare-associated infections in pediatric cancer patients: results of a prospective surveillance study from university hospitals in Germany and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowski Stefan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric cancer patients face an increased risk of healthcare-associated infection (HAI. To date, no prospective multicenter studies have been published on this topic. Methods Prospective multicenter surveillance for HAI and nosocomial fever of unknown origin (nFUO with specific case definitions and standardized surveillance methods. Results 7 pediatric oncology centers (university facilities participated from April 01, 2001 to August 31, 2005. During 54,824 days of inpatient surveillance, 727 HAIs and nFUOs were registered in 411 patients. Of these, 263 (36% were HAIs in 181 patients, for an incidence density (ID (number of events per 1,000 inpatient days of 4.8 (95% CI 4.2 to 5.4; range 2.4 to 11.7; P Conclusion Our study confirmed that pediatric cancer patients are at an increased risk for specific HAIs. The prospective surveillance of HAI and comparison with cumulative multicenter results are indispensable for targeted prevention of these adverse events of anticancer treatment.

  2. Geocoding capacity of birth defects surveillance programs: results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network Geocoding Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; O'Leary, Leslie A; Rickard, Russel S; Mason, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    A Web-based survey focusing on geocoding of birth defects data was developed and administrated to gain an understanding of the capacity of state birth defects programs to geocode maternal residence and to identify barriers to geocoding birth defects data. The survey consisted of 21 questions related to geocoding of maternal residence, type of software used, barriers to geocoding, and data linkage. In August 2007, an e-mail with a Web link to the survey was sent to all state birth defects program contacts in the United States, including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requesting they complete the online survey. By October 2007, 39 (74%) out of 53 birth defects program contacts completed the survey. Although nearly all birth defects programs collect maternal residential data, many are not currently geocoding that data. Results indicated that 97% of the programs that completed the survey reported they collected data on maternal residence, 53% of which reported that the birth defects surveillance data were geocoded to the street address level using maternal residential address at delivery. Twenty six percent of the programs that do not currently geocode the data identified "Software and address reference file are not available" as the most significant barrier to geocoding; another 16% chose "Lack of funding" as the most significant barrier to geocoding. Since geocoding is an important component of spatial analyses used to detect potential clusters of birth defects, leveraging resources to overcome the barriers that prevent programs from geocoding is important.

  3. Heavy manual work, exposure to vibration and Dupuytren's disease? Results of a surveillance program for musculoskeletal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Bodin, Julie; Ha, Catherine; Goubault, Pierre; Lebreton, Marine; Chastang, Jean François; Imbernon, Ellen; Leclerc, Annette; Goldberg, Marcel; Roquelaure, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In view of the debate about occupational factors in Dupuytren’s disease, the aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of the disease in men and its relationship with work exposure, and especially to distinguish heavy manual work with and without significant use of vibrating tools by using data from a surveillance program for musculoskeletal disorders. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in France between 2002 and 2004. Dupuytren’s disease was diagnosed clinically by one of the 83 occupational physicians involved in the program. Exposure in relation to work status and occupational risk factors was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire, and was categorized according to vibration exposure (defined as use of vibrating tools ≥2h/day), heavy manual work without vibration exposure [defined as use of hand tools ≥2h/day (use of vibrating tools ≥2h/day excluded) and Borg scale ≥15/20] and no form of such exposure. Bivariate and multivariate associations using logistic models were recorded in men and also in those with over 10 years at the same job. Results Of the 2,161 men, 1.3% (n=27) suffered from Dupuytren’s disease (mean age 47.1+/−6.7 years). Heavy manual work without vibration exposure was significantly associated with the disease (adjusted odds ratio - aOR- 3.9[1.3;11.5]) adjusted on age and diabetes), as was the use of vibrating tools (aOR 5.1[2.1;12.2]). These associations remained significant among subjects with over 10 years at the same job, with increases in aOR of 6.1[1.5;25.0] and 10.7[3.4;34.6], respectively. Conclusion Despite the limited number of cases, occupational exposure, including both vibration exposure and heavy manual work without significant vibration exposure, was associated with Dupuytren’s disease. PMID:22213840

  4. Anti-Semitism and criticism of Israel: Methodology and results of the ASCI survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Building upon psychological conflict theory, on the one hand, and item-response models, on the other, the present paper develops an integrated methodology that aims at differentiating the various ways of criticizing Israel. An application of this methodology to the Anti-Semitism and Criticism of Israel (ASCI survey found two ways of criticizing Israel resulting from two different and antipodal processes. (1 Anti-Semitic criticism of Israel is generally laden with prejudice and shares not only anti-Semitic, anti-Zionist and anti-Israeli, but also anti-Palestinian resentments as well. (2 Non-anti-Semitic criticism of Israel is motivated by pacifism and human rights commitment and rejects any form of anti-Semitic, anti-Zionist, anti-Israeli or anti-Palestinian resentment. However, even critics of Israel who were not originally motivated by anti-Semitism are also in danger of developing anti-Semitic prejudices.

  5. Twenty years of Belgian North Sea aerial surveillance: a quantitative analysis of results confirms effectiveness of international oil pollution legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagring, Ruth; Degraer, Steven; de Montpellier, Géraldine; Jacques, Thierry; Van Roy, Ward; Schallier, Ronny

    2012-03-01

    Over the years many policy measures have been taken to prevent illegal oil discharges from ships, like the MARPOL 73/78 Convention (1983) and the Bonn Agreement (1969/1983). However, the number of discharges remained high, leading to chronic oiling of seabirds and sensitive coastlines, therefore further measures were taken. The aim of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of two key legislative regulations: the IMO-designation of the North Sea as MARPOL Special Area which took effect in 1999, and the adoption of the EU Directive on Port Reception Facilities in 2000. Under study is the heavily navigated Belgian Surveillance Area, monitored since 1991, characterised by shallow waters with ecologically important sandbanks. The aerial surveillance data from 1991 to 2010 show a stepwise decrease in ship-source oil pollution. Three time periods can be distinguished with two turning points coinciding with the actual implementation of these key legislative measures, confirming their effectiveness.

  6. Oligodendrogliomas in pediatric and adult patients: an outcome-based study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau CSM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Christine SM Lau,1,2 Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Ronald S Chamberlain1–4 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, 4Department of Surgery, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA Introduction: Oligodendrogliomas (OGs account for <20% of all intracranial tumors and 25% of gliomas. Despite improvements in imaging techniques allowing for earlier diagnosis, OG is rare among the pediatric population. This study examines a large cohort of OG patients in an effort to define the demographic, clinical, and pathologic factors associated with clinical and survival outcomes.Methods: Data on 7,001 OG patients were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER database (1973–2013. Pediatric patients were defined as ≤19 years old, and adult patients were defined as age ≥20 years.Results: Among 7,001 OG patients, 6.5% were pediatric (mean age 12 ± 6 years, and 93.5% were adult (mean age 46 ± 15 years. Overall, OGs were more common among males, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.28:1. Overall, OGs were more common among Caucasians (76.9% and also among the African American (10.8% pediatric vs. 4.0% adult and Hispanic (12.8% pediatric vs. 11.8% adult. OGs occurred most commonly in the temporal lobe of pediatric patients and the frontal lobes of adults. Surgical resection was the primary treatment modality for both pediatric and adult populations (70.6% and 40.5%, followed by combined surgery and radiation (19.7% and 41.2%. Surgical resection was associated with significantly improved survival in both groups. Pediatric patients had a lower overall mortality (19.8% vs. 48.5% and lower cancer-specific mortality (17.6% vs. 36.8%.Conclusion: OGs most often present in Caucasian males in their fifth decade of life with tumors >4 cm in size

  7. Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis Validating COG Risk Stratifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waxweiler, Timothy V., E-mail: timothy.waxweiler@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rusthoven, Chad G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Proper, Michelle S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Billings Clinic, Billings, Montana (United States); Cost, Carrye R. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Cost, Nicholas G. [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Donaldson, Nathan [Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Garrington, Timothy; Greffe, Brian S. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Heare, Travis [Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Macy, Margaret E. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Liu, Arthur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) are a heterogeneous group of sarcomas that encompass over 35 histologies. With an incidence of ∼500 cases per year in the United States in those <20 years of age, NRSTS are rare and therefore difficult to study in pediatric populations. We used the large Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to validate the prognostic ability of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) risk classification system and to define patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Methods and Materials: From SEER data from 1988 to 2007, we identified patients ≤18 years of age with NRSTS. Data for age, sex, year of diagnosis, race, registry, histology, grade, primary size, primary site, stage, radiation therapy, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Patients with nonmetastatic grossly resected low-grade tumors of any size or high-grade tumors ≤5 cm were considered low risk. Cases of nonmetastatic tumors that were high grade, >5 cm, or unresectable were considered intermediate risk. Patients with nodal or distant metastases were considered high risk. Results: A total of 941 patients met the review criteria. On univariate analysis, black race, malignant peripheral nerve sheath (MPNST) histology, tumors >5 cm, nonextremity primary, lymph node involvement, radiation therapy, and higher risk group were associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). On multivariate analysis, MPNST histology, chemotherapy-resistant histology, and higher risk group were significantly poor prognostic factors for OS and CSS. Compared to low-risk patients, intermediate patients showed poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.53-10.47, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 6.27; 95% CI: 3.44-11.43, P<.001), and high-risk patients had the worst OS (HR: 13.35, 95% CI: 8.18-21.76, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 14.65, 95% CI: 8.49-25.28, P<.001). Conclusions: The current COG risk group

  8. Four sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Belgian general practice: first results (2013–2014) of a nationwide continuing surveillance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffin, N; Moreels, S; Deblonde, J; Van Casteren, V

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe and explore data from the surveillance of chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhoea and genital warts by the Belgian Network of Sentinel General Practices (SGP) over the first 2 years (2013 and 2014) and to estimate the incidence of these 4 sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A special focus is put on data quality. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting General practices from the nationwide representative SGP network. Outcome measures Agreement between data distributions by year, agreement between SGP-based incidence and incidence based on mandatory notification, missingness of patient age or gender and incompleteness of sexual risk history of patients. Results 306 new STI episodes were reported from 298 patients, corresponding with an episode-based incidence of 91.9/100 000 (95% CI 81.9 to 102.8) general practice patients, with almost half of it due to chlamydia. The incidence of chlamydia in men was significantly higher in 2014 than in 2013. Population characteristics were similarly distributed in 2013 and 2014. The SGP-based incidence of gonorrhoea and syphilis in Flanders were in agreement with the incidence based on mandatory notification of cases. Patient age or gender was missing from 35 episodes (11.4%). Independent determinants of missingness of patient age or gender were the Flemish region (OR 3.46; 95% CI 1.02 to 11.73) and genital warts infection (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.07 to 4.63). An incomplete sexual risk history was reported for 54.6% STI episodes. The odds for an incomplete sexual history were higher for older patients (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.76) and for patients infected with syphilis, gonorrhoea or co-infection(s) (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.83). Conclusions Incompleteness of reports about patients with STI sexual risk histories is important from the perspective of quality of data and of quality of care. Together with the low rates of both HIV testing and discussion of partner notification, this suggests that a

  9. Dengue incidence in urban and rural Cambodia: results from population-based active fever surveillance, 2006-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirenda Vong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19-year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006-2008. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV infections for incidences of 13.4-57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons and lowest among the 16-to-19-year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons. The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5-211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5. During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The large-scale active surveillance study for dengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly

  10. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  11. Critical manifold of the Potts model: exact results and homogeneity approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F Y; Guo, Wenan

    2012-08-01

    The q-state Potts model has stood at the frontier of research in statistical mechanics for many years. In the absence of a closed-form solution, much of the past effort has focused on locating its critical manifold, trajectory in the parameter (q,e(J)) space where J is the reduced interaction, along which the free energy is singular. However, except in isolated cases, antiferromagnetic (AF) models with JPotts model with AF interactions focusing on obtaining its critical manifold in exact and/or closed-form expressions. We first reexamine the known critical frontiers in light of AF interactions. For the square lattice we confirm the Potts self-dual point to be the sole critical frontier for J>0. We also locate its critical frontier for J0. More generally we consider the centered-triangle (CT) and Union-Jack (UJ) lattices consisting of mixed J and K interactions, and deduce critical manifolds under homogeneity hypotheses. For K = 0 the CT lattice is the diced lattice, and we determine its critical manifold for all J and find q(c) = 3.32472. For K = 0 the UJ lattice is the square lattice and from this we deduce both the J > 0 and J < 0 critical manifolds and q(c) = 3. Our theoretical predictions are compared with recent numerical results.

  12. Dengue Incidence in Urban and Rural Cambodia: Results from Population-Based Active Fever Surveillance, 2006–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Sirenda; Khieu, Virak; Glass, Olivier; Ly, Sowath; Duong, Veasna; Huy, Rekol; Ngan, Chantha; Wichmann, Ole; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S.; Buchy, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19–year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006–2008. Methods and Findings Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infections for incidences of 13.4–57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons) and lowest among the 16-to-19–year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons). The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5–211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5). During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, pdengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly in preschool children and that disease incidence was high in both rural

  13. Dengue incidence in urban and rural Cambodia: results from population-based active fever surveillance, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Sirenda; Khieu, Virak; Glass, Olivier; Ly, Sowath; Duong, Veasna; Huy, Rekol; Ngan, Chantha; Wichmann, Ole; Letson, G William; Margolis, Harold S; Buchy, Philippe

    2010-11-30

    Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19-year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006-2008. Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infections for incidences of 13.4-57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons) and lowest among the 16-to-19-year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons). The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5-211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5). During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, pdengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly in preschool children and that disease incidence was high in both rural and urban areas. It also confirmed the

  14. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Canada: results from the Canadian nosocomial infection surveillance program, 1999-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner-Agostini, Marianna; Johnston, B Lynn; Simor, Andrew E; Embil, John; Matlow, Anne; Mulvey, Michael; Ormiston, Debbie; Conly, John

    2008-03-01

    Surveillance for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in sentinel Canadian hospitals has been conducted since 1999. From 1999 to 2005, the rate of VRE detection increased from 0.37 to 1.32 cases per 1,000 patients admitted, and the rate of VRE infection increased from 0.02 to 0.05 cases per 1,000 patients admitted. Thirty-three percent of all patients with VRE detected that were reported during 1999-2005 were identified in 2005, with increases seen in all regions of Canada. Although the incidence rate of VRE carriage in Canada is increasing, it remains very low.

  15. An Early Warning System Based on Syndromic Surveillance to Detect Potential Health Emergencies among Migrants: Results of a Two-Year Experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Profound geopolitical changes have impacted the southern and eastern Mediterranean since 2010 and defined a context of instability that is still affecting several countries today. Insecurity combined with the reduction of border controls has led to major population movements in the region and to migration surges from affected countries to southern Europe, especially to Italy. To respond to the humanitarian emergency triggered by this migration surge, Italy implemented a syndromic surveillance system in order to rapidly detect potential public health emergencies in immigrant reception centres. This system was discontinued after two years. This paper presents the results of this experience detailing its strengths and weaknesses in order to document the applicability and usefulness of syndromic surveillance in this specific context.

  16. An early warning system based on syndromic surveillance to detect potential health emergencies among migrants: results of a two-year experience in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Riccardo, Flavia; Declich, Silvia; Dente, Maria Grazia; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Rizzo, Caterina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino

    2014-08-20

    Profound geopolitical changes have impacted the southern and eastern Mediterranean since 2010 and defined a context of instability that is still affecting several countries today. Insecurity combined with the reduction of border controls has led to major population movements in the region and to migration surges from affected countries to southern Europe, especially to Italy. To respond to the humanitarian emergency triggered by this migration surge, Italy implemented a syndromic surveillance system in order to rapidly detect potential public health emergencies in immigrant reception centres. This system was discontinued after two years. This paper presents the results of this experience detailing its strengths and weaknesses in order to document the applicability and usefulness of syndromic surveillance in this specific context.

  17. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  18. Veterinary surveillance laboratories: developing the training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Staci L; McCline, Katasha T; Hanfelt, Margery M

    2010-01-01

    The increased need and demand for onsite, frequent, rapid, and portable food and bottled water testing for indicators of microbiological and chemical agents led to the deployment of 2 laboratory veterinary equipment sets. A Surveillance Food Laboratory Program (SFLP) was developed to allow Veterinary Corps commanders to establish targeted testing programs to enhance food safety and wholesomeness, along with faster responses to food defense, suspected foodborne illness, and food/water risk assessment missions. To support the deployment of the veterinary equipment sets and the SFLP, 2 new functional courses were developed by the Department of Veterinary Science. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Technician Course teaches essential technical skills that include sample processing, assay methodologies, results review, and interpretation of results produced by these laboratories. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Manager Course, developed for designated managers of the laboratories and laboratory programs, teaches the skills critical to ensuring proper surveillance laboratory oversight, testing, evaluation of results, risk communication, and response to presumptive positive results produced by the laboratories. Together, the courses allowed for the successful deployment of the unique veterinary equipment sets, resulting in development of fully operational surveillance laboratories in support of food protection missions in every major theater of operations.

  19. Low fruit and vegetable consumption in Mozambique: results from a WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrão, Patrícia; Laszczyńska, Olga; Silva-Matos, Carla; Damasceno, Albertino; Lunet, Nuno

    2012-02-01

    Monitoring food consumption and its determinants over time is essential for defining and implementing health promotion strategies, but surveillance is scarce in Africa. The present study aimed to describe fruit and vegetable consumption in Mozambique according to socio-demographic characteristics and place of residence (urban/rural). A national representative sample (n 3323) of subjects aged 25-64 years was evaluated in 2005 following the WHO Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance, which included an assessment of usual fruit and vegetable consumption (frequency and quantity). Crude prevalence and age-, education- and family income-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with 95 % CI were computed. Less than 5 % of the subjects reported an intake of five or more daily servings of fruits/vegetables. Both fruits and vegetables were more often consumed by women and in rural settings. In urban areas, the prevalence of fruit intake ( ≥ 2 servings/d) increased with education ( ≥ 6 years v. foods in this setting supports the need for fruit and vegetable promotion programmes that target the whole population, despite the different socio-demographic determinants of fruit and vegetable intake.

  20. Preliminary results of an influenza surveillance in wild birds, game birds, domestic ducks and geese in North Eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Scremin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the avian influenza (AI epidemics which occurred in Italy between 1997 and 2003, a surveillance program, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health was implemented. Among the tasks of this surveillance program was an investigation on wild and domestic birds to asses circulation of avian influenza viruses in their natural reservoirs. In this study we collected samples from migratory wild birds (Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, from national and importated game fowls, and from 7 backyard farms of geese and ducks. Cloacal swabs were screened by means of real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR and/or directly processed for attempted virus isolation in embryonated fowl’s SPF eggs and blood samples for presence of antibodies against avian influenza viruses. Avian influenza viruses were only obtained from migratory waterfowls belonging to the family Anseriformes, and not from domestic waterfowls or game birds. This study confirms that the risk of introduction of novel influenza viruses in densely populated areas of poultry farms in Veneto is linked to migratory wild birds and in particular from birds belonging to the family Anseriformes.

  1. The longitudinal time course of QTc in early infancy. Preliminary results of a prospective sudden infant death syndrome surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, M S; Trippel, D L; Buckles, D S; Young, R H; Dolan, P L; Gillette, P C

    1991-03-01

    Eleven hundred one healthy neonates in Charleston County, SC, were enrolled in a prospective, serial measurement sudden infant death syndrome/QT surveillance program. Automated computer-enhanced ECGs were recorded at 1 day of age in the hospital nursery and again at 1 week and 1, 2, and 3 months in the participant's home. At 1 year, the families were contacted by phone or mail and questioned as to the health of the child. Validation studies demonstrated the computer-enhanced ECGs to be 96% accurate, whereas traditional ECG recording and measurement was 94% accurate. No systematic differences in the QTc according to race and sex were observed. There were parallel longitudinal time courses for each race and sex group with a significant (P less than .001) shortening of the QTc at 1 week. There was no evidence of tracking of the QTc during the first 3 months of life. In conclusion, (1) automated, enhanced ECG QTc intervals are superior to traditional electrocardiography while retaining the advantages of automation; (2) there is a significant shortening of the QTc during the first month of life; and (3) a home follow-up sudden infant death syndrome surveillance program is feasible and produces accurate, reliable information.

  2. Does triage to critical care during a pandemic necessarily result in more survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utley, Martin; Pagel, Christina; Peters, Mark J; Petros, Andy; Lister, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 pandemic reinforced the need for a planned response to increased demand for critical care. Triage protocols have been proposed incorporating the exclusion of specified subgroups of patients from critical care. There have been no studies that explore the theoretical underpinning of triage at referral, and it is not clear under what circumstances triage would confer the intended benefits. We sought to explore the mechanisms whereby triage could lead to fewer deaths across a critical care population in the context of a pandemic. We constructed a mathematical model based on queuing theory to compare the estimated short-term survival achieved by using a critical care service with and without triage at referral. Illustrative scenarios concerning a hypothetical critical care population were constructed to explore the roles of length of stay and critical care survival in determining the impact of triage and to identify "tipping points" of demand at which triage would result in more survivors. Not applicable as this was a data-free mathematical modeling exercise. We identified circumstances in which triage would be expected to result in more survivors and circumstances in which it would not. In some scenarios, excluding patient groups solely on the basis of anticipated length of stay could be effective due to a more efficient use of critical care bed days. The impact of triage is dependent on the level of demand and on the scale of achievable differences between included and excluded groups in terms of anticipated length of stay and critical care survival. It cannot be assumed that triage can or will result in fewer deaths. It should be remembered that there are considerations other than population-level short-term survival when determining the objectives of triage and its ethical implementation.

  3. Commercial nonindustrial production of pastries and ice cream in Naples, Italy: results from the inspection of 34 food businesses during a 2-year surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tanucci Nannini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Ice cream and cream-based pastries are an excellent media for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Foods that are prepared without due respect to the rules of food hygiene can carry microorganisms and/or toxins and could be responsible of toxinfections. The main objective of this study was to obtain an overall picture of the hygiene/sanitation conditions found in businesses that produce hand-made pastries and/or ice cream in Naples, Italy.

    Methods: We inspected 34 businesses to assess the following aspects: hygiene/sanitation conditions of the work area and equipment, implementation of good food hygiene principles, evaluation of HACCP plans, licensing/authorization, quality control and sampling protocols, as well as systems for ensuring food traceability. In 28 of the businesses, samples (environment, foods, workers were collected for microbiological analysis.

    Results: Sanctions were issued for nonconformities in 8 businesses (23.5%, and 25 businesses (73.5% received warnings with orders to correct minor nonconformities (inadequate documentation of compliance with current regulations, incorrect implementation of the quality-control protocol within specified time periods. Microbiological analyses revealed irregularities in 24/28 businesses (85.7%, and 138 of the 280 samples collected displayed contamination levels exceeding the limits adopted for this study (49.3%. In particular, 80% of the surfaces sampled and 23.8% of the hand swabs collected were shown to be contaminated. All food samples collected met the process-hygiene and food-safety standards prescribed by the European Community. Results obtained were statistically significant (p < 0.05.

    Conclusions: Our experience of food safety surveillance system indicates that Neapolitan food business operators involved in the production of hand-made ice cream or pastries do not

  4. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  5. Metal Criticality Determination for Australia, the US, and the Planet—Comparing 2008 and 2012 Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ciacci

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Episodic supply shortages of metals and unsettling predictions of potential supply constraints in the future have led to a series of recent criticality evaluations. This study applies a consistent criticality methodology to the United States, Australia, and to the global level for both 2008 and 2012. It is the first time that criticality assessments are presented for Australia, a country that contrasts with the United States in terms of its mineral deposits and metal use characteristics. We use the Yale criticality methodology, which measures Supply Risk (SR, Environmental Implications (EI, and Vulnerability to Supply Restriction (VSR to derive criticality assessments for five major metals (Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and for indium (In. We find only modest changes in SR between 2008 and 2012 at both country and global levels; these changes are due to revisions in resource estimates. At the country level, Australia’s VSR for Ni, Cu, and Zn is 23%–33% lower than that for the United States, largely because of Australia’s abundant domestic resources. At the global level, SR is much higher for In, Ni, Cu, and Zn than for Al and Fe as a consequence of SR’s longer time horizon and anticipated supply/demand constraints. The results emphasize the dynamic nature of criticality and its variance between countries and among metals.

  6. Use of administrative data for surgical site infection surveillance after congenital cardiac surgery results in inaccurate reporting of surgical site infection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Krista D; Pappas, Janine M; Kennedy, Andrea T; Coffin, Susan E; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Fuller, Stephanie M; Spray, Thomas L; McCardle, Kenneth; Gaynor, J William

    2014-02-01

    The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) is a safety surveillance system managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that monitors procedure specific rates of surgical site infections (SSIs). At our institution, SSI data is collected and reported by three different methods: (1) the NHSN database with reporting to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; (2) the hospital billing database with reporting to payers; and (3) The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database. A quality improvement initiative was undertaken to better understand issues with SSI reporting and to evaluate the effect of different data sources on annual SSI rates. Annual cardiac surgery procedure volumes for all three data sources were compared. All episodes of SSI identified in any data source were reviewed and adjudicated using NHSN SSI criteria, and the effect on SSI rates was evaluated. From January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2011, 2,474 cardiac procedures were performed and reported to The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database. Billing data identified 1,865 cardiac surgery procedures using the 63 CARD International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes from the NHSN inclusion criteria. Only 1,425 procedures were targeted for NHSN surveillance using the NHSN's CARD operative procedure group in the same period. Procedures identified for NHSN surveillance annually underestimated the number of cardiac operations performed by 17% to 71%. As a result, annual SSI rates potentially differed by 12% to 270%. The NHSN CARD surveillance guidelines for SSI fail to identify all pediatric cardiac surgical procedures. Failure to target all at-risk procedures leads to inaccurate reporting of SSI rates largely based on identifying the denominator. Inaccurate recording of SSI data has implications for public reporting, benchmarking of outcomes, and denial of payment. Use of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery

  7. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-05

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  8. Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance in New York State, 2006-2008: results from a new surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Readhead

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR is a public health concern because it has the potential to compromise antiretroviral therapy (ART at the population level. In New York State, high prevalence of TDR in a local cohort and a multiclass resistant case cluster led to the development and implementation of a statewide resistance surveillance system. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 13,109 cases of HIV infection that were newly diagnosed and reported in New York State between 2006 and 2008, including 4,155 with HIV genotypes drawn within 3 months of initial diagnosis and electronically reported to the new resistance surveillance system. We assessed compliance with DHHS recommendations for genotypic resistance testing and estimated TDR among new HIV diagnoses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 13,109 new HIV diagnoses, 9,785 (75% had laboratory evidence of utilization of HIV-related medical care, and 4,155 (43% had a genotype performed within 3 months of initial diagnosis. Of these, 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.2%-12.1% had any evidence of TDR. The proportion with mutations associated with any antiretroviral agent in the NNRTI, NRTI or PI class was 6.3% (5.5%-7.0%, 4.3% (3.6%-4.9% and 2.9% (2.4%-3.4%, respectively. Multiclass resistance was observed in <1%. TDR did not increase significantly over time (p for trend = 0.204. Men who have sex with men were not more likely to have TDR than persons with heterosexual risk factor (OR 1.0 (0.77-1.30. TDR to EFV+TDF+FTC and LPV/r+TDF+FTC regimens was 7.1% (6.3%-7.9% and 1.4% (1.0%-1.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TDR appears to be evenly distributed and stable among new HIV diagnoses in New York State; multiclass TDR is rare. Less than half of new diagnoses initiating care received a genotype per DHHS guidelines.

  9. 贵州省2010年土源性线虫病监测点监测结果分析%Analysis of surveillance results of soil transmitted nematode infection at a national surveillance site in Guizhou of 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱爱娅; 李安梅; 林广初; 耿燕; 徐建军; 孙良先

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the status of infection of soil transmitted nematodes at the national surveillance site in Guizhou Province. METHODS Surveillance site and target populations were selected based on China's National soil transmitted nematode infection surveillance program. Eggs of intestinal nematodes were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. A transparent adhesive tape test was used to look for Enterobius vermicularis in children under 12 years of age. A modified floatation test with saturated sodium nit rate was used for egg detection in soil samples. RESULTS 1 000 residents were investigated, the total rate of infection with soil transmitted nematodes was 34.3%. The infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms and whipworm were 26.3%, 0.3% and 16.0%, respectively. No positive infection of Enterobius vermicularis was found in children from 3 to 12 years old. 40 soil samples from vegetable gardens, around toilets, courtyards and kitchens of 10 households were detected, and positive detection rate of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were 60%, 80%, 20% and 10%, respectively. CONCLUSION The status of infection of soil transmitted nematodes at the national surveillance site in Guizhou Province is still severe, and it has great importance of improving people' s health by decreasing the infection rate with comprehensive measures.%目的 了解贵州省土源性线虫病监测点居民土源性线虫感染现状.方法 根据《全国土源性线虫病监测方案》要求选点,确定监测人群,采用改良加藤厚涂片法查粪便虫卵,透明胶纸肛拭法查12岁以下儿童蛲虫卵.改良饱和硝酸钠漂浮法检查土样中的虫卵.结果 共调查1 000人,土源性线虫总感染率为34.3%,其中,蛔虫、钩虫、鞭虫感染率分别为26.3%、0.3%和16.0%,3~12岁儿童蛲虫卵的监测中未发现感染者.对10户居民菜园、厕所周边、庭院、厨房的40份土样进行检查,蛔虫卵阳性率分别为60%、80%、20

  10. Reading Results: A Critical Look at Standardized Testing and the Linguistic Minority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Joanie

    2008-01-01

    A critical look into assessing the Standardized Test and Reporting (STAR) test data among English language learners gives educators a chance to examine the cultural biases present within the standardized test movement started by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. In particular, The STAR test results seem to reflect that the test is geared…

  11. Road traffic injuries in one local health unit in the Lazio region: results of a surveillance system integrating police and health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilloni Laura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Different sources are available for the surveillance of Road Traffic injuries (RTI, but studied individually they present several limits. In this paper we present the results of a surveillance integrating healthcare data with the data gathered by the municipal police in the southeastern area of Rome (630,000 inhabitants during the year 2003. Methods The Municipal police RTI reports, which list the exact location, circumstances and some risk factor of the crash, were searched in the emergency visit, hospitalization and mortality databases, to integrate them with the information on health consequences. A multivariate analysis was conducted to evaluate risk factors (crash circumstances, age ad gender of the casualty associated with hospital admission following a RTI. Mapping of RTI locations was created. The locations with higher risk of accidents with severe health consequences and at higher risk for pedestrians were identified. Results According to police records 4571 RTI occurred in 2003, 75% of which led to emergency department admissions. Sixteen percent of these emergency visits ended in hospitalization, and 44 deaths were reported within 30 days of the event, most of which occurred in young men. The people with the highest risk of hospitalization after an RTI were the cyclists, pedestrians and followed by people on two-wheeled vehicles. The type of crash with the highest risk of hospitalization was head-on collision. Geographical analyses showed four clusters with higher severity of RTI. Specific attention was paid to pedestrian injuries. Analyzing the locations of RTIs involving pedestrians permitted us to rank the most dangerous streets. The roads at high risk for pedestrians identified problems in the bus stop constructions and in the placement of the zebra pedestrian crossings. Conclusion This study proves the feasibility of an integrated surveillance system of RTI by using routinely collected local data. The high

  12. Serial prostate biopsy and risk of lower urinary tract symptoms: results from a large, single-institution active surveillance cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Allison S; Hilton, Joan F; Cowan, Janet E; Washington, Samuel L; Carroll, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    To describe the effect of serial prostate biopsy on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men who undergo active surveillance (AS) at a large academic institution. This is a retrospective study of men enrolled in AS for ≥6 months who underwent ≥1 biopsy and completed ≥1 International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. In additional to total IPSS, we report the mean difference between the first and last questionnaires for patients who completed ≥2 questionnaires. Multivariate models, adjusting for disease features, age, race, prostate volume and baseline, or incident benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), were used to assess relationships between IPSS and total biopsy exposure. Four hundred eighty-two men were eligible, and 291 completed ≥2 IPSS questionnaires. Overall, mean (standard deviation) age was 61.7 (7.8) years, and median prostate volume (interquartile range) was 42 (34-61) mL. At baseline, 11% provided history of BPH. Among men who completed multiple questionnaires, 25% experienced clinically significant worsening (IPSS increase ≥4 points). In regression model, total IPSS was not significantly associated with greater biopsy exposure (P = .25). IPSS change from initial and the latest questionnaire was not significantly associated with initial or interval biopsy exposure in an adjusted longitudinal model (P = .64 and .50, respectively), but a trend was observed with greater age decade (+4.07 points, 95% CI -0.30 to 8.4; P = .07). Repeated prostate biopsy does not appear to independently pose additional risk of LUTS in an AS population. In unadjusted analyses, greater biopsy exposure is a surrogate for increasing follow-up time, age, and BPH risk, and thus, risk of LUTS onset and progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbapenem non-susceptible enterobacteriaceae in Quebec, Canada: results of a laboratory surveillance program (2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Lefebvre

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE represent a major public health concern because these bacteria are usually extensively resistant to most antibiotics. In order to evaluate their dissemination in Quebec, a surveillance program was introduced in 2010. We report the molecular and epidemiological profiles of CPE isolates collected. Between August 2010 and December 2012, a total of 742 non-duplicate isolates non-susceptible to carbapenems were analysed. AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase production were detected by Etest and carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test (MHT. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined using broth microdilution or Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The presence of genes encoding carbapenemases as well as other β-lactamases was detected using PCR. Of the 742 isolates tested, 169 (22.8% were CPE. Of these 169 isolates, 151 (89.3% harboured a blaKPC gene while the remaining isolates carried blaSME (n = 9, blaOXA-48 (n = 5, blaNDM (n = 3, and blaNMC (n = 1 genes. Among the 93 KPC strains presenting with a unique pattern (unique PFGE pattern and/or unique antibiotics susceptibility profile, 99% were resistant to ertapenem, 95% to imipenem, 87% to meropenem, 97% to aztreonam, 31% to colistin and 2% to tigecycline. In 19 patients, 2 to 5 KPC strains from different species or with a different PFGE pattern were isolated. CPE strains were present in the province of Quebec with the majority of strains harbouring KPC. Alternately, SME, OXA-48 and NMC containing strains were rarely found.

  14. Critical ischemia of the fingers in an auto mechanic as a result of occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabczyński, Maciej; Kuźnik, Edwin; Guziński, Maciej; Adamiec, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare cause of ischemic fingers observed mainly in young men smoking cigarettes and it is associated with repeated trauma of the ulnar artery in the area of the hypothenar eminence of the dominant-hand arm, resulting in a deficit of blood supply with the occurrence of hand symptoms typical for chronic and sometimes critical ischemia. Artery injury in this location is most often the result of multiple repetitions of the same activity being mostly the result of occupational exposure. We present a case of a 27-year-old car mechanic admitted to the hospital with symptoms of critical ischemia of the fingers III, IV, and V of the right hand, which resolved after conservative treatment.

  15. Critical ischemia of the fingers in an auto mechanic as a result of occupational exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Rabczyński

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare cause of ischemic fingers observed mainly in young men smoking cigarettes and it is associated with repeated trauma of the ulnar artery in the area of the hypothenar eminence of the dominant-hand arm, resulting in a deficit of blood supply with the occurrence of hand symptoms typical for chronic and sometimes critical ischemia. Artery injury in this location is most often the result of multiple repetitions of the same activity being mostly the result of occupational exposure. We present a case of a 27-year-old car mechanic admitted to the hospital with symptoms of critical ischemia of the fingers III, IV, and V of the right hand, which resolved after conservative treatment.

  16. Preliminary results: surveillance for Guillain-Barré syndrome after receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine - United States, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an uncommon peripheral neuropathy causing paralysis and in severe cases respiratory failure and death. GBS often follows an antecedent gastrointestinal or upper respiratory illness but, in rare cases, can follow vaccination. In 1976, vaccination against a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for GBS in the 42 days after vaccination (approximately 10 excess cases per 1 million vaccinations), a consideration in halting the vaccination program in the context of limited influenza virus transmission. To monitor influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine safety, several federal surveillance systems, including CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP), are being used. In October 2009, EIP began active surveillance to assess the risk for GBS after 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Preliminary results from an analysis in EIP comparing GBS patients hospitalized through March 31, 2010, who did and did not receive 2009 H1N1 vaccination showed an estimated age-adjusted rate ratio of 1.77 (GBS incidence of 1.92 per 100,000 person-years among vaccinated persons and 1.21 per 100,000 person-years among unvaccinated persons). If end-of-surveillance analysis confirms this finding, this would correspond to 0.8 excess cases of GBS per 1 million vaccinations, similar to that found in seasonal influenza vaccines. No other federal system to date has detected a statistically significant association between GBS and 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Surveillance and further analyses are ongoing. The 2009 H1N1 vaccine safety profile is similar to that for seasonal influenza vaccines, which have an excellent safety record. Vaccination remains the most effective method to prevent serious illness and death from 2009 H1N1 influenza infection; illness from the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus has been associated with a hospitalization rate of 222 per 1 million and a death rate of 9.7 per 1 million population.

  17. Increasing incidence of neuroblastoma and potentially higher associated mortality of children from nonmetropolitan areas: analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Michael H; Meng, Maxwell V; Walsh, Thomas J; Matthay, Katherine K; Baskin, Laurence S

    2009-12-01

    Geographic variations in cancer incidence and mortality can yield clues regarding etiology and healthcare access. We examined pediatric neuroblastoma incidence and mortality in metropolitan counties (containing a core urban area of 50,000 or more people) versus nonmetropolitan counties. We identified cases through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. We analyzed age, race, sex, year of diagnosis, mortality, and county type (metropolitan or nonmetropolitan). In total, 1777 neuroblastoma cases were identified. From 1973 to 2003, the incidence of pediatric neuroblastoma in nonmetropolitan counties has risen from 0.8 to 1.2 cases per 100,000 person-years (annual percent change, 2.09%, Prank test P=0.0357]. The incidence of pediatric neuroblastoma in nonmetropolitan counties seems to be increasing, possibly due to demographic or environmental factors. Mortality seems to be higher in children from nonmetropolitan versus metropolitan counties. However, this study is limited by sample size. These concerning trends warrant further study through means other than Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results.

  18. Limits on surveillance: frictions, fragilities and failures in the operation of camera surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2004-01-01

    Public video surveillance tends to be discussed in either utopian or dystopian terms: proponents maintain that camera surveillance is the perfect tool in the fight against crime, while critics argue that the use of security cameras is central to the development of a panoptic, Orwellian surveillance

  19. Limits on surveillance: frictions, fragilities and failures in the operation of camera surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, Lynsey

    2004-01-01

    Public video surveillance tends to be discussed in either utopian or dystopian terms: proponents maintain that camera surveillance is the perfect tool in the fight against crime, while critics argue that the use of security cameras is central to the development of a panoptic, Orwellian surveillance

  20. Potential for criticality in Hanford tanks resulting from retrieval of tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, G.A.; Sterne, R.J.; Mattigod, S.V. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report assesses the potential during retrieval operations for segregation and concentration of fissile material to result in a criticality. The sluicing retrieval of C-106 sludge to AY-102 and the operation of mixer pumps in SY-102 are examined in some detail. These two tanks (C-106, SY-102) were selected because of the near term plans for retrieval of these tanks and their high plutonium inventories relative to other tanks. Although all underground storage tanks are subcritical by a wide margin if assumed to be uniform in composition, the possibility retrieval operations could preferentially segregate the plutonium and locally concentrate it sufficiently to result in criticality was a concern. This report examines the potential for this segregation to occur.

  1. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  2. Effects of Breakpoint Changes on Carbapenem Susceptibility Rates ofEnterobacteriaceae: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, United States, 2008 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Rennie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of clinical resistance, breakpoints for many antimicrobial agents are often set high. Clinical failures following use of the agents over time requires re-evaluation of breakpoints. This is based on patient response, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic information and in vitro minimal inhibitory concentration data. Data from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program has shown that Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint changes for carbapenems that occurred between 2008 and 2012 in North America have resulted in decreased levels of susceptibility for some species. In particular, reduced susceptibility to imipenem was observed for Proteus mirabilis (35% and Morganella morganii (80%. Minor decreases in susceptibility were also noted for Enterobacter species with ertapenem (5% and imipenem (4.3%, and Serratia species with imipenem (6.4%. No significant decreases in susceptibility were observed for meropenem following the breakpoint changes. There were no earlier breakpoints established for doripenem. Very few of these Enterobacteriaceae produce carbapenamase enzymes; therefore, the clinical significance of these changes has not yet been clearly determined. In conclusion, ongoing surveillance studies with in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration data are essential in predicting the need for breakpoint changes and in identifying the impact of such changes on the percent susceptibility of different species.

  3. Transformation of the critical state in hard superconductors resulting from thermomagnetic avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabanenko, V. V.; Kuchuk, E. I.; Rusakov, V. F.; Abaloszewa, I.; Nabiałek, A.; Pérez-Rodríguez, F.

