WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance program identified

  1. Identifying risk factors for brain metastasis in breast cancer patients: Implication for a vigorous surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Chow

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Chinese breast cancer patients with brain metastasis were more likely to have high-grade tumors and negative estrogen receptor status. A more vigorous surveillance program for the central nervous system should be considered for this group of patients.

  2. Effective environmental public health surveillance programs: a framework for identifying and evaluating data resources and indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Kristen C; Resnick, Beth; Burke, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    The complexity and multidisciplinary nature of environmental public health (EPH) surveillance call for a systematic framework and a concrete set of criteria to guide development, selection, and evaluation of environmental public health indicators. Environmental public health indicators are the foundation of a comprehensive EPH surveillance system, providing quantitative summary measures and descriptive information about spatial and temporal trends of hazard, exposure, and health effects over person, place, and time. A case-synthesis review of environmental regulatory and public health indicator models was employed to develop a framework and outline a methodological approach to EPH surveillance system development, including the selection of content areas and the corresponding data and environmental public health indicators. The framework is organized around three assessment phases: (1) scientific basis and relevance, (2) analytic soundness, and (3) feasibility, interpretation and utility. By outlining a process and identifying important constructs and criteria, the framework provides practitioners with an effective and systematic tool for making scientifically valid programmatic decisions about EPH content development. Improved decision making ensures more effective EPH surveillance systems and enhanced opportunities to understand and protect the public health from environmental threats.

  3. [Italian Program for Surveillance of Acute Pesticide-Related Illnesses: cases identified in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimi, L; Davanzo, F; Travaglia, A; Locatelli, C; Cilento, I; Volpe, C; Russo, A; Miceli, G; Fracassi, A; Maiozzi, P; Marcello, I; Sesan, F; Urbani, E

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Italian System for Surveillance of Acute Pesticide-Related Illnesses (SIAF) identified 625 cases, among which 520 unintentionally exposed. The majority of these subjects were men (75%) and aged 26-65 years (65%). About 63% of all exposures occurred at work. Severity for these illnesses was low for 94% and moderate for 5%. Four cases were classified as illnesses of high severity. Some 70% of all the reported exposures occurred between May and September. The active ingredients responsible for the largest number of cases were: glyphosate (n. 56), copper sulphate (n. 55), methomyl (n. = 52), metam-sodium (n. 24). Three episodes of collective environmental exposure to soil fumigants involving 23 subjects were also detected.

  4. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Gaelle; Larsen, Lars Erik; Duerrwald, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs......, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs......: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence...

  5. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Simon

    Full Text Available Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013 aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%, human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13% and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%, as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus (10.3%. Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  6. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Brown, Ian H; Loeffen, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  7. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    resistance surveillance, diarrhea etiology and antimicrobial resistance surveillance, sexually transmitted illness surveillance, and capacity building...vomiting, diarrhea , joint pains, general malaise. Of the samples analyzed, only 53.7% had an associated etiology: Malaria (47.0%, EBV (39.7...immunity to the disease. Many adults in those situations are reservoirs, facilitating continuing disease transmission to those without immunity. In Kenya

  8. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  9. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  10. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  11. Enhanced surveillance program FY1998 accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, J

    1998-10-01

    This report highlights the accomplishments of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP), the highest-priority research and development effort in stockpile management today. This is volume one of eleven, the unclassified summary of selected program highlights. These highlights fall into the following focus areas: pits, high explosives, organics, dynamics, diagnostics, systems, secondaries, materials-aging models, non-nuclear components, and routine surveillance testing system upgrades. Principal investigators from around the DOE complex contributed to this report.

  12. Modernization of existing VVER-1000 surveillance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V.; Erak, D.; Makhotin, D. [NRC ' Kurchatov Inst.' , 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    According to generally accepted world practice, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material behavior during operation is carried out using tests of surveillance specimens. The main objective of the surveillance program consists in insurance of safe RPV operation during the design lifetime and lifetime-extension period. At present, the approaches of pressure vessels residual life validation based on the test results of their surveillance specimens have been developed and introduced in Russia and are under consideration in other countries where vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactors- (VVER-) 1000 are in operation. In this case, it is necessary to ensure leading irradiation of surveillance specimens (as compared to the pressure vessel wall) and to provide uniformly irradiated specimen groups for mechanical testing. Standard surveillance program of VVER-1000 has several significant shortcomings and does not meet these requirements. Taking into account program of lifetime extension of VVER-1000 operating in Russia, it is necessary to carry out upgrading of the VVER-1000 surveillance program. This paper studies the conditions of a surveillance specimen's irradiation and upgrading of existing sets to provide monitoring and prognosis of RPV material properties for extension of the reactor's lifetime up to 60 years or more. (authors)

  13. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-05-27

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  14. Veterinary surveillance laboratories: developing the training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Staci L; McCline, Katasha T; Hanfelt, Margery M

    2010-01-01

    The increased need and demand for onsite, frequent, rapid, and portable food and bottled water testing for indicators of microbiological and chemical agents led to the deployment of 2 laboratory veterinary equipment sets. A Surveillance Food Laboratory Program (SFLP) was developed to allow Veterinary Corps commanders to establish targeted testing programs to enhance food safety and wholesomeness, along with faster responses to food defense, suspected foodborne illness, and food/water risk assessment missions. To support the deployment of the veterinary equipment sets and the SFLP, 2 new functional courses were developed by the Department of Veterinary Science. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Technician Course teaches essential technical skills that include sample processing, assay methodologies, results review, and interpretation of results produced by these laboratories. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Manager Course, developed for designated managers of the laboratories and laboratory programs, teaches the skills critical to ensuring proper surveillance laboratory oversight, testing, evaluation of results, risk communication, and response to presumptive positive results produced by the laboratories. Together, the courses allowed for the successful deployment of the unique veterinary equipment sets, resulting in development of fully operational surveillance laboratories in support of food protection missions in every major theater of operations.

