WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance results critical

  1. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  2. Critical Surveillance Studies in the Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Allmer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to clarify how we can theorize and systemize economic surveillance. Surveillance studies scholars like David Lyon stress that economic surveillance such as monitoring consumers or the workplace are central aspects of surveillance societies. The approach that is advanced in this work recognizes the importance of the role of the economy in contemporary surveillance societies. The paper at hand constructs theoretically founded typologies in order to systemize the existing literature of surveillance studies and to analyze examples of surveillance. Therefore, it mainly is a theoretical approach combined with illustrative examples. This contribution contains a systematic discussion of the state of the art of surveillance and clarifies how different notions treat economic aspects of surveillance. In this work it is argued that the existing literature is insufficient for studying economic surveillance. In contrast, a typology of surveillance in the modern economy, which is based on foundations of a political economy approach, allows providing a systematic analysis of economic surveillance on the basis of current developments on the Internet. Finally, some political recommendations are drawn in order to overcome economic surveillance. This contribution can be fruitful for scholars who want to undertake a systematic analysis of surveillance in the modern economy and who want to study the field of surveillance critically.

  3. Comparison of embrittlement trend curves to high fluence surveillance results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaert, A.S.; Gerard, R.; Chaouadi, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the regulatory justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessels (RPV) for long term operation, use is made of predictive formulas (also called trend curves) to evaluate the RPV embrittlement (expressed in terms of RTNDT shifts) in function of fluence, chemical composition and in some cases temperature, neutron flux or product form. It has been shown recently that some of the existing or proposed trend curves tend to underpredict high dose embrittlement. Due to the scarcity of representative surveillance data at high dose, some test reactor results were used in these evaluations and raise the issue of representativeness of the accelerated test reactor irradiations (dose rate effects). In Belgium the surveillance capsules withdrawal schedule was modified in the nineties in order to obtain results corresponding to 60 years of operation or more with the initial surveillance program. Some of these results are already available and offer a good opportunity to test the validity of the predictive formulas at high dose. In addition, advanced surveillance methods are used in Belgium like the Master Curve, increased tensile tests, and microstructural investigations. These techniques made it possible to show the conservatism of the regulatory approach and to demonstrate increased margins, especially for the first generation units. In this paper the surveillance results are compared to different predictive formulas, as well as to an engineering hardening model developed at SCK.CEN. Generally accepted property-to-property correlations are critically revisited. Conclusions are made on the reliability and applicability of the embrittlement trend curves. (authors)

  4. HIV surveillance in MENA: recent developments and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Riedner, Gabriele; Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia

    2013-11-01

    To provide an overview of the current level of development and results from the national HIV surveillance systems of the 23 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to assess the quality of HIV surveillance systems in the period 2007-2011. A questionnaire was used to collect the information about the structure, activities and the results of HIV surveillance systems from the National AIDS Programmes. Assessment of the quality was based on four indicators: timeliness of data collection, appropriateness of populations under surveillance, consistency of the surveillance sites and groups measured over time, and coverage of the surveillance system. Only in four countries did surveillance systems enable assessment of epidemic trends in the same populations and locations over time, such as in pregnant women (Morocco, Iran), injecting drug users (Iran, Pakistan), female sex workers (Djibouti, Morocco) and male sex workers (Pakistan). There is increasing evidence of HIV infection being firmly established in at least one of the populations most at risk of HIV in nine MENA countries, while lower risk populations show elevated HIV prevalence in South Sudan, Djibouti and some parts of Somalia. The performance of HIV surveillance systems in several of the MENA countries has improved in recent years. The extent of HIV epidemics in the populations most at risk of HIV is still largely unknown in 10 countries. Multiple data sources that most of the countries still lack would enable indirectly estimation not only of the patterns of HIV epidemics but also the effectiveness of HIV responses.

  5. R and D study on on-line criticality surveillance system (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu

    2000-02-01

    Developing an inexpensive on-line criticality surveillance system is required for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Based on the series of researches for five years, R and D study on On-line Criticality Surveillance system has been carried out since 1996. The concept of this Criticality Surveillance System is based on the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model identification algorithms to the time series of signal fluctuation of a neutron detector. We have proposed several new ideas of modification to the original design of the Criticality Surveillance System, and also reported some results of numerical analysis over the DCA experiments. In those days, DOS/V personal computers with Microsoft Windows have came into wide use instead of those based on the MS-DOS, which have been popular in Japan. NEC, a major maker of MS-DOS computers, stopped the production of MS-DOS computers and changed their management policy toward production of DOS/V personal computers. Our researches have been developed using MS-DOS computers. For the effective use of these important results, it became an urgent theme to transplant all programs developed on MS-DOS computers into computers with the OS, which is not easily affected by commercialism. Since the design concept should be based on high reliability, electromagnetic disturbance-free and high expandability, and also computers have achieved remarkably high performance as well as low price in these days, these computers should be used not only as a simple signal processing unit but also a totally integrated signal analyzing system along with conventional signal analyzing software in stead of IC chips with analyzing soft wares. This configuration enables us to easily introduce newly developed techniques and to provide supplement information. Then, this approach can enhance the reliability of the Criticality Surveillance System without addition of any special devices, and also provide the flexibility of the system

  6. R and D study on on-line criticality surveillance system (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu

    1999-02-01

    The Criticality Surveillance System should have high reliability and high expandability enable to apply new approaches. Under this basic concept, a basic design of the Criticality Surveillance System has been proposed in 1997. We propose here several new ideas of modification to the original design of the Criticality Surveillance System, and also reports some results of numerical analysis over the DCA experiments in 1996. In this report, first, we proposed the modification of the Criticality Surveillance System by adding a series of modules for the usage of the Feynman-α method over the γ-ray signal, because recent studies revealed that the statistical analysis of the γ-ray signal in time domain can provide very good information of the reactor decay constant even in the case of low count rate. This modification could increase the reliability of the Criticality Surveillance System over the wide range of amount of the reprocessed fuel in the tank. Last year we have developed an executable ADF program based on the Least Mean Squares, as the redundancy to the recursive ARMA model identification algorithm. However, this algorithm has a property that the convergence rate of parameter estimation becomes very slow when input data is corrupted with colored noise. To cope with this problem, we introduced a new ADF algorithm called Block ADF algorithm, which is developed to improve the convergence rate with less computational load to the computer. In Chapter 2, we showed the basic theory and a fast adaptive filter algorithm using eigenvalue reciprocals as stepsizes in Chapter 3. This new algorithm provides a stable parameter estimates with less computation as fast as the Recursive Least Squares Method. Thirdly, we introduced a notch filter for power line noise and a software. This filter has to be developed for each specific sampling frequency and specific power line frequency, however, this filter can remove not only the line spectrum of the power line frequency but also

  7. Results of EMC market surveillance tests for UPS systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamaeki, J. [Safety Technology Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the first wide electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) market surveillance project in Finland in which the uninterruptible power systems (UPS) on the Finnish market are monitored. Altogether 11 UPS units are EMC tested and the results of these tests are described in this paper. The effect of basic characters of UPS on the level of electromagnetic interference are analysed. (orig.) 3 refs.

  8. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Stallmann, F.W.; Guthrie, G.; McElroy, W.N.

    1985-01-01

    The ORR-PSF benchmark experiment was designed to simulate the surveillance capsule-pressure vessel configuration in power reactors and to test the validity of procedures which determine the radiation damage in the vessel from test results in the surveillance capsule. The PSF metallurgical blind test was initiated to give participants an opportunity to test their current embrittlement prediction methodologies. Experimental results were withheld from the participants except for the type of information which is normally contained in surveillance reports. Preliminary analysis of the PSF metallurgical blind test results shows that: (1) current prediction methodologies, as used by the PSF Blind Test participants, are adequate, falling within +- 20 0 C of the measured values for Δ NDT. None of the different methods is clearly superior; (2) the proposed revision of Reg. Guide 1.99 (Rev. 2) gives a better representation of the fluence and chemistry dependency of Δ NDT than the current version (Rev. 1); and (3) fluence rate effects can be seen but not quantified. Fluence spectral effects are too small to be detectable in this experiment. (orig.)

  9. A critical look at prospective surveillance using a scan statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Thais R; Assunção, Renato M; Costa, Marcelo A

    2015-03-30

    The scan statistic is a very popular surveillance technique for purely spatial, purely temporal, and spatial-temporal disease data. It was extended to the prospective surveillance case, and it has been applied quite extensively in this situation. When the usual signal rules, as those implemented in SaTScan(TM) (Boston, MA, USA) software, are used, we show that the scan statistic method is not appropriate for the prospective case. The reason is that it does not adjust properly for the sequential and repeated tests carried out during the surveillance. We demonstrate that the nominal significance level α is not meaningful and there is no relationship between α and the recurrence interval or the average run length (ARL). In some cases, the ARL may be equal to ∞, which makes the method ineffective. This lack of control of the type-I error probability and of the ARL leads us to strongly oppose the use of the scan statistic with the usual signal rules in the prospective context. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Applicable regulations and development of surveillance experiments of criticality approach in the TRIGA III Mark reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, J.L.; Aguilar H, F.; Rivero G, T.; Sainz M, E.

    2000-01-01

    In the procedure elaborated to repair the vessel of TRIGA III Mark reactor is required to move toward two tanks of temporal storage the fuel elements which are in operation and the spent fuel elements which are in decay inside the reactor pool. The National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) has requested as protection measure that it is carried out a surveillance of the criticality approach of the temporal storages. This work determines the main regulation aspects that entails an experiment of criticality approach, moreover, informing about the results obtained in the developing of this experiments. The regulation aspects are not exclusives for this work in the TRIGA Mark III reactor but they also apply toward any assembling of fissile material. (Author)

  11. Surveillance of poliomyelitis in Northern Italy: Results of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and environmental surveillance, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Bubba, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Pariani, Elena; Battistone, Andrea; Delogu, Roberto; Fiore, Stefano; Binda, Sandro

    2017-02-01

    Although in the last years poliovirus (PV) transmission has been reported at the lowest levels ever recorded, the spread of virus from endemic countries endures; the high levels of immigration flows across the Mediterranean Sea jeopardize Italy for PV reintroduction. The World Health Organization (WHO) strategic plan for global poliomyelitis (polio) eradication indicates the nationwide surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) as the gold standard for detecting cases of polio. In addition, the Environmental Surveillance (ES), seeking the presence of PV and Non-Polio Enterovirus (NPEV) in sewage, is recognized as a powerful tool to confirm PV circulation in absence of AFP cases, especially in polio-free countries. Here we report the results of AFP surveillance (AFPS) and ES in Lombardy (Northern Italy) from 2012 to 2015. Forty-eight AFP cases were identified during the study period. No AFP case was caused by PV infection. NPEVs were identified in 6.3% (3/48) of AFP cases. The annual AFP incidence rate was 0.87/100'000 children <15 y in 2012, 1.42/100'000 in 2013, 1.02/100'000 in 2014, and 0.47/100'000 in 2015; according to WHO indicators, the sensitivity of AFPS was adequate in 2013 and 2014. Completeness of case investigation raised progressively during the study period to achieve the WHO standards in 2014 (92.3%) and 2015 (100%). Completeness of follow-up increased from 72.7% in 2012 to 100% in 2014. In the framework of the ES conducted in Milan, 268 wastewater samples were collected from 2012 to 2015 and no PVs were isolated. In contrast, NPEVs were detected in 65.3% (175/268) of samples. All NPEVs characterized belonged to enterovirus species B: echovirus type 11, 6 and 3 were the most frequently detected viruses, representing 29.1% (41/141), 20.6% (29/141) and 9.2% (13/141) of genotyped NPEVs, respectively. Keeping strong and encouraging both AFPS and ES is crucial to ensure that PV will not return unnoticed in Italy - as well as in other polio

  12. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  13. R and D study on on-line criticality surveillance system (V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu

    2001-02-01

    In view of necessity and importance of criticality surveillance systems for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel manufacturing and reprocessing plants, 5-year basic studies and 4 year R and D studies on an on-line criticality surveillance system were carried out since 1991. This report is a summary of these series of studies. Noticing that the signal from a neutron detector is random in principle, these series of studies aimed to accumulate knowledge for developing an inexpensive criticality surveillance system with quick response based on the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model identification algorithm. During five-year basic studies on criticality surveillance system since 1991, we obtained knowledge required for developing a criticality surveillance system based on the ARMA model identification algorithm through 1) studies on recursive ARMA model identification algorithms most appropriate for estimating subcriticality form time series data under a steady state condition, 2) studies on pre-processing of signal from neutron detectors, 3) developing a new recursive ARMA model identification algorithm with small time delay to estimate time-dependent subcriticality, 4) proposing a basic concept for the elements required for an on-line criticality surveillance system, and 5) numerical analysis of data from the DCA experiments. During next four-year R and D studies on a criticality surveillance system since 1996, we 1) proposed modules required for a no-line criticality surveillance system, 2) revealed effectiveness of a adaptive digital filter (ADF) algorithm, as an important redundancy to the recursive ARMA model identification algorithm to be used in the signal processing module through numerical analysis of real data, 3) proposed a module of the Feynman-α method over γ ray signal and a fast signal processing module for γ ray signal, 4) developed a line-noise removal filter(Notch filter) and revealed its effectiveness for the DCA data corrupted with power

  14. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme: results for UK for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; McAllister, G.; Welham, D.; Orr, D.

    1984-11-01

    The fourth report of a series giving the results of the NRPB's environmental radioactivity surveillance programme is presented. Samples of airborne dust, rainwater and milk are collected routinely throughout the UK; the concentrations of various radionuclides are measured and the resulting exposure of the population is evaluated. The radionuclides detected result predominantly from nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, although the programme would also be sensitive to other sources of environmental contamination. The annual average concentrations and depositions of radionuclides from fallout are now at the lowest levels since the inception of the Board's monitoring programme. The average annual effective dose equivalent from fallout is evaluated and compared with that from natural background radiation. (author)

  15. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Maerker, R.E.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  16. The results of medical surveillance of beryllium production personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koviazin, A.; Urikh, A.; Kovianzina, L.

    2004-01-01

    The report presents results of surveillance of 1836 workers of beryllium production of Ulba Metallurgical Plant JSC with the acute and chronic forms of occupation diseases for 52 years of its operation. The dependence of acute and chronic occupation lesions on the protection degree is shown. It has been found out that, the risk of getting an occupation disease increases sharply at the moments of experimental works and at the time of reconstruction and some other extreme conditions in the production, that is supported by fixed lesions of eye mucous coat, skin and lung lesions. In this case, the readiness of people for their work in deleterious conditions and their personal responsibility for following the regulations of safety occupational standards plays a definite role. Therefore, the issues of protection are of paramount importance in prophylaxis both of acute and chronic exposure to beryllium. An influence of duration of service and occupation on chronic beryllium diseases is shown. A parallel between the lung beryllium disease and skin lesions by insoluble beryllium compounds is drawn for the first time. (author)

  17. Linezolid Surveillance Results for the United States (LEADER Surveillance Program 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Robert K; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Hogan, Patricia A; Streit, Jennifer M; Ross, James E; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-04-01

    Thelinezolidexperience andaccuratedetermination ofresistance (LEADER) surveillance program has monitored linezolid activity, spectrum, and resistance since 2004. In 2014, a total of 6,865 Gram-positive pathogens from 60 medical centers from 36 states were submitted. The organism groups evaluated wereStaphylococcus aureus(3,106), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 797), enterococci (855),Streptococcus pneumoniae(874), viridans group streptococci (359), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (874). Susceptibility testing was performed by reference broth microdilution at the monitoring laboratory. Linezolid-resistant isolates were confirmed by repeat testing. PCR and sequencing were performed to detect mutations in 23S rRNA, L3, L4, and L22 proteins and acquired genes (cfrandoptrA). The MIC50/90forStaphylococcus aureuswas 1/1 μg/ml, with 47.2% of isolates being methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus Linezolid was active against allStreptococcus pneumoniaestrains and beta-hemolytic streptococci with a MIC50/90of 1/1 μg/ml and against viridans group streptococci with a MIC50/90of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Among the linezolid-nonsusceptible MRSA strains, one strain harboredcfronly (MIC, 4 μg/ml), one harbored G2576T (MIC, 8 μg/ml), and one containedcfrand G2576T with L3 changes (MIC, ≥8 μg/ml). Among CoNS, 0.75% (six isolates) of all strains demonstrated linezolid MIC results of ≥4 μg/ml. Five of these were identified asStaphylococcus epidermidis, four of which containedcfrin addition to the presence of mutations in the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4, alone or in combination with 23S rRNA (G2576T) mutations. Six enterococci (0.7%) were linezolid nonsusceptible (≥4 μg/ml; five with G2576T mutations, including one with an additionalcfrgene, and one strain withoptrAonly). Linezolid demonstrated excellent activity and a sustained susceptibility rate of 99.78% overall. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. The clinical surveillance process as carried out by expert nurses in a critical care context: A theoretical explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhomme, Daniel; Gagnon, Johanne; Lechasseur, Kathleen

    2018-02-01

    Nursing Science presents surveillance as an indispensable component of patient safety. Although the literature defines surveillance fully, its implementation is not well understood. This research aims to formulate a theoretical explanation of the surveillance process that expert nurses employ in critical care. To develop the theoretical explanation for the surveillance process of critical care nurses, Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory approach and Think Aloud Method (Fonteyn et al., 1993) were used with fifteen expert critical care nurses (n=15). Surveillance in critical care is a continual process of collaborative vigilance that starts with the thought process and behaviour related to data collection, analysis and interpretation. The surveillance process comprises five key elements: 1) Managing the risk of complications; 2) Collecting data; 3) Detecting a problem; 4) Making a decision and 5) Working in synergy. In developing a theoretical explanation, this research leads to an understanding of the surveillance process performed by expert nurses in a critical care context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A reflective commentary of teaching critical thinking of privacy and surveillance in UK higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of data literacy and the need of raising and improving it through formal educational channel or public engagement has repeatedly been flagged up in each of the past Economic and Social Research Council-funded Data-Psst! Seminar I attended in 2014–2016. There is a real demand for action taking. I took advantage of the knowledge I learned from the Data-Psst seminars and devised a module teaching Level 5 undergraduate media students about critical issues in today’s data-centric digital society, including privacy and surveillance. In this article, I share how the class activities were devised and carried out, and how guided engagement with the current debate in privacy and surveillance were realised. I also draw on relevant pedagogical theories to discuss my educational approaches, student performance, the challenges of the project, and evaluate and reflect upon the outcomes. This report from the field provides fresh first-hand information about the data ethics of the younger public who are practising media arts and their behaviours and attitudes towards privacy and surveillance. This article shall open up the discussion about the role educators play in enriching public engagement with critical thinking about Big Data. The lessons learned can also contextualise the pedagogical implication of the recent scholarly research on Big Data and privacy, and provide a framework for constructing future collaborative or creative projects.

  20. The results of gynecologic surveillance in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Mosgaard, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to estimate the incidence rate of endometrial cancer (EC) and to evaluate the results of EC-surveillance in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families. Methods. All at-risk women recommended for EC-surveillance by the HNPCC-register-2959 women (19,334 women yea...... of having Lynch syndrome. We conclude that EC surveillance should only be targeted at MMR-mutation carriers. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  1. Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, K. G.

    2011-10-12

    The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

  2. Initial results of Pakistan's first road traffic injury surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Shahzad; Razzak, Junaid A; Jooma, Rashid; Khan, Uzma

    2011-09-01

    Our aim is to report the findings of the initial three years of road traffic injuries (RTI) surveillance at Karachi and to compare it with previously published RTI-related data from Pakistan and other low-and middle-income countries. Data were collected through the RTI surveillance programme at Karachi (RTIRP) from the five biggest emergency departments of the city, which receive almost all the major emergencies of the city for the period September 2006 till September 2009. A total of 99,272 victims were enlisted by the RTIRP during the study period. Annual incidence of RTI is calculated to be 184.3 per 100,000 populations and mortality is 5.7 per 100,000 populations. Eighty nine per cent of victims are male and 73% are between 15 and 44 years of age. Commonest road user to be affected is riders of two wheelers (45%). Only 7% of affected motorcyclists were found to be wearing helmets at the time of the accident. Trends of injuries remained uniform over the years. Most frequent injuries were external wounds, followed by orthopaedic injuries. On the basis of our surveillance system, we have presented the largest RTI-related data from a metropolitan city of Pakistan to date.

  3. Studies of neutron methods for process control and criticality surveillance of fissile material processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoltowski, T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of radiochemical processes for fissile material processing and spent fuel handling need new control procedures enabling an improvement of plant throughput. This is strictly related to the implementation of continuous criticality control policy and developing reliable methods for monitoring the reactivity of radiochemical plant operations in presence of the process perturbations. Neutron methods seem to be applicable for fissile material control in some technological facilities. The measurement of epithermal neutron source multiplication with heuristic evaluation of measured data enables surveillance of anomalous reactivity enhancement leading to unsafe states. 80 refs., 47 figs., 33 tabs. (author)

  4. Development of integrated containment and surveillance system for fast critical facility FCA. Portal and penetration monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Ogawa, Hironobu; Yokota, Yasuhiro.

    1998-01-01

    Manpower and radiation exposure problems, accompanied by frequent Non Destructive Assay (NDA) based inspections at the Fast Critical Facility FCA of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), are a burden for both the inspectorates and the facility operator. In the hope of alleviating these burdens, the development of containment and surveillance measures for the FCA was initiated in 1979. The integrated containment and surveillance system consists of a portal monitor and a penetration monitor. The reactor building provides an ideal containment measure because of its explosion-proof, airtight structure and limited number of penetrations. The function of the portal monitor is to detect undeclared removal of nuclear material from the reactor building through the doorway. The penetration monitor is designed for surveillance of diversion routes through containment boundaries, and of safeguards related activities for bypassing the portal monitor. The combination of monitoring by the penetration monitor of containment boundaries and all their penetrations except for the doorway, and monitoring by the portal monitor, provides complete coverage of realistic diversion routes. The development of the system was completed in 1988 and the field trial test was conducted for the period of twelve running months. The final report on the field trial was concluded on January 1990. The major conclusion of the report was that the system is effective, reliable and efficient. Following this successful conclusion, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) accepted the system for meeting its safeguards goals at the FCA on condition that an independent IAEA authentication equipment is provided. The development of the authentication equipment is accomplished as an separate Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) task. (author)

  5. The U.S. Department of Veterans' Affairs depleted uranium exposed cohort at 25 Years: Longitudinal surveillance results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Gaitens, Joanna M.; Hines, Stella; Condon, Marian; Roth, Tracy; Oliver, Marc; Gucer, Patricia; Brown, Lawrence; Centeno, Jose A.; Dux, Moira; Squibb, Katherine S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A small group of Gulf War I veterans wounded in depleted uranium (DU) friendly-fire incidents have been monitored for health changes in a clinical surveillance program at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore since 1994. Methods: During the spring of 2015, an in-patient clinical surveillance protocol was performed on 36 members of the cohort, including exposure monitoring for total and isotopic uranium concentrations in urine and a comprehensive assessment of health outcomes. Results: On-going mobilization of U from embedded fragments is evidenced by elevated urine U concentrations. The DU isotopic signature is observed principally in participants possessing embedded fragments. Those with only an inhalation exposure have lower urine U concentration and a natural isotopic signature. Conclusions: At 25 years since first exposure to DU, an aging cohort of military veterans continues to show no U-related health effects in known target organs of U toxicity. As U body burden continues to accrue from in-situ mobilization from metal fragment depots, and increases with exposure duration, critical tissue-specific U concentration thresholds may be reached, thus recommending on-going surveillance of this veteran cohort. - Highlights: • Gulf War I veterans wounded with depleted uranium are monitored for health changes. • In 2015 in-patient clinical surveillance was performed on 36 members of the cohort. • Mobilization of U from embedded fragments is evidenced by elevated U in urine. • This cohort of continues to show no U-related health effects.

  6. The U.S. Department of Veterans' Affairs depleted uranium exposed cohort at 25 Years: Longitudinal surveillance results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Gaitens, Joanna M.; Hines, Stella [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center Baltimore, Maryland, 10 N. Greene St., Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 W Baltimore S, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Condon, Marian, E-mail: mcondon@medicine.umaryland.edu [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center Baltimore, Maryland, 10 N. Greene St., Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Roth, Tracy; Oliver, Marc; Gucer, Patricia [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center Baltimore, Maryland, 10 N. Greene St., Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 W Baltimore S, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Brown, Lawrence [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center Baltimore, Maryland, 10 N. Greene St., Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 W Baltimore S, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Centeno, Jose A. [US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Devices and Radiological Health Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Dux, Moira [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center Baltimore, Maryland, 10 N. Greene St., Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Squibb, Katherine S. [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center Baltimore, Maryland, 10 N. Greene St., Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 W Baltimore S, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Background: A small group of Gulf War I veterans wounded in depleted uranium (DU) friendly-fire incidents have been monitored for health changes in a clinical surveillance program at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore since 1994. Methods: During the spring of 2015, an in-patient clinical surveillance protocol was performed on 36 members of the cohort, including exposure monitoring for total and isotopic uranium concentrations in urine and a comprehensive assessment of health outcomes. Results: On-going mobilization of U from embedded fragments is evidenced by elevated urine U concentrations. The DU isotopic signature is observed principally in participants possessing embedded fragments. Those with only an inhalation exposure have lower urine U concentration and a natural isotopic signature. Conclusions: At 25 years since first exposure to DU, an aging cohort of military veterans continues to show no U-related health effects in known target organs of U toxicity. As U body burden continues to accrue from in-situ mobilization from metal fragment depots, and increases with exposure duration, critical tissue-specific U concentration thresholds may be reached, thus recommending on-going surveillance of this veteran cohort. - Highlights: • Gulf War I veterans wounded with depleted uranium are monitored for health changes. • In 2015 in-patient clinical surveillance was performed on 36 members of the cohort. • Mobilization of U from embedded fragments is evidenced by elevated U in urine. • This cohort of continues to show no U-related health effects.

  7. Czech results at criticality dosimetry intercomparison 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantisek, Spurný; Jaroslav, Trousil

    2004-01-01

    Two criticality dosimetry systems were tested by Czech participants during the intercomparison held in Valduc, France, June 2002. The first consisted of the thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) (Al-P glasses) and Si-diodes as passive neutron dosemeters. Second, it was studied to what extent the individual dosemeters used in the Czech routine personal dosimetry service can give a reliable estimation of criticality accident exposure. It was found that the first system furnishes quite reliable estimation of accidental doses. For routine individual dosimetry system, no important problems were encountered in the case of photon dosemeters (TLDs, film badge). For etched track detectors in contact with the 232Th or 235U-Al alloy, the track density saturation for the spark counting method limits the upper dose at approximately 1 Gy for neutrons with the energy >1 MeV.

  8. The “Austrian School of Critical Political Economy”? A Review of Thomas Allmer’s Book “Towards a Critical Theory of Surveillance in Informational Capitalism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Amon Prodnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of Thomas Allmer’s book “Towards a Critical Theory of Surveillance in Informational Capitalism”. The book was published in 2012 by the publishing house Peter Lang (in Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, New York, Oxford […]. In the start of the article the author also poses the question whether there is a new school of thought emerging, namely the “Austrian School of Critical Political Economy”.

  9. The critical role of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, Rudolf H; Lamoureux, Christine; Tallis, Graham; Goel, Ajay

    2017-05-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance is a key strategy used by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to measure progress towards reaching the global eradication goal. Supported by a global polio laboratory network, AFP surveillance is conducted in 179 of 194 WHO member states. Active surveillance visits to priority health facilities are used to assure all children polio laboratories. The quality of AFP surveillance is regularly monitored with standardized surveillance quality indicators. In highest risk countries and areas, the sensitivity of AFP surveillance is enhanced by environmental surveillance (testing of sewage samples). Genetic sequencing of detected poliovirus isolates yields programmatically important information on polio transmission pathways. AFP surveillance is one of the most valuable assets of the GPEI, with the potential to serve as a platform to build integrated disease surveillance systems. Continued support to maintain AFP surveillance systems will be essential, to reliably monitor the completion of global polio eradication, and to assure that a key resource for building surveillance capacity is transitioned post-eradication to support other health priorities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Expatriates ill after travel: Results from the Geosentinel Surveillance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Poh-Lian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expatriates are a distinct population at unique risk for health problems related to their travel exposure. Methods We analyzed GeoSentinel data comparing ill returned expatriates with other travelers for demographics, travel characteristics, and proportionate morbidity (PM for travel-related illness. Results Our study included 2,883 expatriates and 11,910 non-expatriates who visited GeoSentinel clinics ill after travel. Expatriates were more likely to be male, do volunteer work, be long-stay travelers (>6 months, and have sought pre-travel advice. Compared to non-expatriates, expatriates returning from Africa had higher proportionate morbidity (PM for malaria, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and hepatitis E; expatriates from the Asia-Pacific region had higher PM for strongyloidiasis, depression, and anxiety; expatriates returning from Latin America had higher PM for mononucleosis and ingestion-related infections (giardiasis, brucellosis. Expatriates returning from all three regions had higher PM for latent TB, amebiasis, and gastrointestinal infections (other than acute diarrhea compared to non-expatriates. When the data were stratified by travel reason, business expatriates had higher PM for febrile systemic illness (malaria and dengue and vaccine-preventable infections (hepatitis A, and volunteer expatriates had higher PM for parasitic infections. Expatriates overall had higher adjusted odds ratios for latent TB and lower odds ratios for acute diarrhea and dermatologic illness. Conclusions Ill returned expatriates differ from other travelers in travel characteristics and proportionate morbidity for specific diseases, based on the region of exposure and travel reason. They are more likely to present with more serious illness.

  11. Sharply rising prevalence of HIV infection in Bali: a critical assessment of the surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januraga, P P; Wulandari, L P L; Muliawan, P; Sawitri, S; Causer, L; Wirawan, D N; Kaldor, J M

    2013-08-01

    This study critically examines serological survey data for HIV infection in selected populations in Bali, Indonesia. Sero-survey data reported by the Bali Health Office between 2000 and 2010 were collated, and provincial health staff were interviewed to gain a detailed understanding of survey methods. Analysis of time series restricted to districts that have used the same sampling methods and sites each year indicates that there has been a steady decline in HIV prevalence among prisoners, from 18.7% in 2000 to 4.3% in 2010. In contrast, HIV prevalence among women engaged in sex work increased sharply: from 0.62% in 2000 to 20.2% in 2010 (brothel based), and from 0% in 2000 to 7.2% in 2010 (non-brothel based). The highest prevalence was recorded among people who injected drugs. Recent surveys of gay men and transvestites also found high prevalences, at 18.7% and 40.9%, respectively. Review of the methodology used in the surveys identified inconsistencies in the sampling technique, sample numbers and sites over time, and incomplete recording of individual information about survey participants. Attention to methodological aspects and incorporation of additional information on behavioural factors will ensure that the surveillance system is in the best position to support prevention activities.

  12. Operating results obtained in a nuclear power plant with a sensor surveillance prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, J.P.; Poujol, A.; Beaubatie, J.; Ciaramitaro, W.

    1983-03-01

    Surveillance methods have been validated and specific equipment have been built to measure the response time of sensors from a nuclear power plant protection channel. The reason of the choice of this parameter is twofold: the sensor response time is representative of the sensor physical status and is also part of the overall channel response time. Two surveillance methods are used: noise analysis (by AR or PSD modeling), and loop current step response (for resistance thermometer detectors only). The methods were validated on test facilities and on nuclear power plants. Two test equipments were built and tested on plants. Results are represented and conclusions are drawn on the feasibility of such methods for sensor surveillance [fr

  13. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  14. International comparison of results of infection surveillance: The Netherlands versus Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, R.; van den Berg, J. M.; Veerman-Brenzikofer, M. L.; Kurz, X.; Jans, B.; Klazinga, N.

    1994-01-01

    To explore the potential benefit of comparing results from two national surveillance networks. Two prospective multicenter cohort studies of surgical wound infections (SWI). Thirty-five and 62 acute-care hospitals in The Netherlands (NL) and Belgium (B), respectively, from October 1, 1991, to June

  15. Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) for Space Surveillance: Results and Simulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Poore, A.; Sheaff, C.; Aristoff, J.; Jah, M.

    2013-09-01

    With the anticipated installation of more accurate sensors and the increased probability of future collisions between space objects, the potential number of observable space objects is likely to increase by an order of magnitude within the next decade, thereby placing an ever-increasing burden on current operational systems. Moreover, the need to track closely-spaced objects due, for example, to breakups as illustrated by the recent Chinese ASAT test or the Iridium-Kosmos collision, requires new, robust, and autonomous methods for space surveillance to enable the development and maintenance of the present and future space catalog and to support the overall space surveillance mission. The problem of correctly associating a stream of uncorrelated tracks (UCTs) and uncorrelated optical observations (UCOs) into common objects is critical to mitigating the number of UCTs and is a prerequisite to subsequent space catalog maintenance. Presently, such association operations are mainly performed using non-statistical simple fixed-gate association logic. In this paper, we report on the salient features and the performance of a newly-developed statistically-robust system-level multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) system for advanced space surveillance. The multiple-frame assignment (MFA) formulation of MHT, together with supporting astrodynamics algorithms, provides a new joint capability for space catalog maintenance, UCT/UCO resolution, and initial orbit determination. The MFA-MHT framework incorporates multiple hypotheses for report to system track data association and uses a multi-arc construction to accommodate recently developed algorithms for multiple hypothesis filtering (e.g., AEGIS, CAR-MHF, UMAP, and MMAE). This MHT framework allows us to evaluate the benefits of many different algorithms ranging from single- and multiple-frame data association to filtering and uncertainty quantification. In this paper, it will be shown that the MHT system can provide superior

  16. An approach to integrating surveillance and maintenance tasks to prevent the dominant failure causes of critical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Munoz, A.; Serradell, V.

    1995-01-01

    Surveillance requirements and maintenance activities in a nuclear power plant aim to preserve components' inherent reliability. Up to now, predictive and preventive maintenance mainly concerned plant staff, but the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Maintenance Rule released in July 1991 will have significant impact on how nuclear power plants perform and document this maintenance. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a systematic methodology to establish maintenance tasks for critical components in plant with a high degree of compliance with the goals of the Rule. RCM pursues the identification of applicable and efficient tasks to prevent these components from developing their dominant failure causes, and, in turn, towards achieving proper levels of components availability with low cost. In this paper, we present an approach for identifying the most suitable set of tasks to achieve this goal, which involves the integration of maintenance activities and surveillance requirements for each critical component based on the unavailability and cost associated with each individual task which is performed on it

  17. Human brucellosis in France in the 21st century: Results from national surveillance 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailles, A; Garin-Bastuji, B; Lavigne, J P; Jay, M; Sotto, A; Maurin, M; Pelloux, I; O'Callaghan, D; Mick, V; Vaillant, V; De Valk, H

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease mainly transmitted to humans by ruminants. In France, brucellosis has disappeared from ruminants herds. Human brucellosis surveillance is performed through mandatory notification and the national reference center. We report the results of human brucellosis surveillance from 2004 to 2013 with regards to epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data. A total of 250 cases were notified, making an annual incidence of 0.3 cases per million inhabitants. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was the most frequently identified bacterium (79% of isolated strains). In total, 213 (85%) cases had been contaminated abroad in endemic countries. In 2012, an episode of re-emergence of brucellosis in cattle occurred in Haute-Savoie, in the French Alps, and was responsible for 2 human cases. Brucellosis has become a disease of travelers in France. However, maintaining a stringent epidemiological surveillance is necessary to be able to early detect any local re-emergence in humans or animals. The multidisciplinary surveillance was implemented in France years ago and is a successful example of the One Health Concept. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of marital status on survival of gastric adenocarcinoma patients: Results from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Database

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Miaozhen; Yang, Dajun; Xu, Ruihua

    2016-01-01

    Marital status was found to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in various cancer types. In this study, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to analyze the survival difference among different marital status in the United States. Gastric adenocarcinoma patients from 2004?2012 were enrolled for study. The 5-year cause specific survival (CSS) was our primary endpoint. Totally 29,074 eligible patients were identified. We found that more male patients were m...

  19. Analyses and results from standard surveillance programmes of WWER 440/V-213C reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcnik, M; Brumovsky, M; Pav, T [Czech Nuclear Society, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1994-12-31

    In Czech and Slovak republics, six units of WWER 440/C type reactors are monitored by surveillance specimens programmes; the specimens are determined for static tensile testing, impact notch toughness testing and fracture toughness evaluation. Results of mechanical properties of these specimens after irradiation in intervals between 1 and 5 years of operation, are summarized and discussed with respect to the effect of individual heats and welded joints, radiation embrittlement, and annealing recovery. (authors). 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Integrity assessment of TAPS reactor pressure vessel at extended EOL using surveillance test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Shah, Priti Kotak

    2008-05-01

    Integrity assessment of pressure vessels of nuclear reactors (RPV) primarily concentrates on the prevention of brittle failure and conditions are defined under which brittle failure can be excluded. Accordingly, two approaches based on Transition Temperature Concept and Fracture Mechanics Concept were adopted using the impact test results of three credible surveillance data sets obtained from the surveillance specimens of Tarapur Atomic Power Station. RT NDT data towards end of life (EOL) were estimated from the impact test results in accordance with the procedures of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99, Rev. 2 and were used as primary input for assessment of the vessel integrity. SA302B (nickel modified) steel cladded with stainless steel is used as the pressure vessel material for the two 210 MWe boiling water reactors of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS). The reactors were commissioned during the year 1969. The chemical compositions of SA302B (modified) steel used in fabricating the vessel and the specified tensile property and the Charpy impact property requirements of the steel broadly meet ASME specified requirements. Therefore, the pressure temperature limit curves prescribed by General Electric (G.E.) were compared with those as obtained using procedures of ASME Section XII, Appendix G. The tensile and the Charpy impact properties at 60 EFPY of vessel operation as derived from the surveillance specimens even fulfilled the specified requirements for the virgin material of ASME. Integrity assessment carried out using the two approaches indicated the safety of the vessel for continued operation up to 60 EFPY. (author)

  1. The Surveillance of Learning: A Critical Analysis of University Attendance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Universities have recently strengthened their class attendance policies along with associated practices that intensify the surveillance of learning: a series of administrative and pedagogic strategies that monitor the extent to which students conform with behavioural expectations associated with learning. Drawing on university policy statements,…

  2. Expected performance and benefits of an advanced containment and surveillance system at the fast critical facility fca of jaeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Kuroi, H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and test of a personnel portal monitor for IAEA safeguards at the fast critical facility FCA. The main components of the portal are 1) the walk-through metal detector, 2) the visual surveillance system with CCTV, 3) the tamper indication system using multi sensors and 4) the remote monitoring capability through RECOVER system. The metal detector developed can detect a single coupon of metallic nuclear fuel plate (2 in. *2 in. *1/16 in.) regardless of the orientation of a fuel plate relative to the electromagnetic field generated in the metal detector. 3 refs

  3. Are We Digital Masters Or Captives? A Critical Evaluation Of Panoptic Versus Synoptic Effect Of Surveillance In Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Öngün

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The era we are living in is the one where we are exposed to a massive attraction of social connectivity based widely on digital forms of media. The most common one of them is social media. Social media exposes us to a kind of virtual Panopticon where ‘the few’ watch ‘the many’ in architecture of surveillance. Another term related to surveillance is Synopticon, a system where ‘the many’ watch ‘the few’ in the “Viewer Society”.  In the light of the related literature of theory and practice in the area, the study aims at viewing social media tools and its users from a critical perspective in a descriptive manner. To be able to do this, the study develops a set of hypothetical questions whose answers are instrumented to find out whether there is truly such a thing as “Virtual Panopticon” or “Synopticon” and if so, to what extent and how the Panoptic versus Synoptic effect of social media are felt among its users in various applications in light of media and communication. Facebook, based on the current theoretical knowledge within the field of surveillance can be given as an example. The study concludes with an overview of both assumptions with further reflections and contemplations of the readers of the study, who implicitly or explicitly could also be the actors of social media as masters or captives.

  4. Examining the social construction of surveillance: A critical issue for health visitors and public health nurses working with mothers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckover, Sue; Aston, Megan

    2018-01-01

    To critically examine surveillance practices of health visitors (HV) in the UK and public health nurses (PHNs) in Canada. The practice and meaning of surveillance shifts and changes depending on the context and intent of relationships between mothers and HVs or PHNs. We present the context and practice of HVs in the UK and PHNs in Canada and provide a comprehensive literature review regarding surveillance of mothers within public health systems. We then present our critique of the meaning and practice of surveillance across different settings. Concepts from Foucault and discourse analysis are used to critically examine and discuss the meaning of surveillance. Surveillance is a complex concept that shifts meaning and is socially and institutionally constructed through relations of power. Healthcare providers need to understand the different meanings and practices associated with surveillance to effectively inform practice. Healthcare providers should be aware of how their positions of expert and privilege within healthcare systems affect relationships with mothers. A more comprehensive understanding of personal, social and institutional aspects of surveillance will provide opportunities to reflect upon and change practices that are supportive of mothers and their families. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Integration of molecular typing results into tuberculosis surveillance in Germany-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Marta; Göhring-Zwacka, Elke; Fiebig, Lena; Priwitzer, Martin; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Haas, Walter; Niemann, Stefan; Brodhun, Bonita

    2017-01-01

    An integrated molecular surveillance for tuberculosis (TB) improves the understanding of ongoing TB transmission by combining molecular typing and epidemiological data. However, the implementation of an integrated molecular surveillance for TB is complex and requires thoughtful consideration of feasibility, demand, public health benefits and legal issues. We aimed to pilot the integration of molecular typing results between 2008 and 2010 in the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg (population 10.88 Million) as preparation for a nationwide implementation. Culture positive TB cases were typed by IS6110 DNA fingerprinting and results were integrated into routine notification data. Demographic and clinical characteristics of cases and clusters were described and new epidemiological links detected after integrating typing data were calculated. Furthermore, a cross-sectional survey was performed among local public health offices to evaluate their perception and experiences. Overall, typing results were available for 83% of notified culture positive TB cases, out of which 25% were clustered. Age Germany (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.44-2.80) were associated with clustering. At cluster level, molecular typing information allowed the identification of previously unknown epidemiological links in 11% of the clusters. In 59% of the clusters it was not possible to identify any epidemiological link. Clusters extending over different counties were less likely to have epidemiological links identified among their cases (OR = 11.53, 95% CI: 3.48-98.23). The majority of local public health offices found molecular typing useful for their work. Our study illustrates the feasibility of integrating typing data into the German TB notification system and depicts its added public health value as complementary strategy in TB surveillance, especially to uncover transmission events among geographically separated TB patients. It also emphasizes that special efforts are required to strengthen the

  6. Integration of molecular typing results into tuberculosis surveillance in Germany—A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Lena; Priwitzer, Martin; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Haas, Walter; Niemann, Stefan; Brodhun, Bonita

    2017-01-01

    An integrated molecular surveillance for tuberculosis (TB) improves the understanding of ongoing TB transmission by combining molecular typing and epidemiological data. However, the implementation of an integrated molecular surveillance for TB is complex and requires thoughtful consideration of feasibility, demand, public health benefits and legal issues. We aimed to pilot the integration of molecular typing results between 2008 and 2010 in the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg (population 10.88 Million) as preparation for a nationwide implementation. Culture positive TB cases were typed by IS6110 DNA fingerprinting and results were integrated into routine notification data. Demographic and clinical characteristics of cases and clusters were described and new epidemiological links detected after integrating typing data were calculated. Furthermore, a cross-sectional survey was performed among local public health offices to evaluate their perception and experiences. Overall, typing results were available for 83% of notified culture positive TB cases, out of which 25% were clustered. Age typing information allowed the identification of previously unknown epidemiological links in 11% of the clusters. In 59% of the clusters it was not possible to identify any epidemiological link. Clusters extending over different counties were less likely to have epidemiological links identified among their cases (OR = 11.53, 95% CI: 3.48–98.23). The majority of local public health offices found molecular typing useful for their work. Our study illustrates the feasibility of integrating typing data into the German TB notification system and depicts its added public health value as complementary strategy in TB surveillance, especially to uncover transmission events among geographically separated TB patients. It also emphasizes that special efforts are required to strengthen the communication between local public health offices in different counties to enhance TB control

  7. Environmental surveillance results for 1995 for the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCague, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This memorandum presents and interprets analytical results and measurements obtained as part of the 1995 environmental surveillance program for the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The discussion provides a comparative analysis of average historical background conditions and applicable regulatory criteria to the 1995 results reported for external gamma radiation and for samples from the media investigated (air, surface water, sediment, groundwater, and stormwater). Results from the 1995 environmental surveillance program at HISS indicate that, with the exception of thorium-230 in streambed sediment, applicable US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines were not exceeded for any measured parameter or for any dose calculated for potentially exposed members of the general public. In the absence of sediment guidelines, DOE soil guidelines serve as a standard of comparison for data obtained from stream bed sediment; two samples from downstream locations contained concentrations of thorium-230 that exceeded DOE soil guidelines. All stormwater sample results were in compliance with permit-specified limits. Other radioactive materials include radium 226 and natural uranium

  8. A comprehensive summary of the ORNL Groundwater Compliance and Surveillance Sampling Results Software System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffman, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Groundwater compliance and surveillance activities are conducted at ORNL to fulfill federal and state requirements for environmental monitoring. Information management is an important aspect of this and encompasses many activities which usually have spcific time frames and schedules. In addition to fulfilling these immediate requirements, the results for the monitoring activities are also used to determine the need for environmental remediation. ORNL performs this groundwater results data management and reporting utilizing a group of SAS reg-sign applications and tools which provide the ability to track samples, capture field measurements, verify and validate result data, manage data, and report results in a variety of ways and in a timely manner. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of these applications and tools

  9. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: a critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Elbers, Armin R.W.; Hendrikx, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and...

  10. First results of the radiological surveillance of RIT trial for high grade astrocytomas in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador Balbona, Z.H.; Pardo Ayra, F.E.; Torres Berdeguez, M.B. [Isotope Centre, Havana (Cuba). Radiation Protection Dept.

    2004-07-01

    The first phase of the clinical trial using the humanized monoclonal antibody h-R3 labeled with {sup 188} Re, for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of brain tumors began in the Republic of Cuba in 2002. This monoclonal antibody was obtained in the country and it is required to evaluate its toxicity, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry. Five groups of three patients of each one with an administered activity from 0.37 GBq to 1.1 GBq, are considered. The aim of this work is to assess workers doses and public doses for this research and to compare projected doses with the first results related to the radiological surveillance. The contribution to the total effective dose and equivalent dose in extremities are calculated with the code Microshield version 4.0 by each activity level, operation and total quantity of patients. We take into account radioactive decay of {sup 188} Re and consider that only a person made all of the operations during this study. It is demonstrated that individual doses are acceptable and lower than world average effective annual dose of natural radiation background (2.4 mSv), because for the operations of more risk are used individual protection means. Nevertheless, it is identified that nurses are the most exposed. The projected maximum equivalent dose to hands is about 4 mSv and it belongs to the neurosurgeon. Radiological surveillance is performed to verify our calculations. Five workers and public (four individuals) are monitoring for each patient with direct reading dosimeters DOSICARD and TLD for extremities. For the first seven patients results are obtained. The conservative assumptions in the dose assessment and the compliance with established safety procedures determine that the registered doses are lower than those were projected. RIT with 188 Re for high-grade astrocytomas is a safety practice from radiation protection point of view. There is not a reference of a similar study in Latin America. (author)

  11. First results of the radiological surveillance of RIT trial for high grade astrocytomas in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Balbona, Z.H.; Pardo Ayra, F.E.; Torres Berdeguez, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    The first phase of the clinical trial using the humanized monoclonal antibody h-R3 labeled with 188 Re, for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of brain tumors began in the Republic of Cuba in 2002. This monoclonal antibody was obtained in the country and it is required to evaluate its toxicity, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry. Five groups of three patients of each one with an administered activity from 0.37 GBq to 1.1 GBq, are considered. The aim of this work is to assess workers doses and public doses for this research and to compare projected doses with the first results related to the radiological surveillance. The contribution to the total effective dose and equivalent dose in extremities are calculated with the code Microshield version 4.0 by each activity level, operation and total quantity of patients. We take into account radioactive decay of 188 Re and consider that only a person made all of the operations during this study. It is demonstrated that individual doses are acceptable and lower than world average effective annual dose of natural radiation background (2.4 mSv), because for the operations of more risk are used individual protection means. Nevertheless, it is identified that nurses are the most exposed. The projected maximum equivalent dose to hands is about 4 mSv and it belongs to the neurosurgeon. Radiological surveillance is performed to verify our calculations. Five workers and public (four individuals) are monitoring for each patient with direct reading dosimeters DOSICARD and TLD for extremities. For the first seven patients results are obtained. The conservative assumptions in the dose assessment and the compliance with established safety procedures determine that the registered doses are lower than those were projected. RIT with 188 Re for high-grade astrocytomas is a safety practice from radiation protection point of view. There is not a reference of a similar study in Latin America. (author)

  12. [Results of the epidemiological surveillance of diabetes mellitus in hospitals in Peru, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Willy; López, Tania; Revilla, Luis; More, Luis; Huamaní, María; Pozo, Milagros

    2014-01-01

    To describe the findings of a year of epidemiological surveillance in pilot hospitals in Peru belonging to the diabetes surveillance (DS) system. Cross-sectional study involving diabetic patients in the DS system from 18 hospitals during 2012. The DS database was assessed and epidemiological and laboratory variables were obtained including age, sex, type of diabetes, complications, comorbidity, microalbuminuria, fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at two time points - at the time of enrollment and the last followup. 2,959 cases were found. At the time of enrollment into the DS system, 91.2% had a fasting blood glucose test of which 65.4% had a level 130 mg/dL. 8.9% had a microalbuminuria test of which 20.5% had microalbuminuria and 6.5% proteinuria. In total, 1025 patients had a follow-up visit; 93.1% had a fasting blood glucose test and 22.3% had HbA1c test. 63.5% had a fasting glycemia level 130 mg/dL and 73.4% HbA1c level 7.0%. The most common complication was neuropathy (21.4 %) and the most frequent comorbidity was high blood pressure (10.5%). Tuberculosis and cancer cases were observed; the most frequent cancer was breast cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women. The DS shows that among diabetics of the pilot hospitals, which have laboratory results, there is a high frequency of inadequate glycemic control and poor adherence to treatment. The high frequency of complications found highlights the need to strengthen early diagnosis.

  13. Practical implications for RPV irradiation surveillance under long term operation based on latest research results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, H.; Keim, E.; Barthelmes, J.; Schnabel, H.

    2015-01-01

    The international programs CARISMA, CARINA and LONGLIFE belong to the research programs which have been performed during the last 10 years to study the irradiation behavior of RPV steels under long term operation of more than 60 years. Some characteristic but different irradiated RPV steels used in Pressurized Water Reactors have been extensively investigated in each of those three programs. Whereas the CARISMA and CARINA programs were mainly focused on material testing to study the irradiation-induced change of material properties in terms of fracture toughness, the main objective of LONGLIFE was to investigate the change of microstructure with various analysis techniques and to understand the mechanisms behind. In this way it was possible to get a comprehensive material characterization in terms of macro-physical properties and micro-structural features for a number of RPV steels which have been studied at different irradiation levels up to 8*10 19 cm -2 (E > 1 MeV). The essential macro-physical and micro-structural results are summarized, in particular regarding the impact of copper and nickel, and the neutron flux on the irradiation behavior and with respect to possible late irradiation effects under long term operation. Moreover, the change of material properties is linked with embrittlement mechanisms such as formation of element specific precipitations, segregations, and matrix defects. Well-known trend curves are also applied to the measured T 41 and T 0 data in order to assess their appropriateness for long term operation. Based on the comprehensive available data base, practical implications for RPV irradiation surveillance programs under long term operation are highlighted with respect to issues like material specific application of reference temperature concepts, data scattering, prediction of high fluence behavior and how to cope with possible late irradiation effects. Finally, best practices for RPV irradiation surveillance programs are suggested from

  14. Impact of marital status on survival of gastric adenocarcinoma patients: Results from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Miaozhen; Yang, Dajun; Xu, Ruihua

    2016-02-15

    Marital status was found to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in various cancer types. In this study, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to analyze the survival difference among different marital status in the United States. Gastric adenocarcinoma patients from 2004-2012 were enrolled for study. The 5-year cause specific survival (CSS) was our primary endpoint. Totally 29,074 eligible patients were identified. We found that more male patients were married than female. Asian patients had the highest percentages of married than the other races. More married patients were covered by the insurance. Married patients had better 5-year CSS than unmarried, 30.6% vs 25.7%, P married and unmarried patients, hazard ratio: 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.17), P = 0.027. The survival difference was significant in the insured but not in the uninsured patients. Widowed patients had the worst prognosis compared with other groups even though they had more stage I disease and more well / moderate differentiated tumors. These results indicated that unmarried gastric adenocarcinoma patients were at greater risk of cancer specific mortality. We recommend every patient should have access to best available gastric cancer therapy.

  15. Critical state transformation in hard superconductors resulting from thermomagnetic avalanches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanenko, V.V.; Kuchuk, E.I.; Rusakov, V.F.; Abaloszewa, I.; Nabialek, A.; Perez-Rodriguez, F.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of magnetic flux dynamics in finite superconductors, obtained using integral and local measurements methods, are presented. Local methods were aimed at clarifying the role of demagnetizing factor in dynamic formation of a complex magnetic structure of the critical state of hard superconductors. To understand the reasons for cardinal restructuring of the induction, we further analyzed the literature data of flux dynamics visualization during avalanches, obtained by magneto-optical methods. New features in the behavior of the magnetic flux during and after the avalanche were discovered. Two stages of the formation of the induction structures in the avalanche area were established, i.e. of homogeneous and heterogeneous filling with the magnetic flux. The mechanism of the inversion of the induction profile was considered. Oscillations in the speed of the front of the magnetic flux were revealed. Transformation of the critical state near the edge of the sample was analyzed. The role of thermal effects and of de-magnetizing factor in the dissipative flux dynamics was shown. Generalized information allowed, in the framework of the Bean concept, to present a model the transformation of the picture of the induction of the critical state and of the superconducting currents of a finite superconductor as a result of flux avalanches for two regimes - of screening and trapping of the magnetic flux.