    2016-04-01

    The results of experimental studies of magnetic flux dynamics in finite-size superconductors, obtained using integral and local measurements methods, are presented. Local methods were aimed at clarifying the role of the demagnetizing factor in the dynamic formation of a complex magnetic structure of the critical state of hard superconductors. To understand the reasons for drastic transformation of the magnetic induction, we further analyzed the literature data on the visualization of flux dynamics in the presence of avalanches, obtained by magneto-optical methods. New features in the behavior of the magnetic flux during and after an avalanche were revealed and characterized: two stages in the formation of the magnetic induction distribution inside the avalanche region were established—homogeneous and heterogeneous filling with magnetic flux; the mechanism of inversion of the induction profile; velocity oscillations in the propagating magnetic flux front; transformation of the critical state band near the edge of the sample; and the role of the thermal effects and demagnetizing factor in the dissipative flux dynamics. The generalized information allowed us to present, within the framework of the Bean concept, a model of the transformation of the patterns of magnetic induction in the critical state and superconducting currents in a finite superconductor occurring as a result of flux avalanches in two different regimes—shielding and trapping of magnetic flux.

  4. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A;

    2015-01-01

    of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data......: Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance...

  5. Critical Casimir force and its fluctuations in lattice spin models: exact and Monte Carlo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantchev, Daniel; Krech, Michael

    2004-04-01

    We present general arguments and construct a stress tensor operator for finite lattice spin models. The average value of this operator gives the Casimir force of the system close to the bulk critical temperature T(c). We verify our arguments via exact results for the force in the two-dimensional Ising model, d -dimensional Gaussian, and mean spherical model with 2Monte Carlo simulations for three-dimensional Ising, XY, and Heisenberg models we demonstrate that the standard deviation of the Casimir force F(C) in a slab geometry confining a critical substance in-between is k(b) TD(T) (A/ a(d-1) )(1/2), where A is the surface area of the plates, a is the lattice spacing, and D(T) is a slowly varying nonuniversal function of the temperature T. The numerical calculations demonstrate that at the critical temperature T(c) the force possesses a Gaussian distribution centered at the mean value of the force = k(b) T(c) (d-1)Delta/ (L/a)(d), where L is the distance between the plates and Delta is the (universal) Casimir amplitude.

  6. How patient-physician encounters in critical medical situations affect trust: results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Mark A

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients' trust in physicians and in the medical profession is vital for a successful patient-physician relationship. Trust is especially salient in critical medical situations, such as serious side-effects, hospitalizations, and diagnoses of serious medical conditions, but most trust studies have been done with the general population or in routine primary care settings. This study examines the association between patient-physician encounters in such critical medical situations and patients' trust in their physician and in the medical profession in general. Methods A random national telephone survey was conducted using validated multi-item questionnaire measuring trust and satisfaction with physicians and with the medical profession. A seven item questionnaire measured the patient-physician encounters in critical medical situations. A total of 1117 subjects aged 20 years and older with health insurance were included for analyses. Spearman rank order correlations were used to determine the association of encounter variables with trust in physicians and the medical profession. Results Prescription of medications by primary care physicians that patients believed might have side effects was negatively correlated with trust in physician (ρ = -0.12, p Conclusion Hospitalization, perceived seriousness of condition, and concerns about the risks of medications were found to be associated with patient trust in physicians or the medical profession. These findings highlight the salience of trust in serious physician-patient encounters and the role that patient vulnerability plays in determining patient trust.

  7. Surveillance of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  8. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  9. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  10. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  11. Below the knee PTA in critical limb ischemia results after 12 months: Single center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer, Joern O., E-mail: balzerjo@t-online.d [Dept. for Radiology and Nuclear medicine, Catholic Clinic Mainz, An der Goldgrube 11, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Khan, Verena [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic Nurnberg North (Germany); Thalhammer, Axel; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Clinic, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Evaluation of angioplasty with bare metal stents in infrapopliteal occlusions or severe stenoses in patients with critical limb ischemia. Material and methods: Percutaneous stent angioplasty was performed in 58 limbs in 47 patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) in Rutherford stage 4-6. Lesions with up to 5 cm in length with at least one patent vessel below the obstruction were treated. 121 bare metal stents (diameter of 2.5-4 mm; length of 18-38 mm) were implanted. Follow-up examinations were performed up to 12 months postinterventionally using clinical examination, ABI calculation, and color-coded duplex sonography. Patency rates were calculated on the basis of the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Technical success was achieved in 100%. Minor complications (hematoma, distal emboli, vessel dissection) were documented in 5.17% (n = 3) limbs, respectively. The 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year primary patency rate was 93.0%, 78.9% and 66.7%, respectively. 86.9% of the lesions healed postinterventionally. The cumulative limb salvage rate was 96.6%. Conclusion: Stent angioplasty in infrapopliteal arteries is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of patients with CLI. By consequent clinical monitoring high secondary patency rates can be achieved. The use of a bare metal stent seems to result in high limb salvage, primary and secondary patency rates in the mid-term follow-up.

  12. Comparison of species-level identification and antifungal susceptibility results from diagnostic and reference laboratories for bloodstream Candida surveillance isolates, South Africa, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Serisha D; Govender, Nevashan; Patel, Jaymati; Zietsman, Inge L; Wadula, Jeannette; Coovadia, Yacoob; Kularatne, Ranmini; Seetharam, Sharona; Govender, Nelesh P

    2016-11-01

    From February 2009 through August 2010, we compared species-level identification of bloodstream Candida isolates and susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin between diagnostic and reference South African laboratories during national surveillance for candidemia. Diagnostic laboratories identified isolates to genus/species level and performed antifungal susceptibility testing, as indicated. At a reference laboratory, viable Candida isolates were identified to species-level using automated systems, biochemical tests, or DNA sequencing; broth dilution susceptibility testing was performed. Categorical agreement (CA) was calculated for susceptibility results of isolates with concordant species identification. Overall, 2172 incident cases were detected, 773 (36%) by surveillance audit. The Vitek 2 YST system (bioMérieux Inc, Marcy l'Etoile, France) was used for identification (360/863, 42%) and susceptibility testing (198/473, 42%) of a large proportion of isolates. For the five most common species (n = 1181), species-level identification was identical in the majority of cases (Candida albicans: 98% (507/517); Candida parapsilosis: 92% (450/488); Candida glabrata: 89% (89/100); Candida tropicalis: 91% (49/54), and Candida krusei: 86% (19/22)). However, diagnostic laboratories were significantly less likely to correctly identify Candida species other than C. albicans versus C. albicans (607/664, 91% vs. 507/517, 98%; P Candida species other than C. albicans, under-reported fluconazole resistance for C. parapsilosis and over-reported fluconazole resistance for C. albicans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Readiness of the Belgian network of sentinel general practitioners to deliver electronic health record data for surveillance purposes: results of survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanthomme Katrien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to proceed from a paper based registration to a surveillance system that is based on extraction of electronic health records (EHR, knowledge is needed on the number and representativeness of sentinel GPs using a government-certified EHR system and the quality of EHR data for research, expressed in the compliance rate with three criteria: recording of home visits, use of prescription module and diagnostic subject headings. Methods Data were collected by annual postal surveys between 2005 and 2009 among all sentinel GPs. We tested relations between four key GP characteristics (age, gender, language community, practice organisation and use of a certified EHR system by multivariable logistic regression. The relation between EHR software package, GP characteristics and compliance with three quality criteria was equally measured by multivariable logistic regression. Results A response rate of 99% was obtained. Of 221 sentinel GPs, 55% participated in the surveillance without interruption from 2005 onwards, i.e. all five years, and 78% were participants in 2009. Sixteen certified EHR systems were used among 91% of the Dutch and 63% of the French speaking sentinel GPs. The EHR software package was strongly related to the community and only one EHR system was used by a comparable number of sentinel GPs in both communities. Overall, the prescription module was always used and home visits were usually recorded. Uniform subject headings were only sometimes used and the compliance with this quality criterion was almost exclusively related to the EHR software package in use. Conclusions The challenge is to progress towards a sentinel network of GPs delivering care-based data that are (partly extracted from well performing EHR systems and still representative for Belgian general practice.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  15. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-23

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens.

  16. Testing Result Statistics-Based Rapid Testing Method for Safety-Critical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang

    2008-01-01

    Safety-critical system (SCS) has highly demand for dependability, which requires plenty of resource to ensure that the system under test (SUT) satisfies the dependability requirement. In this paper, a new SCS rapid testing method is proposed to improve SCS adaptive dependability testing. The result of each test execution is saved in calculation memory unit and evaluated as an algorithm model. Then the least quantity of scenario test case for next test execution will be calculated according to the promised SUT's confidence level. The feedback data are generated to weight controller as the guideline for the further testing. Finally, a compre- hensive experiment study demonstrates that this adaptive testing method can really work in practice. This rapid testing method, testing result statistics-based adaptive control, makes the SCS dependability testing much more effective.

  17. Testing Result Statistics-Based Rapid Testing Method for Safety-Critical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang

    2008-01-01

    Safety-critical system (SCS) has highlydemand for dependability, which requires plenty ofresource to ensure that the system under test (SUT)satisfies the dependability requirement. In this paper, anew SCS rapid testing method is proposed to improveSCS adaptive dependability testing. The result of each testexecution is saved in calculation memory unit andevaluated as an algorithm model. Then the least quantityof scenario test case for next test execution will becalculated according to the promised SUT's confidencelevel. The feedback data are generated to weightcontroller as the guideline for the further testing. Finally,a compre- hensive experiment study demonstrates thatthis adaptive testing method can really work in practice.This rapid testing method, testing result statistics-basedadaptive control, makes the SCS dependability testingmuch more effective.

  18. Quality assurance ofallergen-specific immunotherapy during a national outbreak of anaphylaxis: results of a continuous sentinel event surveillance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, F; Frølund, L; Christensen, M

    2009-01-01

    aimed at identifying the causes of SAEs. METHODS: We prospectively registered the number of injections and SAEs during SCIT. A slow up-dosing regimen was used and adherence to international standards was optimized. RESULTS: No SAEs were observed with 28 992 injections. The maximal risk per injection...

  19. OECD/NEA burnup credit calculational criticality benchmark Phase I-B results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Brady, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-06-01

    In most countries, criticality analysis of LWR fuel stored in racks and casks has assumed that the fuel is fresh with the maximum allowable initial enrichment. This assumption has led to the design of widely spaced and/or highly poisoned storage and transport arrays. If credit is assumed for fuel burnup, initial enrichment limitations can be raised in existing systems, and more compact and economical arrays can be designed. Such reliance on the reduced reactivity of spent fuel for criticality control is referred to as burnup credit. The Burnup Credit Working Group, formed under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, has established a set of well-defined calculational benchmarks designed to study significant aspects of burnup credit computational methods. These benchmarks are intended to provide a means for the intercomparison of computer codes, methods, and data applied in spent fuel analysis. The benchmarks have been divided into multiple phases, each phase focusing on a particular feature of burnup credit analysis. This report summarizes the results and findings of the Phase I-B benchmark, which was proposed to provide a comparison of the ability of different code systems and data libraries to perform depletion analysis for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results included here represent 21 different sets of calculations submitted by 16 different organizations worldwide and are based on a limited set of nuclides determined to have the most important effect on the neutron multiplication factor of light-water-reactor spent fuel. A comparison of all sets of results demonstrates that most methods agree to within 10% in the ability to estimate the spent fuel concentrations of most actinides. All methods agree within 11% about the average for all fission products studied. Most deviations are less than 10%, and many are less than 5%. The exceptions are Sm 149, Sm 151, and Gd 155.

  20. Creating a comprehensive customer service program to help convey critical and acute results of radiology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towbin, Alexander J; Hall, Seth; Moskovitz, Jay; Johnson, Neil D; Donnelly, Lane F

    2011-01-01

    Communication of acute or critical results between the radiology department and referring clinicians has been a deficiency of many radiology departments. The failure to perform or document these communications can lead to poor patient care, patient safety issues, medical-legal issues, and complaints from referring clinicians. To mitigate these factors, a communication and documentation tool was created and incorporated into our departmental customer service program. This article will describe the implementation of a comprehensive customer service program in a hospital-based radiology department. A comprehensive customer service program was created in the radiology department. Customer service representatives were hired to answer the telephone calls to the radiology reading rooms and to help convey radiology results. The radiologists, referring clinicians, and customer service representatives were then linked via a novel workflow management system. This workflow management system provided tools to help facilitate the communication needs of each group. The number of studies with results conveyed was recorded from the implementation of the workflow management system. Between the implementation of the workflow management system on August 1, 2005, and June 1, 2009, 116,844 radiology results were conveyed to the referring clinicians and documented in the system. This accounts for more than 14% of the 828,516 radiology cases performed in this time frame. We have been successful in creating a comprehensive customer service program to convey and document communication of radiology results. This program has been widely used by the ordering clinicians as well as radiologists since its inception.

  1. Magnetostriction of a Superconductor Results from the Critical-State Model

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, Z

    1995-01-01

    In many cases, the critical-state theory can be treated as a suffi ciently accurate approximation for the modelling of the magnetic properties of superconductors. In the present work, the magnetostrictive hysteresis is computed for a quite general case of the modified Kim-Anderson model. The results obtained reproduce many features of the giant magnetostriction (butterfly-shaped curves) reported in the literature for measurements made on single-crystal samples of the high-temperature superconductor $Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8$. It is shown that addition of a contribution to the magnetostriction in the superconducting state which is of similar origin as in the normal state, offers a broader phenomenological interpretation of the complex magnetostriction hysteresis found in such heavy-fermion compounds as $UPt_3$, $URu_2Si_2$ or $UBe_{13}$.

  2. Recent results on analytical plasma turbulence theory: Realizability, intermittency, submarginal turbulence, and self-organized criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-18

    Recent results and future challenges in the systematic analytical description of plasma turbulence are described. First, the importance of statistical realizability is stressed, and the development and successes of the Realizable Markovian Closure are briefly reviewed. Next, submarginal turbulence (linearly stable but nonlinearly self-sustained fluctuations) is considered and the relevance of nonlinear instability in neutral-fluid shear flows to submarginal turbulence in magnetized plasmas is discussed. For the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, a self-consistency loop that leads to steady-state vortex regeneration in the presence of dissipation is demonstrated and a partial unification of recent work of Drake (for plasmas) and of Waleffe (for neutral fluids) is given. Brief remarks are made on the difficulties facing a quantitatively accurate statistical description of submarginal turbulence. Finally, possible connections between intermittency, submarginal turbulence, and self-organized criticality (SOC) are considered and outstanding questions are identified.

  3. Risk Stratification using Human Papillomavirus Testing among Women with Equivocally Abnormal Cytology: Results from a State-wide Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Hunt, William C; Schiffman, Mark; Katki, Hormuzd A; Cheung, Li C; Cuzick, Jack; Myers, Orrin; Castle, Philip E; Wheeler, Cosette M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines for cervical cancer screening have incorporated comparative risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) for various screening outcomes to determine management. Few cohorts are large enough to distinguish CIN3+ risks among women with minor abnormalities vs. negative cytology because of low incidence. The New Mexico HPV Pap Registry offers a unique opportunity to evaluate cervical cancer screening in a diverse population across a broad-spectrum of health service delivery. Methods Kaplan-Meier and logistic-Weibull survival models were used to estimate cumulative risks of CIN3+ among women aged 21–64 who were screened in New Mexico between 2007–2011 with negative, equivocal or mildly abnormal cytology, i.e., atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; with or without HPV triage), or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Results We identified 452,045 women meeting the selection criteria. The 3-year CIN3+ risks for women with negative, ASC-US and LSIL cytology were: 0.30%, 2.6%, and 5.2%, respectively. HPV triage of ASC-US stratified 3-year CIN3+ risks were 0.72% for HPV-negative and 7.7% for HPV-positive. Risks tended to decline after age 30 for all screening results. Conclusions In this state-wide population-based cohort, cytology and HPV triage of ASC-US stratified women’s CIN3+ risk into similar patterns observed previously, suggesting the validity of screening guidelines for diverse populations in the United States (U.S.). Absolute risk estimates should be compared across other large populations. Impact Strategies for HPV triage of ASC-US derived from clinical trials are upheld in large clinical practice settings and across diverse screening populations in the U.S.. PMID:26518316

  4. Top five industries resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-04-10

    Because industries using and/or producing chemicals are located in close proximity to populated areas, U.S. residents are at risk for unintentional chemical exposures. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. This report summarizes data for the top five industries resulting in injuries from an acute chemical incident (lasting truck transportation, educational services, chemical manufacturing, utilities, and food manufacturing) accounted for approximately one third of all incidents in which persons were injured as a result of unintentional release of chemicals; the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. Acute chemical incidents in these five industries resulted in serious public health implications including the need for evacuations, morbidity, and mortality. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Targeting chemical incident prevention and preparedness activities towards these five industries provides an efficient use of resources for reducing chemical exposures. A variety of methods can be used to minimize chemical releases in industries. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hierarchy of controls model, which focuses on controlling exposures to occupational hazards. The hierarchy includes elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment.

  5. Elevated blood lead in California adults, 1987: results of a statewide surveillance program based on laboratory reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L; Sutton, P; Jones, J R; Kizer, K W

    1990-08-01

    California medical laboratories that test for blood lead are required to report results exceeding 1.21 mumols/L (25 micrograms/dl). Between April and December 1987, the California Department of Health Services received 3,077 blood lead reports from 34 laboratories for 1,293 civilian, non-institutionalized adults. Approximately 1 percent of all reports exceeded 3.87 mumols/L (80 micrograms/dl), 7 percent exceeded 2.42 mumols/L (50 micrograms/dl), and 21 percent exceeded 1.93 mumols/L (40 micrograms/dl). Individuals tested were overwhelmingly male (94 percent), disproportionately Hispanic surnamed (44 percent), and most often residents of Los Angeles County (81 percent). Workers in lead smelting, battery manufacturing, and brass foundries accounted for nearly 80 percent of reports. Construction, radiator repair, pottery and ceramics manufacturing, and gun firing ranges accounted for the remainder. All adults with reports of greater than or equal to 2.90 mumols/L who were contacted reported on occupational exposure. Approximately half were not in routine medical monitoring programs. Despite OSHA standards, elevated blood lead with the potential for serious acute and chronic lead poisoning in California adults remains a significant public health and major occupational health concern.

  6. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  7. The results of the critical design of the mission instruments of GOSAT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Yukie; Suto, Hiroshi; Yotsumoto, Kazuhiko; Miyakawa, Takehiro; Hashimoto, Makiko; Shiomi, Kei; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Hirabayashi, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    The GOSAT-2 is the successor satellite to the GOSAT which is the satellite dedicated to the measurements of the greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. GOSAT was launched in January of 2009 and has been operated for about seven years. The development of the GOSAT-2 has been continued for two years, and through the preliminary and critical design phase the detail of the design of the mission instruments were fixed as well as the bus system design. The mission instruments of the GOSAT-2 are TANSO-FTS-2 and TANSO-CAI-2. TANSO-FTS-2 is the Fourier Transform Spectrometer observing greenhouse gases such as Carbon Dioxide and Methane and TANSO-CAI-2 is the imager observing the aerosols and clouds to compensate the TANSO-FTS-2 data and to grasp the movements of the aerosols such as PM2.5. The mission instruments will adopt the same kinds of instruments as GOSAT. But some improvements will be carried. Based on the results of the preliminary design, the design had been refined in the critical design phase and the results of the design meets all of the requirements on the mission instruments derived from the mission requirements to understand CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks and carbon cycle precisely. To improve the measurement accuracy, the signal to noise ratio will be increased by the extension of the aperture size from 64mm to 73mm and cooling the after optics as well as the thermal detectors. And to increase the number of the useful data, GOSAT-2 will equip the function to avoid the clouds during the observation using the images obtained by the monitor camera in FTS. To observe the carbon monoxide, the 2.3μm observation channel will be added. This function will be realized by the extension of the 2.0μm observation band to 2.3μm. The pointing angle in the along track direction will be extend from 20 degrees of GOSAT to 40 degrees to expand the observation area over the ocean where the sun glint is observed. This will make it possible to increase the number

  8. The burden of eclampsia: results from a multicenter study on surveillance of severe maternal morbidity in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C Giordano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Maternal mortality (MM is a core indicator of disparities in women's rights. The study of Near Miss cases is strategic to identifying the breakdowns in obstetrical care. In absolute numbers, both MM and occurrence of eclampsia are rare events. We aim to assess the obstetric care indicators and main predictors for severe maternal outcome from eclampsia (SMO: maternal death plus maternal near miss. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a multicenter, cross-sectional study, including 27 centers from all geographic regions of Brazil, from 2009 to 2010. 426 cases of eclampsia were identified and classified according to the outcomes: SMO and non-SMO. We classified facilities as coming from low- and high-income regions and calculated the WHO's obstetric health indicators. SPSS and Stata softwares were used to calculate the prevalence ratios (PR and respective 95% confidence interval (CI to assess maternal characteristics, clinical and obstetrical history, and access to health services as predictors for SMO, subsequently correlating them with the corresponding perinatal outcomes, also applying multiple regression analysis (adjusted for cluster effect. RESULTS: Prevalence of and mortality indexes for eclampsia in higher and lower income regions were 0.2%/0.8% and 8.1%/22%, respectively. Difficulties in access to health care showed that ICU admission (adjPR 3.61; 95% CI 1.77-7.35 and inadequate monitoring (adjPR 2.31; 95% CI 1.48-3.59 were associated with SMO. CONCLUSIONS: Morbidity and mortality associated with eclampsia were high in Brazil, especially in lower income regions. Promoting quality maternal health care and improving the availability of obstetric emergency care are essential actions to relieve the burden of eclampsia.

  9. Determinants of Survival in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER Study of 14,228 Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Taioli

    Full Text Available Left untreated, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is associated with uniformly poor prognosis. Better survival has been reported with surgery-based multimodality therapy, but to date, no trial has demonstrated survival benefit of surgery over other therapies. We evaluated whether cancer-directed surgery influenced survival independently from other predictors in a large population-based dataset.The SEER database was explored from 1973 to 2009 to identify all cases of pathologically-proven MPM. Age, sex, race, year of diagnosis, histology stage, cancer-directed surgery, radiation, and vital status were analyzed. The association between prognostic factors and survival was estimated using Cox regression and propensity matched analysis.There were 14,228 patients with pathologic diagnosis of MPM. On multivariable analysis, female gender, younger age, early stage, and treatment with surgery were independent predictors of longer survival. In comparison to no treatment, surgery alone was associated with significant improvement in survival [adjusted hazard ratio (adj HR 0.64 (0.61-0.67], but not radiation [adj HR 1.15 (1.08-1.23]. Surgery and radiation combined had similar survival as surgery alone [adj HR 0.69 (0.64-0.76]. Results were similar when cases diagnosed between 1973 and 1999 were compared to cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2009.Despite developments in surgical and radiation techniques, the prognosis for MPM patients has not improved over the past 4 decades. Cancer-directed surgery is independently associated with better survival, suggesting that multimodal surgery-based therapy can benefit these patients. Further research in adjuvant treatment is necessary to improve prognosis in this challenging disease.

  10. A qualitative study of state-level zoonotic disease surveillance in new England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch, M; Mattocks, K; Rabinowitz, P; Brandt, C

    2011-03-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases transmittable between animals and humans and outbreaks of these diseases in animals can signify that humans are also infected (or vice versa). Thus, communication between animal and human health agencies is critical for surveillance. Understanding how these agencies conduct surveillance and share information is important for the development of successful automated zoonotic monitoring systems. Individual interviews were conducted with 13 professionals who perform animal or human zoonotic disease surveillance in one of the New England states. Questions centred on existing surveillance methods, collaborations between animal and human health agencies, and technological and data needs. The results showed that agencies routinely communicate over suspected zoonotic disease cases, yet there are barriers preventing automated electronic linking of health data of animals and humans. These include technological barriers and barriers due to sensitivity and confidentiality of information. Addressing these will facilitate the development of electronic systems for integrating animal and human zoonotic disease surveillance data.

  11. Prevalence of cutipositivity in a sample of homeless shelter population in Rome in the course of Latent Tuberculosis Infection surveillance plan. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Laurenti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: in Europe homelessness is a known risk factor both for active and latent tuberculosis (TB. In Rome 409 cases of TB were notified in 2004, but the real occurrence among homeless people is unknown. Tuberculosis surveillance has been organized with the aim to develop an integrated model for the risk evaluation and management of both Latent Tuberculosis infections (LTBI and TB in Rome homeless people.

    Methods: the eligible individuals have been recruited in the homeless’ refuges. The Tuberculin Mantoux test has been used to evaluate the infection prevalence; in case of a positive result, the individual’s expectorate has been collected and the chest X-ray has been performed. A collecting data form has been filled in for evaluating some risk factors. Multiple logistic regression models have been carried out to find statistically significant determinants of infection.

    Results: out of 120 subjects recruited, 108 came back for the evaluation of the skin test; the prevalence of LTBI was 43.5% (47/108 subjects; no active TB cases were found. According to the multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated to LTBI are gender (for males OR = 4.94; 95% CI: 1.46 – 16.67, 1st model; OR 5.84; 95% CI: 1.26 – 21.10, 2nd model, birth place (for Europe: OR 3.05; 95% CI: 1.02 – 9.13, 1st model; OR 3.12; 95% CI: 1.10 – 8.88, 2nd model; for East Mediterranean native Region OR = 4.34; 95%CI: 1.15-16.39; Body Mass Index class (for obesity OR = 3.34; 95% CI:1.31-8.51.

    Conclusions: these preliminary results have demonstrated a high prevalence of LTBI among homeless people. Male gender, birth place (Europe and East Mediterranean native Region and obesity were found to be significant risk factors. The surveillance system allowed positive patients for LTBI to be rapidly directed to a specialized centre for the clinical evaluation and the appropriate therapy

  12. Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Löfström, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) substituted phage typing as the subtyping method for surveillance of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from animals, food, and humans in Denmark. The purpose of this study was to develop a modeling approach applying a combination of serovars, MLVA types......, and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude...

  13. Experimental results of fingerprint comparison validity and reliability: A review and critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Ralph Norman; Haber, Lyn

    2014-09-01

    Our purpose in this article is to determine whether the results of the published experiments on the accuracy and reliability of fingerprint comparison can be generalized to fingerprint laboratory casework, and/or to document the error rate of the Analysis-Comparison-Evaluation (ACE) method. We review the existing 13 published experiments on fingerprint comparison accuracy and reliability. These studies comprise the entire corpus of experimental research published on the accuracy of fingerprint comparisons since criminal courts first admitted forensic fingerprint evidence about 120years ago. We start with the two studies by Ulery, Hicklin, Buscaglia and Roberts (2011, 2012), because they are recent, large, designed specifically to provide estimates of the accuracy and reliability of fingerprint comparisons, and to respond to the criticisms cited in the National Academy of Sciences Report (2009). Following the two Ulery et al. studies, we review and evaluate the other eleven experiments, considering problems that are unique to each. We then evaluate the 13 experiments for the problems common to all or most of them, especially with respect to the generalizability of their results to laboratory casework. Overall, we conclude that the experimental designs employed deviated from casework procedures in critical ways that preclude generalization of the results to casework. The experiments asked examiner-subjects to carry out their comparisons using different responses from those employed in casework; the experiments presented the comparisons in formats that differed from casework; the experiments enlisted highly trained examiners as experimental subjects rather than subjects drawn randomly from among all fingerprint examiners; the experiments did not use fingerprint test items known to be comparable in type and especially in difficulty to those encountered in casework; and the experiments did not require examiners to use the ACE method, nor was that method defined

  14. Molecular typing and resistance mechanisms of imipenem-non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan: results from the Taiwan surveillance of antibiotic resistance (TSAR) study, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Lu, Po-Liang; Siu, L Kristopher; Hsieh, Min-Han

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the molecular mechanisms and clonality of imipenem-non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected during a Taiwan national surveillance programme, between 2002 and 2009. Genes for carbapenemases, plasmid-borne ampC-type genes and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes were analysed by PCR. The major porin channels OmpK35 and OmpK36 were studied by SDS-PAGE. Molecular typing was performed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Our study revealed that all 29 of the isolates tested were ESBL producers. Of the K. pneumoniae isolates collected in Taiwan from 2002 to 2009, most (84.6 %, 11/13) imipenem-resistant (MIC >2 mg l(-1)) isolates carried the bla(IMP-8) gene. Isolates with an imipenem MIC of 2 mg l(-1) produced ESBLs with or without DHA-1 in combination with OmpK35/36 loss. PFGE analysis revealed that six small clusters of isolates were clonally related. The MLST grouping results were in concordance with the PFGE results. The predominant sequence types (ST) were ST11, ST48 and ST101. Two novel STs, ST1033 and ST1034, were found. The dominant clone in Taiwan, ST11, has been reported worldwide to be associated with various resistance mechanisms.

  15. Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids in a Department of Oral Sciences: Results of a Thirteen-Year Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. A. Gatto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Aim of this analysis was to identify trends that will aid in the prevention of injury. Methods. Our data were collected from 1999 to 2011 during a surveillance program of occupational exposures to blood or other potentially infectious materials in a Dental School by using a standard coded protocol. Results. 63 exposures were reported. 56/63 (89% percutaneous and 7/63 (11% mucosal, involving a splash to the eye of the dental care workers (DCW. 25/63 (40% involved students, 23/63 (36% DCW attending masters and doctorate, 13/63 (21% DCW attending as tutors and 2/63 (3% staff. 45/63 (71% and 18/63 (29% occurred respectively during and after the use of the device; of last ones, 1/18 (0.05% were related to instrument clean-up and 1/18 (0.05% to laboratory activity, 12/18 (67% occurred when a DCW collided with a sharp object during the setting, and 4/18 (22% during other activities. The instrument and the body part most likely involved were needle and finger respectively. The overall exposure rate was 4.78 per 10,000 patient visits. Conclusions Our results may serve as benchmark that Dental Schools can employ to assess their frequency of injury.

  16. Non-Maxwellian electron distributions resulting from direct laser acceleration in near-critical plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Toncian, T; McCary, E; Meadows, A; Arefiev, A V; Blakeney, J; Serratto, K; Kuk, D; Chester, C; Roycroft, R; Gao, L; Fu, H; Yan, X Q; Schreiber, J; Pomerantz, I; Bernstein, A; Quevedo, H; Dyer, G; Ditmire, T; Hegelich, B M

    2015-01-01

    The irradiation of few nm thick targets by a finite-contrast high-intensity short-pulse laser results in a strong pre-expansion of these targets at the arrival time of the main pulse. The targets decompress to near and lower than critical densities plasmas extending over few micrometers, i.e. multiple wavelengths. The interaction of the main pulse with such a highly localized but inhomogeneous target leads to the generation of a short channel and further self-focusing of the laser beam. Experiments at the GHOST laser system at UT Austin using such targets measured non-Maxwellian, peaked electron distribution with large bunch charge and high electron density in the laser propagation direction. These results are reproduced in 2D PIC simulations using the EPOCH code, identifying Direct Laser Acceleration (DLA) as the responsible mechanism. This is the first time that DLA has been observed to produce peaked spectra as opposed to broad, maxwellian spectra observed in earlier experiments. This high-density electron...

  17. The politics of surveillance policy: UK regulatory dynamics after Snowden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hintz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The revelations by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden have illustrated the scale and extent of digital surveillance carried out by different security and intelligence agencies. The publications have led to a variety of concerns, public debate, and some diplomatic fallout regarding the legality of the surveillance, the extent of state interference in civic life, and the protection of civil rights in the context of security. Debates about the policy environment of surveillance emerged quickly after the leaks began, but actual policy change is only starting. In the UK, a draft law (Investigatory Powers Bill has been proposed and is currently discussed. In this paper, we will trace the forces and dynamics that have shaped this particular policy response. Addressing surveillance policy as a site of struggle between different social forces and drawing on different fields across communication policy research, we suggest eight dynamics that, often in conflicting ways, have shaped the regulatory framework of surveillance policy in the UK since the Snowden leaks. These include the governmental context; national and international norms; court rulings; civil society advocacy; technical standards; private sector interventions; media coverage; and public opinion. We investigate how state surveillance has been met with criticism by parts of the technology industry and civil society, and that policy change was required as a result of legal challenges, review commissions and normative interventions. However a combination of specific government compositions, the strong role of security agendas and discourses, media justification and a muted reaction by the public have hindered a more fundamental review of surveillance practices so far and have moved policy debate towards the expansion, rather than the restriction, of surveillance in the aftermath of Snowden.

  18. Principales resultados del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia en el año 2004 Main results of the Cuban system of pharmacological surveillance system in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Debesa García

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los principales resultados alcanzados por el sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia en el 2004. Durante 12 meses, los casos se identificaron mediante el sistema de notificación voluntaria de sospecha de reacciones adversas a medicamentos. Se recibieron en la Unidad Nacional Coordinadora de Farmacovigilancia 7 063 notificaciones de reacciones adversas medicamentosas (RAM que contenían 13 500 a razón de 1,9 RAM por notificación, de ellas 3 185 fueron “importantes” para el 35,1 % (según criterios para determinar RAM importantes de la UCNFv , en las Normas y procedimientos de trabajo del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia. La tasa de notificación anual fue de 628 notificaciones por millón de habitantes. El 64,6 % de las RAM correspondió al sexo femenino y el 35,4 % al masculino. En cuanto al nivel de asistencia, la atención primaria fue la que más notificó con 85 %. La relación de reacciones leves con respecto a las moderadas y graves fue de 48,3/51,4 %, que continúa con un balance muy bueno en relación con el reporte por severidad. Se reportaron 23 reacciones con desenlace fatal, para el 0,3 %. A pesar de la disminución en cuanto al número de notificaciones recibidas en nuestro unidad, con respecto al año anterior, aún se encuentra entre las tasas de notificación más altas de los países miembros del sistema internacional de monitoreo de RAM; por otra parte, dada la calidad de estas permitieron cuantificar y caracterizar las RAM, teniendo además un gran valor para generar alertas y vigilar la seguridad de los medicamentos que circulan en nuestro país.The main results achieved by the Cuban Pharmacological Surveillance System in the year 2004 were described. During these 12 months, the cases were identified by the voluntary notification system of suspected adverse reactions to drugs. The National Coordinating Unit of Pharmacological Surveillance (NCUPs received 7 063 notifications that included 13 500 adverse drug

  19. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, Joan; Natividad-Sancho, Angels; Trushakova, Svetlana; Sominina, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Ciblak, Meral A.; Badur, Selim; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.; El Guerche-Séblain, Clotilde; Mira-Iglesias, Ainara; Kisteneva, Lidiya; Stolyarov, Kirill; Yurtcu, Kubra; Feng, Luzhao; López-Labrador, Xavier; Burtseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations. Methods Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Findings 5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2), 362 A(H1N1), 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B). The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33–2.02]), asthma (2.25 [1.67–3.03]), immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23–4.11]), renal disease (2.11 [1.48–3.01]), liver disease (1.94 [1.18–3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58–5.59]), and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48–5.94]). Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48–0.77]). Conclusions Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza

  20. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Puig-Barberà

    Full Text Available The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations.Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression.5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2, 362 A(H1N1, 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B. The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33-2.02], asthma (2.25 [1.67-3.03], immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23-4.11], renal disease (2.11 [1.48-3.01], liver disease (1.94 [1.18-3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58-5.59], and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48-5.94]. Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48-0.77].Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza virus in patients hospitalized with influenza

  1. Safety of laboratory analyzers for infection testing - results of the market surveillance by the BfArM until end 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekmeier R

    2009-12-01

    quality control (8. Manufacturers issued corrective measures in 66 cases (90.4% from which 49 and 17 were related to laboratory analyzers and their consumables, respectively. Based on the underlying root causes of product failures these were predominantly customer information (48, recalls (40, software-updates (30 and design changes (9 in the product group of laboratory analyzers as well as customer information (16, recalls (12 and modifications of production and quality management (11 in the group of consumables. The results and experiences obtained since 1999 suggest that the system for post marketing surveillance of IVD is an established tool to ensure product safety, even though the current system can be further enhanced.

  2. Some existence results for a fourth order equation involving critical exponent

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Ayed, M; Hammami, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a fourth order equation involving critical growth is considered under the Navier boundary condition: DELTA sup 2 u = Ku sup p , u > 0 in OMEGA, u = DELTA u = 0 on partial deriv OMEGA, where K is a positive function, OMEGA is a bounded smooth domain in R sup n , n >= 5 and p + 1 2n/(n - 4) is the critical Sobolev exponent. We give some topological conditions on K to ensure the existence of solutions. Our methods involve the study of the critical points at infinity and their contribution to the topology of the level sets of the associated Euler Lagrange functional.

  3. Patterns of care in older patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results-medicare analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWalde, Noam A; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Liu, Huan; Tyree, Seth D; Zullig, Leah L; Carpenter, William R; Shores, Carol D; Weissler, Mark C; Hayes, David N; Fleming, Mary; Chera, Bhishamjit S

    2013-07-01

    There is growing evidence in the literature that older patients may not benefit from more intensive therapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A growing number of patients with HNSCC are age 65 years or older; however, much of the evidence base informing treatment decisions is based on substantially younger and healthier clinical trial populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns of care of older HNSCC patients to better understand how age is associated with treatment decisions. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database (1992–2007), we identified patients with non-metastatic HNSCC (n = 10,867) and categorized them by treatment: surgery vs. non-surgery and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) vs. radiotherapy (RT). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify variables associated with the receipt of surgery and CRT. Increasing age was associated with decreased odds of receiving CRT (OR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.93–0.94) but not surgery (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.99–1.00). Co-morbidity and race were not associated with receipt of either surgery or CRT. Utilization of CRT increased while surgery decreased between 1992 and 2007. Age may influence the receipt of CRT for older HNSCC patients. There has been an increasing trend in the receipt of CRT and a decrease in primary surgery.

  4. Five-year trends in epidemiology and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, St. Petersburg, Russia: results from perinatal HIV surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissin Dmitry M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Russia has increasingly involved reproductive-aged women, which may increase perinatal HIV transmission. Methods Standard HIV case-reporting and enhanced perinatal HIV surveillance systems were used for prospective assessment of HIV-infected women giving birth in St. Petersburg, Russia, during 2004-2008. Trends in social, perinatal, and clinical factors influencing mother-to-child HIV transmission stratified by history of injection drug use, and rates of perinatal HIV transmission were assessed using two-sided χ2 or Cochran-Armitage tests. Results Among HIV-infected women who gave birth, the proportion of women who self-reported ever using injection drugs (IDUs decreased from 62% in 2004 to 41% in 2008 (P P P P for trend Conclusions Reduced proportion of IDUs and improved clinical services among HIV-infected women giving birth were accompanied by decreased perinatal HIV transmission, which can be further reduced by increasing outreach and HIV testing of women before and during pregnancy.

  5. [Application medical history indicators and goals for the diagnosis of OSAS in a cohort of workers of the private car transportation: results of a year of health surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, C; Ricco, G; Launaro, N; Ceccarelli, M; Cravero, A; Manassero, F

    2012-01-01

    Even though Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is one of the main causes of daytime sleepiness with high subsequent risk for causing vehicle accidents, its evaluation is not usually included among the criteria used for the certification of job fitness among professional drivers. In order to assess the feasibility of a screening method that allows the occupational physician to identify the subjects at risk for OSAS which should undergo second level tests (cardiorespiratory monitoring), we recorded and subsequently processed appropriate subjective and objective indicators among 455 professional drivers employed in private transportation companies. Only 17 subjects (47%) out of 36 tested positive underwent cardiorespiratory monitoring (due to technical and organizational difficulties and to the poor compliance of workers). OSAS was confirmed in 15 subjects out of 17 showing an excellent positive predictive value of the screening. Risk management for OSAS is currently unavoidable yet not formally provided by law. Our results show the possibility of completing the health surveillance program with feasible and valuable screening tests. Difficulties (hardly compliant with a timely certification of the job fitness) arise instead as far as second level confirmatory procedures are involved.

  6. Use of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare Data to Conduct Case-Control Studies of Cancer Among the US Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Ricker, Winnie; Wheeler, William; Parsons, Ruth; Warren, Joan L.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is an important cause of morbidity in the elderly, and many medical conditions and treatments influence cancer risk. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database can be used to conduct population-based case-control studies that elucidate the etiology of cancer among the US elderly. SEER-Medicare links data on malignancies ascertained through SEER cancer registries to claims from Medicare, the US government insurance program for people over age 65 years. Under one approach described herein, elderly cancer cases are ascertained from SEER data (1987–2005). Matched controls are selected from a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Risk factors of interest, including medical conditions and procedures, are identified by using linked Medicare claims. Strengths of this design include the ready availability of data, representative sampling from the US elderly population, and large sample size (e.g., under one scenario: 1,176,950 cases, including 221,389 prostate cancers, 185,853 lung cancers, 138,041 breast cancers, and 124,442 colorectal cancers; and 100,000 control subjects). Limitations reflect challenges in exposure assessment related to Medicare claims: restricted range of evaluable risk factors, short time before diagnosis/selection for ascertainment, and inaccuracies in claims. With awareness of limitations, investigators have in SEER-Medicare data a valuable resource for epidemiologic research on cancer etiology. PMID:21821540

  7. Does blood flow restriction result in skeletal muscle damage? A critical review of available evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2014-12-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) alone or in combination with exercise has been shown to result in muscle hypertrophy and strength gain across a variety of populations. Although there are numerous studies in the literature showing beneficial muscular effects following the application of BFR, questions have been raised over whether BFR may lead to or even increase the incidence of muscle damage. The purpose of this review is to examine the proposed mechanisms behind muscle damage and critically review the available BFR literature. The available evidence does not support the hypothesis that BFR in combination with low-intensity exercise increases the incidence of muscle damage. Instead, the available literature suggests that minimal to no muscle damage is occurring with this type of exercise. This conclusion is drawn from the following observations: (a) no prolonged decrements in muscle function; (b) no prolonged muscle swelling; (c) muscle soreness ratings similar to a submaximal low load control; and (d) no elevation in blood biomarkers of muscle damage.

  8. Long term results of polytetrafluoroethylene in above knee femoropopliteal bypass for critical ischaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, E G

    2012-02-03

    Ninety-six consecutive above-knee femoropopliteal bypasses, using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) preferentially, were performed for limb-threatening ischaemia. Cumulative primary graft patency was 68 per cent, 49 per cent and 36 per cent and limb salvage 93 per cent, 85 per cent and 75 per cent at 1, 3 and 5 yr respectively. As a result of poor long term survival (51 per cent at 5 yr), and the healing of remedial lesions before graft occlusion, 68 patients (72 per cent) required no further intervention. Eighteen secondary bypasses were undertaken, 12 using ipsilateral saphenous vein. In this group of elderly patients with poor life expectancy, where a limited operation is desirable, the use of PTFE provided excellent limb salvage with low morbidity. Although we can no longer justify our continued use of PTFE in every case of critical ischaemia because of its inferior patency to autogenous vein, we continue to use it preferentially in patients whose lifespan is likely to be short and in cases where a remedial lesion is present.

  9. EXISTENCE AND MULTIPLICITY RESULTS FOR ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH CRITICAL SOBOLEV EXPONENT AND HARDY TERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Yanying; Tang Chunlei

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns the existence and multiplicity of solutions for some semilinear elliptic equations with critical Sobolev exponent,Hardy term and the sublinear nonlinearity at origin.By using Ekeland's variational principle,we conclude the existence of nontrivial solution for this problem,the Clark's critical point theorem is used to prove the existence of infinitely many solutions for this problem with odd nonlinearity.

  10. Are School Absences Correlated with Influenza Surveillance Data in England? Results from Decipher My Data-A Research Project Conducted through Scientific Engagement with Schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Aldridge

    Full Text Available School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza.We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13. The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP influenza like illness (ILI episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus.27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5-14 year olds, laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus.This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies in the future.

  11. An increased total resected lymph node count benefits survival following pancreas invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms resection: an analysis using the surveillance, epidemiology, and end result registry database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effect of lymph node dissection for pancreas invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN remains unclear. The study investigated whether cancer-specific survival (CSS and overall survival (OS rates among invasive IPMN patients improve when more lymph nodes are harvested during surgery. STUDY DESIGN: The study cohort was retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database. The lymph node count was categorized into quartiles. The relationship between lymph node count and survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional-hazards model. The stage migration was assessed by Chi-square tests. Propensity score matching (PSM was used to minimize confounding variables between groups. RESULTS: In total, 1,080 patients with resected invasive IPMNs from 1992 to 2011 were included. Univariate and multivariate Cox models indicated that an increased lymph node count independently improves survival. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests identified 16 nodes as an optimal cut-off value that yielded a significant survival benefit for all invasive IPMN patients. The stage migration effect existed in this cohort. After PSM, the 5-year CSS increased from 36% to 47%, and the median survival rate increased from 30 months to 40 months by increasing the lymph node count to over 16, alone. The 5-year OS rate also provided additional support for this result. CONCLUSION: Increased lymph node counts were associated with improved survival in invasive IPMN patients. One cut-off value of lymph node count was 16 for this improvement.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility trends among gram-positive and -negative clinical isolates collected between 2005 and 2012 in Mexico: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Noriega, Eduardo Rodriguez; Dowzicky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) is a global antimicrobial surveillance study of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. This report presents data on antimicrobial susceptibility among organisms collected in Mexico between 2005 and 2012 as part of T.E.S.T., and compares rates between 2005–2007 and 2008–2012. Method Each center in Mexico submitted at least 200 isolates per collection year; including 65 gram-positive isolates and 135 gram-negative i...

  13. [Regionalization of federal health reporting using the example of diabetes surveillance : Aims and results of the discussion between the Robert Koch Institute and the federal states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, Lars; Heidemann, Christin; Teti, Andrea; Borrmann, Brigitte; Gawrich, Stefan; Maulbecker-Armstrong, Catharina; Fertmann, Regina; Schubert, Ulrike; Schmidt, Christian; Baumert, Jens; Paprott, Rebecca; Du, Yong; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Ziese, Thomas

    2017-09-04

    Insufficiently treated diabetes mellitus can lead to severe comorbidities. National and international analyses show a continuous increase in diabetes prevalence over the last decades. Currently, an indicator-based national diabetes surveillance system is implemented at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) to monitor and report on diabetes development on the basis of available primary and secondary data. The aim of the meeting was to go into deeper discussions and to integrate expectations and expertise of the federal states into the design of the national surveillance system. A close collaboration between the RKI and the federal states is intended.

  14. A critical review of the durability of adhesion to tooth tissue: methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, J; Van Landuyt, K; Peumans, M; Poitevin, A; Lambrechts, P; Braem, M; Van Meerbeek, B

    2005-02-01

    The immediate bonding effectiveness of contemporary adhesives is quite favorable, regardless of the approach used. In the long term, the bonding effectiveness of some adhesives drops dramatically, whereas the bond strengths of other adhesives are more stable. This review examines the fundamental processes that cause the adhesion of biomaterials to enamel and dentin to degrade with time. Non-carious class V clinical trials remain the ultimate test method for the assessment of bonding effectiveness, but in addition to being high-cost, they are time- and labor-consuming, and they provide little information on the true cause of clinical failure. Therefore, several laboratory protocols were developed to predict bond durability. This paper critically appraises methodologies that focus on chemical degradation patterns of hydrolysis and elution of interface components, as well as mechanically oriented test set-ups, such as fatigue and fracture toughness measurements. A correlation of in vitro and in vivo data revealed that, currently, the most validated method to assess adhesion durability involves aging of micro-specimens of biomaterials bonded to either enamel or dentin. After about 3 months, all classes of adhesives exhibited mechanical and morphological evidence of degradation that resembles in vivo aging effects. A comparison of contemporary adhesives revealed that the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives remain the 'gold standard' in terms of durability. Any kind of simplification in the clinical application procedure results in loss of bonding effectiveness. Only the two-step self-etch adhesives approach the gold standard and do have some additional clinical benefits.

  15. The epidemiology of malignant giant cell tumors of bone: an analysis of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (1975–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Schwartz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant giant cell tumor (GCT of bone is a rare tumor with debilitating consequences. Patients with GCT of bone typically present with mechanical difficulty and pain as a result of bone destruction and are at an increased risk for fracture. Because of its unusual occurrence, little is known about the epidemiology of malignant GCT of bone. This report offers the first reliable population-based estimates of incidence, patient demographics, treatment course and survival for malignancy in GCT of bone in the United States. Using data from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER program, we estimated the overall incidence and determinants of survival among patients diagnosed with malignant GCT of bone from 1975-2004. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate demographic and clinical determinants of survival among malignant GCT cases. Based on analyses of 117 malignant GCT cases, the estimated annual incidence in the United States was 1.6 per 10,000,000 persons per year. Incidence was highest among adults aged 20 to 44 years (2.4 per 10,000,000 per year and most patients were diagnosed with localized (31.6% or regional (29.9% disease compared to distant disease (16.2%. Approximately 85% of patients survived at least 5 years, with survival poorest among older patients and those with evidence of distant metastases at time of diagnosis. The current study represents the largest systematic investigation examining the occurrence and distribution of malignancy in GCT of bone in the general U.S. population. We confirm its rare occurrence and suggest that age and stage at diagnosis are strongly associated with long-term survival.

  16. Is Primary Prostate Cancer Treatment Influenced by Likelihood of Extraprostatic Disease? A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Patterns of Care Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Jordan A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wang, Andrew Z. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Rosenman, Julian G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Carpenter, William R. [University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Godley, Paul A. [University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); University of North Carolina-Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To examine the patterns of primary treatment in a recent population-based cohort of prostate cancer patients, stratified by the likelihood of extraprostatic cancer as predicted by disease characteristics available at diagnosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 157,371 patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 with clinically localized and potentially curable (node-negative, nonmetastatic) prostate cancer, who have complete information on prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and clinical stage, were included. Patients with clinical T1/T2 disease were grouped into categories of <25%, 25%-50%, and >50% likelihood of having extraprostatic disease using the Partin nomogram. Clinical T3/T4 patients were examined separately as the highest-risk group. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient group and receipt of each primary treatment, adjusting for age, race, year of diagnosis, marital status, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database region, and county-level education. Separate models were constructed for primary surgery, external-beam radiotherapy (RT), and conservative management. Results: On multivariable analysis, increasing likelihood of extraprostatic disease was significantly associated with increasing use of RT and decreased conservative management. Use of surgery also increased. Patients with >50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer had almost twice the odds of receiving prostatectomy as those with <25% likelihood, and T3-T4 patients had 18% higher odds. Prostatectomy use increased in recent years. Patients aged 76-80 years were likely to be managed conservatively, even those with a >50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer (34%) and clinical T3-T4 disease (24%). The proportion of patients who received prostatectomy or conservative management was approximately 50% or slightly higher in all groups. Conclusions: There may be underutilization of RT in older prostate cancer patients and those with likely

  17. Incidence and trends of cardiovascular mortality after common cancers in young adults:Analysis of surveillance, epidemiology and end-results program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadeer G Al-Kindi; Guilherme H Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular mortality(CVM) in survivors of major cancers and identify its trends over the past two decades. METHODS: We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end-results 19 registry to identify young adults(20-49 years), diagnosed with the following major primary cancers: Lung, breast, liver/intrahepatic bile duct, pancreas, prostate, colorectal, and ovarian from 1990 through 2012 and identified the cumulative incidence of CVM after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: We identified a total of 301923 cancers(breast 173748, lung 38938, colorectal 31722, prostate 22848, ovary 16065, liver 9444, pancreas 9158). A total of 2297(0.8%) of patients had incident CVM. Lung(10-year cumulative CVM 2.4%) and liver(1.73%) cancers had the highest incidence of CVM, while breast(0.6%) and prostate(1.2%) had the lowest CVM mortality, even after multiple adjustments(P < 0.001). Overall, there was a significant improvement in CVM since 1990 [2005-2012 vs 1990-1994, adjusted HR 0.63(0.54-0.72), P < 0.001]. This was driven by improvements in CVM in lung cancers(P = 0.02), breast(P < 0.001), and a trend in ovarian cancer(P = 0.097).There was no statistically significant improvement in CVM among survivors of colorectal, pancreatic, liver, or prostate cancers.CONCLUSION: The risk of CVM differs among different cancers, and is highest among survivors of lung and liver cancers. The incidence of CVM has decreased over the past 2 decades mainly among survivors of lung and breast cancers.

  18. Survival by histologic subtype in stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer based on data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei Y

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Karynsa Cetin1, David S Ettinger2, Yong-jiang Hei3, Cynthia D O'Malley11Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 2Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Global Development, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USABackground: The role of histology in the targeted management of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC has garnered renewed attention in recent years. We provide contemporary population-based estimates of survival and an assessment of important prognostic factors in stage IV NSCLC by major histologic subtype.Methods: Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER Program, we stratified 51,749 incident stage IV NSCLC patients (1988–2003 with follow-up through 2006 by major histologic subtype. We used Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods to describe overall survival and the prognostic influence of select patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics for each histologic subgroup.Results: Survival was highest in patients with bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma (1-year survival: 29.1% and lowest in those with large cell tumors (1-year survival: 12.8%. Diagnosis in later years, female gender, younger age, either Asian/Pacific Islander or Hispanic race/ethnicity, lower tumor grade, and surgery or beam radiation as part of first-line treatment were generally independently associated with a decreased risk of death, but the prognostic significance of some of these factors (age, ethnicity, tumor grade varied according to histologic subtype.Conclusion: Findings demonstrate a poor prognosis across histologic subtypes in stage IV NSCLC patients but highlight differences in both absolute survival and the relative importance of select prognostic factors by histologic subclassification. More research using other sources of population-based data could help clarify the role of histology in the presentation, management, and prognosis of late

  19. Conditional Survival in Pediatric Malignancies: Analysis of data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Ann C; Yong, Jian; Dietz, Andrew; Kreiter, Erin; Yasui, Yutaka; Bleyer, Archie; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term survivors of pediatric cancer are at risk for life-threatening late effects of their cancer. Previous studies have shown excesses in long-term mortality within high-risk groups defined by demographic and treatment characteristics. Methods To investigate conditional survival in a pediatric cancer population, we performed an analysis of conditional survival in the original Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database registry. The overall probability of death for patients in 5 years and 10 years after they survived 5, 10, 15, and 20 years since cancer diagnosis, and cause-specific death in 10 years for 5-year survivors were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Results Among CCSS and SEER patients who were alive 5 years post cancer diagnosis, within each diagnosis group at least 92% are alive in the subsequent 5 years, except leukemia patients of whom only 88% of 5-year survivors remain alive in the subsequent 5 years. The probability of all-cause mortality in the next 10 years on patients who survived at least 5 years after diagnosis, was 8.8% in CCSS and 10.6% in SEER, approximately three quarter of which were due to neoplasms as causes of death. Conclusion The risk of death of pediatric cancer survivors in 10 years can vary between diagnosis groups by at most 12% even up to 20 years post diagnosis. This information is clinically important in counseling patients on their conditional survival, particularly when survivors are seen in long-term follow-up. PMID:25557134

  20. Automated Critical PeakPricing Field Tests: 2006 Pilot ProgramDescription and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-06-19

    During 2006 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology evaluation for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) Emerging Technologies Programs. This report summarizes the design, deployment, and results from the 2006 Automated Critical Peak Pricing Program (Auto-CPP). The program was designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying automation systems that allow customers to participate in critical peak pricing (CPP) with a fully-automated response. The 2006 program was in operation during the entire six-month CPP period from May through October. The methodology for this field study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment, and evaluation of sites' participation in actual CPP events through the summer of 2006. LBNL recruited sites in PG&E's territory in northern California through contacts from PG&E account managers, conferences, and industry meetings. Each site contact signed a memorandum of understanding with LBNL that outlined the activities needed to participate in the Auto-CPP program. Each facility worked with LBNL to select and implement control strategies for demand response and developed automation system designs based on existing Internet connectivity and building control systems. Once the automation systems were installed, LBNL conducted communications tests to ensure that the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) correctly provided and logged the continuous communications of the CPP signals with the energy management and control system (EMCS) for each site. LBNL also observed and evaluated Demand Response (DR) shed strategies to ensure proper commissioning of controls. The communication system allowed sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of signals for pre-cooling, a DR strategy used at a few sites. Measurement of demand response was conducted using two different baseline models for estimating peak load savings. One

  1. Effective surveillance for homeland security balancing technology and social issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flammini, Francesco; Franceschetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Effective Surveillance for Homeland Security: Balancing Technology and Social Issues provides a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the surveillance and protection of citizens and critical infrastructures against natural and deliberate threats. Focusing on current technological challenges involving multi-disciplinary problem analysis and systems engineering approaches, it provides an overview of the most relevant aspects of surveillance systems in the framework of homeland security. Addressing both advanced surveillance technologies and the related socio-ethical issues, the book consists of 21 chapters written by international experts from the various sectors of homeland security. Part I, Surveillance and Society, focuses on the societal dimension of surveillance-stressing the importance of societal acceptability as a precondition to any surveillance system. Part II, Physical and Cyber Surveillance, presents advanced technologies for surveillance. It considers developing technologie...

  2. How the surveillance system may bias the results of analytical epidemiological studies on BSE: prevalence among dairy versus beef suckler cattle breeds in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Morignat, Eric; Baron, Thierry; Calavas, Didier

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, epidemiological studies on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) were based on Mandatory Reporting Systems (MRS) of clinically suspect bovines only, but rapid diagnostic tests were validated in 1999 and are used for targeted surveillance in Switzerland, France and other countries, as a complementary and secondary tool. Data on 30491 cattle issued from a French pilot program targeted at cattle having died on the farm, subjected to euthanasia or sent for emergency slaughter, did not show any significant difference in BSE risk between dairy and beef suckler breeds. The data also revealed that part of the clinical cases of BSE escaped the MRS, which permitted to detect more dairy than beef suckler affected cattle compared to the targeted surveillance in the same period (from August to December 2000) and region (Bretagne, Pays de la Loire and Basse Normandie regions). Analyzing together the data of the targeted surveillance and mandatory reporting system programs with a non-conditional logistic regression, we found that the odds of a dead cow being a BSE case among all dead cattle was 3.2 times higher for dairy breeds compared to beef suckler breeds. This confirmed British findings but points out to the fact that considering either MRS or targeted surveillance data alone may possibly create biases in epidemiological studies on BSE.

  3. Resistance to beta-lactams among blood isolates of Salmonella spp. in European hospitals : results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program 1997-98

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzouvelekis, LS; Lukova, [No Value; Tassios, PT; Fluit, AC; Jones, RN; Legakis, NJ

    2003-01-01

    The susceptibility to beta -lactams and the beta -lactamase content of 110 Salmonella spp. blood isolates collected during 1997-98 in 19 European centers participating in the SENTRY Surveillance Program were studied. Thirty-one isolates (28%) were resistant to penicillins, due to production of TEM-1

  4. Resistance to beta-lactams among blood isolates of Salmonella spp. in European hospitals : results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program 1997-98

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzouvelekis, LS; Lukova, [No Value; Tassios, PT; Fluit, AC; Jones, RN; Legakis, NJ

    2003-01-01

    The susceptibility to beta -lactams and the beta -lactamase content of 110 Salmonella spp. blood isolates collected during 1997-98 in 19 European centers participating in the SENTRY Surveillance Program were studied. Thirty-one isolates (28%) were resistant to penicillins, due to production of TEM-1

  5. Random effect modelling of patient-related risk factors in orthopaedic procedures: results from the Dutch nosocomial infection surveillance network 'PREZIES'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muilwijk, J.; Walenkamp, G.H.; Voss, A.; Wille, J.C.; Hof, S. van den

    2006-01-01

    In the Dutch surveillance for surgical site infections (SSIs), data from 70277 orthopaedic procedures with 1895 SSIs were collected between 1996 and 2003. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyse the trends in SSIs associated with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; (2) to estimate patient-

  6. What is the optimal definition of misclassification in patients with very low-risk prostate cancer eligible for active surveillance? Results from a multi-institutional series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandaglia, G.; Ploussard, G.; Isbarn, H.; Suardi, N.; Visschere, P.J. De; Futterer, J.J.; Ghadjar, P.; Massard, C.; Ost, P.; Sooriakumaran, P.; Surcel, C.I.; Bergh, R.C. van den; Montorsi, F.; Ficarra, V.; Giannarini, G.; Briganti, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of unfavorable prostate cancer in active surveillance (AS) candidates is nonnegligible. However, what represents an adverse pathologic outcome in this setting is unknown. We aimed at assessing the optimal definition of misclassification and its effect on recurrence in AS candida

  7. 北海口岸2008年伊蚊监测结果分析%Analysis of Aedes surveillance results at Beihai international port in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林伟青; 陈健超; 吕良勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解埃及伊蚊、白纹伊蚊在北海口岸的密度、季节分布规律.方法 采用人工小时法对成蚊进行监测,对幼虫的监测分别采用指数调查法、集卵器法和100ml记数法.结果 在北海港捕获的697只及铁山港捕获的317只伊蚊成虫及两口岸所监测的幼虫,经鉴定均为白纹伊蚊.两地伊蚊成蚊平均密度分别为17.2和7.4只/人工小时,伊蚊幼虫的房屋指数、容器指数、布雷图指数、诱器指数及100 ml记数法幼虫密度指数分别为4.0%和13.0%,19.2%和27.2%,5.0和17.2,12.0%和23.2%,2.0和2.8条/100 ml.结论 两地伊蚊密度及其幼虫相关指数较高,提示口岸存在登革热流行的潜在危险.通过调查,初步摸清了北海口岸伊蚊的种类构成、密度和幼虫相关的指数等情况,为进一步做好口岸埃及伊蚊、白纹伊蚊的防制以及登革热防控提供技术数据.%Objective To investigate the density and distribution of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus with seasons at the Beihai international port. Methods The labor hour method was used for surveillance of adult mosquitoes, with the index number method, the egg apparatus method, and the 100 ml counting method employed for larva surveillance. Results A total of 697 adult Aedes were captured in Beihai port with 317 adult Aedes sampled in Tieshangang port. All the adult Aedes and larvas collected in the two ports were identified as Ae. albopictus, and the average density of adult Aedes in Beihai port and Tieshangang port was 17.2 and 7.4 per labor hour respectively. The value of HI, CI, and BI of larva Aedes was 4.0% and 13.0%, 19.2% and 27.2%, and 5.0 and 17.2, with an ovitrap index of 12.0% and 23.2%, and a larvas Aedes density of 2.0 larvae/100 ml and 2.8 larvae/l00 ml at the two ports respectively. Conclusion There exist high density of adult Aedes and index of larvae Aedes in the two ports, suggesting that there is a high potential risk for dengue prevalence. The

  8. The level of health literacy of Gansu residents in 2012:Surveillance results%2012年甘肃省居民健康素养监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆一鸣; 鲁培俊; 钱国宏; 韦国锋; 朱泽善; 康国荣; 邓慧心

    2015-01-01

    Objective To know about the level of health literacy of Gansu residents by surveillance,and provide scientific suggestions for developing health promotion and education strategy.Methods Multistage PPS sampling method was adopted in the surveillance,2946 residents aged 15 -69 years from 10 counties were investigated.Results The overall lev-el of adjusted health literacy (AHL)among the Gansu residents in 2012 was 6.8%,with the 7.0% in male and 6.6% in female,while 8.5%among the urban residents and 5.7%among the rural residents.The AHL rates in the 3 health literacy related aspects asbasic health concept and knowledge,healthy lifestyle and behaviors,and health related skills were 14.5%,9.5% and 8.4%.The AHL rates of 6 health issues as safety and first aid,scientific attitude towards health,in-fectious diseases prevention,health information literacy,basic medical care,and chronic diseases prevention among the whole Gansu residents were 39.1%,31.2%,20.6%,13.3%,10.6%,and 6.1%.Conclusion The level of health literacy Gansu residents is very low,especially in chronic diseases prevention.%目的:通过健康素养监测,了解甘肃省城乡居民健康素养水平,为甘肃省健康教育和健康促进战略提供科学依据。方法2012年10—12月,采用分层多阶段 PPS 抽样方法,随机抽取10个县区2946名15~69岁常住人口进行问卷调查。结果经过加权调整后,甘肃省居民健康素养水平为6.8%,男性为7.0%,女性为6.6%。城市居民为8.5%,农村居民为5.7%。在健康素养的3个方面中,基本知识和理念素养水平为14.5%,健康生活方式与行为素养水平为9.5%,基本技能素养水平为8.4%。具备6类健康问题素养的比例由高到低依次为安全与急救素养39.1%、科学健康观31.2%、传染病防治素养20.6%、健康信息素养13.3%、基本医疗素养10.6%和慢性病防治素养6.1%。结论甘肃省城乡居民

  9. Critical appraisal of quantitative PCR results in colorectal cancer research: Can we rely on published qPCR results?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.R.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Bustin, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in cancer research has become ubiquitous. The relative simplicity of qPCR experiments, which deliver fast and cost-effective results, means that each year an increasing number of papers utilizing this technique are being published. B

  10. Stereotaxic gamma knife surgery in treatment of critically located pilocytic astrocytoma: preliminary result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Raef FA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-grade gliomas are uncommon primary brain tumors, located more often in the posterior fossa, optic pathway, and brain stem and less commonly in the cerebral hemispheres. Case presentations Two patients with diagnosed recurrent cystic pilocytic astrocytoma critically located within the brain (thalamic and brain stem were treated with gamma knife surgery. Gamma knife surgery (GKS did improve the patient's clinical condition very much which remained stable later on. Progressive reduction on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies of the solid part of the tumor and almost disappearance of the cystic component was achieved within the follow-up period of 36 months in the first case with the (thalamic located lesion and 22 months in the second case with the (brain stem located lesion. Conclusion Gamma knife surgery represents an alternate tool in the treatment of recurrent and/or small postoperative residual pilocytic astrocytoma especially if they are critically located

  11. Stereotaxic gamma knife surgery in treatment of critically located pilocytic astrocytoma: preliminary result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Raef FA

    2007-01-01

    Background Low-grade gliomas are uncommon primary brain tumors, located more often in the posterior fossa, optic pathway, and brain stem and less commonly in the cerebral hemispheres. Case presentations Two patients with diagnosed recurrent cystic pilocytic astrocytoma critically located within the brain (thalamic and brain stem) were treated with gamma knife surgery. Gamma knife surgery (GKS) did improve the patient's clinical condition very much which remained stable later on. Progressive reduction on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the solid part of the tumor and almost disappearance of the cystic component was achieved within the follow-up period of 36 months in the first case with the (thalamic located lesion) and 22 months in the second case with the (brain stem located lesion). Conclusion Gamma knife surgery represents an alternate tool in the treatment of recurrent and/or small postoperative residual pilocytic astrocytoma especially if they are critically located PMID:17394660

  12. The Relationship between Social Presence and Critical Thinking: Results from Learner Discourse in an Asynchronous Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Costley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between social presence and critical thinking is useful for gaining insight into the interaction and discourse of learners online. Further study of how these two presences interact is important because research has shown a wide variety of relationships, both positive and negative, between social presence and critical thinking. The aim of this study is to investigate social presence and critical thinking using discourse analysis in the hope that it will deepen and broaden our understanding of the relationship between these important facets of learner discourse. Using quantitative analysis, an online forum used by students at a national university in Korea (n=219 was analyzed by taking 900 forum posts to determine the levels of social presence and critical thinking in each post. The relationships between social presence and critical thinking were analyzed and the results show that social presence and critical thinking have a negative correlation. This highlights the need for awareness of learner discourse, as an increase in social presence may lead to a decrease in critical thinking and vice versa. The likely cause of this is that learners tend not to change the discourse once the discourse within a particular context has been set.

  13. Critical appraisal of quantitative PCR results in colorectal cancer research: can we rely on published qPCR results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, J R; van Kempen, L C; Nagtegaal, I D; Bustin, S A

    2014-06-01

    The use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in cancer research has become ubiquitous. The relative simplicity of qPCR experiments, which deliver fast and cost-effective results, means that each year an increasing number of papers utilizing this technique are being published. But how reliable are the published results? Since the validity of gene expression data is greatly dependent on appropriate normalisation to compensate for sample-to-sample and run-to-run variation, we have evaluated the adequacy of normalisation procedures in qPCR-based experiments. Consequently, we assessed all colorectal cancer publications that made use of qPCR from 2006 until August 2013 for the number of reference genes used and whether they had been validated. Using even these minimal evaluation criteria, the validity of only three percent (6/179) of the publications can be adequately assessed. We describe common errors, and conclude that the current state of reporting on qPCR in colorectal cancer research is disquieting. Extrapolated to the study of cancer in general, it is clear that the majority of studies using qPCR cannot be reliably assessed and that at best, the results of these studies may or may not be valid and at worst, pervasive incorrect normalisation is resulting in the wholesale publication of incorrect conclusions. This survey demonstrates that the existence of guidelines, such as MIQE, is necessary but not sufficient to address this problem and suggests that the scientific community should examine its responsibility and be aware of the implications of these findings for current and future research.

  14. Soil water storage, mixing dynamics and resulting travel times through the critical zone in northern latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Matthias; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Weiler, Markus; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Water partitioning in the unsaturated zone into groundwater recharge, plant transpiration, and evaporation is fundamental for estimating storages and travel times. How water is mixed and routed through the soil is of broad interest to understand plant available water, contamination transport and weathering rates in the critical zone. Earlier work has shown how seasonal changes in hydroclimate influence the time variant character of travel times. A strong seasonality characterizes the northern latitudes which are particularly sensitive to climate and land use changes. It is crucial to understand how variation and change in hydroclimate and vegetation phenology impact time variant storage dynamics and flow path partitioning in the unsaturated zone. To better understand the influence of these ecohydrological processes on travel times of evaporative, transpiration and recharge fluxes in northern latitudes, we characterized soil physical properties, hydrometric conditions and soil water isotopic composition in the upper soil profile in two different land scape units in the long term experimental catchment, Bruntland Burn in the Scottish Highlands. Our two sampling locations are characterized by podzol soils with high organic matter content but they differ with regard to their vegetation cover with either Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) or heather (Calluna sp. and Erica Sp). To assess storage and mixing dynamics in the vadose zone, we parameterized a numerical 1-D flow model using the soil textural information along with soil moisture and soil water stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O). The water flow and transport were simulated based on the Richards and the advection dispersion equation. Differences between water flows of mobile and tightly bound soil waters and the mixing between the two pore spaces were considered. Isotopic fractionation due to evaporation from soil and interception storage was taken into account, while plant water uptake did not alter the isotopic

  15. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  16. Critical rainfall conditions for the initiation of torrential flows. Results from the Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José; Berenguer, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Torrential flows like debris flows or debris floods are fast movements formed by a mix of water and different amounts of unsorted solid material. They generally occur in steep torrents and pose high risk in mountainous areas. Rainfall is their most common triggering factor and the analysis of the critical rainfall conditions is a fundamental research task. Due to their wide use in warning systems, rainfall thresholds for the triggering of torrential flows are an important outcome of such analysis and are empirically derived using data from past events. In 2009, a monitoring system was installed in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees (Spain). Since then, rainfall data of 25 torrential flows ("TRIG rainfalls") were recorded, with a 5-min sampling frequency. Other 142 rainfalls that did not trigger torrential flows ("NonTRIG rainfalls") were also collected and analyzed. The goal of this work was threefold: (i) characterize rainfall episodes in the Rebaixader catchment and compare rainfall data that triggered torrential flows and others that did not; (ii) define and test Intensity-Duration (ID) thresholds using rainfall data measured inside the catchment by with different techniques; (iii) analyze how the criterion used for defining the rainfall duration and the spatial variability of rainfall influences the value obtained for the thresholds. The statistical analysis of the rainfall characteristics showed that the parameters that discriminate better the TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls are the rainfall intensities, the mean rainfall and the total rainfall amount. The antecedent rainfall was not significantly different between TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls, as it can be expected when the source material is very pervious (a sandy glacial soil in the study site). Thresholds were derived from data collected at one rain gauge located inside the catchment. Two different methods were applied to calculate the duration and intensity of rainfall: (i) using total duration, Dtot

  17. Efficacy and safety of leflunomide in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in real-life clinical practice (results of the Russian multicenter surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Balabanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methotrexate or leflunomide is recommended to be used as the first synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug to treat rheumatoid arthri- tis (RA. In 2011, ELAFRA (leflunomide, Haupt Pharma Munster GmbH, Germany; license LP-000804 registered October 3, 2011 was cer- tified and approved in Russia. This surveillance study was aimed at assessing the effectiveness and tolerability of ELAFRA in RA patients in real-life clinical practice. Material and Methods. The study involved patients corresponding to the 1987 RA classification criteria, with varying disease duration. The patients were monitored at 33 Russian medical institutions in March–December 2013. According to the drug label, ELAFRA was prescribed at a dose of 10 mg/day during the first 3 days and subsequently at a dose of 20 mg/day. In case of adverse effects (AEs, the daily dose was recommended to be reduced to 10 mg. The patients were examined before the drug was prescribed; as well as 1, 3, 6 months after therapy was started. The number of painful swollen joints and pain intensity according to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS were assessed. The patients were subjected to laboratory exam- ination (blood test; ESR test; C-reactive protein (CRP test. RA activity was determined using the DAS28 index. AEs were identified. The data on 99 patients (87 females and 12 males; mean age: 51.1±11.1 years; mean disease duration 74.9±65.7 months were used for sta- tistical analysis. Disease activity was moderate in 9 patients and high in 90 patients.Results. Six-month therapy with ELAFRA reduced the mean number of swollen joints from 13.7 to 5.1 and the number of painful joints, from 14.9 to 9.5. VAS pain intensity decreased from 62.7 to 29.6 mm; ESR decreased from 38.8 to 22.18 mm/h; SRP, from 24.9 to 13.0. Low and moderate RA activity according to DAS28 and CDAI indices after treatment was observed in 63 and 46 patients, respectively. No serious AEs have been revealed; non-serious AEs were

  18. High prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing pathogens: results of a surveillance study in two hospitals in Ujjain, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak A

    2012-04-01

    to ciprofloxacin (81%, cotrimoxazole (76%, and levofloxacin (60%.Conclusion: Our results showed a high prevalence of ESBL among Gram-negative bacterial isolates and a high prevalence of MRSA among S. aureus isolates. Carbapenems provided the broadest coverage for Gram-negative bacteria, while glycopeptides were the most effective against MRSA; however, both classes of drugs need to be used judiciously. This study will help in planning future antibiotic stewardship programs.Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, surveillance, extended-spectrum β-lactamases, India

  19. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors: a population-based clinical outcomes study involving 174 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau CS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Christine SM Lau,1,2 Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Ronald S Chamberlain1–31Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Introduction: Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs are rare, highly malignant embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS accounting for 20% of CNS tumors in children under the age of 3. This study examines a large cohort of ATRT patients to determine demographic, clinical, and pathologic factors which impact prognosis and survival. Methods: Demographic and clinical data were abstracted on 174 ATRT patients (171 pediatric patients age <20 and 3 adult patients age ≥20 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2010. Standard statistical methodology was used. Results: A total of 174 ATRT cases (mean age of 2.84 years were identified. ATRT had a higher incidence in males (56.3%, Caucasians (59.1%, and children <3 years of age (80.5%, P<0.001. The most common primary sites were the cerebellum (17.8%, ventricles (16.1%, and frontal lobe (12.6%. Mean overall survival was 3.2±0.4 years, while overall and cancer-specific mortality were 63.2% and 56.3%, respectively, P=0.005. Most ATRT cases were treated with surgery alone (58.0%, followed by a combination of surgery and radiation (34.3%, no treatment (6.5%, and radiation alone (1.2%. The use of combination therapy has increased significantly (16.1% since 2005 (P<0.001, while primary surgical resection and radiation therapy rates remain relatively unchanged. The longest survival was observed among ATRT patients receiving combination therapy (5.9±0.7 years, followed by radiation alone (2.8±1.2 years, and surgery alone (1.9±0.4 years, P<0.001. Multivariable analysis identified only distant metastases (OR =4.6 as independently associated with increased mortality

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of quinupristin/dalfopristin tested against gram-positive cocci from Latin America: results from the Global SMART (GSMART surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio S. Sader

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive cocci are important causes of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections, and antimicrobial resistance among these pathogens has become an important problem worldwide. Since resistance among these organisms can vary substantially by geographic location, we conducted a multicenter surveillance study with isolates from five Latin American countries (15 medical centers. Quinupristin/dalfopristin (formerly RP-59500 is a novel streptogramin combination with focused activity against Gram-positive cocci, many exhibiting emerging resistance. The in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin and 12 other antimicrobial agents were evaluated against 1,948 strains including Staphylococcus aureus (747 strains, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 446 strains, enterococci (429 strains, and various Streptococcus spp. (326 strains. Oxacillin resistance was observed in 41% of S. aureus (MIC, or = 13 mm and 40% of CoNS (MIC, or = 18 mm. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (MIC90, 0.25 - 1 mug/ml remained effective against all strains, but cross-resistance was high among other tested drugs. The quinupristin/dalfopristin MIC50 for Streptococcus pneumoniae and other streptococci was only 0.5 mug/ml (13% to 28% were penicillin-resistant; 12% to 22% were macrolide-resistant. Enterococci demonstrated variable inhibition by quinupristin/dalfopristin depending upon identification and the susceptibility testing method used. The demonstrated quinupristin/dalfopristin activity against Enterococcus faecium was confirmed, but potential species identification errors with various commercial systems continue to confuse susceptibility statistics, even though some strains of E. faecium confirmed by PCR-based or other molecular identification techniques did have quinupristin/dalfopristin MICs of > or = 4 mug/mL. Most important, glycopeptide-resistant enterococci are rapidly emerging in Latin America, and quinupristin/dalfopristin appears

  1. Effect of radiotherapy on survival of women with locally excised ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian GW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo-Wei Qian,1,* Xiao-Jian Ni,1,* Zheng Wang,2 Yi-Zhou Jiang,1 Ke-Da Yu,1 Zhi-Ming Shao1 1Department of Breast Surgery, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Cancer Center and Cancer Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although it has been previously reported that radiotherapy (RT effectively reduced the incidence of local recurrence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS following breast-conserving surgery (BCS, little is known about the effect of RT on survival of patients with locally excised DCIS. Patients and methods: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry data, we selected 56,968 female DCIS patients treated with BCS between 1998 and 2007. Overall survival (OS and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS were compared among patients who received RT or no RT using the Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Median follow-up was 91 months. In the multivariable model, patients receiving postoperative RT had better OS than those undergoing BCS alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53–0.67, P<0.001. This pattern remained after stratification by estrogen receptor (ER status and age. In contrast, RT delivery was not significantly associated with improved BCSS (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48–1.03, P=0.073. However, after stratifying by the above two variables, RT contributed to better BCSS in ER-negative/borderline patients (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19–0.88, P=0.023 and younger patients (≤50 years old; HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.91, P=0.030. Conclusion: Our analysis confirms the beneficial effect of RT on OS in women with locally excised DCIS and reveals the specific protective effect of RT on BCSS in ER-negative/borderline and younger patients. Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ, breast cancer, breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy, survival

  2. Impact of Hepatitis A vaccination with a two-dose schedule in Panama: Results of epidemiological surveillance and time trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Contreras, Rodolfo; Tinajeros, Olga; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; DeAntonio, Rodrigo

    2015-06-22

    In April 2007, Panama introduced Hepatitis A universal vaccination using a two-dose schedule (Havrix(®)junior; GSK Vaccines, Belgium). We assessed the impact of this hepatitis A vaccine three years after it was recommended for universal mass vaccination in Panama. Hepatitis A vaccination impact was assessed using two different approaches. The first approach used retrospective data (incidence and number of cases for all age groups), collected from the passive surveillance of the Epidemiologic Surveillance System of the Ministry of Health of hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis before (2000-2006) and after (2008-2010) introduction of hepatitis A vaccine. The second approach was a prospective hospital-based active surveillance for hepatitis cases conducted in subjects (0-14 years) during 2009-2011 at three sentinel hospitals in Panama. Overall, the annual incidence of hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were 13.1, 7.9 and 3.7 per 100,000 subjects, lower than the baseline incidence of 51.1 per 100,000 subjects. In comparison to the mean baseline period (2000-2006), there was an 82% mean reduction in the overall hepatitis-related outcomes (hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis) after vaccine introduction (2008-2010) in all age groups. In the hospital-based surveillance (2009-2011), of the 42 probable viral hepatitis A cases, nine cases were confirmed as acute hepatitis A (8 in 2009, 1 in 2010). Of these confirmed cases, two belonged to the targeted vaccine group (1-4 years) but were not vaccinated. Our study suggests that the introduction of two-dose hepatitis A vaccines in Panama has contributed to the reduction in the incidence of overall hepatitis-related outcomes for all age groups, suggesting herd protection. Additional monitoring is required to document a sustained long-term effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of 3D Code KATRIN For Fast Neutron Fluence Calculation of VVER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel by Ex-Vessel Measurements and Surveillance Specimens Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhalandinov, A.; Tsofin, V.; Kochkin, V.; Panferov, P.; Timofeev, A.; Reshetnikov, A.; Makhotin, D.; Erak, D.; Voloschenko, A.

    2016-02-01

    Usually the synthesis of two-dimensional and one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations is used to evaluate neutron fluence on VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel (RPV) for prognosis of radiation embrittlement. But there are some cases when this approach is not applicable. For example the latest projects of VVER-1000 have upgraded surveillance program. Containers with surveillance specimens are located on the inner surface of RPV with fast neutron flux maximum. Therefore, the synthesis approach is not suitable enough for calculation of local disturbance of neutron field in RPV inner surface behind the surveillance specimens because of their complicated and heterogeneous structure. In some cases the VVER-1000 core loading consists of fuel assemblies with different fuel height and the applicability of synthesis approach is also ambiguous for these fuel cycles. Also, the synthesis approach is not enough correct for the neutron fluence estimation at the RPV area above core top. Because of these reasons only the 3D neutron transport codes seem to be satisfactory for calculation of neutron fluence on the VVER-1000 RPV. The direct 3D calculations are also recommended by modern regulations.

  4. Validation of 3D Code KATRIN For Fast Neutron Fluence Calculation of VVER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel by Ex-Vessel Measurements and Surveillance Specimens Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhalandinov A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually the synthesis of two-dimensional and one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations is used to evaluate neutron fluence on VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel (RPV for prognosis of radiation embrittlement. But there are some cases when this approach is not applicable. For example the latest projects of VVER-1000 have upgraded surveillance program. Containers with surveillance specimens are located on the inner surface of RPV with fast neutron flux maximum. Therefore, the synthesis approach is not suitable enough for calculation of local disturbance of neutron field in RPV inner surface behind the surveillance specimens because of their complicated and heterogeneous structure. In some cases the VVER-1000 core loading consists of fuel assemblies with different fuel height and the applicability of synthesis approach is also ambiguous for these fuel cycles. Also, the synthesis approach is not enough correct for the neutron fluence estimation at the RPV area above core top. Because of these reasons only the 3D neutron transport codes seem to be satisfactory for calculation of neutron fluence on the VVER-1000 RPV. The direct 3D calculations are also recommended by modern regulations.