  16. PNNL Results from 2010 CALIBAN Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    This document reports the results of the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) and fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on September 20-23, 2010. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique (CEA) Valduc Center near Dijon, France on September 20-23, 2010. The intercomparison exercise was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as the lead Laboratory. PNNL was one of six invited DOE Laboratory participants. The other participating Laboratories were: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 National Security Complex at Oak Ridge, and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The goals of PNNL's participation in the intercomparison exercise were to test and validate the procedures and algorithm currently used for the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeters (PNADs) on the metallic reactor, CALIBAN, to test exposures to PNADs from the side and from behind a phantom, and to test PNADs that were taken from a historical batch of Hanford PNADs that had varying degrees of degradation of the bare indium foil. Similar testing of the PNADs was done on the Valduc SILENE test reactor in 2009 (Hill and Conrady, 2010). The CALIBAN results are reported here.

  17. A reflective commentary of teaching critical thinking of privacy and surveillance in UK Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yuwei

    2017-01-01

    The importance of data literacy and the need of raising and improving it through formal educational channel or public engagement has repeatedly been flagged up in each of the past Economic and Social Research Council-funded Data-Psst! Seminar I attended in 2014–2016. There is a real demand for action taking. I took advantage of the knowledge I learned from the Data-Psst seminars and devised a module teaching Level 5 undergraduate media students about critical issues in today’s data-centric di...

  18. [Professional drivers and psychoactive substances consumption: results from medical surveillance at the workplace in Piedmont region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, G L; Feola, M; Rubinetto, Maria Paola; Petti, N; Rubinetto, L

    2011-01-01

    The use of psychoactive substances has been shown to be a risk factor for accidents in professional drivers. According to an approved Italian law, in order to detect dependency at the workplace the occupational health physician is called to assess the use of illicit drugs among professional drivers. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the use of psychoactive substances among professional drivers. From July to December 2008, rapid urine screening test was carried out on 198 professional drivers. All positive results from the screening stage were verified by specialized laboratories. We found 4 workers with a positive rapid urine screening test (7.1%), one of which was positive only for benzodiazepines and another positive test was not confirmed by specialized laboratory. By only considering illegal substances detected, 6.1% of the drivers tested positive. In this study, the high number of consumers among professional drivers ranged from 31 to 35 years old. Cannabis (THC) was the most frequently detected substance (seen in 10 over 12 cases,), after that was methadone (2/12 cases) and cocaine (1/12 case). We only had one case where more than one substance was found in the same subject (THC and cocaine). Five (41.7%) were former drug-addicts and public Pathological Addiction Services (Ser.T.) had previously followed them. Our results highlight the problem of drug consumption among professional drivers in Piedmont region. Health education and medical surveillance in workplace drug-testing may improve worker and third parties safety.

  19. Daptomycin experience in critical care patients: results from a registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jack E; Fominaya, Cory; Christensen, Keith J; McConnell, Scott A; Lamp, Kenneth C

    2012-04-01

    Vancomycin is often the drug of choice in critically ill patients with gram-positive infections, although circumstances often prevent its use. In these situations, clinicians are frequently left with limited data regarding alternative agents. To describe patients with reported sepsis receiving daptomycin in a critical care unit. This multicenter, noncomparative, noninterventional study identified patients in critical care units, using the Cubicin Outcomes Registry and Experience (CORE) 2005-2009 registry. A descriptive account of patient characteristics, infectious etiology, outcomes at the end of daptomycin therapy, and 30-day mortality is reported. Nonevaluable patients were excluded from the efficacy analysis but included in the safety analysis. We identified 128 patients, 98 (77%) of whom were evaluable for efficacy. Patient characteristics for the efficacy population were 55 (56%) males, 30 (31%) aged 66 years or older, 38 (39%) had creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min, and 27 (28%) were on dialysis. Common underlying diseases included acute or chronic renal failure 44 (45%), hypertension 40 (41%), and diabetes 27 (28%). Seventy-two (73%) patients were bacteremic. The most common pathogens found were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (32%), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (21%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (20%). Prior to daptomycin, antibiotics were used in 84 (86%) patients, most commonly vancomycin (65/84; 77%). The median (range) initial daptomycin dose was 6 mg/kg (3-10) and duration of 10 days (1-58). Overall success rate was 70% (31% cured; 39% improved). Twelve adverse events possibly related to daptomycin were reported in 9 of 128 (7%) patients in the safety population; 4 of these in 4 (3%) patients were serious. The mortality rate within 30 days of completing daptomycin was 42 of 128 (33%) patients. These data provide preliminary results on the use of daptomycin in critically ill patients with complicated conditions

  20. Analytical results from Tank 38H criticality Sample HTF-093

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    Resumption of processing in the 242-16H Evaporator could cause salt dissolution in the Waste Concentration Receipt Tank (Tank 38H). Therefore, High Level Waste personnel sampled the tank at the salt surface. Results of elemental analysis of the dried sludge solids from this sample (HTF-093) show significant quantities of neutron poisons (i.e., sodium, iron, and manganese) present to mitigate the potential for nuclear criticality. Comparison of this sample with the previous chemical and radiometric analyses of H-Area Evaporator samples show high poison to actinide ratios

  1. Standard Practice for Analysis and Interpretation of Light-Water Reactor Surveillance Results, E706(IA)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the methodology, summarized in Annex A1, to be used in the analysis and interpretation of neutron exposure data obtained from LWR pressure vessel surveillance programs; and, based on the results of that analysis, establishes a formalism to be used to evaluate present and future condition of the pressure vessel and its support structures (1-70). 1.2 This practice relies on, and ties together, the application of several supporting ASTM standard practices, guides, and methods (see Master Matrix E 706) (1, 5, 13, 48, 49). In order to make this practice at least partially self-contained, a moderate amount of discussion is provided in areas relating to ASTM and other documents. Support subject areas that are discussed include reactor physics calculations, dosimeter selection and analysis, and exposure units. Note 1—(Figure 1 is deleted in the latest update. The user is refered to Master Matrix E 706 for the latest figure of the standards interconnectivity). 1.3 This practice is restri...

  2. Ideology, Critique and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Herzogenrath-Amelung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 revelations concerning global surveillance programmes demonstrate in unprecedented clarity the need for Critical Theory of information and communication technologies (ICTs to address the mechanisms and implications of increasingly global, ubiquitous surveillance. This is all the more urgent because of the dominance of the “surveillance ideology” (the promise of security through surveillance that supports the political economy of surveillance. This paper asks which theoretical arguments and concepts can be useful for philosophically grounding a critique of this surveillance ideology. It begins by examining how the surveillance ideology works through language and introduces the concept of the ‘ideological packaging’ of ICTs to show how rhetoric surrounding the implementation of surveillance technologies reinforces the surveillance ideology. It then raises the problem of how ideology-critique can work if it relies on language itself and argues that Martin Heidegger’s philosophy can make a useful contribution to existing critical approaches to language.

  3. FY2005 AND FY2006 CORROSION SURVEILLANCE RESULTS FOR L BASIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vormelker, P.; Cynthia Foreman, C.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the results of the L-Basin Corrosion Surveillance Program for the fiscal years 2005 and 2006. The water quality and basin conditions for the coupon immersion period are compared to the corrosion evaluation results from detailed metallurgical analysis of the coupons. Test coupons were removed from the basin on two occasions, March 29, 2005 and May 23, 2006, examined and photographed. Selected coupons were metallurgically characterized to evaluate the extent of general corrosion and pitting. Crystallographic and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis were performed on a typical specimen, as-removed from the basin, to characterize the surface debris. Marked changes were noted in both the 2005 and 2006 specimens compared to previous years corrosion results. A new pitting incidence has occurred on the faces of the aluminum coupons compared to localized pitting at crevice regions only on specimens withdrawn in 2003 and 2004. The pitting incidence is attributed to sand filter fines that entered the basin on July 27, 2004 from an inadvertent backflush of the new sand filter. Pitting rate results show a trend of slowing down over time which is consistent with aluminum pit kinetics. Average pit growth rates were equal to or lower in all 2006 aluminum coupons than those removed in 2005. A trend line shows that pitting corrosion rates on Al1100, 6061, and 6063 coupons are slowing down since pit depth measurements were initiated in 2003. No impact to stored spent fuel is expected from the debris. The storage configuration of the majority of L-Basin spent fuel, in bundles, should provide a measure of isolation from debris settling in the basin

  4. [Influenza surveillance in nine consecutive seasons, 2003-2012: results from National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty Of Medicine, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay Ciblak, Meral; Kanturvardar Tütenyurd, Melis; Asar, Serkan; Tulunoğlu, Merve; Fındıkçı, Nurcihan; Badur, Selim

    2012-10-01

    Influenza is a public health problem that affects 5-20% of the world population annually causing high morbidity and mortality especially in risk groups. In addition to determining prevention and treatment strategies with vaccines and antivirals, surveillance data plays an important role in combat against influenza. Surveillance provides valuable data on characteristics of influenza activity, on types, sub-types, antigenic properties and antiviral resistance profile of circulating viruses in a given region. The first influenza surveillance was initiated as a pilot study in 2003 by now named National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine. Surveillance was launched at national level by Ministry of Health in 2004 and two National Influenza Laboratories, one in Istanbul and the other in Ankara, have been conducting surveillance in Turkey. Surveillance data obtained for nine consecutive years, 2003-2012, by National Influenza Reference Laboratory in Istanbul Faculty of Medicine have been summarized in this report. During 2003-2012 influenza surveillance seasons, a total of 11.077 nasal swabs collected in viral transport medium were sent to the National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul for analysis. Immun-capture ELISA followed by MDCK cell culture was used for detection of influenza viruses before 2009 and real-time RT-PCR was used thereafter. Antigenic characterizations were done by hemagglutination inhibition assay with the reactives supplied by World Health Organization. Analysis of the results showed that influenza B viruses have entered the circulation in 2005-2006 seasons, and have contributed to the epidemics at increasing rates every year except in the 2009 pandemic season. Influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages were cocirculating for two seasons. For other seasons either lineage was in circulation. Antigenic characterization revealed that circulating B viruses matched the vaccine composition either partially or totally for only

  5. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  6. Health behaviour surveillance of Health Sciences students in Northern Germany: Design and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tobisch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHealth of students have most often been neglected in recent studies, although students face a transition of life during their studies which has strong implications on health.  During that time, universities play a key role as a setting where future professionals develop independence and learn skills possibly affecting their development and health. Nevertheless, less in known about this group in society and consequently, the aim of this research project was to monitor health of Health Sciences students through a long-term health surveillance system.MethodsSince 2014, an almost complete convenience sample of Health Sciences students is surveyed twice a year at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. A paper-pencil questionnaire, which includes questions about socio-demographics, well-being, health-promoting and health-risk behaviours, is administered during courses.ResultsOur first surveys achieved response rates of more than 97%. Up to 83% of enrolled students were reached. Undergraduate Health Sciences students reported health-risk behaviours, e.g. binge-drinking on 1 to 2 days (33.9%, regular cannabis use (4.2%, regular cognitive-enhancement (4.0%. Moreover, unhealthy diet was prevalent but almost all students were physically active.ConclusionsA short paper-pencil questionnaire administered during courses and conducted according to standardized processes provides complete data on students’ health with little effort. Trends can be determined, which assist in making decision whether to take action in prevention and/or to evaluate campaigns. These first results show the need for a more targeted health promotion action for students.

  7. Retinoblastoma incidence patterns in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jeannette R; Tucker, Margaret A; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Devesa, Susan S

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Several studies have found no temporal or demographic differences in the incidence of retinoblastoma except for age at diagnosis, whereas other studies have reported variations in incidence by sex and race/ethnicity. OBJECTIVE To examine updated US retinoblastoma incidence patterns by sex, age at diagnosis, laterality, race/ethnicity, and year of diagnosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) databases were examined for retinoblastoma incidence patterns by demographic and tumor characteristics. We studied 721 children in SEER 18 registries, 659 in SEER 13 registries, and 675 in SEER 9 registries. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incidence rates, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and annual percent changes in rates. RESULTS During 2000-2009 in SEER 18, there was a significant excess of total retinoblastoma among boys compared with girls (IRR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.36), in contrast to earlier reports of a female predominance. Bilateral retinoblastoma among white Hispanic boys was significantly elevated relative to white non-Hispanic boys (IRR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.79) and white Hispanic girls (IRR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.91) because of less rapid decreases in bilateral rates since the 1990s among white Hispanic boys than among the other groups. Retinoblastoma rates among white non-Hispanics decreased significantly since 1992 among those younger than 1 year and since 1998 among those with bilateral disease. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although changes in the availability of prenatal screening practices for retinoblastoma may have contributed to these incidence patterns, further research is necessary to determine their actual effect on the changing incidence of retinoblastoma in the US population. In addition, consistent with other cancers, an excess of retinoblastoma diagnosed in boys suggests a potential effect of sex on cancer origin.

  8. Incidence, treatment and survival of patients with craniopharyngioma in the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Brad E.; Bruce, Samuel S.; Goldstein, Hannah; Malone, Hani R.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a rare primary central nervous system neoplasm. Our objective was to determine factors associated with incidence, treatment, and survival of craniopharyngiomas in the United States. We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program (SEER) database to identify patients who received a diagnosis of craniopharyngioma during 2004–2008. We analyzed clinical and demographic information, including age, race, sex, tumor histology, and treatment. Age-adjusted incidence rates and age, sex, and race-adjusted expected survival rates were calculated. We used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between covariates and overall survival. We identified 644 patients with a diagnosis of craniopharyngioma. Black race was associated with an age-adjusted relative risk for craniopharyngioma of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98–1.59), compared with white race. One- and 3-year survival rates of 91.5% (95% CI, 88.9%–93.5%), and 86.2% (95% CI, 82.7%–89.0%) were observed for the cohort; relative survival rates were 92.1% (95% CI, 89.5%–94.0%) and 87.6% (95% CI, 84.1%–90.4%) for 1- and 3-years, respectively. In the multivariable model, factors associated with prolonged survival included younger age, smaller tumor size, subtotal resection, and radiation therapy. Black race, on the other hand, was associated with worse overall survival in the final model. We demonstrated that >85% of patients survived 3 years after diagnosis and that subtotal resection and radiation therapy were associated with prolonged survival. We also noted a higher incidence rate and worse 1- and 3-year survival rates in the black population. Future investigations should examine these racial disparities and focus on evaluating the efficacy of emerging treatment paradigms. PMID:22735773

  9. Spectral measurements in critical assemblies: MCNP specifications and calculated results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie C. Frankle; Judith F. Briesmeister

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a suite of 86 criticality benchmarks for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was developed, and the results of testing the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data (through Release 2) were published. In addition to the standard k{sub eff} measurements, other experimental measurements were performed on a number of these benchmark assemblies. In particular, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) specifications contain experimental data for neutron leakage and central-flux measurements, central-fission ratio measurements, and activation ratio measurements. Additionally, there exists another set of fission reaction-rate measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) utilizing a {sup 252}Cf source. This report will describe the leakage and central-flux measurements and show a comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations performed using the ENDF/B-V and B-VI (Release 2) data libraries. Central-fission and activation reaction-rate measurements will be described, and the comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations using available data libraries for each reaction of interest will be presented. Finally, the NIST fission reaction-rate measurements will be described. A comparison of MCNP results published previously with the current MCNP simulations will be presented for the NIST measurements, and a comparison of the current MCNP simulations to the experimental measurements will be presented.

  10. Spectral measurements in critical assemblies: MCNP specifications and calculated results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankle, Stephanie C.; Briesmeister, Judith F.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a suite of 86 criticality benchmarks for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was developed, and the results of testing the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data (through Release 2) were published. In addition to the standard k eff measurements, other experimental measurements were performed on a number of these benchmark assemblies. In particular, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) specifications contain experimental data for neutron leakage and central-flux measurements, central-fission ratio measurements, and activation ratio measurements. Additionally, there exists another set of fission reaction-rate measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) utilizing a 252 Cf source. This report will describe the leakage and central-flux measurements and show a comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations performed using the ENDF/B-V and B-VI (Release 2) data libraries. Central-fission and activation reaction-rate measurements will be described, and the comparison of experimental data to MCNP simulations using available data libraries for each reaction of interest will be presented. Finally, the NIST fission reaction-rate measurements will be described. A comparison of MCNP results published previously with the current MCNP simulations will be presented for the NIST measurements, and a comparison of the current MCNP simulations to the experimental measurements will be presented

  11. Results from the INMM International Workshop on Containment and Surveillance: Concepts for the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Chris A.; Tolk, Keith M.; Keel, Frances; LaMontagne, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) held an International Workshop on 'Containment and Surveillance: Concepts for the 21st Century' on June 6-11, 2010 at the Oak National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The National Nuclear Security Administration Offices of Non-proliferation Research and Development and Office of Nuclear Safeguards sponsored the event. The workshop focused on determining concepts and needs for 21st century containment and surveillance (C/S) systems that support International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards and future arms control agreements. Panel discussions from subject matter experts and international practitioners provided the daily topical theme of the following areas of C/S: authentication, tagging, sealing, containment verification, and surveillance systems. Each panel discussion was followed with a question and answer session with the audience and an afternoon breakout session. The facilitated breakout sessions were used to compile and determine future needs. Individuals attending the workshop included C/S experts and practitioners; IAEA and arms control inspectors, technology providers, vendors, students and individuals with an interest in or desire to learn about future C/S system needs. The primary goal for the workshop was to produce a document that details the future research and development needs for C/S systems that support nuclear safeguards and arms control missions. This paper will present a compilation of the information obtained from breakout sessions at the workshop. (author)

  12. Incidence and Prognosis of Spinal Hemangioblastoma: A Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwick, Harrison J; Giguère, Jean-François; Shamji, Mohammed F

    2016-01-01

    Intradural spinal hemangioblastoma are infrequent, vascular, pathologically benign tumors occurring either sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau disease along the neural axis. Described in fewer than 1,000 cases, literature is variable with respect to epidemiological factors associated with spinal hemangioblastoma and their treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of intradural spinal hemangioblastoma with the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database while also presenting an illustrative case. The SEER database was queried for cases of spinal hemangioblastoma between 2000 and 2010 with the use of SEER*Stat software. Incidence was evaluated as a function of age, sex and race. Survival was evaluated with the Cox proportionate hazards ratio using IBM SPSS software evaluating age, sex, location, treatment modality, pathology and number of primaries (p = 0.05). Descriptive statistics of the same factors were also calculated. The case of a 43-year-old patient with a surgical upper cervical intramedullary hemangioblastoma is also presented. In the data set between 2000 and 2010, there were 133 cases with an age-adjusted incidence of 0.014 (0.012-0.017) per 100,000 to the standard USA population. Hemangioblastoma was the tenth most common intradural spinal tumor type representing 2.1% (133 of 6,156) of all spinal tumors. There was no difference in incidence between men and women with an female:male rate ratio of 1.05 (0.73-1.50) with p = 0.86. The average age of patients was 48.0 (45.2-50.9) years, and a lower incidence was noted in patients incidence amongst the different races. Treatment included surgical resection in 106 (79.7%) cases, radiation with surgery in 7 (5.3%) cases, and radiation alone was used in only 1 (0.8%) case, and no treatment was performed in 17 (12.8%) cases. Mortality was noted in 12 (9%) cases, and median survival of 27.5 months (range 1-66 months) over the 10-year period. Mortality

  13. Neurological manifestations of influenza infection in children and adults: results of a National British Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Anu; Michael, Benedict D; Ledger, Elizabeth; Hart, Ian J; Absoud, Michael; Chow, Gabriel; Lilleker, James; Lunn, Michael; McKee, David; Peake, Deirdre; Pysden, Karen; Roberts, Mark; Carrol, Enitan D; Lim, Ming; Avula, Shivaram; Solomon, Tom; Kneen, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    The emergence of influenza A(H1N1) 2009 was met with increased reports of associated neurological manifestations. We aimed to describe neurological manifestations of influenza in adults and children in the United Kingdom that presented at this time. A 2-year surveillance study was undertaken through the British adult and pediatric neurological surveillance units from February 2011. Patients were included if they met clinical case definitions within 1 month of proven influenza infection. Twenty-five cases were identified: 21 (84%) in children and 4 (16%) in adults. Six (29%) children had preexisting neurological disorders. Polymerase chain reaction of respiratory secretions identified influenza A in 21 (81%; 20 of which [95%] were H1N1) and influenza B in 4 (15%). Twelve children had encephalopathy (1 with movement disorder), 8 had encephalitis, and 1 had meningoencephalitis. Two adults had encephalopathy with movement disorder, 1 had encephalitis, and 1 had Guillain-Barré syndrome. Seven individuals (6 children) had specific acute encephalopathy syndromes (4 acute necrotizing encephalopathy, 1 acute infantile encephalopathy predominantly affecting the frontal lobes, 1 hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy, 1 acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy). Twenty (80%) required intensive care, 17 (68%) had poor outcome, and 4 (16%) died. This surveillance study described a cohort of adults and children with neurological manifestations of influenza. The majority were due to H1N1. More children than adults were identified; many children had specific encephalopathy syndromes with poor outcomes. None had been vaccinated, although 8 (32%) had indications for this. A modified classification system is proposed based on our data and the increasing spectrum of recognized acute encephalopathy syndromes.

  14. The Critical Role of Early Dengue Surveillance and Limitations of Clinical Reporting - Implications for Non-Endemic Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hung Kao

    Full Text Available The increasing dengue burden and epidemic severity worldwide have highlighted the need to improve surveillance. In non-endemic areas such as Taiwan, where outbreaks start mostly with imported cases from Southeast Asia, a closer examination of surveillance dynamics to detect cases early is necessary. To evaluate problems with dengue surveillance and investigate the involvement of different factors at various epidemic stages, we investigated 632 laboratory-confirmed indigenous dengue cases in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan during 2009-2010. The estimated sensitivity of clinical surveillance was 82.4% (521/632. Initially, the modified serological surveillance (targeting only the contacts of laboratory-confirmed dengue cases identified clinically unrecognized afebrile cases in younger patients who visited private clinics and accounted for 30.4% (35/115 of the early-stage cases. Multivariate regression indicated that hospital/medical center visits [Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR: 11.6, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.3-21.4], middle epidemic stage [aOR: 2.4 (1.2-4.7], fever [aOR: 2.3 (2.3-12.9], and musculo-articular pain [aOR: 1.9 (1.05-3.3] were significantly associated with clinical reporting. However, cases with pruritus/rash [aOR: 0.47 (0.26-0.83] and diarrhea [aOR: 0.47 (0.26-0.85] were underreported. In conclusion, multiple factors contributed to dengue surveillance problems. To prevent a large-scale epidemic and minimize severe dengue cases, there is a need for integrated surveillance incorporating entomological, clinical, serological, and virological surveillance systems to detect early cases, followed by immediate prevention and control measures and continuous evaluation to ensure effectiveness. This effort will be particularly important for an arbovirus, such as Zika virus, with a high asymptomatic infection ratio. For dengue- non-endemic countries, we recommend serological surveillance be implemented in areas with high Aedes mosquito indices or many

  15. Criticality Benchmark Results Using Various MCNP Data Libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankle, Stephanie C.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of 86 criticality benchmarks has been recently implemented in MCNPtrademark as part of the nuclear data validation effort. These benchmarks have been run using two sets of MCNP continuous-energy neutron data: ENDF/B-VI based data through Release 2 (ENDF60) and the ENDF/B-V based data. New evaluations were completed for ENDF/B-VI for a number of the important nuclides such as the isotopes of H, Be, C, N, O, Fe, Ni, 235,238 U, 237 Np, and 239,240 Pu. When examining the results of these calculations for the five manor categories of 233 U, intermediate-enriched 235 U (IEU), highly enriched 235 U (HEU), 239 Pu, and mixed metal assembles, we find the following: (1) The new evaluations for 9 Be, 12 C, and 14 N show no net effect on k eff ; (2) There is a consistent decrease in k eff for all of the solution assemblies for ENDF/B-VI due to 1 H and 16 O, moving k eff further from the benchmark value for uranium solutions and closer to the benchmark value for plutonium solutions; (3) k eff decreased for the ENDF/B-VI Fe isotopic data, moving the calculated k eff further from the benchmark value; (4) k eff decreased for the ENDF/B-VI Ni isotopic data, moving the calculated k eff closer to the benchmark value; (5) The W data remained unchanged and tended to calculate slightly higher than the benchmark values; (6) For metal uranium systems, the ENDF/B-VI data for 235 U tends to decrease k eff while the 238 U data tends to increase k eff . The net result depends on the energy spectrum and material specifications for the particular assembly; (7) For more intermediate-energy systems, the changes in the 235,238 U evaluations tend to increase k eff . For the mixed graphite and normal uranium-reflected assembly, a large increase in k eff due to changes in the 238 U evaluation moved the calculated k eff much closer to the benchmark value. (8) There is little change in k eff for the uranium solutions due to the new 235,238 U evaluations; and (9) There is little change in k eff

  16. NRC data base for power reactor surveillance programs and for irradiation experiments results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation damage of pressure vessel materials in nuclear reactors depends on many different factors, primarily fluence, fluence spectrum, fluence rate, irradiation temperature, and chemistry. These factors and, possibly, others such as heat treatment and type of flux used in weldments must be considered to reliably predict the pressure vessel embrittlement and to assure the safe operation of the reactor. Based on embrittlement predictions, decisions must be made concerning operating parameters, low-leakage fuel management, possible life extension, and the need for annealing of the pressure vessel. Large numbers of data obtained from surveillance capsules and test reactor experiments are needed, comprising many different materials and different irradiation conditions, to develop generally applicable damage prediction models that can be used for industry standards and regulatory guides. The US Nuclear Regulatory Agency has, therefore, sponsored a project to construct an Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) for a comprehensive collection of data concerning changes in material properties of pressure vessel steels due to neutron irradiation. A first version containing data from surveillance capsules of commercial power reactors, the Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB) Version 1, has been completed and is available to authorized users from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document provides a discussion of the features of the current database. 1 fig

  17. Safety and Antihypertensive Effect of Selara® (Eplerenone: Results from a Postmarketing Surveillance in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Takahashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prospective postmarketing surveillance of Selara (eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, was performed to confirm its safety and efficacy for hypertension treatment in Japan. The change in blood pressure after initiation of eplerenone treatment was also examined. Patients with essential hypertension who were eplerenone-naïve were recruited regardless of the use of other antihypertensive drugs. For examination of changes in blood pressure, patients were excluded if eplerenone was contraindicated or used off-label. Patients received 50–100 mg of eplerenone once daily and were observed for 12 weeks. No treatments including antihypertensive drugs were restricted during the surveillance period. Across Japan, 3,166 patients were included for safety analysis. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 2.4%. The major adverse drug reactions observed were hyperkalemia (0.6%, dizziness, renal impairment, and increased serum potassium (0.2% each. The mean systolic blood pressure decreased from 152.1±19.0 mmHg to 134.8±15.2 mmHg at week 12, and the mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 85.8±13.7 mmHg to 77.7±11.4 mmHg. There were no significant new findings regarding the type or incidence of adverse reactions, and eplerenone had a clinically significant antihypertensive effect, leading to favorable blood pressure control.

  18. Radiation-induced hyperproliferation of intestinal crypts results in elevated genome instability with inactive p53-related genomic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Ma, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhenhua; Sun, Chao; Wang, Yupei; He, Yang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-12-15

    Radiation-induced hyperproliferation of intestinal crypts is well documented, but its potential tumorigenic effects remain elusive. Here we aim to determine the genomic surveillance process during crypt hyperproliferation, and its consequential outcome after ionizing radiation. Crypt regeneration in the intestine was induced by a single dose of 12Gy abdominal irradiation. γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and DNA-PKcs were used as DNA repair surrogates to investigate the inherent ability of intestinal crypt cells to recognize and repair double-strand breaks. Ki67 staining and the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay were used to study patterns of cell proliferation in regenerating crypts. Staining for ATM, p53, Chk1 and Chk2 was performed to study checkpoint activation and release. Apoptosis was evaluated through H&E staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP) nick-end labeling. The ATM-p53 pathway was immediately activated after irradiation. A second wave of DSBs in crypt cells was observed in regenerating crypts, accompanied with significantly increased chromosomal bridges. The p53-related genomic surveillance pathway was not active during the regeneration phase despite DSBs and chromosomal bridges in the cells of regenerating crypts. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DSBs repair was involved in the DSBs repair process, as indicated by p-DNA-PKcs staining. Intestinal crypt cells retained hyperproliferation with inactive p53-related genomic surveillance system. NHEJ was involved in the resultant genomic instability during hyperproliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Critical infrastructure protection research results of the first critical infrastructure protection research project in Hungary

    CERN Document Server

    Padányi, József

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research in the recognition of vulnerabilities of national systems and assets which gained special attention for the Critical Infrastructures in the last two decades. The book concentrates on R&D activities in the relation of Critical Infrastructures focusing on enhancing the performance of services as well as the level of security. The objectives of the book are based on a project entitled "Critical Infrastructure Protection Researches" (TÁMOP-4.2.1.B-11/2/KMR-2011-0001) which concentrated on innovative UAV solutions, robotics, cybersecurity, surface engineering, and mechatrinics and technologies providing safe operations of essential assets. This report is summarizing the methodologies and efforts taken to fulfill the goals defined. The project has been performed by the consortium of the Óbuda University and the National University of Public Service.

  20. Results of the critical experiments concerning OTTO loading at the critical HTR-test facility KAHTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drueke, V.; Litzow, W.; Paul, N.

    1982-12-01

    Critical experiments concerning OTTO loading are described. In the KAHTER facility an OTTO loading has been simulated, therefore the original KAHTER assembly was reconstructed. The determination of critical masses and reactivity worths of control rods and of additional absorber rods in the top reflector and in the upper cavity was of main interest for comparison with reactor following calculations. Besides this, reaction rates in different energy regions were measured in the upper part of the core, in the cavity and top reflector. (orig.) [de

  1. UK Secondary Schools under Surveillance: What Are the Implications for Race? A Critical Race and Butlerian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Since September 11th 2001, and the London bombings of July 2005, the "war on terror" has led to the subjection of populations to new regimes of control and reinforced state sovereignty. This involves, in countries such as the UK and the US, the limiting of personal freedoms, increased regulation of immigration and constant surveillance,…

  2. Chlorophyll Synthase under Epigenetic Surveillance Is Critical for Vitamin E Synthesis, and Altered Expression Affects Tocopherol Levels in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Guodong; Li, Delin; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Chen, Ming; Zhou, Yongming; Yu, Bin; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-08-01

    Chlorophyll synthase catalyzes the final step in chlorophyll biosynthesis: the esterification of chlorophyllide with either geranylgeranyl diphosphate or phytyl diphosphate (PDP). Recent studies have pointed to the involvement of chlorophyll-linked reduction of geranylgeranyl by geranylgeranyl reductase as a major pathway for the synthesis of the PDP precursor of tocopherols. This indirect pathway of PDP synthesis suggests a key role of chlorophyll synthase in tocopherol production to generate the geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll substrate for geranylgeranyl reductase. In this study, contributions of chlorophyll synthase to tocopherol formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were explored by disrupting and altering expression of the corresponding gene CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLSYN; At3g51820). Leaves from the homozygous chlysyn1-1 null mutant were nearly devoid of tocopherols, whereas seeds contained only approximately 25% of wild-type tocopherol levels. Leaves of RNA interference lines with partial suppression of CHLSYN displayed marked reductions in chlorophyll but up to a 2-fold increase in tocopherol concentrations. Cauliflower mosaic virus35S-mediated overexpression of CHLSYN unexpectedly caused a cosuppression phenotype at high frequencies accompanied by strongly reduced chlorophyll content and increased tocopherol levels. This phenotype and the associated detection of CHLSYN-derived small interfering RNAs were reversed with CHLSYN overexpression in rna-directed rna polymerase6 (rdr6), which is defective in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase6, a key enzyme in sense transgene-induced small interfering RNA production. CHLSYN overexpression in rdr6 had little effect on chlorophyll content but resulted in up to a 30% reduction in tocopherol levels in leaves. These findings show that altered CHLSYN expression impacts tocopherol levels and also, show a strong epigenetic surveillance of CHLSYN to control chlorophyll and tocopherol synthesis. © 2015 American Society of

  3. Context Is Everything: Harmonization of Critical Food Microbiology Descriptors and Metadata for Improved Food Safety and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Griffiths

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of food networks increases opportunities for the spread of foodborne pathogens beyond borders and jurisdictions. High resolution whole-genome sequencing (WGS subtyping of pathogens promises to vastly improve our ability to track and control foodborne disease, but to do so it must be combined with epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and other health care data (called “contextual data” to be meaningfully interpreted for regulatory and health interventions, outbreak investigation, and risk assessment. However, current multi-jurisdictional pathogen surveillance and investigation efforts are complicated by time-consuming data re-entry, curation and integration of contextual information owing to a lack of interoperable standards and inconsistent reporting. A solution to these challenges is the use of ‘ontologies’ - hierarchies of well-defined and standardized vocabularies interconnected by logical relationships. Terms are specified by universal IDs enabling integration into highly regulated areas and multi-sector sharing (e.g., food and water microbiology with the veterinary sector. Institution-specific terms can be mapped to a given standard at different levels of granularity, maximizing comparability of contextual information according to jurisdictional policies. Fit-for-purpose ontologies provide contextual information with the auditability required for food safety laboratory accreditation. Our research efforts include the development of a Genomic Epidemiology Ontology (GenEpiO, and Food Ontology (FoodOn that harmonize important laboratory, clinical and epidemiological data fields, as well as existing food resources. These efforts are supported by a global consortium of researchers and stakeholders worldwide. Since foodborne diseases do not respect international borders, uptake of such vocabularies will be crucial for multi-jurisdictional interpretation of WGS results and data sharing.

  4. The results of the surveillance specimen program performed in the RPVs NPP V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L; Beno, P [Vyskumny Ustav Jadrovych Elektrarni, Trnava (Slovakia); Cepeek, S [Atomova Elektraren Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia); Tomasich, M [Slovak Nuclear Society, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1994-12-31

    After a description of the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the materials (steels, welded joints) used in the pressure vessels of the WWER-440 V-213 type, the present status of the Bohunice NPP Unit 3 and 4 pressure vessel embrittlement assessment programme is presented: neutron flux monitoring and calculations, detector accuracy, irradiation temperature monitoring, reactor core fuel loading calculation, materials, number and types of surveillance specimens, specimen testing. Results are given for 5 years of irradiation: mechanical properties, transition temperatures, lifetime evaluation. 4 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Comparison of rate theory based modeling calculations with the surveillance test results of Korean light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyeong Geun; Lee, Yong Bok; Kim, Min Chul; Kwon, Junh Yun

    2012-01-01

    Neutron irradiation to reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels causes a decrease in fracture toughness and an increase in yield strength while in service. It is generally accepted that the growth of point defect cluster (PDC) and copper rich precipitate (CRP) affects radiation hardening of RPV steels. A number of models have been proposed to account for the embrittlement of RPV steels. The rate theory based modeling mathematically described the evolution of radiation induced microstructures of ferritic steels under neutron irradiation. In this work, we compared the rate theory based modeling calculation with the surveillance test results of Korean Light Water Reactors (LWRs)

  6. The EBR-II materials-surveillance program. 4: Results of SURV-4 and SURV-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruther, W.E.; Hayner, G.O.; Carlson, B.G.; Ebersole, E.R.; Allen, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    In March of 1965, a set of surveillance (SURV) samples was placed in the EBR-II reactor to determine the effect of irradiation, thermal aging, and sodium corrosion on reactor materials. Eight subassemblies were placed into row 12 positions of EBR-II to determine the effect of irradiation at 370 C. Two subassemblies were placed into the primary sodium basket to determine the effect of thermal aging at 370 C. For both the irradiated and thermally aged samples, one half of all samples were exposed to primary system sodium while one half were sealed in capsules with a helium atmosphere. Fifteen different structural materials were tested in the SURV program. In addition to the fifteen types of metal samples, graphite blocks were irradiated in the SURV subassemblies to determine the effect of irradiation on the graphite neutron shield. In this report, the properties of these materials irradiated at 370 C to a total fluence of 2.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (over 2,994 days) are compared with those of similar specimens thermally aged at 370 C for 2,994 days in the storage basket of the reactor. The properties analyzed were weight, density, microstructure, hardness, tensile and yield strength, impact strength, and creep

  7. Situation of the surveillance of radioactivity in French Polynesia in 2006. results of the I.R.S.N. 's surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 543 atmospheric nuclear tests released radionuclides that have deposited themselves throughout the world. The Environmental Study and Surveillance Laboratory, 'Laboratoire d etude et de suivi de l environnement' (L.E.S.E.) of the Institute of nuclear safety and radiation protection (I.R.S.N.), takes part, for more than 35 years, in the evaluation of the dosimetric consequences of these atmospheric depositions, especially those originating with the 41 tests realized in the territory of French polynesia from 1966 to 1974. This laboratory is established in Tahiti. The ingestion component of this dosimetric evaluation requires to collect the most representative samples of the feed ration of the Polynesians living in the 5 archipelagoes of this territory. These samples belong to the marine environment of full sea, the lagoon environment and the terrestrial environment. Certain samples of the physical environment are also taken (air, water). 388 samples are measured by Hp-Ge low background gamma spectrometry in order to be able to characterize lowest possible radioactivity levels. The levels of activity of Pu isotopes and 90 Sr are also given for 50 selected samples and tritium activities for 14 water samples. Moreover, 101 soil samples were measured by gamma spectrometry to update the external dose due to 137 Cs deposition. During the year 2006 results fall under the continuity of a regular reduction in the levels of radioactivity since the stop, in 1974 of the French atmospheric tests. This residual radioactivity relates to primarily the 137 Cs. In term of additional dose, this artificial and residual radioactivity, estimated from the base of these measurements, is lower than 6 μSv by year (this maximum is obtained for the adults of the Gambiers archipelago). This value corresponds to less than 1% of exposure due to natural radioactivity in Polynesia (approximately 1 milli Sv). this value is of the same order with the estimates made for the previous years. (N.C.)

  8. Markov Networks of Collateral Resistance: National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Surveillance Results from Escherichia coli Isolates, 2004-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Love

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR is an important component of public health. Antimicrobial drug use generates selective pressure that may lead to resistance against to the administered drug, and may also select for collateral resistances to other drugs. Analysis of AMR surveillance data has focused on resistance to individual drugs but joint distributions of resistance in bacterial populations are infrequently analyzed and reported. New methods are needed to characterize and communicate joint resistance distributions. Markov networks are a class of graphical models that define connections, or edges, between pairs of variables with non-zero partial correlations and are used here to describe AMR resistance relationships. The graphical least absolute shrinkage and selection operator is used to estimate sparse Markov networks from AMR surveillance data. The method is demonstrated using a subset of Escherichia coli isolates collected by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System between 2004 and 2012 which included AMR results for 16 drugs from 14418 isolates. Of the 119 possible unique edges, 33 unique edges were identified at least once during the study period and graphical density ranged from 16.2% to 24.8%. Two frequent dense subgraphs were noted, one containing the five β-lactam drugs and the other containing both sulfonamides, three aminoglycosides, and tetracycline. Density did not appear to change over time (p = 0.71. Unweighted modularity did not appear to change over time (p = 0.18, but a significant decreasing trend was noted in the modularity of the weighted networks (p < 0.005 indicating relationships between drugs of different classes tended to increase in strength and frequency over time compared to relationships between drugs of the same class. The current method provides a novel method to study the joint resistance distribution, but additional work is required to unite the underlying biological and genetic

  9. Two years of surveillance of influenza a virus infection in a swine herd. Results of virological, serological and pathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Javier; Dibarbora, Marina; Lozada, Inés; Quiroga, Alejandra; Olivera, Valeria; Dángelo, Marta; Pérez, Estefanía; Barrales, Hernán; Perfumo, Carlos; Pereda, Ariel; Pérez, Daniel R

    2017-02-01

    Swine farms provide a dynamic environment for the evolution of influenza A viruses (IAVs). The present report shows the results of a surveillance effort of IAV infection in one commercial swine farm in Argentina. Two cross-sectional serological and virological studies (n=480) were carried out in 2011 and 2012. Virus shedding was detected in nasal samples from pigs from ages 7, 21 and 42-days old. More than 90% of sows and gilts but less than 40% of 21-days old piglets had antibodies against IAV. In addition, IAV was detected in 8/17 nasal swabs and 10/15 lung samples taken from necropsied pigs. A subset of these samples was further processed for virus isolation resulting in 6 viruses of the H1N2 subtype (δ2 cluster). Pathological studies revealed an association between suppurative bronchopneumonia and necrotizing bronchiolitis with IAV positive samples. Statistical analyses showed that the degree of lesions in bronchi, bronchiole, and alveoli was higher in lungs positive to IAV. The results of this study depict the relevance of continuing long-term active surveillance of IAV in swine populations to establish IAV evolution relevant to swine and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The EBR-II materials-surveillance program. 5: Results of SURV-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruther, W.E.; Staffon, J.D.; Carlson, B.G.; Allen, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    In March of 1965, a set of surveillance (SURV) samples was placed in the EBR-II reactor to determine the effect of irradiation, thermal aging, and sodium corrosion on reactor materials. Eight subassemblies were placed into row 12 positions of EBR-II to determine the effect of irradiation at 370 C. Two subassemblies were placed into the primary sodium basket to determine the effect of thermal aging at 370 C. One half of all samples were exposed to primary system sodium while one half were sealed in capsules with a helium atmosphere. Fifteen different structural materials were tested in the SURV program. In this work, the properties of these materials irradiated at 370 C to a total fluence of 3.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2 were determined. These materials are the fifth set of irradiated subassemblies to be examined as part of the SURV program (SURV-5). The properties analyzed were weight, density, microstructure, hardness, tensile and yield strength, and fracture resistance. Of all the alloys examined in SURV-5, only Berylco-25 showed any significant weight loss. Stainless steel (both 304 and 347) had the largest density decrease, although the density decrease from irradiation for all alloys was less than 0.4 percent. The microstructure of both Berylco-25 and the aluminum-bronze alloy was altered significantly. Iron- and nickel-base alloys showed little change in microstructure. Austenitic steels (304 and 347) harden with irradiation. The hardness of Inconel X750 did not change significantly with irradiation. The ultimate tensile strength of Inconel X750, 304 stainless steel, 420 stainless steel and welded 304 changed little due to a fluence increase from 2.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (the maximum fluence of the SURV-4 samples) to 3.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2

  11. [Risk adjusted assessment of quality of perinatal centers - results of perinatal/neonatal quality surveillance in Saxonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, R; Gmyrek, D; Vogtmann, Ch

    2005-12-01

    The weak point of the country-wide perinatal/neonatal quality surveillance as a tool for evaluation of achievements of a distinct clinic, is the ignorance of interhospital differences in the case-mix of patients. Therefore, that approach can not result in a reliable bench marking. To adjust the results of quality assessment of different hospitals according to their risk profile of patients by multivariate analysis. The perinatal/neonatal data base of 12.783 newborns of the saxonian quality surveillance from 1998 to 2000 was analyzed. 4 relevant quality indicators of newborn outcome -- a) severe intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants 2500 g and d) hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy -- were targeted to find out specific risk predictors by considering 26 risk factors. A logistic regression model was used to develop the risk predictors. Risk predictors for the 4 quality indicators could be described by 3 - 9 out of 26 analyzed risk factors. The AUC (ROC)-values for these quality indicators were 82, 89, 89 and 89 %, what signifies their reliability. Using the new specific predictors for calculation the risk adjusted incidence rates of quality indicator yielded in some remarkable changes. The apparent differences in the outcome criteria of analyzed hospitals were found to be much less pronounced. The application of the proposed method for risk adjustment of quality indicators makes it possible to perform a more objective comparison of neonatal outcome criteria between different hospitals or regions.

  12. Diagnosed HIV Infection in Transgender Adults and Adolescents: Results from the National HIV Surveillance System, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Hollie; Babu, Aruna Surendera; Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Opoku, Jenevieve; Crepaz, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Publications on diagnosed HIV infection among transgender people have been limited to state- or local-level data. We analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System and present results from the first national-level analysis of transgender people with diagnosed HIV infection. From 2009 to 2014, HIV surveillance jurisdictions from 45 states plus the District of Columbia identified and reported at least one case of newly diagnosed HIV infection for transgender people; jurisdictions from 5 states reported no cases for transgender people. Of 2351 transgender people with newly diagnosed HIV infection during 2009-2014, 84.0% were transgender women (male-to-female), 15.4% were transgender men (female-to-male), and 0.7% were additional gender identity (e.g., gender queer, bi-gender). Over half of both transgender women (50.8%; 1002/1974) and men (58.4%; 211/361) with newly diagnosed HIV infection were non-Hispanic black/African American. Improvements in data collection methods and quality are needed to gain a better understanding of HIV burden among transgender people.

  13. The Spanish system for the radiological surveillance and control of scrap and the products resulting from its processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, E.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the fact that the use of radiation technologies has always been subjected to strict controls in most countries, the presence of radioactive materials in scrap has been detected relatively often in recent years. This has led to the implementation of a series of international initiatives aimed at detecting and preventing illicit international trafficking with radioactive material, intentional or otherwise. The Spanish iron and steel industry is one of the most important industrial sectors in the country, and depends to a large extent on the importing of a significant proportion of the scrap its uses as raw material. Experience has shown that that countries that import large quantities of scrap should complement the aforementioned international initiatives with others of national scope, in order to reduce the risks arising from the presence of radioactive material in scrap. In this context, the Spanish radiological protection authorities, along with the business associations involved in the metal recovery and smelting industry, have established a national system for the radiological surveillance and control of scrap and of the products resulting from its processing. The system consists of a set of legal bases, the installation of specific radiological surveillance equipment and the enhancement of other general purpose equipment that existed prior to these initiatives, the development of radiological training and information plans for the professionals involved in the metal recovery and smelting sectors and improvement to the national radiological emergency response system. (author)

  14. Applicable regulations and development of surveillance experiments of criticality approach in the TRIGA III Mark reactor; Normativa aplicable y desarrollo de experimentos de vigilancia de aproximacion a criticidad en el reactor Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, J L; Aguilar H, F; Rivero G, T; Sainz M, E [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Automatizacion, A.P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In the procedure elaborated to repair the vessel of TRIGA III Mark reactor is required to move toward two tanks of temporal storage the fuel elements which are in operation and the spent fuel elements which are in decay inside the reactor pool. The National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) has requested as protection measure that it is carried out a surveillance of the criticality approach of the temporal storages. This work determines the main regulation aspects that entails an experiment of criticality approach, moreover, informing about the results obtained in the developing of this experiments. The regulation aspects are not exclusives for this work in the TRIGA Mark III reactor but they also apply toward any assembling of fissile material. (Author)

  15. [Physicians in traumatology. Critically endangered? Results of an inquiry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, G; Rixen, D; Tempka, A; Schmidmaier, G; Wölfl, C; Ottersbach, C; Schmucker, U

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to describe the current situation and atmosphere among residents and consultants in traumatology, using the results of a questionnaire. Wishes and needs concerning training programs in traumatology were addressed. A questionnaire consisting of 25 items was distributed among members of the German Society of Traumatology (DGU) to document basic data concerning the state of residency and physicians' current workload. The participants were also asked about their personal interests and aims within traumatology. Finally, questions concerning educational programs, compensation, and work-life balance were addressed. The results were analysed descriptively. The final analysis included 549 questionnaires. The mean age of the participants was 36 years (SD +/-7.5). Sixty percent (329) were residents, and 16% (88) served as consultants. The mean workload per week was 61 h (SD +/-10.8 h), and participants were on call seven times (SD +/-5.6) a month. The work-life balance was rated a mean of only 5 ("mediocre"). The majority of participants rejected working longer in order to reduce the duration of their educational program. On the other hand, most of the participants would also reject a reduction in working time accompanied by a reduced salary. Nevertheless, 78% (428) of the participants would, in retrospect, choose the same profession, and 85% (466) would even choose the same specialty. The study reports on the atmosphere among residents and consultants in traumatology. Despite European regulations, the individual workload is exceptionally high. It is a clear task of hospital administrators to increase the attractiveness of hospital jobs in order to ensure qualified personnel in the future.

  16. Environmental Radiation Surveillance Results from over the Last Decade of Operational Experience at the Regional Radiation Monitoring Stations(RRMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae Young [Daegu Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Dong Han [Ulsan Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The objectives of the current program are to monitor environmental radiation/radioactivity level in Korea and to provide the base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity which will be useful in the case of radiological emergency situations. This program plays an important role in the view of protecting the public health against the potential hazards of radiation and maintaining a clean environment. This paper describes an introduction to the Regional Radiation Monitoring Stations (RRMS), and also presents some results of recent years (2001-2014). The environmental radiation surveillance results of years 2001-2014 have been described. It indicates normal levels of radiation in the past years. These kinds of studies are very important in providing references in understanding the environmental radioactivity level in a particular region.

  17. Adult informal caregivers reporting financial burden in Hawaii, Kansas, and Washington: Results from the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Claudia T; Bouldin, Erin D; Anderson, Lynda A; McGuire, Lisa C; Salvail, Florentina R; Simmons, Katrina Wynkoop; Andresen, Elena M

    2011-10-01

    Given the unpaid nature of the work, informal caregiving can create a financial burden for caregivers. Little has been done to identify specific predictors of experiencing financial burden. This study investigated demographic and health factors comparing caregivers who reported having or not having financial burden. Data are derived from adult caregivers (N = 3,317) as part of the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in Hawaii, Kansas, and Washington. The adjusted odds ratios for reporting a financial burden were estimated for demographic and other risk factors. Caregivers who reported a financial burden were younger, had lower incomes, were more likely to be current smokers, have had a stroke, and rate their health as fair or poor compared to caregivers who did not report a financial burden. Caregivers who were younger (ages 18-34), resided with care recipients, spent 20-39 hours per week providing care, and reported having a disability were at a statistically significantly higher odds of reporting a financial burden. Given the current economic difficulties faced by many Americans, further insights into the perceived financial burdens experienced by informal caregivers as well as linkages to policy and programs designed to support caregivers are critical for public health professionals to address the expanding needs in states and communities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Epidemiology of the human immunodeficiency virus in Saudi Arabia; 18-year surveillance results and prevention from an Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mazrou Yagob Y

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background data on HIV epidemiology and preventive measures in Islamic countries is limited. This study describes the results of 18-year of HIV surveillance in Saudi Arabia (SA and the preventive measures implemented from an Islamic perspective. Methods surveillance for HIV has been underway in SA since 1984. Indications for HIV testing include clinical suspicion, screening of contacts of HIV-infected patients, and routine screening of blood and organ donors, prisoners, intravenous drug users, patients with other sexually transmitted infections, and expatriates pre-employment. This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed HIV infections diagnosed in SA from 1984 through 2001. Results a total of 6046 HIV infections were diagnosed, of which 1285 (21.3% cases were Saudi citizens. Over the 18-year surveillance period the number of HIV infections diagnosed annually among Saudi citizens gradually increased and, over the period 1997–2001, it reached to 84 to 142 cases per year. The number of cases per 100,000 population varied widely between regions with a maximum of 74 cases and a minimum of 2 cases. The infection was most common in the age group 20–40 years (74.6% and predominantly affected men (71.6%. The modes of transmission among Saudi citizens and expatriates, respectively, were as follows: heterosexual contact, 487 (37.9% and 1352 (28.4% cases; blood transfusion, 322 (25.0% and 186 (3.9% cases; perinatal transmission, 83 (6.5% and 19 (0.4% cases; homosexual contact, 32 (2.5% and 38 (0.8% cases; intravenous drug use, 17 (1.3% and 33 (0.7% cases; bisexual contact, 10 (0.8% and 14 (0.3% cases; unknown, 334 (26.0% and 3119 (65.5% cases. The number of HIV infections transmitted by blood or blood products transfusion declined to zero by year 2001 and all such infections occurred due to transfusions administered before 1986. At HIV diagnosis, 4502/6046 (74.5% patients had no symptoms, 787 (13.0% patients had non-AIDS defining

  19. Principles and results of environmental surveillance of the Austrian Research Center at Seibersdorf within the last twenty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Etzersdorfer, E.; Sorantin, H.

    1980-01-01

    The Research Center at Seibersdorf uses its 12 MW- reactor for isotope production, fuel testing and activation analyses and also operates a waste management department, including an incineration plant. Since the center is situated near Vienna and is surrounded by an agricultural area, a strict monitoring program has been maintained. Details about number and places of water-, air-, aerosol- and biological sampling stations are given and the surveillance of uranium and plutonium handling laboratories is described. Also, TL-dosimeters in special casings and calibrated GM counters are installed at various locations in and around the center to measure the immersion doses. Evaluation of the obtained results shows rather small fluctuations and allows an immediate recognition of values over the routine levels. By measurement of the emissions it could also be proved that the measured values were far below the limits set by the authorities. (author)

  20. Burden of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Guatemala 2008–2012: Results from a facility-based surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen R.; Lopez, Beatriz; Arvelo, Wences; Henao, Olga; Parsons, Michele B.; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Lindblade, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. This study describes the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter diarrheal infections in two facility-based surveillance sites in Guatemala. Methods Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data were collected on patients presenting with acute diarrhea from select healthcare facilities in the departments of Santa Rosa and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, from January 2008 through August 2012. Stool specimens were cultured for Campylobacter and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a subset of isolates. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. Results Campylobacter was isolated from 306 (6.0%) of 5137 stool specimens collected. For children Guatemala; antimicrobial resistance was high, and treatment regimens in the ambulatory setting which included metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and lacked oral rehydration were sub-optimal. PMID:24534336

  1. High Prevalence of HIV Drug Resistance Among Newly Diagnosed Infants Aged <18 Months: Results From a Nationwide Surveillance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzaule, Seth C; Osi, Samuels J; Akinbiyi, Gbenga; Emeka, Asadu; Khamofu, Hadiza; Mpazanje, Rex; Ilesanmi, Oluwafunke; Ndembi, Nicaise; Odafe, Solomon; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2018-01-01

    WHO recommends protease-inhibitor-based first-line regimen in infants because of risk of drug resistance from failed prophylaxis used in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). However, cost and logistics impede implementation in sub-Saharan Africa, and >75% of children still receive nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen (NNRTI) used in PMTCT. We assessed the national pretreatment drug resistance prevalence of HIV-infected children aged resistance surveillance protocol. We used remnant dried blood spots collected between June 2014 and July 2015 from 15 early infant diagnosis facilities spread across all the 6 geopolitical regions of Nigeria. Sampling was through a probability proportional-to-size approach. HIV drug resistance was determined by population-based sequencing. Overall, in 48% of infants (205 of 430) drug resistance mutations (DRM) were detected, conferring resistance to predominantly NNRTIs (45%). NRTI and multiclass NRTI/NNRTI resistance were present at 22% and 20%, respectively, while resistance to protease inhibitors was at 2%. Among 204 infants with exposure to drugs for PMTCT, 57% had DRMs, conferring NNRTI resistance in 54% and multiclass NRTI/NNRTI resistance in 29%. DRMs were also detected in 34% of 132 PMTCT unexposed infants. A high frequency of PDR, mainly NNRTI-associated, was observed in a nationwide surveillance among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children in Nigeria. PDR prevalence was equally high in PMTCT-unexposed infants. Our results support the use of protease inhibitor-based first-line regimens in HIV-infected young children regardless of PMTCT history and underscore the need to accelerate implementation of the newly disseminated guideline in Nigeria.