  5. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  6. [Internal audit based on the recording critical incidents: the first results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhova, N N; Kazakova, E A; Sitnikov, A V

    2005-01-01

    The critical incident concept on which an internal medical audit is based has been proposed to comparatively assess different protocols of anesthesiological support. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure and to implement it at an anesthesiological unit. The study included and analyzed 361 anesthesiological supports. The list of critical incidents (CIs) contained 53 items and was divided into 8 main groups. CIs were recorded in 42.1% of anesthesias: a total of 304 CIs were noted and the frequency of CIs (the number of recorded CIs per anesthesia was 0.84). The bulk of CIs was associated with the cardiovascular system and varying allergic reactions. The study also yielded data on the distribution of CIs in relation to the type of anesthesiological support, the type of a surgical intervention and the physical status of a patient (according to the ASA classification). This study has only opened a little way to internal audit and showed the importance of its routine use to assess different procedures for anesthesiological support.

  7. Real Space Migdal-Kadanoff Renormalisation of Glassy Systems: Recent Results and a Critical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Maria Chiara; Biroli, Giulio

    2017-05-01

    In this manuscript, in honour of L. Kadanoff, we present recent progress obtained in the description of finite dimensional glassy systems thanks to the Migdal-Kadanoff renormalisation group (MK-RG). We provide a critical assessment of the method, in particular discuss its limitation in describing situations in which an infinite number of pure states might be present, and analyse the MK-RG flow in the limit of infinite dimensions. MK-RG predicts that the spin-glass transition in a field and the glass transition are governed by zero-temperature fixed points of the renormalization group flow. This implies a typical energy scale that grows, approaching the transition, as a power of the correlation length, thus leading to enormously large time-scales as expected from experiments and simulations. These fixed points exist only in dimensions larger than d_L>3 but they nevertheless influence the RG flow below it, in particular in three dimensions. MK-RG thus predicts a similar behavior for spin-glasses in a field and models of glasses and relates it to the presence of avoided critical points.

  8. Results of distal revascularization in elderly patients for critical ischemia of the lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Calio, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1999-04-01

    Thirty eight patients over 75 years of age were operated upon of 40 distal arterial revascularizations for critical ischaemia of the lower limbs. Arterial reconstruction was proposed to ambulatory, self sufficient patients, with a patent artery of the leg or the foot in continuity with pedal arch, at arteriography. The revascularized artery was the peroneal in 14 cases, the anterior tibial in 11, the posterior tibial in 9, the dorsalis pedis in 5, and the external plantar artery in 1 case. Postoperative mortality was 2.6%. No postoperative arterial occlusion occurred and no postoperative amputation needed to be performed. The mean follow-up of 37 patients surviving operation was 21 months (ext. 2-52 months). At 36 months interval, patients' survival was 43%, primary patency rate was 57%, and limb salvage rate was 76%, at life-table analysis. Distal revascularization enables a good number of elderly patients in critical ischaemia of the lower limb, to enjoy an active, independent life, with a viable limb.

  9. Mesothelioma in the United States: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER–Medicare investigation of treatment patterns and overall survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beebe-Dimmer JL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Beebe-Dimmer,1,2 Jon P Fryzek,3 Cecilia L Yee,1,2 Tapashi B Dalvi,4 David H Garabrant,3 Ann G Schwartz,1,2 Shirish Gadgeel1,2 1Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 2Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, 3EpidStat Institute, Ann Arbor, MI, 4AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Introduction: Mesothelioma is a rare malignancy typically associated with exposure to asbestos and poor survival. The purpose of this investigation was to describe mesothelioma patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and overall survival (OS utilizing the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare database. Materials and methods: Patients in this study were diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma of the pleura or peritoneum between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009 with follow-up for survival through December 31, 2010. We examined both patient and tumor characteristics at time of diagnosis and subsequent treatment patterns (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Among patients treated with chemotherapy, we determined chemotherapy regimen and OS by line of therapy. Results: Of the 1,625 patients considered eligible for this investigation, the median age at diagnosis was 78 years. Nearly a third of patients (30% had surgery as part of their treatment and 45% were given chemotherapy. The median OS was 8 months (range 1–69 months. Among chemotherapy patients, the most commonly (67% prescribed regimen for first-line therapy was cisplatin or carboplatin (Ca/Ci combined with pemetrexed (Pe. Among those prescribed Ca/Ci + Pe as first-line therapy, retreatment with Ca/Ci + Pe (28% or treatment with gemcitabine (30% were the most common second-line therapies. Median OS for those receiving first-line chemotherapy was 7 months, and among those receiving second-line therapy median OS was extended an additional 5 months. Conclusion: Irrespective of surgical resection, mesothelioma patients

  10. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  11. 2012年中国居民健康素养监测结果%The level of health literacy of Chinese residents in 2012:Surveillance results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英华; 毛群安; 石琦; 陶茂萱; 聂雪琼; 李莉; 黄相刚; 石名菲

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过健康素养监测,了解我国城乡居民健康素养水平,为卫生行政部门进行健康教育与健康促进决策提供依据。方法2012年8-12月,采用分层多阶段 PPS 抽样方法,随机抽取全国31个省(自治区、直辖市)15-69岁的常住人口进行问卷调查。结果全国共调查城乡居民102985人,正确填写调查问卷的有98448人,问卷有效率95.59%。男性50913人,占51.72%,女性47535人,占48.28%,男女性别比为1.07∶1,城市人口43636人,占44.32%,农村人口54812人,占55.68%,城乡人口比为0.80∶1。经过加权调整后,中国居民健康素养水平为8.80%(95%CI:7.79-9.93),女性高于男性,城市居民高于农村居民(P <0.05)。基本知识和理念素养水平为18.96%,健康生活方式与行为素养水平为11.22%,基本技能素养水平为12.29%。具备6类健康问题素养的比例由高到低依次为安全与急救素养42.80%、科学健康观31.87%、健康信息素养18.16%、传染病防治素养17.53%、基本医疗素养9.56%和慢性病防治素养9.07%。结论中国居民健康素养处于较低水平,尤其是健康生活方式和行为养成率低,基本医疗素养和慢性病防治素养低,不能满足维护和促进健康的需要。%Objective To know about the level of health literacy of Chinese residents by surveillance,and provide scientific suggestions for developing health promotion and education strategy.Methods During August to December in 2012,multistage PPS sampling method was adopted in the surveillance,residents aged 15 -69 years from 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in mainland China were investigated.Results 102 985 national urban and rural resi-dents were investigated.98 448 residents correctly filled out the questionnaire.The questionnaire effective rate was 95.59%.Among the eligible

  12. 清远市农村儿童伤害监测结果分析%Results analysis of injury surveillance among rural children in Qingyuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱旭豪; 张铭驱; 何志礼; 胡术贤

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To analyze the main causes of injury among rural children under 15 years old in Qingyuan City, find out the laws, and evaluate the harm of injuries in this population. [Methods]The data of injury surveillance among children in Qingyuan rural area during 2009-2011 were analyzed descriptively. [Results]During 2009-2011, a total of 980 childrens injuries cases were collected in Qingyuan rural area by the National injury surveillance system, which accounted for 9. 27% of total injuries cases in Qingyuan City. The injuries cases occurred in different genders and all age groups, and proportion of boys was higher than that of girls. The peak season was June to October. 463 (47.29% ) injuries cases occurred in school and public places, followed by home (278cases, 28.34%) and farm/field (150cases, 15.27%). The leading cause of injury was fall. The animal bites, traffic accidents and sharp/blunt injuries ranked front. 917 (93.59%) injuries cases were unintentional, 59 cases (6.02% ) were intentional (violence, attack), and there were 4 (0.41%) cases of self mutilation and suicide. The top 3 injured sites were head (369 cases, 37. 64% ) , upper limbs (214 cases, 21. 82% ) and low limbs (195 cases, 19.93% ). There were 786 (80.21 % ) cases of superficial injury, 145 (14. 77% ) cases of moderate injury, 38 (3. 85% ) cases of severe injury and 11 (1. 17% ) death cases. [ Conclusion] The injury is one of the major risk factors which are harmful to childrens health. The government and society should take effective measures to prevent and control the injury among rural child.%目的 分析清远市15岁及以下农村儿童伤害的原因,找出伤害发生的规律,评价伤害对该人群造成的危害.方法 对清远市农村地区2009-2011年儿童伤害监测资料进行描述性分析.结果 2009-2011年全国伤害监测系统共收集清远市农村儿童伤害病例980例,占清远市伤害总病例的9.27%;不同性别各年龄段均有伤害发生,男童

  13. Pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance in Argentina: results from a surveillance study performed according to WHO-proposed new methodology in 2014-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissio, E; Barbás, M G; Bouzas, M B; Cudolá, A; Salomón, H; Espínola, L; Fernández Giuliano, S; Kademián, S; Mammana, L; Ornani, M L Suárez; Ravasi, G; Vila, M; Zapiola, I; Falistocco, C

    2017-02-01

    In Argentina, current national guidelines recommend starting with NNRTI-based regimens. Recently, there have been some local reports regarding concerning levels of NNRTI-transmitted resistance, but surveillance has never been carried out at a national level. To determine the prevalence of HIV drug resistance in people starting ART in Argentina using a WHO-proposed methodology. This was a cross-sectional, nationally representative study. Twenty-five antiretroviral-dispensing sites throughout the country were randomly chosen to enrol at least 330 persons starting ART, to generate a point prevalence estimate of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) with a 5% CI (for the total population and for those without antiretroviral exposure). All consecutive patients older than 18 years starting or restarting ART in the chosen clinics were eligible. Samples were processed with Trugene and analysed using the Stanford algorithm. Between August 2014 and March 2015, we obtained 330 samples from people starting ART. The mean ± SD age was 35 ± 11 years, 63.4% were male, 16.6% had prior antiretroviral exposure and the median (IQR) CD4 count was 275 cells/mm(3) (106-461). The prevalence of RAMs found was 14% (±4%) for the whole population (3% NRTI-RAMs; 11% NNRTI-RAMs and 2% PI-RAMs) and 13% (±4%) for those without prior antiretroviral exposure (3%, 10% and 2%, respectively). The most common mutation was K103N. This surveillance study showed concerning levels of HIV drug resistance in Argentina, especially to NNRTIs. Due to this finding, Argentina's Ministry of Health guidelines will change, recommending performing a resistance test for everyone before starting ART. If this is taken up properly, it also might function as a continuing surveillance tool. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Critical heat flux maxima resulting from the controlled morphology of nanoporous hydrophilic surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault-Friend, Melanie; Azizian, Reza; Bucci, Matteo; McKrell, Thomas; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Rubner, Michael; Cohen, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Porous hydrophilic surfaces have been shown to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling heat transfer. In this work, the separate effects of pore size and porous layer thickness on the CHF of saturated water at atmospheric pressure were experimentally investigated using carefully engineered surfaces. It was shown that, for a fixed pore diameter (˜20 nm), there is an optimum layer thickness (˜2 μm), for which the CHF value is maximum, corresponding to ˜115% enhancement over the value for uncoated surfaces. Similarly, a maximum CHF value (˜100% above the uncoated surface CHF) was observed while changing the pore size at a constant layer thickness (˜1 μm). To explain these CHF maxima, we propose a mechanistic model that can capture the effect of pore size and pore thickness on CHF. The good agreement found between the model and experimental data supports the hypothesis that CHF is governed by the competition between capillary wicking, viscous pressure drop and evaporation, as well as conduction heat transfer within the porous layer. The model can be used to guide the development of engineered surfaces with superior boiling performance.

  15. 2011年东莞市登革热与基孔肯雅热监测结果分析%Analysis of surveillance results of dengue and chikungunya fever in Dongguan in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建孟; 袁达康; 黄勇; 陈平华; 杨华可; 黎景全; 李艳芬; 陈永迪; 李宇政

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To discover the cases of dengue fever and chikungunya fever early and estimate their epidemic situation in Dongguan and give warning to control their ourbreak in time. Methods; All the serum samples of stringent surveillance cases and routine surveillance cases from June 204 to August 31* in 2011 were detected by real - time PCR first, then the cases with dengue nucleic acid negative were tested by ELISA for IgM detection. Results; 248 qualified serum samples were detected, including 234 samples of stringent surveillance cases and 14 of routine surveillance cases. 3 samples of routine surveillance cases were dengue virus positive, accounting for 1.21% (3/248). Of the 3 dengue positive cases, 2 were IgM positive and 1 was nucleic acid positive(IV type). 2 imported cases of dengue were identified at last. Conclusion: Dengue fever cases were found earlier by lab stringency surveillance, and its epidemic and outbreak was controlled in time, which gave great protection in part of public health to the world college sports meeting in Shenzhen in 2011.%目的:尽早发现登革热与基孔肯雅热病例,及时采取有效防控措施.方法:对2011年6月20日-201 1年8月31日东莞市应急监测病例及疫情监测病例血清样品,采用荧光PCR检测登革热与基孔肯雅热病毒核酸,登革热核酸检测阴性者,再用ELISA法检测登革热病毒IgM抗体.结果:共收集及检测248份合格血清样品.其中,应急监测病例血清234份,检测结果均为阴性;疫情监测病例血清14份,检出2份为登革热IgM抗体阳性,1份为登革热核酸阳性,为Ⅳ型;确诊2例为登革热输入性病例.结论:通过实验室应急监测,发现了登革热病例,及时控制了疫情的传播扩散.

  16. Increased thyroxine sulfate levels in critically ill patients as a result of a decreased hepatic type I deiodinase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Peeters (Robin); M.H.A. Kester (Monique); P.J. Wouters (Pieter); E. Kaptein (Ellen); H. van Toor (Hans); T.J. Visser (Theo); G. van den Berghe (Greet)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Marked changes in peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism occur in critical illness, resulting in low serum T3 and high rT 3 levels. In this study, we investigated whether T4S levels are increased in patients who died after intensive care and whether T4S levels are correlated

  17. A generic rabies risk assessment tool to support surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael P; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2015-06-01

    The continued spread of rabies in Indonesia poses a risk to human and animal populations in the remaining free islands, as well as the neighbouring rabies-free countries of Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea and Australia. Here we describe the development of a generic risk assessment tool which can be used to rapidly determine the vulnerability of rabies-free islands, so that scarce resources can be targeted to surveillance activities and the sensitivity of surveillance systems increased. The tool was developed by integrating information on the historical spread of rabies, anthropological studies, and the opinions of local animal health experts. The resulting tool is based on eight critical parameters that can be estimated from the literature, expert opinion, observational studies and information generated from routine surveillance. In the case study presented, results generated by this tool were most sensitive to the probability that dogs are present on private and fishing boats and it was predicted that rabies-infection (one infected case) might occur in a rabies-free island (upper 95% prediction interval) with a volume of 1000 boats movements. With 25,000 boat movements, the median of the probability distribution would be equal to one infected case, with an upper 95% prediction interval of six infected cases. This tool could also be used at the national-level to guide control and eradication plans. An initial recommendation from this study is to develop a surveillance programme to determine the likelihood that boats transport dogs, for example by port surveillance or regularly conducted surveys of fisherman and passenger ferries. However, the illegal nature of dog transportation from rabies-infected to rabies-free islands is a challenge for developing such surveillance.

  18. Can We Use Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis as a Surveillance Tool for National Trachoma Control Programs? Results from a District Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sheila K.; Munoz, Beatriz; Weaver, Jerusha; Mrango, Zakayo; Dize, Laura; Gaydos, Charlotte; Quinn, Thomas C.; Martin, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is targeted for elimination by 2020. World Health Organization advises districts to undertake surveillance when follicular trachoma (TF) hamlets in Kilosa district, Tanzania, and randomly selected 50 children ages 1–9 per hamlet. The tarsal conjunctivae were graded for trachoma (TF), tested for C. trachomatis infection (Aptima Combo2 assay: Hologic, San Diego, CA), and a dried blood spot processed for antibodies to C. trachomatis pgp3 using a multiplex bead assay on a Luminex 100 platform. Principal findings The prevalence of trachoma (TF) was 0.4%, well below the hamlets, 22 had neither infection nor TF. Antibody positivity overall was low, 7.5% and increased with age from 5.2% in 1–3 year olds, to 9.3% in 7–9 year olds (p = 0.015). In 16 of the 30 hamlets, no children ages 1–3 years had antibodies to pgp3. Conclusions The antibody status of the 1–3 year olds indicates low cumulative exposure to infection during the surveillance period. Four years post MDA, there is no evidence for re-emergence of follicular trachoma. PMID:26771906

  19. The International Haemovigilance Network Database for the Surveillance of Adverse Reactions and Events in Donors and Recipients of Blood Components: technical issues and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, C; Wiersum, J C; Richardson, C; Robillard, P; Jorgensen, J; Renaudier, P; Faber, J-C; Wood, E M

    2016-11-01

    The International Haemovigilance Network's ISTARE is an online database for surveillance of all adverse reactions (ARs) and adverse events (AEs) associated with donation of blood and transfusion of blood components, irrespective of severity or the harm caused. ISTARE aims to unify the collection and sharing of information with a view to harmonizing best practices for haemovigilance systems around the world. Adverse reactionss and adverse events are recorded by blood component, type of reaction, severity and imputability to transfusion, using internationally agreed standard definitions. From 2006 to 2012, 125 national sets of annual aggregated data were received from 25 countries, covering 132.8 million blood components issued. The incidence of all ARs was 77.5 per 100 000 components issued, of which 25% were severe (19.1 per 100 000). Of 349 deaths (0.26 per 100 000), 58% were due to the three ARs related to the respiratory system: transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO, 27%), transfusion-associated acute lung injury (TRALI, 19%) and transfusion-associated dyspnoea (TAD, 12%). Cumulatively, 594 477 donor complications were reported (rate 660 per 100 000), of which 2.9% were severe. ISTARE is a well-established surveillance tool offering important contributions to international efforts to maximize transfusion safety. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. Necessity to critically review the automatic results of the Xpert Flu assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Ilka; Alidjinou, Enagnon Kazali; Lazrek, Mouna; Dewilde, Anny; Hober, Didier

    2017-02-02

    While using the Xpert Flu assay we became aware of false-negative results. The study aimed to analyze the causes of these false-negative results. One hundred fifty-nine respiratory specimens were tested in the Xpert Flu assay and in multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) for respiratory viruses. Discordant specimens were tested in the Influenza A/B r-gene assay. One hundred fifty-two (96%) and 151 (95%) specimens yielded concordant results for influenza A and B, respectively. Fifteen specimens tested negative in the Xpert Flu assay and positive in a multiplex RT-PCR. Positive results were confirmed for 12 of these specimens in the Influenza A/B r-gene assay. Xpert Flu assay amplification curves and endpoints suggested that the false-negative results were mainly due to erroneous automatic result interpretation. We report false-negative results of the Xpert Flu assay due to erroneous automatic result interpretation. Careful analysis of amplification curves and endpoints is needed to avoid reporting of false-negative results.

  1. Análisis de la mortalidad en ciudades: resultados en Valencia y Alicante Mortality surveillance in cities: results in Valencia and Alicante [Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Nolasco

    2004-02-01

    selected specific causes in Valencia and Alicante, to establish internal inequalities by districts, and to evaluate changes in the magnitude of these inequalities over time. Methods: Deaths among residents of Valencia and Alicante in the periods 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 were assigned to residential municipal districts. Comparisons between the periods studied and between cities were carried out using the relative risk derived from a Poisson regression model. A comparative mortality figure was calculated using the 17 largest groups of the 9th International Classification of Diseases. Rates adjusted by the direct method, standardized mortality ratio, potential years of life lost (PYLL ratio and life expectancy at birth were calculated by districts in each study period. Results: The risks of death from all causes decreased between the first and second periods in both men and women in both cities. Life expectancy significantly increased in both cities for men and in Valencia for women. The city of Valencia had the greatest risk of death in both periods. Some causes of death increased (groups 5 and 6, mental and nervous system disorders and sensory organ diseases. By districts, there was greater variability in Valencia than in Alicante, especially in districts 1 and 11 in Valencia, which showed a high risk of death. Conclusions: The process of internal mortality surveillance by districts is reproducible. In the city of Valencia there were inequalities in mortality that were maintained over time. The city of Alicante showed less internal variability in its mortality indicators.

  2. Analytical performances of food microbiology laboratories - critical analysis of 7 years of proficiency testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Massih, M; Planchon, V; Polet, M; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2016-02-01

    Based on the results of 19 food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) schemes, this study aimed to assess the laboratory performances, to highlight the main sources of unsatisfactory analytical results and to suggest areas of improvement. The 2009-2015 results of REQUASUD and IPH PT, involving a total of 48 laboratories, were analysed. On average, the laboratories failed to detect or enumerate foodborne pathogens in 3·0% of the tests. Thanks to a close collaboration with the PT participants, the causes of outliers could be identified in 74% of the cases. The main causes of erroneous PT results were either pre-analytical (handling of the samples, timing of analysis), analytical (unsuitable methods, confusion of samples, errors in colony counting or confirmation) or postanalytical mistakes (calculation and encoding of results). PT schemes are a privileged observation post to highlight analytical problems, which would otherwise remain unnoticed. In this perspective, this comprehensive study of PT results provides insight into the sources of systematic errors encountered during the analyses. This study draws the attention of the laboratories to the main causes of analytical errors and suggests practical solutions to avoid them, in an educational purpose. The observations support the hypothesis that regular participation to PT, when followed by feed-back and appropriate corrective actions, can play a key role in quality improvement and provide more confidence in the laboratory testing results. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. [Epidemic of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 in the French overseas territories of the Americas: epidemiological surveillance set up and main results, April 2009-January 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, S; Rosine, J; Ledrans, M; Flamand, C; Chappert, J-L; Cassadou, S; Carvalho, L; Blateau, A; Barrau, M; Ardillon, V; Quénel, P

    2011-05-01

    Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique, St. Martin and St. Barthelemy were the French territories most exposed to the new influenza A(H1N1)v, and adequate epidemiological surveillance tools were promptly developed in order to detect its emergence. The first stage, "containment phase", consisted in detection and management of individual cases. Then, when an autochthonous A(H1N1)v circulation was confirmed, its evolution has been monitored within the whole population, mainly through data collected from sentinel doctors' networks and virological surveillance. This allowed to detect very early the occurrence of epidemics, and to follow their evolution until they were over. Like all the other Caribbean countries, the five French overseas territories were hit by an outbreak of influenza A(H1N1)v. Although they had globally similar characteristics, each epidemic had its specificity in terms of scale and severity. They started between August and September 2009 in four of the five territories, while the last one, St. Barthelemy, was not affected until the end of the year. Attack rate estimates varied from 28 to 70 per 1000 inhabitants according to the territory, and hospitalisation rate varied from 4.3 to 10.3 per 1000 cases. Severity rate didn't reach 1 per 1000 cases in any of the territories. Compared to metropolitan France, the surveillance system presented several strengths, including the pre-existence of both an active sentinel network and an expert committee on emerging diseases in each territory. On the other hand, specific difficulties appeared, notably linked with logistical aspects of virological surveillance and the co-circulation of dengue virus in Guadeloupe and St. Barthelemy. Despite these difficulties, the different tools allowed early detection of the epidemics and follow-up of their evolution. All of them lead to very concordant results, suggesting that they are completely appropriate to monitor a potential new epidemic wave.

  4. Postextubation laryngeal edema and stridor resulting in respiratory failure in critically ill adult patients : updated review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijms, Wouter A; van Mook, Walther Nka; Wittekamp, Bastiaan Hj; Bergmans, Dennis Cjj

    2015-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation is frequently complicated by laryngeal edema, which may present as postextubation stridor or respiratory difficulty or both. Ultimately, postextubation laryngeal edema may result in respiratory failure with subsequent reintubation. Risk factors for postextubation laryngeal ed

  5. Evaluation of multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Frisén,Marianne; Andersson, Eva; Schiöler, Linus

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate surveillance is of interest in many areas such as industrial production, bioterrorism detection, spatial surveillance, and financial transaction strategies. Some of the suggested approaches to multivariate surveillance have been multivariate counterparts to the univariate Shewhart, EWMA, and CUSUM methods. Our emphasis is on the special challenges of evaluating multivariate surveillance methods. Some new measures are suggested and the properties of several measures are demonstrat...

  6. Results from an Independent View on The Validation of Safety-Critical Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N.; Lopes, R.; Esper, A.; Barbosa, R.

    2013-08-01

    The Independent verification and validation (IV&V) has been a key process for decades, and is considered in several international standards. One of the activities described in the “ESA ISVV Guide” is the independent test verification (stated as Integration/Unit Test Procedures and Test Data Verification). This activity is commonly overlooked since customers do not really see the added value of checking thoroughly the validation team work (could be seen as testing the tester's work). This article presents the consolidated results of a large set of independent test verification activities, including the main difficulties, results obtained and advantages/disadvantages for the industry of these activities. This study will support customers in opting-in or opting-out for this task in future IV&V contracts since we provide concrete results from real case studies in the space embedded systems domain.

  7. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    resistance surveillance, diarrhea etiology and antimicrobial resistance surveillance, sexually transmitted illness surveillance, and capacity building...vomiting, diarrhea , joint pains, general malaise. Of the samples analyzed, only 53.7% had an associated etiology: Malaria (47.0%, EBV (39.7...immunity to the disease. Many adults in those situations are reservoirs, facilitating continuing disease transmission to those without immunity. In Kenya

  8. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  9. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  10. The Increasing Challenge of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli: Results of a 5-Year Active Surveillance Program in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Mario; Geraci, Daniela M; Bonura, Celestino; Saporito, Laura; Graziano, Giorgio; Insinga, Vincenzo; Aleo, Aurora; Vecchio, Davide; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are increasingly reported.We conducted a 5-year prospective cohort surveillance study in a tertiary NICU of the hospital "Paolo Giaccone," Palermo, Italy. Our objectives were to describe incidence and trends of MDR GNB colonization and the characteristics of the most prevalent organisms and to identify the risk factors for colonization. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were prospectively collected. Active surveillance cultures (ASCs) were obtained weekly. Clusters of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by conventional and molecular epidemiological tools.During the study period, 1152 infants were enrolled in the study. Prevalences of colonization by MDR GNB, ESBL-producing GNB and multiple species/genera averaged, respectively, 28.8%, 11.7%, and 3.7%. Prevalence and incidence density of colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing GNB showed an upward trend through the surveillance period. Rates of ESBL-producing E coli and K pneumoniae colonization showed wide fluctuations peaking over the last 2 years. The only independent variables associated with colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing organisms and multiple colonization were, respectively, the days of NICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.041), the days of exposure to ampicillin-sulbactam (OR 1.040), and the days of formula feeding (OR 1.031). Most clusters of E coli and K pneumoniae colonization were associated with different lineages. Ten out of 12 clusters had an outborn infant as their index case.Our study confirms that MDR GNB are an increasing challenge to NICUs. The universal once-a-week approach allowed us to understand the epidemiology of MDR GNB, to timely detect new clones and institute contact precautions, and to assess risk factors. Collection of these data can be an important tool to

  11. Results of Cesar II critical facility with low enriched fuel balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlet, G.; Guerange, J.; Laponche, B.; Morier, F.; Neef, R.D.; Bock, H.J.; Kring, F.J.; Scherer, W.

    1972-06-15

    The Cesar facility has been transformed to load in its center a pebble bed fuel. This new Cesar assembly is called Cesar II. The program for the measurements with HTR type fuel balls is managed under a cooperation between physicists of CEA/CADARACHE and KFA/JUELICH. A description of the measuring zones of Cesar II and of the experimental results is given.

  12. [Critical reading of articles about diagnostic tests (part II): Analyzing results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratalla Rodríguez, G

    2015-01-01

    A new diagnostic test needs to be validated through comparison with a reference standard in an appropriate spectrum of patients. Diagnostic tests are not perfectly accurate; on the contrary, there can be false-positive and false-negative findings. A good diagnostic test is that which provides an acceptable proportion of positive results when a determinate condition is present in patients and an acceptable proportion of negative results when it is absent. The best measure of the usefulness of a diagnostic test is the likelihood ratio, which informs us to what degree a particular result is more likely in a person in whom a condition is present than in a person in whom the condition is absent. The present article discusses the fundamental statistical concepts necessary to interpret the results section of an article about a diagnostic test; however, the approach is clearly oriented toward clinical practice, with emphasis on concepts rather than mathematics. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci in 2002-2003. Results of the multinational GRASP Surveillance Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekmann, Susan E; Heilmann, Kris P; Richter, Sandra S

    2005-01-01

    A multinational surveillance study, GRASP, was conducted between November 2002 and April 2003 with the aim of assessing rates of antimicrobial resistance among 2656 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2486 isolates of group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, 1358 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae...... and 1047 of Moraxella catarrhalis from 20 countries in Europe, eastern Asia and southern Africa. Conspicuous differences between various countries were noted in the S. pneumoniae resistance rates observed for penicillin (0-79.2%) and erythromycin (4-66%), along with other antimicrobials. The percentage...... of MDR strains was above 25% in 8 of the 20 countries studied. Group A streptococcal macrolide resistance rates ranged from 0% to 35% by country, while rates of beta-lactamase production ranged from 0% to 39% for H. influenzae and 80-100% for M. catarrhalis. Antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae remains...

  15. Safety experience with bosentan in 146 children 2-11 years old with pulmonary arterial hypertension: results from the European Postmarketing Surveillance program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghetti, M.; Hoeper, M.M.; Kiely, D.G.;

    2008-01-01

    The oral dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan has been shown to improve the short- and medium-term course of adult pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, data from clinical studies in children are limited. This analysis investigated the safety profile of bosentan in pediatric...... patients in a European, prospective, noninterventional, Internet-based postmarketing surveillance database (Tracleer PMS). Pediatric patients (aged 2-11 y) were compared with patients aged > or =12 y. Over a 30-mo period, 4994 patients, including 146 bosentan-naive pediatric patients (51.4% males), were...... captured in the database. Predominant etiologies in children were idiopathic PAH (40.4%) and PAH related to congenital heart disease (45.2%). The majority of children were in New York Heart Association functional class II (28.1%) or III (50.7%), and median exposure to bosentan was 29.1 wk. Elevated...

  16. OECD/NEA Burnup Credit Calculational Criticality Benchmark Phase I-B Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Burnup credit is an ongoing technical concern for many countries that operate commercial nuclear power reactors. In a multinational cooperative effort to resolve burnup credit issues, a Burnup Credit Working Group has been formed under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This working group has established a set of well-defined calculational benchmarks designed to study significant aspects of burnup credit computational methods. These benchmarks are intended to provide a means for the intercomparison of computer codes, methods, and data applied in spent fuel analysis. The benchmarks have been divided into multiple phases, each phase focusing on a particular feature of burnup credit analysis. This report summarizes the results and findings of the Phase I-B benchmark, which was proposed to provide a comparison of the ability of different code systems and data libraries to perform depletion analysis for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results included here represent 21 different sets of calculations submitted by 16 different organizations worldwide, and are based on a limited set of nuclides determined to have the most important effect on the neutron multiplication factor of light-water-reactor spent fuel. A comparison of all sets of results demonstrates that most methods are in agreement to within 10% in the ability to estimate the spent fuel concentrations of most actinides. All methods are within 11% agreement about the average for all fission products studied. Furthermore, most deviations are less than 10%, and many are less than 5%. The exceptions are {sup 149}Sm, {sup 151}Sm, and {sup 155}Gd.

  17. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  18. SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan Update for 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 441.1-­1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE 2008), requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.”This 2017 update reflects changes to the surveillance plan resulting from surveillance findings as documented in Reeves et al. 2016. These findings include observations of corrosion in SAVY and Hagan containers and the indication (in one SAVY container) of possible filter membrane thermal degradation. This surveillance plan update documents the rationale for selecting surveillance containers, specifies the containers for 2017 surveillance, and identifies a minimum set of containers for 2018 surveillance. This update contains important changes to the previous surveillance plans.

  19. Documentation of nonroutine communications of critical or significant radiology results: a multiyear experience at a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Paras; Langlotz, Curtis P

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of radiology reports that contain nonroutine communications of results and categorize the urgency of such communications. A rule-based text-query algorithm was applied to a database of 2.3 million radiology reports, which has an accuracy of 98% for classifying reports containing documentation of communications. The frequency of such communications by year, modality, and study type was then determined. Finally, 200 random reports selected by the algorithm were analyzed, and reports containing critical results were categorized according to ascending levels of urgency. Critical or noncritical results to health care providers were present in 5.09% of radiology reports (116,184 of 2,282,923). For common modalities, documentation of communications were most frequent in CT (14.34% [57,537 of 402,060]), followed by ultrasound (9.55% [17,814 of 186,626]), MRI (5.50% [13,697 of 248,833]), and chest radiography (1.57% [19,840 of 1,262,925]). From 1997 to 2005, there was an increase in reports containing such communications (3.04% in 1997, 6.82% in 2005). More reports contained nonroutine communications in single-view chest radiography (1.29% [5,533 of 428,377]) than frontal/lateral chest radiography (0.80% [1,815 of 226,837]), diagnostic mammography (9.42% [3,662 of 38,877]) than screening mammography (0.47% [289 of 61,114]), and head CT (26.21% [20,963 of 79,985]) than abdominal CT (15.05% [19,871 of 132,034]) or chest CT (5.33% [3,017 of 56,613]). All of these results were statistically significant (P radiology reports indicating nonroutine communications, 155 (78%) had critical and 45 (22%) had noncritical results. Regarding level of urgency, 94 of 155 reports (60.6%) with critical results were categorized as high urgency, 31 (20.0%) as low urgency, 26 (16.8%) as medium urgency, and 4 (2.6%) as discrepant. From 1997 to 2005, there was a significant increase in documentation of nonroutine communications, which may be due

  20. The Performative Uses of the Surveillance Archive in Manu Luksch's Works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses Manu Luksch's works using CCTV recordings as an example of aesthetic intervention in contemporary surveillance systems. Luksch's works are read as a “critical interface" between the artist's body and the archiving procedures of surveillance systems.......This article discusses Manu Luksch's works using CCTV recordings as an example of aesthetic intervention in contemporary surveillance systems. Luksch's works are read as a “critical interface" between the artist's body and the archiving procedures of surveillance systems....

  1. Intestinal parassitosis in Reggio Emilia during 2007: critical analysis of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Guidetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 were analyzed in 2032 samples from 1970 subjects: coprparassitologiacal standard examination was performed in 1916 of the subjects and scotch-test in the remaining 54. Of the 1970 subjects examined, 81, equivalent to 4.1%, resulted positive for one or more parasites (both pathogens and / or of questionable pathogenicity. Pathogenic parasites were found in 38 subjects, equivalent to 46.9% of the total positive: in 20 cases (24.7% cysts of Giardia intestinalis were found in 7 cases (8.6% it was Enterobius vermicularis, in another 5 (6.2% there was Hymenolepis nana, in 2 (2.4% Trichuris trichiura, in 1 (1.2% Ancylostoma / necator, in 1 (1.2%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, in 1 (1.2% Dipylidium caninum, and in 1 (1.2% Ascaris lumbricoides. Protozoa of doubtful pathogenicity, either alone or in combination with pathogens,were found in 54 subjects: Blastocystis hominis in 30 cases (36.9%, Entamoeba coli in 15 (18.8%, Endolimax nana in 10 (12.3%, Entamoeba histlytica dispar in 4 (4.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii in 1 (1.2%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 1 (1.2%.These data represent only a first frame of the possible scope of the phenomenon, both in terms of diagnostic possibilities and in terms of real etiological significance in order to qualify the diagnosis, and to ensure careful monitoring of the phenomenon.We also wanted to evaluate retrospectively the existing diagnostic potential before embarking on some organizational and procedural changes in the field of diagnostic parasitology.

  2. Pattern of Internet use among professionals in India: Critical look at a surprising survey result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the pattern of Internet use across people of various professions who have access to it; the impact of Internet use on their personal, social, and occupational life; and to evaluate their Internet use on the International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10 dependence criteria and Young′s Internet Addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire (IADQ. Materials and Methods: Hundred four respondents were assessed on a 31-items self-rated questionnaire covering all the ICD-10 criteria and Young′s criteria for Internet addiction. Results: The typical profile of an Internet user was as follows: the mean duration of Internet use was 73.43 months (SD 44.51, two-thirds (65.38% of them were using Internet on a regular basis for a period of more than a year, the mean duration of daily Internet use was 39.13 months (SD 35.97, the average time spent in Internet use was 2.13 h (SD 1.98 everyday, more than half (56.73% of the sample was using Internet at least for 2 h/day, and the most common purpose of Internet use was educational for two-thirds (62.5% of the sample. The five most commonly endorsed items were as follows: the need to use the Internet everyday (53.8%, Internet use helping to overcome bad moods (50%, staying online longer than one originally intends to (43.3%, eating while surfing (24%, and physical activity going down since one has started using the Internet (22.1%. When evaluated on ICD-10 substance dependence criteria and Young′s IADQ separately, the prevalence of the ′cases′ of Internet addiction came out to be 51.9 and 3.8%, respectively. Conclusions: The Internet affects the users′ life in multiple ways. The sharp difference in the prevalence estimates of Internet addiction depending on the type of criteria used shows the fragility of the construct of Internet addiction. A cautious approach should be adopted while revising the nosological system to differentiate users from those who are dependent.

  3. Regulations concerning radiation protection and survey; Donnees de la surveillance et regles qui en resultent en matiere de protection contre les rayonnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel; Lavie; Fitoussi [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The many and always increasing applications of Atomic Energy for peaceful uses set many safety and security problems relatively to the workers, populations, and locating of the sites in general. A comparative study of the radiation hazards to which the people working in the 'Commissariat a l'energie atomique' installations were exposed during 1957 and the results obtained concerning individual and collective safety and security were extremely satisfactory owing to a continuous control and supervision. 2. However a few contamination and irradiation incidents - exposed subsequently as well as the way they were dealt with - show the necessity of a circumstantial regulation inside of an atomic center to establish the responsibility of the service in charge of the control of the radiation and the responsibility of the services using radioactive products with regard to contamination by radioactive materials. 3. Abstract of the different practical safety and security regulations concerning holding, manipulation, transport and stocking of radioactive materials. Pursuant to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiologic Protection, the radioelements are classified according to the danger that can occur from them in comparison with the Pu with regard to: - radioactive noxiousness; specific activity per unit of mass; contamination hazards. 4. The service in charge of radiation protection plays the important part of a technical adviser for the construction of specialized laboratories and sees to the keeping of protection regulations. 5. Data essential to radiation protection are given to the people using radioactive materials; particularly: - a table of the radioisotopes and the hazards occurring from them; - radiation hazards regarding {gamma} ray emitted by irradiated Pu; - radiation hazards regarding {gamma} ray emitted by irradiated Th. 6. As the hazards occasioned by irradiated uranium have already been studied, the case of a low and

  4. Early Recognition and Treatment of Sepsis After the Addition of Lactate to the Laboratory's Critical Result Call List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttab, Hani I; Sterk, Ethan; Rech, Megan A; Nghiem, Trac; Bahar, Burak; Kahn, Stephen

    2016-09-11

    Screening of patients with sepsis is needed to increase recognition and allow for earlier interventions. There is no consensus on whether the addition of lactate to the critical result laboratory's call list should be a standard practice. This was a retrospective cohort study that compared management and outcomes of patients with sepsis having lactate ≥4 mmol/L before (group 1) and after (group 2) the addition of a critical result threshold of lactate of ≥4 mmol/L to the critical result laboratory's call list and its effects on time to antibiotics and intravenous fluids (IVFs). One hundred twenty-one patients were included. Lactate was higher in group 1 (7.0 ± 4.3 vs 5.6 ± 2.0, P = 0.03). More patients in group 2 received hydrocortisone (1.9% vs 22.4%, P = .001). Hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, and 90-day mortality were significantly lower in group 2 (59.3% vs 32.8%, P = .003; 68.5% vs 37.3%, P ≤ .001; 68.5% vs 41.8%, P = .002). There were no significant differences in total volume of IVFs (2400.8 ± 1720.0 vs 2483.7 ± 2155.7, P = 0.83), time to start IVFs (184.0 ± 283.2 vs 115.6 ± 190.5, P = 0.27), or antibiotics (184.8 ± 187.1 vs 133.7 ± 137.4, P = 0.16). Addition of lactate to the critical result laboratory's call list did not lead to a statistically significant improvement in time to IVFs or antibiotics, although the average time to antibiotics and IVFs decreased by 51.1 and 68.4 minutes, respectively. Hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, and 90-day mortality were lower in group 2, which may be, in part, due to increased recognition of severe sepsis by critical result notification and earlier intervention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Early results from an angiosome-directed open surgical technique for venous arterialization in patients with critical lower limb ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlind, Kim Christian; Hallenberg, Christian; Christensen, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with critical lower limb ischemia without patent pedal arteries cannot be treated by the conventional arterial reconstruction. Venous arterialization has been suggested to improve limb salvage in this subgroup of patients but has not gained wide acceptance. We report our early...... experience after implementing deep and superficial venous arterialization of the lower limb. Materials and methods: Ten patients with critical ischemia and without crural or pedal arteries available for conventional bypass surgery or angioplasty were treated with distal venous arterialization. Inflow...... of the ischemic lesion. Venous valves were destroyed using antegrade valvulotomes, guide wires, knob needles, or retrograde valvulotomes via an extra incision. Results: Seven of the operated limbs were amputated after 23 (1256) days (median [range]). The main reasons for amputation were lack of healing of either...