  2. Post-treatment surveillance testing of patients with colorectal cancer and the association with survival: protocol for a retrospective cohort study of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Robert B; Jiban, Md Jibanul Haque; Choudhury, Kanak; Loerzel, Victoria; Specogna, Adrian V; Troy, Steven P; Zhang, Shunpu

    2018-04-28

    Although the colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rate has significantly improved over the past several decades, many patients will have a recurrence following curative treatment. Despite this high risk of recurrence, adherence to CRC surveillance testing guidelines is poor which increases cancer-related morbidity and potentially, mortality. Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with varying surveillance strategies have yielded conflicting evidence regarding the survival benefit associated with surveillance testing. However, due to differences in study protocols and limitations of sample size and length of follow-up, the RCT may not be the best study design to evaluate this relationship. An observational comparative effectiveness research study can overcome the sample size/follow-up limitations of RCT designs while assessing real-world variability in receipt of surveillance testing to provide much needed evidence on this important clinical issue. The gap in knowledge that this study will address concerns whether adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network CRC surveillance guidelines improves survival. Patients with colon and rectal cancer aged 66-84 years, who have been diagnosed between 2002 and 2008 and have been included in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, are eligible for this retrospective cohort study. To minimise bias, patients had to survive at least 12 months following the completion of treatment. Adherence to surveillance testing up to 5 years post-treatment will be assessed in each year of follow-up and overall. Binomial regression will be used to assess the association between patients' characteristics and adherence. Survival analysis will be conducted to assess the association between adherence and 5-year survival. This study was approved by the National Cancer Institute and the Institutional Review Board of the University of Central Florida. The results of this study will be disseminated by publishing in

  3. Results of cytogenetic surveillance of rural populations adjoining to Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdil'dinova, G.Zh.; Kundakbaeva, G.B.; Zhunusova, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of the work is study of somatic cytogenetic effects with taking into consideration chromosomal aberration of population from Beskaragaj district of Semipalatinsk region exposed to influence of conducted nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. Cultures of lymphocyates of peripheral flood were studied. Control group made up 15 man living in Akmola region locating out of radiation contaminated zone. It is determined, that common frequency of chromosomal aberration make up 3.6 on 100 cells. At that frequency of pair fragments made up 2.0 on 100 metaphases (0.2 in control group); dicentrics and center rings were revealed with summary frequency 0.6 on 100 metaphases and that is approximately in 15 fold greater than control index - 0.03 on 100 cells. Stable radiation markers (translocations, deletions) revealed with frequency 1.07 on 100 cells (control make up 0.4 on 100 cells). By results of of conducted cytogenetic analysis the attempt of mean group effective equivalent dose reconstruction received with inhabitants of Beskaragaj district is undertaken. It was calculated, that population of researched district have been got dose loading in 9.09 rem

  4. The results of virological surveillance for intrauterine infections in Saint-Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Murina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of researchis the determiningthe etiological structure ofintrauterine infections in Saint-Petersburg pediatric patients, pregnant women andinfants born to them using a variety of virological methods.Methods: serum from 164 children aged from 1 month to 14 years with diagnosis of «intrauterine infection». Serum from 80 pregnant women, collected in each trimester (total – 240 samples, their 42 children (at the age of 1–2 and 4–6  months of life, total – 82 samples. Immunoglobulin Mand G (IgM and IgGto herpes virus type 1, cytomegalovirus (CMV, Toxoplasma gondii, mycoplasma and chlamydia, rubella, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and parvovirus B19, as well as IgG avidity,were determined by ELISA in all these samples. Theimmunoblot (Western blot, using the «Immunoblot2000» with test kits from «Euroimmun AG» (Germany, was applied to confirm cases. Statistical analysis wasperformed with theprograms Microsoft Excel, Statistica6.Results: cytomegalovirus, herpes virus 1st type and Epstein-Barr virus infections are dominate in the structure of intrauterine ones (45%, 23% and 14%, respectively. Laboratory evidence ofreactivationof cytomegalovirus (35% ofpregnant womenin the 2nd and/or 3rd trimesters and acuteparvovirus infection (15% of cases were found. Specific IgM to cytomegalovirus were detected in 6,2% ofchildren in the firstsix months of life.Conclusions: with the aim of early detection of cytomegalovirus reactivation and acute parvovirus infection it isnecessary to monitor pregnant women with the definition of specific IgM, IgG and avidity IgG. The procedure to using immunoblotting in the diagnosis of intrauterine infectionsneeds to be further study.

  5. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  6. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  7. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  8. National surveillance plan for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in autochthonous Italian cattle breeds: Results of first year of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Carmen; Scoccia, Eleonora; Dettori, Annalisa; Felici, Andrea; Guarcini, Roberta; Petrini, Stefano; Quaglia, Andrea; Filippini, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV) caused by Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a significant disease in domestic and wild cattle. In June 2015, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry in Italy approved a national surveillance plan to control and eradicate IBR in beef cattle breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of the first year of the IBR voluntary surveillance plan in Italy. The aim of the plan is to eradicate IBR in all bovines recorded in the National Herd Book for Italian beef cattle breeds over six years. Monetary incentives are used to encourage breeders to achieve the annual seroprevalence ranges stated in the plan. A Ministerial decree states that all bovines in breeding herds and aged older than 12 months should be serologically tested. Serum samples were tested for presence of the antibody to glycoprotein E of BoHV-1 using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The national herd seroprevalence was 55.49% (95% confidence interval [CI] 52.01-58.92). Of 25,121 bovines tested for antibodies against BoHV-1, 8014 were positive. The seroprevalence in animals from autochthonous Italian cattle breeds was 31.89% (95% CI 31.31-32.47). Seroprevalence was highest in Podolica cattle (55.14%; 95% CI 54.07-56.21), lowest in Maremmana cattle (9.95%; 95% CI 7.99-12.31), and intermediate in Chianina (22.01%; 95% CI 21.03-23.01), Marchigiana (24.85%; 95% CI 23.52-26.23), and Romagnola (15.60%; 95% CI 14.62-16.64) cattle. These seroprevalence rates indicate a need for intervention to decrease the inevitable severe economic losses arising from BoHV-1 infection. Although some regions in Italy have a long history of combatting BoHV-1 infection, only the province of Bolzano has eradicated IBR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety and efficacy of adapalene gel 0.1% in acne vulgaris: Results of a post-marketing surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy S

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adapalene is a novel retinoid indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. The drug was introduced in India in 2001. Aims: A post-marketing surveillance study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of adapalene gel 0.1% when used as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-acne agents in Indian patients of acne vulgaris. Material and Methods: A 12-week, multicentre, open-label, non-comparative study involving 571 patients from 21 centers across India was conducted between January and September of 2002. Concomitant prescription of other anti-acne drugs was permitted, if needed. Results: Of the 571 patients, 441 completed the treatment as per protocol. At the end of therapy, 96.3% of patients showed an improvement in their acne from baseline, with greater than 75% improvement seen in two-thirds of patients. Adverse events were reported in 24% of the patients, none of which were serious. The tolerability of therapy was rated as excellent/good in 81% of patients by physicians and in 78% by the patients. Conclusion: Adapalene gel 0.1% is a safe and effective topical agent in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris in Indian patients. It may be safely combined with other topical and oral anti-acne agents.

  10. Infant brain tumors: incidence, survival, and the role of radiation based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Andrew J; McDonald, Mark W; Chang, Andrew L; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation compared with those treated with surgery alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence and survival patterns of rare anal canal neoplasms using the surveillance epidemiology and end results registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metildi, Cristina; McLemore, Elisabeth C; Tran, Thuy; Chang, David; Cosman, Bard; Ramamoorthy, Sonia L; Saltzstein, Sidney L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-10-01

    Small cell, neuroendocrine tumors, and melanoma of the anus are rare. Limited data exist on the incidence and management for these rare tumors. A large, prospective, population-based database was used to determine incidence and survival patterns of rare anal neoplasms. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry was queried to identify patients diagnosed with anal canal neoplasms. Incidence and survival patterns were evaluated with respect to age, sex, race, histology, stage, and therapy. We identified 7078 cases of anal canal neoplasms: melanoma (n = 149), neuroendocrine (n = 61), and small cell neuroendocrine (n = 26). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n = 6842) served as the comparison group. Anal melanoma (AM) demonstrated the lowest survival rate at 2.5 per cent. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) demonstrated similar survival as SCC (10-year survival for regional disease of 25 and 22.3%, respectively). Ten-year survival of small cell NETs resembled AM (5.3 vs 2.5%). Age 60 years or older, sex, black race, stage, and surgery were independent predictors of survival. This study presents the largest patient series of rare anal neoplasms. NETs of the anal canal demonstrate similar survival patterns to SCC, whereas small cell NETs more closely resemble AM. Accurate histologic diagnosis is vital to determine treatment and surgical management because survival patterns can differ among rare anal neoplasms.

  12. Prognostic factors for survival in patients with Ewing's sarcoma using the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchman, Kyle R; Gao, Yubo; Miller, Benjamin J

    2015-04-01

    The current study aims to determine cause-specific survival in patients with Ewing's sarcoma while reporting clinical risk factors for survival. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program database was used to identify patients with osseous Ewing's sarcoma from 1991 to 2010. Patient, tumor, and socioeconomic variables were analyzed to determine prognostic factors for survival. There were 1163 patients with Ewing's sarcoma identified in the SEER Program database. The 10-year cause-specific survival for patients with non-metastatic disease at diagnosis was 66.8% and 28.1% for patients with metastatic disease. Black patients demonstrated reduced survival at 10 years with an increased frequency of metastatic disease at diagnosis as compared to patients of other race, while Hispanic patients more frequently presented with tumor size>10cm. Univariate analysis revealed that metastatic disease at presentation, tumor size>10cm, axial tumor location, patient age≥20 years, black race, and male sex were associated with decreased cause-specific survival at 10 years. Metastatic disease at presentation, axial tumor location, tumor size>10cm, and age≥20 years remained significant in the multivariate analysis. Patients with Ewing's sarcoma have decreased cause-specific survival at 10 years when metastatic at presentation, axial tumor location, tumor size>10cm, and patient age≥20 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Situation of the surveillance of radioactivity in French Polynesia in 2007. Results of the I.R.S.N. 's surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 543 atmospheric nuclear tests released radionuclides that have deposited themselves throughout the world. The Environmental Study and Surveillance Laboratory, 'Laboratoire d etude et de suivi de l'environnement' (L.E.S.E.) of the Institute of nuclear safety and radiation protection (I.R.S.N.), takes part, for more than 35 years, in the evaluation of the dosimetric consequences of these atmospheric depositions, especially those originating with the 41 tests realized in the territory of French polynesia from 1966 to 1974. This laboratory is established in Tahiti. The actualized dosimetric evaluation due to the foodstuff ingestion requires to collect the most representative samples of the feed ration of the Polynesians living in the 5 archipelagoes of this territory. These samples belong to the marine environment of full sea, the lagoon environment and the terrestrial environment. Certain samples of the physical environment are also taken (air, water). 355 samples collected in 2007 are measured by Hp-Ge low background gamma spectrometry in order to be able to characterize lowest possible radioactivity levels. The levels of activity of Pu isotopes and 90 Sr are also given for 50 selected samples and tritium activities for 20 water samples. After a period of regular decay of radioactivity after the stop, in 1974, of the French atmospheric tests, the radiological state observed in the year 2007 is the same of that of the recent previous years, at a very low level. for example, the 137 Cs rate in the polynesian air is ten times lower than the parisian rate. In fact, the residual radioactivity essentially relates to 137 Cs, the only artificial radionuclide still measurable in the archipelago. In term of additional dose, this artificial and residual radioactivity is lower than 6 μSv by year. this value corresponds to less than 1% of exposure due to natural radioactivity in Polynesia (approximately 1 milli Sv). (N.C.)

  14. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  15. Effects of sex on the incidence and prognosis of spinal meningiomas: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwick, Harrison J; Shamji, Mohammed F

    2015-09-01

    Most spinal meningiomas are intradural lesions in the thoracic spine that present with both local pain and myelopathy. By using the large prospective Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, the authors studied the incidence of spinal meningiomas and examined demographic and treatment factors predictive of death. Using SEER*Stat software, the authors queried the SEER database for cases of spinal meningioma between 2000 and 2010. From the results, tumor incidence and demographic statistics were computed; incidence was analyzed as a function of tumor location, pathology, age, sex, and malignancy code. Survival was analyzed by using a Cox proportional hazards ratio in SPSS for age, sex, marital status, primary site, size quartile, treatment modality, and malignancy code. In this analysis, significance was set at a p value of 0.05. The 1709 spinal meningiomas reported in the SEER database represented 30.7% of all primary intradural spinal tumors and 7.9% of all meningiomas. These meningiomas occurred at an age-adjusted incidence of 0.193 (95% CI 0.183-0.202) per 100,000 population and were closely related to sex (337 [19.7%] male patients and 1372 [80.3%] female patients). The Cox hazard function for mortality in males was higher (2.4 [95% CI1.7-3.5]) and statistically significant, despite the lower lesion incidence in males. All-cause survival was lowest in patients older than 80 years. Primary site and treatment modality were not significant predictors of mortality. Spinal meningiomas represent a significant fraction of all primary intradural spinal tumors and of all meningiomas. The results of this study establish the association of lesion incidence and survival with sex, with a less frequent incidence in but greater mortality among males.

  16. Attempt to find optimal selections of EO systems for good results of imaging in real environment surveillance process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcan, Octavia; Ursu, Danut; Marin, Constantin; Toma, Alexandru; Beldiceanu, Anca

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the authors try to determine a procedure for the best choice in selecting one or other type of sensors as a function of the object under observation, background and environmental conditions. In surveillance activities related with different missions and scenarios occurred in day and/or night time, the proper choice and use of video surveillance sensors is of huge importance. Starting from specific scenarios of surveillance, as for example the surveillance of the sky to detect drones, or surveillance of the ground area to detect some manmade objects or intruders, this paper approaches the problem of the image appearance in VIS, SWIR and LWIR spectral ranges, using different passive technologies of surveillance. Relevant images are comparative presented in relation with some theoretical quantifications made through mathematical models or through software simulations. Starting from a few targets and backgrounds with known spectral reflectivity or emissivity, the contrast was used to show its influence on the signal strength reaching the surface of the video detector (imager) in similar environment conditions. Finally, the authors seek certain characteristics of the electro-optical system itself that can influence most the strength and quality of the optical signal with respect to influences on observation distances of the target. The possibility of using an active technology instead of a passive one, by introducing a pulsed laser illuminator, is also analyzed. The use of some polarizing filters is also considered but in this stage only in laboratory conditions, in order to improve the observability of an object in some special environmental circumstances.

  17. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 - First results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W; Ayala, F; Bircher, AJ; Brasch, J; Coenraads, PJ; Schuttelaar, Marielouise; Elsner, P; Fartasch, M; Mahler, V.; Fortina, AB; Frosch, PJ; Fuchs, T; Johansen, JD; Menne, T; Jolanki, R; Krecisz, B; Kiec-Swierczynska, M; Larese, F; Orton, D; Peserico, A; Rantanen, T; Schnuch, A

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series,

  18. Are School Absences Correlated with Influenza Surveillance Data in England? Results from Decipher My Data—A Research Project Conducted through Scientific Engagement with Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert W.; Hayward, Andrew C.; Field, Nigel; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smith, Colette; Pebody, Richard; Fleming, Declan; McCracken, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Background School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza. Methods We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative) for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) influenza like illness (ILI) episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B) and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus. Results 27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5–14 year olds), laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus. Interpretation This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies

  19. Survival Outcomes in Resected Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Effect of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vern-Gross, Tamara Z.; Shivnani, Anand T.; Chen, Ke; Lee, Christopher M.; Tward, Jonathan D.; MacDonald, O. Kenneth; Crane, Christopher H.; Talamonti, Mark S.; Munoz, Louis L.; Small, William

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after surgical resection for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has not been clearly established. We analyzed survival outcomes of patients with resected extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and examined the effect of adjuvant RT. Methods and Materials: Data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program between 1973 and 2003. The primary endpoint was the overall survival time. Cox regression analysis was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the following clinical variables: age, year of diagnosis, histologic grade, localized (Stage T1-T2) vs. regional (Stage T3 or greater and/or node positive) stage, gender, race, and the use of adjuvant RT after surgical resection. Results: The records for 2,332 patients were obtained. Patients with previous malignancy, distant disease, incomplete or conflicting records, atypical histologic features, and those treated with preoperative/intraoperative RT were excluded. Of the remaining 1,491 patients eligible for analysis, 473 (32%) had undergone adjuvant RT. After a median follow-up of 27 months (among surviving patients), the median overall survival time for the entire cohort was 20 months. Patients with localized and regional disease had a median survival time of 33 and 18 months, respectively (p < .001). The addition of adjuvant RT was not associated with an improvement in overall or cause-specific survival for patients with local or regional disease. Conclusion: Patients with localized disease had significantly better overall survival than those with regional disease. Adjuvant RT was not associated with an improvement in long-term overall survival in patients with resected extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Key data, including margin status and the use of combined chemotherapy, was not available through the SEER database.

  20. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; McDonald, Mark W.; Chang, Andrew L.; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  1. Contact allergy to ingredients of topical medications : results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Cooper, Susan M.; Wilkinson, Mark; Sanchez Perez, Javier; Schnuch, Axel; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to give an overview of the prevalence of contact allergy to active ingredients and excipients of topical medications across Europe. MethodsRetrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies () with substances applied to

  2. Safety and Effectiveness of Natalizumab: First Report of Interim Results of Post-Marketing Surveillance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Takahiko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Sato, Ryusuke; Makioka, Haruki; Iizuka, Yukihiko; Hase, Masakazu; Ling, Yan; Torii, Shinichi

    2017-12-01

    Natalizumab, a humanized anti-α4 integrin monoclonal antibody, received marketing approval in Japan in 2014 for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Because the previous large-scale clinical trials of natalizumab were mainly conducted in Europe and North American countries, and data in patients with MS from Japan were limited, we conducted an all-case post-marketing surveillance of natalizumab-treated MS patients from Japan to investigate the safety and effectiveness of natalizumab in a real-world clinical setting in Japan. Here, we report the results of an interim analysis. During the observation period of 2 years, all patients who were treated with natalizumab subsequent to its approval in Japan were followed. The effectiveness of natalizumab was assessed by examining the changes in expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score and annualized relapse rate (ARR) from baseline. Safety was assessed by analyzing the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The safety analysis included 106 patients (mean age 39.3 years; women 62.3%) whose data were collected until the data lock point (February 7, 2016). The effectiveness analysis included 75 patients. The majority of patients had relapsing-remitting MS (93/106 patients; 87.7%). The mean length of treatment exposure in the present study was 6.6 months. During the 2-year observation period, no significant change in the EDSS was observed, while the ARR decreased significantly from baseline (72.9% reduction, p = 0.001). ADRs and serious ADRs were observed in 11.3% and 3.8% of patients, respectively; however, no new safety concerns were detected. No patient had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) during the present study period. The safety and effectiveness of natalizumab were confirmed in Japanese patients with MS in clinical practice. Nevertheless, potential risks including PML require continuous, careful observation. Biogen Japan Ltd (Tokyo, Japan).

  3. Results of a customer-based, post-market surveillance survey of the HeRO access device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusselman, Maureen

    2010-08-01

    In order to supplement post-market surveillance data on the HeRO vascular access device, a non-scientific customer survey was conducted to obtain quantitative data from dialysis providers caring for patients implanted with the device. Dialysis nurses involved in the care of HeRO patients were contacted in order to obtain post-implant device performance information for 10% of patients implanted with the device at the time of the survey. Thirty-eight dialysis units with a total of 65 HeRO patients participated in the survey. The total duration of HeRO device use was 348.4 months with an average use of 5.4 months. Thirty-eight of the 65 HeRO patients (58.5%) were reported to not have experienced any performance issues. There were 28 device performance incidents reported for the remaining 27 patients included in the survey. Occlusion was the single most commonly reported device-related performance issue with 18 patients (27.7%) experiencing 25 occlusive episodes. The majority of the patients who had an occlusion (66.7%) only experienced one occlusive event. Infections occurred in 4 patients (6.2%) with an overall infection rate of 0.38 per 1,000 patient days. Post-market clinical experience during the first 18 months of commercialization of the HeRO device were in line with expectations based on the results from initial clinical studies with the device. Device occlusion remains the most commonly reported performance issue with the reported rate in this survey less than that which was reported in earlier published studies with the device.

  4. Marital status and survival in patients with rectal cancer: An analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyang; Cao, Weilan; Zheng, Chenguo; Hu, Wanle; Liu, Changbao

    2018-06-01

    Marital status has been validated as an independent prognostic factor for survival in several cancer types, but is controversial in rectal cancer (RC). The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of marital status on the survival outcomes of patients with RC. We extracted data of 27,498 eligible patients diagnosed with RC between 2004 and 2009 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were categorized into married, never married, divorced/separated and widowed groups.We used Chi-square tests to compare characteristics of patients with different marital status.Rectal cancer specific survival was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method,and multivariate Cox regression analyses was used to analyze the survival outcome risk factors in different marital status. The widowed group had the highest percentage of elderly patients and women,higher proportion of adenocarcinomas, and more stage I/II in tumor stage (P married group (76.7% VS 85.4%). Compared with the married patients, the never married (HR 1.40), widowed (HR 1.61,) and divorced/separated patients (HR 1.16) had an increased overall 5-year mortality. A further analysis showed that widowed patients had an increased overall 5-year cause-specific survival(CSS) compared with married patients at stage I(HR 1.92),stage II (HR 1.65),stage III (HR 1.73),and stage IV (HR 1.38). Our study showed marriage was associated with better outcomes of RC patients, but unmarried RC patients, especially widowed patients,are at greater risk of cancer specific mortality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Zilver PTX Post-Market Surveillance Study of Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents for Treating Femoropopliteal Artery Disease in Japan: 12-Month Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Ohki, Takao; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Nakamura, Masato; Komori, Kimihiro; Nanto, Shinsuke; O'Leary, Erin E; Lottes, Aaron E; Snyder, Scott A; Dake, Michael D

    2016-02-08

    This multicenter, prospective, post-market surveillance study in Japan evaluates the paclitaxel-coated Zilver PTX stent in real-world patients with complex lesions. The Zilver PTX stent is the first drug-eluting stent (DES) approved for the superficial femoral artery. Previously, results from a large randomized study and a complementary, large single-arm study supported the safety and effectiveness of the DES. There were no exclusion criteria, and consecutive patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) treated with the DES were enrolled in the study. Clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) was defined as reintervention performed for ≥50% diameter stenosis after recurrent clinical symptoms of PAD. Clinical benefit was defined as freedom from persistent or worsening symptoms of ischemia. Patency was evaluated by duplex ultrasound where physicians considered this standard of care. In this study, 907 patients were enrolled at 95 institutions in Japan. There were numerous comorbidities including high incidences of diabetes (58.8%), chronic kidney disease (43.8%), and critical limb ischemia (21.5%). Lesions were also complex, with an average length of 14.7 cm, 41.6% total occlusions, and 18.6% in-stent restenosis. In total, 1,861 DES were placed in 1,075 lesions. Twelve-month follow-up was obtained for >95% of eligible patients. Freedom from TLR was 91.0%, and clinical benefit was 87.7% through 12 months. The 12-month primary patency rate was 86.4%. Despite more challenging lesions, results from the current study are similar to outcomes from the previous Zilver PTX studies, confirming the benefit of the Zilver PTX DES in a real-world patient population. (Zilver PTX Post-Market Study in Japan; NCT02254837). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. First-year results of the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network: 2012–2013 Northern hemisphere influenza season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN) was developed to improve understanding of severe influenza infection, as represented by hospitalized cases. The GIHSN is composed of coordinating sites, mainly affiliated with health authorities, each of which supervises and compiles data from one to seven hospitals. This report describes the distribution of influenza viruses A(H1N1), A(H3N2), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata resulting in hospitalization during 2012–2013, the network’s first year. Methods In 2012–2013, the GIHSN included 21 hospitals (five in Spain, five in France, four in the Russian Federation, and seven in Turkey). All hospitals used a reference protocol and core questionnaire to collect data, and data were consolidated at five coordinating sites. Influenza infection was confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Hospitalized patients admitted within 7 days of onset of influenza-like illness were included in the analysis. Results Of 5034 patients included with polymerase chain reaction results, 1545 (30.7%) were positive for influenza. Influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and both B lineages co-circulated, although distributions varied greatly between coordinating sites and over time. All age groups were affected. A(H1N1) was the most common influenza strain isolated among hospitalized adults 18–64 years of age at four of five coordinating sites, whereas A(H3N2) and B viruses were isolated more often than A(H1N1) in adults ≥65 years of age at all five coordinating sites. A total of 16 deaths and 20 intensive care unit admissions were recorded among patients with influenza. Conclusions Influenza strains resulting in hospitalization varied greatly between coordinating sites and over time. These first-year results of the GIHSN are relevant, useful, and timely. Due to its broad regional representativeness and sustainable framework, this growing network should contribute substantially to understanding the

  7. Supporting staff recovery and reintegration after a critical incident resulting in infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Roberta; Ward, Debra; Short, Mary

    2009-08-01

    A critical incident is described as any sudden unexpected event that has the power to overwhelm the usual effective coping skills of an individual or a group and can cause significant psychological distress in usually healthy persons. A Just Culture model to deal with critical incidents is an approach that seeks to identify and balance system events and personal accountability. This article reports a critical incident that occurred at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Methodist Hospital of Indianapolis, when 5 infants received an overdose of heparin that resulted in the death of 3 infants. Although care of the family after the critical incident was the immediate priority, the focus of this article was on the recovery and reintegration of the NICU staff after a critical incident based on the Just Culture philosophy.

  8. Are the current notification criteria for Lyme borreliosis in Norway suitable? Results of an evaluation of Lyme borreliosis surveillance in Norway, 1995–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily MacDonald

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The approach to surveillance of Lyme borreliosis varies between countries, depending on the purpose of the surveillance system and the notification criteria used, which prevents direct comparison of national data. In Norway, Lyme borreliosis is notifiable to the Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS. The current notification criteria include a combination of clinical and laboratory results for borrelia infection (excluding Erythema migrans but there are indications that these criteria are not followed consistently by clinicians and by laboratories. Therefore, an evaluation of Lyme borreliosis surveillance in Norway was conducted to describe the purpose of the system and to assess the suitability of the current notification criteria in order to identify areas for improvement. Methods The CDC Guidelines for Evaluation of Surveillance Systems were used to develop the assessment of the data quality, representativeness and acceptability of MSIS for surveillance of Lyme borreliosis. Data quality was assessed through a review of data from 1996 to 2013 in MSIS and a linkage of MSIS data from 2008 to 2012 with data from the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR. Representativeness and acceptability were assessed through a survey sent to 23 diagnostic laboratories. Results Completeness of key variables for cases reported to MSIS was high, except for geographical location of exposureThe NPR-MSIS linkage identified 1047 cases in both registries, while 363 were only reported to MSIS and 3914 were only recorded in NPR. A higher proportion of cases found in both registries were recorded as neuroborreliosis in MSIS (84.4 % than those cases found only in MSIS (20.1 %. The trend (average yearly increase or decrease in reported cases of neuroborreliosis in MSIS was not significantly different from the trend for all other clinical manifestations recorded in MSIS in negative binomial regression (p = 0.3. The 16 surveyed laboratories

  9. Alecto - results obtained with homogeneous critical experiments on plutonium 239, uranium 235 and uranium 233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, J.G.; Brunet, J.P.; Caizegues, R.; Clouet d'Orval, Ch.; Kremser, J.; Tellier, H.; Verriere, Ph.

    1965-01-01

    In this report are given the results of the homogeneous critical experiments ALECTO, made on plutonium 239, uranium 235 and uranium 233. After a brief description of the equipment, the critical masses for cylinders of diameters varying from 25 to 42 cm, are given and compared with other values (foreign results, criticality guide). With respect to the specific conditions of neutron reflection in the ALECTO experiments the minimal values of critical masses are: Pu239 M c = 910 ± 10 g, U235 M c = 1180 ± 12 g and U233 M c = 960 ± 10 g. Experiments relating to cross sections and constants to be used on these materials are presented. Lastly, kinetic experiments allow to compare pulsed neutron methods to fluctuation methods [fr

  10. Postoperative radiotherapy for invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast: an analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available San-Gang Wu,1,* Wen-Wen Zhang,2,* Jia-Yuan Sun,2 Feng-Yan Li,2 Yong-Xiong Chen,3 Zhen-Yu He2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Xiamen Cancer Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, 3Eye Institute of Xiamen University, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Medical College, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC of the breast poses a high risk of locoregional recurrence, and postoperative radiotherapy (PORT may be beneficial in IMPC. Hence, we determined the clinical value of PORT in IMPC patients. Patients and methods: We assessed clinicopathological factors extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004–2013. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to assess the independent prognostic factors on breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS and overall survival (OS. Results: Of the 881 study patients, 444 (50.4% and 437 (49.6% underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS and mastectomy (MAST, respectively, of whom 357 (80.4% and 153 (35.0% underwent PORT, respectively. Patients with young age, large tumor size, or advanced nodal stage were more likely to undergo MAST and PORT compared with MAST alone. Patients with progesterone receptor-positive disease were more likely to receive BCS and PORT compared with BCS alone. The 5-year BCSS and OS were 95.7% and 90.9%, respectively. On multivariate analyses, tumor size, histological grade, and estrogen receptor status were independent predictors of BCSS and OS. The types of surgical procedures (MAST vs. BCS were not an independent predictor of survival outcomes. Patients who

  11. Oligodendrogliomas in pediatric and adult patients: an outcome-based study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau CSM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Christine SM Lau,1,2 Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Ronald S Chamberlain1–4 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, 4Department of Surgery, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA Introduction: Oligodendrogliomas (OGs account for <20% of all intracranial tumors and 25% of gliomas. Despite improvements in imaging techniques allowing for earlier diagnosis, OG is rare among the pediatric population. This study examines a large cohort of OG patients in an effort to define the demographic, clinical, and pathologic factors associated with clinical and survival outcomes.Methods: Data on 7,001 OG patients were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER database (1973–2013. Pediatric patients were defined as ≤19 years old, and adult patients were defined as age ≥20 years.Results: Among 7,001 OG patients, 6.5% were pediatric (mean age 12 ± 6 years, and 93.5% were adult (mean age 46 ± 15 years. Overall, OGs were more common among males, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.28:1. Overall, OGs were more common among Caucasians (76.9% and also among the African American (10.8% pediatric vs. 4.0% adult and Hispanic (12.8% pediatric vs. 11.8% adult. OGs occurred most commonly in the temporal lobe of pediatric patients and the frontal lobes of adults. Surgical resection was the primary treatment modality for both pediatric and adult populations (70.6% and 40.5%, followed by combined surgery and radiation (19.7% and 41.2%. Surgical resection was associated with significantly improved survival in both groups. Pediatric patients had a lower overall mortality (19.8% vs. 48.5% and lower cancer-specific mortality (17.6% vs. 36.8%.Conclusion: OGs most often present in Caucasian males in their fifth decade of life with tumors >4 cm in size

  12. Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis Validating COG Risk Stratifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waxweiler, Timothy V., E-mail: timothy.waxweiler@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rusthoven, Chad G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Proper, Michelle S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Billings Clinic, Billings, Montana (United States); Cost, Carrye R. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Cost, Nicholas G. [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Donaldson, Nathan [Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Garrington, Timothy; Greffe, Brian S. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Heare, Travis [Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Macy, Margaret E. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Liu, Arthur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) are a heterogeneous group of sarcomas that encompass over 35 histologies. With an incidence of ∼500 cases per year in the United States in those <20 years of age, NRSTS are rare and therefore difficult to study in pediatric populations. We used the large Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to validate the prognostic ability of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) risk classification system and to define patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Methods and Materials: From SEER data from 1988 to 2007, we identified patients ≤18 years of age with NRSTS. Data for age, sex, year of diagnosis, race, registry, histology, grade, primary size, primary site, stage, radiation therapy, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Patients with nonmetastatic grossly resected low-grade tumors of any size or high-grade tumors ≤5 cm were considered low risk. Cases of nonmetastatic tumors that were high grade, >5 cm, or unresectable were considered intermediate risk. Patients with nodal or distant metastases were considered high risk. Results: A total of 941 patients met the review criteria. On univariate analysis, black race, malignant peripheral nerve sheath (MPNST) histology, tumors >5 cm, nonextremity primary, lymph node involvement, radiation therapy, and higher risk group were associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). On multivariate analysis, MPNST histology, chemotherapy-resistant histology, and higher risk group were significantly poor prognostic factors for OS and CSS. Compared to low-risk patients, intermediate patients showed poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.53-10.47, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 6.27; 95% CI: 3.44-11.43, P<.001), and high-risk patients had the worst OS (HR: 13.35, 95% CI: 8.18-21.76, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 14.65, 95% CI: 8.49-25.28, P<.001). Conclusions: The current COG risk group

  13. Results from the 2010 INMM International Containment and Surveillance Workshop focused on Concepts for the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Chris A.; Tolk, Keith M.; Keel, Frances; LaMontagne, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) held an International Workshop on 'Containment and Surveillance: Concepts for the 21st Century' on June 6-11, 2010 at the Oak National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The National Nuclear Security Administration Offices of Non-proliferation Research and Development and Office of Nuclear Safeguards sponsored the event. The workshop focused on determining concepts and needs for 21st century containment and surveillance (C/S) systems that support International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards and future arms control agreements. Panel discussions from subject matter experts and international practitioners provided the daily topical theme of the following areas of C/S: authentication, tagging, sealing, containment verification, and surveillance systems. Each panel discussion was followed with a question and answer session with the audience and an afternoon breakout session. The facilitated breakout sessions were used to compile and determine future needs. Individuals attending the workshop included C/S experts and practitioners; IAEA and arms control inspectors, technology providers, vendors, students and individuals with an interest in or desire to learn about future C/S system needs. The primary goal for the workshop was to produce a document that details the future research and development needs for C/S systems that support nuclear safeguards and arms control missions. This paper will present a compilation of the information obtained from breakout sessions at the workshop. (author)

  14. Surveillance programs for detection and characterization of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance: results from the Division of Infectious Diseases, UNIFESP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Arnaldo L; Janini, Mario; Salomão, Reinaldo; Medeiros, Eduardo A S; Wey, Sergio B; Pignatari, Antonio C C

    2009-09-01

    Several epidemiological changes have occurred in the pattern of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases during the past 25 years. Social and demographic changes possibly related to this phenomenon include a rapid population growth, the increase in urban migration and movement across international borders by tourists and immigrants, alterations in the habitats of animals and arthropods that transmit disease, as well as the raise of patients with impaired host defense abilities. Continuous surveillance programs of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance are warranted for detecting in real time new pathogens, as well as to characterize molecular mechanisms of resistance. In order to become more effective, surveillance programs of emergent pathogens should be organized as a multicenter laboratory network connected to the main public and private infection control centers. Microbiological data should be integrated to guide therapy, adapting therapy to local ecology and resistance patterns. This paper presents an overview of data generated by the Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of São Paulo, along with its participation in different surveillance programs of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases.

  15. Radiation therapy improves survival in rectal small cell cancer - Analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Aram S; Hsu, Howard C; Leichman, Cynthia G; Du, Kevin L

    2015-04-24

    Small cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare neoplasm with scant literature to guide treatment. We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to investigate the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of this cancer. The SEER database (National Cancer Institute) was queried for locoregional cases of small cell rectal cancer. Years of diagnosis were limited to 1988-2010 (most recent available) to reduce variability in staging criteria or longitudinal changes in surgery and radiation techniques. Two month conditional survival was applied to minimize bias by excluding patients who did not survive long enough to receive cancer-directed therapy. Patient demographics between the RT and No_RT groups were compared using Pearson Chi-Square tests. Overall survival was compared between patients who received radiotherapy (RT, n = 43) and those who did not (No_RT, n = 28) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate important covariates. Median survival was significantly longer for patients who received radiation compared to those who were not treated with radiation; 26 mo vs. 8 mo, respectively (log-rank P = 0.009). We also noted a higher 1-year overall survival rate for those who received radiation (71.1% vs. 37.8%). Unadjusted hazard ratio for death (HR) was 0.495 with the use of radiation (95% CI 0.286-0.858). Among surgery, radiotherapy, sex and age at diagnosis, radiation therapy was the only significant factor for overall survival with a multivariate HR for death of 0.393 (95% CI 0.206-0.750, P = 0.005). Using SEER data, we have identified a significant survival advantage with the use of radiation therapy in the setting of rectal small cell carcinoma. Limitations of the SEER data apply to this study, particularly the lack of information on chemotherapy usage. Our findings strongly support the use of radiation therapy for patients with locoregional small cell rectal cancer.

  16. Dengue incidence in urban and rural Cambodia: results from population-based active fever surveillance, 2006-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirenda Vong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19-year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006-2008. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV infections for incidences of 13.4-57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons and lowest among the 16-to-19-year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons. The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5-211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5. During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The large-scale active surveillance study for dengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly

  17. Order parameter fluctuations at a critical point - an exact result about percolation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The order parameter of the system in the critical state, is expected to undergo large non-Gaussian fluctuations. However, almost nothing is known about the mathematical forms of the possible probability distributions of the order parameter. A remarkable exception is the site-percolation on the Bethe lattice, for which the complete order-parameter distribution has been recently derived at the critical point. Surprisingly, it appears to be the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution, well known in very different areas of mathematical statistics. In the present paper, we explain first how this special distribution could appear naturally in the context of the critical systems, under the assumption (still virtually unstudied) of the exponential distribution of the number of domains of a given size. In a second part, we present for the first time the complete derivation of the order-parameter distribution for the critical percolation model on the Bethe lattice, thus completing a recent publication announcing this result.

  18. Results from the fielding of the Bio-surveillance Analysis, Feedback, Evaluation and Response (B-SAFER) system in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, David; Umland, Edith; Brillman, Judith C; Joyce, Ed; Froman, Philip; Burr, Tom; Judd, Stephen L; Picard, Richard; Wokoun, Doug; Joner, Mike; Sewell, C Mack

    2003-01-01

    Public health authorities need a surveillance system that is sensitive enough to detect a disease outbreak early to enable a proper response. In order to meet this challenge we have deployed a pilot component-based system in Albuquerque, NM as part of the National Biodefense Initiative (BDI). B-SAFER gathers routinely collected data from healthcare institutions to monitor disease events in the community. We describe initial results from the deployment of the system for the past 6 months

  19. A criticality result for polycycles in a family of quadratic reversible centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, D.; Villadelprat, J.

    2018-06-01

    We consider the family of dehomogenized Loud's centers Xμ = y (x - 1)∂x + (x + Dx2 + Fy2)∂y, where μ = (D , F) ∈R2, and we study the number of critical periodic orbits that emerge or disappear from the polycycle at the boundary of the period annulus. This number is defined exactly the same way as the well-known notion of cyclicity of a limit periodic set and we call it criticality. The previous results on the issue for the family {Xμ , μ ∈R2 } distinguish between parameters with criticality equal to zero (regular parameters) and those with criticality greater than zero (bifurcation parameters). A challenging problem not tackled so far is the computation of the criticality of the bifurcation parameters, which form a set ΓB of codimension 1 in R2. In the present paper we succeed in proving that a subset of ΓB has criticality equal to one.

  20. Metal Criticality Determination for Australia, the US, and the Planet—Comparing 2008 and 2012 Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ciacci

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Episodic supply shortages of metals and unsettling predictions of potential supply constraints in the future have led to a series of recent criticality evaluations. This study applies a consistent criticality methodology to the United States, Australia, and to the global level for both 2008 and 2012. It is the first time that criticality assessments are presented for Australia, a country that contrasts with the United States in terms of its mineral deposits and metal use characteristics. We use the Yale criticality methodology, which measures Supply Risk (SR, Environmental Implications (EI, and Vulnerability to Supply Restriction (VSR to derive criticality assessments for five major metals (Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and for indium (In. We find only modest changes in SR between 2008 and 2012 at both country and global levels; these changes are due to revisions in resource estimates. At the country level, Australia’s VSR for Ni, Cu, and Zn is 23%–33% lower than that for the United States, largely because of Australia’s abundant domestic resources. At the global level, SR is much higher for In, Ni, Cu, and Zn than for Al and Fe as a consequence of SR’s longer time horizon and anticipated supply/demand constraints. The results emphasize the dynamic nature of criticality and its variance between countries and among metals.

  1. Critical care admission of South African (SA surgical patients: Results of the SA Surgical Outcomes Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lee Skinner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Appropriate critical care admissions are an important component of surgical care. However, there are few data describing postoperative critical care admission in resource-limited low- and middle-income countries. Objective. To describe the demographics, organ failures, organ support and outcomes of non-cardiac surgical patients admitted to critical care units in South Africa (SA. Methods. The SA Surgical Outcomes Study (SASOS was a 7-day national, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of all patients ≥16 years of age undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery between 19 and 26 May 2014 at 50 government-funded hospitals. All patients admitted to critical care units during this study were included for analysis. Results. Of the 3 927 SASOS patients, 255 (6.5% were admitted to critical care units; of these admissions, 144 (56.5% were planned, and 111 (43.5% unplanned. The incidence of confirmed or strongly suspected infection at the time of admission was 35.4%, with a significantly higher incidence in unplanned admissions (49.1 v. 24.8%, p<0.001. Unplanned admission cases were more frequently hypovolaemic, had septic shock, and required significantly more inotropic, ventilatory and renal support in the first 48 hours after admission. Overall mortality was 22.4%, with unplanned admissions having a significantly longer critical care length of stay and overall mortality (33.3 v. 13.9%, p<0.001. Conclusion. The outcome of patients admitted to public sector critical care units in SA is strongly associated with unplanned admissions. Adequate ‘high care-dependency units’ for postoperative care of elective surgical patients could potentially decrease the burden on critical care resources in SA by 23%. This study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02141867.

  2. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 -- first results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W

    2005-01-01

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series...... observed. The prevalence of contact allergy to Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru) (5.8%) is coming close to the frequency found with the fragrance mix (6.4%). Regarding contact allergy to chromium compounds, different frequencies were noted in the 2 centres focused on occupational dermatitis (2......-marketing surveillance in the field of contact allergy, ESSCA will meet its objective of increased consumer safety across Europe....

  3. An Early Warning System Based on Syndromic Surveillance to Detect Potential Health Emergencies among Migrants: Results of a Two-Year Experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Profound geopolitical changes have impacted the southern and eastern Mediterranean since 2010 and defined a context of instability that is still affecting several countries today. Insecurity combined with the reduction of border controls has led to major population movements in the region and to migration surges from affected countries to southern Europe, especially to Italy. To respond to the humanitarian emergency triggered by this migration surge, Italy implemented a syndromic surveillance system in order to rapidly detect potential public health emergencies in immigrant reception centres. This system was discontinued after two years. This paper presents the results of this experience detailing its strengths and weaknesses in order to document the applicability and usefulness of syndromic surveillance in this specific context.

  4. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  5. Commercial nonindustrial production of pastries and ice cream in Naples, Italy: results from the inspection of 34 food businesses during a 2-year surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tanucci Nannini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Ice cream and cream-based pastries are an excellent media for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Foods that are prepared without due respect to the rules of food hygiene can carry microorganisms and/or toxins and could be responsible of toxinfections. The main objective of this study was to obtain an overall picture of the hygiene/sanitation conditions found in businesses that produce hand-made pastries and/or ice cream in Naples, Italy.

    Methods: We inspected 34 businesses to assess the following aspects: hygiene/sanitation conditions of the work area and equipment, implementation of good food hygiene principles, evaluation of HACCP plans, licensing/authorization, quality control and sampling protocols, as well as systems for ensuring food traceability. In 28 of the businesses, samples (environment, foods, workers were collected for microbiological analysis.

    Results: Sanctions were issued for nonconformities in 8 businesses (23.5%, and 25 businesses (73.5% received warnings with orders to correct minor nonconformities (inadequate documentation of compliance with current regulations, incorrect implementation of the quality-control protocol within specified time periods. Microbiological analyses revealed irregularities in 24/28 businesses (85.7%, and 138 of the 280 samples collected displayed contamination levels exceeding the limits adopted for this study (49.3%. In particular, 80% of the surfaces sampled and 23.8% of the hand swabs collected were shown to be contaminated. All food samples collected met the process-hygiene and food-safety standards prescribed by the European Community. Results obtained were statistically significant (p < 0.05.

    Conclusions: Our experience of food safety surveillance system indicates that Neapolitan food business operators involved in the production of hand-made ice cream or pastries do not

  6. Results and preliminary analysis of critical experiments with interacting slab solution tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, Victor N.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Sviridov, Victor I.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the main results of several sets of critical experiments with two interacting similar slab tanks filled with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate with uranium of 90% enrichment. These experiments were carried out at the RF-GS facility, Obninsk, Russia. Tanks with the thickness of 15 cm, width of 100 cm and height of 120 cm were used in these experiments. The experiments were conducted with partitions made of concrete, brick, polyethylene, cadmium, borated polyethylene. Consideration was given to the dependence of critical volume in each tank on the distance between the tanks and on the partition thickness. The tanks were filled with solutions of highly enriched uranium with its concentrations of 75 g/L and 250 g/L. Critical experiments were analysed with the MCNP 4A code based on the Monte-Carlo method and with the ENDF/B-V library. (author)

  7. Does surgical site infection after Caesarean section in Polish hospitals reflect high-quality patient care or poor postdischarge surveillance? Results from a 3-year multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Jarynowski, Andrzej; Kopeć-Godlewska, Katarzyna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Misiewska-Kaczur, Agnieszka; Lech, Marzena; Rozwadowska, Małgorzata; Karwacka, Marlena; Liberda, Joanna; Domańska, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Caesarean sections (CSs) are associated with a high infection risk. Surgical site infection (SSI) incidence is among the markers of effectiveness of infection prevention efforts. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for SSI, incidence, and microbiology in patients who underwent CS. The study was conducted during 2013-2015 using active infection surveillance in 5 Polish hospitals according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control surveillance network known as HAI-Net. For each procedure, the following data were registered: age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, procedure time, elective or emergency procedure, use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, microbiology, the treatment used, and other information. SSI incidence was 0.5% and significant differences were noted among hospitals (between 0.1% and 1.8%), for different American Society of Anesthesiologists scales (between 0.2% and 4.8%) and different values of standardized SSI risk index (between 0.0% and 0.8%). In 3.1% of procedures, with no antibiotic prophylaxis, SSI risk was significantly higher. Deep infections dominated: 61.5% with superficial infections in only approximately 30% of cases and 2.6% of infections were detected postdischarge without readmissions. Results showed high incidence of SSI in Poland without perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, and secondly, ineffective surveillance according to CS status, considering outpatient obstetric care. Without postdischarge surveillance, it is not possible to recognize the epidemiologic situation, and further, to set priorities and needs when it comes to infection prophylaxis, especially because such low incidence may indicate no need for improvement in infection control. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Surveillance Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to live in a world full of surveillance? In this documentary film, we take a look at everyday life in Denmark and how surveillance technologies and practices influence our norms and social behaviour. Researched and directed by Btihaj Ajana and Anders Albrechtslund....

  9. Burden of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Guatemala 2008-2012: results from a facility-based surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen R; Lopez, Beatriz; Arvelo, Wences; Henao, Olga; Parsons, Michele B; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Lindblade, Kim

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. This study describes the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter diarrheal infections in two facility-based surveillance sites in Guatemala. Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data were collected on patients presenting with acute diarrhea from select healthcare facilities in the departments of Santa Rosa and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, from January 2008 through August 2012. Stool specimens were cultured for Campylobacter and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a subset of isolates. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. Campylobacter was isolated from 306 (6.0%) of 5137 stool specimens collected. For children Guatemala; antimicrobial resistance was high, and treatment regimens in the ambulatory setting which included metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and lacked oral rehydration were sub-optimal. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in Hamadan Province during 2009-2015: results from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Ayubi, Erfan; Karami, Manoochehr; Khazaei, Salman; Shojaeian, Masoud; Zamani, Reza; Mansori, Kamyar; Gholamaliee, Behzad

    2017-08-01

    Human brucellosis and recurrent brucellosis is an ever-increasing public health concern, especially in endemic areas like Iran. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the epidemiology and determinants of recurrent brucellosis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate epidemiological patterns and potential determinants of recurrent brucellosis in Hamadan Province during the years 2009-2015. Data on reported cases of new and recurrent brucellosis from 2009 to 2015 were obtained from the provincial Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Incidence rates per 100000 were estimated at the county level. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of background characteristics and recurrent brucellosis. The power of discrimination of the model for recurrent brucellosis was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC). Among 7318 brucellosis cases, the total frequency (%) of recurrent cases was 472 (6.45%). The rate of recurrent brucellosis was higher in females, people aged 50 years and over, people with a history of consuming unpasteurized dairy products with no history of contact with animals, and in the winter season. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.65), age ≥55 years (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.32-7.42), consumption of unpasteurized dairy products (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 0.96-1.40), and winter season (AOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03-1.71) are potential risk factors for recurrent brucellosis. The final model that involved all the determinants showed moderate discrimination (AUC 0.61). Female sex, older age, and winter months were found to be significant determinants of recurrent human brucellosis. Enhanced surveillance systems with an emphasis on these population characteristics will allow effective preventive and protective measures to be implemented and might alleviate the recurrence of brucellosis in the

  11. Relationship of Eating Patterns and Metabolic Parameters, and Teneligliptin Treatment: Interim Results from Post-marketing Surveillance in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Takashi; Haneda, Masakazu; Ito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Hiraide, Sonoe; Matsukawa, Miyuki; Ueno, Makoto

    2018-06-01

    Healthy eating is a critical aspect of the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Disrupted eating patterns can result in poor glucose control and increase the likelihood of diabetic complications. Teneligliptin inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity for 24 h and suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia after all three daily meals. This interim analysis of data from the large-scale post-marketing surveillance of teneligliptin (RUBY) in Japan examined eating patterns and their relationship with metabolic parameters and diabetic complications. We also examined whether eating patterns affected safety and efficacy of teneligliptin. We analyzed baseline data from survey forms collected in RUBY between May 2013 and June 2017, including patient characteristics, metabolic parameters, and eating patterns (eating three meals per day or not; timing of evening meal) before teneligliptin treatment was initiated. Safety and efficacy of 12 months' teneligliptin (20-40 mg/day) treatment was assessed. Data from 10,532 patients were available for analysis. Most patients who did not eat three meals per day (n  =757) or who ate their evening meal after 10 PM (n  =206) were 64 years old or younger. At baseline, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were higher in those patients who did not eat three meals per day (p < 0.05) or who ate their evening meal late (p < 0.05). Diabetic complications were more common in patients who did not eat three meals per day. Treatment with teneligliptin reduced HbA1c over 6 or 12 months across all eating patterns, with a low incidence of adverse drug reactions. Eating patterns may be associated with altered metabolic parameters and diabetic complications among Japanese patients with T2DM. Teneligliptin may be well tolerated and improve hyperglycemia in patients

  12. Pre-Preliminary results from the phase III of the IAEA CRP: optimizing of reactor pressure vessel surveillance programmes and their analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumovsky, M; Gillemot, F; Kryukov, A; Levit, V

    1994-12-31

    This paper gives preliminary results and some conclusions from Phase III of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on ``Optimizing the Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Programmes and their Analyses`` carried out during the last seven years in 15 member states. First analysis concerned: comparison of results from initial, un-irradiated materials condition, comparison of transition temperature shifts (from notch toughness testing) with respect to content of residual (P, Cu) and alloying (Ni) elements, type of material (base and weld metal), irradiation temperature (288 and 265 C), and type of fluence dependence. Special effort has been taken to the analysis of the behaviour of a chosen reference steel. (JRQ). 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Potential for criticality in Hanford tanks resulting from retrieval of tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.A.; Sterne, R.J.; Mattigod, S.V.