  6. AIDS-case surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S; Khodakevich, L; Sengupta, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 in India, the Ministry of Health realized that the diagnostic and reporting network for AIDS cases was inadequate as AIDS cases grew and that the establishment of specialized AIDS units in hospitals was not the best strategy. It decided to integrate AIDS diagnostic and management facilities into primary health services. It would arrange training for 1 physician from each district and peripheral hospital, private hospital, and inpatient service of other medical institutions in AIDS diagnosis and management. These physicians would then train others in the clinical diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The physicians would use the World Health Organization [WHO] case definition of AIDS supported by HIV serological test results. All AIDS cases would be transferred to the Medical College Hospitals of the States and Union Territories (UTs), regional hospitals, and perhaps some private hospitals. Between May 1986 and October 1993, India had 459 AIDS cases reported from 19 States and UTs, especially the States of Tamil Nadul and Maharashtra. This AIDS case surveillance system should motivate political will, describe the underlying and preceding HIV epidemic, and contribute to the understanding of current and future course of the epidemic. Thus, it will guide decision makers to develop sound preventive strategies, to plan health care, and to evaluate interventions. The surveillance system's target population is all outpatients and inpatients at medical institutions. During 1993-1994, 1000 hospitals should make up the network of referral institutions. AIDS case surveillance coordinators (ASCs) at each institution form the basis of the network. The individual case record of each suspected AIDS case will have details on his/her life and medical history. Records of confirmed cases will be sent to State ASCs who will compile them for the National AIDS Control Organisation. After 3-4 year of training and practice in AIDS diagnosis and reporting, AIDS reporting will be

  7. Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin America: results from SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (Latin America, 2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, Ana C; Castanheira, Mariana; Jones, Ronald N; Sader, Hélio S

    2012-08-01

    This study updates the frequency and resistance rates of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin American medical centers enrolled in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. A total of 12,811 bacterial organisms, including 5704 Gram-negative bacilli (44.5%), were consecutively collected (1 per patient) between January 2008 and December 2010 from 10 Latin American medical centers located in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method at a central laboratory. All Gram-negative organisms with reduced susceptibility to imipenem or meropenem (MIC, ≥ 2 μg/mL) were screened for carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test and by polymerase chain reaction. ESBL rates were 18.1%, 12.8%, 23.8%, and 48.4% among Escherichia coli and 60.4%, 49.9%, 59.2%, and 33.3% among Klebsiella spp. from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, respectively. Meropenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella spp. rate was highest in Brazil (11.1%), followed by Argentina (8.2%), Chile (5.0%), and Mexico (0.8%). Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae was not detected in 2008, but emerged in 2009 (10 strains) and increased significantly in 2010 (44; P 77% overall coverage against the 5 most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacilli from Latin American Medical centers participating in the SENTRY Program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Activity of ceftaroline and comparators against pathogens isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in Latin America - results of AWARE surveillance 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Hoban

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As part of the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE surveillance program in 2012 the in vitro activity of ceftaroline and relevant comparator antimicrobials was evaluated in six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela against pathogens isolated from patients with hospital associated skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. The study documented that ceftaroline was highly active (MIC90 0.25 mg/L/% susceptible 100% against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MIC90 2 mg/L/% susceptible 83.3% and ß-hemolytic streptococci (MIC90 0.008-0.015 mg/L/% susceptible 100%. The activity of ceftaroline against selected species of Enterobacteriaceae was dependent upon the presence or absence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs. Against ESBL screen-negativeEscherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, andKlebsiella oxytoca the MIC90 and percent susceptible for ceftaroline were (0.5 mg/L/94.1%, (0.5 mg/L/99.0% and (0.5 mg/L/91.5%, respectively. Ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity against a recent collection of pathogens associated with SSTI in six Latin American countries in 2012.

  9. Species distribution and susceptibility profile of yeasts isolated from blood cultures: results of a multicenter active laboratory-based surveillance study in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Susana; Vivot, Walter; Bosco-Borgeat, Maria E; Taverna, Constanza; Szusz, Wanda; Murisengo, Omar; Isla, Guillermina; Davel, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    The Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Dr. C. Malbrán", conducted the Second National Multicenter Survey on Fungemia due to Yeasts in Argentina. The aim was to obtain updated data of the frequency of the causative species encountered and their in vitro susceptibility to seven antifungal agents. Yeast species were identified by micromorphological and biochemical studies. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the reference microdilution method E.Def 7.1 of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). A total of 461 viable yeasts were identified. The most frequent species were: Candida albicans (38.4 %), Candida parapsilosis (26 %), Candida tropicalis (15.4 %) and Candida glabrata (4.3 %). Other uncommon species, such as Candida viswanathii (0.6 %), Candida haemulonii (0.4 %), Candida inconspicua (0.2 %) and Candida fermentati (0.2 %) were also isolated. Among the Candida spp., 5.4 % and 1.6 % were resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Itraconazole and caspofungin were the most efficient agents against all Candida spp. tested (MIC 8 mg/l), 75 % of Trichosporon spp., and 100 % of Rhodotorula spp., Geotrichum candidum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The global percentage of mortality was 20 %. The presence of uncommon species reinforces the need for performing continuous laboratory surveillance in order to monitor possible changes, not only in the epidemiological distribution of species, but also in the resistance to antifungal drugs.

  10. Safety and efficacy of fesoterodine fumarate in patients with overactive bladder: results of a post-marketing surveillance study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Heon; Lee, Sang Eun; Lee, Hahn-Ey; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fesoterodine fumarate (fesoterodine; Toviaz ) in Korean patients with overactive bladder (OAB) in routine clinical practice. This was an open-label, non-interventional, prospective, post-marketing surveillance study submitted to the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. A total of 3109 patients aged ≥18 years with OAB symptoms were prescribed flexible doses of fesoterodine at the investigator's discretion. Safety was assessed based upon the reporting of adverse events (AEs). Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of patient self-assessment using a bladder diary as well as on the basis of investigator assessment in terms of overall clinical efficacy. A final analysis was performed on 3107 (99.9%) and 2978 (95.8%) patients for safety and efficacy analysis, respectively. The mean treatment duration of fesoterodine was 83.2 days. The incidence of AEs was 8.5% (265/3107). Common AEs that accounted for more than 1.0% of the total AE incidence included dry mouth (5.4%, 168/3107), constipation (1.5%, 48/3107) and micturition disorder (1.1%, 35/3107). Mean episodes of urinary frequency, urgency, and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) per 24 hours decreased by 4.0, 2.4, and 0.8, respectively (all p fesoterodine is a well tolerated and effective treatment for Korean patients with OAB in routine clinical practice.

  11. Detection of neonatal unit clusters of Candida parapsilosis fungaemia by microsatellite genotyping: Results from laboratory-based sentinel surveillance, South Africa, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magobo, Rindidzani E; Naicker, Serisha D; Wadula, Jeannette; Nchabeleng, Maphoshane; Coovadia, Yacoob; Hoosen, Anwar; Lockhart, Shawn R; Govender, Nelesh P

    2017-05-01

    Neonatal candidaemia is a common, deadly and costly hospital-associated disease. To determine the genetic diversity of Candida parapsilosis causing fungaemia in South African neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). From February 2009 through to August 2010, cases of candidaemia were reported through laboratory-based surveillance. C. parapsilosis isolates from neonatal cases were submitted for identification by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing, antifungal susceptibility testing and microsatellite genotyping. Cluster analysis was performed using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA). Of 1671 cases with a viable Candida isolate, 393 (24%) occurred among neonates. Isolates from 143 neonatal cases were confirmed as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Many isolates were resistant to fluconazole (77/143; 54%) and voriconazole (20/143; 14%). Of 79 closely-related genotypes, 18 were represented by ≥2 isolates; 61 genotypes had a single isolate each. Seven clusters, comprised of 82 isolates, were identified at five hospitals in three provinces. Isolates belonging to certain clusters were significantly more likely to be fluconazole resistant: all cluster 7 isolates and the majority of cluster 4 (78%), 5 (89%) and 6 (67%) isolates (PCandida parapsilosis-associated candidaemia in public-sector NICUs was caused by closely related genotypes and there was molecular evidence of undetected outbreaks as well as intra-hospital transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Identifying the Most Sensitive and Specific Sign and Symptom Combinations for Cholera: Results from an Analysis of Laboratory-Based Surveillance Data from Haiti, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucien, Mentor Ali Ber; Schaad, Nicolas; Steenland, Maria W.; Mintz, Eric D.; Emmanuel, Rossignol; Freeman, Nicole; Boncy, Jacques; Adrien, Paul; Joseph, Gerard A.; Katz, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2010, over 700,000 cholera cases have been reported in Haiti. We used data from laboratory-based surveillance for diarrhea in Haiti to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the cholera case definitions recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). From April 2012 to May 2013, we tested 1,878 samples from hospitalized patients with acute watery diarrhea; 1,178 (62.7%) yielded Vibrio cholerae O1. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHO case definition for cholera in an epidemic setting were 91.3% and 43.1%, respectively, and the PPV and NPV were 72.8% and 74.8%, respectively. The WHO case definition for cholera in an area where cholera is not known to be present had lower sensitivity (63.1%) and NPV (55.1%) but higher specificity (74.2%) and PPV (80.0%). When laboratory diagnostic testing is not immediately available, clinicians can evaluate signs and symptoms to more accurately identify cholera patients. PMID:25732682

  13. Safety and efficacy of cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) in refractory ascites: Post-marketing surveillance results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Norio; Isoai, Ayako; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Inoue, Tetsuya; Ishitani, Ken; Utsugisawa, Taiju; Yamaka, Toshihiko; Ito, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Atsushi; Yamada, Yosuke; Itano, Yasuo; Onodera, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Torii, Naoko; Numata, Toyoko; Kashiwabara, Taihei; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Kato, Michio

    2017-01-01

    We performed post-marketing surveillance to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART). In total, 356 CART sessions in 147 patients at 22 centers were performed. The most common primary disease was cancer (128 cases, 300 sessions). Mean amount of ascites collected was 3.7 L, and mean concentration ratio was 9.2. Mean amount of reinfused protein was 67.8 g (recovery rate, 72.0%). Performance status, dietary intake, urine volume, body weight and abdominal circumference were significantly improved after CART. Body temperature increased significantly, by 0.3°C on average. Concomitant steroids and/or NSAIDs use before reinfusion was significantly and negatively associated with increases in body temperature. Most adverse events were fever and chills. This study examined a large number of patients compared with previous studies, and showed that CART is an effective and relatively safe treatment for refractory ascites, such as malignant ascites.

  14. Antimicrobial activity against a global collection of skin and skin structure pathogens: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.), 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tärnberg, Maria; Nilsson, Lennart E; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    As part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) we report antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates collected globally from integumentary sources between 2010 and 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations and antimicrobial resistance were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (US Food and Drug Administration breakpoints against tigecycline). The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to identify statistically significant changes in resistance. Global rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 38% and 43%, respectively. No S. aureus isolates were resistant to linezolid or vancomycin; all isolates were susceptible to tigecycline. Two percent of Enterococcus faecalis and 28% of Enterococcus faecium were vancomycin-resistant. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers accounted for 22% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 16% of Escherichia coli. Resistance to minocycline among E. faecalis, E. faecium, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli decreased significantly (pintegumentary sources, rates of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are stabilizing. Carbapenems and tigecycline have retained their in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Few agents were active against A. baumannii; its increasing resistance is cause for concern. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis on the surveillance results of dengue fever vectors in Guangxi from 2005 to 2008%2005-2008年广西登革热媒介监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢艺红; 谭毅; 闭福银; 周开姣

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析2005-2008年广西壮族自治区(广西区)3个国家级登革热监测点的监测结果,为登革热流行趋势的预测、预警和制定防治对策提供科学依据.方法 收集监测点的登革热疫情和媒介伊蚊等监测资料,进行描述性统计分析.结果 2005-2008年广西区共发生2例登革热病例,均为输入性病例;3个国家级登革热监测点无病例报告,优势蚊种为白纹伊蚊,未发现埃及伊蚊;各监测点大部分监测月份布雷图指数(BI)均超过5的安全水平,其中钦州市、防城港市大部分监测时段BI均在20以上,伊蚊幼虫孳生密度高峰在6-8月,阳性容器以暂时性容器为主,1208只白纹伊蚊中未检测到登革热病毒核酸或分离到病毒.结论 广西区在虫媒方面已经具备传播登革热病毒的条件,存在登革热流行的潜在危险,应加强监测和卫生宣教,将BI控制在20以下.%Objective To provide the basis for the prediction, early warning and development of control strategies of dengue epidemic by analyzing the dengue surveillance data in three national surveillance spots in Guangxi from 2005 to 2008.Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conduced based on the dengue fever data reported through the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and the surveillance results of designated spots from 2005 to 2008.Results From 2005 to 2008, two imported cases of dengue fever were reported in Guangxi while no case observed in the three national surveillance spots.The predominant species of vector was Aedes albopictus, though no Ae.aegypti were detected.The breteau index(BI) was above 5, the security level, in all surveillance spots most of the year, particularly in Fangchenggang and Qinzhou city, where the indices stayed above 20 most of the time.The Aedes larval density peaked from June to August, with temporary containers being the major positive culprits.Neither dengue virus nucleic acids, nor viral isolates

  16. Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Knegt, Leonardo V; Pires, Sara M; Löfström, Charlotta; Sørensen, Gitte; Pedersen, Karl; Torpdahl, Mia; Nielsen, Eva M; Hald, Tine

    2016-03-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of bacterial foodborne infections in Denmark. To identify the main animal-food sources of human salmonellosis, risk managers have relied on a routine application of a microbial subtyping-based source attribution model since 1995. In 2013, multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) substituted phage typing as the subtyping method for surveillance of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from animals, food, and humans in Denmark. The purpose of this study was to develop a modeling approach applying a combination of serovars, MLVA types, and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude that loci schemes STTR5/STTR10/STTR3 for S. Typhimurium and SE9/SE5/SE2/SE1/SE3 for S. Enteritidis can be used in microbial subtyping-based source attribution models. Based on the results, we discuss that an adjustment of the discriminatory level of the subtyping method applied often will be required to fit the purpose of the study and the available data. The issues discussed are also considered highly relevant when applying, e.g., extended multi-locus sequence typing or next-generation sequencing techniques.

  17. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  18. Effectiveness and satisfaction with zolmitriptan 5 mg nasal spray for treatment of migraine in real-life practice: results of a postmarketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Evers, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the needs of migraineurs by actively seeking patient feedback on disease-related disability and treatment satisfaction may lead to improved management and treatment outcomes. Patient feedback can be collected in postmarketing surveillance (PMS) studies. The objective of this PMS study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of zolmitriptan 5 mg nasal spray in the acute treatment of migraine attacks. Patients received zolmitriptan 5 mg nasal spray to treat migraine attacks of any severity and were followed up after a maximum of 4 months. Patients evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of zolmitriptan nasal spray, and were asked whether they wished to continue using zolmitriptan nasal spray and their preference compared with previous treatments. Physicians also assessed the efficacy and tolerability of zolmitriptan nasal spray. A total of 1838 patients (84.8% females) participated in the study. Within 30 minutes of administration of zolmitriptan nasal spray, 85.0% of patients reported improvements in headache pain, with 25.1% reporting an improvement within 10 minutes. At 1 hour post-dose, 57.9% of patients were pain free and 61.7% were able to resume usual daily activities. Most patients (72.9%) rated zolmitriptan nasal spray as 'better' than previous therapy. The majority (88.8%) expressed a wish to continue using zolmitriptan nasal spray. Physicians evaluated the efficacy of zolmitriptan nasal spray as 'excellent' or 'good' in 89.4% of patients. Tolerability was evaluated as 'excellent' or 'good' in 91.6% of patients. Zolmitriptan 5 mg nasal spray provides favourable efficacy and tolerability in the acute treatment of migraine attacks. Most patients assessed zolmitriptan nasal spray as 'better' than previous treatment, with nearly all wishing to continue using it.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole, a novel anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporin, tested against contemporary pathogens: results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2005-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2008-05-01

    Ceftobiprole is a 1st-in-class anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) extended-spectrum cephalosporin currently in clinical trials for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) and nosocomial pneumonia. This agent is also active against other prominent Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, making it an attractive candidate for broad-spectrum therapy. We evaluated the in vitro potency of ceftobiprole tested against the most commonly occurring bacterial pathogens as part of a global surveillance study for the years 2005 to 2006 (>60 medical centers in North America, Latin America, and Europe). All isolates (40 675) were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole inhibited 100% and >99% of tested S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci at Ceftobiprole was also broadly active against Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic and viridans group streptococci, inhibiting >98% of isolates at ceftobiprole was generally inactive against Enterococcus faecium, the majority of Enterococcus faecalis strains (95.7%) were inhibited at ceftobiprole and ceftazidime), ceftobiprole and cefepime were superior to ceftazidime against Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ceftobiprole was equal in potency to ceftazidime (MIC50, 2 microg/mL) and 2-fold more potent than cefepime. None of these agents inhibited >45% of Acinetobacter spp. at 8 mug/mL. Ceftobiprole is a new anti-MRSA beta-lactam with recognized activity against the most commonly occurring Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, similar to that of extended-spectrum cephems. These characteristics warrant continued evaluation of the agent as empiric therapy for cSSSIs, and in pneumonia, especially in those institutions/regions where MRSA and P. aeruginosa may be prevalent.

  20. Effectiveness and safety of tolvaptan in liver cirrhosis patients with edema: Interim results of post-marketing surveillance of tolvaptan in liver cirrhosis (START study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaida, Isao; Terai, Shuji; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Yasuda, Moriyoshi; Okada, Mitsuru; Bando, Kosuke; Fukuta, Yasuhiko

    2017-10-01

    Loop diuretics and spironolactone are used in patients with hepatic edema, but they are sometimes associated with insufficient responses as well as adverse events. Tolvaptan, a vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist, was approved for hepatic edema in 2013. A large-scale post-marketing surveillance study has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tolvaptan in real-world clinical settings. Patients with hepatic cirrhosis with insufficient response to conventional diuretics were enrolled. The observational period was up to 6 months. Changes in body weight and clinical symptoms were measured to evaluate effectiveness. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was summarized as a safety measure. Of 970 patients enrolled, 463 were included in the safety analysis. Of this group, 340 were included in the effectiveness analysis. Decreases in body weight from baseline were -2.38 kg on day 7 and -3.52 kg on day 14. Ascites and bloated feeling was significantly improved within 14 days. The mean change in body weight depended on estimated glomerular filtration rate levels. The most frequently reported adverse drug reaction was thirst (6.9% of patients). Serum sodium level of ≥146 mEq/L was observed in 12 patients (2.7%). In the real-world clinical setting, tolvaptan showed aquaretic effectiveness in patients with cirrhosis. The mean change in body weight depended on renal function. We recommend tolvaptan use for hepatic cirrhosis at a stage in which the renal function is maintained. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  1. PNNL Measurement Results for the 2016 Criticality Accident Dosimetry Exercise at the Nevada National Security Stite (IER-148)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morley, Shannon M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimetry intercomparison exercise held at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) May 24-27, 2016. The exercise was administered by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and consisted of three exposures performed using the Godiva-IV critical assembly housed in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) located on the NNSS site. The exercise allowed participants to test the ability of their nuclear accident dosimeters to meet the performance criteria in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013, Dosimetry for Criticality Accidents and to obtain new measurement data for use in revising dose calculation methods and quick sort screening methods where appropriate. PNNL participated with new prototype Personal Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) and Fixed Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (FNAD) designs as well as the existing historical PNAD design. The new prototype designs incorporate optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters in place of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), among other design changes, while retaining the same set of activation foils historically used. The default dose calculation methodology established decades ago for use with activation foils in PNNL PNADs and FNADs was used to calculate neutron dose results for both the existing and prototype dosimeters tested in the exercise. The results indicate that the effective cross sections and/or dose conversion factors used historically need to be updated to accurately measure the operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 and to ensure PNAD and FNAD performance meets the ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 performance criteria. The operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry are personal absorbed dose, Dp(10), and ambient absorbed dose, D*(10).

  2. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  3. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NICU环境卫生学的监测结果分析及管理对策%On the Management Countereasures and Analysis of Surveillance Results of NICU Environmental Hygiene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解NICU环境卫生现状,探讨管理对策。方法调查2011年~2013年8月NICU环境卫生学监测结果。结果 NICU无菌物品及环境卫生学监测样品共220份,对6类项目进行监测,合格207份,合格率为93.2%,2例检出铜绿假单胞菌。结论加强各项管理措施,严格NICU消毒制度,职责明确,重视可能导致污染的每一个环节是保证NICU环境质量的重要措施。%Objective Understand the present situation of NICU environmental health and disscuss the management countermeasures.Method Investigate the surveillance results of NICU environmental hygiene from the year of 2011 to August, 2013.Result Six items of 220 samples of NICU sterile goods and environmental hygiene are surveilled. Among these samples, 207 are qualiifed which achieves 93.2%, only 2 samples with pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion Some important measures should be taken, such as strengthening management measures, performing strict disinfection systems, and attaching great importance to each part that may cause pollution. Only in this way, can the NICU environmental quality be protected.

  5. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Tante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR, Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED. Methods: A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results: Two of 11 (18% surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45% surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91% rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7% considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27% surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6% surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion: In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other.

  6. National capacity for surveillance, prevention, and control of West Nile virus and other arbovirus infections--United States, 2004 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Patel, Dhara; Bradley, Kristy; Hughes, James M; Blackmore, Carina; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Getchell, Jane; Blumenstock, James; Engel, Jeffrey

    2014-04-04

    In the first 5 years after its introduction in the United States in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) spread to the 48 contiguous states, resulting in 667 reported deaths. To establish detection and response capacity, WNV surveillance and prevention was supported through CDC Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity (ELC) cooperative agreements with all 50 states and six large cities/counties. In 2005, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) conducted an assessment of ELC recipients and determined that, since 1999, all had developed WNV surveillance and control programs, resulting in a national arboviral surveillance infrastructure. From 2004 to 2012, ELC funding for WNV surveillance decreased by 61%. In 2012, the United States had its most severe WNV season since 2003, prompting a follow-up assessment of the capacity of ELC-supported WNV programs. Since the first assessment, 22% of jurisdictions had stopped conducting active human surveillance, 13% had stopped mosquito surveillance, 70% had reduced mosquito trapping and testing, and 64% had eliminated avian mortality surveillance. Reduction in early detection capacity compromises local and national ability to rapidly detect changes in WNV and other arboviral activity and to initiate prevention measures. Each jurisdiction is encouraged to review its current surveillance systems in light of the local threat of WNV and emerging arboviruses (e.g., dengue and chikungunya) and ensure it is able to rapidly detect and respond to critical changes in arbovirus activity.

  7. Comparison of rubella immunization rates in immigrant and Italian women of childbearing age: Results from the Italian behavioral surveillance system PASSI (2011-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Massimo; Ferrante, Gianluigi; Minardi, Valentina; Giambi, Cristina; Riccardo, Flavia; Declich, Silvia; Masocco, Maria

    2017-01-01

    International migration rapidly increased in the last decade, raising a renewed attention to its impact on public health. We evaluated differences in rubella immunization rate (RIR) between immigrant and Italian women of childbearing age and tried to identify the driving factors causing them. We analyzed data from the Italian behavioral surveillance system PASSI collected in 2011-2015 in a nationally representative sample of residents in Italy. The analysis was performed using log-binomial models to compare RIR between 41,094 Italian women and 3140 regular immigrant women of childbearing age (18-49 years), stratifying the latter by area of origin and length-of-stay in Italy (recent: ≤ 5-years; mid-term: 6-10-years; long-term: > 10-years). Immigrant women showed a RIR of 36.0% compared to 60.2% among Italian women (RIR-ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.63). Adjusting for demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, age and area of residence), socio-economic factors (i.e., education, occupation, family composition and economic status) and an indicator of the presence of at least one health-risk behavior (i.e., physical inactivity, current cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and excess weight) did not significantly change this difference (RIR-ratio = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.53-0.59). Recent immigrants (RIR-ratio = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.42-0.53) and immigrants from high migratory pressure countries (HMPC) in sub-Saharan Africa (RIR-ratio = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.31-0.56) and Asia (RIR-ratio = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.33-0.53) showed the greatest differences in RIR compared with Italian women. Differences in RIR between immigrant and Italian women were not explained by different demographic, socioeconomic and health-risk behaviors characteristics. As entitlement to free-of-charge immunization in Italy is universal, regardless of migration status, other informal barriers (e.g., cultural and barriers to information access) might explain lower RIRs in immigrant women

  8. Video surveillance for sensor platforms algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Al Najjar, Mayssaa; Bayoumi, Magdy

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces resource aware image decomposition, registration, fusion, object detection and tracking algorithms along with their applications in security, monitoring and integration in 3rd Generation Surveillance Systems.  All algorithms are evaluated through experimental and simulation results and a parallel and pipelined efficient architecture for implementing the algorithms is described. • Describes a new type of image processing algorithms that are suited for low power and low memory platforms such as wireless sensor networks or mobile devices; • Uses simulation and experimental results to evaluate algorithms presented; • Includes hardware architecture for critical components in the algorithms described.

  9. Soil processes and functions across an international network of Critical Zone Observatories: Introduction to experimental methods and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwart, Steven; Menon, Manoj; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bloem, Jaap; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Souza, Danielle Maia de; Davidsdotir, Brynhildur; Duffy, Christopher; Lair, Georg J.; Kram, Pavel; Lamacova, Anna; Lundin, Lars; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Novak, Martin; Panagos, Panos; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Reynolds, Brian; Robinson, David; Rousseva, Svetla; de Ruiter, Peter; van Gaans, Pauline; Weng, Liping; White, Tim; Zhang, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to protect soil and reverse degradation. New research on soil processes is being driven by the scientific hypothesis that soil processes can be described along a life cycle of soil development. This begins with formation of new soil from parent material, development of the soil profile, and potential loss of the developed soil functions and the soil itself under overly intensive anthropogenic land use, thus closing the cycle. Four Critical Zone Observatories in Europe have been selected focusing research at sites that represent key stages along the hypothetical soil life cycle; incipient soil formation, productive use of soil for farming and forestry, and decline of soil due to longstanding intensive agriculture. Initial results from the research show that soil develops important biogeochemical properties on the time scale of decades and that soil carbon and the development of favourable soil structure takes place over similar time scales. A new mathematical model of soil aggregate formation and degradation predicts that set-aside land at the most degraded site studied can develop substantially improved soil structure with the accumulation of soil carbon over a period of several years. Further results demonstrate the rapid dynamics of soil carbon; how quickly it can be lost, and also demonstrate how data from the CZOs can be used to determine parameter values for models at catchment scale. A structure for a new integrated Critical Zone model is proposed that combines process descriptions of carbon and nutrient flows, a simplified description of the soil food web, and reactive transport; all coupled with a dynamic model for soil structure and soil aggregation. This approach

  10. Application of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score to predict outcome in critically ill dogs: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripanti, D; Dino, G; Piovano, G; Farca, A

    2012-08-01

    In human medicine the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is one of the most commonly organ dysfunction scoring systems used to assess critically ill patients and to predict the outcome in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). It is composed of scores from six organ systems (respiratory, cardiovascular, hepatic, coagulation, renal, and neurological) graded according to the degree of the dysfunction. The aim of the current study was to describe the applicability of the SOFA score in assessing the outcome of critically ill dogs. A total of 45 dogs admitted to the ICU was enrolled. Among these, 40 dogs completed the study: 50 % survived and left the veterinary clinic. The SOFA score was computed for each dog every 24 hours for the first 3 days of ICU stay, starting on the day of admission. A statistically significant correlation between SOFA score and death or survival was found. Most of the dogs showing an increase of the SOFA score in the first 3 days of hospitalization died, whereas the dogs with a decrease of the score survived. These results suggest that the SOFA score system could be considered a useful indicator of prognosis in ICUs hospitalized dogs.

  11. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben;

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...

  12. Surveillance and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is as much about surveillance as about persuasive technologies (PTs). With regard to PTs it raises the question about the ethical limits of persuasion. It will be argued that even some forms of self-imposed persuasive soft surveillance technologies may be considered unethical. Therefore,

  13. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  14. Market-Based Approach to Mobile Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elmogy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The active surveillance of public and private sites is increasingly becoming a very important and critical issue. It is, therefore, imperative to develop mobile surveillance systems to protect these sites. Modern surveillance systems encompass spatially distributed mobile and static sensors in order to provide effective monitoring of persistent and transient objects and events in a given area of interest (AOI. The realization of the potential of mobile surveillance requires the solution of different challenging problems such as task allocation, mobile sensor deployment, multisensor management, cooperative object detection and tracking, decentralized data fusion, and interoperability and accessibility of system nodes. This paper proposes a market-based approach that can be used to handle different problems of mobile surveillance systems. Task allocation and cooperative target tracking are studied using the proposed approach as two challenging problems of mobile surveillance systems. These challenges are addressed individually and collectively.

  15. Species distribution and susceptibility profile of yeasts isolated from blood cultures: results of a multicenter active laboratory-based surveillance study in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Córdoba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Dr. C. Malbrán", conducted the Second National Multicenter Survey on Fungemia due to Yeasts in Argentina. The aim was to obtain updated data of the frequency of the causative species encountered and their in vitro susceptibility to seven antifungal agents. Yeast species were identified by micromorphological and biochemical studies. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the reference microdilution method E.Def 7.1 of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST. A total of 461 viable yeasts were identified. The most frequent species were: Candida albicans (38.4 %, Candida parapsilosis (26 %, Candida tropicalis (15.4 % and Candida glabrata (4.3 %. Other uncommon species, such as Candida viswanathii (0.6 %, Candida haemulonii (0.4 %, Candida inconspicua (0.2 % and Candida fermentati (0.2 % were also isolated. Among the Candida spp., 5.4 % and 1.6 % were resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Itraconazole and caspofungin were the most efficient agents against all Candida spp. tested (MIC 8 mg/l, 75 % of Trichosporon spp., and 100 % of Rhodotorula spp., Geotrichum candidum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The global percentage of mortality was 20 %. The presence of uncommon species reinforces the need for performing continuous laboratory surveillance in order to monitor possible changes, not only in the epidemiological distribution of species, but also in the resistance to antifungal drugs.Distribución de especies y perfil de sensibilidad de levaduras aisladas de hemocultivos: resultados de un estudio multicéntrico de vigilancia de laboratorio en Argentina. El Departamento Micología del Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" condujo el segundo estudio multicéntrico nacional sobre funge- mias debidas a levaduras. El objetivo fue obtener datos actualizados sobre la distribución de especies

  16. Critical study of the method of calculating virgin rock stresses from measurement results of the CSIR triaxial strain cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreede, F. A.

    1981-05-01

    The manual of instructions for the user of the CSIR triaxial rock stress measuring equipment is critically examined. It is shown that the values of the rock stresses can be obtained from the strain gauge records by means of explicit formulae, which makes the manual's computer program obsolete. Furthermore statistical methods are proposed to check for faulty data and inhomogeneity in rock properties and virgin stress. The possibility of non-elastic behavior of the rock during the test is also checked. A new computer program based on the explicit functions and including the check calculations is presented. It is much more efficient than the one in the manual since it does not require computer sub-routines, allowing it to be used directly on any modern computer. The output of the new program is in a format suitable for direct inclusion in the report of an investigation using strain cell results.

  17. 2008-2009年四川省登革热蚊媒监测结果分析%Analysis on the surveillance results of mosquito vectors of dengue fever from 2008 to 2009 in Sichuan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹一鸥; 刘学成; 祝小平; 张佳珂; 钱薇萍; 栾荣生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of mosquito vectors of dengue fever in Sichuan province for providing data for the prevention and control of the epidemic.Methods Surveillance on the vector of dengue fever, Aedes albopictus, was conducted all over the province from 2008 to 2009, with the dengue virus isolated and the density of mosquito vectors analyzed.Results Statistics showed that the container index (CI) of 19 surveillance sites was 24.05% with an adult Ae.albopictus density of 5.69 per person per hour.It was seen that waste tyres had a highest CI (48.77%), followed by some special places which had a CI and density of Ae.albopictus of 40.74% and 15.32 per person per hour, respectively.The peak CI appeared in July (30.60%),with the peak density of adult Ae.albopictus observed in August (7.94 per person per hour).It was found that the Ae.albopictus was the predominant species in most surveillance sites, with the composition ratio being between 26.88%-98.37%.There was a regional but not geographical location difference in the density ofAe.albopictus in the 19 surveillance points.No Ae.albopictus was found in the south of Ganzi prefecture.A sample of 4470 adult Ae.albopictus was collected in Longchang county, Neijiang city with no dengue viruses isolated from them.Conclusion There exists an extensive distribution of Ae.albopictus in the Szeehwan Basin.An epidemic outbreak may occur once there is a case of dengue fever in the area.So surveillance on dengue needs to be strengthened.%目的 调查四川省登革热媒介伊蚊的分布情况,为登革热的防治提供依据.方法 对全省2008-2009年登革热媒介伊蚊进行监测,分析蚊虫密度,分离登革热病毒.结果 19个监测点蚊幼虫的容器指数为24.05%,白纹伊蚊总密度为5.69只/人工小时.以废旧轮胎容器指数最高,为48.77%;特殊场所蚊幼虫容器指数和成蚊密度均较高,分别为40.74%和15.32只/人工小时;容器指数高峰在7月为30

  18. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Summary Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Chancroid Selected STDs Appendix Appendix Interpreting STD Surveillance Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors ...

  19. OASIS: an assessment tool of epidemiological surveillance systems in animal health and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, P; Gay, E; Chazel, M; Moutou, F; Danan, C; Richomme, C; Boue, F; Souillard, R; Gauchard, F; Dufour, B

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized tool for the assessment of surveillance systems on zoonoses and animal diseases. We reviewed three existing methods and combined them to develop a semi-quantitative assessment tool associating their strengths and providing a standardized way to display multilevel results. We developed a set of 78 assessment criteria divided into ten sections, representing the functional parts of a surveillance system. Each criterion was given a score according to the prescription of a scoring guide. Three graphical assessment outputs were generated using a specific combination of the scores. Output 1 is a general overview through a series of pie charts synthesizing the scores of each section. Output 2 is a histogram representing the quality of eight critical control points. Output 3 is a radar chart representing the level reached by ten system attributes. This tool was applied on five surveillance networks.

  20. A hybrid strategy for surveillance of individuals potentially exposed to contaminated methylprednisolone acetate--Virginia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvese, Kate; Forlano, Laurie; Gibson, Lex

    2013-01-01

    In September 2012, a multistate outbreak of fungal infections associated with the use of contaminated steroid products resulted in 675 exposed persons in Virginia and 53 cases of fungal infections, including 2 deaths. This article describes the design and implementation of a "hybrid" active public health surveillance system and related communication activities in partnership with key clinical stakeholders in Virginia. Strong collaboration with clinical partners is critical in establishing and implementing a surveillance system for an evolving outbreak. While clinicians focused on diagnosis, treatment, and routine follow-up of patients who presented with symptoms consistent with the outbreak case definition, public health took on the responsibility of weekly surveillance phone calls to all exposed persons who did not enter clinical care. Communication between clinical partners and public health was essential and included the somewhat atypical role of public health actively performing assessment and referral to care functions during an outbreak.

  1. Comparison of Monte Carlo Critical Spectra from B1 Buckling Search and Albedo Search Methods. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Yu Gwon; Yun, Sung Hwan; Cho, Nam Zin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Since the Monte Carlo method overcomes limitations in multi-group approximation and geometry description, it is gaining increasing use in reactor physics problems. Recently, a new leakage-corrected method was suggested by the authors, in which the critical spectrum is obtained by albedo-based leakage correction in the Monte Carlo method. In this paper, the critical spectrum based on the albedo-based leakage-corrected method will be compared with the critical spectrum by conventional B1 method (with condensed cross sections) and reference critical whole-core assembly spectrum. These two methods are implemented in our local MCNP5 (version 1.50)

  2. Experimental result of BWR post-CHF tests. Critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Anoda, Yoshinari [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Iwaki, Chikako [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    Authors performed post-CHF experiments under wider pressure ranges of 2 MPa - 18 MPa, wider mass flux ranges of 33 kg/m{sup 2}s - 1651 kg/m{sup 2}s and wider superheat of heaters up to 500 K in comparison to experimental ranges at previous post-CHF experiments. Data on boiling transition, critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient were obtained. Used test section was 4x4-rod bundle with heaters, which diameter and length were the same as those of BWR nuclear fuels. As the result of the experiments, it was found that the boiling transition occurred just below several grid spacers, and that the fronts of the boiling transition region proceeded lower with increase of heated power. Heat transfer was due to nucleate boiling above grid spacers, while it was due to film boiling below grid spacers. Consequently, critical heat flux is affected on the distance from the grid spacers. Critical heat flux above the grid spacers was about 15% higher than that below the grid spacers, by comparing them under the same local condition. Heat transfer by steam turbulent flow was dominant to post-CHF heat transfer, when superheat of heaters was sufficiently high. Then, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was predicted with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. On the other hand, when superhead of heaters was not sufficiently high, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was higher than the prediction with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. Mass flux effect on post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was described by standardization of post-CHF heat transfer coefficient with the prediction for single-phase flow. However, pressure effect, superheat effect and effect of position were not described. Authors clarified that those effects could be described with functions of heater temperature and position. Post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was lowest just blow the grid spacers, and it increased with the lower positions. It increased by about 30% in one span of

  3. The effect of acidified enteral feeds on gastric colonization in critically ill patients: results of a multicenter randomized trial. Canadian Critical Care Trials Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, D K; Cook, D J; Schoenfeld, P S; Frietag, A; Varon, J; Wood, G

    1999-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of acidified enteral feeds on gastric colonization in critically ill patients compared with a standard feeding formula. Randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial. Eight mixed intensive care units at tertiary care hospitals. We recruited mechanically ventilated critically ill patients expected to remain ventilated for >48 hrs. We excluded patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, acidemia, and renal failure requiring dialysis. We enrolled 120 patients; 38% were female, age (mean +/- SD) was 57.6+/-19.3 yrs, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (mean +/- SD) was 21.6+/-7.6. Vital High Nitrogen (Abbott Laboratories, Ross Products Division, Columbus, OH) was used as the standard feeding formula for the control group (pH = 6.5). Hydrochloric acid was added to Vital High Nitrogen to achieve a pH of 3.5 in the experimental group. The main outcome measure was gastric colonization. Secondary outcomes included gastric pH, pneumonia, and mortality. The mean gastric pH in patients receiving acid feeds was lower (pH = 3.3) compared with controls (pH = 4.6; pacid feeds was colonized in the stomach with pathogenic bacteria, compared with 20 patients (43%) in the control group (pacid feeds group vs. 15% in the control group; p = .19). Overall, there were 15 deaths in the acid feeds group and seven in the control group (p = .10); four patients in the acid feeds group and three in the control group died during the study period (p not significant). Acidified enteral feeds preserve gastric acidity and substantially reduce gastric colonization in critically ill patients. Larger studies are needed to examine its effect on ventilator-associated pneumonia and mortality.

  4. Secure surveillance videotapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pepper, S. [International Safeguards Project Office, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system`s tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal.

  5. Critical Thinking Skills and Academic Maturity: Emerging Results from a Five-Year Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppin, Ian N.; Chitsonga, Shadreck

    2016-01-01

    The QEP that was implemented in this study focused on enhancing students' critical thinking skills. A pretest/posttest approach was used to assess students' critical thinking progress in freshman level core English and Math courses. An intervention was performed involving intensive instruction and assignments relating to a set of reasoning…

  6. THE LONG-TERM ONCOLOGICAL RESULTS OF RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH A MAXIMUM FOLLOW-UP OF UP TO 15 YEARS, WHO MEET THE ERSPC (PRIAS CRITERIA FOR ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Veliev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available No consensus on how to select patients is one of the factors restricting the wide acceptance of active surveillance (AS. The frequency of unfavorable histological findings and long-term overall and relapse-free survival rates were studied in 152 patients who met the ERSPC [European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer] (PRIAS criteria for AS and had undergone retropubic prostatectomy (RPE in the period 1997 to 2010. Negative histological characteristics were found in more than 10 % of the patients, with the median postoperative followup of 67 months biochemical recurrence developed in 3 (2 % patients. Five- and ten-year relapse-free survival rates were 97 and 88.2 %, respectively. Histological and long-term oncological results after RPE are suboptimal in the patients meeting the PRIAS criteria. There is a need for additional studies of the safety and efficiency of AS under conditions of Russian public health.

  7. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  8. Results from evaluations of models and cost-effectiveness tools to support introduction decisions for new vaccines need critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthy Vasee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO recommends that the cost-effectiveness (CE of introducing new vaccines be considered before such a programme is implemented. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, it is often challenging to perform and interpret the results of model-based economic appraisals of vaccines that benefit from locally relevant data. As a result, WHO embarked on a series of consultations to assess economic analytical tools to support vaccine introduction decisions for pneumococcal, rotavirus and human papillomavirus vaccines. The objectives of these assessments are to provide decision makers with a menu of existing CE tools for vaccines and their characteristics rather than to endorse the use of a single tool. The outcome will provide policy makers in LMICs with information about the feasibility of applying these models to inform their own decision making. We argue that if models and CE analyses are used to inform decisions, they ought to be critically appraised beforehand, including a transparent evaluation of their structure, assumptions and data sources (in isolation or in comparison to similar tools, so that decision makers can use them while being fully aware of their robustness and limitations.