    1996-09-01

    This report assesses the potential during retrieval operations for segregation and concentration of fissile material to result in a criticality. The sluicing retrieval of C-106 sludge to AY-102 and the operation of mixer pumps in SY-102 are examined in some detail. These two tanks (C-106, SY-102) were selected because of the near term plans for retrieval of these tanks and their high plutonium inventories relative to other tanks. Although all underground storage tanks are subcritical by a wide margin if assumed to be uniform in composition, the possibility retrieval operations could preferentially segregate the plutonium and locally concentrate it sufficiently to result in criticality was a concern. This report examines the potential for this segregation to occur

  14. Transition to CCTV surveillance for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaertner, K.J.; Heaysman, B.; Kerr, R.E.; Rundquist, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    After many years of development effort and as a result of regular maintenance the Agency's most important optical surveillance system, the Twin Minolta, has matured to a highly reliable, economic and user friendly equipment. In 1986 its reliability was 95.7%, including human failures. However, because they are no longer available, the Agency is forced to replace the Minolta Super 8 cameras by adequate Closed Circuit Television systems. Ten years of experience with television systems clearly indicate that they must work actively to improve the overall reliability of CCTV systems. The recording units, from the authors experience, are the most critical components. Therefore new systems - already existing or under development - focus on this aspect. The Multiplex TV Surveillance System (MUX), uses redundant time lapse recorders, which are specifically designed for surveillance applications. The Compact Surveillance Monitoring System (COSMOS) will be using low speed time lapse recorders which are specifically developed for still-picture recording surveillance applications. The Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS) will use two redundant 8 mm video recorders to achieve the goal of high reliability. It is their understanding that this intensive consideration of reliability aspects in the design phase will also result in a decrease in maintenance and operational costs for the Agency in the future

  15. Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance in New York State, 2006-2008: results from a new surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Readhead

    Full Text Available HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR is a public health concern because it has the potential to compromise antiretroviral therapy (ART at the population level. In New York State, high prevalence of TDR in a local cohort and a multiclass resistant case cluster led to the development and implementation of a statewide resistance surveillance system.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 13,109 cases of HIV infection that were newly diagnosed and reported in New York State between 2006 and 2008, including 4,155 with HIV genotypes drawn within 3 months of initial diagnosis and electronically reported to the new resistance surveillance system. We assessed compliance with DHHS recommendations for genotypic resistance testing and estimated TDR among new HIV diagnoses.Of 13,109 new HIV diagnoses, 9,785 (75% had laboratory evidence of utilization of HIV-related medical care, and 4,155 (43% had a genotype performed within 3 months of initial diagnosis. Of these, 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.2%-12.1% had any evidence of TDR. The proportion with mutations associated with any antiretroviral agent in the NNRTI, NRTI or PI class was 6.3% (5.5%-7.0%, 4.3% (3.6%-4.9% and 2.9% (2.4%-3.4%, respectively. Multiclass resistance was observed in <1%. TDR did not increase significantly over time (p for trend = 0.204. Men who have sex with men were not more likely to have TDR than persons with heterosexual risk factor (OR 1.0 (0.77-1.30. TDR to EFV+TDF+FTC and LPV/r+TDF+FTC regimens was 7.1% (6.3%-7.9% and 1.4% (1.0%-1.8%, respectively.TDR appears to be evenly distributed and stable among new HIV diagnoses in New York State; multiclass TDR is rare. Less than half of new diagnoses initiating care received a genotype per DHHS guidelines.

  16. Non typical results of the first and second irradiation set of the surveillance programme of a boiling water reactor in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, G; Krompholz, K [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    In the surveillance programme for the pressure vessel of the Muhleberg NPP in Switzerland, tensile and impact tests on the base material (ASTM A 508 Cl 2) and two weldments (main and automatic) as well as the heat affected zone, were performed with two sets of irradiation (neutron fluence of 5.5.10{sup 17} and 1.1.10{sup 18}) leading to different shifts of the transition temperature (except for the automatic welded joints which keep the same large shift). Results and causes of the discrepancy are discussed. (authors). 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Suspected adverse reactions to contrast media in Campania Region (Italy): results from 14 years of post-marketing surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Maurizio; Rossi, Claudia; Mascolo, Annamaria; Grassi, Enrico; Fiorentino, Sonia; Scavone, Cristina; Reginelli, Alfonso; Rotondo, Antonio; Sportiello, Liberata

    2015-01-01

    During the last years in Italy, contrast media (CM) use increased. An increase of monitoring activities on CM-induced adverse drug reaction (ADR) is necessary, also in our regional territory. The main aim of this study was to give a preliminary evaluation of all Spontaneous Reports of ADRs (SRA) attributed to CM sent to Campania Pharmacovigilance Regional Center (CRFVC) from 01 January 2001 to 31 October 2014. For each SRA we evaluated: frequency and source, ADRs onset (time to event, seriousness and outcome), socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors of cases, the most reported CM (checking for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions). A total of 111 SRA were sent to CRFVC; specialist in radiology was the main source of reports. Ninety-seven SRA (87.3%) were referable to hypersensitivity reactions. Thirty-four SRA (30.6%) reported serious ADRs. The most reported CM were iopamidol, gadobenic acid and gadoteric acid. We identified two SRA induced by pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions. During 14 years of post-marketing surveillance, only few SRA concerning CM-induced ADRs were sent to CRFVC probably due to underreporting. We aim to improve monitoring activity on CM-induced ADRs especially in hospitals. Most reported ADR and CM were in line with current body of literature.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative hospital isolates: results of the Turkish HITIT-2 Surveillance Study of 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, D; Hascelik, G; Aydin, N; Telli, M; Gültekin, M; Ogülnç, D; Arikan, O A; Uysal, S; Yaman, A; Kibar, F; Gülay, Z; Sumerkan, B; Esel, D; Kayacan, C B; Aktas, Z; Soyletir, G; Altinkanat, G; Durupinar, B; Darka, O; Akgün, Y; Yayla, B; Gedikoglu, S; Sinirtas, M; Berktas, M; Yaman, G

    2009-08-01

    Resistance rates to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, cefoperazone/sulbactam and piperacillin/tazobactam in Escherichia coli (n= 438), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 444), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n= 210) and Acinetobacter baumanni (n=200) were determined with e-test in a multicenter surveillance study (Hitit-2) in 2007. ESBL production in Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae was investigated following the CLSI guidelines. Overall 42.0% of E.coli and 41.4% of K. pneumoniae were ESBL producers. In E. coli , resistance to imipenem was not observed, resistance to ciprofloxacin and amikacin was 58.0% and 5.5% respectively. In K. pneumoniae resistance to imipenem, ciprofloxacin and amikacin was 3.1%, 17.8% 12.4% respectively. In P. aeruginosa the lowest rate of resistance was observed with piperacillin/tazobactam (18.1%). A. baumanni isolates were highly resistant to all the antimicrobial agents, the lowest level of resistance was observed against cefoperazone/sulbactam (52.0%) followed by imipenem (55.5%). this study showed that resistance rates to antimicrobials are high in nosocomial isolates and show variations among the centers.

  19. Trends in Nonfatal Agricultural Injury in Maine and New Hampshire: Results From a Low-Cost Passive Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Erika; Bell, Erin; Hirabayashi, Liane; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture is a dangerous industry, and although data on fatal injuries exist, less is known about nonfatal injuries. The purpose of this study is to describe trends in agricultural morbidity in Maine and New Hampshire from 2008 to 2010 using a newly established passive surveillance system. This passive system is supplied by injury cases gathered from prehospital care reports and hospital data. Demographics and specifics of the event were recorded for each incident case. The average age of injured people in Maine and New Hampshire was 41.7. Women constituted 43.8% of all agricultural injuries. Machinery- (n = 303) and animal- (n = 523) related injuries accounted for most agricultural incidents. Of all injured women, over 60% sustained injuries due to animal-related causes. Agricultural injuries were spread across the two states, with clustering in southern New Hampshire and south central Maine, with additional injuries in the Aroostook County area, which is located in the northeast part of the state. Seasonal variation in agricultural injuries was evident with peaks in the summer months. There was some overlap between the agricultural and logging industry for tree-related work. Our methods are able to capture traumatic injury in agriculture in sufficient detail to prioritize interventions and to evaluate outcomes. The system is low-cost and has the potential to be sustained over a long period. Differences in rates of animal- and machinery-related injuries suggest the need for state-specific safety prioritization.

  20. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    The notorious intensification and digitalization of surveillance technologies and practices in today’s society has brought about numerous changes. These changes have been widely noticed, described and discussed across many academic disciplines. However, the contexts of entertainment, play...

  1. Exploring the utility of cardiorespiratory fitness as a population health surveillance indicator for children and youth: An international analysis of results from the 20-m shuttle run test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Justin J

    2018-02-01

    Emerging evidence has demonstrated the strong link between cardiorespiratory fitness and multiple aspects of health (i.e., physiological, physical, psychosocial, cognitive), independent of physical activity, among school-aged children and youth. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a trait that does not vary substantially from day-to-day, and provides an indication of recent physical activity levels, making it an important possible indicator of population health. Thus, the objective of this dissertation was to investigate the utility of cardiorespiratory fitness, measured using the 20-m shuttle run test, as a broad, holistic health indicator for population health surveillance among children and youth. To achieve this objective we completed 7 manuscripts, all prepared for submission to peer-reviewed, scientific journals: (1) Systematic review of the relationship between 20-m shuttle run performance and health indicators among children and youth. (2) Review of criterion-referenced standards for cardiorespiratory fitness: what percentage of 1 142 026 international children and youth are apparently healthy? (3) Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with physical literacy in a large sample of Canadian children aged 8 to 12 years. (4) International variability in 20-m shuttle run performance in children and youth: Who are the fittest from a 50-country comparison? A systematic review with pooling of aggregate results. (5) Making a case for cardiorespiratory fitness surveillance among children and youth. (6) International normative 20-m shuttle run values from 1 142 026 children and youth representing 50 countries. (7) Temporal trends in the cardiorespiratory fitness of children and adolescents representing 19 high-income and upper middle-income countries between 1981 and 2014. Combined, this dissertation provides support for the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness for health surveillance among school-aged children and youth. Results from the international analysis

  2. Chlorophyll Synthase under Epigenetic Surveillance Is Critical for Vitamin E Synthesis, and Altered Expression Affects Tocopherol Levels in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Guodong; Li, Delin; Cahoon, Rebecca E.; Chen, Ming; Zhou, Yongming; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll synthase catalyzes the final step in chlorophyll biosynthesis: the esterification of chlorophyllide with either geranylgeranyl diphosphate or phytyl diphosphate (PDP). Recent studies have pointed to the involvement of chlorophyll-linked reduction of geranylgeranyl by geranylgeranyl reductase as a major pathway for the synthesis of the PDP precursor of tocopherols. This indirect pathway of PDP synthesis suggests a key role of chlorophyll synthase in tocopherol production to generate the geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll substrate for geranylgeranyl reductase. In this study, contributions of chlorophyll synthase to tocopherol formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were explored by disrupting and altering expression of the corresponding gene CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLSYN; At3g51820). Leaves from the homozygous chlysyn1-1 null mutant were nearly devoid of tocopherols, whereas seeds contained only approximately 25% of wild-type tocopherol levels. Leaves of RNA interference lines with partial suppression of CHLSYN displayed marked reductions in chlorophyll but up to a 2-fold increase in tocopherol concentrations. Cauliflower mosaic virus35S-mediated overexpression of CHLSYN unexpectedly caused a cosuppression phenotype at high frequencies accompanied by strongly reduced chlorophyll content and increased tocopherol levels. This phenotype and the associated detection of CHLSYN-derived small interfering RNAs were reversed with CHLSYN overexpression in rna-directed rna polymerase6 (rdr6), which is defective in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase6, a key enzyme in sense transgene-induced small interfering RNA production. CHLSYN overexpression in rdr6 had little effect on chlorophyll content but resulted in up to a 30% reduction in tocopherol levels in leaves. These findings show that altered CHLSYN expression impacts tocopherol levels and also, show a strong epigenetic surveillance of CHLSYN to control chlorophyll and tocopherol synthesis. PMID:26048882

  3. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Zajko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital “content” through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the internet, as well as the increasing use of algorithms to make legal distinctions. New technologies have threatened the profits of some media industries through copyright infringement, but also enabled profitable forms of mass copyright surveillance and enforcement. Rather than a system of perfect control, copyright enforcement continues to be selective and uneven, but its broad reach results in systemic harm and provides opportunities for exploitation. It is only by scrutinizing copyright surveillance practices and copyright enforcement measures that we can evaluate these consequences.

  4. Carbapenem non-susceptible enterobacteriaceae in Quebec, Canada: results of a laboratory surveillance program (2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Lefebvre

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE represent a major public health concern because these bacteria are usually extensively resistant to most antibiotics. In order to evaluate their dissemination in Quebec, a surveillance program was introduced in 2010. We report the molecular and epidemiological profiles of CPE isolates collected. Between August 2010 and December 2012, a total of 742 non-duplicate isolates non-susceptible to carbapenems were analysed. AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase production were detected by Etest and carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test (MHT. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined using broth microdilution or Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The presence of genes encoding carbapenemases as well as other β-lactamases was detected using PCR. Of the 742 isolates tested, 169 (22.8% were CPE. Of these 169 isolates, 151 (89.3% harboured a blaKPC gene while the remaining isolates carried blaSME (n = 9, blaOXA-48 (n = 5, blaNDM (n = 3, and blaNMC (n = 1 genes. Among the 93 KPC strains presenting with a unique pattern (unique PFGE pattern and/or unique antibiotics susceptibility profile, 99% were resistant to ertapenem, 95% to imipenem, 87% to meropenem, 97% to aztreonam, 31% to colistin and 2% to tigecycline. In 19 patients, 2 to 5 KPC strains from different species or with a different PFGE pattern were isolated. CPE strains were present in the province of Quebec with the majority of strains harbouring KPC. Alternately, SME, OXA-48 and NMC containing strains were rarely found.

  5. Application of the cultured epidermal autograft "JACE(®") for treatment of severe burns: Results of a 6-year multicenter surveillance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hajime; Matsushima, Asako; Ueyama, Masashi; Kumagai, Norio

    2016-06-01

    In the 1970s, Green et al. developed a method that involved culturing keratinocyte sheets and used for treatment of burns. Since then, the take rate of cultured epidermal autograft (CEA) onto fascia, granulation tissue, or allografts has been extensively reported, while that on an artificial dermis in a large case series is not. Moreover, the contribution of CEA to patient survival has not been analyzed in a multicenter study. We conducted a 6-year multicenter surveillance on the application of the CEA "JACE(®") for treatment of burns >30% total body surface area (TBSA) across 118 Japanese hospitals. This surveillance included 216 patients and 718 graft sites for efficacy analysis. The CEA take rate at 4 weeks after grafting was evaluated, and safety was monitored until 52 weeks. In addition, the survival curve obtained in this study and the data obtained from the Tokyo Burn Unit Association (TBUA) were compared. The mean CEA take rates at week 4 were 66% (sites) and 68% (patients), and the rate on the artificial dermis was 65% for 226 sites. CEA application combined with wide split-thickness auto or patch autograft increased the CEA take rate. On comparison with the data obtained from the TBUA, which included data on individuals with burns of the same severity, CEA application was found to contribute to patient survival until 7 weeks after burn. We reported the take rate of CEA based on a 6-year multicenter surveillance. From our results, we found that the application of CEA is a useful treatment for the patients with extensive burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental performance and results of the critical pebble bed facility KAHTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, F. J.; Drueke, V.; Kirch, N.; Neef, R. D.

    1974-10-15

    The paper provides a description and results of critical experiments performed in KAHTER fueled with pebbles containing coated particles of HEU/Th oxide with a ratio of uranium-to-thorium of 1.1:5. Core loadings with varying amounts of fuel and solid graphite pebbles were tested with fuel-to-graphite pebble ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. Tests included criticality for various fuel loadings with all control rods removed, control rod worths for reflector-mounted control as single rods and in a bank and control worths for a central control rod, reaction rates by flux wire activations (Dy, Mn, In, Au, and U-235) and detector measurements (BF3 and fission chamber), simulated xenon stability testing using the motions of a Cf-252 source and Cd-absorber observed by an externally-located BF3 detector, and the reactivity worth of a Hf burnable absorber. For calculations of the room-temperature zero-power critical experiment, the values for nitrogen and hydrogen contents of the graphite were taken from previous experiments in CESAR.

  7. Results of 16 years' experiments at the critical facility of Valduc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houelle, M.; Mangin, D.; Maubert, L.

    After briefly recalling the sub-critical approach procedure, the fields of experimental studies on criticality explored at the Valduc Criticality Station since 1963 are listed. This was the year in which the ''appareillage B'' went into service as the first installation of sub-critical experiments of the Section [fr

  8. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation.

  9. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site's 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation

  10. Exploring differences between average and critical engineering changes: Survey results from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Stefan; Maier, Anja; Wilberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    , such as characterisations of changes, causes, initiators, objectives, effects, and potential strategies, and software support to anticipate and handle changes. Studying characterisations of changes, some investigate late engineering changes (e.g. [Coughlan 1992]), others describe strategies to detect avoidable and to cope...... is structured as follows: Section 2 describes in brief what motivated criticality of engineering changes as the research focus of this paper and outlines the data acquisition and analysis procedure. We present results of this study in Section 3. Section 4 summarises contributions and concludes with suggestions...

  11. Limits on surveillance: frictions, fragilities and failures in the operation of camera surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2004-01-01

    Public video surveillance tends to be discussed in either utopian or dystopian terms: proponents maintain that camera surveillance is the perfect tool in the fight against crime, while critics argue that the use of security cameras is central to the development of a panoptic, Orwellian surveillance

  12. Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G.

    1997-10-01

    The Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) was originally constructed during 1980 and was designed to be a clean free-field geometry, right-circular, cylindrically symmetric critical assembly employing U(5%)O 2 F 2 solution as fuel. A second version of SHEBA, employing the same fuel but equipped with a fuel pump and shielding pit, was commissioned in 1993. This report includes data and operating experience for the 1993 SHEBA only. Solution-fueled benchmark work focused on the development of experimental measurements of the characterization of SHEBA; a summary of the results are given. A description of the system and the experimental results are given in some detail in the report. Experiments were designed to: (1) study the behavior of nuclear excursions in a low-enrichment solution, (2) evaluate accidental criticality alarm detectors for fuel-processing facilities, (3) provide radiation spectra and dose measurements to benchmark radiation transport calculations on a low-enrichment solution system similar to centrifuge enrichment plants, and (4) provide radiation fields to calibrate personnel dosimetry. 15 refs., 37 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  14. Results of the national surveillance of antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacteriaceae and Gram negative bacilli in health care-associated infections in Colombia, 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Ovalle

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The data from the surveillance of healthcare-associated infections revealed significant carbapenem resistance profiles and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms circulating in Colombian healthcare institutions.

  15. Critical Joints in Large Composite Primary Aircraft Structures. Volume 3: Ancillary Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.; Sagui, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints for composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of a comprehensive ancillary test program are summarized, consisting of single-bolt composite joint specimens tested in a variety of configurations. These tests were conducted to characterize the strength and load deflection properties that are required for multirow joint analysis. The composite material was Toray 300 fiber and Ciba-Geigy 914 resin, in the form of 0.005 and 0.01 inch thick unidirectional tape. Tests were conducted in single and double shear for loaded and unloaded hole configurations under both tensile and compressive loading. Two different layup patterns were examined. All tests were conducted at room temperature. In addition, the results of NASA Standard Toughness Test (NASA RP 1092) are reported, which were conducted for several material systems.

  16. Critical experiments carried out with a homogeneous plutonium solution. Experimental results. Theoretical interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouly, J.C.; Caizergues, R.; Deilgat, E.; Houelle, M.; Lecorche, P.

    1967-01-01

    This report groups together a series of experimental and theoretical studies on cylinders and plates of solution tried out at the Valduc Centre. a) Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results obtained on critical heights of solutions. b) Study of the effect of nitrogen, introduced in the form of the ion NO 3- , on the reactivity of fissile media. c) Study of the effect of 240 94 Pu on the reactivity of these media. d) Study of the influence of the dimensions of the inner cavity of annular cylinders, as well as of the influence of the moderator which may be introduced. Simple results were obtained which were easy to apply. An extrapolation to other geometries is made. (authors) [fr

  17. Perceived Discrimination, Psychological Distress, and Current Smoking Status: Results From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race Module, 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppone, Luke J.; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J.; Carroll, Jennifer K.; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. Methods. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Results. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination–smoking association. Conclusions. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment. PMID:22420821

  18. The Criticality of Connecting People to Financial Results ‒ an ROI Calculation Model for Romanian FSOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Niculescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Organisational culture and employee engagement have been the focus of recent broad-based research efforts. Adding this concern to the revealed importance of performance indicators on human capital, and that their use is getting momentum, in order to attach financial values to knowledge management assets, it becomes more and more critical to measure human capital value. Key for Romanian FSO’s managers becomes to consider that both human and financial values have a focus on adding value in every process and function in the organisation, and to perpetuate organisational profitability by the corporate culture, on the one hand, where culture is a powerful factor that helps a company to engage, on the other hand, talented people. There is a substantial concern on using ROI on Learning and Development programmes, but whilst this is still declared, Romanian FSOs do not yet have a consistent method to measure it. This study is showing the criticality of connecting people to financial results and data analysis suggests that ROI calculation has a positive impact on creating and fostering a powerful organisational culture and that employees’ awareness of ROI values within their organisation has a powerful effect on their sense of engagement. Our findings have a more practical implication for the analysed industry by shaping a formal ROI measurement mechanisms blueprint, an ROI calculation model for the Romanian FSOs, in the form of a mechanism that could be employed when considering the design of an ROI Methodology for Romanian FSOs.

  19. Criticality benchmark results for the ENDF60 library with MCNP trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, N.D.; Frankle, S.C.; MacFarlane, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The continuous-energy neutron data library ENDF60, for use with the Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code MCNP4A, was released in the fall of 1994. The ENDF60 library is comprised of 124 nuclide data files based on the ENDF/B-VI (B-VI) evaluations through Release 2. Fifty-two percent of these B-VI evaluations are translations from ENDF/B-V (B-V). The remaining forty-eight percent are new evaluations which have sometimes changed significantly. Among these changes are greatly increased use of isotopic evaluations, more extensive resonance-parameter evaluations, and energy-angle correlated distributions for secondary particles. In particular, the upper energy limit for the resolved resonance region of 235 U, 238 U and 239 Pu has been extended from 0.082, 4.0, and 0.301 keV to 2..25, 10.0, and 2.5 keV respectively. As regulatory oversight has advanced and performing critical experiments has become more difficult, there has been an increased reliance on computational methods. For the criticality safety community, the performance of the combined transport code and data library is of interest. The purpose of this abstract is to provide benchmarking results to aid the user in determining the best data library for their application

  20. Identifying the Infection Control Areas Requiring Modifications in Thoracic Surgery Units: Results of a Two-Year Surveillance of Surgical Site Infections in Hospitals in Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Grzegorz; Rogoziński, Paweł; Żaloudik, Elżbieta; Bruliński, Krzysztof; Różańska, Anna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga

    2017-10-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is considered to be a priority in infection control. The objective of this study is the analysis of results of active targeted surveillance conducted over a two-year period in the Department of Thoracic Surgery at the Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery Center in Bystra, in southern Poland. The retrospective analysis was carried out on the basis of results of active monitoring of SSI in the 45-bed Department of Thoracic Surgery at the Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery Center in Bystra between April 1, 2014 and April 30, 2016. Surgical site infections were identified based on the definitions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) taking into account the time of symptom onset, specifically, whether the symptoms occurred within 30 d after the surgical procedure. Detection of SSI relied on daily inspection of incisions by a trained nurse, analysis of medical and nursing entries in the computer system, and analysis of all results of microbiologic tests taken in the unit and in the operating room. In the study period, data were collected regarding 1,387 treatment procedures meeting the registration criteria. Forty cases of SSI were detected yielding an incidence rate of 3%. Most cases (55%) were found in the course of hospitalization and 45% were detected after the patient's discharge. The SSIs were classified as follows: superficial, 37.5%; deep infections, 7.5%; and organ/space infection, 55%. Among patients who were diagnosed with SSI, most were male (77.5%). For patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score I-II the incidence rate was 2%; ASA score III or more, 3.7%. The incidence rate varied from 0.3% in clean surgical site to 6.5% in clean-contaminated site. The study validated the usefulness of targeted surveillance in monitoring SSIs in patients hospitalized in thoracic surgery departments. Surgical site infection surveillance identified areas of care requiring modifications, namely

  1. OECD/NEA burnup credit calculational criticality benchmark Phase I-B results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Brady, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-06-01

    In most countries, criticality analysis of LWR fuel stored in racks and casks has assumed that the fuel is fresh with the maximum allowable initial enrichment. This assumption has led to the design of widely spaced and/or highly poisoned storage and transport arrays. If credit is assumed for fuel burnup, initial enrichment limitations can be raised in existing systems, and more compact and economical arrays can be designed. Such reliance on the reduced reactivity of spent fuel for criticality control is referred to as burnup credit. The Burnup Credit Working Group, formed under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, has established a set of well-defined calculational benchmarks designed to study significant aspects of burnup credit computational methods. These benchmarks are intended to provide a means for the intercomparison of computer codes, methods, and data applied in spent fuel analysis. The benchmarks have been divided into multiple phases, each phase focusing on a particular feature of burnup credit analysis. This report summarizes the results and findings of the Phase I-B benchmark, which was proposed to provide a comparison of the ability of different code systems and data libraries to perform depletion analysis for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results included here represent 21 different sets of calculations submitted by 16 different organizations worldwide and are based on a limited set of nuclides determined to have the most important effect on the neutron multiplication factor of light-water-reactor spent fuel. A comparison of all sets of results demonstrates that most methods agree to within 10% in the ability to estimate the spent fuel concentrations of most actinides. All methods agree within 11% about the average for all fission products studied. Most deviations are less than 10%, and many are less than 5%. The exceptions are Sm 149, Sm 151, and Gd 155.

  2. OECD/NEA burnup credit calculational criticality benchmark Phase I-B results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.; Brady, M.C.

    1996-06-01

    In most countries, criticality analysis of LWR fuel stored in racks and casks has assumed that the fuel is fresh with the maximum allowable initial enrichment. This assumption has led to the design of widely spaced and/or highly poisoned storage and transport arrays. If credit is assumed for fuel burnup, initial enrichment limitations can be raised in existing systems, and more compact and economical arrays can be designed. Such reliance on the reduced reactivity of spent fuel for criticality control is referred to as burnup credit. The Burnup Credit Working Group, formed under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, has established a set of well-defined calculational benchmarks designed to study significant aspects of burnup credit computational methods. These benchmarks are intended to provide a means for the intercomparison of computer codes, methods, and data applied in spent fuel analysis. The benchmarks have been divided into multiple phases, each phase focusing on a particular feature of burnup credit analysis. This report summarizes the results and findings of the Phase I-B benchmark, which was proposed to provide a comparison of the ability of different code systems and data libraries to perform depletion analysis for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results included here represent 21 different sets of calculations submitted by 16 different organizations worldwide and are based on a limited set of nuclides determined to have the most important effect on the neutron multiplication factor of light-water-reactor spent fuel. A comparison of all sets of results demonstrates that most methods agree to within 10% in the ability to estimate the spent fuel concentrations of most actinides. All methods agree within 11% about the average for all fission products studied. Most deviations are less than 10%, and many are less than 5%. The exceptions are Sm 149, Sm 151, and Gd 155

  3. Critical incidence reporting systems - an option in equine anaesthesia? Results from a panel meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnack, Sonja; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Driessen, Bernd; Pang, Daniel; Wohlfender, Franziska

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief introduction into Critical Incident Reporting Systems (CIRS) as used in human medicine, and to report the discussion from a recent panel meeting discussion with 23 equine anaesthetists in preparation for a new CEPEF-4 (Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Equine Fatalities) study. Moderated group discussions, and review of literature. The first group discussion focused on the definition of 'preventable critical incidents' and/or 'near misses' in the context of equine anaesthesia. The second group discussion focused on categorizing critical incidents according to an established framework for analysing risk and safety in clinical medicine. While critical incidents do occur in equine anaesthesia, no critical incident reporting system including systematic collection and analysis of critical incidents is in place. Critical incident reporting systems could be used to improve safety in equine anaesthesia - in addition to other study types such as mortality studies. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  4. Creating a comprehensive customer service program to help convey critical and acute results of radiology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towbin, Alexander J; Hall, Seth; Moskovitz, Jay; Johnson, Neil D; Donnelly, Lane F

    2011-01-01

    Communication of acute or critical results between the radiology department and referring clinicians has been a deficiency of many radiology departments. The failure to perform or document these communications can lead to poor patient care, patient safety issues, medical-legal issues, and complaints from referring clinicians. To mitigate these factors, a communication and documentation tool was created and incorporated into our departmental customer service program. This article will describe the implementation of a comprehensive customer service program in a hospital-based radiology department. A comprehensive customer service program was created in the radiology department. Customer service representatives were hired to answer the telephone calls to the radiology reading rooms and to help convey radiology results. The radiologists, referring clinicians, and customer service representatives were then linked via a novel workflow management system. This workflow management system provided tools to help facilitate the communication needs of each group. The number of studies with results conveyed was recorded from the implementation of the workflow management system. Between the implementation of the workflow management system on August 1, 2005, and June 1, 2009, 116,844 radiology results were conveyed to the referring clinicians and documented in the system. This accounts for more than 14% of the 828,516 radiology cases performed in this time frame. We have been successful in creating a comprehensive customer service program to convey and document communication of radiology results. This program has been widely used by the ordering clinicians as well as radiologists since its inception.

  5. Recent results on analytical plasma turbulence theory: Realizability, intermittency, submarginal turbulence, and self-organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent results and future challenges in the systematic analytical description of plasma turbulence are described. First, the importance of statistical realizability is stressed, and the development and successes of the Realizable Markovian Closure are briefly reviewed. Next, submarginal turbulence (linearly stable but nonlinearly self-sustained fluctuations) is considered and the relevance of nonlinear instability in neutral-fluid shear flows to submarginal turbulence in magnetized plasmas is discussed. For the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, a self-consistency loop that leads to steady-state vortex regeneration in the presence of dissipation is demonstrated and a partial unification of recent work of Drake (for plasmas) and of Waleffe (for neutral fluids) is given. Brief remarks are made on the difficulties facing a quantitatively accurate statistical description of submarginal turbulence. Finally, possible connections between intermittency, submarginal turbulence, and self-organized criticality (SOC) are considered and outstanding questions are identified

  6. Initial tank calibration at NUCEF critical facility. 1. Measurement procedure and its result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Mineo, Hideaki; Tonoike, Kotaro; Takeshita, Isao; Hoshi, Katsuya; Hagiwara, Hiroyuki.

    1994-07-01

    Initial tank calibrations were carried out prior to hot operation of critical facilities in NUCEF: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility, for the purpose of the nuclear material accountancy and control for the facility. Raw calibration data were collected from single run per one tank by measuring differential pressure with dip-tube systems, weight of calibration liquid (demineralized water) poured into the tank, temperature in the tank and so on, without operation of tank ventilation system. Volume and level data were obtained by applying density and buoyancy corrections to the raw data. As a result, the evaluated measurement errors of volume and level were small enough, e.g. within 0.2 lit. and 1.0 mm, respectively, for Pu accountancy tanks. This paper summarizes the above-mentioned measurement procedures, collected data, data correction procedures and evaluated measurement errors. (author)

  7. Influenza surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bednarska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres - national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country.

  8. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  9. Perceived discrimination, psychological distress, and current smoking status: results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jason Q; Peppone, Luke J; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J; Carroll, Jennifer K; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R

    2012-05-01

    We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination-smoking association. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment.

  10. Marital status is an independent prognostic factor for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors patients: An analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yuanzhe; Song, Yiyan; Tan, Wulin; Qiu, Zeting; Li, Si; Chen, Qinchang; Gao, Shaowei

    2017-09-01

    Marital status's prognostic impact on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) has not been rigorously studied. We aimed to explore the relationship between marital status and outcomes of PNET. We retrospectively investigated 2060 PNET cases between 2004 and 2010 from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Variables were compared by Chi 2 test, t-test as appropriate. Kaplan-Meier methods and COX proportional hazard models were used to ascertain independent prognostic factors. Married patients had better 5-year overall survival (OS) (53.37% vs. 42.27%, Pvs. 59.82%, P=0.001) comparing with unmarried patients. Multivariate analysis revealed marital status is an independent prognostic factor, with married patients showing better OS (HR=0.74; 95% CI: 0.65-0.84; Punmarried patients may be associated with a delayed diagnosis with advanced tumor stage, psychosocial and socioeconomic factors. Further studies are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Readiness of the Belgian network of sentinel general practitioners to deliver electronic health record data for surveillance purposes: results of survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanthomme Katrien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to proceed from a paper based registration to a surveillance system that is based on extraction of electronic health records (EHR, knowledge is needed on the number and representativeness of sentinel GPs using a government-certified EHR system and the quality of EHR data for research, expressed in the compliance rate with three criteria: recording of home visits, use of prescription module and diagnostic subject headings. Methods Data were collected by annual postal surveys between 2005 and 2009 among all sentinel GPs. We tested relations between four key GP characteristics (age, gender, language community, practice organisation and use of a certified EHR system by multivariable logistic regression. The relation between EHR software package, GP characteristics and compliance with three quality criteria was equally measured by multivariable logistic regression. Results A response rate of 99% was obtained. Of 221 sentinel GPs, 55% participated in the surveillance without interruption from 2005 onwards, i.e. all five years, and 78% were participants in 2009. Sixteen certified EHR systems were used among 91% of the Dutch and 63% of the French speaking sentinel GPs. The EHR software package was strongly related to the community and only one EHR system was used by a comparable number of sentinel GPs in both communities. Overall, the prescription module was always used and home visits were usually recorded. Uniform subject headings were only sometimes used and the compliance with this quality criterion was almost exclusively related to the EHR software package in use. Conclusions The challenge is to progress towards a sentinel network of GPs delivering care-based data that are (partly extracted from well performing EHR systems and still representative for Belgian general practice.

  12. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-23

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens.

  13. Causes of death and competing risk analysis of the associated factors for non-small cell lung cancer using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shenhai; Tian, Jintao; Song, Xiaoping; Wu, Bingqun; Liu, Limin

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the probability of death (POD) from any causes by time after diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the factors associated with survival for NSCLC patients. A total of 202,914 patients with NSCLC from 2004 to 2013 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The overall survival (OS) and lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS) were calculated and POD from any causes at different time periods after diagnosis was explored. The predictive factors for OS, LCSS and survival from non-lung cancer deaths were investigated using multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression and competing risk regression analysis. The 5- and 10-year OS were 20.4% and 11.5%, accordingly that for LCSS were 25.5% and 18.4%, respectively. Lung cancer contributed 88.3% (n = 128,402) of the deaths. The POD from lung cancer decreased with time after diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, advanced age and advanced stage of NSCLC were associated with decreased OS and LCSS. Comparing to no surgery, any kind of resection conferred lower risk of death from lung cancer and higher risk of dying from non-lung cancer conditions except lobectomy or bilobectomy, which was associated with lower risk of death from both lung cancer and non-lung cancer conditions. Most of the patients with NSCLC died from lung cancer. Rational surveillance and treatment policies should be made for them. Early stage and lobectomy or bilobectomy were associated with improved OS and LCSS. It is reasonable to focus on early detection and optimal surgical treatment for NSCLC.

  14. Planning an innovation marathon at an infectious disease conference with results from the International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance 2016 Hackathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Ramatowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A hackathon is best described as an ‘innovation marathon’. Derived from the words ‘hacking’ and ‘marathon’, it brings together multidisciplinary teams to collaborate intensely over a short period of time to define a problem, devise a solution, and design a working prototype. International scientific meetings are conducive to successful hackathons, providing an audience of expert professionals who describe challenges and ensure the proposed solutions address end-user needs. Collaborations with local organizations and academic centers are crucial to attracting complementary specialties such as IT advisors, engineers, and entrepreneurs to develop sustainable projects. The core process of first identifying and deconstructing a problem followed by solution iteration is applicable to challenges at workplaces around the world. Ultimately, this model can be used to drive innovation and catalyze change in the global health community. The planning, execution, and outcomes of a hackathon event organized in conjunction with the International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance (IMED 2016 are described in this article. Physicians, public health practitioners, veterinarians, IT professionals, engineers, and entrepreneurs came together for 2 days to develop solutions at the intersection of emerging infectious diseases and climate change. Projects that resulted from the IMED 2016 Hackathon included environmental impact assessment software for humanitarian organization relief efforts; enhanced communication tools to prevent disease outbreaks; a participatory mobile application to speed the elimination of rabies in Indonesia; integrated disease surveillance platforms; and an improved search function for infectious disease outbreak reports in the ProMED-mail network. Keywords: Hackathon, Innovation, Infectious diseases, Public health, Medical meeting, Interdisciplinary, Emerging infectious diseases

  15. Planning an innovation marathon at an infectious disease conference with results from the International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance 2016 Hackathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramatowski, John W; Lee, Christopher Xiang; Mantzavino, Aikaterini; Ribas, João; Guerra, Winter; Preston, Nicholas D; Schernhammer, Eva; Madoff, Lawrence C; Lassmann, Britta

    2017-12-01

    A hackathon is best described as an 'innovation marathon'. Derived from the words 'hacking' and 'marathon', it brings together multidisciplinary teams to collaborate intensely over a short period of time to define a problem, devise a solution, and design a working prototype. International scientific meetings are conducive to successful hackathons, providing an audience of expert professionals who describe challenges and ensure the proposed solutions address end-user needs. Collaborations with local organizations and academic centers are crucial to attracting complementary specialties such as IT advisors, engineers, and entrepreneurs to develop sustainable projects. The core process of first identifying and deconstructing a problem followed by solution iteration is applicable to challenges at workplaces around the world. Ultimately, this model can be used to drive innovation and catalyze change in the global health community. The planning, execution, and outcomes of a hackathon event organized in conjunction with the International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance (IMED 2016) are described in this article. Physicians, public health practitioners, veterinarians, IT professionals, engineers, and entrepreneurs came together for 2days to develop solutions at the intersection of emerging infectious diseases and climate change. Projects that resulted from the IMED 2016 Hackathon included environmental impact assessment software for humanitarian organization relief efforts; enhanced communication tools to prevent disease outbreaks; a participatory mobile application to speed the elimination of rabies in Indonesia; integrated disease surveillance platforms; and an improved search function for infectious disease outbreak reports in the ProMED-mail network. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Extended result reading window in lateral flow tests detecting exposure to Onchocerca volvulus: a new technology to improve epidemiological surveillance tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Golden

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus (Ov. An estimated 180 million people are at risk for Ov infection, and 37 million people are infected, mostly in Africa. A lateral flow-based assay to detect human IgG4 antibodies to the Ov-specific antigen Ov-16 was developed as a rapid tool to detect exposure to Ov. The test, when performed on 449 sera specimens from patients with microfiladermia and Ov-negative patients, has a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% confidence interval: 86.2%-92.0%, and specificity of 97% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%-98.6%. Because the intended use of the test is for surveillance, it is highly desirable to have a stable, long-lasting result. An extended read window is thus desirable for a high-volume, busy workflow and facilitates post-surveillance quality assurance. The main restriction on achieving an extended read window for this assay was the erythrocyte lysis that can alter the signal-to-noise ratio, especially in those with low IgG4 levels (weak positives. We describe a test housing that incorporates a user-independent feature driven by assay fluid and an expanding wick that detaches the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose used in the assay, but before hemolysis occurs. We demonstrated material functionality at extreme operational conditions (37°C, 80% relative humidity and a read window of a minimum of 70 days. The fluid-driven assay device performs equally as well with whole blood as with plasma, as demonstrated with 100 spiked clinical specimens (with a correlation coefficient of 0.96. We show a novel, inexpensive, and simple approach to actuating the detachment of the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose test with no impact on the performance characteristics of the test.

  17. Results of Questionnaire for the member of JHPS concerning the criticality accident at Tokai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    During the investigation of the criticality accident at Tokai occurring on Sep. 30, 1999, the project team in Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) carried out a questionnaire for the member on the accident and this paper summarized its results. The effective answer was obtained in 36% of members. Major questions (and frequent answers) were: media of information obtained (internet 33%, TV and radio 22%, and newspaper 19%); concerning actions done by Japanese and local governments, the recommendation on Sep. 30 at 15:00 of evacuation for people living in the area within the radius of 350 m (necessary 92%), timing of its release on Oct. 2 at 18:30 (appropriate 41% and too late 36%) and its information to the people (more information needed 60%) and the recommendation on Sep. 30 at 22:30 of in-door refuge within 10 km radius (unnecessary 43% and necessary 41%), timing of its release on Oct. 1 at 16:40 (too late 49%) and its information to the people (more information needed 63%); and safety declaration for food etc. on Oct. 2 at 18:30 (necessary 92%). Based on above results and free description on the questionnaire, JHPS considered the necessity of described systems of JHPS for emergency.(K.H.)

  18. Non-Maxwellian electron distributions resulting from direct laser acceleration in near-critical plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toncian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The irradiation of few-nm-thick targets by a finite-contrast high-intensity short-pulse laser results in a strong pre-expansion of these targets at the arrival time of the main pulse. The targets decompress to near and lower than critical densities with plasmas extending over few micrometers, i.e. multiple wavelengths. The interaction of the main pulse with such a highly localized but inhomogeneous target leads to the generation of a short channel and further self-focusing of the laser beam. Experiments at the Glass Hybrid OPCPA Scaled Test-bed (GHOST laser system at University of Texas, Austin using such targets measured non-Maxwellian, peaked electron distribution with large bunch charge and high electron density in the laser propagation direction. These results are reproduced in 2D PIC simulations using the EPOCH code, identifying direct laser acceleration (DLA [1] as the responsible mechanism. This is the first time that DLA has been observed to produce peaked spectra as opposed to broad, Maxwellian spectra observed in earlier experiments [2]. This high-density electrons have potential applications as injector beams for a further wakefield acceleration stage as well as for pump-probe applications.

  19. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  20. Health surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Code includes a number of requirements for the health surveillance of employees associated with the mining and milling of radioactive ores. This guideline is particularly directed at determining the level of fitness of employees and prospective employees, detecting any symptom which might contraindicate exposure to the environment encountered in mine/mill situations, examination of any employee who may have been exposed to radiation in excess of defined limits and the accumulation and provision of data on the health of employees

  1. Some existence results for a fourth order equation involving critical exponent

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Ayed, M; Hammami, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a fourth order equation involving critical growth is considered under the Navier boundary condition: DELTA sup 2 u = Ku sup p , u > 0 in OMEGA, u = DELTA u = 0 on partial deriv OMEGA, where K is a positive function, OMEGA is a bounded smooth domain in R sup n , n >= 5 and p + 1 2n/(n - 4) is the critical Sobolev exponent. We give some topological conditions on K to ensure the existence of solutions. Our methods involve the study of the critical points at infinity and their contribution to the topology of the level sets of the associated Euler Lagrange functional.

  2. MCNP qualification on the HTR critical configurations: HTTR, HTR10 and PROTEUS results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRAKAS, Christos; STOVEN, Gilles [AREVA NP, Tour Areva, 92084 Paris La Defence Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Recent critical experiments, including PROTEUS, HTTR and HTR-10 provide a reliable qualification base for HTR criticality predictions. The fuel tested in these experiments, be it hexagonal block or pebble type, is irradiated in a spectrum comparable to that of the HTR planned by AREVA NP. The neutron spectrum is comparable in all three cases; the mean C/M value for all critical cases is less than +350 pcm (JEF2.2), +250 pcm (JEFF3.1) and +60 pcm (ENDF BVI). The C/M obtained for the rods worth, the reaction rates and the isothermal coefficient are very satisfactory. (authors)

  3. Results from 15years of quality surveillance for a National Indigenous Point-of-Care Testing Program for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Mark; Shephard, Anne; McAteer, Bridgit; Regnier, Tamika; Barancek, Kristina

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes is a major health problem for Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Point-of-care testing for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been the cornerstone of a long-standing program (QAAMS) to manage glycaemic control in Indigenous people with diabetes and recently, to diagnose diabetes. The QAAMS quality management framework includes monthly testing of quality control (QC) and external quality assurance (EQA) samples. Key performance indicators of quality include imprecision (coefficient of variation [CV%]) and percentage acceptable results. This paper reports on the past 15years of quality testing in QAAMS and examines the performance of HbA1c POC testing at the 6.5% cut-off recommended for diagnosis. The total number of HbA1c EQA results submitted from 2002 to 2016 was 29,093. The median imprecision for EQA testing by QAAMS device operators averaged 2.81% (SD 0.50; range 2.2 to 3.9%) from 2002 to 2016 and 2.44% (SD 0.22; range 2.2 to 2.9%) from 2009 to 2016. No significant difference was observed between the median imprecision achieved in QAAMS and by Australasian laboratories from 2002 to 2016 (p=0.05; two-tailed paired t-test) and from 2009 to 2016 (p=0.17; two-tailed paired t-test). For QC testing from 2009 to 2016, imprecision averaged 2.5% and 3.0% for the two levels of QC tested. Percentage acceptable results averaged 90% for QA testing from 2002 to 2016 and 96% for QC testing from 2009 to 2016. The DCA Vantage was able to measure a patient and an EQA sample with an HbA1c value close to 6.5% both accurately and precisely. HbA1c POC testing in QAAMS has remained analytically sound, matched the quality achieved by Australasian laboratories and met profession-derived analytical goals for 15years. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. National surveillance of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in Denmark. Results from registration of 34,582 prescriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, K.V.; Thomsen, V O; Nissen, A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We wanted to characterize the use of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in Denmark (5,227,862 inhabitants). METHODS: All H. pylori eradication treatments from a nationwide database including all redeemed drug prescriptions in the period January 1994 to June 1996 were identified. So...... were all outpatients receiving a drug prescription for H. pylori eradication. RESULTS: We recorded 34,582 prescriptions for H. pylori eradication therapy given to 28,784 patients. The incidence of new consumers was 220 per 10(5) inhabitants per year, with a maximum at 70-79 years of age. Eighty-six per...... cent of the patients had only one treatment course. In 16% of the eradication therapies, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs had been prescribed within the previous 3 months, and 45% had an anti-ulcer drug prescribed 1-12 months after the H. pylori eradication therapy. Consumption of antibiotics used...

  5. Long term results of polytetrafluoroethylene in above knee femoropopliteal bypass for critical ischaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, E G

    2012-02-03

    Ninety-six consecutive above-knee femoropopliteal bypasses, using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) preferentially, were performed for limb-threatening ischaemia. Cumulative primary graft patency was 68 per cent, 49 per cent and 36 per cent and limb salvage 93 per cent, 85 per cent and 75 per cent at 1, 3 and 5 yr respectively. As a result of poor long term survival (51 per cent at 5 yr), and the healing of remedial lesions before graft occlusion, 68 patients (72 per cent) required no further intervention. Eighteen secondary bypasses were undertaken, 12 using ipsilateral saphenous vein. In this group of elderly patients with poor life expectancy, where a limited operation is desirable, the use of PTFE provided excellent limb salvage with low morbidity. Although we can no longer justify our continued use of PTFE in every case of critical ischaemia because of its inferior patency to autogenous vein, we continue to use it preferentially in patients whose lifespan is likely to be short and in cases where a remedial lesion is present.

  6. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  7. Top five industries resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-04-10

    Because industries using and/or producing chemicals are located in close proximity to populated areas, U.S. residents are at risk for unintentional chemical exposures. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. This report summarizes data for the top five industries resulting in injuries from an acute chemical incident (lasting truck transportation, educational services, chemical manufacturing, utilities, and food manufacturing) accounted for approximately one third of all incidents in which persons were injured as a result of unintentional release of chemicals; the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. Acute chemical incidents in these five industries resulted in serious public health implications including the need for evacuations, morbidity, and mortality. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Targeting chemical incident prevention and preparedness activities towards these five industries provides an efficient use of resources for reducing chemical exposures. A variety of methods can be used to minimize chemical releases in industries. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hierarchy of controls model, which focuses on controlling exposures to occupational hazards. The hierarchy includes elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment.

  8. Adoption of Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer From 2000 to 2006: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Patterns-of-Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, Raymond H.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Das, Prajnan; Hong, Theodore S.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The German rectal study determined that preoperative radiation therapy (RT) as a component of combined-modality therapy decreased local tumor recurrence, increased sphincter preservation, and decreased treatment toxicity compared with postoperative RT for rectal cancer. We evaluated the use of preoperative RT after the presentation of the landmark German rectal study results and examined the impact of tumor and sociodemographic factors on receiving preoperative RT. Methods and Materials: In total, 20,982 patients who underwent surgical resection for T3-T4 and/or node-positive rectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2000 through 2006 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results tumor registries. We analyzed trends in preoperative RT use before and after publication of the findings from the German rectal study. We also performed multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with receiving preoperative RT. Results: Among those treated with RT, the proportion of patients treated with preoperative RT increased from 33.3% in 2000 to 63.8% in 2006. After adjustment for age; gender; race/ethnicity; marital status; Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; county-level education; T stage; N stage; tumor size; and tumor grade, there was a significant association between later year of diagnosis and an increase in preoperative RT use (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26/y increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.29). When we compared the years before and after publication of the German rectal study (2000-2003 vs. 2004-2006), patients were more likely to receive preoperative RT than postoperative RT in 2004-2006 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-2.59). On multivariate analysis, patients who were older, who were female, and who resided in counties with lower educational levels had significantly decreased odds of receiving preoperative RT. Conclusions: After the publication of the landmark German rectal

  9. Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G.; Bounds, J.A.; Kimpland, R.H.; Damjanovich, R.P.; Jaegers, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were performed to measure a variety of parameters for SHEBA: behavior of the facility during transient and steady-state operation; characteristics of the SHEBA fuel; delayed-critical solution height vs solution temperature; initial reactor period and reactivity vs solution height; calibration of power level vs reactor power instrumentation readings; flux profile in SHEBA; radiation levels and neutron spectra outside the assembly for code verification and criticality alarm and dosimetry purposes; and effect on reactivity of voids in the fuel

  10. Final report : mobile surveillance and wireless communication systems field operational test. Volume 2, FOT objectives, organization, system design, results, conclusions, and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The Mobile Surveillance and Wireless Communication Systems Field Operational Test (FOT) evaluated the performance of wireless traffic detection and communications systems in areas where permanent detectors, electrical power, and landline communicatio...

  11. Calculating the metabolizable energy of macronutrients: a critical review of Atwater's results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, M Judith; Márquez-Sandoval, Fabiola; Ramírez-Anguiano, Ana C; Velasco-Ramírez, Sandra F; Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; González-Ortiz, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    The current values for metabolizable energy of macronutrients were proposed in 1910. Since then, however, efforts to revise these values have been practically absent, creating a crucial need to carry out a critical analysis of the experimental methodology and results that form the basis of these values. Presented here is an exhaustive analysis of Atwater's work on this topic, showing evidence of considerable weaknesses that compromise the validity of his results. These weaknesses include the following: (1) the doubtful representativeness of Atwater's subjects, their activity patterns, and their diets; (2) the extremely short duration of the experiments; (3) the uncertainty about which fecal and urinary excretions contain the residues of each ingested food; (4) the uncertainty about whether or not the required nitrogen balance in individuals was reached during experiments; (5) the numerous experiments carried out without valid preliminary experiments; (6) the imprecision affecting Atwater's experimental measurements; and (7) the numerous assumptions and approximations, along with the lack of information, characterizing Atwater's studies. This review presents specific guidelines for establishing new experimental procedures to estimate more precise and/or more accurate values for the metabolizable energy of macronutrients. The importance of estimating these values in light of their possible dependence on certain nutritional parameters and/or physical activity patterns of individuals is emphasized. The use of more precise values would allow better management of the current overweight and obesity epidemic. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Prevalence of cutipositivity in a sample of homeless shelter population in Rome in the course of Latent Tuberculosis Infection surveillance plan. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Laurenti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: in Europe homelessness is a known risk factor both for active and latent tuberculosis (TB. In Rome 409 cases of TB were notified in 2004, but the real occurrence among homeless people is unknown. Tuberculosis surveillance has been organized with the aim to develop an integrated model for the risk evaluation and management of both Latent Tuberculosis infections (LTBI and TB in Rome homeless people.

    Methods: the eligible individuals have been recruited in the homeless’ refuges. The Tuberculin Mantoux test has been used to evaluate the infection prevalence; in case of a positive result, the individual’s expectorate has been collected and the chest X-ray has been performed. A collecting data form has been filled in for evaluating some risk factors. Multiple logistic regression models have been carried out to find statistically significant determinants of infection.

    Results: out of 120 subjects recruited, 108 came back for the evaluation of the skin test; the prevalence of LTBI was 43.5% (47/108 subjects; no active TB cases were found. According to the multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated to LTBI are gender (for males OR = 4.94; 95% CI: 1.46 – 16.67, 1st model; OR 5.84; 95% CI: 1.26 – 21.10, 2nd model, birth place (for Europe: OR 3.05; 95% CI: 1.02 – 9.13, 1st model; OR 3.12; 95% CI: 1.10 – 8.88, 2nd model; for East Mediterranean native Region OR = 4.34; 95%CI: 1.15-16.39; Body Mass Index class (for obesity OR = 3.34; 95% CI:1.31-8.51.

    Conclusions: these preliminary results have demonstrated a high prevalence of LTBI among homeless people. Male gender, birth place (Europe and East Mediterranean native Region and obesity were found to be significant risk factors. The surveillance system allowed positive patients for LTBI to be rapidly directed to a specialized centre for the clinical evaluation and the appropriate therapy

  13. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data of patie......BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data...... of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. RESULTS......: Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance...

  14. Repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV test results: findings from post marketing surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Mackellar, Duncan A; Ethridge, Steven F; Zhu, Julia H; Owen, S Michele; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2008-02-06

    Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB), immunofluorescent assay (IFA) or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)). When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result), repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6%) were reactive: of these, 2417 (93%) had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7%) had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52%) persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19%) were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81%) were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative) (ptest [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9)]. Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant results. Because of the lower sensitivity of oral fluid WBs, confirmatory testing following a reactive rapid test should be conducted using serum or plasma, when possible.