  9. Modernization of existing VVER-1000 surveillance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V.; Erak, D.; Makhotin, D. [NRC ' Kurchatov Inst.' , 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    According to generally accepted world practice, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material behavior during operation is carried out using tests of surveillance specimens. The main objective of the surveillance program consists in insurance of safe RPV operation during the design lifetime and lifetime-extension period. At present, the approaches of pressure vessels residual life validation based on the test results of their surveillance specimens have been developed and introduced in Russia and are under consideration in other countries where vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactors- (VVER-) 1000 are in operation. In this case, it is necessary to ensure leading irradiation of surveillance specimens (as compared to the pressure vessel wall) and to provide uniformly irradiated specimen groups for mechanical testing. Standard surveillance program of VVER-1000 has several significant shortcomings and does not meet these requirements. Taking into account program of lifetime extension of VVER-1000 operating in Russia, it is necessary to carry out upgrading of the VVER-1000 surveillance program. This paper studies the conditions of a surveillance specimen's irradiation and upgrading of existing sets to provide monitoring and prognosis of RPV material properties for extension of the reactor's lifetime up to 60 years or more. (authors)

  10. [REPORTING CRITICAL LAB RESULTS, A CHALLENGE FOR THE LAB AND THE PHYSICIAN - A SUMMARY OF FOUR YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN MEIR MEDICAL CENTER LABORATORIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Gloria; Goldman, Jacob; Weinstein, Doron; Tohami, Tali; Neumark, Eran; Weiss, Eli

    2015-08-01

    Critical laboratory results require prompt reporting to the attending physician, as they may indicate that a patient is in a life-threatening condition. Although this important subject has been covered in many publications, it needs more attention from our healthcare organizations, which have no official policy on the subject. Matching expectations between the doctor and the laboratory needs to be better defined. The aim of this work was to inform the community of doctors and laboratories about the multiple problems concerning the reporting of critical laboratory results, to create a platform for exchanging views and ideas, and to build an extensive infrastructure for developing a unified plan to address this important issue. We present the results of four years of experience of reporting critical laboratory values at the Meir Medical Center Laboratories. The idea leading this work was to present the relatively low rate of critical results reported by the laboratories in 2010, sharing the problems discovered while investigating the situation in depth, and presenting the solutions that enabled us to obtain the desired results within four years. Gradual implementation of these improvements resulted in critical value reporting increasing from 55% in 2010 to 95% currently. We suggest a model for improving critical laboratory values reporting based on our 4-year experience, which emphasizes: (1) The importance of selecting proper tests and values for critical results; (2) The significance of using technology and computerized measures to support the process; and (3) Developing quick procedures for monitoring and controlling the process.

  11. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Irish critical care units: results of a pilot prevalence survey, June 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, K

    2012-11-10

    The epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in Ireland is changing, with an increase in the number of reported cases in late 2010 and early 2011. Reported cases were predominantly linked to critical care units. In June 2011, a four-week national pilot survey took place in 40 Irish critical care units (37 adult and three paediatric) to examine the prevalence of rectal carriage of CPE and inform national CPE screening guidelines. A total of 760 screening swabs were taken over the study period, and CPE were not detected in any of the participating critical care units.

  12. Validation of 24-Hour Fluconazole MIC Readings versus the CLSI 48-Hour Broth Microdilution Reference Method: Results from a Global Candida Antifungal Surveillance Program ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L. B.; Hollis, R. J.; Kroeger, J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    We performed 24- and 48-h MIC determinations and disk diffusion testing of fluconazole against more than 11,000 clinical isolates of Candida species. By using the reference MIC breakpoints, the categorical agreement between the 24-h and reference 48-h broth microdilution results ranged from 93.8% (all Candida species) to 94.9% (all Candida species minus Candida krusei), with only 0.1% very major errors (VME). The essential agreement (within 2 log2 dilutions) between the 24-h and 48-h results was 99.6%. The categorical agreement between the 24-h disk diffusion results and the 24-h MIC results, using the previously established breakpoints, was 94.4%, with 0.1% VME. Both the MIC and the disk diffusion results obtained for fluconazole after only 24 h of incubation may be used to determine the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to this widely used antifungal agent. PMID:18784314

  13. Safety profiles and efficacy of infliximab therapy in Japanese patients with plaque psoriasis with or without psoriatic arthritis, pustular psoriasis or psoriatic erythroderma: Results from the prospective post-marketing surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Hideshi; Terui, Tadashi; Matsukawa, Miyuki; Takesaki, Kazumi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2016-07-01

    A large-scale prospective post-marketing surveillance was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of infliximab in Japanese patients with plaque psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, pustular psoriasis and psoriatic erythroderma. This study was conducted in all psoriasis patients treated with infliximab after its Japanese regulatory approval. Infliximab was administrated at 5 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2 and 6, and every 8 weeks thereafter. Patients were serially enrolled and observed for 6 months to evaluate the safety and efficacy. The safety and efficacy were evaluated in 764 and 746 patients, respectively. Incidences of any and serious adverse drug reactions were 22.51% and 6.94%, respectively, and those of any and serious infusion reactions were 6.15% and 1.31%, respectively, which were comparable with the results in the post-marketing surveillance with 5000 rheumatoid arthritis patients in Japan. Major adverse drug reactions during the follow-up period were infections (5.10%) including pneumonia, cellulitis and herpes zoster, however, no tuberculosis was observed. The safety profiles were equivalent, regardless of the psoriasis types. No new safety problems were identified. The response rates on global improvement and median improvement rate of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index in all patients were 88.0% and 85.0%, respectively. Of note, the efficacy was equivalent for each psoriasis type as well as for each body region. Infliximab was also effective in pustular psoriasis symptoms, joint symptoms and nail psoriasis, as well as improvement of quality of life. Infliximab was confirmed to be highly effective and well tolerated in treating refractory psoriasis, including pustular psoriasis and psoriatic erythroderma. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Revisiting the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Cancer Registry and Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (SEER-MHOS) Linked Data Resource for Patient-Reported Outcomes Research in Older Adults with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Erin E; Malinoff, Rochelle; Rozjabek, Heather M; Ambs, Anita; Clauser, Steven B; Topor, Marie A; Yuan, Gigi; Burroughs, James; Rodgers, Anne B; DeMichele, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing the value of patient-reported outcome (PRO) data to better characterize people's health and experiences with illness and care. Considering the rising prevalence of cancer in adults aged 65 and older, PRO data are particularly relevant for older adults with cancer, who often require complex cancer care and have additional comorbid conditions. A data linkage between the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry and the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (MHOS) was created through a partnership between the National Cancer Institute and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services that created the opportunity to examine PROs in Medicare Advantage enrollees with and without cancer. The December 2013 linkage of SEER-MHOS data included the linked data for 12 cohorts, bringing the number of individuals in the linked data set to 95,723 with cancer and 1,510,127 without. This article reviews the features of the resource and provides information on some descriptive characteristics of the individuals in the data set (health-related quality of life, body mass index, fall risk management, number of unhealthy days in the past month). Individuals without (n=258,108) and with (n=3,440) cancer (1,311 men with prostate cancer, 982 women with breast cancer, 689 with colorectal cancer, 458 with lung cancer) were included in the current descriptive analysis. Given increasing longevity, advances in effective therapies and earlier detection, and population growth, the number of individuals aged 65 and older with cancer is expected to reach more than 12 million by 2020. SEER-MHOS provides population-level, self-reported, cancer registry-linked data for person-centered surveillance research on this growing population.

  15. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  16. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  17. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  19. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  20. Detection of imminent vein graft occlusion: what is the optimal surveillance program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinder, Chelsey N; Bandyk, Dennis F

    2009-12-01

    The prediction of infrainguinal vein bypass failure remains an inexact judgment. Patient demographics, technical factors, and vascular laboratory graft surveillance testing are helpful in identifying a high-risk graft cohort. The optimal surveillance program to detect the bypass at risk for imminent occlusion continues to be developed, but required elements are known and include clinical assessment for new or changes in limb ischemia symptoms, measurement of ankle and/or toe systolic pressure, and duplex ultrasound imaging of the bypass graft. Duplex ultrasound assessment of bypass hemodynamics may be the most accurate method to detect imminent vein graft occlusion. The finding of low graft flow during intraoperative assessment or at a scheduled surveillance study predicts failure; and if associated with an occlusive lesion, a graft revision can prolong patency. The most common abnormality producing graft failure is conduit stenosis caused by myointimal hyperplasia; and the majority can be repaired by an endovascular intervention. Frequency of testing to detect the failing bypass should be individualized to the patient, the type of arterial bypass, and prior duplex ultrasound scan findings. The focus of surveillance is on identification of the low-flow arterial bypass and timely repair of detected critical stenosis defined by duplex velocity spectra criteria of a peak systolic velocity 300 cm/s and peak systolic velocity ratio across the stenosis >3.5-correlating with >70% diameter-reducing stenosis. When conducted appropriately, a graft surveillance program should result in an unexpected graft failure rate of <3% per year.

  1. Transient void, pressure drop and critical power BFBT benchmark analysis and results with VIPRE-W / MEFISTO-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Corre, J.M.; Adamsson, C.; Alvarez, P., E-mail: lecorrjm@westinghouse.com, E-mail: carl.adamsson@psi.ch, E-mail: alvarep@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    A benchmark analysis of the transient BFBT data [1], measured in an 8x8 fuel assembly design under typical BWR transient conditions, was performed using the VIPRE-W/MEFISTO-T code package. This is a continuation of the BFBT steady-state benchmark activities documented in [2] and [3]. All available transient void and pressure drop experimental data were considered and the measurements were compared with the predictions of the VIPRE-W sub-channel analysis code using various modeling approaches, including the EPRI drift flux void correlation. Detailed analyses of the code results were performed and it was demonstrated that the VIPRE-W transient predictions are generally reliable over the tested conditions. Available transient dryout data were also considered and the measurements were compared with the predictions of the VIPRE-W/ MEFISTO-T film flow calculations. The code calculates the transient multi-film flowrate distributions in the BFBT bundle, including the effect of spacer grids on drop deposition enhancement, and the dryout criterion corresponds to the total liquid film disappearance. After calibration of the grid enhancement effect with a very small subset of the steady-state critical power database, the code could predict the time and location of transient dryout with very good accuracy. (author)

  2. External Quality Assurance System (EQAS) of the WHO Global Salmonella Surveillance and Laboratory Support Project (Global Salm-Surv) Results from 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Evans, M.C.

    An international collaborative study on serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of eight Salmonella enterica strains was performed to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories in WHO Global Salm-Surv to conduct Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial suscept...... of the quality control range specified by NCCLS guidelines....... susceptibility testing. A total of 103 laboratories in 60 countries participated. For serotyping, 78% of the results were correct. For susceptibility testing, 91% of the results were in agreement with the expected results. However, 17% of the performed tests with the E. coli ATCC 25922 reference strain were out...

  3. Nuclear RNA surveillance: role of TRAMP in controlling exosome specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karyn; Butler, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that pervasive transcription generates RNAs from nearly all regions of eukaryotic genomes. Normally, these transcripts undergo rapid degradation by a nuclear RNA surveillance system primarily featuring the RNA exosome. This multimeric protein complex plays a critical role in the efficient turnover and processing of a vast array of RNAs in the nucleus. Despite its initial discovery over a decade ago, important questions remain concerning the mechanisms that recruit and activate the nuclear exosome. Specificity and modulation of exosome activity requires additional protein cofactors, including the conserved TRAMP polyadenylation complex. Recent studies suggest that helicase and RNA-binding subunits of TRAMP direct RNA substrates for polyadenylation, which enhances their degradation by Dis3/Rrp44 and Rrp6, the two exosome-associated ribonucleases. These findings indicate that the exosome and TRAMP have evolved highly flexible functions that allow recognition of a wide range of RNA substrates. This flexibility provides the nuclear RNA surveillance system with the ability to regulate the levels of a broad range of coding and noncoding RNAs, which results in profound effects on gene expression, cellular development, gene silencing, and heterochromatin formation. This review summarizes recent findings on the nuclear RNA surveillance complexes, and speculates upon possible mechanisms for TRAMP-mediated substrate recognition and exosome activation.

  4. Surveillance and Resilience in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Raab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is often used as a tool in resilience strategies towards the threat posed by terrorist attacks and other serious crime. “Resilience” is a contested term with varying and ambiguous meaning in governmental, business and social discourses, and it is not clear how it relates to other terms that characterise processes or states of being. Resilience is often assumed to have positive connotations, but critics view it with great suspicion, regarding it as a neo-liberal governmental strategy. However, we argue that surveillance, introduced in the name of greater security, may itself erode social freedoms and public goods such as privacy, paradoxically requiring societal resilience, whether precautionary or in mitigation of the harms it causes to the public goods of free societies. This article develops new models and extends existing ones to describe resilience processes unfolding over time and in anticipation of, or in reaction to, adversities of different kinds and severity, and explores resilience both on the plane of abstract analysis and in the context of societal responses to mass surveillance. The article thus focuses upon surveillance as a special field for conceptual analysis and modelling of situations, and for evaluating contemporary developments in “surveillance societies”.

  5. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frosch, Peter J.; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A.; Silvestre, Juan F.; Sanchez-Perez, Javier; Weisshaar, Elke; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background. Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. Objective. To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. Methods. Data of patients

  6. MAIN RESULTS AND WAYS TO IMPROVE THE UNIFORM STATE SYSTEM FOR POPULATION EXPOSURE DOSES CONTROL AND REGISTRATION ON THE BASIS OF STATE STATISTICAL SURVEILLANCE FORMS № 4-DOZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Svetovidov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of operation results of databanks on the level and structure of the Russian Federation population exposure from natural radiation sources for the period of 2001-2010. We consider the ways to improve the system of collecting and recording of the data on the doses from natural exposure to the population based on the experience and the modern regulatory system for radiation protection.

  7. Characteristics of the Built Environment and the Presence of the Norway Rat in New York City: Results From a Neighborhood Rat Surveillance Program, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Bragdon, Caroline; Olson, Carolyn; Merlino, Mario; Bonaparte, Sancia

    2016-06-01

    Characteristics of an urban setting such as New York City (NYC), including readily available putrescible waste and ample underground infrastructure, make it highly attractive to the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). To identify property and neighborhood characteristics associated with rat presence, recent inspectional results were analyzed from over 77,000 properties in the Bronx and Manhattan. Variables capturing the location and density of factors believed to promote rat populations were tested individually and in combination in models predicting rat activity. We found that property-specific characteristics typically associated with high garbage volume, including large numbers of residential units, public ownership, and open-space designation (parks, outdoor recreation, or vacant land) were the most important factors in explaining increased rat presence across neighborhoods in NYC. Interventions that involved improved garbage management and street sanitation within a designated area reduced the likelihood of finding rats, especially in medium- and high-poverty neighborhoods. Neighborhood characteristics, such as being near a railroad or subway line, having a school nearby, the presence of numerous restaurants, or having older infrastructure, also contributed to the increased likelihood of rats. Our results support the use of built environment data to target community-level interventions and capture emerging rat infestations.

  8. Surveillance and Monitoring of Dialysis Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalathaksha Kumbar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access is the lifeline of a hemodialysis patient. Currently arteriovenous fistula and graft are considered the permanent options for vascular access. Monitoring and surveillance of vascular access are an integral part of the care of hemodialysis patient. Although different techniques and methods are available for identifying access dysfunction, the scientific evidence for the optimal methodology is lacking. A small number of randomized controlled trials have been performed evaluating different surveillance techniques. We performed a study of the recent literature published in the PUBMED, to review the scientific evidence on different methodologies currently being used for surveillance and monitoring and their impact on the care of the dialysis access. The limited randomized studies especially involving fistulae and small sample size of the published studies with conflicting results highlight the need for a larger multicentered randomized study with hard clinical end points to evaluate the optimal surveillance strategy for both fistula and graft.

  9. Analysis of factors influencing the overall effect of racecadotril on childhood acute diarrhea. Results from a real-world and post-authorization surveillance study in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Chacón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jose ChacónOn behalf of the Racecadotril Post-authorization Record Group; Centro Clinico Profesional Caracas, Caracas, VenezuelaAbstract: Drug efficacy might differ from clinical trial results when performed in clinical daily conditions. Therefore, it is mandatory to conduct trials about effectiveness to improve external validity. This post-authorization, open-label, noncontrolled, prospective, multicenter, observational, and naturalistic trial was designed to search for factors influencing the racecadotril overall effect on childhood acute watery diarrhea in a real-world setting of Venezuela. There were 3,873 children with acute watery diarrhea treated with racecadotril, an enkephalin breakdown blocker plus oral rehydration therapy by 97 pediatricians. Evaluations were carried out daily until emission of two consecutive formed stools or absence of watery bowel movements for 24 hours. The primary end-point was time-to-relief, defined as the time from first racecadotril dose to the last watery bowel movement time. Age, gender, nursing type, nursing status during diarrhea, diarrhea severity, and co-medication were considered as factors in the statistical analysis. The primary end-point was evaluated by factors using UNIANOVA, and post-hoc tests were done. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to identify factors affecting drug performance, racecadotril effectiveness and tolerability overall assessment was searched by physicians and patients, and inter-observer agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. The mean time-to-relief was 18.5 ± 12.5 hours [95% confidence interval 17.9–19.0] and the diarrhea severity was the only variable with significant and independent weight on racecadotril effectiveness explaining 23% of time-to-relief variance, but even in severe diarrhea cases this time was less than 24 hours. High agreement about satisfactory perception on effectiveness and tolerability was reached among physicians and patients. In

  10. Post-marketing surveillance study of the long-term use of mizoribine for the treatment of lupus nephritis: 2-Year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Okada, Kenya; Yoshida, Hisao; Yagi, Nobuyuki

    2017-07-19

    To understand the status of mizoribine use in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and to collect safety- and efficacy-related data on 2-year treatment with mizoribine. A continuous survey was conducted between March 2010 and July 2015. The analysis set included 559 patients (mean age 39.5 years, females 82.6%, mean duration of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 8.4 years, mean duration of LN 5.9 years). Renal function was satisfactory for 6 months, but worsened from 12 months, with significant worsening at 24 months. By the ACR 2006 remission criteria (eGFR >60), at 24 months, 26.5% of patients achieved complete remission, and 63.3% achieved complete or partial remission. The urine protein to creatinine ratio decreased significantly. The SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 score decreased significantly at 12 and 24 months. Overall, 98 (17.5%) patients experienced 124 adverse drug reactions (ADRs); 3.6% experienced serious ADRs. Mizoribine was used with a steroid in 99.3% and an immunosuppressant in 51.2%; tacrolimus was used in 43.8%. The oral steroid dosage decreased from baseline to 24 months. The incidence of ADRs was not significantly different with concomitant tacrolimus use. The results suggest that long-term mizoribine is safe and effective, even when used with tacrolimus.

  11. Use of an Electronic Medication Administration Record (eMAR) for Surveillance of Medication Omissions: Results of a One Year Study of Antimicrobials in the Inpatient Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bruce R.; Sabuda, Deana M.; Bresee, Lauren C.; Conly, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medication administration omissions (MAO) are usually considered medication errors but not all MAO are clinically relevant. We determined the frequency of clinically relevant MAO of antimicrobial drugs in adult hospitals in Calgary, Alberta, Canada based on electronic medication administration record (eMAR). Methods We examined 2011 data from eMAR records on medical wards and developed a reproducible assessment scheme to categorize and determine clinical relevance of MAO. We applied this scheme to records from 2012 in a retrospective cohort study to quantify clinically relevant MAO. Significant predictors of clinically relevant MAO were identified. Results A total of 294,718 dose records were assessed of which 10,282 (3.49%) were for doses not administered. Among these 4903 (1.66% of total); 47.68% of MAO were considered clinically relevant. Significant positive predictors of clinically relevant MAO included inhaled (OR 4.90, 95% CI 3.54-6.94) and liquid oral (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.47) route of medication compared to solid oral and irregular dose schedules. Evening nursing shift compared to night shift (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.70-0.85) and parenteral (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.46-0.54) were negative predictors, The commonest reasons for relevant MAO were patient preference, unspecified reason, administration access issues, drug not available or patient condition. Conclusion Assessment of MAO by review of computer records provides a greater scope and sample size than directly observed medication administration assessments without “observer” effect. We found that MAO of antimicrobials in inpatients were uncommon but were seen more frequently with orally administered antimicrobials which may have significance to antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. PMID:25856373

  12. The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS: results of a baseline biological and behavioral HIV surveillance survey in two MSM communities in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lane

    Full Text Available The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS is the assessment of the Project Boithato HIV prevention intervention for South African MSM. Boithato aims to increase consistent condom use, regular testing for HIV-negative MSM, and linkage to care for HIV-positive MSM. The MPMS baseline examined HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors, and testing, care, and treatment behaviors among MSM in Gert Sibande and Ehlanzeni districts in Mpumalanga province, South Africa in order to effectively target intervention activities. We recruited 307 MSM in Gert Sibande and 298 in Ehlanzeni through respondent-driven sampling (RDS between September 2012-March 2013. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence estimates are 28.3% (95% CI 21.1%-35.3% in Gert Sibande, and 13.7% (95% CI 9.1%-19.6% in Ehlanzeni. Prevalence is significantly higher among MSM over age 25 [57.8% (95% CI 43.1%-72.9% vs. 17.9% (95% CI 10.6%-23.9%, P<0.001 in Gert Sibande; 34.5% (95%CI 20.5%-56.0% vs. 9.1% (95% CI 4.6%-13.9%, P<0.001 in Ehlanzeni]. In Gert Sibande, prevalence is higher among self-identified gay and transgender MSM vs. other MSM [39.3% (95%CI, 28.3%-47.9%, P<0.01], inconsistent condom users [38.1% (18.1%-64.2%, P<0.05], those with a current regular male partner [35.0% (27.1%-46.4%, P<0.05], and those with lifetime experience of intimate partner violence with men [40.4%, (95%CI 28.9%-50.9%, P<0.05]. Prevalence of previous HIV testing was 65.8% (95%CI 58.8%-74.0% in Gert Sibande, and 69.3% (95%CI 61.9%-76.8% in Ehlanzeni. Regular HIV testing was uncommon [(34.6%, (95%CI 27.9%-41.4% in Gert Sibande; 31.0% (95%CI 24.9%-37.8% in Ehlanzeni]. Among HIV-positive participants, few knew their status (28.1% in Gert Sibande and 14.5% in Ehlanzeni, or were appropriately linked to care (18.2% and 11.3%, respectively, or taking antiretroviral therapy (13.6% and 9.6% respectively. MPMS results demonstrate the importance of implementing interventions for MSM to increase consistent condom use, regular HIV testing, and

  13. A comprehensive approach to the prevention of central venous catheter complications: results of 10-year prospective surveillance in pediatric hematology-oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Simone; Cavaliere, Mara; Pegoraro, Anna; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Zadra, Nicola; Tridello, Gloria

    2016-04-01

    We report our decennial experience with 1161 newly-placed long-term central venous catheters inserted in 919 hematology-oncology patients for a total of 413,901 CVC-days of observation. Most of the CVCs were partially-implanted, open-ended, Broviac-Hickman type of CVC (95 %). One thousand and twenty-four complications were recorded equal to 2.47 per 1000 CVC-days. The frequency of complications per CVC, the rate of episodes per 1000 CVC-days, and removal rate were malfunction/occlusion 42 %, 1.18/1000, and 2.3 %; mechanical (dislodgement/rupture/kinking) 18.3 %, 0.51/1000, and 77.4 %; bacteremia 14.8 %, 0.42/1000, and 18.6 %; exit-site/tunnel infection 11.5 %, 0.32/1000, and 9.7 %; thrombosis 0.86 %, 0.02/1000, and 30 %; pneumothorax 0.52 %, 0.01/1000, and 0. In multivariate analysis, the risk factors were for mechanical complications, a younger age HR 1.8, p = 0.0006); for bacteremia, a double lumen CVC (HR 3.1, p HR 1.5, p = 0.03); for exit-site/tunnel infection, a double lumen CVC (HR 2.1, p = 0.0003) and a diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma (HR 1.8, p = 0.01); for malfunction/occlusion, an age HR 1.6, p = 0.0003), the diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma (HR 1.9, p HR 1.33, p = 0.023). The cumulative incidence of premature CVC removal was 29.2 % and the risk factors associated with this event were the surgical modality of CVC insertion (HR 1.4, p = 0.0153) and an age at CVC positioning less than 6.1 years (HR 1.6, p = 0.0025). We conclude that a best-practice set of rules resulted in reduced CVC complications.

  14. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo;

    2015-01-01

    public health emergencies of international concern: (i) can syndromic surveillance support countries, especially the subnational level, to meet the International Health Regulations (2005) core surveillance capacity requirements, (ii) are European syndromic surveillance systems comparable to enable cross......-border surveillance, and (iii) at which administrative level should syndromic surveillance best be applied? DISCUSSION: Despite the ongoing criticism on the usefulness of syndromic surveillance which is related to its clinically nonspecific output, we demonstrate that it was a suitable supplement for timely...... assessment of the impact of three different public health emergencies affecting Europe. Subnational syndromic surveillance analysis in some cases proved to be of advantage for detecting an event earlier compared to national level analysis. However, in many cases, syndromic surveillance did not detect local...

  15. Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Widowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of disease in Indonesia is limited. Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. Methods In January - December 2006, a prospective, hospital-based surveillance was carried out in children aged less than five years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples were examined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed to be positive by EIA. Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of the specimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%. Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present with dehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94% vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03. Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of pediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This finding warrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease, such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:22-7].

  16. 2009年南宁市食品安全风险监测结果%Surveillance Results of Food Safety in Nanning City in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚祖康; 丁伟

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To understand the current situation of food safety in Nanning city, and provide scientific basis for strengthening food safety supervision and administration. [ Methods] Based on the food safety risk monitoring plan formulated by Nanning Office of Food Safety Coordination Committee, 279 food samples of 16 categories were selected from the city monitoring points, and then detected by qualified technical institution according to the national standards for food safety. [ Results ] The average pass rate was 72.4%. the pass rate of food samples less than 80% in ascending order were flour-made food, dessert, frozen food, fried food, meat ball, aquatic products and fresh milk. Microorganisms, food additives and food contaminants failed to meet the food safety standards. [ Condnsioil] The situation of food safety in Nanning is not optimistic. It is necessary to strengthen supervision and guidance on the food production of small workshops and vendors, to keep food source safety. It is suggested to emphasize the guidance of the construction of honesty-credit system in the food industry, to promote the development of industry standards, to enhance food safety education and publicity, to improve the quality of employees and awareness of the public, to increase risk monitoring and assessment on the large consumption food (such as fresh rice noodles, dairy products, etc), and better guide the safe consumption of food.%目的 了解南宁市食品安全现状,为加强食品安全监管提供依据.方法 依据南宁市食品安全协调委员会办公室制定的监测计划,在全市各监测点抽检16类279份食品样品,委托有资质的检验机构按照国家食品安全标准进行检测.结果 食品样品总合格率72.4%.合格率低于80%的食品(由低到高排序)有面点、甜品、冷冻食品、油炸食品、肉丸、水发产品、大米和鲜牛奶,以微生物、食品添加剂、污染物限量超标为主.结论 南宁市食品安全现

  17. The critical land in Komering watershed as a result of land use changes from 2000-2016 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusratmoko, E.; Dayanti, S. T.; Supriatna

    2017-01-01

    Land use changes in a watershed could affect the ecological system, hydrological system and water quality, meanwhile land use changes study is needed to conduct especially in Komering watershed. Land use is the main factor that determines level of critical land, so the land use changes should correspond with the capability through which degraded land can be controlled. This study aimed to calculate land use/ land cover changes from 2000 to 2016 and generate critical land criterions. The objective of the study was to determine the physical and social factors that influence the degree of criticality land in watershed. Physical and social characteristics were measured including land use changes, solum, slopes, outcrop, and land productivity. This study applied supervised classification-maximum likelihood algorithm in ENVI 5.1 imagine to detect land use changes observed in Komering watershed, South Sumatera province, using multispectral satellite data obtained from Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 for the years 2000 to 2016 respectively. Determination of the level of critical land and land use conditions are executed through a spatial approach by utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistical analysis.

  18. The Relationship between Social Presence and Critical Thinking: Results from Learner Discourse in an Asynchronous Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costley, Jamie; Lange, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between social presence and critical thinking is useful for gaining insight into the interaction and discourse of learners online. Further study of how these two presences interact is important because research has shown a wide variety of relationships, both positive and negative, between social presence and critical…

  19. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system.

  20. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  1. Detection of infrastructure manipulation with knowledge-based video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, David; Hilsenbeck, Barbara; Kieritz, Hilke; Becker, Stefan; Grosselfinger, Ann-Kristin; Huebner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We are living in a world dependent on sophisticated technical infrastructure. Malicious manipulation of such critical infrastructure poses an enormous threat for all its users. Thus, running a critical infrastructure needs special attention to log the planned maintenance or to detect suspicious events. Towards this end, we present a knowledge-based surveillance approach capable of logging visual observable events in such an environment. The video surveillance modules are based on appearance-based person detection, which further is used to modulate the outcome of generic processing steps such as change detection or skin detection. A relation between the expected scene behavior and the underlying basic video surveillance modules is established. It will be shown that the combination already provides sufficient expressiveness to describe various everyday situations in indoor video surveillance. The whole approach is qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on a prototypical scenario in a server room.

  2. Prevalence of smoking in 15-64 years old population of north of Iran: meta-analysis of the results of non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamshidi Ardeshiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known as a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and hence immediate and effective interventions are required for its elimination. This study aimed to collect valid data with regard to cigarette smoking in adult population of north of Iran for policy making by a meta-analysis of the documents of national non-communicable disease risk factors surveillance system. We investigated relevant evidences by searching in published and non-electronic databases. Data were extracted based on variables such as year of the study, sex, age group and prevalence of smoking habit. Based on results of heterogeneity, we applied fixed or random effects model to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. All analyses were performed using STATA 11 software. A total of 20747 subjects (10381 males and 10366 females in five age groups 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men and women showed prevalence of 19.2% (15.8-22.6% and 0.3% (0.2-0.5% respectively. Results of the present meta-analysis showed as much as one fifth of male population of north of Iran are smoker. Subgroup analysis also revealed that the rate of smoking was higher among the middle-aged men.

  3. Prevalence of smoking in 15-64 years old population of north of Iran: meta-analysis of the results of non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi Ardeshiri, Mohammad; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Feizi Masouleh, Mehran; Feizi Masouleh, Mehrdad; Kiani, Arda; Fakhri, Mohammad

    2013-08-07

    Smoking is known as a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hence immediate and effective interventions are required for its elimination. This study aimed to collect valid data with regard to cigarette smoking in adult population of north of Iran for policy making by a meta-analysis of the documents of national non-communicable disease risk factors surveillance system. We investigated relevant evidences by searching in published and non-electronic databases. Data were extracted based on variables such as year of the study, sex, age group and prevalence of smoking habit. Based on results of heterogeneity, we applied fixed or random effects model to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. All analyses were performed using STATA 11 software. A total of 20747 subjects (10381 males and 10366 females) in five age groups 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men and women showed prevalence of 19.2% (15.8-22.6%) and 0.3% (0.2-0.5%) respectively. Results of the present meta-analysis showed as much as one fifth of male population of north of Iran are smoker. Subgroup analysis also revealed that the rate of smoking was higher among the middle-aged men.

  4. 导尿管相关尿路感染目标性监测结果分析%The analysis of the surveillance results of catheter-related urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆安德

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨开展导尿管相关尿路目标性监测是否降低尿路感染发生率,并分析其危险因素,为医院感染管理和控制提供科学的依据.方法:采用目标性监测方法,对2010年所有住院患者发生导尿管相关尿路感染情况进行调查.结果:926例留置尿管患者,发生尿路感染18例,感染率为1.94%,与去年相比感染率明显下降,监测发现感染与基础病、无菌操作、手卫生及导尿管留置时间有关;病原菌分布以大肠埃希菌为主,占20.00%,排在第1位,其次是金黄色葡萄球菌、粪肠球菌、白色念珠菌等.结论:通过目标性监测,发现了医院感染管理工作的各种问题和薄弱环节,通过针对性干预减少获得医院感染的危险因素,降低医院感染发生率.%Objective: To investigate the work of surveillance of catheter-related unnary tract on reducing the incidence rate of urinary tract infection. The analysis of risk factors of urinary tract infection were provided a timely scientific basis for the hospital infection management and control. Methods: The incidences of catheter-related urinary tract infection of all in-patients in 2010 were investigated objectively with monitoring method. Results: In 926 cases with detaining urine tube, 18 cases were infccled, the incidence was 1.94%, which dropped precipitously compared with last year. According to the surveillance resuhs. it was found that the infection rates were associated with basic disease, aseptic technique, hand hygiene and the lasting time of catheterization. The pathogen germs were large intestine Egypt primarily, which accounted for 20.00% as the first. The next was Staphylococcus aureus, Enteracoccus faecalis, Candida albicans and so on. Conclusion: The vast problems and weak link in the hospital infection management could be found by the objective surveillance method. Appropriate interference on reducing the risk factors of hospital infection, can effectively reduce the

  5. A critical analysis of international standards for construction classification - results from the development of a new Swedish construction classification system

    OpenAIRE

    Ekholm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A new Swedish construction classification system, CoClass, is now under development. CoClass has presented two alternative classifications for review, both based on the standard for construction classification ISO 12006-2:2015. One alternative also applies the IEC CD 81346-series for reference designations which includes classification tables for systems and components with function as the basis for subdivision of classes. A critical analysis shows that the 81346 series subdivision by functio...

  6. Acute and long-term dysphagia in critically ill patients with severe sepsis: results of a prospective controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielske, Joerg; Bohne, Silvia; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Axer, Hubertus; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2014-11-01

    Dysphagia is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Structured otorhinolaryngological data on dysphagia in ICU survivors with severe sepsis are missing. In a prospective study, 30 ICU patients with severe sepsis and thirty without sepsis as control group were examined using bedside fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing after 14 days in the ICU (T1) and 4 months after onset of critical illness (T2). Swallowing dysfunction was assessed using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). The Functional Oral Intake Scale was applied to evaluate the diet needed. Primary endpoint was the burden of dysphagia defined as PAS score >5. At T1, 19 of 30 severe sepsis patients showed aspiration with a PAS score >5, compared to 7 of 30 in critically ill patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.002). Severe sepsis and tracheostomy were independent risk factors for severe dysphagia with aspiration (PAS > 5) at T1 (p = 0.042 and 0.006, respectively). 4-month mortality (T2) was 57 % in severe sepsis patients compared to 20 % in patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.006). At T2, more severe sepsis survivors were tracheostomy-dependent and needed more often tube or parenteral feeding (p = 0.014 and p = 0.040, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed tracheostomy at T1 as independent risk factor for severe dysphagia at T2 (p = 0.030). Severe sepsis appears to be a relevant risk factor for long-term dysphagia. An otorhinolaryngological evaluation of dysphagia at ICU discharge is mandatory for survivors of severe critical illness to plan specific swallowing rehabilitation programs.

  7. 湖北省郧县2010年登革热蚊媒监测结果分析%Analysis on mosquito vectors surveillance results of dengue fever in Yun county of Hubei province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔小波; 胡晓东; 杨玖栓

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the seasonal growth regularity of Aedes albopictus larvae and adult in Yun county , Hubei province, and provide scientific basis for control it. Method The larval indexs ( BI ( CI, HI) and adult densities of Aedes albopictus were surveillance at the last third of every month by field survey. Results The larvaes of Aedes albopictus were found in April at the earliest and latest in November, the larvae indexs ascended from April to June and reached to the peak in June (BI =84, CI =56, HI =50), and then descended month by month. The adults of Aedes albopictus were found from May to November, the density ascended from May to August, and reached to the peak in August (20 per person hour), and then descended month by month. Conclusions The seasonal growth regularity of the larvae and adult of Aedes albopictus were obviously, the larvae indexs were higher during May to September, the risk of dengue fever outbreak caused by imported infection was higher, therefore we should enhance environmental punish and disease surveillance.%目的 了解湖北省郧县登革热媒介白纹伊蚊幼虫和成蚊季节性消长规律,为登革热的防控提供科学依据.方法 每月下旬对监测点进行现场调查,监测白纹伊蚊的幼虫指数(BI、CI、HI)和成蚊密度.结果 最早监测到白纹伊蚊幼虫为4月,最晚为11月,4~6月幼虫指数逐月长升,6月最高(BI=84、CI=56、HI =50),后逐月下降.5~11月监测到白纹伊蚊成蚊,5~8月成蚊密度逐月上升,8月最高(20只/人工?h),后逐月下降结论 郧县白纹伊蚊幼虫和成蚊密度消长季节性明显,且5~9月幼虫指数较高,输人性登革热病例引起疫情暴发的风险较大,应加强环境整治和疾病监测.

  8. 1998~2006年北京市军团菌监测结果分析%Analysis of the results of legionella surveillance in Beijing from 1998 to 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高婷; 黎新宇; 庞星火

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the state of legionella contamination in Beijing in order to provide scientific grounds for the prevention and control of legionnaires' disease. Methods A descriptive epidemiological analysis of legionnaires' disease was carried out. Statistic analysis was done with SPSS13. 0 software. Results One thousand and forty-seven samples were tested and 14. 07% were positive for legionella. Positivity was significantly higher in the first stage of surveillance than in other stages. In the surveillance system, positivity for legionella was highest at 24. 91% in central air-conditioning. From 1998 to 2006, there were 7 outbreaks of legionnaires' disease primarily caused by legionella pneumo-phila. Conclusion Legionella contamination exists in Beijing. Disinfection and water treatment can effectively reduce legionella contamination, but comprehensive prevention and control measures must still be adopted to reduce the risk of legionnaires' disease.%目的 调查北京市军团菌污染情况,为军团菌病的防控提供科学依据. 方法 采用描述性流行病学研究方法,对北京市军团菌监测结果进行分析.统计分析采用SPSS13.0软件. 结果 北京市1998~2006年共采样1947件,军团菌阳性率为14.07%,第1阶段军团菌监测阳性率显著高于其他阶段;在被监测的系统中,中央空调军团菌阳性率最高,为24.91%.1998~2006年,北京军团菌病暴发7起,病原体以嗜肺军团菌为主. 结论 北京市存在军团菌污染,消毒和水处理可有效降低军团菌的污染率,但仍需采取综合性的防控措施以降低军团菌的感染风险.

  9. Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system: coordinating national data on antimicrobial use and resistance for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnidge, John D; Meleady, Kathy T

    2017-06-22

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the process of establishment and coordination of the national Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system.Methods Existing surveillance programs conducted by health organisations at state or multi-jurisdictional levels were reviewed, and gaps and opportunities identified for the development of a national system. In view of the time frame available as part of the Australian Government Department of Health funding agreement, the strategy used by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care was to commence work with existing surveillance programs, expanding and enhancing them and developing new systems where gaps were identified. Using the specifications of the AURA national system, the data from each of these elements were then analysed and reported. The system provides coverage for the acute and community sectors for antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance.Results The AURA surveillance system integrates eight streams of surveillance activities, including passive and targeted surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance from hospitals (public and private) and the community (general practitioners and aged care homes). A gap was identified in timely surveillance of critical antimicrobial resistances (CARs), which resulted in the development of the national CARAlert system. The first comprehensive analyses of data across the surveillance programs was published in June 2016, providing baseline data for future reports to build on.Conclusion The AURA surveillance system has established the framework and foundation systems for an integrated and comprehensive picture of both antimicrobial use and resistance in Australia over time. National coordination and support will improve data collection, standardisation and analysis, and will facilitate collaboration across the states and territories, the Australian Government and the private sector. AURA publications will

  10. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  11. Trends and variations in breast and colorectal cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011: a comparative study between Texas Cancer Registry and National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheyu; Zhang, Yefei; Franzin, Luisa; Cormier, Janice N; Chan, Wenyaw; Xu, Hua; Du, Xianglin L

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have examined the cancer incidence trends in the state of Texas, and no study has ever been conducted to compare the temporal trends of breast and colorectal cancer incidence in Texas with those of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) in the United States. This study aimed to conduct a parallel comparison between the Texas Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute's SEER on cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011. A total of 951,899 breast and colorectal cancer patients were included. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence was 134.74 per 100,000 in Texas and 131.78 per 100,000 in SEER in 1995-2011, whereas age-adjusted colorectal cancer incidence was 50.52 per 100,000 in Texas and 49.44 per 100,000 in SEER. Breast cancer incidence increased from 1995 to 2001, decreased from 2002 to 2006, and then remained relatively stable from 2007 to 2011. For colorectal cancer, the incidence increased in 1995-1997, and then decreased continuously from 1998 to 2011 in Texas and SEER areas. Incidence rates and relative risks by age, gender and ethnicity were identical between Texas and SEER.

  12. Real-world evidence for the safety of ipragliflozin in elderly Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (STELLA-ELDER): final results of a post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokote, Koutaro; Terauchi, Yasuo; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sugamori, Haruko

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the real-world safety of ipragliflozin in elderly Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Japanese patients (≥65 years old) who were first prescribed ipragliflozin within 3 months after its launch in April 2014 were registered in this post-marketing surveillance (PMS). Final data collection was in July 2015. Survey items included demographics, treatments, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), vital signs, and laboratory variables. The PMS included 8505 patients (4181 males/4324 females). The mean age and diabetes duration were 72.3 years and 10.6 years, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, ipragliflozin was prescribed at 50 mg/day, which was continued unchanged. Overall, 16.91% of patients experienced 1880 ADRs, and 165 ADRs were classified as serious in 127 patients (1.49%). ADRs of special interest included skin complications, volume depletion, polyuria/pollakiuria, genital infection, urinary tract infection, renal disorders, hypoglycemia, cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, malignant tumor, fracture, and ketone body-related events. This 1-year PMS revealed probable ADRs in elderly Japanese patients with T2DM prescribed ipragliflozin in real-world settings, with no new safety concerns. The risk factors for ADRs varied but could be rationalized. The results should help physicians to identify possible treatment-emergent ADRs in ipragliflozin-treated patients.