  15. Evaluation of Treatment Patterns and Survival Outcomes in Elderly Pancreatic Cancer Patients: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaib, Walid L; Jones, Jeb S; Goodman, Michael; Sarmiento, Juan M; Maithel, Shishir K; Cardona, Kenneth; Kane, Sujata; Wu, Christina; Alese, Olatunji B; El-Rayes, Bassel F

    2018-02-14

    Management of pancreatic cancer (PC) in elderly patients is unknown; clinical trials exclude patients with comorbidities and those of extreme age. This study evaluated treatment patterns and survival outcomes in elderly PC patients using linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and Medicare data. Histology codes 8140, 8500, 8010, 8560, 8490, 8000, 8260, 8255, 8261, 8263, 8020, 8050, 8141, 8144, 8210, 8211, or 8262 in Medicare Parts A and B were identified. Data regarding demographic, characteristics, treatments, and vital status between 1998 and 2009 were collected from the SEER. Determinants of treatment receipt and overall survival were examined using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. A total of 5,975 patients met inclusion. The majority of patients were non-Hispanic whites (85%) and female (55%). Most cases presented with locoregional stage disease (74%); 41% received only chemotherapy, 30% chemotherapy and surgery, 10% surgery alone, 3% radiation, and 16% no cancer-directed therapy. Patients with more advanced cancer, older age, and those residing in areas of poverty were more likely to receive no treatment. Among patients 66-74 years of age with locoregional disease, surgery alone (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.74) and surgery in combination with chemotherapy (HR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.53-0.91) showed survival benefit as compared with the no treatment group. Among patients ≥75 years of age with locoregional disease, surgery alone (HR = 2.04; 95% CI: 0.87-4.8) or in combination with chemotherapy (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 0.87-2.91) was not associated with better survival. Treatment modality and survival differs by age and stage. Low socioeconomic status appears to be a major barrier to the receipt of PC therapy among Medicare patients. Elderly patients with cancer are under-represented on clinical trials and usually have comorbid illnesses. The management of elderly

  16. Principales resultados del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia en el año 2003 Main results of the Cuban System of Drug Surveillance in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Debesa García

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el funcionamiento y principales resultados del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia durante el 2003 en todos los niveles de salud de Cuba. Durante 12 meses, los casos se identificaron mediante el sistema de notificación voluntaria de sospecha de reacciones adversas a medicamentos. Se recibieron en la Unidad Nacional Coordinadora de Farmacovilancia 12 601 notificaciones de reacciones adversas medicamentosas (RAM que contenían 25 348 sospechas de RAM, para una tasa de notificación de 1 119 reportes x 1 000 000 de habitantes. El 66 % de las RAM correspondió al sexo femenino y el 34 % al masculino. En cuanto al nivel de asistencia, la atención primaria es la que más notifica con 83,5 %. Fueron resultados alentadores que en este año la relación de reacciones leves con respecto a las moderadas y graves resultó del 55,3/44,7 %, que continúa con un balance bastante bueno en relación con el reporte por severidad. Se reportaron 54 reacciones con desenlace fatal, para el 0,2 %. Las notificaciones recibidas en nuestro unidad permitieron cuantificar y caracterizar las RAM, teniendo además un gran valor para generar alertas y vigilar la seguridad de los medicamentos que circulan en nuestro país.The functioning and the main results of the Cuban Drug Surveillance System at all the health levels, in 2003, are described. During 12 months, the cases were identified by the volunteer notification system of suspicion of adverse drug reactions. 12 601 notifications of adverse drug reactions (DAR containing 25 348 DAR suspicions were received at the National Coordinating Unit of Drug Surveillance for a notification rate of 1 119 reports x 1 000 000 inhabitants. 66 % of the ADRs corresponded to females and 34 % to males. As regards the assistance level, the primary care level notifies the most with 83.5 %. It was considered as encouraging the fact that the relation of mild adverse reactions with respect to the moderate and severe was 55.3 %/44

  17. Alecto, criticality experiment on a plutonium solution. Experimental results. Vessel number 1 (φ = 324 mm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, J.; Brunet, J.F.; Caizergues, R.; Clouet D'orval, C.; Kremser, J.; Leclerc, J.; Verriere, P.

    1963-01-01

    ALECTO is a critical experiment intended for the neutronic study of homogeneous aqueous multiplying media. It essentially consists of a cylindrical tank, reflected or not, where can be made critical a solution of fissionable material fed into the tank from a geometrically subcritical storage. The studies effected on this assembly concern on one hand the determination of critical masses, on the other hand the nuclear parameters used in neutron calculations. The container tested in the first series of experiments hereby described is a cylindrical tank, 324 mm diameter with a convex bottom, water reflected on the sides and on the inferior part. The minimum critical mass of this tank was determined and was found to be: M cmin = 845 ± 7 g. The decay constant of prompt neutrons as a function of reactivity was determined by the pulsed neutron technique. At the critical state, it was found to be: α c = 73 ± 6 s -1 . Furthermore, from the study of this tank, were derived a number of safety regulations for plutonium solutions. (authors) [fr

  18. A reorientation strategy for reducing delirium in the critically ill. Results of an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, R; Corona, A; Praga, F; Minari, C; Giannotti, C; Castelli, A; Raimondi, F

    2012-09-01

    A wide variability in the approach towards delirium prevention and treatment in the critically ill results from the dearth of prospective randomised studies. We launched a two-stage prospective observational study to assess delirium epidemiology, risk factors and impact on patient outcome, by enrolling all patients admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) over a year. The first step - from January to June 2008 was the observational phase, whereas the second one from July to December 2008 was interventional. All the patients admitted to our ICU were recruited but those with pre-existing cognitive disorders, dementia, psychosis and disability after stroke were excluded from the data analysis. Delirium assessment was performed according with Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU twice per day after sedation interruption. During phase 2, patients underwent both a re-orientation strategy and environmental, acoustic and visual stimulation. We admitted a total of respectively 170 (I-ph) and 144 patients (II-ph). The delirium occurrence was significantly lower in (II-ph) 22% vs. 35% in (I-ph) (P=0.020). A Cox's Proportional Hazard model found the applied reorientation strategy as the strongest protective predictors of delirium: (HR 0.504, 95% C.I. 0.313-0.890, P=0.034), whereas age (HR 1.034, 95% CI: 1.013-1.056, P=0.001) and sedation with midazolam plus opiate (HR 2.145, 95% CI: 2.247-4.032, P=0.018) were negative predictors. A timely reorientation strategy seems to be correlated with significantly lower occurrence of delirium.

  19. Experimental critical loadings and control rod worths in LWR-PROTEUS configurations compared with MCNPX results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaschy, M.; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Seiler, R.; Chawla, R.

    2006-01-01

    The PROTEUS research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) has been operating since the sixties and has already permitted, due to its high flexibility, investigation of a large range of very different nuclear systems. Currently, the ongoing experimental programme is called LWR-PROTEUS. This programme was started in 1997 and concerns large-scale investigations of advanced light water reactors (LWR) fuels. Until now, the different LWR-PROTEUS phases have permitted to study more than fifteen different configurations, each of them having to be demonstrated to be operationally safe, in particular, for the Swiss safety authorities. In this context, recent developments of the PSI computer capabilities have made possible the use of full-scale SD-heterogeneous MCNPX models to calculate accurately different safety related parameters (e.g. the critical driver loading and the shutdown rod worth). The current paper presents the MCNPX predictions of these operational characteristics for seven different LWR-PROTEUS configurations using a large number of nuclear data libraries. More specifically, this significant benchmarking exercise is based on the ENDF/B6v2, ENDF/B6v8, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3 libraries. The results highlight certain library specific trends in the prediction of the multiplication factor k eff (e.g. the systematically larger reactivity calculated with JEF2.2 and the smaller reactivity associated with JEFF3.0). They also confirm the satisfactory determination of reactivity variations by all calculational schemes, for instance, due to the introduction of a safety rod pair, these calculations having been compared with experiments. (authors)

  20. Data base of reactor physics experimental results in Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Chihiro; Fujine, Shigenori; Hayashi, Masatoshi

    1986-01-01

    The Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities belong to the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, and are the versatile critical assembly constructed for experimentally studying reactor physics and reactor engineering. The facilities are those for common utilization by universities in whole Japan. During more than ten years since the initial criticality in 1974, various experiments on reactor physics and reactor engineering have been carried out using many experimental facilities such as two solidmoderated cores, a light water-moderated core and a neutron generator. The kinds of the experiment carried out were diverse, and to find out the required data from them is very troublesome, accordingly it has become necessary to make a data base which can be processed by a computer with the data accumulated during the past more than ten years. The outline of the data base, the data base CAEX using personal computers, the data base supported by a large computer and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. A New Molecular Surveillance System for Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

  2. Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Löfström, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    , and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude...

  3. Automated Critical PeakPricing Field Tests: 2006 Pilot ProgramDescription and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-06-19

    During 2006 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology evaluation for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) Emerging Technologies Programs. This report summarizes the design, deployment, and results from the 2006 Automated Critical Peak Pricing Program (Auto-CPP). The program was designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying automation systems that allow customers to participate in critical peak pricing (CPP) with a fully-automated response. The 2006 program was in operation during the entire six-month CPP period from May through October. The methodology for this field study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment, and evaluation of sites' participation in actual CPP events through the summer of 2006. LBNL recruited sites in PG&E's territory in northern California through contacts from PG&E account managers, conferences, and industry meetings. Each site contact signed a memorandum of understanding with LBNL that outlined the activities needed to participate in the Auto-CPP program. Each facility worked with LBNL to select and implement control strategies for demand response and developed automation system designs based on existing Internet connectivity and building control systems. Once the automation systems were installed, LBNL conducted communications tests to ensure that the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) correctly provided and logged the continuous communications of the CPP signals with the energy management and control system (EMCS) for each site. LBNL also observed and evaluated Demand Response (DR) shed strategies to ensure proper commissioning of controls. The communication system allowed sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of signals for pre-cooling, a DR strategy used at a few sites. Measurement of demand response was conducted using two different baseline models for estimating peak load savings. One

  4. Sampling Key Populations for HIV Surveillance: Results From Eight Cross-Sectional Studies Using Respondent-Driven Sampling and Venue-Based Snowball Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrita; Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James; Weir, Sharon; Edwards, Jessie; Rice, Brian; Kochelani, Duncan; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo; Baral, Stefan

    2017-10-20

    In using regularly collected or existing surveillance data to characterize engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services among marginalized populations, differences in sampling methods may produce different pictures of the target population and may therefore result in different priorities for response. The objective of this study was to use existing data to evaluate the sample distribution of eight studies of female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM), who were recruited using different sampling approaches in two locations within Sub-Saharan Africa: Manzini, Swaziland and Yaoundé, Cameroon. MSM and FSW participants were recruited using either respondent-driven sampling (RDS) or venue-based snowball sampling. Recruitment took place between 2011 and 2016. Participants at each study site were administered a face-to-face survey to assess sociodemographics, along with the prevalence of self-reported HIV status, frequency of HIV testing, stigma, and other HIV-related characteristics. Crude and RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates were calculated. Crude prevalence estimates from the venue-based snowball samples were compared with the overlap of the RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates, between both FSW and MSM in Cameroon and Swaziland. RDS samples tended to be younger (MSM aged 18-21 years in Swaziland: 47.6% [139/310] in RDS vs 24.3% [42/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon: 47.9% [99/306] in RDS vs 20.1% [52/259] in Snowball; FSW aged 18-21 years in Swaziland 42.5% [82/325] in RDS vs 8.0% [20/249] in Snowball; in Cameroon 15.6% [75/576] in RDS vs 8.1% [25/306] in Snowball). They were less educated (MSM: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 42.6% [109/310] in RDS vs 4.0% [7/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon 46.2% [138/306] in RDS vs 14.3% [37/259] in Snowball; FSW: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 86.6% [281/325] in RDS vs 23.9% [59/247] in Snowball, in Cameroon 87.4% [520/576] in RDS vs 77.5% [238/307] in Snowball) than the snowball

  5. Principales resultados del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia en el año 2004 Main results of the Cuban system of pharmacological surveillance system in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Debesa García

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los principales resultados alcanzados por el sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia en el 2004. Durante 12 meses, los casos se identificaron mediante el sistema de notificación voluntaria de sospecha de reacciones adversas a medicamentos. Se recibieron en la Unidad Nacional Coordinadora de Farmacovigilancia 7 063 notificaciones de reacciones adversas medicamentosas (RAM que contenían 13 500 a razón de 1,9 RAM por notificación, de ellas 3 185 fueron “importantes” para el 35,1 % (según criterios para determinar RAM importantes de la UCNFv , en las Normas y procedimientos de trabajo del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia. La tasa de notificación anual fue de 628 notificaciones por millón de habitantes. El 64,6 % de las RAM correspondió al sexo femenino y el 35,4 % al masculino. En cuanto al nivel de asistencia, la atención primaria fue la que más notificó con 85 %. La relación de reacciones leves con respecto a las moderadas y graves fue de 48,3/51,4 %, que continúa con un balance muy bueno en relación con el reporte por severidad. Se reportaron 23 reacciones con desenlace fatal, para el 0,3 %. A pesar de la disminución en cuanto al número de notificaciones recibidas en nuestro unidad, con respecto al año anterior, aún se encuentra entre las tasas de notificación más altas de los países miembros del sistema internacional de monitoreo de RAM; por otra parte, dada la calidad de estas permitieron cuantificar y caracterizar las RAM, teniendo además un gran valor para generar alertas y vigilar la seguridad de los medicamentos que circulan en nuestro país.The main results achieved by the Cuban Pharmacological Surveillance System in the year 2004 were described. During these 12 months, the cases were identified by the voluntary notification system of suspected adverse reactions to drugs. The National Coordinating Unit of Pharmacological Surveillance (NCUPs received 7 063 notifications that included 13 500 adverse drug

  6. Safety of laboratory analyzers for infection testing - results of the market surveillance by the BfArM until end 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekmeier R

    2009-12-01

    quality control (8. Manufacturers issued corrective measures in 66 cases (90.4% from which 49 and 17 were related to laboratory analyzers and their consumables, respectively. Based on the underlying root causes of product failures these were predominantly customer information (48, recalls (40, software-updates (30 and design changes (9 in the product group of laboratory analyzers as well as customer information (16, recalls (12 and modifications of production and quality management (11 in the group of consumables. The results and experiences obtained since 1999 suggest that the system for post marketing surveillance of IVD is an established tool to ensure product safety, even though the current system can be further enhanced.

  7. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, Joan; Natividad-Sancho, Angels; Trushakova, Svetlana; Sominina, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Ciblak, Meral A.; Badur, Selim; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.; El Guerche-Séblain, Clotilde; Mira-Iglesias, Ainara; Kisteneva, Lidiya; Stolyarov, Kirill; Yurtcu, Kubra; Feng, Luzhao; López-Labrador, Xavier; Burtseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations. Methods Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Findings 5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2), 362 A(H1N1), 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B). The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33–2.02]), asthma (2.25 [1.67–3.03]), immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23–4.11]), renal disease (2.11 [1.48–3.01]), liver disease (1.94 [1.18–3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58–5.59]), and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48–5.94]). Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48–0.77]). Conclusions Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza

  8. The politics of surveillance policy: UK regulatory dynamics after Snowden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hintz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The revelations by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden have illustrated the scale and extent of digital surveillance carried out by different security and intelligence agencies. The publications have led to a variety of concerns, public debate, and some diplomatic fallout regarding the legality of the surveillance, the extent of state interference in civic life, and the protection of civil rights in the context of security. Debates about the policy environment of surveillance emerged quickly after the leaks began, but actual policy change is only starting. In the UK, a draft law (Investigatory Powers Bill has been proposed and is currently discussed. In this paper, we will trace the forces and dynamics that have shaped this particular policy response. Addressing surveillance policy as a site of struggle between different social forces and drawing on different fields across communication policy research, we suggest eight dynamics that, often in conflicting ways, have shaped the regulatory framework of surveillance policy in the UK since the Snowden leaks. These include the governmental context; national and international norms; court rulings; civil society advocacy; technical standards; private sector interventions; media coverage; and public opinion. We investigate how state surveillance has been met with criticism by parts of the technology industry and civil society, and that policy change was required as a result of legal challenges, review commissions and normative interventions. However a combination of specific government compositions, the strong role of security agendas and discourses, media justification and a muted reaction by the public have hindered a more fundamental review of surveillance practices so far and have moved policy debate towards the expansion, rather than the restriction, of surveillance in the aftermath of Snowden.

  9. Five-year trends in epidemiology and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, St. Petersburg, Russia: results from perinatal HIV surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissin Dmitry M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Russia has increasingly involved reproductive-aged women, which may increase perinatal HIV transmission. Methods Standard HIV case-reporting and enhanced perinatal HIV surveillance systems were used for prospective assessment of HIV-infected women giving birth in St. Petersburg, Russia, during 2004-2008. Trends in social, perinatal, and clinical factors influencing mother-to-child HIV transmission stratified by history of injection drug use, and rates of perinatal HIV transmission were assessed using two-sided χ2 or Cochran-Armitage tests. Results Among HIV-infected women who gave birth, the proportion of women who self-reported ever using injection drugs (IDUs decreased from 62% in 2004 to 41% in 2008 (P P P P for trend Conclusions Reduced proportion of IDUs and improved clinical services among HIV-infected women giving birth were accompanied by decreased perinatal HIV transmission, which can be further reduced by increasing outreach and HIV testing of women before and during pregnancy.

  10. Survival benefit of radiotherapy to patients with small cell esophagus carcinoma: an analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yaqi; Wang, Wanwei; Tao, Guangzhou; Zhu, Weiguo; Zhou, Xilei; Pan, Peng

    2016-03-29

    Small cell esophageal carcinoma (SCEC) is a rare malignant tumor. So far, few studies are found to research the effect of radiotherapy (RT) to it. This study is designed to explore the prognostic factors, and analyze survival benefit of RT to patients with SCEC. Patients with SCEC were more likely to be in female, older, higher disease stage than those with non-small cell esophageal carcinoma. RT was used in more than 50% SCEC patients. RT tended be reduced as the disease stage raise in SCEC. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that age, year, disease stage, and RT were the prognostic factors of survival (P 0.05) and nearly 30% risks of death in distant stage (P > 0.05). SCEC patients between 1973 and 2012 were searched from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Clinical factors including age, year, sex, race, stage, surgery, and RT were summarized. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to explore the independent prognostic factors of SCEC. Cox regression survival analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of RT to SCEC based on different stages. Stage, age, year, and RT are independent prognostic factors of SCEC. Survival benefit of RT exists in any disease stage, but is only statistically significant in localized stage of SCEC.

  11. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A; Silvestre, Juan F; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier; Weisshaar, Elke; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. Data of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. The 'basic markers' were tested on 51 477 [fragrance mix II (FM II)] to 57 123 [Myroxylon pereirae, balsam of Peru] patients, and yielded positive reactions as follows: fragrance mix I 6.9%, Myroxylon pereirae 5.4%, FM II 3.8%, colophonium 2.6%, and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde 1.7%, with some regional differences. Prevalences with TRUE Test(®) allergens were lower. Additional fragrances were tested on 3643 (trimethylbenzenepropanol) to 14 071 (oil of turpentine) patients, and yielded between 2.6% (Cananga odorata) and 0.7% (trimethylbenzenepropanol) positive reactions. Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance allergens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Risk of leukemia associated with the first course of cancer treatment: an analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.E.; Hankey, B.F.; Myers, M.H.; Young, J.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The risk of leukemia associated with the first course of cancer treatment was evaluated in over 440,000 patients diagnosed during 1973-80 (average follow-up . 1.91 yr) from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Although the reporting of the first course of therapy probably was incomplete, 34 acute nonlymphocytic leukemias (ANLL) developed compared with 7.6 expected among 70,674 patients known to receive initial chemotherapy [relative risk (RR) . 4.5, 95% confidence interval (Cl) . 3.1-6.3]. Significant ANLL excesses were observed following chemotherapy for breast cancer (RR . 8.1), ovarian cancer (RR . 22.2), and multiple myeloma (RR . 9.5). Patients initially treated with radiation (with no record of chemotherapy) also had a significantly increased ANLL risk; 45 leukemias occurred versus 17.9 expected (RR . 2.5, 95% Cl . 1.8-3.4). In this group, excess ANLL were found following irradiation for uterine corpus cancer (RR . 4.0). Kidney and renal pelvis cancer patients had a twofold leukemia risk (all types) that was unrelated to treatment (RR . 2.2)

  13. Similar survival of patients with multiple versus single primary melanomas based on Utah Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data (1973-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Douglas; Farnham, James M; Hyngstrom, John; Klapperich, Marki E; Secrest, Aaron M; Empey, Sarah; Bowen, Glen M; Wada, David; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Grossmann, Kenneth; Bowles, Tawnya L; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2018-03-01

    Survival data are mixed comparing patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPM) to those with single primary melanomas (SPM). We compared MPM versus SPM patient survival using a matching method that avoids potential biases associated with other analytic approaches. Records of 14,138 individuals obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of all melanomas diagnosed or treated in Utah between 1973 and 2011 were reviewed. A single matched control patient was selected randomly from the SPM cohort for each MPM patient, with the restriction that they survived at least as long as the interval between the first and second diagnoses for the matched MPM patient. Survival curves (n = 887 for both MPM and SPM groups) without covariates showed a significant survival disadvantage for MPM patients (chi-squared 39.29, P < .001). However, a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed no significant survival difference (hazard ratio 1.07, P = .55). Restricting the multivariate analysis to invasive melanomas also showed no significant survival difference (hazard ratio 0.99, P = .96). Breslow depth, ulceration status, and specific cause of death were not available for all patients. Patients with MPM had similar survival times as patients with SPM. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural Analysis of Wendelstein 7-X: Main Results and Critical Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, V.

    2006-01-01

    performed under loads extracted from the GM models, or by a submodelling procedure with the ANSYS code. This paper gives an overview of the analysis strategy, applied structural criteria and critical issues, and it focuses on the most interesting results. (author)

  15. Results of an OECD/NEA comparison of minimum critical values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Wolf; Mennerdahl, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    An OECD/NEA expert group has compiled international data on existing minimum critical values for UO 2 -, PuO 2 -, UNH- and PuNH-systems to identify any significant discrepancies in the data and to propose explanations. The paper examines the spread of the compiled data and the influence of the time of generation of the data on the spread. It turns out, that the remarkable spread reduces by omitting values older than five years. Considering only data generated in the last three years, the spread further reduces. The number of cases with a large spread in the reported minimum critical values falls from 28 to four cases, and the smallest and largest data values converge. (author)

  16. CRITICAL HEIGHT FOR THE DESTABILIZATION OF SOLAR PROMINENCES: STATISTICAL RESULTS FROM STEREO OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Kai; Wang Yuming; Wang Shui; Shen Chenglong, E-mail: ymwang@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-01-10

    At which height is a prominence inclined to be unstable, or where is the most probable critical height for the prominence destabilization? This question was statistically studied based on 362 solar limb prominences well recognized by Solar Limb Prominence Catcher and Tracker from 2007 April to the end of 2009. We found that there are about 71% disrupted prominences (DPs), among which about 42% of them did not erupt successfully and about 89% of them experienced a sudden destabilization process. After a comprehensive analysis of the DPs, we discovered the following: (1) Most DPs become unstable at a height of 0.06-0.14 R{sub Sun} from the solar surface, and there are two most probable critical heights at which a prominence is very likely to become unstable, the first one is 0.13 R{sub Sun} and the second one is 0.19 R{sub Sun }. (2) An upper limit for the erupting velocity of eruptive prominences (EPs) exists, which decreases following a power law with increasing height and mass; accordingly, the kinetic energy of EPs has an upper limit too, which decreases as the critical height increases. (3) Stable prominences are generally longer and heavier than DPs, and not higher than 0.4 R{sub Sun }. (4) About 62% of the EPs were associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs); but there is no difference in apparent properties between EPs associated with CMEs and those that are not.

  17. CRITICAL HEIGHT FOR THE DESTABILIZATION OF SOLAR PROMINENCES: STATISTICAL RESULTS FROM STEREO OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kai; Wang Yuming; Wang Shui; Shen Chenglong

    2012-01-01

    At which height is a prominence inclined to be unstable, or where is the most probable critical height for the prominence destabilization? This question was statistically studied based on 362 solar limb prominences well recognized by Solar Limb Prominence Catcher and Tracker from 2007 April to the end of 2009. We found that there are about 71% disrupted prominences (DPs), among which about 42% of them did not erupt successfully and about 89% of them experienced a sudden destabilization process. After a comprehensive analysis of the DPs, we discovered the following: (1) Most DPs become unstable at a height of 0.06-0.14 R ☉ from the solar surface, and there are two most probable critical heights at which a prominence is very likely to become unstable, the first one is 0.13 R ☉ and the second one is 0.19 R ☉ . (2) An upper limit for the erupting velocity of eruptive prominences (EPs) exists, which decreases following a power law with increasing height and mass; accordingly, the kinetic energy of EPs has an upper limit too, which decreases as the critical height increases. (3) Stable prominences are generally longer and heavier than DPs, and not higher than 0.4 R ☉ . (4) About 62% of the EPs were associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs); but there is no difference in apparent properties between EPs associated with CMEs and those that are not.

  18. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Gitzinger, C.; Jaunet, P.; Eberbach, F.; Clavel, B.; Hemidy, P.Y.; Perrier, G.; Kiper, Ch.; Peres, J.M.; Josset, M.; Calvez, M.; Leclerc, M.; Leclerc, E.; Aubert, C.; Levelut, M.N.; Debayle, Ch.; Mayer, St.; Renaud, Ph.; Leprieur, F.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Monfort, M.; Baron, Y.; Target, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  19. Are School Absences Correlated with Influenza Surveillance Data in England? Results from Decipher My Data-A Research Project Conducted through Scientific Engagement with Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert W; Hayward, Andrew C; Field, Nigel; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smith, Colette; Pebody, Richard; Fleming, Declan; McCracken, Shane

    2016-01-01

    School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza. We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative) for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) influenza like illness (ILI) episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B) and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus. 27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5-14 year olds), laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus. This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies in the future.

  20. Using Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance as a Platform for Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilak, Steven G F; Williams, Cheryl L; Murrill, Christopher S; Dahl, Benjamin A; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Tangermann, Rudolf H

    2017-07-01

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a fundamental cornerstone of the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI). Active surveillance (with visits to health facilities) is a critical strategy of AFP surveillance systems for highly sensitive and timely detection of cases. Because of the extensive resources devoted to AFP surveillance, multiple opportunities exist for additional diseases to be added using GPEI assets, particularly because there is generally 1 district officer responsible for all disease surveillance. For this reason, integrated surveillance has become a standard practice in many countries, ranging from adding surveillance for measles and rubella to integrated disease surveillance for outbreak-prone diseases (integrated disease surveillance and response). This report outlines the current level of disease surveillance integration in 3 countries (Nepal, India, and Nigeria) and proposes that resources continue for long-term maintenance in resource-poor countries of AFP surveillance as a platform for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases and other outbreak-prone diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. Long-Term Effectiveness of the Zilver PTX Drug-Eluting Stent for Femoropopliteal Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients with No Patent Tibial Runoff Vessels-Results from the Zilver PTX Japan Post-Market Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollari, Stefano; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Ohki, Takao; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Nakamura, Masato; Komori, Kimihiro; Nanto, Shinsuke; O'Leary, Erin E; Lottes, Aaron E; Saunders, Alan T; Dake, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate 2-year results of the Zilver PTX (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana) drug-eluting stent (DES) for femoropopliteal peripheral artery disease (PAD) in patients with no continuous patent infrapopliteal runoff arteries compared with patients with ≥ 1 continuous patent runoff vessels. A retrospective analysis of patients with femoropopliteal PAD enrolled in the Zilver PTX Post-Market Surveillance Study in Japan was performed. There were no exclusion criteria. Outcomes, including freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR), patency, and clinical benefit, for the no-runoff group (n = 54) were compared with the runoff group (n = 846). The 2 groups were similar in terms of demographics, lesion characteristics, and comorbidities (P > .05). There was a higher incidence of critical limb ischemia in the no-runoff group compared with the runoff group (44.8% vs 19.7%; P < .01). There were 3 amputations (5.6%) in the no-runoff group versus 7 amputations (0.8%) in the runoff group (P = .02). At 2 years, freedom from TLR rates were 81.3% versus 83.8% (P = .87), patency rates were 68.4% versus 70.7% (P = .95), and clinical benefit rates were 73.7% versus 80.0% (P = .16) in the no-runoff versus runoff group, respectively. Results in patients with no continuous patent tibial runoff were favorable through 2 years and similar to results for patients with ≥ 1 continuous patent runoff vessels, indicating that the Zilver PTX DES may be a valid treatment option for patients with these difficult-to-treat lesions. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the test results for the two-phase critical flow with non-condensible gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S. K.; Chung, C. H.; Park, H. S.; Min, K. H.; Choi, N. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, H. C.; Chang, M. H.

    2002-07-01

    The two-phase critical flow test was performed for simulating the pipe break accident of SMART reactor. The requirements of the critical flow test are 7∼20mm pipe break dia., 7∼12MPa stagnation pressure, 0∼60 .deg. C subcooling degree and 0∼0.5kg/s N 2 gas flow rate. The test section is sharp edged pipe type which has the dimension of I.D.=20, L=300mm and I.D.=10.9, L=1000mm. The test conditions are 4, 7, 10 MPa at stagnation pressure, 0, 20, 50 .deg. C of subcooling degree and 0.028∼0.39 kg/s of N 2 injection gas flowrate. The measured data at test section and other components in terms of pressure, temperature and flowrate were collected in DAS computer with maintaining the steady state conditions at least 60 seconds. From the test results, the critical characteristics of the break pipe were analysed and verified the capacity of the test facility. For the verification of the Modified Henry-Fauske model which can predict the two-phase critical flow with non-condensible gas, the code simulation using MARS which contains the option of the Modified Henry -Fauske model was performed. The simulation results of steady-state two-phase critical flow experiments show that they agree with the measured critical flow rates within 6% root-mean-square error

  3. Is Primary Prostate Cancer Treatment Influenced by Likelihood of Extraprostatic Disease? A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Patterns of Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Jordan A.; Wang, Andrew Z.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Carpenter, William R.; Godley, Paul A.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the patterns of primary treatment in a recent population-based cohort of prostate cancer patients, stratified by the likelihood of extraprostatic cancer as predicted by disease characteristics available at diagnosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 157,371 patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 with clinically localized and potentially curable (node-negative, nonmetastatic) prostate cancer, who have complete information on prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and clinical stage, were included. Patients with clinical T1/T2 disease were grouped into categories of 50% likelihood of having extraprostatic disease using the Partin nomogram. Clinical T3/T4 patients were examined separately as the highest-risk group. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient group and receipt of each primary treatment, adjusting for age, race, year of diagnosis, marital status, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database region, and county-level education. Separate models were constructed for primary surgery, external-beam radiotherapy (RT), and conservative management. Results: On multivariable analysis, increasing likelihood of extraprostatic disease was significantly associated with increasing use of RT and decreased conservative management. Use of surgery also increased. Patients with >50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer had almost twice the odds of receiving prostatectomy as those with 50% likelihood of extraprostatic cancer (34%) and clinical T3–T4 disease (24%). The proportion of patients who received prostatectomy or conservative management was approximately 50% or slightly higher in all groups. Conclusions: There may be underutilization of RT in older prostate cancer patients and those with likely extraprostatic disease. Because more than half of prostate cancer patients do not consult with a radiation oncologist, a multidisciplinary consultation may affect the treatment decision-making process.

  4. Ribotype 078 Clostridium difficile infection incidence in Dutch hospitals is not associated with provincial pig farming: Results from a national sentinel surveillance, 2009-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie M van Dorp

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the high incidence of ribotype 078 Clostridium difficile infections (CDI in the Netherlands is related to pig farming.We used data of hospitalised CDI patients (>2yrs of age diagnosed between May 2009 and May 2015 in 26 hospitals participating in a national sentinel surveillance. We compared clinical and geographical characteristics of 078 CDI to other CDI. We investigated the association between 078 CDI incidence and four indicators of pig farming (piglet, pig, piglet farm and pig farm density by mixed-effects Poisson regression. We used a space-time permutation model to search for community-onset 078 CDI clusters (using SaTScan.A total of 4,691 CDI were identified. Ribotype 078 was isolated in 493 of 3,756 patients (13.1% including a typing result. These patients had slightly higher community-onset disease and a 35% increase of 30-day mortality compared to non-078 CDI patients. The pooled overall and 078 incidence rates were 2.82 (95% CI, 2.42-3.29 and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.21-0.31 CDI per 10,000 patients-days respectively. Hospital 078 CDI incidence was not associated with provincial pig (IRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.08, piglet (IRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.75-1.19, pig farm (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.84-1.39, or piglet farm density (IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.56-1.79. No clusters of community-onset ribotype 078 CDI were found.Our results do not indicate that the ribotype 078 CDI incidence in hospitals is related to pig (farm or piglet (farm density. However, transmission beyond provincial borders or in non-hospitalised patients cannot be excluded.

  5. Preferences of Knowledge Users for Two Formats of Summarizing Results from Systematic Reviews: Infographics and Critical Appraisals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelynn Crick

    Full Text Available To examine and compare preferences of knowledge users for two different formats of summarizing results from systematic reviews: infographics and critical appraisals.Cross-sectional.Annual members' meeting of a Network of Centres of Excellence in Knowledge Mobilization called TREKK (Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids. TREKK is a national network of researchers, clinicians, health consumers, and relevant organizations with the goal of mobilizing knowledge to improve emergency care for children.Members of the TREKK Network attending the annual meeting in October 2013.Overall preference for infographic vs. critical appraisal format. Members' rating of each format on a 10-point Likert scale for clarity, comprehensibility, and aesthetic appeal. Members' impressions of the appropriateness of the two formats for their professional role and for other audiences.Among 64 attendees, 58 members provided feedback (91%. Overall, their preferred format was divided with 24/47 (51% preferring the infographic to the critical appraisal. Preference varied by professional role, with 15/22 (68% of physicians preferring the critical appraisal and 8/12 (67% of nurses preferring the infographic. The critical appraisal was rated higher for clarity (mean 7.8 vs. 7.0; p = 0.03, while the infographic was rated higher for aesthetic appeal (mean 7.2 vs. 5.0; p<0.001. There was no difference between formats for comprehensibility (mean 7.6 critical appraisal vs. 7.1 infographic; p = 0.09. Respondents indicated the infographic would be most useful for patients and their caregivers, while the critical appraisal would be most useful for their professional roles.Infographics are considered more aesthetically appealing for summarizing evidence; however, critical appraisal formats are considered clearer and more comprehensible. Our findings show differences in terms of audience-specific preferences for presentation of research results. This study supports other research

  6. Repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV test results: findings from post marketing surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G Wesolowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB, immunofluorescent assay (IFA or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result, repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. METHODOLOGY: Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6% were reactive: of these, 2417 (93% had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7% had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52% persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19% were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81% were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative (p<0.001 and having an initial oral fluid WB (vs. serum (p<0.001. Persons who had male-female sex (vs. male-male sex were at increased risk for not having a repeat test [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9]. CONCLUSIONS: Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for

  7. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...... of different tampering events. In order to assess the developed methods we have collected a large data set, which contains sequences from different active cameras at different scenarios. We evaluate our sys- tem on these data and the results are encouraging with a very high detecting rate and relatively few...

  8. Random effect modelling of patient-related risk factors in orthopaedic procedures: results from the Dutch nosocomial infection surveillance network 'PREZIES'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muilwijk, J; Walenkamp, G H I M; Voss, Andreas; Wille, Jan C; Hof, Susan van den

    2006-01-01

    In the Dutch surveillance for surgical site infections (SSIs), data from 70277 orthopaedic procedures with 1895 SSIs were collected between 1996 and 2003. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyse the trends in SSIs associated with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; (2) to estimate

  9. Authorship Correction: Sampling Key Populations for HIV Surveillance: Results From Eight Cross-Sectional Studies Using Respondent-Driven Sampling and Venue-Based Snowball Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrita; Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James; Weir, Sharon; Edwards, Jessie; Rice, Brian; Kochelani, Duncan; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo; Baral, Stefan

    2018-01-15

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/publichealth.8116.]. ©Amrita Rao, Shauna Stahlman, James Hargreaves, Sharon Weir, Jessie Edwards, Brian Rice, Duncan Kochelani, Mpumelelo Mavimbela, Stefan Baral. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 15.01.2018.

  10. What is the optimal definition of misclassification in patients with very low-risk prostate cancer eligible for active surveillance? Results from a multi-institutional series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandaglia, G.; Ploussard, G.; Isbarn, H.; Suardi, N.; Visschere, P.J. De; Futterer, J.J.; Ghadjar, P.; Massard, C.; Ost, P.; Sooriakumaran, P.; Surcel, C.I.; Bergh, R.C. van den; Montorsi, F.; Ficarra, V.; Giannarini, G.; Briganti, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of unfavorable prostate cancer in active surveillance (AS) candidates is nonnegligible. However, what represents an adverse pathologic outcome in this setting is unknown. We aimed at assessing the optimal definition of misclassification and its effect on recurrence in AS

  11. Causes of death in long-term survivors of non-small cell lung cancer: A regional Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, Amaraja A; Schwartz, Ann G; George, Julie; Soubani, Ayman O

    2018-01-01

    Survival from lung cancer is improving. There are limited data on the causes of death in 5-year survivors of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to explore the causes of death in long-term survivors of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and describe the odds of dying from causes other than lung cancer in this patient population. An analysis of 5-year survivors of newly diagnosed NSCLC from 1996 to 2007, in Metropolitan Detroit included in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, was done. Of 23,059 patients identified, 3789 (16.43%) patients were alive at 5-year period (long-term survivors) and 1897 (50.06%) patients died in the later follow-up period (median 88 months; range 1-219 months). The causes of death besides lung cancer were observed in 55.2% of these patients. The most common causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) (16%), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (11%), and other malignancies (8%). Patients older than 65 years, males, and those who underwent surgery for treatment of lung cancer faced a greater likelihood of death by other causes as compared to lung cancer (OR: 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-1.77; OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.02-1.51; and OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.06-1.82, respectively). Five-year survivors of NSCLC more commonly die from causes such as CVDs, lung diseases, and other malignancies. Aggressive preventive and therapeutic measures of these diseases may further improve the outcome in this patient population.

  12. Factors associated with antenatal care adequacy in rural and urban contexts-results from two health and demographic surveillance sites in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal Care (ANC) is universally considered important for women and children. This study aims to identify factors, demographic, social and economic, possibly associated with three ANC indicators: number of visits, timing of visits and content of services. The aim is also to compare the patterns of association of such factors between one rural and one urban context in northern Vietnam. Methods Totally 2,132 pregnant women were followed from identification of pregnancy until birth in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS). Information was obtained through quarterly face to face interviews. Results Living in the rural area was significantly associated with lower adequate use of ANC compared to living in the urban area, both regarding quantity (number and timing of visits) and content. Low education, living in poor households and exclusively using private sector ANC in both sites and self employment, becoming pregnant before 25 years of age and living in poor communities in the rural area turned out to increase the risk for overall inadequate ANC. High risk pregnancy could not be demonstrated to be associated with ANC adequacy in either site. The medical content of services offered was often inadequate, in relation to the national recommendations, especially in the private sector. Conclusion Low education, low economic status, exclusive use of private ANC and living in rural areas were main factors associated with risk for overall inadequate ANC use as related to the national recommendations. Therefore, interventions focussing on poor and less educated women, especially in rural areas should be prioritized. They should focus the importance of early attendance of ANC and sufficient use of core services. Financial support for poor and near poor women should be considered. Providers of ANC should be educated and otherwise influenced to provide sufficient core services. Adherence to ANC content guidelines must be improved through enhanced

  13. Validation of the Social Security Administration Life Tables (2004-2014) in Localized Prostate Cancer Patients within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisser, Felix; Bandini, Marco; Mazzone, Elio; Nazzani, Sebastiano; Marchioni, Michele; Tian, Zhe; Saad, Fred; Pompe, Raisa S; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Heinzer, Hans; Montorsi, Francesco; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus; Tilki, Derya; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2018-05-22

    Accurate life expectancy estimation is crucial in clinical decision-making including management and treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). We hypothesized that Social Security Administration (SSA) life tables' derived survival estimates closely follow observed survival of PCa patients. To test this relationship, we examined 10-yr overall survival rates in patients with clinically localized PCa and compared it with survival estimates derived from the SSA life tables. Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004), we identified patients aged >50-patients who did not die of disease or other causes. Monte Carlo method was used to define individual survival in years, according to the SSA life tables (2004-2014). Subsequently, SSA life tables' predicted survival was compared with observed survival rates in Kaplan-Meier analyses. Subgroup analyses were stratified according to treatment type and D'Amico risk classification. Overall, 39191 patients with localized PCa were identified. At 10-yr follow-up, the SSA life tables' predicted survival was 69.5% versus 73.1% according to the observed rate (ppatients. Conversely, the smallest differences were recorded for external beam radiotherapy (1.7%) and unknown treatment type (1.6%) patients. Overall, SSA life tables' predicted life expectancy closely approximate observed overall survival rates. However, SSA life tables' predicted rates underestimate by as much as 9.1% the survival in brachytherapy patients, as well as in D'Amico low-risk and radical prostatectomy patients. In these patient categories, an adjustment for the degree of underestimation might be required when counseling is provided in clinical practice. Social Security Administration (SSA) life tables' predicted life expectancy closely approximate observed overall survival rates. However, SSA life tables' predicted rates underestimate by as much as 9.1% the survival in brachytherapy patients, as well as in D'Amico low

  14. Psychosocial functioning in patients with schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole - an office-based real-world setting. Results from the German post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, F; Zacher, A; Nass, A; Urban, R; Werner, C; Spevakné-Göröcs, T; Kungel, M; Ebrecht, M; Modell, S

    2009-05-01

    Aripiprazole (ABILIFY) is an effective antipsychotic used in a dose range from 10 to 30 mg, administered once daily. Soon after its approval in Germany for treatment of schizophrenia, a 12-month post-marketing surveillance study was initiated that included 1 096 patients cared for by 408 office-based psychiatrists and/or neurologists in private practice. The aim was to gain further insights into safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in an outpatient real-life setting focusing on general health, well-being and psychosocial functioning. Efficacy was rated by using standard CGI, SF-12 and SIWM-PsySo instruments for severity of disease, physical and mental health outcomes and psychosocial state, respectively. Safety was evaluated according to the reports of adverse events. Mean total daily dose of aripiprazole increased from 15.4 mg at the visit after 1 month to 17.6 mg at the visits after 6 to 12 months, the most frequently administered maintenance dose being 15 mg. Within the observation period significant improvements of CGI, SF-12 and SIWM-PsySo scores over time versus baseline values were observed (pmuch" or "very much" improved. Aripiprazole was overall well tolerated; 19.9% of patients discontinued treatment after 12 months. Adverse effects in general were moderate to mild and corresponded to the known tolerability profile of aripiprazole. Psychotic side effects reported were probably due to a recurrence of the underlying schizophrenic disorder. The results indicate that aripiprazole may be an efficacious and safe treatment option for pre-treated patients with schizophrenia also in a naturalistic psychiatrist/neurologist practice setting with effects on health and psychosocial functioning and a comparably low dropout rate.

  15. Factors associated with the increasing trend of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy among patients with ductal carcinoma in situ: Analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qiuting; Chen, Kai; Li, Yudong; Lai, Jianguo; Fang, Yichao; Shen, Shiyu; Liu, Yicheng; Su, Fengxi; Yu, Fengyan

    2018-05-22

    Our study aimed to investigate the factors influencing trends of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) among patients with unilateral ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data to identify patients with unilateral DCIS diagnosed from 1998 to 2013. Patients were categorized as breast-conserving surgery (BCS), Unilateral Mastectomy and CPM group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to assess the factors associated with undergoing CPM among mastectomy patients. The trends of CPM among mastectomy patients through year were presented by different subgroups of sociodemographic and pathological characteristics. Of those, 105326 patients with DCIS were identified, and 6370 patients underwent CPM. The proportion of CPM was 6.05% for all surgically-treated patients and 21.09% for mastectomy patients, and it increased more than six-fold between 1998 and 2013 (from 1.74% to 10.89% for all surgically-treated patients and from 5.44% to 37.47% for mastectomy patients). Younger age, white race, married status, smaller tumor size, positive ER and PR status were significantly associated with higher CPM proportion among mastectomy patients. The proportion of CPM was increasing through year, and the increasing trends were obvious in the subgroups of younger, white, married, metropolitan, with higher bachelor degree and higher median family income patients, while there were no apparent differences in the trends between subgroups of pathological characteristics. The trends of CPM among mastectomy patients were increasing through years and influenced by patients' sociodemographic characteristics, but not pathological characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid method of calculating the fluence and spectrum of neutrons from a critical assembly and the resulting dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessis, J.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed calculation method is unsophisticated but rapid. The first part (computer code CRITIC), which is based on the Fermi age equation, evaluates the number of neutrons per fission emitted from a moderated critical assembly and their energy spectrum. The second part (computer code NARCISSE), which uses the current albedo for concrete, evaluates the product of neutron reflection on the walls and calculates the fluence resulting at any point in the room and its energy distribution by 21 groups. The results obtained are shown to compare satisfactorily with those obtained through the use of a Monte Carlo program

  17. Effective surveillance for homeland security balancing technology and social issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flammini, Francesco; Franceschetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Effective Surveillance for Homeland Security: Balancing Technology and Social Issues provides a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the surveillance and protection of citizens and critical infrastructures against natural and deliberate threats. Focusing on current technological challenges involving multi-disciplinary problem analysis and systems engineering approaches, it provides an overview of the most relevant aspects of surveillance systems in the framework of homeland security. Addressing both advanced surveillance technologies and the related socio-ethical issues, the book consists of 21 chapters written by international experts from the various sectors of homeland security. Part I, Surveillance and Society, focuses on the societal dimension of surveillance-stressing the importance of societal acceptability as a precondition to any surveillance system. Part II, Physical and Cyber Surveillance, presents advanced technologies for surveillance. It considers developing technologie...

  18. Triaxial digital fluxgate magnetometer for NASA applications explorer mission: Results of tests of critical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Means, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Tests performed to prove the critical elements of the triaxial digital fluxgate magnetometer design were described. A method for improving the linearity of the analog to digital converter portion of the instrument was studied in detail. A sawtooth waveform was added to the signal being measured before the A/D conversion, and averaging the digital readings over one cycle of the sawtooth. It was intended to reduce bit error nonlinearities present in the A/D converter which could be expected to be as much as 16 gamma if not reduced. No such nonlinearities were detected in the output of the instrument which included the feature designed to reduce these nonlinearities. However, a small scale nonlinearity of plus or minus 2 gamma with a 64 gamma repetition rate was observed in the unit tested. A design improvement intended to eliminate this small scale nonlinearity was examined.

  19. [Critical reading of articles about diagnostic tests (part I): Are the results of the study valid?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, E

    2015-01-01

    In the era of evidence-based medicine, one of the most important skills a radiologist should have is the ability to analyze the diagnostic literature critically. This tutorial aims to present guidelines for determining whether primary diagnostic articles are valid for clinical practice. The following elements should be evaluated: whether the study can be applied to clinical practice, whether the technique was compared to the reference test, whether an appropriate spectrum of patients was included, whether expectation bias and verification bias were limited, the reproducibility of the study, the practical consequences of the study, the confidence intervals for the parameters analyzed, the normal range for continuous variables, and the placement of the test in the context of other diagnostic tests. We use elementary practical examples to illustrate how to select and interpret the literature on diagnostic imaging and specific references to provide more details. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Preferences of Knowledge Users for Two Formats of Summarizing Results from Systematic Reviews: Infographics and Critical Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Katelynn; Hartling, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    To examine and compare preferences of knowledge users for two different formats of summarizing results from systematic reviews: infographics and critical appraisals. Cross-sectional. Annual members' meeting of a Network of Centres of Excellence in Knowledge Mobilization called TREKK (Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids). TREKK is a national network of researchers, clinicians, health consumers, and relevant organizations with the goal of mobilizing knowledge to improve emergency care for children. Members of the TREKK Network attending the annual meeting in October 2013. Overall preference for infographic vs. critical appraisal format. Members' rating of each format on a 10-point Likert scale for clarity, comprehensibility, and aesthetic appeal. Members' impressions of the appropriateness of the two formats for their professional role and for other audiences. Among 64 attendees, 58 members provided feedback (91%). Overall, their preferred format was divided with 24/47 (51%) preferring the infographic to the critical appraisal. Preference varied by professional role, with 15/22 (68%) of physicians preferring the critical appraisal and 8/12 (67%) of nurses preferring the infographic. The critical appraisal was rated higher for clarity (mean 7.8 vs. 7.0; p = 0.03), while the infographic was rated higher for aesthetic appeal (mean 7.2 vs. 5.0; pinfographic; p = 0.09). Respondents indicated the infographic would be most useful for patients and their caregivers, while the critical appraisal would be most useful for their professional roles. Infographics are considered more aesthetically appealing for summarizing evidence; however, critical appraisal formats are considered clearer and more comprehensible. Our findings show differences in terms of audience-specific preferences for presentation of research results. This study supports other research indicating that tools for knowledge dissemination and translation need to be targeted to specific end users' preferences

  1. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  2. Surface-water surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995)

  3. Soil processes and functions across an international network of critical zone observations: introduction to experimental methods and initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banwart, S.; Menon, M.; Bernasconi, S.M.; Bloem, J.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to

  4. Who is Surveilling Whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns the particular form of counter-surveillance termed “sousveillance”, which aims to turn surveillance at the institutions responsible for surveillance. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives “mediatization” and “aerial surveillance,” the article studies WikiLeaks’ publication...

  5. High prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing pathogens: results of a surveillance study in two hospitals in Ujjain, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak A

    2012-04-01

    to ciprofloxacin (81%, cotrimoxazole (76%, and levofloxacin (60%.Conclusion: Our results showed a high prevalence of ESBL among Gram-negative bacterial isolates and a high prevalence of MRSA among S. aureus isolates. Carbapenems provided the broadest coverage for Gram-negative bacteria, while glycopeptides were the most effective against MRSA; however, both classes of drugs need to be used judiciously. This study will help in planning future antibiotic stewardship programs.Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, surveillance, extended-spectrum β-lactamases, India

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of quinupristin/dalfopristin tested against gram-positive cocci from Latin America: results from the Global SMART (GSMART surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sader Helio S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive cocci are important causes of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections, and antimicrobial resistance among these pathogens has become an important problem worldwide. Since resistance among these organisms can vary substantially by geographic location, we conducted a multicenter surveillance study with isolates from five Latin American countries (15 medical centers. Quinupristin/dalfopristin (formerly RP-59500 is a novel streptogramin combination with focused activity against Gram-positive cocci, many exhibiting emerging resistance. The in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin and 12 other antimicrobial agents were evaluated against 1,948 strains including Staphylococcus aureus (747 strains, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 446 strains, enterococci (429 strains, and various Streptococcus spp. (326 strains. Oxacillin resistance was observed in 41% of S. aureus (MIC, or = 13 mm and 40% of CoNS (MIC, or = 18 mm. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (MIC90, 0.25 - 1 mug/ml remained effective against all strains, but cross-resistance was high among other tested drugs. The quinupristin/dalfopristin MIC50 for Streptococcus pneumoniae and other streptococci was only 0.5 mug/ml (13% to 28% were penicillin-resistant; 12% to 22% were macrolide-resistant. Enterococci demonstrated variable inhibition by quinupristin/dalfopristin depending upon identification and the susceptibility testing method used. The demonstrated quinupristin/dalfopristin activity against Enterococcus faecium was confirmed, but potential species identification errors with various commercial systems continue to confuse susceptibility statistics, even though some strains of E. faecium confirmed by PCR-based or other molecular identification techniques did have quinupristin/dalfopristin MICs of > or = 4 mug/mL. Most important, glycopeptide-resistant enterococci are rapidly emerging in Latin America, and quinupristin/dalfopristin appears

  7. Efficacy and safety of leflunomide in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in real-life clinical practice (results of the Russian multicenter surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Balabanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methotrexate or leflunomide is recommended to be used as the first synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug to treat rheumatoid arthri- tis (RA. In 2011, ELAFRA (leflunomide, Haupt Pharma Munster GmbH, Germany; license LP-000804 registered October 3, 2011 was cer- tified and approved in Russia. This surveillance study was aimed at assessing the effectiveness and tolerability of ELAFRA in RA patients in real-life clinical practice. Material and Methods. The study involved patients corresponding to the 1987 RA classification criteria, with varying disease duration. The patients were monitored at 33 Russian medical institutions in March–December 2013. According to the drug label, ELAFRA was prescribed at a dose of 10 mg/day during the first 3 days and subsequently at a dose of 20 mg/day. In case of adverse effects (AEs, the daily dose was recommended to be reduced to 10 mg. The patients were examined before the drug was prescribed; as well as 1, 3, 6 months after therapy was started. The number of painful swollen joints and pain intensity according to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS were assessed. The patients were subjected to laboratory exam- ination (blood test; ESR test; C-reactive protein (CRP test. RA activity was determined using the DAS28 index. AEs were identified. The data on 99 patients (87 females and 12 males; mean age: 51.1±11.1 years; mean disease duration 74.9±65.7 months were used for sta- tistical analysis. Disease activity was moderate in 9 patients and high in 90 patients.Results. Six-month therapy with ELAFRA reduced the mean number of swollen joints from 13.7 to 5.1 and the number of painful joints, from 14.9 to 9.5. VAS pain intensity decreased from 62.7 to 29.6 mm; ESR decreased from 38.8 to 22.18 mm/h; SRP, from 24.9 to 13.0. Low and moderate RA activity according to DAS28 and CDAI indices after treatment was observed in 63 and 46 patients, respectively. No serious AEs have been revealed; non-serious AEs were

  8. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors: a population-based clinical outcomes study involving 174 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau CS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Christine SM Lau,1,2 Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Ronald S Chamberlain1–31Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George's University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Introduction: Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs are rare, highly malignant embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS accounting for 20% of CNS tumors in children under the age of 3. This study examines a large cohort of ATRT patients to determine demographic, clinical, and pathologic factors which impact prognosis and survival. Methods: Demographic and clinical data were abstracted on 174 ATRT patients (171 pediatric patients age <20 and 3 adult patients age ≥20 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2010. Standard statistical methodology was used. Results: A total of 174 ATRT cases (mean age of 2.84 years were identified. ATRT had a higher incidence in males (56.3%, Caucasians (59.1%, and children <3 years of age (80.5%, P<0.001. The most common primary sites were the cerebellum (17.8%, ventricles (16.1%, and frontal lobe (12.6%. Mean overall survival was 3.2±0.4 years, while overall and cancer-specific mortality were 63.2% and 56.3%, respectively, P=0.005. Most ATRT cases were treated with surgery alone (58.0%, followed by a combination of surgery and radiation (34.3%, no treatment (6.5%, and radiation alone (1.2%. The use of combination therapy has increased significantly (16.1% since 2005 (P<0.001, while primary surgical resection and radiation therapy rates remain relatively unchanged. The longest survival was observed among ATRT patients receiving combination therapy (5.9±0.7 years, followed by radiation alone (2.8±1.2 years, and surgery alone (1.9±0.4 years, P<0.001. Multivariable analysis identified only distant metastases (OR =4.6 as independently associated with increased mortality

  9. Improved Survival With Radiation Therapy in Stage I-II Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Matthew W., E-mail: matthew.jackson@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rusthoven, Chad G.; Jones, Bernard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kamdar, Manali [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is an uncommon lymphoma for which trials are few with small patient numbers. The role of radiation therapy (RT) after standard immunochemotherapy for early-stage disease has never been studied prospectively. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to evaluate PMBCL and the impact of RT on outcomes. Methods and Materials: We queried the SEER database for patients with stage I-II PMBCL diagnosed from 2001 to 2011. Retrievable data included age, gender, race (white/nonwhite), stage, extranodal disease, year of diagnosis, and use of RT as a component of definitive therapy. Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) estimates, univariate (UVA) log-rank and multivariate (MVA) Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. Results: Two hundred fifty patients with stage I-II disease were identified, with a median follow-up time of 39 months (range, 3-125 months). The median age was 36 years (range, 18-89 years); 61% were female; 76% were white; 45% had stage I disease, 60% had extranodal disease, and 55% were given RT. The 5-year OS for the entire cohort was 86%. On UVA, OS was improved with RT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.446, P=.029) and decreased in association with nonwhite race (HR 2.70, P=.006). The 5-year OS was 79% (no RT) and 90% (RT). On MVA, white race and RT remained significantly associated with improved OS (P=.007 and .018, respectively). The use of RT decreased over time: 61% for the 67 patients whose disease was diagnosed from 2001 to 2005 and 53% in the 138 patients treated from 2006 to 2010. Conclusion: This retrospective population-based analysis is the largest PMBCL dataset to date and demonstrates a significant survival benefit associated with RT. Nearly half of patients treated in the United States do not receive RT, and its use appears to be declining. In the absence of phase 3 data, the use of RT should be strongly considered for its survival benefit in early

  10. Impact of Hepatitis A vaccination with a two-dose schedule in Panama: Results of epidemiological surveillance and time trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Contreras, Rodolfo; Tinajeros, Olga; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; DeAntonio, Rodrigo

    2015-06-22

    In April 2007, Panama introduced Hepatitis A universal vaccination using a two-dose schedule (Havrix(®)junior; GSK Vaccines, Belgium). We assessed the impact of this hepatitis A vaccine three years after it was recommended for universal mass vaccination in Panama. Hepatitis A vaccination impact was assessed using two different approaches. The first approach used retrospective data (incidence and number of cases for all age groups), collected from the passive surveillance of the Epidemiologic Surveillance System of the Ministry of Health of hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis before (2000-2006) and after (2008-2010) introduction of hepatitis A vaccine. The second approach was a prospective hospital-based active surveillance for hepatitis cases conducted in subjects (0-14 years) during 2009-2011 at three sentinel hospitals in Panama. Overall, the annual incidence of hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were 13.1, 7.9 and 3.7 per 100,000 subjects, lower than the baseline incidence of 51.1 per 100,000 subjects. In comparison to the mean baseline period (2000-2006), there was an 82% mean reduction in the overall hepatitis-related outcomes (hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis) after vaccine introduction (2008-2010) in all age groups. In the hospital-based surveillance (2009-2011), of the 42 probable viral hepatitis A cases, nine cases were confirmed as acute hepatitis A (8 in 2009, 1 in 2010). Of these confirmed cases, two belonged to the targeted vaccine group (1-4 years) but were not vaccinated. Our study suggests that the introduction of two-dose hepatitis A vaccines in Panama has contributed to the reduction in the incidence of overall hepatitis-related outcomes for all age groups, suggesting herd protection. Additional monitoring is required to document a sustained long-term effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult Brain Cancer in the U.S. Black Population: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Analysis of Incidence, Survival, and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Abigail; Batey, Jason; Capogreco, Joseph; Kimball, David; Walters, Andy; Tubbs, R. Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite much epidemiological research on brain cancer in the United States, the etiology for the various subtypes remains elusive. The black population in the United States currently experiences lower incidence but higher survival rates when compared to other races. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the trends in incidence and survival for the 6 most common primary brain tumors in the black population of the United States. Material/Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, an...