  13. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  15. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  16. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  18. Renormalization of weak noises of arbitrary shape for one-dimensional critical dynamical systems Announcement of results and numerical explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Espinosa, O

    2006-01-01

    We study the effect of noise on one--dimensional critical dynamical systems (that is, maps with a renormalization theory). We consider in detail two examples of such dynamical systems: unimodal maps of the interval at the accumulation of period--doubling and smooth homeomorphisms of the circle with a critical point and with golden mean rotation number. We show that, if we scale the space and the time, several properties of the noise (the cumulants or Wick--ordered moments) satisfy some scaling relations. A consequence of the scaling relations is that a version of the central limit theorem holds. Irrespective of the shape of the initial noise, if the bare noise is weak enough, the effective noise becomes close to Gaussian in several senses that we can make precise. We notice that the conclusions are false for maps with positive Lyapunov exponents. The method of analysis is close in spirit to the study of scaling limits in renormalization theory. We also perform several numerical experiments that confirm the ri...

  19. Participação social no planejamento das ações e serviços de vigilância sanitária: uma análise crítica / Social Participation in planning of the activities and services of health surveillance : a critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Caldeira Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Instigado pelos dados apresentados no informe “Perfil da Vigilância Sanitária Municipal no Brasil” da ANVISA, este artigo se propõe a fazer uma análise crítica do processo de “debate” do planejamento das ações e serviços de vigilância sanitária — VISA. Para tanto, utiliza um estudo de caso realizado no Conselho Municipal de Saúde de Belo Horizonte — CMSBH. Foram entrevistados 35 dos 36 membros efetivos do CMSBH: 45,71% dos conselheiros desconhecem o Plano de Ação; 17,14% não desconhecem totalmente o Plano de Ação; 17,14% não conhecem o Plano de Ação, mas gostariam de conhecer; 5,71% sabem da existência do Plano de Ação e 14,29% conhecem o Plano de Ação. Decorridos 3 anos da realização do estudo de caso, o presente trabalho recorreu à pesquisa documental para revisitar o processo de planejamento de VISA, analisando documentos da ANVISA, atas das reuniões e resoluções do CMSBH e o Plano Municipal de Saúde 2010- 2013. Parte-se das recomendações do estudo de caso em busca de avanços e desafios desse processo. Evidencia-se a necessidade de fomentar um permanente debate entre a sociedade e a VISA. Esse debate pode-se dar através do exercício da participação e controle social do processo de formulação da Política Municipal de Vigilância Sanitária. ------------------------------------------------------------------ Prompted by the data presented in the ANVISA’S preliminary report “Profile of Municipal Sanitary Surveillance in Brazil”, this article aims to make a critical analysis of the “de-bate”. About the planning of actions and Health Surveillance — VISA services. To achieve these objectives, it uses a case study conducted at the City Health Council of Belo Horizonte — CMSBH. Thirty five of the thirty six sitting members of CMSBH were interviewed, with the following results: 45.71% of the board members are unaware of the Plan of Ac-tion; 17.14% of them did not fully know the Plan of

  20. 不同抽样框对国民体质监测结果影响的探讨--以四川省10年体质监测数据为例%Influences of Different Sampling Frame on National Physical Fitness Surveillance Results---Based on Physical Fitness Surveillance Data of Sichuan Province from 2000 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纪江; 何仲涛; 邵平; 李航

    2016-01-01

    Objective :By analyzing the national physical surveillance data of Sichuan province in the year of 2000 ,2005 and 2010 ,this papertries to find out a more reasonable ,and represent‐ative sampling frame and the sensitive index of which effects the result .Methods :Taking the physical fitness level passing rate and some individual single indicator of the people that aged from20~59 and 60~69 as the objects of the study ,which originated from the national physi‐cal fitness surveillance in Sichuan province during the year of 2000 ,2005 and 2010 .Compared the results of different sampling frames .Results :There was difference between the results of 21 cities of Sichuan province ,especially in adults and the elderly .With the increasing of the physical surveillance data in the sampling frame ,the gap between the sampling frame and the 21 cities gradually reduced .And the number of indicators which were significant was gradually reduced .Conclusions and suggestions :In Sichuan province ,for example ,on the basis of 3 cities that currently existing ,it suggested that take 4 to 8 more cities into the national physical moni‐toring system .The sampling methods can learn from the theory of GIS spatial autocorrelation , establish the spatial weight according to geographic information or a property basis .%目的:对四川省2000年、2005年、2010年3次国民体质监测数据进行分析,比较不同抽样框之间数据的差异,尝试找出更为合理、更具有代表性的抽样框和影响抽样框结果的敏感指标,提高抽样效益和代表性。方法:以四川省3次(2000年、2005年和2010年)国民体质监测中20~59和60~69岁人群作为主要研究对象,以21市、州作为研究层面,选取体质达标率、代表性体质单指标等作为体质数据分析指标,将21个市、州分成不同的抽样框,对不同抽样框各项体质指标进行对比分析。结果:四川省国家监测点监测结果与四川省

  1. Relative permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments from percolation theory and critical path analysis: theoretical and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, H.; Rice, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Relative permeabilities to water and gas are important parameters for accurate modeling of the formation of methane hydrate deposits and production of methane from hydrate reservoirs. Experimental measurements of gas and water permeability in the presence of hydrate are difficult to obtain. The few datasets that do exist suggest that relative permeability obeys a power law relationship with water or gas saturation with exponents ranging from around 2 to greater than 10. Critical path analysis and percolation theory provide a framework for interpreting the saturation-dependence of relative permeability based on percolation thresholds and the breadth of pore size distributions, which may be determined easily from 3-D images or gas adsorption-desorption hysteresis. We show that the exponent of the permeability-saturation relationship for relative permeability to water is related to the breadth of the pore size distribution, with broader pore size distributions corresponding to larger exponents. Relative permeability to water in well-sorted sediments with narrow pore size distributions, such as Berea sandstone or Toyoura sand, follows percolation scaling with an exponent of 2. On the other hand, pore-size distributions determined from argon adsorption measurements we performed on clays from the Nankai Trough suggest that relative permeability to water in fine-grained intervals may be characterized by exponents as large as 10 as determined from critical path analysis. We also show that relative permeability to the gas phase follows percolation scaling with a quadratic dependence on gas saturation, but the threshold gas saturation for percolation changes with hydrate saturation, which is an important consideration in systems in which both hydrate and gas are present, such as during production from a hydrate reservoir. Our work shows how measurements of pore size distributions from 3-D imaging or gas adsorption may be used to determine relative permeabilities.

  2. Relative permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments from percolation theory and critical path analysis: theoretical and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin; Rice, Mary Anna [North Carolina State University; Daigle, Hugh

    2015-12-14

    Relative permeabilities to water and gas are important parameters for accurate modeling of the formation of methane hydrate deposits and production of methane from hydrate reservoirs. Experimental measurements of gas and water permeability in the presence of hydrate are difficult to obtain. The few datasets that do exist suggest that relative permeability obeys a power law relationship with water or gas saturation with exponents ranging from around 2 to greater than 10. Critical path analysis and percolation theory provide a framework for interpreting the saturation-dependence of relative permeability based on percolation thresholds and the breadth of pore size distributions, which may be determined easily from 3-D images or gas adsorption-desorption hysteresis. We show that the exponent of the permeability-saturation relationship for relative permeability to water is related to the breadth of the pore size distribution, with broader pore size distributions corresponding to larger exponents. Relative permeability to water in well-sorted sediments with narrow pore size distributions, such as Berea sandstone or Toyoura sand, follows percolation scaling with an exponent of 2. On the other hand, pore-size distributions determined from argon adsorption measurements we performed on clays from the Nankai Trough suggest that relative permeability to water in fine-grained intervals may be characterized by exponents as large as 10 as determined from critical path analysis. We also show that relative permeability to the gas phase follows percolation scaling with a quadratic dependence on gas saturation, but the threshold gas saturation for percolation changes with hydrate saturation, which is an important consideration in systems in which both hydrate and gas are present, such as during production from a hydrate reservoir. Our work shows how measurements of pore size distributions from 3-D imaging or gas adsorption may be used to determine relative permeabilities.

  3. Editorial: Best Practices in Surveillance of Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Sachin; Gaddam, Srinivas

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic surveillance in Barrett's esophagus (BE) has numerous limitations and thus provides several opportunities for improving the effectiveness of our current surveillance strategies. Several risk stratification and prediction tools have been investigated to identify patients at highest risk for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Persistence of non-dysplastic BE (NDBE) has been proposed as an indicator of lower risk of progression to EAC. This editorial highlights the variable results and methodologies in studies evaluating persistence of NDBE as a risk stratification tool in the surveillance of BE patients and provides guidance for optimizing outcomes in BE patients enrolled in surveillance programs.

  4. Trends in the Utilization of Adjuvant Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy and/or External Beam Radiation Treatment in Stage I and II Endometrial Cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Mehul K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Cote, Michele L. [Karmanos Cancer Institute and Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Ali-Fehmi, Rouba [Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Buekers, Thomas; Munkarah, Adnan R. [Department of Women' s Health Services, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Elshaikh, Mohamed A., E-mail: melshai1@hfhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The optimal adjuvant radiation treatment for endometrial carcinoma (EC) remains controversial. Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VB) has emerged as an increasingly common treatment modality. However, the time trends for using VB, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), or combined therapy (VB+EBRT) have not been well characterized. We therefore examined the utilization trends of VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT for adjuvant RT in International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology (FIGO) stage I and II EC over time. Methods and Materials: We evaluated treatment patterns for 48,122 patients with EC diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2005, using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) public use database. Chi-squared tests were used to assess differences by radiation type (VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT) and various demographic and clinical variables. Results: Analyses were limited to 9,815 patients (20.4%) with EC who met the inclusion criteria. Among women who received adjuvant RT, the proportion receiving VB increased yearly (12.9% in 1995 compared to 32.8% in 2005 (p < 0.0001). The increasing use of VB was proportional to the decreasing use of EBRT (56.1% in 1995 to 45.8% in 2005; p < 0.0001) and VB+EBRT (31.0% in 1995 to 21.4% in 2005; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This population-based report demonstrates an increasing trend in the use of VB in the adjuvant setting after hysterectomy for treatment of women with FIGO stage I-II EC. VB alone appears to be replacing pelvic EBRT and VB+EBRT therapy in the management of stage I-II EC.

  5. Ocular melanoma-when you have seen one, you have not seen them all: a clinical outcome study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database (1973–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendraraj K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Sneha Shrestha,1 Christine SM Lau,1,2 Ronald S Chamberlain1–4 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA; 4Department of Surgery, Rutgers University, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA Background: Ocular melanoma (OM comprises <5% of all melanomas. Uveal melanoma (UM is the most common subtype of OM, while conjunctival melanoma (CM is rare and differs significantly from UM. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a large cohort of OM patients to differentiate demographic, pathologic, and clinical factors between these two neoplasms, which may affect treatment and outcomes. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2012 was used to extract demographic and clinical data on 8,165 OM patients (92.1% UM and 7.9% CM. Results: Both CM and UM were most prevalent among Caucasian males in the seventh decade of life. UM patients presented more often with localized disease (90.9% vs 81.2, P<0.01. Surgery (42.8%, radiation (43.0%, or combined surgery and radiation (7.0% were used in the treatment of UM, while CM was treated almost exclusively with surgery (88.7%. Mean overall survival was longer (15.4 vs 14.6 years; P<0.01 and mortality rates were lower in patients (38.8% vs 46.1%; P<0.01 with CM. Conclusion: Despite presenting with more advanced disease than UM, CM is associated with an increased overall survival. Surgery is the primary therapy for CM, whereas radiotherapy is the primary therapy for UM and is associated with prolonged survival. Keywords: ocular melanoma, uveal melanoma, conjunctival melanoma, SEER

  6. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  7. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  8. Maternal Near-Miss: A Multicenter Surveillance in Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashma Rana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multicenter surveillance has been carried out on maternal near-miss in the hospitals with sentinel units. Near-miss is recognized as the predictor of level of care and maternal death. Reducing maternal mortality ratio is one of the challenges to achieve Millennium Development Goal. Objective was to determine the frequency and the nature of near-miss (severe acute maternal morbidity events and analysis of near-miss morbidities among pregnant women. Methods: Prospective surveillance was done for a year in 2012 in nine hospitals in Kathmandu valley. Cases eligible by definition recorded as a census based on WHO near-miss guideline. Similar questionnaire and dummy tables were used to present the result by non-inferential statistics. Results: Out of 157 cases identified with near-miss rate of 3.8, severe complications were PPH (40% and preeclampsia-eclampsia (17%. Blood transfusion (65%, ICU admission (54% and surgery (32% were the common critical intervention. Oxytocin was the main uterotonic used both prophylactically (86% and therapeutically (76%, and 19% arrived health facility after delivery or abortion. MgSO4 was used in all cases of eclampsia. All of the laparotomies were performed within 3 hours of arrival. Near-miss to mortality ratio was 6:1 and MMR 62. Conclusions: Study result yields similar pattern amongst developing countries and same near-miss conditions as the causes of maternal death reported by national statistics. Process indicators qualify the recommended standard of care. The near-miss event can be used as a surrogate marker of maternal death and a window for system level intervention. Keywords: abortion, eclampsia, hemorrhage, near-miss, surveillance

  9. 1999-2011年广东省五华县艾滋病监测结果及流行趋势%Surveillance results and epidemic trend of AIDS in Wuhua County of Guangdong Province from 1999-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青山; 周荣群; 孔祥钦; 沈超华; 温英春

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析1999-2011年广东省五华县艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染者和艾滋病(AIDS)患者(HIV/AIDS)监测结果及流行趋势,为制定AIDS防治策略提供科学依据.方法 采用描述流行病学方法对国家AIDS综合防治信息系统报告的1999-2011年AIDS疫情资料进行综合分析.结果 1999-2011年共报告现住址为五华县的HIV/AIDS病例65例,其中HIV感染者39例,AIDS患者26例,HIV/AIDS死亡22例;男女性别比为1.83∶1;年龄最大61岁,最小5岁,20~49岁的中青年病例占81.54%;职业分布以农民最多,占33.85%;感染途径以异性性接触传播为主,占60.00%;注射毒品占6.15%.结论 五华县AIDS疫情呈低流行态势,但疫情呈高危人群向一般人群传播蔓延上升趋势,必须加大监测检测力度,做好疫情管理,推进健康教育与健康促进等干预手段,做好县级医院AIDS纳入常规检测工作,开展AIDS自愿咨询检测,严格执行血液及血液制品安全管理,是五华县预防和控制AIDS传播的重要措施.%[ Objective] To analyze the results of HIV/AIDS epidemic surveillance in Wuhua County of Guangdong Province from 1999-2011 and its epidemic trend, and provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of AIDS. [ Methods] The epidemic information of HIV/AIDS in China from 1999 to 2011 reported by national AIDS prevention and control system was comprehensively analyzed. [Results] From 1999-2011, a total of 65 HIV/AIDS cases with present address in Wuhuan County were reported, a-mong which 39 were HIV infected, 26 were AIDS patients, 22 death cases caused by of HIV/AIDS, the ratio of male to female was 1.83 : 1. The age ranged from 5 to 61 years old, most of whom were at the age of 20- 49 (81.54% ). Farmers were the majority with the rate of 33.85% , sexual transmission was the major route of infection, accounting for 60% , injections of drugs occupied 6. 15%. [ Conclusion] The present prevalence rate of AIDS is low in Wuhua County but

  10. 2005~2010年防城港市登革热蚊媒监测结果分析%Results of surveillance of mosquito vectors transmittingh dengue fever in Fangchenggang City from 2005 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄定芳; 凌宝珍; 黄衍晶; 班有鹤; 李锋华; 李忠伦

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析2005~2010年防城港市登革热监测结果,为登革热流行趋势的预测、预警和制定防治对策提供科学依据.方法 收集本市2005~2010年2个监测点媒介伊蚊的监测资料,进行描述性统计分析.结果 防城港市的优势蚊种为白纹伊蚊,未发现埃及伊蚊;监测点大部分监测月份伊蚊布雷图指数(BI)均超过5的安全水平,其中水田屯蚊媒密度较高,最高BI达104,企沙街相对较低,最高BI为54,2009年以后企沙街蚊媒密度明显降低;阳性容器以暂时性容器为主;2006年送检的全部成蚊标本未检测到登革热病毒核酸或分离到病毒.结论 防城港市在虫媒方面已经具备传播登革热病毒的条件,存在登革热流行的潜在危险,应加强监测、卫生宣教以及改善农村环境.%Objective To analyze the results in monitoring of mosquito vectors transmitting dengue fever in Fangchenggang city from 2005 to 2010 and provide scientific basis for forecasting the prevalent trend,early warning and making control measures. Methods The data of surveillance of Aedes mosquito vectors in tow monitoring sites from 2005-2010 were collected and descriptively analyzed. Results The predominated mosquito vectors in Fangchenggang City was Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti was not found. The Breteau Index (BI) in each month was under 5. The BI in paddy field was 104,the highest and that in the Qishajie was at a relatively low level of 54 and further reduced since 2009. Most of the positive containers were temporary one. No dengue virus and dengue dengue virus nucleic acid were isolated or detected from the samples collected since 2006. Conclusion The mosquito vectors transmitting dengue fever was capable of transmission of the disease and there was the potential of prevalence of dengue fever in Fangchenggang City. Thus the practice of surveillance, health propaganda and modification of environment be strengthened.

  11. Sulfur, arsenic, fluorine and mercury emissions resulting from coal-washing byproducts: A critical component of China's emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Luo, Kunli

    2017-03-01

    The coal-washing rate in China increased from 1991 to 2014 and shows a particular increase from ∼22% to ∼60% since 2002. However, few studies pay attention to the use and disposal of the coal-washing byproducts (CWBs). A preliminary estimate of the likely S, As, F and Hg contents and emissions from the combustion of CWBs in China was determined in this work. About 632 million tons of CWBs, including middling coal, flotation tailing coal and coal slime, were produced in China in 2014. About 4.03%, 20.80%, 1.48%, and 73.25% CWBs were used for thermal power, industry, domestic and discard. The mean S, As, F and Hg contents of CWBs are 1.52%, 14.04 mg/kg, 216.31 mg/kg and 0.27 mg/kg, respectively. SO2 emissions in 2014 from the combustion of CWBs were ∼5.76 million tons, similar to that released into the atmosphere by China's coal-fired power plants, accounting for ∼29% of the country's total SO2 emissions. Arsenic, F and Hg emissions from CWBs were 1 599.54, 61 575.07 and 77.16 tons, respectively. These emissions have become a critical component of air pollution in China.

  12. Prospective surgical site infection surveillance in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Ryen; Singh, Ameet; Weese, J Scott

    2015-01-01

    To 1) describe the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) in dogs undergoing surgery at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre; 2) describe and compare procedure-specific SSI rates; and 3) identify factors associated with development of SSI. Prospective, cohort study Dogs (n = 846) undergoing surgery during 45 weeks (September 2010-July 2011). Follow-up telephone conversation with dog owners was performed 30 days postoperatively, with additional 1-year follow-up performed for cases with surgical implants. A standardized questionnaire was administered to detect and characterize SSI. SSI were identified in 26 (3.0%) dogs; 11 (42%) were classified as superficial SSI, whereas 13 were deep, and 2 were organ/space. Of the confirmed SSI, only 17 (65%) were documented in the medical records. Hypotension (P = .011), class of surgery (P = .029), and use of an implant (P = .001) increased the risk of SSI. Microbial cultures were submitted for 19 cases (73%) and of those, 74% were staphylococci. SSI can result in devastating consequences in dogs and understanding risk factors is critical to target prevention practices. Whereas some risk factors such as hypotension are modifiable, others such as class of surgery are not. When possible, active surveillance should be used as part of a hospital infection control program. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  14. World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance White Paper on Surveillance and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Campostrini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is not a research paper on risk factor surveillance. It is an effort by a key group of researchers and practitioners of risk factor surveillance to define the current state of the art and to identify the key issues involved in the current practice of behavioral risk factor surveillance. Those of us who are the principal authors have worked and carried out research in this area for some three decades. As a result of a series of global meetings beginning in 1999 and continuing every two years since then, a collective working group of the International Union of Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE was formed under the name World Alliance of Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS. Under this banner the organization sought to write a comprehensive statement on the importance of surveillance to health promotion and public health. This paper, which has been revised and reviewed by established peers in the field, is the result. It provides the reader with a clear summary of the major issues that need to be considered by any and all seeking to carry out behavioral risk factor surveillance.

  15. 2014年山西省饮水型地方性砷中毒监测结果分析%Analysis of surveillance results of water-borne endemic arsenism in Shanxi Privince in 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴赵明; 裴秋玲; 李鹏飞; 王正辉; 荆玉兰; 武敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:掌握饮水型地方性砷中毒病情变化和防治现状,为制订防治策略提供依据。方法按照国家《饮水型地方性砷中毒监测方案》和《2014年山西省饮水型地方性砷中毒监测方案》的要求,在全省选择5个病区县、14个病区村作为监测点,调查监测村的改水及改水工程运行情况、测定水砷含量,同时对监测村常住人口砷中毒病情进行调查,并测定尿砷含量。水砷、尿砷含量测定采用氢化物原子荧光光度法(GB/T5750.6-2006),砷中毒诊断采用《地方性砷中毒诊断标准》(WS/T211-2001)。结果14个监测村已全部改水,改水率100%,14个村监测了11个改水工程,全部正常运行,且水砷含量全部合格。砷中毒检出率为1.61%(123/7621),以轻度患者为主;尿砷含量共测定419人,尿砷浓度范围为0.0001~0.444 mg/L,几何均值为0.0099 mg/L。结论山西省饮水型地方性砷中毒病情已得到有效控制,病情监测、健康教育工作应是今后防治地方性砷中毒的关键。%ObjectiveTo investigate the current situation of Drinking-water-borne endemic arsenism in Shanx Privince,and to provide a basis for development of control straegies.MethodsIn accordance with the requirements of the national "Surveillance Scheme of Drinking-Water-Borne Endemic Arsenism"and "Shanxi Provincial Surveillance Scheme of Drinking-Water-Borne Endemic Arsenism",5 epidemic counties were chosen.Fourteen villages were chosen as monitoring villages.Investgate the water situation of the monitoring villages,arsenism content in drinking water and urinary was determined;The disease conditions of residents in the monitor villages were investigated.Arsenism content in drinking water and urinary was determined by Hydride atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry(GB/T5750.6-2006), Arsenic poisoning diagnosis by "Endemic Arsenism Diagnostic Criteria"(WS/T211-2001).Results14 monitoring villages were

  16. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  17. History of trichinellosis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancou J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of trichinellosis, which existed in ancient times as testified by the discovery of parasite larvae on an Egyptian mummy, unfolded in several stages: discovery of encapsulated larvae (in the 1820s, identification and scientific description of these larvae (Paget Owen, 1835, followed by experimental infestations of animals (dogs, pigs, rabbits, mice or of humans as from 1850.The main occurrences of trichinellosis were followed with particular attention in Europe (Germany, Denmark, France, etc. and in the United States of America at the end of the XIXth century. They affected numerous domestic animal species (pigs, horses, etc. or wildlife and humans. Germany paid the heaviest toll with regard to the disease in humans, between 1860 and 1880, with several thousands of patients and more than 500 deaths.Different trichinellosis surveillance systems were set up in the relevant countries in the 1860s. In humans, this surveillance was carried out on affected living patients by a biopsy of the biceps muscles and subsequently by an analysis of eosinophilia (1895. In animals, surveillance was for a long time solely based on postmortem examination of the muscles of the affected animals. This method was used for the first time in 863 in Germany, and from the 1 890s, on several hundreds of thousands of pigs in Europe or in the United States of America.

  18. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  19. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  20. Surveillance in von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Budtz-Jørgensen, E; Bisgaard, M L

    2010-01-01

    for the patient. Also, pre-symptomatic surveillance increased cumulative incidence of clinical vHL diagnosis from 46% to 72% and from 89% to 94% by age 30 and 50 years, respectively. The present results promote optimization of surveillance, expectantly improving clinical vHL outcomes....

  1. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  2. Design of a Miniature Autonomous Surveillance Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chang-e; HUANG Qiang; HUANG Yuan-can

    2009-01-01

    The small size of miniature robots poses great challenges for the mechanical and deetrieal design and the implementation of autonomous capabilities.In this paper,the mechanical and electrical design for a twowheeled cylindrical miniature autonomous robot ("BMS-1",BIT MicroScout-1) is presented and some autonomous capabilities are implemented by multiple sensors and some arithmetic models.Several experimental results show that BMS-1 is useful for surveillance in confined spaces and suitable for large-scale surveillance due to some autonomous capabilities.

  3. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully.

  4. Design and Implementation of Integrated Surveillance and Modeling Systems for Climate-Sensitive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Davis, J. K.; Liu, Y.; Henebry, G. M.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Climatic variations have a multitude of effects on human health, ranging from the direct impacts of extreme heat events to indirect effects on the vectors and hosts that transmit infectious diseases. Disease surveillance has traditionally focused on monitoring human cases, and in some instances tracking populations sizes and infection rates of arthropod vectors and zoonotic hosts. For climate-sensitive diseases, there is a potential to strengthen surveillance and obtain early indicators of future outbreaks by monitoring environmental risk factors using broad-scale sensor networks that include earth-observing satellites as well as ground stations. We highlight the opportunities and challenges of this integration by presenting modeling results and discussing lessons learned from two projects focused on surveillance and forecasting of mosquito-borne diseases. The Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessement (EPIDEMIA) project integrates malaria case surveillance with remotely-sensed environmental data for early detection of malaria epidemics in the Amhara region of Ethiopia and has been producing weekly forecast reports since 2015. The South Dakota Mosquito Information System (SDMIS) project similarly combines entomological surveillance with environmental monitoring to generate weekly maps for West Nile virus (WNV) in the north-central United States. We are currently implementing a new disease forecasting and risk reporting framework for the state of South Dakota during the 2016 WNV transmission season. Despite important differences in disease ecology and geographic setting, our experiences with these projects highlight several important lessons learned that can inform future efforts at disease early warning based on climatic predictors. These include the need to engage end users in system design from the outset, the critical role of automated workflows to facilitate the timely integration of multiple data streams

  5. The Cultural Politics of National Testing and Test Result Release Policy in South Korea: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youl-Kwan; Kang, Mi Ok

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the "test plus release" policy, the authors show…

  6. Twenty years of surveillance of Invasive Meningococcal Diseases in Puglia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Stefanelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study aims to investigate the change in the burden of disease and the microbiological characteristics of Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD in Puglia in comparison with overall incidence from 1994 through 2014. METHODS: Data are gathered in the frame of the National Surveillance System coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL of the Istituto Superiore di Sanit`. RESULTS: In Puglia, from 1994 through 2014, the average incidence of IMD was 0.2 per 100 000 inhabitants, below the national average value (0.33. IMD cases tended to be older than the other cases reported in Italy (median age 19 vs 16. The case-fatality rate was 20.4% in Puglia vs 13.3% in Italy. Serogroups B and C were most frequently identified. Serogroups C and Y presented a fairly clonal pattern, whereas serogroup B was genetically rather heterogeneous. CONCLUSION: Surveillance systems are critical in monitoring any change in the epidemiology of IMD.

  7. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a bellymounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  8. Evaluation of two surveillance methods for surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical wound infection surveillance is an important facet of hospital infection control processes. There are several surveillance methods for surgical site infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of two different surgical site infection surveillance methods. Methods: In this prospective cross sectional study 3020 undergoing surgey in general surgical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were included. Surveillance methods consisted of review of medical records for postoperative fever and review of nursing daily note for prescription of antibiotics postoperatively and during patient’s discharge. Review of patient’s history and daily records and interview with patient’s surgeon and the head-nurse of the ward considered as a gold standard for surveillance. Results: The postoperative antibiotic consumption especially when considering its duration is a proper method for surgical wound infection surveillance. Accomplishments of a prospective study with postdischarge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that postoperative antibiotic surveillance method specially with consideration of the antibiotic usage duration is a proper method for surgical site infection surveillance in general surgery wards. Accomplishments of a prospective study with post discharge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended.

  9. Disease surveillance using a hidden Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Graeme

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine surveillance of disease notification data can enable the early detection of localised disease outbreaks. Although hidden Markov models (HMMs have been recognised as an appropriate method to model disease surveillance data, they have been rarely applied in public health practice. We aimed to develop and evaluate a simple flexible HMM for disease surveillance which is suitable for use with sparse small area count data and requires little baseline data. Methods A Bayesian HMM was designed to monitor routinely collected notifiable disease data that are aggregated by residential postcode. Semi-synthetic data were used to evaluate the algorithm and compare outbreak detection performance with the established Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS algorithms and a negative binomial cusum. Results Algorithm performance varied according to the desired false alarm rate for surveillance. At false alarm rates around 0.05, the cusum-based algorithms provided the best overall outbreak detection performance, having similar sensitivity to the HMMs and a shorter average time to detection. At false alarm rates around 0.01, the HMM algorithms provided the best overall outbreak detection performance, having higher sensitivity than the cusum-based Methods and a generally shorter time to detection for larger outbreaks. Overall, the 14-day HMM had a significantly greater area under the receiver operator characteristic curve than the EARS C3 and 7-day negative binomial cusum algorithms. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the HMM provides an effective method for the surveillance of sparse small area notifiable disease data at low false alarm rates. Further investigations are required to evaluation algorithm performance across other diseases and surveillance contexts.

  10. Paediatric surveillance of pertussis in 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melker HE de; Neppelenbroek SN; Schellekens JFP; Suijkerbuijk AWM; Conyn- van Spaendonck MAE; CIE; LIS

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight into the severity of pertussis in hospitalised cases. Methods: In 1998, hospitalisation data were collected through paediatric surveillance. Results: From 115 hospitalisation admissions collected, 55% of the patients were younger than 3 months of age and not vaccinated; 12

  11. Surveillance in stage I testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Rørth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Treatment results on 695 stage I testicular cancer patients followed with surveillance are described. Seminoma (SGCT) was present in 394 patients and nonseminoma (NSGCT) in 301 patients. Relapses were detected in 155 patients (22%), in 69 patients with SGCT (17%) and 86 with NSGCT (29...

  12. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  13. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-09-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  15. Surveillance results of antibody level of influenza among population in Futian District of Shenzhen City from 2010-2011%2010-2011年深圳市福田区人群流感抗体水平监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈润莉; 侯红斌; 张勇; 莫浩联; 曾华书; 周海涛

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the antibody level of influenza among the general population in Futian District of Shenzhen City, provide the basis for prevention and control. [Methods] A total of 535 serum samples were collected twice during 2010-2011, and the antibody level was tested by trace half sensitized hemagglutination inhibition assay. [Results]The positive rate of antibody to H3N2 in 2011 (62.2% ) was higher than that in 2010 (55.2% ) , the positive rate of antibody to new H1N1 in 2011 (43.1% ) increased slightly as compared with that in 2010 (37.6% ) , and the positive rate of antibody to H1N1 decreased from 51.4% in 2010 to 6. 5% in 2011. Influenza antibody titer of 1 :320 was mainly distributed in influenza A epidemic in 2011, new H1N1 accounted for 56.4% of positive samples, and H3N2 accounted for 78. 2% . [ Conclusion] It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance of antibody level of influenza among population in Futian District, to promptly grasp the epidemiological characteristics and development trend of the influenza virus.%目的 通过了解深圳市福田区一般人群流行性感冒(流感)抗体水平,为预防和控制疫情提供依据.方法 2010-2011年共2次采集人群血清535份,以微量半致敏血凝抑制方法进行抗体检测.结果 2011年H3N2型抗体阳性率(62.2%)高于2010年(55.2%),新H1N1型抗体阳性率2011年(43.1%)较2010年(37.6%)略有升高,H1N1型抗体阳性率由2010年的51.4%降至2011年的6.5%.流感抗体效价1∶320主要分布在2011年甲型流感中,新H1N1型占阳性总数56.4%,H3N2占78.2%.结论 福田区应加强人群中流感病毒抗体监测,及时掌握流感病毒流行特征和发展趋势.

  16. 2001-2009年浙江省慈溪市疟疾监测分析%Analysis of the results of malaria surveillance in Cixi, Zhejiang from 2001 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗央努; 陈坤

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析慈溪市2001-2009年疟疾流行特征,指导疟疾防治.方法 用回顾性流行病学方法对慈溪市2001-2009年疟疾发病资料进行分析.结果 2001-2009年全市共检出135例疟疾病例,除1例为本地人口外出输入性感染,余均为外来人口输入性病例,外来流动人口疟疾平均年发病率2.17/10万;患者年龄主要为20~39岁,职业以民工为主;病原以间日疟为主,占99.26%.结论 9年来慈溪市在疟疾防治工作中取得了显著成绩,但由于流动人口带来的输入性病例时有发生,疟疾防治工作仍不可松懈.%Objective To get an insight into the current epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Cixi from 2001 to 2009 for the development of malaria control strategies.Methods Malaria surveillance data in Cixi from 2001 to 2009 were analyzed by retrospective epidemiological approaches.Results A total of 135 malaria cases were reported from 2001 to 2009 in the city.One of them was a local resident returning home with imported infection, while all of the others were imported cases.The annual average incidence of the floating population was 2.17/105.Most of them were the migrant workers at age 20-39 years and 99.26% cases were attributable to vivax malaria.Conclusion In the past 9 years, Cixi has made significant achievements in malaria control.However, in view of the occasional imported cases in the floating population, great importance should still be attached to malaria prevention and control in the city.

  17. 1996~2010年广西崇左市江州区疟疾监测%Result of malaria surveillances in Jiangzhou District of Chongzuo City in 1996-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈远东

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析1996~2010年崇左市江州区疟疾监测结果,评价防治效果,为制定监测措施提供科学依据.方法 收集1996~2010年原崇左县卫生防疫站和江州区的疟疾疫情资料和疟疾监测数据,进行统计分析.结果崇左市江州区疟疾发病率从1996年的0.60/10万下降至2006~2010年的0.00,流动人口血检6 030人次,共检出20例阳性病例,均为输入性病例,疟原虫阳性率为0.81%.当地居民发热病人血栓107 924人次,未发现疟原虫阳性.结论 疟疾防治措施有效,加强流动人口疟疾管理与监测是巩固疟防成果的一项重要措施.%Objective To analyze the results of malaria control and the epidemic features of malaria in Jiangzhou District of Chongzuo City in 1996~2010,evaluate control measures and provide basis for making control measures. Methods The data concerning malaria infection and control in Jiangzhou District of Chongzuo City during the period in 1996~2010 were collected and statistically analyzed. Restlts Malaria incidence in Jiangzhou District dropped from 0.60/100 000 in 1996 to 0 in 2006~2010,6 030 febrile patients in mobile population was examined and 20 malaria cases were detected with a positive rate of 0.81% and they were all imported malaria cases. There 107 924 local febrile patients were examined and no malaria case was found. Conclusion The measures of prevention and control of malaria are effective and strengthening management of mobile population and malaria surveillance are the an important measures for malaria control.

  18. Projectbeschrijving Surveillance Ziekenhuisinfecties 1996-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Sprenger MJW; Cucic S; Pelt W van; Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan; CIE

    1996-01-01

    In the Project Surveillance Hospital Acquired Infections a surveillance system in a national network of hospitals is being developed and implemented. In the project surveillance of hospital acquired infections is implemented in components: surveillance of surgical wound infections, surveillance of i

  19. Surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever in wild boar – a comprehensive evaluation study to ensure powerful surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Katja; Peyre, Marisa; Staubach, Christoph; Schauer, Birgit; Schulz, Jana; Calba, Clémentine; Häsler, Barbara; Conraths, Franz J.

    2017-01-01

    Surveillance of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) should not only focus on livestock, but must also include wild boar. To prevent disease transmission into commercial pig herds, it is therefore vital to have knowledge about the disease status in wild boar. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of alternative surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in wild boar and compared them with the currently implemented conventional approach. The evaluation protocol was designed using the EVA tool, a decision support tool to help in the development of an economic and epidemiological evaluation protocol for surveillance. To evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance strategies, we investigated their sensitivity and timeliness. Acceptability was analysed and finally, the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance strategies was determined. We developed 69 surveillance strategies for comparative evaluation between the existing approach and the novel proposed strategies. Sampling only within sub-adults resulted in a better acceptability and timeliness than the currently implemented strategy. Strategies that were completely based on passive surveillance performance did not achieve the desired detection probability of 95%. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that risk-based approaches can be an option to design more effective CSF surveillance strategies in wild boar. PMID:28266576

  20. Surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever in wild boar - a comprehensive evaluation study to ensure powerful surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Katja; Peyre, Marisa; Staubach, Christoph; Schauer, Birgit; Schulz, Jana; Calba, Clémentine; Häsler, Barbara; Conraths, Franz J

    2017-03-07

    Surveillance of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) should not only focus on livestock, but must also include wild boar. To prevent disease transmission into commercial pig herds, it is therefore vital to have knowledge about the disease status in wild boar. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of alternative surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in wild boar and compared them with the currently implemented conventional approach. The evaluation protocol was designed using the EVA tool, a decision support tool to help in the development of an economic and epidemiological evaluation protocol for surveillance. To evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance strategies, we investigated their sensitivity and timeliness. Acceptability was analysed and finally, the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance strategies was determined. We developed 69 surveillance strategies for comparative evaluation between the existing approach and the novel proposed strategies. Sampling only within sub-adults resulted in a better acceptability and timeliness than the currently implemented strategy. Strategies that were completely based on passive surveillance performance did not achieve the desired detection probability of 95%. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that risk-based approaches can be an option to design more effective CSF surveillance strategies in wild boar.

  1. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  2. Advanced Mobile Surveillance System for Multiple People Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Bandaru

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops an efficient people surveillance system capable of tracking multiple people on different terrains. Recorded video on rough terrains is affected by jitters resulting into significant error between the desired and captured video flow. Video stabilization is achieved by calculating the motion and compensational parameters using the LSE analytical solution to minimize the error between present and desired output video captured from an autonomous robot’s camera moving on a rough terrain used for surveillance of unidentified people. This is the first paper to the best of our knowledge which makes use of this method to design mobile wireless robot for human surveillance applications. As the method used is fast then conventional methods, making the proposed system a highly efficient surveillance system as compared to previous systems. The superiority of the method used is demonstrated using different evaluation parameters like RMCD, variability and reliability. The system can be used for surveillance of people under different environmental conditions.

  3. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Patel, Dhara; Nasci, Roger S; Petersen, Lyle R; Hughes, James M; Bradley, Kristy; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya).

  4. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhara; Nasci, Roger S.; Petersen, Lyle R.; Hughes, James M.; Bradley, Kristy; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya). PMID:26079471

  5. Predicting costs of alien species surveillance across varying transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Blackburn; Rebecca Epanchin-Niell; Alexandra Thompson; Andrew Liebhold; Jacqueline Beggs

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to detect and eradicate invading populations before they establish are a critical component of national biosecurity programmes. An essential element for maximizing the efficiency of these efforts is the balancing of expenditures on surveillance (e.g. trapping) versus treatment (e.g. eradication). Identifying the optimal allocation of resources towards...

  6. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  7. Isn't the efficacy of antidepressants clinically relevant? A critical comment on the results of the metaanalysis by Kirsch et al. 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Hans Jürgen

    2008-12-01

    The metaanalysis of Kirsch (PLoS Med 5:e45, 2008) has (unfortunately!) attracted too much attention in the specialized press and especially in the lay press. Therefore, intensive critical commenting is necessary to not further alarm experts and health authorities as well as patients and family members. The specified commenting on these metaanalyses shall be prefaced with a short and critical commentary regarding the general significance of metaanalyses. The results of metaanalyses should not too naively be interpreted as the 'truth' as regards to the evidence based psychopharmacotherapy, but should be qualified in their significance due to principal methodological reasons Maier (Nervenarzt 78:1028-1036, 2007; Möller (Nervenarzt 78:1014-1027, 2007). Especially from these derived effect sizes should be interpreted carefully.

  8. Automatic Intruder Combat System: A way to Smart Border Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Kumar Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Security and safeguard of international borders have always been a dominant issue for every nation. A large part of a nation’s budget is provided to its defense system. Besides wars, illegal intrusion in terms of terrorism is a critical matter that causes severe harm to nation’s property. In India’s perspective, border patrolling by Border Security Forces (BSF has already been practiced from a long time for surveillance. The patrolling parties are equipped with high-end surveillance equipments but yet an alternative to the ply of huge manpower and that too in harsh environmental conditions hasn’t been in existence. An automatic mechanism for smart surveillance and combat is proposed in this paper as a solution to the above-discussed problems. Smart surveillance requires automatic intrusion detection in the surveillance video, which is achieved by using optical flow information as motion features for intruder/human in the scene. The use of optical flow in the proposed smart surveillance makes it robust and more accurate. Use of a simple horizontal feature for fence detection makes system simple and faster to work in real-time. System is also designed to respond against the activities of intruders, of which auto combat is one kind of response.

  9. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Yeung, Karen; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  11. Trends in incidence, survival, and management of uveal melanoma: a population-based study of 7,516 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendraraj K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Christine SM Lau,1,2 Injoon Lee,2 Ronald S Chamberlain1–3 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2St George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Introduction: Uveal melanoma (UM is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, despite comprising <5% of all melanomas. To date, relatively few case series of UM have been published. Moreover, the factors influencing survival remain largely unknown. This study sought to analyze the impact of demographics, histology, clinical presentation, and treatments on the clinical outcomes of UM in a large modern nationwide patient cohort.Methods: Demographics and clinical data were abstracted on 277,120 histologically confirmed melanoma patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 1973 and 2012.Results: A total of 7,516 cases of UM represented 3.2% of all recorded cases of melanoma. The mean age-adjusted incidence was 5.1 per million (95% CI 4.2–6.1 and was higher in males (5.9, CI =4.4–7.6 compared to females (4.5, CI =3.3–5.8, P<0.001. UM occurred most commonly in the sixth decade of life (61.4±15 and among Caucasians (94.7%. A total of 52.3% of cases were reported in the Western US (35.7% in California. The initial diagnoses in 65.2% of cases were by histopathology, followed by clinical diagnosis (18.8% and radiographic imaging (16.0%. The percentage of UM cases managed by surgery alone decreased by 69.4% between the 1973–1977 and 2006–2012 time periods, concomitant with a 62% increase in primary radiotherapy, P<0.001. The UM mean overall and cancer-specific 5-year relative survival rates were 79.8%±5.8% and 76%±5.3%, respectively. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rate (76% remained stable during the study period between 1973 and 2012. The mean survival for patients treated with

  12. Mapping HIV/STI behavioural surveillance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lert France

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Used in conjunction with biological surveillance, behavioural surveillance provides data allowing for a more precise definition of HIV/STI prevention strategies. In 2008, mapping of behavioural surveillance in EU/EFTA countries was performed on behalf of the European Centre for Disease prevention and Control. Method Nine questionnaires were sent to all 31 member States and EEE/EFTA countries requesting data on the overall behavioural and second generation surveillance system and on surveillance in the general population, youth, men having sex with men (MSM, injecting drug users (IDU, sex workers (SW, migrants, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics patients. Requested data included information on system organisation (e.g. sustainability, funding, institutionalisation, topics covered in surveys and main indicators. Results Twenty-eight of the 31 countries contacted supplied data. Sixteen countries reported an established behavioural surveillance system, and 13 a second generation surveillance system (combination of biological surveillance of HIV/AIDS and STI with behavioural surveillance. There were wide differences as regards the year of survey initiation, number of populations surveyed, data collection methods used, organisation of surveillance and coordination with biological surveillance. The populations most regularly surveyed are the general population, youth, MSM and IDU. SW, patients of STI clinics and PLWHA are surveyed less regularly and in only a small number of countries, and few countries have undertaken behavioural surveys among migrant or ethnic minorities populations. In many cases, the identification of populations with risk behaviour and the selection of populations to be included in a BS system have not been formally conducted, or are incomplete. Topics most frequently covered are similar across countries, although many different indicators are used. In most

  13. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in the Marches region (Italy: 1997–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moroni Vania

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last case of poliomyelitis due to transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus occurred in Italy in 1982, however, it is important to guarantee a high quality surveillance as there is a risk of importation of cases from areas where polio is endemic. Stopping poliovirus transmission is pursued through a combination of high infant immunization coverage and surveillance for wild poliovirus through reporting and laboratory testing of all cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP among children under fifteen years of age. The aim of this study was to describe and to evaluate 11 years of active surveillance in the Marches (Italy in terms of: incidence, aetiology and clinical manifestation of AFP cases. Methods The active Acute Flaccid Paralysis surveillance has been carried out in the Marches region since February 1997 by the Chair of Hygiene which established a regional hospital network. Active surveillance involves 15 hospital centres. Results In the considered period, 0–15 years population varied between 187,051 in 1997 to 201,625 in 2007, so the number of AFP expected cases is 2 per year. From February 1997 to October 2007, 27 cases were found with rates of 1.0/100,000 in 1997; 2.0/100,000 in 1998; 1.0/100,000 in 1999; 0.5/100,000 in 2000; 2.5/100,000 in 2001; 1.0/100,000 in 2002; 0 in 2003; 0.5/100,000 in 2004; 1.5/100,000 in 2005; 2.0/100,000 in 2006; 1.5/100,000 in 2007. In 29.6% of cases two stool samples were collected in 14 days from the symptoms onset. The 60-days follow-up is available for 23 out of 27 cases reported. In 44.5% of cases the definite diagnosis was Guillain Barrè syndrome. Conclusion In general, the surveillance activity is satisfactory even if in presence of some criticalities in biological samples collection. The continuation of surveillance, in addition to the maintenance of current levels of performance, will tend to a further and more detailed sensitization of all workers involved, in order to obtain

  14. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  15. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  16. Surveillance of influenza in Iceland during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsdottir, G; Gudnason, T; Ólafsson, Ö; Baldvinsdottir, G E; Atladottir, A; Löve, A; Danon, L; Briem, H

    2010-12-09

    In a pandemic setting, surveillance is essential to monitor the spread of the disease and assess its impact. Appropriate mitigation and healthcare preparedness strategies depend on fast and accurate epidemic surveillance data. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, rapid improvements in influenza surveillance were made in Iceland. Here, we describe the improvements made in influenza surveillance during the pandemic , which could also be of great value in outbreaks caused by other pathogens. Following the raised level of pandemic influenza alert in April 2009, influenza surveillance was intensified. A comprehensive automatic surveillance system for influenza-like illness was developed, surveillance of influenza-related deaths was established and laboratory surveillance for influenza was strengthened. School absenteeism reports were also collected and compared with results from the automatic surveillance system. The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) was diagnosed in Iceland in May 2009, but sustained community transmission was not confirmed until mid-August. The pandemic virus circulated during the summer and early autumn before an abrupt increase in the number of cases was observed in October. There were large outbreaks in elementary schools for children aged 6–15 years throughout the country that peaked in late October. School absenteeism reports from all elementary schools in Iceland gave a similar epidemiological curve as that from data from the healthcare system. Estimates of the proportion of the population infected with the pandemic virus ranged from 10% to 22%. This study shows how the sudden need for improved surveillance in the pandemic led to rapid improvements in data collection in Iceland. This reporting system will be improved upon and expanded to include other notifiable diseases, to ensure accurate and timely collection of epidemiological data.

  17. Monitoring and Surveillance of Hemodialysis Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Nischal; Anvari, Evamaria; McLennan, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    Access surveillance using invasive or noninvasive methods with an objective to improve access patency and decrease hospital admissions for access dysfunction in dialysis population has been promoted, but its success to predict incipient thrombosis and subsequent access failure is a controversial topic. Some studies have shown improvement in access outcomes, while others have failed to demonstrate an ideal method to diagnose access problems. Furthermore, the use of endovascular interventions such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty to timely correct access problem might itself be a promoter of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis during balloon angioplasty. There are significant costs and efforts associated with routine dialysis surveillance; therefore, it is necessary to understand whether such programs will help improve access-related problems and guarantee adequate dialysis care. It is generally agreed upon that despite the lack of guaranteed success of surveillance, such strategies have helped improve dialysis management, resulted in decreased costs and hospitalizations, and represented clinically relevant indications of failure prior to planning any radiological or surgical intervention. In this study, the authors review monitoring and surveillance measures in place, and their associated merits and limitations to detect stenosis and prevent incidences of vascular access thrombosis.

  18. Enhanced surveillance of maternal mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Larissa J; Lloyd, Linda E; Selwyn, Beatrice J

    2012-12-01

    Maternal mortality is often used to measure health and well-being for women. Improved surveillance efforts can improve maternal mortality estimates and inform the development of strategies to address the needs of maternal and child health populations. The purpose of this study was to provide better estimates of maternal mortality in Texas by using enhanced surveillance methods. Results from our analyses of fetal death and live birth records in Texas from 2000 through 2006 were then linked to pregnancy-related death records and death records of women of childbearing age (15-44 years) in Texas from 2001 through 2006. Enhanced surveillance identified almost 3.5 times as many deaths that might be associated with pregnancy than do current methods and confirmed a persistent race/ethnicity trend in maternal mortality. The leading cause of these 2001-2006 pregnancy-associated deaths was accidents. Enhanced surveillance allows the identification of additional deaths possibly associated with pregnancy and provides a stable foundation to investigate trends further and to review maternal mortality cases systematically.

  19. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...... pressure, fitness activities, sleep cycles, etc. can be broadcasted, e.g. as tweets on Twitter or status updates on Facebook. Such quantification practices with monitoring technologies become co-producing when individuals constitute themselves as subjects engaging in self-tracking, self-care, and self......, and gamification modulate the enactment of selfhood? How does self-surveillance contribute to corresponding notions of self-optimization and self-cultivation such as “the good life”, “sustainable lifestyle”, “healthy living”, “good learning” and “work productivity”?...

  20. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  1. 济南铁路局铁路职业危害因素检测和健康监护结果分析%Analysis of railway occupational hazard monitoring and health surveillance result in Jinan Railway Bureau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春暖; 马好; 陶明锐; 张高峰; 李万军

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To comprehensively understand the health status of occupation hazards exposed workers, and provide evidence for developing corresponding measures, [Methods] A total of 323 work sites with occupational hazards in 29 railway units of Jinan railway bureau were selected for detection, and 6 984 workers were generally investigated in March 2011. The occupational hazard inspection data, health surveillance data of workers with exposure and the adopted preventive measures were collected, then the study of epidemiological distribution, analysis of shortcomings of prevention and control measures and proposals of improvement were done. [Results] Occupational hazards of dust, noise and toxicant were detected on 166, 169 and 50 sites, with unqualified rate of 12. 65% , 44,97% , 12.0% , respectively and 26.75% in average. The significant differences showed in exposure to physical factors, dust, chemical toxicants, chest X-ray films of 3 groups, female mammary gland hyperplasia, female uterus and accessories cysts, abnormal rate of male prostate hyperplasia (P< 0.05), [ Conclusion ] Long-term exposure to occupational hazards may cause health damage to railway workers, therefore health protection should be further strengthened.%目的 全面了解职业危害因素接触人员的健康状况,探讨职业病危害因素对铁路职工的健康影响及变化趋势,为制定相应干预措施提供依据.方法 于2011年3月,选择济南铁路局所辖29个铁路单位的323个职业危害作业点进行检测,对作业人员6984人,采用普查的调查方法,收集职业病危害因素检测资料和接害人员健康监护资料以及现在采取的有毒有害作业防治措施,研究其流行病学分布规律,分析防治措施存在的不足,提出改进措施.结果 铁路企业职业病危害因素粉尘、噪声、毒物分别检测166、169和50个检测点,不合格率分别为12.65%、44.97%、12.0%,平均不合格率为26.75%.在接触物理

  2. 2010年青海省人间布鲁杆菌病监测结果分析%Surveillance results analysis of human brucellosis in Qinghai province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立青; 李亚楠; 杨旭欣; 马俊英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemic situation of human brucellosis in Qinghai province,in order to provide a theoretical basis for prevention and treatment of brucellosis.Methods Five counties in Qinghai province(Ping'an county,Haiyan county,Tianjun county,Dari county and Henan county) were selected as monitoring counties in 2010,and three or four townships were selected as monitoring points in each county.People aged 7 to 60 close contacted with livestock were monitored.The methods of rose bengal plate agglutination test(RBPT) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT) were used for serological testing.Brucellosis diagnosis was based on "Brucellosis Diagnostic Criteria"(WS 269-2007).Results A total of 2021 high-risk subjects from 5 counties were examined for brucellosis,and 76(by RBPT) of them were serologically confirmed with a positive rate of 3.76% (76/2021),SAT positive 15 persons,the average positive rate was 0.74% (15/2021).The number of infections was 15 cases,average prevalence was 0.74%(15/2021 ),and 3 new eases were discovered.The seasonal peak of incidence was from February to June.Most of the eases were reported dealing with slaughtering and fur processing.Conclusions The main reasons for epidemic rise are that the source of infection is not completely clear and weak awareness of self-protection in employees.So we must strengthen the quarantine,do surveillance on occupational groups and epidemic reporting work,carry out vocational training,strengthen publicity and education,and enhance the protection awareness.Thus brucellosis epidemic will be effectively controlled.%目的 分析青海省人间布鲁杆菌病(简称布病)疫情态势,为布病防治提供理论依据.方法 2010年,选择青海省平安县、海晏县、天峻县、达日县、河南县5个县作为监测县,每个县选择3~4个乡作为监测点,监测7~60岁与牲畜接触密切的人群,采用虎红平板凝集试验(RBPT)和试管凝集试验(SAT)进行血清学检测.

  3. 2008~2010年开阳县伤寒、副伤寒监测结果分析%Analvsis of results of typhoid and paratyphoid surveillance in Kaivang, 2008-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋国书; 唐云义; 刘明强; 陈晓琴; 刘俊伦; 张春芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 掌握开阳县伤寒、副伤寒疾病的流行情况,探寻危险因素,为提出有针对性的综合性防制措施提供依据.方法 在开阳县选择既往发病较多的6个乡镇建立以全人群的伤寒、副伤寒病原菌监测系统,对就诊发热病例进行登记、采血作病原学检测,监测时间2008年5月~2010年8月. 结果 登记发热病例112 503例,采集血液标本8 529份,检出阳性病例92例,其中伤寒1例,副伤寒91例.病例以10~40岁人群为主,农民占确诊病例数的69.57%;体温在37.5~38.0℃的占52.17%,症状多以上感症状为主. 结论 开阳县流行的菌株主要为甲型副伤寒;加强对发热人群伤寒、副伤寒监测,早期发现、及时治疗病人是伤寒、副伤寒防控的重要措施.%Objective To ascertain the prevalence of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Kaiyang and explore risk factors for both in order to provide a basis for targeted comprehensive control measures. Methods Six towns in Kaiyang with a higher incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid fever were selected, and a system was established to monitor bacteria causing typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Cases of fevers were registered and blood was collected for pathogen detection. Monitoring took place from May 2008 to August 2010. Results Blood samples were collected from 8 529 patients among 112 503 registered cases of fevers. Of these patients, 92 tested positive, including 1 case of typhoid fever and 91 cases of paraty-phoid fever. Patients were mainly ages 10 to 40, and farmers accounted for 69. 57% of confirmed cases. Of the patients, 52. 17% had a temperature of 37. 5 - 38. 0℃. Many patients had multiple subjective symptoms. Conclusion The prev-alent strain in Kaiyang was mainly Paratyphoid A. Enhancing surveillance of people with typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, early detection, and timely treatment of patients are crucial to prevention and control of typhoid and paratyphoid fe-vers.

  4. 2009-2011年秦皇岛市海港区疑似接种异常反应监测结果%Surveillance results of AEFI in Haigang District of Qinhuangdao City from 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽洁; 王远红; 常秋君; 班瑞; 武翠玲

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To analyze the characteristics of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in Haigang District of Qinhuangdao City from 2009-2011. [ Methods] The case data of AEFI were collected by surveillance system and analyzed by descriptive method. [Results] Totally 203 AEFI cases were collected, 154 (75. 86% ) cases were caused by national planning vaccine, 49 (24.14% ) were caused by class II vaccine, 63.55% were children sSl year. Of 203 AEFI cases, 197 (97.04% ) had side effect, 62 had fever≥38.6℃, 71 had local red induration, 55 had other reactions. 85.71% AEFI happened within 24 hours after inoculation, 10.84 % happened 2-7 days after inoculation, 3.45% after 8 days. Five cases (2. 46% ) had abnormal reaction, 1 (0.49% ) with coupled reaction. [ Conclusion] AEFI is associated with intensive inoculation in infantile period apart from vaccine unique characteristics. The increasing number of inoculation will inevitably lead to the increase of AEFI cases as well as the vaccination required services and social costs. Immunization programs should give full consideration to the response of the immune system of infants and young children.%目的 分析秦皇岛市海港区2009-2011年以来疑似预防接种异常反应(adverse events following immunization,AEFI)的发生特性.方法 通过AEFI监测系统收集全区个案数据,采用描述的方法进行分析.结果 共收集AEFI 203例个案,国家规划疫苗154例,占75.86%;二类疫苗(自费)49例,占24.14%.≤1岁的占63.55%.在203例AEFI中,不良反应197例,占97.04%;其中发热≥38.6℃71例,局部红肿硬结>2.5 cm 62例,其他反应55例.有85.71%发生在接种后24h内,10.84%发生在接种后2~7d,3.45%发生在接种8d后.异常反应5例(2.46%),偶合反应1例(0.49%).结论 AEFI除疫苗特有的特性外,与婴幼儿时期接种剂次密集有关.接种数量的增加必然导致AEFI的增加,也增加了为完成接种所需的服务和社会成本,免

  5. Surveillance results of food-borne pathogens in Dalian City in 2011%2011年大连市食源性致病菌监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冰; 侯君; 徐丹

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解大连市食品中食源性致病菌的污染状况,为食源性疾病的监测和预警提供科学依据.方法 按照《全国食源性致病菌监测工作手册》的要求,对大连市区农贸市场、大型超市、宾馆酒店及个体摊贩销售点的10类食品进行沙门菌、单核细胞增生李斯特菌、大肠埃希菌O157:H7、志贺菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、副溶血性弧菌和蜡样芽孢杆菌7种食源性致病菌进行监测分析.结果 10类共296份样品检出致病菌19株,总检出率为6.4%.其中沙门菌2株,金黄色葡萄球菌5株,副溶血性弧菌12株.结论 大连市市售食品不同程度受到多种食源性致病菌的污染,水产品、鲜榨果蔬汁、即食非发酵性豆制品和熟肉制品为主要受污染食品,应加强市售食品监督管理,减少由此引起食源性疾病的发生.%[Objective] To know the contamination status of food-borne pathogens in food in Dalian City, provide scientific basis for surveillance and early-warning of food-borne diseases. [Methods] According to the requirements of the Food-borne Pathogen Monitoring Manual, 7 food-borne pathogens, including Salmonella, listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Bacillus cereus, in the samples of 10 kinds of food which collected from farmers'markets, shopping mall, hotels and retail outlets were monitored and analyzed. [Results] A total of 19 food-bome pathogens were isolated from 296 samples with the total detection of 6. 4% . There were 2 strains of Salmonella, 5 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 12 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. [Conclusion]The food in Dalian markets are contaminated by food-bome pathogens at different degrees, and the main contaminated food include aquatic food, fruit and vegetable juice, instant- non-fermented bean products and cooked meat products. It is necessary to strengthen the supervision and management to reduce the

  6. 湖州市暗娼人群艾滋病哨点监测结果%An analysis on the result of sentinel surveillance of AIDS among female sex workers in Huzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪清瑜; 杨中荣; 金玫华; 董正全

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解湖州市暗娼人群艾滋病知识知晓水平、安全套使用及艾滋病、性病感染情况。方法按《浙江省艾滋病哨点监测实施方案》抽取800名暗娼进行问卷调查,并采集血样检测HIV、梅毒和丙肝抗体。结果800名暗娼艾滋病知识总知晓率为92.00%,高中及以上组知晓艾滋病知识的比例是小学及以下组的3.51倍,最近一年接受过艾滋病预防服务者知晓艾滋病知识的比例是未接受者的4.34倍。最近一个月商业性行为中安全套坚持使用率为57.63%,艾滋病知识知晓组坚持使用安全套的比例是不知晓组的2.09倍,最近一年接受过艾滋病预防服务者坚持使用安全套的比例是未接受者的3.29倍。血清学检测结果显示,梅毒和丙肝抗体阳性率分别为2.88%和0.25%,未检出HIV抗体阳性。结论湖州市暗娼人群艾滋病知识知晓率较高,但安全套使用率较低。应重点关注低文化水平者,提高艾滋病预防服务的可及性,以减少艾滋病传播。%Objective To learn the infection status of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)among female sex workers (FSWs)in Huzhou,and to learn the awareness rate of knowledge of AIDS, and to provide scientific evidence for the development of prevention and control measures.Methods According to the national AIDS surveillance standards,a questionnaire survey was conducted among FSWs and blood samples were collected to detect the antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),syphilis and hepatitis C virus.Results A total of 800 FSWs,with an average age (25. 5 ±5. 0 years old)were investigated,and the awareness rate of AIDS related knowledge was 92. 0%.The positive rate of syphilis antibody was 2. 9%and the positive rate of hepatitis C antibody was 0. 2%.HIV antibody was tested negative.The persistent condom use rate among commercial sex workers was 57. 6% in the recent month

  7. 南昌地区羁押吸毒人员HIV哨点监测结果分析%Results Analysis of HIV Sentinel Surveillance among Drug Addicts in Detention in Nanchang Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤雪琴

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the epidemiological characteristics of drug addicts in detention in Nanchang city, analyze the risk factors of HCV infection in this population, provide the evidence for making the control measures. [Methods]The data of HIV sentinel surveillance among drug addicts in detention in 2010 were adopted. The demographic and behavioral characteristics of 800 drug addicts were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods. The risk factors of HCV infection was analyzed with non-conditional logistic regression. [Results]77. 87% of drug addicts in detention were injection drug users, SO. 08% had snared syringes, and 34.88% had commercial sexual behavior. There were 2 HIV-positive patients, 7 patients with syphilis and 233 (29. 12% ) HCV-positive patients. Less drug injection times can reduce the risk of HCV infection among drug addicts. [ Conclusion] The rate of syringes sharing and HCV infection rate was high in drug addicts in this area. The effective control measures which can reduce the drug injection times and rate of syringes sharing among drug addicts can decrease the risk of HCV infection.%目的 了解南昌市羁押吸毒人员的流行病学特征,分析该人群丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)感染的危险因素,为制定防治对策提供科学依据.方法 利用2010年羁押场所吸毒人员艾滋病哨点监测资料,采用描述性统计方法分析吸毒者800人的人口学、行为学特征;采用非条件lostic回归模型分析HCV感染影响因素.结果 被调查的羁押吸毒人员中注射吸毒人员占77.87%,共用针具的占50.08%;有商业性行为者占34.88%;该人群HIV抗体阳性2人,梅毒阳性7人,HCV抗体阳性233人(29.12%).注射吸毒次数较少,可降低吸毒者感染HCV的危险(OR =0.13,95% CI:0.07~0.25).结论 该地区注射吸毒者的共用针具率和丙肝感染率较高.采取措施减少吸毒者的注射吸毒次数和共针率可以降低该人群的HCV感染的风险.

  8. Approaches to the Surveillance of Foodborne Disease: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Laura; Miller, Megge; Cawthorne, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne disease surveillance aims to reduce the burden of illness due to contaminated food. There are several different types of surveillance systems, including event-based surveillance, indicator-based surveillance, and integrated food chain surveillance. These approaches are not mutually exclusive, have overlapping data sources, require distinct capacities and resources, and can be considered a hierarchy, with each level being more complex and resulting in a greater ability to detect and control foodborne disease. Event-based surveillance is generally the least resource-intensive system and makes use of informal data sources. Indicator-based surveillance is seen as traditional notifiable disease surveillance and consists of routinely collected data. Integrated food chain surveillance is viewed as the optimal practice for conducting continuous risk analysis for foodborne diseases, but also requires significant ongoing resources and greater multisectoral collaboration compared to the other systems. Each country must determine the most appropriate structure for their surveillance system for foodborne diseases based on their available resources. This review explores the evidence on the principles, minimum capabilities, and minimum requirements of each type of surveillance and discusses examples from a range of countries. This review forms the evidence base for the Strengthening the Surveillance and Response for Foodborne Diseases: A Practical Manual.

  9. Demonstration of Uncued Optical Surveillance of LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, P.; Ackermann, M.; McGraw, J.

    2014-09-01

    J.T. McGraw and Associates, LLC, in collaboration with the University of New Mexico (UNM), has built and is operating two proof-of-concept wide-field imaging systems to test novel techniques for uncued surveillance of LEO. The imaging systems are built from off-the-shelf optics and detectors resulting in a 350mm aperture and a 6 square degree field of view. For streak detection, field of view is of critical importance because the maximum exposure time on the object is limited by its crossing time and measurements of apparent angular motion are better constrained with longer streaks. The current match of the detector to the optical system is optimized for detection of objects at altitudes above 450km, which for a circular orbit, corresponds to apparent motions of approximately 1 deg./sec. Using our GPU-accelerated detection scheme, the proof-of-concept systems have detected objects fainter than V=12.3, which approximately corresponds to a 24 cm object at 1000 km altitude at better than 6 sigma significance, from sites near and within Albuquerque, NM. This work demonstrates scalable optical systems designed for near real time detection of fast moving objects, which can be then handed off to other instruments capable of tracking and characterizing them. The two proof-of-concept systems, separated by ~30km, work together by taking simultaneous images of the same orbital volume to constrain the orbits of detected objects using parallax measurements. These detections are followed-up by photometric observations taken at UNM to independently assess the objects and the quality of the derived orbits. We believe this demonstrates the potential of small telescope arrays for detecting and cataloguing heretofore unknown LEO objects.

  10. Results 2005 of the surveillance of the artificial radioactivity levels of aquatic ecosystems in the basin of Seine-Normandy. Riviere 2005; Resultats 2005 de la surveillance des niveaux de la radioactivite artificielle d'ecosystemes aquatiques appartenant au bassin Seine-Normandie. Riviere 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Set up in 2004 by the A.C.R.O. the citizens network of radioecological surveillance, information and evaluation (R.I.V.I.E.R.E.) aims at making a follow-up of the radioactive contamination of the aquatic ecosystems on the scale of the Seine-Normandy pond: from Nogent-on-Seine to La Hague and from the Mont-Saint-Michel to the Treport. The peculiarity of this network, which also makes its strength is to associate strictly all those who wish to appropriate the knowledge of the radioactivity levels around to them. With R.I.V.I.E.R.E., the citizen is at the same moment an author and an actor of the surveillance of his environment as his information. An approach defended by the A.C.R.O. since about 20 years and which has no equivalent anywhere else. This project has four main objectives: to know the levels and the tendencies of the present radioactivity in the main aquatic ecosystems of the Seine-Normandy widened pond, and so feed a data base including more than 3000 analysis (limited to the gamma radioactivity and to the tritium); to allow the citizens who put a lot to appropriate the knowledge and the indispensable references to understand the radioactivity of their environment; to establish a support in the public information about the radioactivity in environment; to supply data to the national network of measures of the radioactivity in environment, network established by decree recently and in charge of the evaluation of the public exposure. (N.C.)

  11. The Role of MRI in Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in American men, excluding skin cancer. The clinical behavior of prostate cancer varies from low-grade, slow growing tumors to high-grade aggressive tumors that may ultimately progress to metastases and cause death. Given the high incidence of men diagnosed with prostate cancer, conservative treatment strategies such as active surveillance are critical in the management of prostate cancer to reduce therapeutic complications of radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. In this review, we will review the role of multiparametric MRI in the selection and follow-up of patients on active surveillance.

  12. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  13. Intelligent nuclear material surveillance system for DUPIC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Ha, J. H.; Go, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) is the facility to fabricate CANDU-type fuel from spent PWR fuel material without any separation of fissile elements and fission products. Unattended continuous surveillance systems for safeguards of nuclear facility result in large amounts of image and radiation data, which require much time and effort to inspect. Therefore, it is necessary to develop system that automatically pinpoints and diagnoses the anomalies from data. In this regards, this paper presents a novel concept of the continuous surveillance system that integrates visual image and radiation data by the use of neural networks. This surveillance system is operating for safeguards of the DFDF in KAERI.

  14. Nuclear material surveillance system for DUPIC fuel development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Ha, J. H.; Go, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Unattended continuous surveillance systems for safeguards of nuclear facility result in large amounts of image and radiation data, which require much time and effort to inspect. Therefore, it is necessary to develop system that automatically pinpoints and diagnoses the anomalies from data. In this regards, this paper presents a novel concept of the continuous surveillance system that integrates visual image and radiation data by the use of neural networks based on self-organized feature mapping. This surveillance system is stably operating for safeguards of the DUPIC (DFDF) in KAERI.

  15. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at BNL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  16. A Super-resolution Reconstruction Algorithm for Surveillance Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological developments have resulted in surveillance video becoming a primary method of preserving public security. Many city crimes are observed in surveillance video. The most abundant evidence collected by the police is also acquired through surveillance video sources. Surveillance video footage offers very strong support for solving criminal cases, therefore, creating an effective policy, and applying useful methods to the retrieval of additional evidence is becoming increasingly important. However, surveillance video has had its failings, namely, video footage being captured in low resolution (LR and bad visual quality. In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of surveillance video and describe the manual feature registration – maximum a posteriori – projection onto convex sets to develop a super-resolution reconstruction method, which improves the quality of surveillance video. From this method, we can make optimal use of information contained in the LR video image, but we can also control the image edge clearly as well as the convergence of the algorithm. Finally, we make a suggestion on how to adjust the algorithm adaptability by analyzing the prior information of target image.

  17. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  18. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This lecture discusses stockpile stewardship efforts and the role surveillance plays in the process. Performance of the RTGs is described, and the question of the absence of anticipated He is addressed.

  19. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    ... river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image...

  20. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8 -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  1. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7 -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  2. Surveillance Results of Coal-Burning Induced Fluorosis in Sichuan, 2006-2010%2006-2010年四川省燃煤型地氟病监测报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敬; 杨小静; 邓启才; 梁代华; 袁萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of coal-burning induced endemic fluorosis,and to provide scientific basis for formulating control strategies of endemic fluorosis in China.Methods The annual incidence of dental fluorosis among children,the level of urinary fluoride,corn fluoride and capsicum fluoride were detected at the 4 surveillance spots; meanwhile,the performance of kitchen transformation was investigated.Results From 2006 to 2010,the prevalence of dental fluorosis dropped from 49.21% to 21.52%,with a 27.69% average annual decline.The dental fluorosis index fell by 71.82% and the urine fluoride presented a downward trend,with a geometric mean ranged from 0.73 to 1.13 ; the average detection rate of skeletal fluorosis was 13.03 % ; the mean corn fluoride content decreased by 72.05 % and average fluoride content in capsicum decreased by 86.07 %,yet with a serious exceeding content of 3309.3 mg/kg.The transformation rate of cooking stoves was 65.38% among the 4 counties,and the perfectness rate of which was 81.88%,resulting in remarkable decline of fluorine pollution in air and qualifying the national standard.Conclusion Through 2006 to 2010 in Sichuan,the coal-burning induced endemic fluorosis remarkable decreased,yet the control measures as following should be abidingly implemented:stove maintenance work,pepper drying method improvement,health education and so on.%目的 了解四川省2006-2010年燃煤污染型地氟病的现况、变化趋势和防治措施落实情况,为制定地氟病防治防治策略提供科学依据.方法 每年1次对4个监测县监测病区8 ~12岁儿童氟斑牙、儿童尿氟、玉米、辣椒氟含量及病区改灶降氟措施完成和使用情况进行调查.结果 2006-2010年监测县燃煤污染型地氟病儿童氟斑牙患病率由49.21%下降到21.52%,年平均患病率下降了27.69%,氟斑牙指数下降了71.82%;尿氟呈下降趋势,尿氟几何均值在0.73 ~1.13之

  3. 2005-2008年贵州省人间布鲁杆菌病监测结果分析%Analysis of surveillance results of Brucellosis in human being in Guizhou province from 2005 to 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵春; 刘昭兵; 龚晓俊; 王定明; 王月; 王仕香; 黄艳萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析贵州省人间布鲁杆菌病(简称布病)监测结果,了解相关人群布鲁杆菌感染现状,为制定预防控制措施提供依据.方法 2005-2008年,根据《布鲁杆菌病监测标准》(GB 16885-1997),在贵州省选择花溪、乌当、兴义、独山、册亨、龙里、息烽、凯里和紫云等区(市、县)为监测点,选择畜牧业职业人群、农区接触家畜的农民和学生为监测对象,采用虎红平板凝集试验(RBPT)和试管凝集试验(SAT)检测布病抗体.结果 2005-2008年贵州省布病抗体检出率为0.63%(37/5904),花溪、乌当、兴义和册亨等县(市、区)的布病抗体检出率分别为2.28% (19/832)、0.16%(2/1274)、1.84%(15/815)和0.14%( 1/735);畜牧业职业人群、农区接触家畜的人群、学生布病抗体检出率分别为1.29%(36/2800)、0.04%(1/2814)、0%(0/290).布病抗体阳性者以奶牛养殖人员为主,占总感染人数的83.78%( 31/37).结论 贵州省部分县(市、区)养殖奶牛、山羊的人群存在布鲁杆菌感染,直接接触病畜是人间布病主要的传播途径.加强对牲畜的检疫和及时处理染疫病畜是布病防治工作的关键.%Objective By analyzing the surveillance result of Brucellosis in human being of Guizhou province from 2005 to 2008,to understand the current situation of relevant population with brucella infection,and then to provide the basis for the development of prevention and control measures.Methods According to the "Brucella Disease Monitoring Standards" (GB 16885-1997),in Guizhou province,Huaxi,Wudang,Xingyi,Dushan,Ceheng,Long Lane,Xifeng,Carey,Ziyun and so on other areas(city,county) were selected as monitoring points,and occupational groups of animal husbandry in agricultural areas,as well as farmers and students contacted with livestock were selected as monitoring subjects.Rose bengal plate agglutination test(RBPT) and tube agglutination test (SAT) were used to detect Brucellosis antibody.Results

  4. Improving Surveillance and Prevention of Surgical Site Infection in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Melissa; Hersey, Diane; Harrison, Sheilah; Joy, Brian; Naguib, Aymen; Galantowicz, Mark; Simsic, Janet

    2016-03-01

    Postoperative cardiovascular surgical site infections are preventable events that may lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. To improve surgical wound surveillance and reduce the incidence of surgical site infections. An institutional review of surgical site infections led to implementation of 8 surveillance and process measures: appropriate preparation the night before surgery and the day of surgery, use of appropriate preparation solution in the operating room, appropriate timing of preoperative antibiotic administration, placement of a photograph of the surgical site in the patient's chart at discharge, sending a photograph of the surgical site to the patient's primary care physician, 30-day follow-up of the surgical site by an advanced nurse practitioner, and placing a photograph of the surgical site obtained on postoperative day 30 in the patient's chart. Mean overall compliance with the 8 measures from March 2013 through February 2014 was 88%. Infections occurred in 10 of 417 total operative cases (2%) in 2012, in 8 of 437 total operative cases (2%) in 2013, and in 7 of 452 total operative cases (1.5%) in 2014. Institution of the surveillance process has resulted in improved identification of suspected surgical site infections via direct rather than indirect measures, accurate identification of all surgical site infections based on definitions of the National Healthcare Safety Network, collaboration with all persons involved, and enhanced communication with patients' family members and referring physicians. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  5. Surveillance for Stage I Nonseminoma Testicular Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Gundgaard, Maria Gry; Mortensen, Mette Saksø

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe treatment results in a large cohort with stage I nonseminoma germ cell cancer (NSGCC) treated in a surveillance program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2007, 1,226 patients with stage I NSGCC, including high-risk patients with vascular invasion......, were observed in a surveillance program. RESULTS: The relapse rate after orchiectomy alone was 30.6% at 5 years. Presence of vascular invasion together with embryonal carcinoma and rete testis invasion in the testicular primary identified a group with a relapse risk of 50%. Without risk factors....... Relapses after 5 years were seen in 0.5% of the whole cohort or in 1.6% of relapsing patients. The majority of relapses (94.4%) belonged to the good prognostic group according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification. The disease-specific survival at 15 years was 99...

  6. Surveillance imaging in children with medulloblastoma (posterior fossa PNET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebuck, D.J. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States); Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Great Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Villablanca, J.G. [Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States); Maher, K.; Nelson, M.D. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Background. The use of surveillance imaging in children with medulloblastoma has been criticised. The aim of this study was to determine what proportion of relapses are detected by surveillance and whether these are found at a relatively favourable stage. Methods. This study was a retrospective review of the medical charts and imaging studies of 89 patients treated at a single children's cancer centre. Relapse was defined as evidence of an increase in volume of residual tumour of greater than 25% or the presence of metastases, or new onset of positive CSF cytology. Relapse was termed symptomatic if it was diagnosed by tests performed because of new symptoms that occurred in the interval between surveillance examinations. Asymptomatic relapse was diagnosed solely on the basis of surveillance imaging. Survival time to relapse was calculated from the date of the first surgical procedure. Results. Surveillance imaging detected 17 (71%) of the 24 relapses that occurred later than 6 months after diagnosis. All seven patients who presented with symptoms between scans have died, with a median survival from relapse of 5 months. Median survival from relapse in the patients detected by surveillance was 44 months, and four remain alive at 44-75 months. The patients detected by surveillance tended to have less advanced disease, which was more amenable to salvage therapy. Conclusion. This type of study cannot prove that surveillance imaging improves survival in children with medulloblastoma because of the effects of lead time and length biases. Despite this, surveillance does appear to be effective in detecting potentially curable medulloblastoma relapses and should be offered to all patients. (orig.)

  7. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  8. Development of the Observational Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Rieutort, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Impact of population on the environment, and conversely, is obvious and represents a real challenge for Public Health since 2000. It has been shown an increase in cancer prevalence, respiratory disease or even reproductive disorders, for which multifactorial origins are strongly suspected. In this context, surveillance has become an essential tool to decision making in public health, and surveillance networks of health events are multiplying, giving rise to numerous databases (sometimes consi...

  9. Syndromic surveillance: A local perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The promise of syndromic surveillance extends beyond early warning for bioterrorist attacks. Even if bioterrorism is first detected by an astute clinician, syndromic surveillance can help delineate the size, location, and tempo of the epidemic or provide reassurance that a large outbreak is not occurring when a single case or a small, localized cluster of an unusual illness is detected. More broadly, however, as public health and medicine proceed in our information age, the use of existing el...

  10. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  11. Comprehensive Surveillance Results of AIDS/HIV Among Young Students in Zhongshan from 2006 to 2010%中山市2006-2010年青年学生艾滋病综合监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦瑜; 汪涛; 王曼; 来学惠; 李雷; 陈楚莹; 何彬洪

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解中山市近年来青年学生艾滋病流行状况、艾滋病知识及相关行为特征.方法 2006、2008、2009和2010年,按照国家监测方案要求,采用分阶段整群抽样方法,对中山市辖区内大学、大专、中专和职高在读学生进行问卷调查,并采集静脉血进行人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)和梅毒检测.结果 2006-2010年,共监测3 237人,无HIV和梅毒抗体阳性者.2006、2008、2009和2010年,青年学生艾滋病知晓率分别为66.2%(520/786)、88.2%(730/828)、77.3%(634/820)和69.1%(555/803).2006、2008、2009和2010年,自我报告最近1年危险性行为发生率分别为0.4%(3/739)、1.1%(9/808)、1.5%(12/807)和3.8%(27/716),呈增长趋势(P<0.01).多因素分析表明,男性、艾滋病知晓率低和吸毒者最近一年自我报告危险性行为发生率更高.在发生过性行为的人群中,第一次性行为年龄越早,最近一年危险性行为发生率越高(P<0.01).结论 中山市青年学生HIV感染率总体维持低水平,但是青年学生对艾滋病认知不足,危险性行为发生率呈增长趋势.在青年学生中应进一步加强性安全知识教育,提倡推迟第一次性行为时间.%Objective To explore the status of HIV epidemic and the characteristics of HIV - related knowledge and behaviors among young students in Zhongshan in recent years.Methods Using randomized cluster sampling method, the students of universities, junior colleges and secondary vocational colleges in Zhongshan were recruited in 2006, 2008, 2009, and 2010.-Questionnaire about basic demography and risk behavioral information and serological test of HIV and syphilis were administered by the health staff according to the national standardized protocol.Results A total of 3,237 young students were recruited for the surveillance.No HIV infection or syphilis infection was detected.The awareness rates of HIV/AIDS in 2006, 2008, 2009, and 2010 were 66.2% (520/786), 88.2% (730/828), 77.3% (634

  12. Maternal near-miss: a multicenter surveillance in Kathmandu Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Ashma; Baral, Gehanath; Dangal, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Multicenter surveillance has been carried out on maternal near-miss in the hospitals with sentinel units. Near-miss is recognized as the predictor of level of care and maternal death. Reducing Maternal Mortality Ratio is one of the challenges to achieve Millennium Development Goal. The objective was to determine the frequency and the nature of near-miss events and to analyze the near-miss morbidities among pregnant women. A prospective surveillance was done for a year in 2012 at nine hospitals in Kathmandu valley. Cases eligible by definition were recorded as a census based on WHO near-miss guideline. Similar questionnaires and dummy tables were used to present the results by non-inferential statistics. Out of 157 cases identified with near-miss rate of 3.8 per 1000 live births, severe complications were postpartum hemorrhage 62 (40%) and preeclampsia-eclampsia 25 (17%). Blood transfusion 102 (65%), ICU admission 85 (54%) and surgery 53 (32%) were common critical interventions. Oxytocin was main uterotonic used both prophylactically and therapeutically at health facilities. Total of 30 (19%) cases arrived at health facility after delivery or abortion. MgSO4 was used in all cases of eclampsia. All laparotomies were performed within three hours of arrival. Near-miss to maternal death ratio was 6:1 and MMR was 62. Study result yielded similar pattern amongst developing countries and same near-miss conditions as the causes of maternal death reported by national statistics. Process indicators qualified the recommended standard of care. The near-miss event could be used as a surrogate marker of maternal death and a window for system level intervention.

  13. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. Kalman Filter Based Tracking in an Video Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    SULIMAN, C.; CRUCERU, C.; Moldoveanu, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have developed a Matlab/Simulink based model for monitoring a contact in a video surveillance sequence. For the segmentation process and corect identification of a contact in a surveillance video, we have used the Horn-Schunk optical flow algorithm. The position and the behavior of the correctly detected contact were monitored with the help of the traditional Kalman filter. After that we have compared the results obtained from the optical flow method with the ones obtaine...

  20. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.