  12. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Patton, G.W.; Woodruff, R.K.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation's first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford's perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools

  13. Characterizing inflammatory breast cancer among Arab Americans in the California, Detroit and New Jersey Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries (1988-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirko, Kelly A; Soliman, Amr S; Banerjee, Mousumi; Ruterbusch, Julie; Harford, Joe B; Chamberlain, Robert M; Graff, John J; Merajver, Sofia D; Schwartz, Kendra

    2013-12-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is characterized by an apparent geographical distribution in incidence, being more common in North Africa than other parts of the world. Despite the rapid growth of immigrants to the United States from Arab nations, little is known about disease patterns among Arab Americans because a racial category is rarely considered for this group. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the burden of IBC in Arab ethnic populations by describing the proportion of IBC among different racial groups, including Arab Americans from the Detroit, New Jersey and California Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries. We utilized a validated Arab surname algorithm to identify women of Arab descent from the SEER registries. Differences in the proportion of IBC out of all breast cancer and IBC characteristics by race and menopausal status were evaluated using chi-square tests for categorical variables, t-tests and ANOVA tests for continuous variables, and log-rank tests for survival data. We modeled the association between race and IBC among all women with breast cancer using hierarchical logistic regression models, adjusting for individual and census tract-level variables. Statistically significant differences in the proportion of IBC out of all breast cancers by race were evident. In a hierarchical model, adjusting for age, estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth receptor 2, registry and census-tract level education, Arab-Americans (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.2,1.9), Hispanics (OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1,1.3), Non-Hispanic Blacks (OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.2, 1.4), and American Indians/Alaskans (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.1, 3.4) had increased odds of IBC, while Asians (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.6, 0.7) had decreased odds of IBC as compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. IBC may be more common among certain minority groups, including Arab American women. Understanding the descriptive epidemiology of IBC by race may generate hypotheses about risk

  14. Analytical performances of food microbiology laboratories - critical analysis of 7 years of proficiency testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Massih, M; Planchon, V; Polet, M; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2016-02-01

    Based on the results of 19 food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) schemes, this study aimed to assess the laboratory performances, to highlight the main sources of unsatisfactory analytical results and to suggest areas of improvement. The 2009-2015 results of REQUASUD and IPH PT, involving a total of 48 laboratories, were analysed. On average, the laboratories failed to detect or enumerate foodborne pathogens in 3·0% of the tests. Thanks to a close collaboration with the PT participants, the causes of outliers could be identified in 74% of the cases. The main causes of erroneous PT results were either pre-analytical (handling of the samples, timing of analysis), analytical (unsuitable methods, confusion of samples, errors in colony counting or confirmation) or postanalytical mistakes (calculation and encoding of results). PT schemes are a privileged observation post to highlight analytical problems, which would otherwise remain unnoticed. In this perspective, this comprehensive study of PT results provides insight into the sources of systematic errors encountered during the analyses. This study draws the attention of the laboratories to the main causes of analytical errors and suggests practical solutions to avoid them, in an educational purpose. The observations support the hypothesis that regular participation to PT, when followed by feed-back and appropriate corrective actions, can play a key role in quality improvement and provide more confidence in the laboratory testing results. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Multiparametric Magnetic-Resonance to Confirm Eligibility to an Active Surveillance Program for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer: Intermediate Time Results of a Third Referral High Volume Centre Active Surveillance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzago, Stefano; Musi, Gennaro; Catellani, Michele; Russo, Andrea; Di Trapani, Ettore; Mistretta, Francesco Alessandro; Bianchi, Roberto; Cozzi, Gabriele; Conti, Andrea; Pricolo, Paola; Ferro, Matteo; Matei, Deliu-Victor; Mirone, Vincenzo; Petralia, Giuseppe; de Cobelli, Ottavio

    2018-05-07

    To evaluate the role of confirmatory multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate at the time of Active Surveillance (AS) enrollment to reduce disease misclassification. From 2012 to 2016, 383 patients with low-risk disease respecting Prostate Cancer Research International AS criteria underwent confirmatory 1.5-T mpMRI. AS was proposed to patients with Prostate Imaging and Report and Data System (PI-RADS) score ≤3 and no extraprostatic extension (EPE), whereas patients with PI-RADS score ≥4 and/or EPE were treated actively. Kaplan-Meier analyses quantified progression-free survival (PFS) in patients enrolled in the AS program. Logistic regression analyses tested the association between confirmatory mpMRI and clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) at radical prostatectomy (RP). Diagnostic performance of mpMRI was calculated in patients submitted to immediate RP. PFS rate was 99, 90 and 86% at 1, 2 and 3 years respectively. At multivariable analysis, PI-RADS 3, PI-RADS 4, PI-RADS 5 and EPE increased the probability of having csPCa at immediate RP (PI-RADS 3 [OR] 1.2, p = 0.26; PI-RADS 4 [OR] 5.1, p = 0.02; PI-RADS 5 [OR] 6.7; p = 0.009; EPE [OR] 11.8, p < 0.001). Confirmatory mpMRI showed sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 85, 55, 68 and 76% respectively. MpMRI at the time of AS enrollment reduces the misclassification rate of csPCa. We suggest to perform target biopsies in patients with PI-RADS score 3 and 4 lesions. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Results of Cesar II critical facility with low enriched fuel balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlet, G; Guerange, J; Laponche, B; Morier, F; Neef, R D; Bock, H J; Kring, F J; Scherer, W

    1972-06-15

    The Cesar facility has been transformed to load in its center a pebble bed fuel. This new Cesar assembly is called Cesar II. The program for the measurements with HTR type fuel balls is managed under a cooperation between physicists of CEA/CADARACHE and KFA/JUELICH. A description of the measuring zones of Cesar II and of the experimental results is given.

  17. Measurements of parametric instability near the critical density and the resultant electron heating: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, K.; De Groot, J.S.; Seka, W.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed studies of the ion acoustic parametric decay instability have been made. Theoretical and particle simulation results indicate these instabilities are important in long scale length plasma irradiated by moderate intensity laser light (10'' ≤ Iλ 2 /T/sub e/ (W/cm 2 ) (μm 2 )/(keV) ≤ 5 x 10 14 ). Laser light (λ 0 ≅ 1/2 μm) is focused onto a CH target. The parametric decay instability has been measured by detecting the emission spectrum at frequencies near 2ω 0 . The experimental results clearly indicate that this parametric instability is important for short wavelength (1/2 μm) laser light irradiation. The threshold of the parametric instability (λ 0 = 1/2 μm) was only slightly higher than that of 1 μm laser case. The measured wavelength shift of the Stokes component (λ 0 = 1/2 μm) compared very well with the 1 μm laser results

  18. Contradiction between the results of observations of resistance and critical current quantum oscillations in asymmetric superconducting rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtovoi, V. L.; Dubonos, S. V.; Karpii, S. V.; Nikulov, A. V.; Tulin, V. A.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic field dependences of critical current, resistance, and rectified voltage of asymmetric (half circles of different widths) and symmetrical (half circles of equal widths) aluminum rings close to the super-conducting transition were measured. All these dependences are periodic magnetic field functions with periods corresponding to the flux quantum in the ring. The periodic dependences of critical current measured in opposite directions were found to be close to each other for symmetrical rings and shifted with respect to each other by half the flux quantum in asymmetric rings with ratios between half circle widths of from 1.25 to 2. This shift of the dependences by a quarter of the flux quantum as the ring becomes asymmetric makes critical current anisotropic, which explains the effect of alternating current rectification observed for asymmetric rings. Shifts of the extrema of the periodic dependences of critical current by a quarter of the flux quantum directly contradict the results obtained by measuring asymmetric ring resistance oscillations, whose extrema are, as for symmetrical rings, observed at magnetic fluxes equal to an integer and a half of flux quanta

  19. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  20. OECD/NEA Burnup Credit Calculational Criticality Benchmark Phase I-B Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Burnup credit is an ongoing technical concern for many countries that operate commercial nuclear power reactors. In a multinational cooperative effort to resolve burnup credit issues, a Burnup Credit Working Group has been formed under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This working group has established a set of well-defined calculational benchmarks designed to study significant aspects of burnup credit computational methods. These benchmarks are intended to provide a means for the intercomparison of computer codes, methods, and data applied in spent fuel analysis. The benchmarks have been divided into multiple phases, each phase focusing on a particular feature of burnup credit analysis. This report summarizes the results and findings of the Phase I-B benchmark, which was proposed to provide a comparison of the ability of different code systems and data libraries to perform depletion analysis for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results included here represent 21 different sets of calculations submitted by 16 different organizations worldwide, and are based on a limited set of nuclides determined to have the most important effect on the neutron multiplication factor of light-water-reactor spent fuel. A comparison of all sets of results demonstrates that most methods are in agreement to within 10% in the ability to estimate the spent fuel concentrations of most actinides. All methods are within 11% agreement about the average for all fission products studied. Furthermore, most deviations are less than 10%, and many are less than 5%. The exceptions are {sup 149}Sm, {sup 151}Sm, and {sup 155}Gd.

  1. OECD/NEA Burnup Credit Calculational Criticality Benchmark Phase I-B Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Burnup credit is an ongoing technical concern for many countries that operate commercial nuclear power reactors. In a multinational cooperative effort to resolve burnup credit issues, a Burnup Credit Working Group has been formed under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This working group has established a set of well-defined calculational benchmarks designed to study significant aspects of burnup credit computational methods. These benchmarks are intended to provide a means for the intercomparison of computer codes, methods, and data applied in spent fuel analysis. The benchmarks have been divided into multiple phases, each phase focusing on a particular feature of burnup credit analysis. This report summarizes the results and findings of the Phase I-B benchmark, which was proposed to provide a comparison of the ability of different code systems and data libraries to perform depletion analysis for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results included here represent 21 different sets of calculations submitted by 16 different organizations worldwide, and are based on a limited set of nuclides determined to have the most important effect on the neutron multiplication factor of light-water-reactor spent fuel. A comparison of all sets of results demonstrates that most methods are in agreement to within 10% in the ability to estimate the spent fuel concentrations of most actinides. All methods are within 11% agreement about the average for all fission products studied. Furthermore, most deviations are less than 10%, and many are less than 5%. The exceptions are 149 Sm, 151 Sm, and 155 Gd

  2. OECD/NEA expert group on uncertainty analysis for criticality safety assessment: Results of benchmark on sensitivity calculation (phase III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, T.; Laville, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Dyrda, J. [Atomic Weapons Establishment AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Mennerdahl, D. [E Mennerdahl Systems EMS, Starvaegen 12, 18357 Taeby (Sweden); Golovko, Y.; Raskach, K.; Tsiboulia, A. [Inst. for Physics and Power Engineering IPPE, 1, Bondarenko sq., 249033 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lee, G. S.; Woo, S. W. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety KINS, 62 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Bidaud, A.; Sabouri, P. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie LPSC, CNRS-IN2P3/UJF/INPG, Grenoble (France); Patel, A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States); Bledsoe, K.; Rearden, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL, M.S. 6170, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Gulliford, J.; Michel-Sendis, F. [OECD/NEA, 12, Bd des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2012-07-01

    The sensitivities of the k{sub eff} eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods. (authors)

  3. Empowering genomic medicine by establishing critical sequencing result data flows: the eMERGE example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Samuel; Babb, Lawrence; Ames, Darren; Gibbs, Richard A; Venner, Eric; Connelly, John J; Marsolo, Keith; Weng, Chunhua; Williams, Marc S; Hartzler, Andrea L; Liang, Wayne H; Ralston, James D; Devine, Emily Beth; Murphy, Shawn; Chute, Christopher G; Caraballo, Pedro J; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Freimuth, Robert R; Rasmussen, Luke V; Wehbe, Firas H; Peterson, Josh F; Robinson, Jamie R; Wiley, Ken; Overby Taylor, Casey

    2018-05-31

    The eMERGE Network is establishing methods for electronic transmittal of patient genetic test results from laboratories to healthcare providers across organizational boundaries. We surveyed the capabilities and needs of different network participants, established a common transfer format, and implemented transfer mechanisms based on this format. The interfaces we created are examples of the connectivity that must be instantiated before electronic genetic and genomic clinical decision support can be effectively built at the point of care. This work serves as a case example for both standards bodies and other organizations working to build the infrastructure required to provide better electronic clinical decision support for clinicians.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in leprosy: results of the first prospective open survey conducted by a WHO surveillance network for the period 2009-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambau, E; Saunderson, P; Matsuoka, M; Cole, S T; Kai, M; Suffys, P; Rosa, P S; Williams, D; Gupta, U D; Lavania, M; Cardona-Castro, N; Miyamoto, Y; Hagge, D; Srikantam, A; Hongseng, W; Indropo, A; Vissa, V; Johnson, R C; Cauchoix, B; Pannikar, V K; Cooreman, E A W D; Pemmaraju, V R R; Gillini, L

    2018-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a priority for surveillance in bacterial infections. For leprosy, AMR has not been assessed because Mycobacterium leprae does not grow in vitro. We aim to obtain AMR data using molecular detection of resistance genes and to conduct a prospective open survey of resistance to antileprosy drugs in countries where leprosy is endemic through a WHO surveillance network. From 2009 to 2015, multi-bacillary leprosy cases at sentinel sites of 19 countries were studied for resistance to rifampicin, dapsone and ofloxacin by PCR sequencing of the drug-resistance-determining regions of the genes rpoB, folP1 and gyrA. Among 1932 (1143 relapse and 789 new) cases studied, 154 (8.0%) M. leprae strains were found with mutations conferring resistance showing 182 resistance traits (74 for rifampicin, 87 for dapsone and 21 for ofloxacin). Twenty cases showed rifampicin and dapsone resistance, four showed ofloxacin and dapsone resistance, but no cases were resistant to rifampicin and ofloxacin. Rifampicin resistance was observed among relapse (58/1143, 5.1%) and new (16/789, 2.0%) cases in 12 countries. India, Brazil and Colombia reported more than five rifampicin-resistant cases. This is the first study reporting global data on AMR in leprosy. Rifampicin resistance emerged, stressing the need for expansion of surveillance. This is also a call for vigilance on the global use of antimicrobial agents, because ofloxacin resistance probably developed in relation to the general intake of antibiotics for other infections as it is not part of the multidrug combination used to treat leprosy. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Test of the core design methods for the THTR 300 with experimental results from the critical facility KAHTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, K.; Huebner, A.; Brandes, S.; Krings, F.

    1974-10-15

    At the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich, core physics experiments with core 1 and core 2 of the critical facility for high temperature reactors KAHTER were carried out in 1973. Core 2 corresponds to the THTR initial core in its moderation ratio S = 7500. Selected experimental results on the critical mass, on control rod worths, and reaction rate distributions were used for testing the most important procedures for the THTR core physics design. The zero-dimensional spectrum program MUPO with its cross section library and the and neutron flux calculations in two-dimensional diffusion approximation by CRAM are of central importance. It proved to be important to introduce modifications specific to the KAHTER plant into the standard models. Thus the void effect (void above the pebble bed) was investigated with DOT-2 by transport theory and a correction was introduced for the critical masses calculated by diffusion theory. Another feature already contained in the standard procedure, the increase of the diffusion constants for the hollow spaces between the spheres, results in a correction of 3.8% < delta-k for KAHTER, whereas in the THTR 300 it only amounts to several tenths % delta-k. Critical masses are predicted with accuracies of < 1.5 % or with regard to reactivity < 0.65 % delta-k. The calculated values for the radial neutron flux distributions deviate from the measured values in the core area by approximately lo %. In the case of the axial profiles, deviations are observed at the pebble bed surface which can be explained by the upper void, which cannot be satisfactorily represented by the diffusion theory. Control rod worths are predicted quite well, i.e., to within +/- 5%. An exception is the bank of 4 reflector rods, where the applied model of the "grey curtain" is not accurate because of the large distances between rods. The calculated control rod worths for that case were found to be too low, which does, however, not result in a safety problem.

  6. Intestinal parassitosis in Reggio Emilia during 2007: critical analysis of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Guidetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 were analyzed in 2032 samples from 1970 subjects: coprparassitologiacal standard examination was performed in 1916 of the subjects and scotch-test in the remaining 54. Of the 1970 subjects examined, 81, equivalent to 4.1%, resulted positive for one or more parasites (both pathogens and / or of questionable pathogenicity. Pathogenic parasites were found in 38 subjects, equivalent to 46.9% of the total positive: in 20 cases (24.7% cysts of Giardia intestinalis were found in 7 cases (8.6% it was Enterobius vermicularis, in another 5 (6.2% there was Hymenolepis nana, in 2 (2.4% Trichuris trichiura, in 1 (1.2% Ancylostoma / necator, in 1 (1.2%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, in 1 (1.2% Dipylidium caninum, and in 1 (1.2% Ascaris lumbricoides. Protozoa of doubtful pathogenicity, either alone or in combination with pathogens,were found in 54 subjects: Blastocystis hominis in 30 cases (36.9%, Entamoeba coli in 15 (18.8%, Endolimax nana in 10 (12.3%, Entamoeba histlytica dispar in 4 (4.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii in 1 (1.2%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 1 (1.2%.These data represent only a first frame of the possible scope of the phenomenon, both in terms of diagnostic possibilities and in terms of real etiological significance in order to qualify the diagnosis, and to ensure careful monitoring of the phenomenon.We also wanted to evaluate retrospectively the existing diagnostic potential before embarking on some organizational and procedural changes in the field of diagnostic parasitology.

  7. Pattern of Internet use among professionals in India: Critical look at a surprising survey result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the pattern of Internet use across people of various professions who have access to it; the impact of Internet use on their personal, social, and occupational life; and to evaluate their Internet use on the International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10 dependence criteria and Young′s Internet Addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire (IADQ. Materials and Methods: Hundred four respondents were assessed on a 31-items self-rated questionnaire covering all the ICD-10 criteria and Young′s criteria for Internet addiction. Results: The typical profile of an Internet user was as follows: the mean duration of Internet use was 73.43 months (SD 44.51, two-thirds (65.38% of them were using Internet on a regular basis for a period of more than a year, the mean duration of daily Internet use was 39.13 months (SD 35.97, the average time spent in Internet use was 2.13 h (SD 1.98 everyday, more than half (56.73% of the sample was using Internet at least for 2 h/day, and the most common purpose of Internet use was educational for two-thirds (62.5% of the sample. The five most commonly endorsed items were as follows: the need to use the Internet everyday (53.8%, Internet use helping to overcome bad moods (50%, staying online longer than one originally intends to (43.3%, eating while surfing (24%, and physical activity going down since one has started using the Internet (22.1%. When evaluated on ICD-10 substance dependence criteria and Young′s IADQ separately, the prevalence of the ′cases′ of Internet addiction came out to be 51.9 and 3.8%, respectively. Conclusions: The Internet affects the users′ life in multiple ways. The sharp difference in the prevalence estimates of Internet addiction depending on the type of criteria used shows the fragility of the construct of Internet addiction. A cautious approach should be adopted while revising the nosological system to differentiate users from those who are dependent.

  8. A generic rabies risk assessment tool to support surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael P; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2015-06-01

    The continued spread of rabies in Indonesia poses a risk to human and animal populations in the remaining free islands, as well as the neighbouring rabies-free countries of Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea and Australia. Here we describe the development of a generic risk assessment tool which can be used to rapidly determine the vulnerability of rabies-free islands, so that scarce resources can be targeted to surveillance activities and the sensitivity of surveillance systems increased. The tool was developed by integrating information on the historical spread of rabies, anthropological studies, and the opinions of local animal health experts. The resulting tool is based on eight critical parameters that can be estimated from the literature, expert opinion, observational studies and information generated from routine surveillance. In the case study presented, results generated by this tool were most sensitive to the probability that dogs are present on private and fishing boats and it was predicted that rabies-infection (one infected case) might occur in a rabies-free island (upper 95% prediction interval) with a volume of 1000 boats movements. With 25,000 boat movements, the median of the probability distribution would be equal to one infected case, with an upper 95% prediction interval of six infected cases. This tool could also be used at the national-level to guide control and eradication plans. An initial recommendation from this study is to develop a surveillance programme to determine the likelihood that boats transport dogs, for example by port surveillance or regularly conducted surveys of fisherman and passenger ferries. However, the illegal nature of dog transportation from rabies-infected to rabies-free islands is a challenge for developing such surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Análisis de la mortalidad en ciudades: resultados en Valencia y Alicante Mortality surveillance in cities: results in Valencia and Alicante [Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Nolasco

    2004-02-01

    selected specific causes in Valencia and Alicante, to establish internal inequalities by districts, and to evaluate changes in the magnitude of these inequalities over time. Methods: Deaths among residents of Valencia and Alicante in the periods 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 were assigned to residential municipal districts. Comparisons between the periods studied and between cities were carried out using the relative risk derived from a Poisson regression model. A comparative mortality figure was calculated using the 17 largest groups of the 9th International Classification of Diseases. Rates adjusted by the direct method, standardized mortality ratio, potential years of life lost (PYLL ratio and life expectancy at birth were calculated by districts in each study period. Results: The risks of death from all causes decreased between the first and second periods in both men and women in both cities. Life expectancy significantly increased in both cities for men and in Valencia for women. The city of Valencia had the greatest risk of death in both periods. Some causes of death increased (groups 5 and 6, mental and nervous system disorders and sensory organ diseases. By districts, there was greater variability in Valencia than in Alicante, especially in districts 1 and 11 in Valencia, which showed a high risk of death. Conclusions: The process of internal mortality surveillance by districts is reproducible. In the city of Valencia there were inequalities in mortality that were maintained over time. The city of Alicante showed less internal variability in its mortality indicators.

  10. The International Haemovigilance Network Database for the Surveillance of Adverse Reactions and Events in Donors and Recipients of Blood Components: technical issues and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, C; Wiersum, J C; Richardson, C; Robillard, P; Jorgensen, J; Renaudier, P; Faber, J-C; Wood, E M

    2016-11-01

    The International Haemovigilance Network's ISTARE is an online database for surveillance of all adverse reactions (ARs) and adverse events (AEs) associated with donation of blood and transfusion of blood components, irrespective of severity or the harm caused. ISTARE aims to unify the collection and sharing of information with a view to harmonizing best practices for haemovigilance systems around the world. Adverse reactionss and adverse events are recorded by blood component, type of reaction, severity and imputability to transfusion, using internationally agreed standard definitions. From 2006 to 2012, 125 national sets of annual aggregated data were received from 25 countries, covering 132.8 million blood components issued. The incidence of all ARs was 77.5 per 100 000 components issued, of which 25% were severe (19.1 per 100 000). Of 349 deaths (0.26 per 100 000), 58% were due to the three ARs related to the respiratory system: transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO, 27%), transfusion-associated acute lung injury (TRALI, 19%) and transfusion-associated dyspnoea (TAD, 12%). Cumulatively, 594 477 donor complications were reported (rate 660 per 100 000), of which 2.9% were severe. ISTARE is a well-established surveillance tool offering important contributions to international efforts to maximize transfusion safety. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Introduction of a prehospital critical incident monitoring system--pilot project results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Julian; Davis, Anna; Jennings, Paul; Bartley, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Hospital medical incident monitoring improves preventable morbidity and mortality rates. Error management systems have been adopted widely in this setting. Data relating to incident monitoring in the prehospital setting is limited. Implementation of an incident monitoring process in a prehospital setting. This is a prospective, descriptive study of the pilot phase of the implementation of an incident monitoring process in a regional prehospital setting, with a focus on trauma care. Paramedics and emergency department staff submitted anonymous incident reports, and a chart review was performed on patients who met major trauma criteria. Selected trauma cases were analyzed by a structured interview/debriefing process to elucidate undocumented incidents. A project committee coded and logged all incidents and developed recommendations. Of 4,429 ambulance responses, 41 cases were analyzed. Twenty-four (58.5%; 95% CI = 49.7-67.4%) were reported anonymously, and the rest were major trauma patients. A total of 77 incidents were identified (mean per case = 1.8; CI = 1.03-2.57). Anonymous cases revealed 26 incidents (mean = 1.1; CI = 0.98-1.22); eight trauma debriefings revealed 38 incidents (mean = 4.8; CI = 0.91-8.69) and nine trauma chart reviews revealed 13 incidents (mean = 1.6; CI = 1.04-2.16). A total of 56 of 77 (72.7%; CI = 65.5-80.0%) incidents related to system inadequacies, and 15 (57.7%; CI = 46.7-68.6%) anonymously reported incidents related to resource problems. A total of 35 of 77 (45.5%; CI = 40.4-50.5%) incidents had minimal or no impact on the patients' outcomes. Thirty-four of 77 (44.2%; CI = 39.3-49.1%) incidents were considered mitigated by circumstance. Incident monitoring led to generalized feedback in most cases (65 of 77; 84.4%; CI = 77.6-91.3%); in three cases (3.9%; CI = 3.7-4.1%), specific education occurred; two cases were reported to an external body (2.6%; CI = 2.5-2.7%); three cases resulted in remedial action (3.9%; CI = 3.7-4.1%); four for

  12. Surveillance test interval optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1995-01-01

    Technical specifications have been developed on the bases of deterministic analyses, engineering judgment, and expert opinion. This paper introduces our risk-based approach to surveillance test interval (STI) optimization. This approach consists of three main levels. The first level is the component level, which serves as a rough estimation of the optimal STI and can be calculated analytically by a differentiating equation for mean unavailability. The second and third levels give more representative results. They take into account the results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) calculated by a personal computer (PC) based code and are based on system unavailability at the system level and on core damage frequency at the plant level

  13. Insights from a Systematic Search for Information on Designs, Costs, and Effectiveness of Poliovirus Environmental Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Zimmermann, Marita; Pallansch, Mark A; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2017-12-01

    Poliovirus surveillance plays a critical role in achieving and certifying eradication and will play a key role in the polio endgame. Environmental surveillance can provide an opportunity to detect circulating polioviruses prior to the observation of any acute flaccid paralysis cases. We completed a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications on environmental surveillance for polio including the search terms "environmental surveillance" or "sewage," and "polio," "poliovirus," or "poliomyelitis," and compared characteristics of the resulting studies. The review included 146 studies representing 101 environmental surveillance activities from 48 countries published between 1975 and 2016. Studies reported taking samples from sewage treatment facilities, surface waters, and various other environmental sources, although they generally did not present sufficient details to thoroughly evaluate the sewage systems and catchment areas. When reported, catchment areas varied from 50 to over 7.3 million people (median of 500,000 for the 25% of activities that reported catchment areas, notably with 60% of the studies not reporting this information and 16% reporting insufficient information to estimate the catchment area population size). While numerous studies reported the ability of environmental surveillance to detect polioviruses in the absence of clinical cases, the review revealed very limited information about the costs and limited information to support quantitative population effectiveness of conducting environmental surveillance. This review motivates future studies to better characterize poliovirus environmental surveillance systems and the potential value of information that they may provide in the polio endgame.

  14. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  15. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci in 2002-2003. Results of the multinational GRASP Surveillance Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekmann, Susan E; Heilmann, Kris P; Richter, Sandra S

    2005-01-01

    A multinational surveillance study, GRASP, was conducted between November 2002 and April 2003 with the aim of assessing rates of antimicrobial resistance among 2656 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2486 isolates of group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, 1358 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae...... and 1047 of Moraxella catarrhalis from 20 countries in Europe, eastern Asia and southern Africa. Conspicuous differences between various countries were noted in the S. pneumoniae resistance rates observed for penicillin (0-79.2%) and erythromycin (4-66%), along with other antimicrobials. The percentage...... of MDR strains was above 25% in 8 of the 20 countries studied. Group A streptococcal macrolide resistance rates ranged from 0% to 35% by country, while rates of beta-lactamase production ranged from 0% to 39% for H. influenzae and 80-100% for M. catarrhalis. Antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae remains...

  17. Dichorionic twin ultrasound surveillance: sonography every 4 weeks significantly underperforms sonography every 2 weeks: results of the Prospective Multicenter ESPRiT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Siobhan; Breathnach, Fionnuala; Burke, Gerard; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Geary, Michael; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John; Hunter, Alyson; Morrison, John J; Higgins, Shane; Mahony, Rhona; Dicker, Patrick; Tully, Elizabeth; Malone, Fergal D

    2015-10-01

    A 2-week ultrasound scanning schedule for monochorionic twins is endorsed widely. There is a lack of robust data to inform a schedule for the surveillance of dichorionic gestations. We aimed to determine how ultrasound scanning that is performed at 2- or 4-week intervals (or every 4 weeks before 32 weeks' gestation and every 2 weeks thereafter) may impact the prenatal detection of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and ultimately influence timing of delivery. In a consecutive cohort of 789 dichorionic twin pregnancies that were recruited prospectively for the multicenter Evaluation of Sonographic Predictors of Restricted Growth in Twins study, ultrasound determination of fetal growth and interrogation of umbilical and middle cerebral artery Doppler scans were performed every 2 weeks from 24 weeks' gestation until delivery. Complete delivery and perinatal outcome data were recorded for all pregnancies. Where delivery was prompted by FGR, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler examination or poor biophysical profile and in the absence of ruptured membranes, onset of labor, preeclampsia, or antepartum hemorrhage, the delivery was considered "ultrasound-indicated." For ultrasound-indicated deliveries, detection probabilities for FGR/abnormal umbilical artery Doppler scans/poor biophysical were determined according to the interval between examinations, by the suppression if alternate examination data. Among 789 dichorionic twin pregnancies, 66 pairs (8%) had an "ultrasound indicated" delivery. Detection of FGR was reduced from 88-69%, and detection of abnormal umbilical artery Doppler was reduced from 82-62% when a 4-week ultrasound schedule was simulated. Both of these reductions reached statistical significance. There was a nonsignificant trend toward a reduction in the recording of oligohydramnios with a 4-week interval between examinations. This study suggests that the ultrasound surveillance program of every 2 weeks that is recommended currently for monochorionic twins

  18. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody-mediated neurological disease: results of a UK-based surveillance study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sukhvir; Hacohen, Yael; Jacobson, Leslie; Agrawal, Shakti; Gupta, Rajat; Philip, Sunny; Smith, Martin; Lim, Ming; Wassmer, Evangeline; Vincent, Angela

    2015-06-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR-Ab) encephalitis is a well-recognised clinico-immunological syndrome that presents with neuropsychiatric symptoms cognitive decline, movement disorder and seizures. This study reports the clinical features, management and neurological outcomes of paediatric NMDAR-Ab-mediated neurological disease in the UK. A prospective surveillance study. Children with NMDAR-Ab-mediated neurological diseases were voluntarily reported to the British Neurological Surveillance Unit (BPNSU) from November 2010 to December 2011. Initial and follow-up questionnaires were sent out to physicians. Thirty-one children fulfilled the criteria for the study. Eight presented during the study period giving an incidence of 0.85 per million children per year (95% CI 0.64 to 1.06); 23 cases were historical. Behavioural change and neuropsychiatric features were present in 90% of patients, and seizures and movement disorders both in 67%. Typical NMDAR-Ab encephalitis was reported in 24 children and partial phenotype without encephalopathy in seven, including predominantly psychiatric (four) and movement disorder (three). All patients received steroids, 22 (71%) received intravenous immunoglobulin, 9 (29%) received plasma exchange,and 10 (32%) received second-line immunotherapy. Of the 23 patients who were diagnosed early, 18 (78%) made a full recovery compared with only 1 of 8 (13%) of the late diagnosed patients (p=0.002, Fisher's exact test). Seven patients relapsed, with four needing additional second-line immunotherapy. Paediatric NMDAR-Ab-mediated neurological disease appears to be similar to adult NMDAR-Ab encephalitis, but some presented with a partial phenotype. Early treatment was associated with a quick and often full recovery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Readiness of the Belgian network of sentinel general practitioners to deliver electronic health record data for surveillance purposes: results of survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffin, Nicole; Bossuyt, Nathalie; Vanthomme, Katrien; Van Casteren, Viviane

    2010-06-25

    In order to proceed from a paper based registration to a surveillance system that is based on extraction of electronic health records (EHR), knowledge is needed on the number and representativeness of sentinel GPs using a government-certified EHR system and the quality of EHR data for research, expressed in the compliance rate with three criteria: recording of home visits, use of prescription module and diagnostic subject headings. Data were collected by annual postal surveys between 2005 and 2009 among all sentinel GPs. We tested relations between four key GP characteristics (age, gender, language community, practice organisation) and use of a certified EHR system by multivariable logistic regression. The relation between EHR software package, GP characteristics and compliance with three quality criteria was equally measured by multivariable logistic regression. A response rate of 99% was obtained. Of 221 sentinel GPs, 55% participated in the surveillance without interruption from 2005 onwards, i.e. all five years, and 78% were participants in 2009. Sixteen certified EHR systems were used among 91% of the Dutch and 63% of the French speaking sentinel GPs. The EHR software package was strongly related to the community and only one EHR system was used by a comparable number of sentinel GPs in both communities. Overall, the prescription module was always used and home visits were usually recorded. Uniform subject headings were only sometimes used and the compliance with this quality criterion was almost exclusively related to the EHR software package in use. The challenge is to progress towards a sentinel network of GPs delivering care-based data that are (partly) extracted from well performing EHR systems and still representative for Belgian general practice.

  20. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  1. The Performative Uses of the Surveillance Archive in Manu Luksch's Works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses Manu Luksch's works using CCTV recordings as an example of aesthetic intervention in contemporary surveillance systems. Luksch's works are read as a “critical interface" between the artist's body and the archiving procedures of surveillance systems....

  2. PNNL Measurement Results for the 2016 Criticality Accident Dosimetry Exercise at the Nevada National Security Stite (IER-148)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.; Morley, Shannon M.; Stephens, John A.

    2017-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimetry intercomparison exercise held at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) May 24-27, 2016. The exercise was administered by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and consisted of three exposures performed using the Godiva-IV critical assembly housed in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) located on the NNSS site. The exercise allowed participants to test the ability of their nuclear accident dosimeters to meet the performance criteria in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013, Dosimetry for Criticality Accidents and to obtain new measurement data for use in revising dose calculation methods and quick sort screening methods where appropriate. PNNL participated with new prototype Personal Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) and Fixed Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (FNAD) designs as well as the existing historical PNAD design. The new prototype designs incorporate optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters in place of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), among other design changes, while retaining the same set of activation foils historically used. The default dose calculation methodology established decades ago for use with activation foils in PNNL PNADs and FNADs was used to calculate neutron dose results for both the existing and prototype dosimeters tested in the exercise. The results indicate that the effective cross sections and/or dose conversion factors used historically need to be updated to accurately measure the operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 and to ensure PNAD and FNAD performance meets the ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 performance criteria. The operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry are personal absorbed dose, Dp(10), and ambient absorbed dose, D*(10).

  3. Regulations concerning radiation protection and survey; Donnees de la surveillance et regles qui en resultent en matiere de protection contre les rayonnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel,; Lavie,; Fitoussi, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The many and always increasing applications of Atomic Energy for peaceful uses set many safety and security problems relatively to the workers, populations, and locating of the sites in general. A comparative study of the radiation hazards to which the people working in the 'Commissariat a l'energie atomique' installations were exposed during 1957 and the results obtained concerning individual and collective safety and security were extremely satisfactory owing to a continuous control and supervision. 2. However a few contamination and irradiation incidents - exposed subsequently as well as the way they were dealt with - show the necessity of a circumstantial regulation inside of an atomic center to establish the responsibility of the service in charge of the control of the radiation and the responsibility of the services using radioactive products with regard to contamination by radioactive materials. 3. Abstract of the different practical safety and security regulations concerning holding, manipulation, transport and stocking of radioactive materials. Pursuant to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiologic Protection, the radioelements are classified according to the danger that can occur from them in comparison with the Pu with regard to: - radioactive noxiousness; specific activity per unit of mass; contamination hazards. 4. The service in charge of radiation protection plays the important part of a technical adviser for the construction of specialized laboratories and sees to the keeping of protection regulations. 5. Data essential to radiation protection are given to the people using radioactive materials; particularly: - a table of the radioisotopes and the hazards occurring from them; - radiation hazards regarding {gamma} ray emitted by irradiated Pu; - radiation hazards regarding {gamma} ray emitted by irradiated Th. 6. As the hazards occasioned by irradiated uranium have already been studied, the case of a low and total irradiation

  4. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  5. IS WAITING THE HARDEST PART? A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE EXPERIENCE OF WOMEN AWAITING BREAST BIOPSY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, T; Govender, C; Rayne, S

    2017-06-01

    Most previous research efforts have focused on the psychological effects of receiving a cancer diagnosis rather than the period of waiting for definitive Results. Early detection of cancer is directly linked to successful treatment regimes, yet these procedures evoke significant anxiety in patients. The long wait for medical test Results in state health institutions, with one of the possible outcomes being a cancer diagnosis, means that the days of waiting can induce emotional distress before the diagnosis has even been given. Eight research collaborators were invited to, in their own voice, shed light on their individual experiences while waiting for their biopsy Results to gain an understanding of the experiences of each collaborator by letting her tell her story and to explore the possibility of shared experience between collaborators. Research collaborators at a local, government hospital kept a journal for the two-week waiting period for their biopsy Results. Shortly before receiving their Results, they took part in a short semi-structured interview to inquire about their waiting. The theoretical framework used for data interpretation is critical theory focusing on the structures within society and healthcare systems that impact on the experience of waiting. The undercurrent of critical commentary about the roles of the gender, economic, political and cultural factors that contribute to the screening experience for women in South Africa helps to shed light on the complex forces at play within the procedures. The Results indicate that for some women waiting provokes significant psychological stress which manifests in multiple psychological processes including the psychological bracing phenomenon, denial, suppression and negation of their emotional experience all perpetuated by the structures of power within the health care system. More understanding of the psychological experience of awaiting a cancer diagnosis is required and there is an important place for

  6. SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan Update for 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 441.1-­1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE 2008), requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.”This 2017 update reflects changes to the surveillance plan resulting from surveillance findings as documented in Reeves et al. 2016. These findings include observations of corrosion in SAVY and Hagan containers and the indication (in one SAVY container) of possible filter membrane thermal degradation. This surveillance plan update documents the rationale for selecting surveillance containers, specifies the containers for 2017 surveillance, and identifies a minimum set of containers for 2018 surveillance. This update contains important changes to the previous surveillance plans.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility trends among gram-positive and -negative clinical isolates collected between 2005 and 2012 in Mexico: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Noriega, Eduardo Rodriguez; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2015-12-15

    The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) is a global antimicrobial surveillance study of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. This report presents data on antimicrobial susceptibility among organisms collected in Mexico between 2005 and 2012 as part of T.E.S.T., and compares rates between 2005-2007 and 2008-2012. Each center in Mexico submitted at least 200 isolates per collection year; including 65 gram-positive isolates and 135 gram-negative isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methodology and antimicrobial susceptibility was established using the 2013 CLSI-approved breakpoints. For tigecycline US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) breakpoints were applied. Isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae with a MIC for ceftriaxone of >1 mg/L were screened for ESBL production using the phenotypic confirmatory disk test according to CLSI guidelines. The rates of some key resistant phenotypes changed during this study: vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus faecium decreased from 28.6 % in 2005-2007 to 19.1 % in 2008-2012, while β-lactamase production among Haemophilus influenzae decreased from 37.6 to 18.9 %. Conversely, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased from 38.1 to 47.9 %, meropenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased from 17.7 to 33.0 % and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased from 25.6 to 49.7 %. The prevalence of other resistant pathogens was stable over the study period, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli (39.0 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.0 %). The activity of tigecycline was maintained across the study years with MIC90s of ≤2 mg/L against Enterococcus spp., S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, H. influenzae, and Acinetobacter spp. All gram

  8. Social support and employment status modify the effect of intimate partner violence on depression symptom severity in women: results from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougé, Nathalie; Lehman, Erik B; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant health issues for U.S. women. Interaction effects between IPV and other psychosocial factors on the severity of depressive symptoms have not been fully explored. This study assessed effect modification, that is, how IPV interacts with sociodemographics, psychosocial factors and health risk behaviors, on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. We utilized cross-sectional data from female respondents (n = 16,106) of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey. Sociodemographics, psychosocial variables, and health risk behaviors determined to be significantly associated with depression were tested for interaction effects with IPV. Weighted ordinal logistic regression and predicted probabilities illustrated the effect of IPV status on depressive symptom severity, stratified by interaction effects. Recent and lifetime IPV exposure were associated with more severe depressive symptoms compared with no IPV exposure. IPV history interacted with employment status and social support on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Overall, any IPV exposure was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women with low social support and unemployment, although the effect of recent (versus lifetime) IPV was most pronounced among women with high social support or employed women. Social support and employment status interact with IPV on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Therefore, social support or workplace interventions designed to improve depressive symptoms should examine IPV history. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MRI findings in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. Does dutasteride make MRI visible lesions less conspicuous? Results from a placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giganti, Francesco [University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, London (United Kingdom); Moore, Caroline M.; Robertson, Nicola L.; Emberton, Mark [University College London, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Urology, London (United Kingdom); McCartan, Neil [University College London, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, London (United Kingdom); Jameson, Charles [University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Pathology, London (United Kingdom); Bott, Simon R.J. [Frimley Park Hospital, Department of Urology, Surrey (United Kingdom); Winkler, Mathias [Imperial College NHS Trust, Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Gambarota, Giulio [INSERM, Rennes (France); Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Whitcher, Brandon [Klarismo, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Castro, Ramiro [GlaxoSmithKline, Research and Development, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Allen, Clare; Kirkham, Alex [University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    To investigate changes in the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer taking dutasteride 0.5 mg or placebo. We analysed 37 men, randomised to 6 months of daily dutasteride (n = 18) or placebo (n = 19), undergoing 3T multi-parametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) scans at baseline and 6 months. Images were reviewed blind to treatment allocation and clinical information. Mean ADC of peripheral (PZ) and transition (TZ) zones, and MR-suspicious lesions were compared between groups over 6 months. Conspicuity was defined as the PZ divided by tumour ADC, and its change over 6 months was assessed. A decrease in mean conspicuity in the dutasteride group (but not the controls) was seen over 6 months (1.54 vs 1.38; p = 0.025). Absolute changes in ADC and conspicuity were significantly different between placebo and dutasteride groups at 6 months: (-0.03 vs 0.08, p = 0.033) and (0.11 vs -0.16, p = 0.012), as were percentage changes in the same parameters: (-2.27% vs 8.56% p = 0.048) and (9.25% vs -9.89% p = 0.013). Dutasteride was associated with increased tumour ADC and reduced conspicuity. A lower threshold for triggering biopsy might be considered in men on dutasteride undergoing mpMRI for prostate cancer. (orig.)

  10. Health surveillance of radiological work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauw, H.; Vliet, J.V.D.; Zuidema, H.

    1988-01-01

    Shielding x-ray devices and issuing film badges to radiological workers in 1936 can be considered the start of radiological protection in the Philips enterprises in the Netherlands. Shielding and equipment were constantly improved based upon the dosimetry results of the filmbadges. The problem of radioactive waste led to the foundation of a central Philips committee for radiological protection in 1956, which in 1960 also issued an internal license system in order to regulate the proper precautions to be taken : workplace design and layout, technological provisions and working procedures. An evaluation of all radiological work in 1971 learnt that a stricter health surveillance program was needed to follow up the precautions issued by the license. On one hand a health surveillance program was established and on the other hand all types of radiological work were classified. In this way an obligatory and optimal health surveillance program was issued for each type of radiological work

  11. Normalized Metadata Generation for Human Retrieval Using Multiple Video Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since it is impossible for surveillance personnel to keep monitoring videos from a multiple camera-based surveillance system, an efficient technique is needed to help recognize important situations by retrieving the metadata of an object-of-interest. In a multiple camera-based surveillance system, an object detected in a camera has a different shape in another camera, which is a critical issue of wide-range, real-time surveillance systems. In order to address the problem, this paper presents an object retrieval method by extracting the normalized metadata of an object-of-interest from multiple, heterogeneous cameras. The proposed metadata generation algorithm consists of three steps: (i generation of a three-dimensional (3D human model; (ii human object-based automatic scene calibration; and (iii metadata generation. More specifically, an appropriately-generated 3D human model provides the foot-to-head direction information that is used as the input of the automatic calibration of each camera. The normalized object information is used to retrieve an object-of-interest in a wide-range, multiple-camera surveillance system in the form of metadata. Experimental results show that the 3D human model matches the ground truth, and automatic calibration-based normalization of metadata enables a successful retrieval and tracking of a human object in the multiple-camera video surveillance system.

  12. The JCO criticality accident at Tokai-mura, Japan: an overview of the sampling campaign and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Muroyama, T.; Murata, Y.; Nakanishi, T.; Hoshi, M.; Takada, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Takeoka, S.; Kitagawa, K.; Suga, S.; Endo, S.; Tosaki, N.; Mitsugashira, T.; Hara, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Takano, M.; Yanagawa, Y.; Tsuboi, T.; Ichimasa, M.; Ichimasa, Y.; Imura, H.; Sasajima, E.; Seki, R.; Saito, Y.; Kondo, M.; Kojima, S.; Muramatsu, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Shibata, S.; Yonehara, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Kimura, S.; Shiraishi, K.; Ban-nai, T.; Sahoo, S.K.; Igarashi, Y.; Aoyama, M.; Hirose, K.; Uehiro, T.; Doi, T.; Tanaka, A.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2000-01-01

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999 at the uranium conversion facility of the JCO Company Ltd. in Tokai-mura, Japan. A collaborating scientific investigation team was organized in two groups, the first to carry out research on the environmental impact (the environmental research group) and the second to assess the radiation effects on residents (the biological research group). This report concerns only the activities of the environmental research group. Four investigative teams were sent on different dates to the accident site and its vicinity to collect samples. About 400 samples were collected and subjected to analysis. An outline of the sampling campaign is presented here along with a brief chronology of the accident and the preliminary key results obtained by the independent research group are summarised in this Special Issue of the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

  13. Effectiveness and safety of tolvaptan in liver cirrhosis patients with edema: Interim results of post-marketing surveillance of tolvaptan in liver cirrhosis (START study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaida, Isao; Terai, Shuji; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Yasuda, Moriyoshi; Okada, Mitsuru; Bando, Kosuke; Fukuta, Yasuhiko

    2017-10-01

    Loop diuretics and spironolactone are used in patients with hepatic edema, but they are sometimes associated with insufficient responses as well as adverse events. Tolvaptan, a vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist, was approved for hepatic edema in 2013. A large-scale post-marketing surveillance study has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tolvaptan in real-world clinical settings. Patients with hepatic cirrhosis with insufficient response to conventional diuretics were enrolled. The observational period was up to 6 months. Changes in body weight and clinical symptoms were measured to evaluate effectiveness. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was summarized as a safety measure. Of 970 patients enrolled, 463 were included in the safety analysis. Of this group, 340 were included in the effectiveness analysis. Decreases in body weight from baseline were -2.38 kg on day 7 and -3.52 kg on day 14. Ascites and bloated feeling was significantly improved within 14 days. The mean change in body weight depended on estimated glomerular filtration rate levels. The most frequently reported adverse drug reaction was thirst (6.9% of patients). Serum sodium level of ≥146 mEq/L was observed in 12 patients (2.7%). In the real-world clinical setting, tolvaptan showed aquaretic effectiveness in patients with cirrhosis. The mean change in body weight depended on renal function. We recommend tolvaptan use for hepatic cirrhosis at a stage in which the renal function is maintained. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  14. Antibacterial resistance of community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens recovered from patients in Latin America: results from the PROTEKT surveillance study (1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PROTEKT (Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin is a global surveillance study established in 1999 to monitor antibacterial resistance of respiratory tract organisms. Thirteen centers from Argentina, Brazil and Mexico participat ed during 1999-2000; they collected 1,806 isolates (Streptococcus pneumoniae 518, Haemophilus influenzae 520, Moraxella catarrhalis 140, Staphylococcus aureus 351, S. pyogenes 277. Overall, 218 (42.1% of the S. pneumoniae isolates had reduced susceptibility to penicillin, 79 (15.3% were penicillin-resistant and 79 (15.3% were erythromycin-resistant. Mexico had the highest prevalence of penicillin (76.5% and erythromycin (31.2% resistance. Of 77 erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae tested for resistance genotype, 43 possessed mef(A, 33 possessed erm(B and 1 possessed both erm(B and mef(A mechanism. All S. pneumoniae isolates were fully susceptible to telithromycin, linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Among H. influenzae isolates, 88 (16.9% produced b-lactamase, ranging from 11% (Brazil to 24.5% (Mexico. Among M. catarrhalis isolates, 138 (98.6% produced b-lactamase. Twenty-four (8.7% of the S. pyogenes isolates were erythromycin-resistant; resistance being attributable to mefA (n=18, ermTR (n=5 and ermB (n=1. All H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pyogenes were fully susceptible to telithromycin. Methicillin resistance was found in 26.5% of the S. aureus isolates (Argentina 15%; Mexico 20%; Brazil 31.3%. Telithromycin was effective against 97.7% of methicillin-susceptible isolates. PROTEKT confirms that antibacterial resistance is an emerging problem in Latin America. The previously reported high levels of pneumococcal resistance to the b-lactam and macrolides were exceeded. New agents that do not induce resistance or that exert low selective pressure, e.g. telithromycin, are essential to safeguard future antibacterial efficacy.

  15. Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial breeders and layers, southwest Nigeria. ... African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... Background: Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the ...

  16. Application of DNA barcoding in forest biosecurity surveillance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland M. Humble; Jeremy R. deWaard

    2011-01-01

    The ability to distinguish non-indigenous species from the background diversity of native taxa is critical to the success of surveillance programs for detecting new introductions. Surveillance programs for alien taxa rely on the precise diagnosis of species, which can be complicated by sizable trap samples, damaged specimens, immature life stages, and incomplete...

  17. Redefining syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Katz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field’s capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries.

  18. Airborne Video Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blask, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The DARPA Airborne Video Surveillance (AVS) program was established to develop and promote technologies to make airborne video more useful, providing capabilities that achieve a UAV force multiplier...

  19. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  20. Experimental result of BWR post-CHF tests. Critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Anoda, Yoshinari

    2002-02-01

    Authors performed post-CHF experiments under wider pressure ranges of 2 MPa - 18 MPa, wider mass flux ranges of 33 kg/m 2 s - 1651 kg/m 2 s and wider superheat of heaters up to 500 K in comparison to experimental ranges at previous post-CHF experiments. Data on boiling transition, critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient were obtained. Used test section was 4x4-rod bundle with heaters, which diameter and length were the same as those of BWR nuclear fuels. As the result of the experiments, it was found that the boiling transition occurred just below several grid spacers, and that the fronts of the boiling transition region proceeded lower with increase of heated power. Heat transfer was due to nucleate boiling above grid spacers, while it was due to film boiling below grid spacers. Consequently, critical heat flux is affected on the distance from the grid spacers. Critical heat flux above the grid spacers was about 15% higher than that below the grid spacers, by comparing them under the same local condition. Heat transfer by steam turbulent flow was dominant to post-CHF heat transfer, when superheat of heaters was sufficiently high. Then, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was predicted with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. On the other hand, when superhead of heaters was not sufficiently high, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was higher than the prediction with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. Mass flux effect on post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was described by standardization of post-CHF heat transfer coefficient with the prediction for single-phase flow. However, pressure effect, superheat effect and effect of position were not described. Authors clarified that those effects could be described with functions of heater temperature and position. Post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was lowest just blow the grid spacers, and it increased with the lower positions. It increased by about 30% in one span of the grid

  1. Experimental result of BWR post-CHF tests. Critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Anoda, Yoshinari [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Iwaki, Chikako [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    Authors performed post-CHF experiments under wider pressure ranges of 2 MPa - 18 MPa, wider mass flux ranges of 33 kg/m{sup 2}s - 1651 kg/m{sup 2}s and wider superheat of heaters up to 500 K in comparison to experimental ranges at previous post-CHF experiments. Data on boiling transition, critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient were obtained. Used test section was 4x4-rod bundle with heaters, which diameter and length were the same as those of BWR nuclear fuels. As the result of the experiments, it was found that the boiling transition occurred just below several grid spacers, and that the fronts of the boiling transition region proceeded lower with increase of heated power. Heat transfer was due to nucleate boiling above grid spacers, while it was due to film boiling below grid spacers. Consequently, critical heat flux is affected on the distance from the grid spacers. Critical heat flux above the grid spacers was about 15% higher than that below the grid spacers, by comparing them under the same local condition. Heat transfer by steam turbulent flow was dominant to post-CHF heat transfer, when superheat of heaters was sufficiently high. Then, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was predicted with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. On the other hand, when superhead of heaters was not sufficiently high, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was higher than the prediction with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. Mass flux effect on post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was described by standardization of post-CHF heat transfer coefficient with the prediction for single-phase flow. However, pressure effect, superheat effect and effect of position were not described. Authors clarified that those effects could be described with functions of heater temperature and position. Post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was lowest just blow the grid spacers, and it increased with the lower positions. It increased by about 30% in one span of

  2. Impact of an electronic alert notification system embedded in radiologists' workflow on closed-loop communication of critical results: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacson, Ronilda; O'Connor, Stacy D; Sahni, V Anik; Roy, Christopher; Dalal, Anuj; Desai, Sonali; Khorasani, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Optimal critical test result communication is a Joint Commission national patient safety goal and requires documentation of closed-loop communication among care providers in the medical record. Electronic alert notification systems can facilitate an auditable process for creating alerts for transmission and acknowledgement of critical test results. We evaluated the impact of a patient safety initiative with an alert notification system on reducing critical results lacking documented communication, and assessed potential overuse of the alerting system for communicating results. We implemented an alert notification system-Alert Notification of Critical Results (ANCR)-in January 2010. We reviewed radiology reports finalised in 2009-2014 which lacked documented communication between the radiologist and another care provider, and assessed the impact of ANCR on the proportion of such reports with critical findings, using trend analysis over 10 semiannual time periods. To evaluate potential overuse of ANCR, we assessed the proportion of reports with non-critical results among provider-communicated reports. The proportion of reports with critical results among reports without documented communication decreased significantly over 4 years (2009-2014) from 0.19 to 0.05 (pcommunicated reports with non-critical results remained unchanged over time before and after ANCR implementation (0.20 to 0.15, p=0.45, Cochran-Armitage trend test). A patient safety initiative with an alert notification system reduced the proportion of critical results among reports lacking documented communication between care providers. We observed no change in documented communication of non-critical results, suggesting the system did not promote overuse. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether such systems prevent subsequent patient harm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Is Young Adulthood a Critical Period for Suicidal Behavior among Sexual Minorities? Results from a US National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Rice, Cara E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Russell, Stephen T

    2018-03-29

    The developmental timing of suicide-related disparities between heterosexuals and sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian/gay and bisexual (LGB) people) is an understudied area that has critical prevention implications. In addition to developmentally situated experiences that shape risk for suicidality in the general population, sexual minorities also experience unique social stressors (e.g., anti-LGB stigma) that may alter their risk for suicidal behavior at different ages. Using a nationally representative US sample of adults, we assessed age-varying rates of suicidal behavior among heterosexuals and sexual minorities ages 18 to 60 and the age-varying association between anti-LGB discrimination and suicidal behavior. We also tested whether these age-varying prevalences and associations differed for men and women and for sexual minorities who did and did not endorse a sexual minority identity. Results indicate a critical period for suicide behavior risk for sexual minorities during young adulthood, with the highest rates of risk at age 18 followed by a steady decline until the early 40s. Disparities were particularly robust for sexual minorities who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. This pattern was present for both men and women, though sexual minority women in their 30s were more likely to report suicidal behavior than heterosexuals and sexual minority men. Sexual minorities who experienced anti-LGB discrimination were more likely to report suicidal behavior, but the significance of this association was limited to those under 30. The effect of discrimination on suicidal behavior was stronger among young adult sexual minority men, relative to sexual minority women, but was present for a wider age range for sexual minority women (until age 30) relative to sexual minority men (until age 25).

  4. A new device for the prevention of pulmonary embolism in critically ill patients: Results of the European Angel Catheter Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccone, Fabio S; Bunker, Nicholas; Waldmann, Carl; De Backer, Daniel; Brohi, Karim; Jones, Robert G; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening complication of critical illness. In trauma and neurosurgical patients with contraindications to anticoagulation, inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have been used to prevent PE, but their associated long-term complication rates and difficulties associated with filter removal have limited their use. The Angel catheter is a temporary device, which combined an IVC filter with a triple-lumen central venous catheter (IVC filter-catheter) and is intended for bedside placement and removal when no longer indicated. This study presents data from a European Registry of 60 critically ill patients in whom the IVC filter-catheter was used to prevent PE. The patients were all at high risk of PE development or recurrence and had contraindications to anticoagulation. The primary end points of this study were to evaluate the safety (in particular, the presence of infectious or thrombotic events) and effectiveness (the numbers of PEs and averted PEs) of the IVC filter-catheter. The main diagnosis before catheter insertion was major trauma in 33 patients (55%), intracerebral hemorrhage or stroke in 9 (15%), a venous thromboembolic event in 9 (15%), and active bleeding in 6 (10%). The IVC filter-catheter was placed as prophylaxis in 51 patients (85%) and as treatment in the 9 patients (15%) with venous thromboembolic event. The devices were inserted at the bedside without fluoroscopic guidance in 54 patients (90%) and within a median of 4 days after hospital admission. They were left in place for a mean of 6 days (4-8 days). One patient developed a PE, without hemodynamic compromise; two PEs were averted. No serious adverse events were reported. Early bedside placement of an IVC filter-catheter is possible, and our results suggest that this is a safe, effective alternative to short-term PE prophylaxis for high-risk patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. Therapeutic study, level V.

  5. Early results from an angiosome-directed open surgical technique for venous arterialization in patients with critical lower limb ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Houlind

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with critical lower limb ischemia without patent pedal arteries cannot be treated by the conventional arterial reconstruction. Venous arterialization has been suggested to improve limb salvage in this subgroup of patients but has not gained wide acceptance. We report our early experience after implementing deep and superficial venous arterialization of the lower limb. Materials and methods: Ten patients with critical ischemia and without crural or pedal arteries available for conventional bypass surgery or angioplasty were treated with distal venous arterialization. Inflow was from the most distal unobstructed segment. Run-off was the dorsal pedal venous arch (n=5, the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the posterior tibial artery (n=3, or the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the common plantar artery (n=2 depending on the location of the ischemic lesion. Venous valves were destroyed using antegrade valvulotomes, guide wires, knob needles, or retrograde valvulotomes via an extra incision. Results: Seven of the operated limbs were amputated after 23 (1–256 days (median [range]. The main reasons for amputation were lack of healing of either the original wound, of incisional wounds on the foot, or persisting pain at rest. In three cases, the bypass was open at the time of amputation. Two patients experienced complete wound healing after 231 and 342 days, respectively. By the end of follow-up, the last patient was ambulating with slow wound healing but without pain 309 days after surgery. Conclusion: Venous arterialization may be used as a treatment of otherwise unsalveable limbs. The success rate is, however, limited. Technical optimization of the technique is warranted.

  6. Critical Thinking Skills and Academic Maturity: Emerging Results from a Five-Year Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppin, Ian N.; Chitsonga, Shadreck

    2016-01-01

    The QEP that was implemented in this study focused on enhancing students' critical thinking skills. A pretest/posttest approach was used to assess students' critical thinking progress in freshman level core English and Math courses. An intervention was performed involving intensive instruction and assignments relating to a set of reasoning…

  7. Results from evaluations of models and cost-effectiveness tools to support introduction decisions for new vaccines need critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthy Vasee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO recommends that the cost-effectiveness (CE of introducing new vaccines be considered before such a programme is implemented. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, it is often challenging to perform and interpret the results of model-based economic appraisals of vaccines that benefit from locally relevant data. As a result, WHO embarked on a series of consultations to assess economic analytical tools to support vaccine introduction decisions for pneumococcal, rotavirus and human papillomavirus vaccines. The objectives of these assessments are to provide decision makers with a menu of existing CE tools for vaccines and their characteristics rather than to endorse the use of a single tool. The outcome will provide policy makers in LMICs with information about the feasibility of applying these models to inform their own decision making. We argue that if models and CE analyses are used to inform decisions, they ought to be critically appraised beforehand, including a transparent evaluation of their structure, assumptions and data sources (in isolation or in comparison to similar tools, so that decision makers can use them while being fully aware of their robustness and limitations.

  8. Intelligent agents for adaptive security market surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Li, Xin; Xu, Baoxun; Yan, Jiaqi; Wang, Huaiqing

    2017-05-01

    Market surveillance systems have increasingly gained in usage for monitoring trading activities in stock markets to maintain market integrity. Existing systems primarily focus on the numerical analysis of market activity data and generally ignore textual information. To fulfil the requirements of information-based surveillance, a multi-agent-based architecture that uses agent intercommunication and incremental learning mechanisms is proposed to provide a flexible and adaptive inspection process. A prototype system is implemented using the techniques of text mining and rule-based reasoning, among others. Based on experiments in the scalping surveillance scenario, the system can identify target information evidence up to 87.50% of the time and automatically identify 70.59% of cases depending on the constraints on the available information sources. The results of this study indicate that the proposed information surveillance system is effective. This study thus contributes to the market surveillance literature and has significant practical implications.

  9. Microprocessor-based integrated LMFBR core surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmeiner, L.

    1984-06-01

    This report results from a joint study of KfK and INTERATOM. The aim of this study is to explore the advantages of microprocessors and microelectronics for a more sophisticated core surveillance, which is based on the integration of separate surveillance techniques. Due to new developments in microelectronics and related software an approach to LMFBR core surveillance can be conceived that combines a number of measurements into a more intelligent decision-making data processing system. The following techniques are considered to contribute essentially to an integrated core surveillance system: - subassembly state and thermal hydraulics performance monitoring, - temperature noise analysis, - acoustic core surveillance, - failure characterization and failure prediction based on DND- and cover gas signals, and - flux tilting techniques. Starting from a description of these techniques it is shown that by combination and correlation of these individual techniques a higher degree of cost-effectiveness, reliability and accuracy can be achieved. (orig./GL) [de

  10. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    . Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software......The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made......, consisting of a Sibelius plug-in, a cross-platform application, called CriticalEd, and a REST-based solution, which handles data storage/retrieval. A prototype has been tested at the Danish Centre for Music Publication, and the results suggest that the system could greatly improve the efficiency...

  11. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... production surveillance on the basis of (1) the criticality (degree of importance to the Government) assigned by the contracting officer (see 42.1105) to the supplies or services and (2) consideration of the... contractor's financial capability. (vii) Any supplementary written instructions from the contracting office...

  12. Malaria surveillance and use of evidence in planning and decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. L Mboera

    system on malaria was evaluated using a structured questionnaire and check list. ... Disease surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and ... cases and deaths is critical for the design, implementation and monitoring and ...

  13. [REPORTING CRITICAL LAB RESULTS, A CHALLENGE FOR THE LAB AND THE PHYSICIAN - A SUMMARY OF FOUR YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN MEIR MEDICAL CENTER LABORATORIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Gloria; Goldman, Jacob; Weinstein, Doron; Tohami, Tali; Neumark, Eran; Weiss, Eli

    2015-08-01

    Critical laboratory results require prompt reporting to the attending physician, as they may indicate that a patient is in a life-threatening condition. Although this important subject has been covered in many publications, it needs more attention from our healthcare organizations, which have no official policy on the subject. Matching expectations between the doctor and the laboratory needs to be better defined. The aim of this work was to inform the community of doctors and laboratories about the multiple problems concerning the reporting of critical laboratory results, to create a platform for exchanging views and ideas, and to build an extensive infrastructure for developing a unified plan to address this important issue. We present the results of four years of experience of reporting critical laboratory values at the Meir Medical Center Laboratories. The idea leading this work was to present the relatively low rate of critical results reported by the laboratories in 2010, sharing the problems discovered while investigating the situation in depth, and presenting the solutions that enabled us to obtain the desired results within four years. Gradual implementation of these improvements resulted in critical value reporting increasing from 55% in 2010 to 95% currently. We suggest a model for improving critical laboratory values reporting based on our 4-year experience, which emphasizes: (1) The importance of selecting proper tests and values for critical results; (2) The significance of using technology and computerized measures to support the process; and (3) Developing quick procedures for monitoring and controlling the process.

  14. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  15. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...

  16. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical developm......We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  17. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa.

  18. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa

  19. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Irish critical care units: results of a pilot prevalence survey, June 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, K

    2012-11-10

    The epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in Ireland is changing, with an increase in the number of reported cases in late 2010 and early 2011. Reported cases were predominantly linked to critical care units. In June 2011, a four-week national pilot survey took place in 40 Irish critical care units (37 adult and three paediatric) to examine the prevalence of rectal carriage of CPE and inform national CPE screening guidelines. A total of 760 screening swabs were taken over the study period, and CPE were not detected in any of the participating critical care units.

  20. Innovative strategy for effective critical laboratory result management: end-to-end process using automation and manual call centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lian Kah; Ang, Sophia Bee Leng; Saw, Sharon; Sethi, Sunil Kumar; Yip, James W L

    2012-08-01

    Timely reporting and acknowledgement are crucial steps in critical laboratory results (CLR) management. The authors previously showed that an automated pathway incorporating short messaging system (SMS) texts, auto-escalation, and manual telephone back-up improved the rate and speed of physician acknowledgement compared with manual telephone calling alone. This study investigated if it also improved the rate and speed of physician intervention to CLR and whether utilising the manual back-up affected intervention rates. Data from seven audits between November 2007 and January 2011 were analysed. These audits were carried out to assess the robustness of CLR reporting process in the authors' institution. Comparisons were made in the rate and speed of acknowledgement and intervention between the audits performed before and after automation. Using the automation audits, the authors compared intervention data between communication with SMS only and when manual intervention was required. 1680 CLR were reported during the audit periods. Automation improved the rate (100% vs 84.2%; pautomation audits, the use of SMS only did not improve physician intervention rates. The automated communication pathway improved physician intervention rate and time in tandem with improved acknowledgement rate and time when compared with manual telephone calling. The use of manual intervention to augment automation did not adversely affect physician intervention rate, implying that an end-to-end pathway was more important than automation alone.

  1. The critical role of community-based micro-grants for disability aids and equipment: results from a needs analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchberger, Heidi; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Parekh, Sanjoti; Crozier, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of philanthropic micro-grants (maximum of $10,000) in the provision of aids and equipment for adults (aged 18-65 years of age) with complex disabilities and examine key trends in aids and equipment requests. This study examined, through quantitative and qualitative analysis, aids and equipment requests (n = 371 individual applications as represented by 136 service organisations in three Australian states) received by a not-for-profit (NFP) organisation across five consecutive years of an innovative micro-grants scheme. Findings highlight that living situation (living with family or living independently) significantly influences the nature of requests for respite, aids, equipment and home modifications. Specifically, people with complex disabilities living with their families require greater combined service provision (higher equipment need, respite support, home modifications) than those living independently (equipment need only). Type of disability did not influence request type. Qualitative data further indicated the "last resort" nature of respite requests, particularly for younger applicants (under 45 years of age) indicating critical unmet needs in the community. Results demonstrate the vital role of NFP organisations and philanthropic funds in supporting daily lifestyle aids and equipment (including respite) that might otherwise not be funded for people with complex disabilities. Although preliminary in its scope and prior to implementation of a National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) in Australia, findings suggest both opportunity and risk to the uptake of community-based micro-grant funding: opportunity for users through the provision of essential aids and lifestyle supports, and risk through over-subscription and devolving of responsibility for critical support resources from public sector. The aids and equipment needs of adults under the age of 65 appear to have been underestimated, poorly defined and under

  2. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Bethany J; Munster, Vincent J; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2010-12-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian influenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideration of what, when, where, and how many to sample in the context of survey objectives. Recognizing that wildlife disease surveillance is logistically and financially constrained, we discuss pragmatic alternatives for achieving probability-based sampling schemes that capture this host-pathogen system. We recommend hypothesis-driven surveillance through standardized, local surveys that are, in turn, strategically compiled over broad geographic areas. Rethinking the use of existing surveillance infrastructure can thereby greatly enhance our global understanding of avian influenza and other zoonotic diseases.

  3. Positive predictive value and effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance in Uganda, 2012-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Nsubuga

    Full Text Available Disease surveillance is a critical component in the control and elimination of vaccine preventable diseases. The Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization strives to have a sensitive surveillance system within the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR framework. We analyzed measles surveillance data to determine the effectiveness of the measles case-based surveillance system and estimate its positive predictive value in order to inform policy and practice.An IDSR alert was defined as ≥1 suspected measles case reported by a district in a week, through the electronic Health Management Information System. We defined an alert in the measles case-based surveillance system (CBS as ≥1 suspected measles case with a blood sample collected for confirmation during the corresponding week in a particular district. Effectiveness of CBS was defined as having ≥80% of IDSR alerts with a blood sample collected for laboratory confirmation. Positive predictive value was defined as the proportion of measles case-patients who also had a positive measles serological result (IgM +. We reviewed case-based surveillance data with laboratory confirmation and measles surveillance data from the electronic Health Management Information System from 2012-2015.A total of 6,974 suspected measles case-persons were investigated by the measles case-based surveillance between 2012 and 2015. Of these, 943 (14% were measles specific IgM positive. The median age of measles case-persons between 2013 and 2015 was 4.0 years. Between 2013 and 2015, 72% of the IDSR alerts reported in the electronic Health Management Information System, had blood samples collected for laboratory confirmation. This was however less than the WHO recommended standard of ≥80%. The PPV of CBS between 2013 and 2015 was 8.6%.In conclusion, the effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance was sub-optimal, while the PPV showed that true measles cases have significantly reduced in Uganda

  4. Results of Surgical Treatment of Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia and Stenotic Lesions of the Brachiocephalic Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei L. Charyshkin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the results of the surgical treatment for patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI and stenotic lesions of the brachiocephalic arteries. Methods and Results: We examined 72 patients (68/87.2% men and 4/7.3% women aged from 46 to 78 years (mean age, 62.2±4.3 years with CLI and stenotic lesions of the brachiocephalic arteries. Conservative treatment was performed in 17(23.6% patients and surgical treatment in 55(76.4%. It has been carried out 73 surgical operations: femoral popliteal bypass (5/6.8%, lumbar sympathectomy (4/5.5%, thrombectomy of occluded aortofemoral graft (2/2.7%, limb amputation (4/5.5%, iliofemoral bypass (4/5.5%, aortofemoral bifurcation bypass (10/13.1%, endovascular surgery (1/1.6%, limb amputation at thigh level - 4(5.5%, thrombectomy of occluded distal arteries (4/5.5%, femoro-femoral cross-over bypass (1/1.6%, resection of popliteal artery aneurysm and prosthesis of the popliteal artery (1/1.6%, semi-closed loop endarterectomy of occluded arteries of the lower limbs (8/10.9%, carotid endarterectomy (23/31.5%, and carotid-subclavian bypass (2/2.7%. After the surgical intervention, we observed the disappearance or reduction of pain, restoration of sensitivity and motor activity, and healing of trophic ulcers in 75% of patients. In the late postoperative period, we detected the progression of limb ischemia in 4(5.5% patients; in connection with that, we performed limb amputation at thigh level. Ischemic stroke with a lethal outcome developed in one patient (1.4%. Conclusion: In patients with multifocal atherosclerosis, multilevel reconstructive surgical interventions must be performed in stages, due to the high operational risk, and risk of complications, secondary amputations and lethality in the postoperative period.

  5. Secure surveillance videotapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P.; Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K.; Pepper, S.

    1995-01-01

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system's tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal

  6. A Global Cancer Surveillance Framework Within Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance: Making the Case for Population-Based Cancer Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Marion; Znaor, Ariana; Mery, Les; Bray, Freddie

    2017-01-01

    The growing burden of cancer among several major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) requires national implementation of tailored public health surveillance. For many emerging economies where emphasis has traditionally been placed on the surveillance of communicable diseases, it is critical to understand the specificities of NCD surveillance and, within it, of cancer surveillance. We propose a general framework for cancer surveillance that permits monitoring the core components of cancer control. We examine communalities in approaches to the surveillance of other major NCDs as well as communicable diseases, illustrating key differences in the function, coverage, and reporting in each system. Although risk factor surveys and vital statistics registration are the foundation of surveillance of NCDs, population-based cancer registries play a unique fundamental role specific to cancer surveillance, providing indicators of population-based incidence and survival. With an onus now placed on governments to collect these data as part of the monitoring of NCD targets, the integration of cancer registries into existing and future NCD surveillance strategies is a vital requirement in all countries worldwide. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development, endorsed by the World Health Organization, provides a means to enhance cancer surveillance capacity in low- and middle-income countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Preliminary results of an anonymous internet-based reporting system for critical incidents in ambulatory primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, A

    2005-03-01

    To learn from errors is not always easy, especially if they happened to others! This paper describes the organization and management of a critical incident reporting system for primary care physicians in Switzerland and reports about the difficulties and experiences during the first 18 months since the start of the program. It seems to be particularly difficult to enhance the attentiveness of physicians for apparently harmless daily critical incidents and to motivate them to report it even in an anonymous reporting system. As incentives for more intensive participation there are the hope for comments on reported cases by other participants and the expectation that reported errors will be avoided by the readers.

  8. Revisiting the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Cancer Registry and Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (SEER-MHOS) Linked Data Resource for Patient-Reported Outcomes Research in Older Adults with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Erin E; Malinoff, Rochelle; Rozjabek, Heather M; Ambs, Anita; Clauser, Steven B; Topor, Marie A; Yuan, Gigi; Burroughs, James; Rodgers, Anne B; DeMichele, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing the value of patient-reported outcome (PRO) data to better characterize people's health and experiences with illness and care. Considering the rising prevalence of cancer in adults aged 65 and older, PRO data are particularly relevant for older adults with cancer, who often require complex cancer care and have additional comorbid conditions. A data linkage between the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry and the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (MHOS) was created through a partnership between the National Cancer Institute and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services that created the opportunity to examine PROs in Medicare Advantage enrollees with and without cancer. The December 2013 linkage of SEER-MHOS data included the linked data for 12 cohorts, bringing the number of individuals in the linked data set to 95,723 with cancer and 1,510,127 without. This article reviews the features of the resource and provides information on some descriptive characteristics of the individuals in the data set (health-related quality of life, body mass index, fall risk management, number of unhealthy days in the past month). Individuals without (n=258,108) and with (n=3,440) cancer (1,311 men with prostate cancer, 982 women with breast cancer, 689 with colorectal cancer, 458 with lung cancer) were included in the current descriptive analysis. Given increasing longevity, advances in effective therapies and earlier detection, and population growth, the number of individuals aged 65 and older with cancer is expected to reach more than 12 million by 2020. SEER-MHOS provides population-level, self-reported, cancer registry-linked data for person-centered surveillance research on this growing population. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Deployment Health Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeNicola, Anthony D

    2004-01-01

    ... of stress in causing chronic illness. The lack of comprehensive deployment health surveillance has made it difficult to determine possible causes of adverse health effects reported by Gulf War veterans...

  10. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  11. Sanitary surveillance and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory practices in the field of health surveillance are indispensable. The aim of this study is to show ‒ taking the Brazilian National Surveillance Agency, governing body of sanitary surveillance in Brazil as a reference ‒ that bioethics provides public bodies a series of theoretical tools from the field of applied ethics for the proper exercise and control of these practices. To that end, the work uses two references of bioethics for the development of a comparative and supportive analysis to regulatory activities in the field of health surveillance: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of Unesco and the theory of intervention bioethics. We conclude that organizations and staff working with regulatory activities can take advantage of the principles and frameworks proposed by bioethics, especially those related to the Declaration and the theory of intervention bioethics, the latter being set by the observation and use of the principles of prudence, precaution, protection and prevention.

  12. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered...... putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat...... rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977–2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands...

  13. Detection of imminent vein graft occlusion: what is the optimal surveillance program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinder, Chelsey N; Bandyk, Dennis F

    2009-12-01

    The prediction of infrainguinal vein bypass failure remains an inexact judgment. Patient demographics, technical factors, and vascular laboratory graft surveillance testing are helpful in identifying a high-risk graft cohort. The optimal surveillance program to detect the bypass at risk for imminent occlusion continues to be developed, but required elements are known and include clinical assessment for new or changes in limb ischemia symptoms, measurement of ankle and/or toe systolic pressure, and duplex ultrasound imaging of the bypass graft. Duplex ultrasound assessment of bypass hemodynamics may be the most accurate method to detect imminent vein graft occlusion. The finding of low graft flow during intraoperative assessment or at a scheduled surveillance study predicts failure; and if associated with an occlusive lesion, a graft revision can prolong patency. The most common abnormality producing graft failure is conduit stenosis caused by myointimal hyperplasia; and the majority can be repaired by an endovascular intervention. Frequency of testing to detect the failing bypass should be individualized to the patient, the type of arterial bypass, and prior duplex ultrasound scan findings. The focus of surveillance is on identification of the low-flow arterial bypass and timely repair of detected critical stenosis defined by duplex velocity spectra criteria of a peak systolic velocity 300 cm/s and peak systolic velocity ratio across the stenosis >3.5-correlating with >70% diameter-reducing stenosis. When conducted appropriately, a graft surveillance program should result in an unexpected graft failure rate of <3% per year.

  14. Environmental health surveillance system; Kankyo hoken surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The Central Environmental Pollution Prevention Council pointed out the necessity to establish an environmental health surveillance system (hereinafter referred to as System) in its report `on the first type district specified by the Environmental Pollution Caused Health Damages Compensation Act,` issued in 1986. A study team, established in Environment Agency, has been discussing to establish System since 1986. This paper outlines System, and some of the pilot surveillance results. It is not aimed at elucidation of the cause-effect relationships between health and air pollution but at discovery of problems, in which the above relationships in a district population are monitored periodically and continuously from long-term and prospective viewpoints, in order to help take necessary measures in the early stage. System is now collecting the data of the chronic obstructive lung diseases on a nation-wide scale through health examinations of 3-year-old and preschool children and daily air pollution monitoring. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frosch, Peter J.; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A.; Silvestre, Juan F.; Sanchez-Perez, Javier; Weisshaar, Elke; Uter, Wolfgang

    Background. Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. Objective. To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. Methods. Data of patients

  16. Acute and long-term dysphagia in critically ill patients with severe sepsis: results of a prospective controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielske, Joerg; Bohne, Silvia; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Axer, Hubertus; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2014-11-01

    Dysphagia is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Structured otorhinolaryngological data on dysphagia in ICU survivors with severe sepsis are missing. In a prospective study, 30 ICU patients with severe sepsis and thirty without sepsis as control group were examined using bedside fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing after 14 days in the ICU (T1) and 4 months after onset of critical illness (T2). Swallowing dysfunction was assessed using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). The Functional Oral Intake Scale was applied to evaluate the diet needed. Primary endpoint was the burden of dysphagia defined as PAS score >5. At T1, 19 of 30 severe sepsis patients showed aspiration with a PAS score >5, compared to 7 of 30 in critically ill patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.002). Severe sepsis and tracheostomy were independent risk factors for severe dysphagia with aspiration (PAS > 5) at T1 (p = 0.042 and 0.006, respectively). 4-month mortality (T2) was 57 % in severe sepsis patients compared to 20 % in patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.006). At T2, more severe sepsis survivors were tracheostomy-dependent and needed more often tube or parenteral feeding (p = 0.014 and p = 0.040, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed tracheostomy at T1 as independent risk factor for severe dysphagia at T2 (p = 0.030). Severe sepsis appears to be a relevant risk factor for long-term dysphagia. An otorhinolaryngological evaluation of dysphagia at ICU discharge is mandatory for survivors of severe critical illness to plan specific swallowing rehabilitation programs.

  17. Quality surveillance at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviney, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Quality surveillance (QS) of nuclear power plants has been occurring for a number of years and is growing in importance as a management tool for assuring that power plants are operated and maintained safely. Quality surveillance can be identified by many terms, such as monitoring, assessment, technical audits, and others. The name given to the function is not important. Quality surveillance at nuclear power plants developed out of a need. Historically, audits were performed to verify compliance to quality program requirements. Verification of day-to-day implementation of activities was not being performed. This left a void in verification activities since inspections were mainly directed at hardware verification. Quality surveillance, therefore, was born out of a need to fill this void in verification. This paper discusses quality surveillance definition; objectives of QS, activities considered for QS, personnel performing QS. As in any human endeavor, people and the attitudes of those people make a program succeed or fail. In the case of QS this is even more critical because of the overview and exposure given to the nuclear industry. Properly trained and experienced personnel performing QS combined with the right attitude contribute to the successful performance of a QS. This is only one side of the success equation, however; acceptance of and actions taken by plant management establish the total success of a QS program

  18. Surveillance and Resilience in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Raab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is often used as a tool in resilience strategies towards the threat posed by terrorist attacks and other serious crime. “Resilience” is a contested term with varying and ambiguous meaning in governmental, business and social discourses, and it is not clear how it relates to other terms that characterise processes or states of being. Resilience is often assumed to have positive connotations, but critics view it with great suspicion, regarding it as a neo-liberal governmental strategy. However, we argue that surveillance, introduced in the name of greater security, may itself erode social freedoms and public goods such as privacy, paradoxically requiring societal resilience, whether precautionary or in mitigation of the harms it causes to the public goods of free societies. This article develops new models and extends existing ones to describe resilience processes unfolding over time and in anticipation of, or in reaction to, adversities of different kinds and severity, and explores resilience both on the plane of abstract analysis and in the context of societal responses to mass surveillance. The article thus focuses upon surveillance as a special field for conceptual analysis and modelling of situations, and for evaluating contemporary developments in “surveillance societies”.

  19. Existing equations to estimate lean body mass are not accurate in the critically ill: Results of a multicenter observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisey, Lesley L; Mourtzakis, Marina; Kozar, Rosemary A; Compher, Charlene; Heyland, Daren K

    2017-12-01

    Lean body mass (LBM), quantified using computed tomography (CT), is a significant predictor of clinical outcomes in the critically ill. While CT analysis is precise and accurate in measuring body composition, it may not be practical or readily accessible to all patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Here, we assessed the agreement between LBM measured by CT and four previously developed equations that predict LBM using variables (i.e. age, sex, weight, height) commonly recorded in the ICU. LBM was calculated in 327 critically ill adults using CT scans, taken at ICU admission, and 4 predictive equations (E1-4) that were derived from non-critically adults since there are no ICU-specific equations. Agreement was assessed using paired t-tests, Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Median LBM calculated by CT was 45 kg (IQR 37-53 kg) and was significantly different (p LBM (error ranged from 7.5 to 9.9 kg), compared with LBM calculated by CT, suggesting insufficient agreement. Our data indicates a large bias is present between the calculation of LBM by CT imaging and the predictive equations that have been compared here. This underscores the need for future research toward the development of ICU-specific equations that reliably estimate LBM in a practical and cost-effective manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Sub-critical installations for continuous evaporations of up to 200 litres/hour - description and experimental results; Installations sous-critiques d'evaporation continue jusqu'a 200 litres/heure - description et resultats experimentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, P; Bouzou, G C; Sautray, R R; Jacquotte, M C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1965-07-01

    In this report are given a detailed technological description and the test results obtained with two continuous evaporation units, one of 16 l/hr, the other of 65 l/hr. These installations are sub-critical with multiplication factors (k{sub eff}) for total reflection of 0.73 and 0.77. A third evaporator of 200 litres, also sub-critical (k{sub eff} = 0.90), is given as the limiting possible case. A description is also given of simple devices without regulator for maintaining a constant level in an extra flat, separator thus making it possible to operate without supervision in perfect safety at any concentration factor. The liberal thermal characteristics and the simple operational principles constitute a sure guarantee for operation in {alpha} and {gamma} conditions. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport, on trouvera la description technologique detaillee et les resultats obtenus au cours des essais, de deux installations d'evaporation en continu, l'une de 16 l/h, l'autre de 65 l/h. Ces installations sont sous-critiques avec des facteurs de multiplication (k{sub eff}) en reflexion totale de 0,73 et 0,77. Un troisieme evaporateur, de 200 l/h, egalement sous-critique (k{sub eff} = 0,90), est donne comme cas limite realisable. On trouvera aussi la description de dispositifs simples, sans regulateur, permettant de garder un niveau constant dans un separateur extra-plat, ce qui permet une marche sans surveillance, en toute securite, a tous les facteurs de concentration. Les caracteristiques thermiques non poussees et les principes de fonctionnement simples, sont une garantie certaine pour l'exploitation en milieu {alpha} et {gamma}. (auteurs)

  1. Semantic web technologies for video surveillance metadata

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, Chris; Martens, Gaëtan; De Potter, Pieterjan; Van de Walle, Rik

    2012-01-01

    Video surveillance systems are growing in size and complexity. Such systems typically consist of integrated modules of different vendors to cope with the increasing demands on network and storage capacity, intelligent video analytics, picture quality, and enhanced visual interfaces. Within a surveillance system, relevant information (like technical details on the video sequences, or analysis results of the monitored environment) is described using metadata standards. However, different module...

  2. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Source of ionizing radiations have innumerable applications in the work place. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not manifestly harmful. This Module explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit it if forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  3. Surveillance of vector-borne pathogens under imperfect detection: lessons from Chagas disease risk (mis)measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi-Souza, Thaís Tâmara Castro; Nitz, Nadjar; Cuba, César Augusto Cuba; Hagström, Luciana; Hecht, Mariana Machado; Santana, Camila; Ribeiro, Marcelle; Vital, Tamires Emanuele; Santalucia, Marcelo; Knox, Monique; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2018-01-09

    Vector-borne pathogens threaten human health worldwide. Despite their critical role in disease prevention, routine surveillance systems often rely on low-complexity pathogen detection tests of uncertain accuracy. In Chagas disease surveillance, optical microscopy (OM) is routinely used for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi in its vectors. Here, we use replicate T. cruzi detection data and hierarchical site-occupancy models to assess the reliability of OM-based T. cruzi surveillance while explicitly accounting for false-negative and false-positive results. We investigated 841 triatomines with OM slides (1194 fresh, 1192 Giemsa-stained) plus conventional (cPCR, 841 assays) and quantitative PCR (qPCR, 1682 assays). Detections were considered unambiguous only when parasitologists unmistakably identified T. cruzi in Giemsa-stained slides. qPCR was >99% sensitive and specific, whereas cPCR was ~100% specific but only ~55% sensitive. In routine surveillance, examination of a single OM slide per vector missed ~50-75% of infections and wrongly scored as infected ~7% of the bugs. qPCR-based and model-based infection frequency estimates were nearly three times higher, on average, than OM-based indices. We conclude that the risk of vector-borne Chagas disease may be substantially higher than routine surveillance data suggest. The hierarchical modelling approach we illustrate can help enhance vector-borne disease surveillance systems when pathogen detection is imperfect.

  4. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Pediatric Population: A Population Based Clinical Outcomes Study Involving 257 Patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER Database (1973–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. M. Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a rare pediatric cancer accounting for 0.5% of all pediatric malignancies. This study examines a large cohort of HCC patients in an effort to define the factors impacting clinical outcomes in pediatric HCC patients compared to adults. Methods. Demographic and clinical data on 63,771 HCC patients (257 pediatric patients ≤ 19 and 63,514 adult patients age ≥ 20 were abstracted from the SEER database (1973–2011. Results. HCC was more common among males (59.5% pediatric and 75.1% adults and Caucasians (50.4% and 50.5%, p 4 cm in size (79.6% versus 62.0%, p=0.02. Pediatric HCC patients undergoing surgery (13.107 versus 8.324 years, p4 cm in Caucasian males. Children with HCC achieve significantly longer mean overall survival compared to adults with HCC, primarily attributable to the more favorable fibrolamellar histologic variant, and more aggressive surgical intervention, which significantly improves survival.

  5. Post-marketing surveillance study of the long-term use of mizoribine for the treatment of lupus nephritis: 2-Year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Okada, Kenya; Yoshida, Hisao; Yagi, Nobuyuki

    2018-01-01

    To understand the status of mizoribine use in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and to collect safety- and efficacy-related data on 2-year treatment with mizoribine. A continuous survey was conducted between March 2010 and July 2015. The analysis set included 559 patients (mean age 39.5 years, females 82.6%, mean duration of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 8.4 years, mean duration of LN 5.9 years). Renal function was satisfactory for 6 months, but worsened from 12 months, with significant worsening at 24 months. By the ACR 2006 remission criteria (eGFR >60), at 24 months, 26.5% of patients achieved complete remission, and 63.3% achieved complete or partial remission. The urine protein to creatinine ratio decreased significantly. The SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 score decreased significantly at 12 and 24 months. Overall, 98 (17.5%) patients experienced 124 adverse drug reactions (ADRs); 3.6% experienced serious ADRs. Mizoribine was used with a steroid in 99.3% and an immunosuppressant in 51.2%; tacrolimus was used in 43.8%. The oral steroid dosage decreased from baseline to 24 months. The incidence of ADRs was not significantly different with concomitant tacrolimus use. The results suggest that long-term mizoribine is safe and effective, even when used with tacrolimus.

  6. Converging requirements and emerging challenges to public health diseases surveillance and bio surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.; Abel, T.

    2009-01-01

    Disease surveillance systems are a critical component of an early warning system for public health agencies to prepare and respond to major public health catastrophes. With a growing emphasis for more robust early indicator and warning systems to track emerging and dangerous diseases of suspicious nature, considerable emphasis is now placed on deployment of more expanded electronic disease surveillance systems. The architectural considerations for bio surveillance information system are based on collection, analysis and dissemination of human, veterinary and agricultural related disease surveillance to broader regional areas likely to be affected in the event of an emerging disease, or due to bioterrorism and better coordinate plans, preparations and response by governmental agencies and multilateral forums. The diseases surveillance systems architectures by intent and design could as well support biological threat monitoring and threat reduction initiatives. As an illustrative sample set, this paper will describe the comparative informatics requirements for a disease surveillance systems developed by CSC for the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) currently operational nationwide, and biological weapons threat assessment developed as part of the Threat Agent Detection and Response (TADR) Network under the US Biological Threat Reduction Program and deployed at Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.(author)

  7. The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS: results of a baseline biological and behavioral HIV surveillance survey in two MSM communities in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lane

    Full Text Available The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS is the assessment of the Project Boithato HIV prevention intervention for South African MSM. Boithato aims to increase consistent condom use, regular testing for HIV-negative MSM, and linkage to care for HIV-positive MSM. The MPMS baseline examined HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors, and testing, care, and treatment behaviors among MSM in Gert Sibande and Ehlanzeni districts in Mpumalanga province, South Africa in order to effectively target intervention activities. We recruited 307 MSM in Gert Sibande and 298 in Ehlanzeni through respondent-driven sampling (RDS between September 2012-March 2013. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence estimates are 28.3% (95% CI 21.1%-35.3% in Gert Sibande, and 13.7% (95% CI 9.1%-19.6% in Ehlanzeni. Prevalence is significantly higher among MSM over age 25 [57.8% (95% CI 43.1%-72.9% vs. 17.9% (95% CI 10.6%-23.9%, P<0.001 in Gert Sibande; 34.5% (95%CI 20.5%-56.0% vs. 9.1% (95% CI 4.6%-13.9%, P<0.001 in Ehlanzeni]. In Gert Sibande, prevalence is higher among self-identified gay and transgender MSM vs. other MSM [39.3% (95%CI, 28.3%-47.9%, P<0.01], inconsistent condom users [38.1% (18.1%-64.2%, P<0.05], those with a current regular male partner [35.0% (27.1%-46.4%, P<0.05], and those with lifetime experience of intimate partner violence with men [40.4%, (95%CI 28.9%-50.9%, P<0.05]. Prevalence of previous HIV testing was 65.8% (95%CI 58.8%-74.0% in Gert Sibande, and 69.3% (95%CI 61.9%-76.8% in Ehlanzeni. Regular HIV testing was uncommon [(34.6%, (95%CI 27.9%-41.4% in Gert Sibande; 31.0% (95%CI 24.9%-37.8% in Ehlanzeni]. Among HIV-positive participants, few knew their status (28.1% in Gert Sibande and 14.5% in Ehlanzeni, or were appropriately linked to care (18.2% and 11.3%, respectively, or taking antiretroviral therapy (13.6% and 9.6% respectively. MPMS results demonstrate the importance of implementing interventions for MSM to increase consistent condom use, regular HIV testing, and

  8. Evolving treatment implementation among HIV-infected pregnant women and their partners: results from a national surveillance study in Italy, 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridia, Marco; Frisina, Valentina; Ravizza, Marina; Marconi, Anna Maria; Pinnetti, Carmela; Cetin, Irene; Sansone, Matilde; Molinari, Atim; Cervi, Francesca; Meloni, Alessandra; Luzi, Kety; Masuelli, Giulia; Tamburrini, Enrica

    2017-06-01

    -negative partners. The results suggest good implementation of antiretroviral treatment among HIV-positive women and their HIV-positive partners, but no implementation, even in recent years, of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among uninfected male partners. Further studies should assess the determinants of this occurrence and clarify the attitudes and the potential barriers to PrEP use.

  9. Drug Overdose Surveillance Using Hospital Discharge Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Terry L.; Talbert, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We compared three methods for identifying drug overdose cases in inpatient hospital discharge data on their ability to classify drug overdoses by intent and drug type(s) involved. Methods We compared three International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code-based case definitions using Kentucky hospital discharge data for 2000–2011. The first definition (Definition 1) was based on the external-cause-of-injury (E-code) matrix. The other two definitions were based on the Injury Surveillance Workgroup on Poisoning (ISW7) consensus recommendations for national and state poisoning surveillance using the principal diagnosis or first E-code (Definition 2) or any diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3). Results Definition 3 identified almost 50% more drug overdose cases than did Definition 1. The increase was largely due to cases with a first-listed E-code describing a drug overdose but a principal diagnosis that was different from drug overdose (e.g., mental disorders, or respiratory or circulatory system failure). Regardless of the definition, more than 53% of the hospitalizations were self-inflicted drug overdoses; benzodiazepines were involved in about 30% of the hospitalizations. The 2011 age-adjusted drug overdose hospitalization rate in Kentucky was 146/100,000 population using Definition 3 and 107/100,000 population using Definition 1. Conclusion The ISW7 drug overdose definition using any drug poisoning diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3) is potentially the highest sensitivity definition for counting drug overdose hospitalizations, including by intent and drug type(s) involved. As the states enact policies and plan for adequate treatment resources, standardized drug overdose definitions are critical for accurate reporting, trend analysis, policy evaluation, and state-to-state comparison. PMID:25177055

  10. On the determination of the energy of antiprotonic X-rays by critical absorption and the theoretical discussion of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joedicke, B.

    1985-06-01

    This work examines the possibility of measuring the energies of antiprotonic X-rays by critical absorption. Scanning the periodic table many isotopes are found where the energy of an antiprotonic X-ray coincides with a K-absorption-edge of a chemical element. Those candidates where the energy can be measured with high accuracy are discussed here. Also a computer program which calculates transition energies of antiprotonic atoms is examined. Necessary additions are listed and the corrections are shown. In combination with this program the candidates are the basis for a precise determination of the mass of the antiproton. (orig.) [de

  11. Renormalization of weak noises of arbitrary shape for one-dimensional critical dynamical systems Announcement of results and numerical explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Espinosa, O

    2006-01-01

    We study the effect of noise on one--dimensional critical dynamical systems (that is, maps with a renormalization theory). We consider in detail two examples of such dynamical systems: unimodal maps of the interval at the accumulation of period--doubling and smooth homeomorphisms of the circle with a critical point and with golden mean rotation number. We show that, if we scale the space and the time, several properties of the noise (the cumulants or Wick--ordered moments) satisfy some scaling relations. A consequence of the scaling relations is that a version of the central limit theorem holds. Irrespective of the shape of the initial noise, if the bare noise is weak enough, the effective noise becomes close to Gaussian in several senses that we can make precise. We notice that the conclusions are false for maps with positive Lyapunov exponents. The method of analysis is close in spirit to the study of scaling limits in renormalization theory. We also perform several numerical experiments that confirm the ri...

  12. Self-organised critical features in soil radon and MHz electromagnetic disturbances: Results from environmental monitoring in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petraki, Ermioni; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Anaxagoras; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Koulouras, Grigorios; Zisos, Athanasios; Nomicos, Constantinos; Louizi, Anna; Stonham, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the issues of self-organised critical behaviour of soil-radon and MHz-electromagnetic disorders during intense seismic activity in SW Greece. A significant radon signal is re-analysed for environmental influences with Fast Fourier Transform and multivariate statistics. Self-organisation of signals is investigated via fractal evolving techniques and detrended fluctuation analysis. New lengthy radon data are presented and analysed accordingly. The data did not show self-similarities. Similar analysis applied to new important concurrent MHz-electromagnetic signals revealed analogous behaviour to radon. The signals precursory value is discussed. - Highlights: ► New radon–MHz signals for an area with peculiar radon disorders on 2008. ► Use of spectrograms-multivariate statistics in analysing environmental parameters. ► Spectral fractal techniques and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis in all signals. ► Pre-earthquake signals followed fractional Brownian motion model. ► Hurst analysis showed persistent–antipersistent self-organised critical patterns.

  13. Microprocessor-based integrated LMFBR core surveillance. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elies, V.

    1985-12-01

    This report is the result of the KfK part of a joint study of KfK and INTERATOM. The aim of this study is to explore the advantages of microprocessors and microelectronics for a more sophisticated core surveillance, which is based on the integration of separate surveillance techniques. After a description of the experimental results gained with the different surveillance techniques so far, it is shown which kinds of correlation can be done using the evaluation results obtained from the single surveillance systems. The main part of this report contains the systems analysis of a microcomputer-based system integrating different surveillance methods. After an analysis of the hardware requirements a hardware structure for the integrated system is proposed. The software structure is then described for the subsystem performing the different surveillance algorithms as well as for the system which does the correlation thus deriving additional information from the single results. (orig.) [de

  14. Manche centre. Environment surveillance. Measurement results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This booklet reports on the environmental radioactivity measurements performed around the Manche plant (France) during the third quarter of 1998 in rainwater, surface and underground waters, air and grass. Measurements concern the alpha and beta activity, tritium, 137 Cs, 241 Am, 7 Be and 40 K. Other pollutant (metals) measurements on rainwater, rivers surface water and sediments are given. (J.S.)

  15. Prevalence of smoking in 15-64 years old population of north of Iran: meta-analysis of the results of non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamshidi Ardeshiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known as a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and hence immediate and effective interventions are required for its elimination. This study aimed to collect valid data with regard to cigarette smoking in adult population of north of Iran for policy making by a meta-analysis of the documents of national non-communicable disease risk factors surveillance system. We investigated relevant evidences by searching in published and non-electronic databases. Data were extracted based on variables such as year of the study, sex, age group and prevalence of smoking habit. Based on results of heterogeneity, we applied fixed or random effects model to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. All analyses were performed using STATA 11 software. A total of 20747 subjects (10381 males and 10366 females in five age groups 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men and women showed prevalence of 19.2% (15.8-22.6% and 0.3% (0.2-0.5% respectively. Results of the present meta-analysis showed as much as one fifth of male population of north of Iran are smoker. Subgroup analysis also revealed that the rate of smoking was higher among the middle-aged men.

  16. Safety and efficacy of ipragliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes in real-world clinical practice: interim results of the STELLA-LONG TERM post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ichiro; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Tabuchi, Hiromi; Uno, Satoshi

    2018-02-01

    Data regarding the efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the real-world setting in Japan are limited. The STELLA-LONG TERM study is an ongoing 3-year post-marketing surveillance study of ipragliflozin in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Here, we report the interim results (including 3-, 12-, and 24-month data). All Japanese patients with T2D who were first prescribed ipragliflozin between 17 July 2014 and 16 October 2015 at participating centers in Japan were registered in STELLA-LONG TERM. At 3, 12, and 24 months, the safety analysis set comprised 11,053, 5475, and 138 patients, respectively; the efficacy analysis set comprised 8757 patients. Ipragliflozin treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements versus baseline in hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose concentration, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. The adverse drug reaction incidence rate was 10.71%, the most common reactions being renal and urinary disorders (5.06%), infections and infestations (1.24%), and skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders (1.14%). Ipragliflozin was well tolerated and effective in Japanese patients with T2D; no new safety issues were identified.

  17. Outcomes of sentinel lymph node dissection alone vs. axillary lymph node dissection in early stage invasive lobular carcinoma: a retrospective study of the surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG Z0011 trial demonstrated no difference in local-regional recurrence (LRR, disease-specific survival (DSS or overall survival (OS for sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND and completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND among patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy for clinical T1-T2, N0 breast cancer with 1 or 2 positive SLNs. However, Only 7% of study participants had invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC. Because ILC has a different pattern of metastases, frequently presenting as small foci requiring immunohistochemistry for detection, the applicability of ACOSOG Z0011 trial data to ILC patients is unclear.We identified all ILC patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database (1998-2009 who met the ACOSOG Z0011 eligibility criteria. Patients were evaluated on the basis of the extent of axillary surgery (SLND alone or ALND, and the clinical outcomes of these 2 groups were compared.1269 patients (393 SLND and 876 ALND were identified from the SEER database. At a median follow-up time of 71 months, there were no differences in OS or disease-specific survival between the two groups.SLND alone may result in outcomes comparable to those achieved with ALND for patients with early-stage ILC who meet the ACOSOG Z0011 eligibility criteria.

  18. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  19. Reviewing surveillance activities in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    This document provides guidance to Operational Safety Review Teams (OSARTs) for reviewing surveillance activities at a nuclear power plant. In addition, the document contains reference material to support the review of surveillance activities, to assist within the Technical Support area and to ensure consistency between individual reviews. Drafts of the document have already been used on several OSART missions and found to be useful. The document first considers the objectives of an excellent surveillance programme. Investigations to determine the quality of the surveillance programme are then discussed. The attributes of an excellent surveillance programme are listed. Advice follows on how to phrase questions so as to obtain an informative response on surveillance features. Finally, specific equipment is mentioned that should be considered when reviewing functional tests. Four annexes provide examples drawn from operating nuclear power plants. They were selected to supplement the main text of the document with the best international practices as found in OSART reviews. They should in no way limit the acceptance and development of alternative approaches that lead to equivalent or better results. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Computation Results from a Parametric Study to Determine Bounding Critical Systems of Homogeneously Water-Moderated Mixed Plutonium--Uranium Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y.

    2001-01-11

    This report provides computational results of an extensive study to examine the following: (1) infinite media neutron-multiplication factors; (2) material bucklings; (3) bounding infinite media critical concentrations; (4) bounding finite critical dimensions of water-reflected and homogeneously water-moderated one-dimensional systems (i.e., spheres, cylinders of infinite length, and slabs that are infinite in two dimensions) that were comprised of various proportions and densities of plutonium oxides and uranium oxides, each having various isotopic compositions; and (5) sensitivity coefficients of delta k-eff with respect to critical geometry delta dimensions were determined for each of the three geometries that were studied. The study was undertaken to support the development of a standard that is sponsored by the International Standards Organization (ISO) under Technical Committee 85, Nuclear Energy (TC 85)--Subcommittee 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology (SC 5)--Working Group 8, Standardization of Calculations, Procedures and Practices Related to Criticality Safety (WG 8). The designation and title of the ISO TC 85/SC 5/WG 8 standard working draft is WD 14941, ''Nuclear energy--Fissile materials--Nuclear criticality control and safety of plutonium-uranium oxide fuel mixtures outside of reactors.'' Various ISO member participants performed similar computational studies using their indigenous computational codes to provide comparative results for analysis in the development of the standard.

  1. Effect of marital status on the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with surgical resection: an analysis of 13,408 patients in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Chen, Ping; Qian, Jian-Jun; Jin, Sheng-Jie; Yao, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Bai, Dou-Sheng; Jiang, Guo-Qing

    2016-11-29

    Marital status has been reported as an independent prognostic factor for survival in various cancers, but it has been rarely studied in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by surgical resection. We retrospectively investigated Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data and identified 13,408 cases of HCC with surgical treatment between 1998 and 2013. The patients were categorized according to marital status, as "married," "never married," "widowed," or "divorced/separated." The 5-year HCC cause-specific survival (HCSS) data were obtained, and Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariate Cox regression models were used to ascertain whether marital status is also an independent prognostic factor for survival in HCC. Patients in the widowed group had the higher proportion of women, a greater proportion of older (>60 years) patients, more frequency in latest year of diagnosis (2008-2013), a greater number of tumors at TNM stage I/II, and more prevalence at localized SEER Stage, all of which were statistically significant within-group comparisons (P Married patients had better 5-year HCSS than did unmarried patients (46.7% vs 37.8%) (P < 0.001); conversely, widowed patients had lowest HCSS compared with all other patients, overall, at each SEER stage, and for different tumor sizes. Marital status is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with HCC treated with surgical resection. Widowed patients have the highest risk of death compared with other groups.

  2. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  3. Experienced dilemmas of everyday life in chronic neuropathic pain patients--results from a critical incident study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensing, Gunnel K E; Sverker, Annette M; Leijon, Göran S

    2007-06-01

    Neuropathic pain is a disabling chronic condition with limited therapeutic options. Few studies have addressed patient's experience and strategies. The aim of this study was to explore dilemmas experienced in order to improve care and rehabilitation. An interview study with 39 patients suffering from neuropathic pain of different origin was performed. We used the critical incident technique to collect data. Questions on occasions when patients had been hindered by or reminded of their neuropathic pain were included, and the self-perceived consequences and management of such occasions. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed qualitatively. A broad range of experiences categorised into dilemmas, disturbances, consequences and managements from most parts of everyday life was identified. The dilemmas were 'housework', 'sitting', 'physical activity', 'personal hygiene', 'sleeping difficulties', 'hypersensitivity to external stimuli', 'social relationships', 'transportation' and 'leisure time'. Disturbances were 'failures', 'inabilities' and 'restrictions'. Consequences were 'increased pain', 'psychological reactions' and 'physical symptoms'. The majority of the patients used activity-oriented strategies to manage their pain such as alternative ways of performing the task, a cognitive approach or simply ignoring the pain. This is one of the first studies presenting detailed data on everyday dilemmas, disturbances and consequences of patients with chronic neuropathic pain. Such information is important in clinical settings to improve care and rehabilitation.

  4. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  5. Conic surveillance evasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewin, J.; Olsder, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    A surveillance-evasion differential game of degree with a detection zone in the shape of a two-dimensional cone is posed. The nature of the optimal strategies and the singular phenomena of the value function are described and correlated to subsets of the space of all possible parameter combinations,

  6. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The development progress during the reporting period 1988 of the laser surveillance system of spent fuel pools is summarized. The present engineered system comes close to a final version for field application as all technical questions have been solved in 1988. 14 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  7. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1991-09-01

    Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) is a beam of laser light which scans a plane above the water or under-water in a spent-fuel pond. The system can detect different objects and estimates its coordinates and distance as well. LASSY can operate in stand-alone configuration or in combination with a video surveillance to trigger signal to a videorecorder. The recorded information on LASSY computer's disk comprises date, time, start and stop angle of detected alarm, the size of the disturbance indicated in number of deviated points and some other information. The information given by the laser system cannot be fully substituted by TV camera pictures since the scanning beam creates a horizontal surveillance plan. The engineered prototype laser system long-term field test has been carried out in Soluggia (Italy) and has shown its feasibility and reliability under the conditions of real spent fuel storage pond. The verification of the alarm table on the LASSY computer with the recorded video pictures of TV surveillance system confirmed that all alarm situations have been detected. 5 refs

  8. Infectieziekten Surveillance Informatie Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger MJW; van Pelt W; CIE

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands an electronic network has been proposed for structured data transfer and communication concerning the control of infectious diseases. This project has been baptized ISIS (Infectious diseases Surveillance Information System). It is an initiative of the Dutch Government. ISIS

  9. Surveillance and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Albrechtslund, Anders; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    , and acquaintances are up to on social media. In turn, they also leave trails of digital footprints that may be collected and analyzed by governments, businesses, or hackers. The imperceptible nature of this new surveillance raises some pressing concerns about our digital lives as our data doubles increasingly...

  10. Evaluation of the novel respiratory virus surveillance program: Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Patricia A; Nguyen, Linh M; Lutman, Michelle L; Middaugh, John P

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by respiratory viruses are associated with recurrent epidemics and widespread morbidity and mortality. Routine surveillance of these pathogens is necessary to determine virus activity, monitor for changes in circulating strains, and plan for public health preparedness. The Southern Nevada Health District in Las Vegas, Nevada, recruited five pediatric medical practices to serve as sentinel sites for the Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS) program. Sentinel staff collected specimens throughout the year from ill children who met the influenza-like illness case definition and submitted specimens to the Southern Nevada Public Health Laboratory for molecular testing for influenza and six non-influenza viruses. Laboratory results were analyzed and reported to the medical and general communities in weekly bulletins year-round. PEWSS data were also used to establish viral respiratory seasonal baselines and in influenza vaccination campaigns. The surveillance program was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. PEWSS met three of six program usefulness criteria and seven of nine surveillance system attributes, which exceeded the CDC Guidelines evaluation criteria for a useful and complete public health surveillance program. We found that PEWSS is a useful and complete public health surveillance system that is simple, flexible, accessible, and stable.

  11. Results for heterogeneous poisoning of the critical HTR-test facility KAHTER using absorber elements containing hafnium and boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drueke, V.; Filges, D.; Nabi, R.; Neef, R.D.; Paul, N.; Schaal, H.

    1979-10-01

    Experiments and checking computations for investigating the initial-core poisoning of the pebble bed high temperature reactor are described. Following the example of the THTR-300, THTR absorber elements poisoned with hafnium/boron were added to the THTR fuel- and graphite elements of the KAHTER core. Three different hafnium-boron poisoned core loadings, corresponding to 2.7, 5.3 and 8% reactivity compensation, were used in the experiments. For purposes of comparison, two cores exclusively boron poisoned were also studied. The poisoning of these cores correspond to 2.7 and 8% reactivity compensation. The experiments and checking computations should serve to test the accuracy of the theoretical models and data sets in modeling the reactivity effects of absorber poisoned elements in the THTR. In particular, the applicability of the nuclear data of hafnium and the treatment of resonance calculations should be verified. In addition, to determining critical masses and ksub(eff), special emphasis was placed in the experiments on the exact determination of all reactivity effects. In some cases, repeated loading of a configuration also provided a measure of the reproducibility of ksub(eff). The experiments were checked computationally using the GAMTEREX code package and the program system RSYST. These two computation packages contain different data bases, - although the hafnium data are identical -, and the computing models differ in certain phases of the calculations. Both code systems compute ksub(eff) values to within the present accuracy requirements, whereas the program system RSYST gives better agreement with experimental measurements. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RDG [de

  12. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. Containment/surveillance concepts for international safeguards in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleck, M.E.; Cameron, C.P.; Camp, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the potential role of advanced containment/surveillance instrumentation systems for international safeguards in reprocessing plants. Several conceptual systems for the surveillance of containment boundary penetrations in a reference reprocessing plant are described and evaluated. The results of the evaluation aid in understanding the potential capabilities and limitations of containment/surveillance as an international safeguards concept in this type of facility

  14. Validation of intensive care unit-acquired infection surveillance in the Italian SPIN-UTI network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masia, M D; Barchitta, M; Liperi, G; Cantù, A P; Alliata, E; Auxilia, F; Torregrossa, V; Mura, I; Agodi, A

    2010-10-01

    Validity is one of the most critical factors concerning surveillance of nosocomial infections (NIs). This article describes the first validation study of the Italian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) project (SPIN-UTI) surveillance data. The objective was to validate infection data and thus to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of NI data reported on patients in the ICUs participating in the SPIN-UTI network. A validation study was performed at the end of the surveillance period. All medical records including all clinical and laboratory data were reviewed retrospectively by the trained physicians of the validation team and a positive predictive value (PPV), a negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Eight ICUs (16.3%) were randomly chosen from all 49 SPIN-UTI ICUs for the validation study. In total, the validation team reviewed 832 patient charts (27.3% of the SPIN-UTI patients). The PPV was 83.5% and the NPV was 97.3%. The overall sensitivity was 82.3% and overall specificity was 97.2%. Over- and under-reporting of NIs were related to misinterpretation of the case definitions and deviations from the protocol despite previous training and instructions. The results of this study are useful to identify methodological problems within a surveillance system and have been used to plan retraining for surveillance personnel and to design and implement the second phase of the SPIN-UTI project. Copyright 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Survey of Colonoscopic Surveillance After Polypectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Several guidelines have been proposed for surveillance colonoscopy after polypectomy. However, some discrepancies still exist between the guidelines and clinical practice. This study was conducted to identify Korean doctors' recommendations for the colonoscopic surveillance interval after polypectomy. Methods A survey of the attendees at the symposium of the 64th Annual Congress of the Korean Surgical Society was conducted. When the prepared clinical scenarios were given, attendees answered using a wireless radio-frequency audience response system. All responders' results were automatically counted immediately. Frequencies of different answers to each question were calculated, and our results were compared with those of previous surveys performed using the same questionnaire in the United States or Japan. Results The number of responder varied from 38 to 41. About 50% of valid responders selected 'follow-up in 3 years' for low-risk lesions, such as a 6-mm hyperplastic polyp, a 6-mm tubular adenoma, or two 6-mm tubular adenomas. Responders most-commonly selected 'follow-up in 1 year' for high-risk lesions, such as a 12-mm tubular adenoma with high grade dysplasia or a 12-mm tubulovillous adenoma. The majority of Korean doctors recommend postpolypectomy colonoscopic surveillance more frequently than American physicians did. Conclusion A discrepancy between the guidelines and clinical practice for the surveillance after polypectomy still exists in Korea. A surveillance program that can be easily and widely applied in clinical practice needs to be established. PMID:24851219

  16. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  17. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  18. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully.

  19. Maternal Near-Miss: A Multicenter Surveillance in Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashma Rana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multicenter surveillance has been carried out on maternal near-miss in the hospitals with sentinel units. Near-miss is recognized as the predictor of level of care and maternal death. Reducing maternal mortality ratio is one of the challenges to achieve Millennium Development Goal. Objective was to determine the frequency and the nature of near-miss (severe acute maternal morbidity events and analysis of near-miss morbidities among pregnant women. Methods: Prospective surveillance was done for a year in 2012 in nine hospitals in Kathmandu valley. Cases eligible by definition recorded as a census based on WHO near-miss guideline. Similar questionnaire and dummy tables were used to present the result by non-inferential statistics. Results: Out of 157 cases identified with near-miss rate of 3.8, severe complications were PPH (40% and preeclampsia-eclampsia (17%. Blood transfusion (65%, ICU admission (54% and surgery (32% were the common critical intervention. Oxytocin was the main uterotonic used both prophylactically (86% and therapeutically (76%, and 19% arrived health facility after delivery or abortion. MgSO4 was used in all cases of eclampsia. All of the laparotomies were performed within 3 hours of arrival. Near-miss to mortality ratio was 6:1 and MMR 62. Conclusions: Study result yields similar pattern amongst developing countries and same near-miss conditions as the causes of maternal death reported by national statistics. Process indicators qualify the recommended standard of care. The near-miss event can be used as a surrogate marker of maternal death and a window for system level intervention. Keywords: abortion, eclampsia, hemorrhage, near-miss, surveillance

  20. Surveillance extension experience at WWER-440 type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.; Uri, G.; Oszwald, F.; Trampus, P.

    1993-01-01

    In WWER-440 reactors, the surveillance specimens are located in accelerated irradiation positions. After 5 years, all specimens are withdrawn and the operational changes are not monitored. At Paks NPP a new surveillance program extension has been settled in order to avoid these original program disadvantages and generate further data for plant lifetime management. This paper includes: research performed to prepare the surveillance extension programme, the evaluation method for the surveillance extension, and first results (Charpy and tensile tests). (authors). 6 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Surveillance extension experience at WWER-440 type reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillemot, F; Uri, G [Budapesti Mueszaki Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary); Oszwald, F; Trampus, P

    1994-12-31

    In WWER-440 reactors, the surveillance specimens are located in accelerated irradiation positions. After 5 years, all specimens are withdrawn and the operational changes are not monitored. At Paks NPP a new surveillance program extension has been settled in order to avoid these original program disadvantages and generate further data for plant lifetime management. This paper includes: research performed to prepare the surveillance extension programme, the evaluation method for the surveillance extension, and first results (Charpy and tensile tests). (authors). 6 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  3. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  4. Critical analysis of the Romanian Mathematics and Sciences school curricula based on the Romanian pupils’ results on international testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA CIASCAI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania occupied a back position in the international tests on Mathematics and Sciences. Teachers stress out that one possible cause of this situation could be finding on the Mathematics and Sciences curricula. This paper presents the results of the comparisons of the Romanian curricula with the curricula promoted by the international testing (PISA 2000, 2003 and 2006, and TIMSS 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007 and the curricula of the countries occupied the first places in these tests. The comparisons underline those curricula approaches, which insure success on these tests and realize the reasons of the lack of success of the Romanian pupils. These results will be presented to the curriculum makers, universities and schools, to identify the specific and transferable competencies of the pupils with success in the above-mentioned disciplines.

  5. Evaluation of the AJCC 8th Edition Staging System for Pathologically Versus Clinically Staged Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA): a Time to Revisit a Dogma? A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarajah, Sivesh K

    2018-03-07

    Recently, the AJCC has released its 8th edition changes to the staging system for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). This study sought to validate the proposed changes to the 8th edition of AJCC system for T and N classification of iCCA using a population-based data set. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1998-2013), patients undergoing resection or non-surgical management for non-metastatic iCCA were identified. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank tests. Concordance indices (c-indices) calculated from Cox proportional hazards models were calculated to evaluate discriminatory power. The study included 2630 patients resected (37%) or non-surgically managed (63%) for iCCA. Nodal staging was performed in 56%, of whom 31% had positive nodes. For all patients with iCCA, the median 5-year survival by AJCC T classification for T1a, T1b, T2, T3, and T4 was 32, 21, 14, 10, and 10 months, respectively (p < 0.001). The concordance index for the staging system was 0.57 for all patients, 0.62 for those who underwent resection, and 0.54 for patients who did not undergo resection. In summary, the new AJCC 8th edition staging system is comparable to the 7th edition and valid in stratifying patients with iCCA. However, the performance of the staging system is better in patients undergoing surgical resection than those undergoing non-surgical management. These findings further highlight the need for improved accuracy of radiological imaging in clinically staging patients to guide prognosis.

  6. Safety and Effectiveness of Once-Daily Tadalafil (5 mg Therapy in Korean Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia/Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in a Real-World Clinical Setting: Results from a Post- Marketing Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eon Won

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of tadalafil 5 mg once daily (quaque die [everyday], QD among Korean men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH/lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in a real-world clinical setting. Materials and Methods: This was a single-country, prospective, observational cohort study in which patients newly prescribed tadalafil 5 mg QD for the treatment of BPH/LUTS were followed-up for 12±2 or 24±2 weeks, or to the last treatment, during post-marketing surveillance. Safety was evaluated in terms of the frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs and serious adverse events (SAEs. Effectiveness was assessed by changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS from baseline to each endpoint. Results: All patients receiving ≥1 dose of tadalafil 5 mg QD (N=637 were included in the safety population. Two percent of patients (n=13 experienced 15 TEAEs of mild (n=10; 66.7% or moderate (n=5; 33.3% severity. No severe TEAEs and no SAEs were reported. Effectiveness evaluations included all patients receiving tadalafil who had both baseline and endpoint observations (12-week, N=265; 24-week, N=44. Compared with baseline, the mean IPSS total score (±standard error significantly improved by 4.7±0.3 and 6.4±0.7 points at the 12- and 24-week endpoints, respectively (p<0.0001, with significant improvements also observed on the storage, voiding, and quality of life subscores. In total, 69.1% of the patients had a clinically meaningful ≥3-point improvement in the IPSS total score. Conclusions: Tadalafil 5 mg QD was well tolerated and effective in Korean men with BPH/LUTS in a real-world clinical setting.

  7. Malignant central nervous system tumors among adolescents and young adults (15-39 years old) in 14 Southern-Eastern European registries and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program: Mortality and survival patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Ryzhov, Anton; Zivkovic-Perisic, Snezana; Eser, Sultan; Taraszkiewicz, Łukasz; Sekerija, Mario; Žagar, Tina; Antunes, Luis; Zborovskaya, Anna; Bastos, Joana; Florea, Margareta; Coza, Daniela; Demetriou, Anna; Agius, Domenic; Strahinja, Rajko M; Themistocleous, Marios; Tolia, Maria; Tzanis, Spyridon; Alexiou, George A; Papanikolaou, Panagiotis G; Nomikos, Panagiotis; Kantzanou, Maria; Dessypris, Nick; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Petridou, Eleni T

    2017-11-15

    Unique features and worse outcomes have been reported for cancers among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years old). The aim of this study was to explore the mortality and survival patterns of malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors among AYAs in Southern-Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison with the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Malignant CNS tumors diagnosed in AYAs during the period spanning 1990-2014 were retrieved from 14 population-based cancer registries in the SEE region (n = 11,438). Age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated and survival patterns were evaluated via Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analyses, and they were compared with respective 1990-2012 figures from SEER (n = 13,573). Mortality rates in SEE (range, 11.9-18.5 deaths per million) were higher overall than the SEER rate (9.4 deaths per million), with decreasing trends in both regions. Survival rates increased during a comparable period (2001-2009) in SEE and SEER. The 5-year survival rate was considerably lower in the SEE registries (46%) versus SEER (67%), mainly because of the extremely low rates in Ukraine; this finding was consistent across age groups and diagnostic subtypes. The highest 5-year survival rates were recorded for ependymomas (76% in SEE and 92% in SEER), and the worst were recorded for glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas (28% in SEE and 37% in SEER). Advancing age, male sex, and rural residency at diagnosis adversely affected outcomes in both regions. Despite definite survival gains over the last years, the considerable outcome disparities between the less affluent SEE region and the United States for AYAs with malignant CNS tumors point to health care delivery inequalities. No considerable prognostic deficits for CNS tumors are evident for AYAs versus children. Cancer 2017;123:4458-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Water radiological surveillance (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo San Martin de, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the characteristics of the Environmental Surveillance Radiological Networks (ESRN) currently operating in CEDEX. In the first part, the Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been presented. This second one describes Spanish Costal Waters ESRN and the High Sensitivity Networks in Continental and Marine Waters. It also presents the Radiological Surveillance of Drinking Waters that CEDEX carries out in waters of public consumption management by the Canal de Isabel II (CYII) and by the Mancomunity of Canals Taibilla (M.C.T.). The legislation applicable in each case is reviewed as well. Due to its extension the article has been divided into two parts. As Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been reviewed in the first part, the others ESRN are discussed in this second one. (Author) 10 refs

  9. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei

    2001-01-01

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  10. Improvements to Technical Specifications surveillance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobel, R.; Tjader, T.R.

    1992-12-01

    In August 1983 an NRC task group was formed to investigate problems with surveillance testing required by Technical Specifications, and to recommend approaches to effect improvements. NUREG-1024 (''Technical Specifications-Enhancing Safety Impact'') resulted, and it contained recommendations to review the basis for test frequencies; to ensure that the tests promote safety and do not degrade equipment; and to review surveillance tests so that they do not unnecessarily burden personnel. The Technical Specifications Improvement Program (TSIP) was established in December 1984 to provide the framework for rewriting and improving the Technical Specifications. As an element of the TSIP, all Technical Specifications surveillance requirements were comprehensively examined as recommended in NUREG-1024. The results of that effort are presented in this report. The study found that while some testing at power is essential to verify equipment and system operability, safety can be improved, equipment degradation decreased, and unnecessary personnel burden relaxed by reducing the amount of testing at power

  11. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-09-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  13. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Illness Prevention and Sun Safety. “Sun Safety.” https:// phc.amedd.army.mil/ topics /discond/hipss/Pages/ SunSafety.aspx. Accessed on 7 December 2016. 22...febrile illness; however, after its wide- spread introduction into immunologically MSMR Vol. 23 No. 12 December 2016 Page 8 naïve populations, a...October 2016 (data as of 22 November 2016) MSMR’s Invitation to Readers Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) invites readers to submit topics for

  14. MORTICIA, a statistical analysis software package for determining optical surveillance system effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkilowan, A.; Griffith, D. J.

    2017-10-01

    Surveillance modelling in terms of the standard Detect, Recognise and Identify (DRI) thresholds remains a key requirement for determining the effectiveness of surveillance sensors. With readily available computational resources it has become feasible to perform statistically representative evaluations of the effectiveness of these sensors. A new capability for performing this Monte-Carlo type analysis is demonstrated in the MORTICIA (Monte- Carlo Optical Rendering for Theatre Investigations of Capability under the Influence of the Atmosphere) software package developed at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). This first generation, python-based open-source integrated software package, currently in the alpha stage of development aims to provide all the functionality required to perform statistical investigations of the effectiveness of optical surveillance systems in specific or generic deployment theatres. This includes modelling of the mathematical and physical processes that govern amongst other components of a surveillance system; a sensor's detector and optical components, a target and its background as well as the intervening atmospheric influences. In this paper we discuss integral aspects of the bespoke framework that are critical to the longevity of all subsequent modelling efforts. Additionally, some preliminary results are presented.

  15. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide adequate training, instruction or information on health effects and medical surveillance for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiations have a large number of applications in the workplace. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not harmful. Some applications involve sources that could deliver more significant radiation doses, particularly when poor methods are practised or an accident occurs. The radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way and excessive exposures may cause detriment to the health of a worker in a way that is not immediately apparent. When the symptoms occur, weeks or possibly years later, an untrained worker or inexperienced medical staff probably cannot recognize the effects to be due to the radiation exposure. This Manual explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  16. Developing a new national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Shelley S; Klompas, Michael; Balk, Robert; Burns, Suzanne M; Deutschman, Clifford S; Diekema, Daniel; Fridkin, Scott; Greene, Linda; Guh, Alice; Gutterman, David; Hammer, Beth; Henderson, David; Hess, Dean R; Hill, Nicholas S; Horan, Teresa; Kollef, Marin; Levy, Mitchell; Septimus, Edward; VanAntwerpen, Carole; Wright, Don; Lipsett, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    In September 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) Surveillance Definition Working Group to organize a formal process for leaders and experts of key stakeholder organizations to discuss the challenges of VAP surveillance definitions and to propose new approaches to VAP surveillance in adult patients (Table 1). The charges to the Working Group were to (1) critically review a draft, streamlined VAP surveillance definition developed for use in adult patients; (2) suggest modifications to enhance the reliability and credibility of the surveillance definition within the critical care and infection prevention communities; and (3) propose a final adult surveillance definition algorithm to be implemented in the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), taking into consideration the potential future use of the definition algorithm in public reporting, interfacility comparisons, and pay-for-reporting and pay-for-performance programs. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  17. History of trichinellosis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancou J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of trichinellosis, which existed in ancient times as testified by the discovery of parasite larvae on an Egyptian mummy, unfolded in several stages: discovery of encapsulated larvae (in the 1820s, identification and scientific description of these larvae (Paget Owen, 1835, followed by experimental infestations of animals (dogs, pigs, rabbits, mice or of humans as from 1850.The main occurrences of trichinellosis were followed with particular attention in Europe (Germany, Denmark, France, etc. and in the United States of America at the end of the XIXth century. They affected numerous domestic animal species (pigs, horses, etc. or wildlife and humans. Germany paid the heaviest toll with regard to the disease in humans, between 1860 and 1880, with several thousands of patients and more than 500 deaths.Different trichinellosis surveillance systems were set up in the relevant countries in the 1860s. In humans, this surveillance was carried out on affected living patients by a biopsy of the biceps muscles and subsequently by an analysis of eosinophilia (1895. In animals, surveillance was for a long time solely based on postmortem examination of the muscles of the affected animals. This method was used for the first time in 863 in Germany, and from the 1 890s, on several hundreds of thousands of pigs in Europe or in the United States of America.

  18. Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    Manipulation and mistakes in LCA studies are as old as the tool itself, and so is its critical review. Besides preventing misuse and unsupported claims, critical review may also help identifying mistakes and more justifiable assumptions as well as generally improve the quality of a study. It thus...... supports the robustness of an LCA and increases trust in its results and conclusions. The focus of this chapter is on understanding what a critical review is, how the international standards define it, what its main elements are, and what reviewer qualifications are required. It is not the objective...... of this chapter to learn how to conduct a critical review, neither from a reviewer nor from a practitioner perspective. The foundation of this chapter and the basis for any critical review of LCA studies are the International Standards ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006 and ISO TS 14071:2014....

  19. Down regulation of APETALA3 homolog resulted in defect of floral structure critical to explosive pollen release in Cornus canadensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Liu; Lu Li; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) Xiang

    2017-01-01

    In mature buds of the dwarf dogwood lineage (DW) of Cornus,petals and filaments form an "x"-like box containing mechanical energy from the filaments to allow explosive pollen dispersal.As a start to understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for the origin of this unique structure in Cornus,we cloned and characterized the sequences of APETALA3 (AP3) homologs from Cornus canadensis of the DW lineage and five other Cornus species,given the function of AP3 on petal and stamen development in Arabidopsis,and tested the function of CorcanAP3 using a stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system.The cloned CorAP3s (AP3-like genes in Cornus) were confirmed to belong to the euAP3 lineage.qRT-PCR analysis indicated strong increase of CorcanAP3 expression in floral buds of wildtype C.canadensis.A hairpin construct of CorcanAP3 was successfully introduced into wild type plants of C.canadensis,resulting in significant reduction of CorcanAP3 expression and abnormal floral development.The abnormal floral buds lost the "x" form and opened immaturely due to delay or retard of petal and stamen elongation and the push of style elongation.The results suggested CorcanAP3 may function to regulate the coordinated rate of development of petals and stamens in C.canadensis,necessary for the x-structure formation,although the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear.Comparison among six Comus species indicated a greater ratio of stamen to petal and style growth in C.canadensis,suggesting an evolutionary change of CorAP3 expression pattern in the DW lineage,leading to the greater growth of filaments to form the "x"-box.

  20. World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance White Paper on Surveillance and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Campostrini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is not a research paper on risk factor surveillance. It is an effort by a key group of researchers and practitioners of risk factor surveillance to define the current state of the art and to identify the key issues involved in the current practice of behavioral risk factor surveillance. Those of us who are the principal authors have worked and carried out research in this area for some three decades. As a result of a series of global meetings beginning in 1999 and continuing every two years since then, a collective working group of the International Union of Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE was formed under the name World Alliance of Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS. Under this banner the organization sought to write a comprehensive statement on the importance of surveillance to health promotion and public health. This paper, which has been revised and reviewed by established peers in the field, is the result. It provides the reader with a clear summary of the major issues that need to be considered by any and all seeking to carry out behavioral risk factor surveillance.

  1. Enrollment into a time sensitive clinical study in the critical care setting: results from computerized septic shock sniffer implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Matthew S; Pulido, Juan; Gajic, Ognjen

    2011-01-01

    Objective Recruitment of patients into time sensitive clinical trials in intensive care units (ICU) poses a significant challenge. Enrollment is limited by delayed recognition and late notification of research personnel. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of electronic screening (septic shock sniffer) regarding enrollment into a time sensitive (24 h after onset) clinical study of echocardiography in severe sepsis and septic shock. Design We developed and tested a near-real time computerized alert system, the septic shock sniffer, based on established severe sepsis/septic shock diagnostic criteria. A sniffer scanned patients' data in the electronic medical records and notified the research coordinator on call through an institutional paging system of potentially eligible patients. Measurement The performance of the septic shock sniffer was assessed. Results The septic shock sniffer performed well with a positive predictive value of 34%. Electronic screening doubled enrollment, with 68 of 4460 ICU admissions enrolled during the 9 months after implementation versus 37 of 4149 ICU admissions before sniffer implementation (p<0.05). Efficiency was limited by study coordinator availability (not available at nights or weekends). Conclusions Automated electronic medical records screening improves the efficiency of enrollment and should be a routine tool for the recruitment of patients into time sensitive clinical trials in the ICU setting. PMID:21508415

  2. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  3. Radioactivity surveillance in Peruvian fishmeal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Edith; Osores, Jose; Gonzales, Susana; Martinez, Jorge; Jara, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Fishmeal is a derived product of fish which is widely used to feed livestock. It is the brown flour obtained after cooking, pressing, drying and milling whole fish and food fish trimmings. Use of whole fish is almost exclusively from small, bony species of pelagic fish (generally living in the surface waters or middle depths of the sea), for which there is little or no demand for human consumption. In many cases, it constitutes the main source of protein in the diet of livestock. Traditionally, Peru has been a producer and exporter country of fish and its derived products. It is considered one of the top producers of fish worldwide. In Peru, anchovy (Engraulis ringens) is by far the most important species for fishmeal production. As part of the Peruvian national program of environmental surveillance, samples of fishmeal taken from different places of sampling (plants of production located in the northern coast of Peru) were measured and analyzed by HpGe gamma spectrometry. This study shows the results of radioactivity surveillance in Peruvian fishmeal, focusing in the contents of 137 Cs, which indicates that the levels of this radionuclide in the samples are below the order of the minimum detectable concentration (Bq/kg). These results are consistent with those obtained by the UK Food Standards Agency in 1999. According to many international regulations, the level of 137 Cs in foodstuff must be below 600 Bq/kg. (author)

  4. Surveillance and epidemiology of surgical site infections after cardiothoracic surgery in The Netherlands, 2002-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniën, Judith; Wille, Jan C.; Kloek, Jaap J.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.

    2011-01-01

    Surgical site infections after cardiothoracic surgery substantially increase the risk for illness, mortality, and costs. Surveillance of surgical site infections might assist in the prevention of these infections. This study describes the Dutch surveillance methods and results of data collected

  5. Mapping of the US Domestic Influenza Virologic Surveillance Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Barbara; Schwerzmann, Joy; Mustaquim, Desiree; Aden, Tricia; Brammer, Lynnette; Humes, Rosemary; Shult, Pete; Shahangian, Shahram; Gubareva, Larisa; Xu, Xiyan; Miller, Joseph; Jernigan, Daniel

    2018-07-17

    Influenza virologic surveillance is critical each season for tracking influenza circulation, following trends in antiviral drug resistance, detecting novel influenza infections in humans, and selecting viruses for use in annual seasonal vaccine production. We developed a framework and process map for characterizing the landscape of US influenza virologic surveillance into 5 tiers of influenza testing: outpatient settings (tier 1), inpatient settings and commercial laboratories (tier 2), state public health laboratories (tier 3), National Influenza Reference Center laboratories (tier 4), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention laboratories (tier 5). During the 2015-16 season, the numbers of influenza tests directly contributing to virologic surveillance were 804,000 in tiers 1 and 2; 78,000 in tier 3; 2,800 in tier 4; and 3,400 in tier 5. With the release of the 2017 US Pandemic Influenza Plan, the proposed framework will support public health officials in modeling, surveillance, and pandemic planning and response.

  6. Comparison of results from the MCNP criticality validation suite using ENDF/B-VI and preliminary ENDF/B-VII nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteller, R. D. (Russell D.)

    2004-01-01

    The MCNP Criticality Validation Suite is a collection of 31 benchmarks taken from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. MCNP5 calculations clearly demonstrate that, overall, nuclear data for a preliminary version of ENDFB-VII produce better agreement with the benchmarks in the suite than do corresponding data from ENDF/B-VI. Additional calculations identify areas where improvements in the data still are needed. Based on results for the MCNP Criticality Validation Suite, the Pre-ENDF/B-VII nuclear data produce substantially better overall results than do their ENDF/B-VI counterparts. The calculated values for k{sub eff} for bare metal spheres and for an IEU cylinder reflected by normal uranium are in much better agreement with the benchmark values. In addition, the values of k{sub eff} for the bare metal spheres are much more consistent with those for corresponding metal spheres reflected by normal uranium or water. In addition, a long-standing controversy about the need for an ad hoc adjustment to the {sup 238}U resonance integral for thermal systems may finally be resolved. On the other hand, improvements still are needed in a number of areas. Those areas include intermediate-energy cross sections for {sup 235}U, angular distributions for elastic scattering in deuterium, and fast cross sections for {sup 237}Np.

  7. Structural analysis of 177-FA redesigned surveillance specimen holder tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, C.W.; Thoren, D.E.; Vames, G.J.; Harris, R.J.

    1976-08-01

    Because of in-service operational problems, the surveillance specimen holder tubes described in B and W topical report BAW-10051 have been redesigned. This report describes the new design and structural analysis for normal operation and upset loading conditions. The results of the analysis demonstrate the adequacy of the new surveillance specimen holder tubes for their design life of 40 years

  8. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  9. Video surveillance using distance maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    2006-02-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors. To obtain fully controlled test environments, an artificial development center for robot navigation is introduced in which several parameters can be set (e.g., number of objects, trajectories and type and amount of noise). In the videos, for each following frame, movement of stationary objects is detected and pixels of moving objects are located from which moving objects are identified in a robust way. An Exact Euclidean Distance Map (E2DM) is utilized to determine accurately the distances between moving and stationary objects. Together with the determined distances between moving objects and the detected movement of stationary objects, this provides the input for detecting unwanted situations in the scene. Further, each intelligent object (e.g., a robot), is provided with its E2DM, allowing the object to plan its course of action. Timing results are specified for each program block of the processing chain for 20 different setups. So, the current paper presents extensive, experimentally controlled research on real-time, accurate, and robust motion detection for video surveillance, using E2DMs, which makes it a unique approach.

  10. Hanford Site surface environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is a multimedia environmental monitoring program conducted to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemical contaminants in the environment and assess the integrated effects of these contaminants on the environment and the public. The monitoring program includes sampling air, surface water, sediments, soil, natural vegetation, agricultural products, fish, and wildlife. Functional elements inherent in the operation of the SESP include project management, quality assurance/control, training, records management, environmental sampling network design and implementation, sample collection, sample analysis, data management, data review and evaluation, exposure assessment, and reporting. The SESP focuses on those contaminant/media combinations calculated to have the highest potential for contributing to off-site exposure. Results of the SESP indicate that contaminant concentrations in the Hanford environs are very low, generally below environmental standards, at or below analytical detection levels, and indicative of environmental levels. However, areas of elevated contaminant concentrations have been identified at Hanford. The extent of these areas is generally limited to past operating areas and waste disposal sites

  11. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons

  12. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  13. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1978. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances is conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1978 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and groundwater, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs

  14. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdoz, Erwin G.; Pinkalla, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  15. Understanding the nature of errors in nursing: using a model to analyse critical incident reports of errors which had resulted in an adverse or potentially adverse event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurier, C E

    2000-07-01

    Human errors are common in clinical practice, but they are under-reported. As a result, very little is known of the types, antecedents and consequences of errors in nursing practice. This limits the potential to learn from errors and to make improvement in the quality and safety of nursing care. The aim of this study was to use an Organizational Accident Model to analyse critical incidents of errors in nursing. Twenty registered nurses were invited to produce a critical incident report of an error (which had led to an adverse event or potentially could have led to an adverse event) they had made in their professional practice and to write down their responses to the error using a structured format. Using Reason's Organizational Accident Model, supplemental information was then collected from five of the participants by means of an individual in-depth interview to explore further issues relating to the incidents they had reported. The detailed analysis of one of the incidents is discussed in this paper, demonstrating the effectiveness of this approach in providing insight into the chain of events which may lead to an adverse event. The case study approach using critical incidents of clinical errors was shown to provide relevant information regarding the interaction of organizational factors, local circumstances and active failures (errors) in producing an adverse or potentially adverse event. It is suggested that more use should be made of this approach to understand how errors are made in practice and to take appropriate preventative measures.

  16. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  18. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    Gadgets and applications are increasingly being developed and used for tracking, quantifying, and documenting everyday life activities and especially health and fitness devices such as GPS-enabled sports watches are well-known and popular. However, self-surveillance practices involving networked...... pressure, fitness activities, sleep cycles, etc. can be broadcasted, e.g. as tweets on Twitter or status updates on Facebook. Such quantification practices with monitoring technologies become co-producing when individuals constitute themselves as subjects engaging in self-tracking, self-care, and self...

  19. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  20. Atucha I nuclear power plant surveillance programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinchuk, D [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1994-12-31

    After a review of the main characteristics of the Atucha I nuclear power plant and its pressure vessel, the embrittlement surveillance capsules and the irradiation conditions are described; Charpy impact tests and tensile tests were performed on the irradiated samples, and results are discussed and compared to theoretical calculations: transition temperature shifts, displacement per atom values. 6 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Atucha I nuclear power plant surveillance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinchuk, D.

    1993-01-01

    After a review of the main characteristics of the Atucha I nuclear power plant and its pressure vessel, the embrittlement surveillance capsules and the irradiation conditions are described; Charpy impact tests and tensile tests were performed on the irradiated samples, and results are discussed and compared to theoretical calculations: transition temperature shifts, displacement per atom values. 6 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Surveillance in stage I testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Rørth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Treatment results on 695 stage I testicular cancer patients followed with surveillance are described. Seminoma (SGCT) was present in 394 patients and nonseminoma (NSGCT) in 301 patients. Relapses were detected in 155 patients (22%), in 69 patients with SGCT (17%) and 86 with NSGCT (29...

  3. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, Robert W.; Poston, Ted M.

    2000-01-01

    Shows and explains certain procedures needed for surface environmental surveillance. Hanford Site environmental surveillance is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The basic requirements for site surveillance are set fourth in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements. Guidance for the SESP is provided in DOE Order 5484.1, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. Guidelines for environmental surveillance activities are provided in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. An environmental monitoring plan for the Hanford Site is outlined in DOE/RL 91-50 Rev. 2, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual. Personnel training requirements are documented in SESP-TP-01 Rev.2, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project Training Program.

  4. Canadian CANDU plant data systems for technical surveillance and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverno, M.; Pothier, H.; Xian, C.; Grosbois, J. De; Bosnich, M.

    1996-01-01

    Plant data systems are emerging as a critical plant support system technology. In particular, plant-wide Historical Data Systems (HDS) are pivotal to the successful implementation of technical surveillance and analysis programs supporting plant operations, maintenance, safety, and licensing activities. In partnership with Canadian CANDU utility and design organizations, AECL has conducted a review of current Canadian CANDU HDS approaches with emphasis on understanding the existing functionality and uses of plant historical data systems, their future needs and benefits. The results is a vision of a plant-wide HDS providing seamless access to both near real-time and historical data, user tool-kits for data visualization and analysis, and data management of the large volume of data acquired during the life of a plant. The successful implementation of the HDS vision will lead to higher capability and capacity factors while minimizing Operations, Maintenance, and Administration (OM and A) costs. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  5. Canadian CANDU plant data systems for technical surveillance and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverno, M; Pothier, H; Xian, C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Control Centre Technology Branch, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Grosbois, J De; Bosnich, M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Control Centre Technology Branch, Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Labs.

    1997-12-31

    Plant data systems are emerging as a critical plant support system technology. In particular, plant-wide Historical Data Systems (HDS) are pivotal to the successful implementation of technical surveillance and analysis programs supporting plant operations, maintenance, safety, and licensing activities. In partnership with Canadian CANDU utility and design organizations, AECL has conducted a review of current Canadian CANDU HDS approaches with emphasis on understanding the existing functionality and uses of plant historical data systems, their future needs and benefits. The results is a vision of a plant-wide HDS providing seamless access to both near real-time and historical data, user tool-kits for data visualization and analysis, and data management of the large volume of data acquired during the life of a plant. The successful implementation of the HDS vision will lead to higher capability and capacity factors while minimizing Operations, Maintenance, and Administration (OM and A) costs. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs.

  6. Evaluation of two surveillance methods for surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical wound infection surveillance is an important facet of hospital infection control processes. There are several surveillance methods for surgical site infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of two different surgical site infection surveillance methods. Methods: In this prospective cross sectional study 3020 undergoing surgey in general surgical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were included. Surveillance methods consisted of review of medical records for postoperative fever and review of nursing daily note for prescription of antibiotics postoperatively and during patient’s discharge. Review of patient’s history and daily records and interview with patient’s surgeon and the head-nurse of the ward considered as a gold standard for surveillance. Results: The postoperative antibiotic consumption especially when considering its duration is a proper method for surgical wound infection surveillance. Accomplishments of a prospective study with postdischarge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that postoperative antibiotic surveillance method specially with consideration of the antibiotic usage duration is a proper method for surgical site infection surveillance in general surgery wards. Accomplishments of a prospective study with post discharge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended.

  7. Ethical issues in public health surveillance: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, Corinna; Silva, Diego Steven; Schuermann, Christopher; Reis, Andreas Alois; Saxena, Abha; Strech, Daniel

    2017-04-04

    Public health surveillance is not ethically neutral and yet, ethics guidance and training for surveillance programmes is sparse. Development of ethics guidance should be based on comprehensive and transparently derived overviews of ethical issues and arguments. However, existing overviews on surveillance ethics are limited in scope and in how transparently they derived their results. Our objective was accordingly to provide an overview of ethical issues in public health surveillance; in addition, to list the arguments put forward with regards to arguably the most contested issue in surveillance, that is whether to obtain informed consent. Ethical issues were defined based on principlism. We assumed an ethical issue to arise in surveillance when a relevant normative principle is not adequately considered or two principles come into conflict. We searched Pubmed and Google Books for relevant publications. We analysed and synthesized the data using qualitative content analysis. Our search strategy retrieved 525 references of which 83 were included in the analysis. We identified 86 distinct ethical issues arising in the different phases of the surveillance life-cycle. We further identified 20 distinct conditions that make it more or less justifiable to forego informed consent procedures. This is the first systematic qualitative review of ethical issues in public health surveillance resulting in a comprehensive ethics matrix that can inform guidelines, reports, strategy papers, and educational material and raise awareness among practitioners.

  8. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  9. Summary of results for the SNEAK-9 series of critical experiments and conclusions for the accuracy of predicted physics parameters of the SNR-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, F.

    1978-08-01

    In a series of critical assembles in SNEAK physics parameters of interest for the prototype fast reactor SNR-300 were investigated and compared to the results of calculations. Since a complete mock-up of the SNR-300 was not possible with the material supply available the measurements were performed in three different assemblies, each being adapted to the investigation of a particular set of problems. Work was concentrated on the following quantities: criticality, breeding ratio, Na-void effect, control rod worths and power distribution. The calculation were performed using the diffusion and transport methods available at KFK and as a data basis the KFKINER cross section set. Detailed descriptions of the assemblies, the majority of the results and extensive discussions of the experimental and calculational methods used can be found in separate KFK reports about each assembly which were already published. This report contains a summary of the results for each quantity investigated including a basic account of the methods used, and an evaluation of the significance of these data for the prediction of parameters of the SNR-300. (orig.) 891 RW [de

  10. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spent fuel surveillance and monitoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on ''Spent Fuel Surveillance and Monitoring Methods'' (27-30 October 1987) has been organized in accordance with recommendations of the International Standing Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management during its second meeting in 1986. The aim of the meeting was to discuss the above questions with emphasis on current design and operation criteria, safety principles and licensing requirements and procedures in order to prevent: inadvertent criticality, undue radiation exposure, unacceptable release of radioactivity as well as control for loss of storage pool water, crud impact, water chemistry, distribution and behaviour of particulates in cooling water, oxidation of intact and failed fuel rods as a function of temperature and burnup; distribution of radiation and temperature through dry cask wall, monitoring of leakages from pools and gas escapes from dry storage facilities, periodical integrity tests of the containment barriers, responsibilities of organizations for the required operation, structure, staff and subordination, etc. The presentations of the Meeting were divided into two sessions: Spent fuel surveillance programmes and practice in Member States (4 papers); Experimental methods developed in support of spent fuel surveillance programmes (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Predicting costs of alien species surveillance across varying transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Blackburn; Rebecca Epanchin-Niell; Alexandra Thompson; Andrew Liebhold; Jacqueline Beggs

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to detect and eradicate invading populations before they establish are a critical component of national biosecurity programmes. An essential element for maximizing the efficiency of these efforts is the balancing of expenditures on surveillance (e.g. trapping) versus treatment (e.g. eradication). Identifying the optimal allocation of resources towards...

  13. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of ...

  14. Trends in incidence, survival, and management of uveal melanoma: a population-based study of 7,516 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendraraj K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Christine SM Lau,1,2 Injoon Lee,2 Ronald S Chamberlain1–3 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2St George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Introduction: Uveal melanoma (UM is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, despite comprising <5% of all melanomas. To date, relatively few case series of UM have been published. Moreover, the factors influencing survival remain largely unknown. This study sought to analyze the impact of demographics, histology, clinical presentation, and treatments on the clinical outcomes of UM in a large modern nationwide patient cohort.Methods: Demographics and clinical data were abstracted on 277,120 histologically confirmed melanoma patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 1973 and 2012.Results: A total of 7,516 cases of UM represented 3.2% of all recorded cases of melanoma. The mean age-adjusted incidence was 5.1 per million (95% CI 4.2–6.1 and was higher in males (5.9, CI =4.4–7.6 compared to females (4.5, CI =3.3–5.8, P<0.001. UM occurred most commonly in the sixth decade of life (61.4±15 and among Caucasians (94.7%. A total of 52.3% of cases were reported in the Western US (35.7% in California. The initial diagnoses in 65.2% of cases were by histopathology, followed by clinical diagnosis (18.8% and radiographic imaging (16.0%. The percentage of UM cases managed by surgery alone decreased by 69.4% between the 1973–1977 and 2006–2012 time periods, concomitant with a 62% increase in primary radiotherapy, P<0.001. The UM mean overall and cancer-specific 5-year relative survival rates were 79.8%±5.8% and 76%±5.3%, respectively. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rate (76% remained stable during the study period between 1973 and 2012. The mean survival for patients treated with

  15. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B.; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija

    2015-01-01

    by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases...

  16. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  17. The surveillance error grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  18. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  19. [Entomological surveillance in Mauritius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopaul, R

    1995-01-01

    The entomological surveillance is an essential link in the fight against malaria in Mauritius. Because of the large number of malaria-infected travellers in Mauritius and the presence of the vector Anopheles arabiensis, the risk of local transmission is very real. The medical entomology division together with the malaria control unit and the health appointees exert a rigorous entomological surveillance of malaria. Field agents make entomological investigations of pilot villages and around the harbor and airport, where there have been cases of malaria, in addition to a few randomly chosen regions. All of the inhabited regions are accessible because of a good highway infrastructure, which enables a complete coverage for the entomological prospectives. Entomological controls are also conducted in the airplanes and the ships. All of the captured mosquitos and the harvested larva are transferred to a laboratory for identification, dissection or sensibility tests, etc. The larva of A. arabiensis have not yet developed resistance to Temephos and the adults are still sensitive to DDT. Thus, the larval habitats are treated with Temephos and DDT is sprayed in the residences where there have been native cases of malaria. The entomology division studies the ecology and the evolution of the larval habitats, as well as the impact of the anti-larval fight on the anophelene density. In addition to the chemical fight, a biological control is being tried with larva-eating fish such as Lebistes and Tilapia. In general, the anophelene density in Mauritius is low, but after the big summer rains, especially during a period of cyclones, there is a considerable increase of larval habitats and consequently a higher number of A. arabiensis. Therefore during this season, it is necessary to make an even more rigorous entomological surveillance. A. arabiensis has a strong exophile tendency even if it is endophage and exophage. This mosquito is zoophile, mostly towards cattle, and the

  20. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise; Yeung, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  2. Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program CDC Feature: Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks Top ...

  3. The results of STEM education methods for enhancing critical thinking and problem solving skill in physics the 10th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soros, P.; Ponkham, K.; Ekkapim, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) compare the critical think and problem solving skills before and after learning using STEM Education plan, 2) compare student achievement before and after learning about force and laws of motion using STEM Education plan, and 3) the satisfaction of learning by using STEM Education. The sample used were 37 students from grade 10 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 10 students of 1 schemes with total of 14 hours, 2) The test of critical think and problem solving skills with multiple-choice type of 5 options and 2 option of 30 items, 3) achievement test on force and laws of motion with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 20 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have score of critical think and problem solving skills on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level .01. 2) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have achievement score on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level of .01. 3) The student'level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a high level (X ¯ = 4.51, S.D=0.56).

  4. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  5. Extended surveillance as a support to PLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walle, Eric van

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The safe exploitation of the reactor pressure vessel was and is always a major concern in nuclear power plant life management. At present, issues like Plant Life Extension, where utilities look into the possibility of license renewal after 40 years of operation, are becoming relevant in the USA. In other countries PLIM beyond the design life of the NPP could also be desirable from the economic viewpoint. The limiting factor could, however, be the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The reactor pressure vessel surveillance procedures as defined by regulatory legislation is limited and can be supplemented with valuable information that can be extracted in parallel to conventional surveillance testing or through additional testing on surveillance material. This is justified for several reasons: 1. The current methodology is semi-empirical, contains flaws and is in a number of cases over conservative. Without giving in on safety, we need to try and understand the material behavior more fundamentally; 2. Some reactor surveillance materials demonstrate inconsistent behavior with respect to the overall trend. These materials are called 'outlier' materials. But are they really outliers or is this connected to the indexing methodology used? 3. Additional data, for example the results of instrumented Charpy-V impact tests, have been obtained on many surveillance test specimens and are not adequately exploited in the actual surveillance methodology; 4. Scientific research provides substantial information and understanding of degradation mechanisms in reactor pressure vessel steels. Although we will not concentrate on this topic, the development of powerful microscopic investigation techniques, like FEGSTEM, APFIM, SANS, positron annihilation, internal friction, ... led to an intensified development of radiation damage modelling and are an input to micromechanical modelling. Moreover, due to the ever increasing computer power, additional multi-scale (time and

  6. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  7. Mapping HIV/STI behavioural surveillance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lert France

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Used in conjunction with biological surveillance, behavioural surveillance provides data allowing for a more precise definition of HIV/STI prevention strategies. In 2008, mapping of behavioural surveillance in EU/EFTA countries was performed on behalf of the European Centre for Disease prevention and Control. Method Nine questionnaires were sent to all 31 member States and EEE/EFTA countries requesting data on the overall behavioural and second generation surveillance system and on surveillance in the general population, youth, men having sex with men (MSM, injecting drug users (IDU, sex workers (SW, migrants, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics patients. Requested data included information on system organisation (e.g. sustainability, funding, institutionalisation, topics covered in surveys and main indicators. Results Twenty-eight of the 31 countries contacted supplied data. Sixteen countries reported an established behavioural surveillance system, and 13 a second generation surveillance system (combination of biological surveillance of HIV/AIDS and STI with behavioural surveillance. There were wide differences as regards the year of survey initiation, number of populations surveyed, data collection methods used, organisation of surveillance and coordination with biological surveillance. The populations most regularly surveyed are the general population, youth, MSM and IDU. SW, patients of STI clinics and PLWHA are surveyed less regularly and in only a small number of countries, and few countries have undertaken behavioural surveys among migrant or ethnic minorities populations. In many cases, the identification of populations with risk behaviour and the selection of populations to be included in a BS system have not been formally conducted, or are incomplete. Topics most frequently covered are similar across countries, although many different indicators are used. In most

  8. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  9. Change detection algorithms for surveillance in visual iot: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, B.A.; Zafar, A.; Akbar, A.H.; Chaudhry, A.

    2018-01-01

    The VIoT (Visual Internet of Things) connects virtual information world with real world objects using sensors and pervasive computing. For video surveillance in VIoT, ChD (Change Detection) is a critical component. ChD algorithms identify regions of change in multiple images of the same scene recorded at different time intervals for video surveillance. This paper presents performance comparison of histogram thresholding and classification ChD algorithms using quantitative measures for video surveillance in VIoT based on salient features of datasets. The thresholding algorithms Otsu, Kapur, Rosin and classification methods k-means, EM (Expectation Maximization) were simulated in MATLAB using diverse datasets. For performance evaluation, the quantitative measures used include OSR (Overall Success Rate), YC (Yule’s Coefficient) and JC (Jaccard’s Coefficient), execution time and memory consumption. Experimental results showed that Kapur’s algorithm performed better for both indoor and outdoor environments with illumination changes, shadowing and medium to fast moving objects. However, it reflected degraded performance for small object size with minor changes. Otsu algorithm showed better results for indoor environments with slow to medium changes and nomadic object mobility. k-means showed good results in indoor environment with small object size producing slow change, no shadowing and scarce illumination changes. (author)

  10. Change Detection Algorithms for Surveillance in Visual IoT: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Beenish Ayesha; Zafar, Amna; Akbar, Ali Hammad; Wajid, Bilal; Chaudhry, Shafique Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    The VIoT (Visual Internet of Things) connects virtual information world with real world objects using sensors and pervasive computing. For video surveillance in VIoT, ChD (Change Detection) is a critical component. ChD algorithms identify regions of change in multiple images of the same scene recorded at different time intervals for video surveillance. This paper presents performance comparison of histogram thresholding and classification ChD algorithms using quantitative measures for video surveillance in VIoT based on salient features of datasets. The thresholding algorithms Otsu, Kapur, Rosin and classification methods k-means, EM (Expectation Maximization) were simulated in MATLAB using diverse datasets. For performance evaluation, the quantitative measures used include OSR (Overall Success Rate), YC (Yule's Coefficient) and JC (Jaccard's Coefficient), execution time and memory consumption. Experimental results showed that Kapur's algorithm performed better for both indoor and outdoor environments with illumination changes, shadowing and medium to fast moving objects. However, it reflected degraded performance for small object size with minor changes. Otsu algorithm showed better results for indoor environments with slow to medium changes and nomadic object mobility. k-means showed good results in indoor environment with small object size producing slow change, no shadowing and scarce illumination changes.

  11. Privacy information management for video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Cheung, Sen-ching S.

    2013-05-01

    The widespread deployment of surveillance cameras has raised serious privacy concerns. Many privacy-enhancing schemes have been proposed to automatically redact images of trusted individuals in the surveillance