  15. [Risk factors in police activities: operational criticism in surveillance programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprani, Fabrizio; Moroni, Maria; Conte, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The planning of specific health surveillance programs for police officers is extremely complex due to difficulty in predictability and variety of occupational hazards. Even in the case of conventional occupational risk factors clearly identified by current regulations, particular working conditions may require specific assessment to effectively identify and quantify the risk of occupational exposure. An extensive program of health surveillance, aimed at promoting overall health and effectiveness of the operators, would be really desirable, in order to help better address a number of risks that cannot be easily predicted. The progressive increase in the average age of the working population and the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases, may also suggest the need for health surveillance procedures designed to verify continued unqualified suitability to police service, providing for the identification of diversified suitability profiles in relation to age and state of health: accordingly, in regard to our field of interest, there is a close link between medico-legal eligibility and occupational medicine.

  16. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  17. Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Surveillance Identifies Clinically Significant Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Margaret M.; Maier, Lisa A.; Strand, Matthew; Silviera, Lori; Newman, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace surveillance identifies chronic beryllium disease (CBD) but it remains unknown over what time frame mild CBD will progress to a more severe form. Methods We examined physiology and treatment in 229 beryllium sensitization (BeS) and 171 CBD surveillance-identified cases diagnosed from 1982 to 2002. Never smoking CBD cases (81) were compared to never smoking BeS patients (83) to assess disease progression. We compared CBD machinists to non-machinists to examine effects of exposure. Results At baseline, CBD and BeS cases did not differ significantly in exposure time or physiology. CBD patients were more likely to have machined beryllium. Of CBD cases, 19.3% went on to require oral immunosuppressive therapy. At 30 years from first exposure, measures of gas exchange were significantly worse and total lung capacity was lower for CBD subjects. Machinists had faster disease progression as measured by pulmonary function testing and gas exchange. Conclusions Medical surveillance for CBD identifies individuals at significant risk of disease progression and impairment with sufficient time since first exposure. PMID:19681064

  18. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2016-12-24

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2015. During the survey period, 1,383 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these, 1,031 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 634 specimens had been collected from children under 5 years of age, while 397 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of samples from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 48.2% of strains nationally. Genotype G3P[8] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 22.8% of samples, followed by G2P[4] and G1P[8] (9% and 8% respectively). G3P[8] was further divided as equine-like G3P[8] (13.2% of all strains) and other wild-type G3P[8] (9.6%). This report highlights the continued predominance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. Genotype distribution was distinct between jurisdictions using RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states using RotaTeq, while equine-like G3P[8] and G2P[4] were more common in the states and territories using Rotarix. This survey highlights the dynamic change in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction, including the emergence of a novel equine-like G3P[8] as a major strain. The prolonged dominance of G12P[8] for a 4th consecutive year further illustrates the unexpected trends in the wild type rotaviruses circulating in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  19. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Suzie

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis. During the survey period of 1 January to 31 December 2014, 1,022 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these 733 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 480 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 253 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of the 733 rotavirus samples collected from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 29.6% of strains nationally. Genotype G1P[8] was the 2nd most common strain nationally, representing 22.9% of samples, followed by genotype G3P[8] (14.9%). This report highlights the continued significance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. The genotype distribution was slightly altered when the analysis was restricted to samples collected from children under 5 years of age, with G1P[8] being the dominant genotype (29%) followed by G12P[8] as the 2nd most common genotype (26%). Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states and territories using RotaTeq, while G1P[8] was more common in the locations using Rotarix. This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction. The continuation of G12P[8] as the dominant genotype further illustrates the dynamic and diversity present in the wild-type rotavirus population evident in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  20. Surveillance data bases, analysis, and standardization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kam, F.B.K.

    1990-09-26

    The traveler presented a paper at the Seventh ASTM-EURATOM Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry and co-chaired an oral session on Computer Codes and Methods. Papers of considerable interest to the NRC Surveillance Dosimetry Program involved statistically based adjustment procedures and uncertainties. The information exchange meetings with Czechoslovakia and Hungary were very enlightening. Lack of large computers have hindered their surveillance program. They depended very highly on information from their measurement programs which were somewhat limited because of the lack of sophisticated electronics. The Nuclear Research Institute at Rez had to rely on expensive mockups of power reactor configurations to test their fluence exposures. Computers, computer codes, and updated nuclear data would advance their technology rapidly, and they were not hesitant to admit this fact. Both eastern-bloc countries said that IBM is providing an IBM 3090 for educational purposes but research and development studies would have very limited access. They were very apologetic that their currencies were not convertible, and any exchange means that they could provide services or pay for US scientists in their respective countries, but funding for their scientists in the United States, or expenses that involved payment in dollars, must come from us.

  1. Identifying Potential Norovirus Epidemics in China via Internet Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Jiang, Tao; Cai, Gaofeng; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Yongdi; Wang, Zhengting; Gu, Hua; Chai, Chengliang

    2017-01-01

    Background Norovirus is a common virus that causes acute gastroenteritis worldwide, but a monitoring system for norovirus is unavailable in China. Objective We aimed to identify norovirus epidemics through Internet surveillance and construct an appropriate model to predict potential norovirus infections. Methods The norovirus-related data of a selected outbreak in Jiaxing Municipality, Zhejiang Province of China, in 2014 were collected from immediate epidemiological investigation, and the Internet search volume, as indicated by the Baidu Index, was acquired from the Baidu search engine. All correlated search keywords in relation to norovirus were captured, screened, and composited to establish the composite Baidu Index at different time lags by Spearman rank correlation. The optimal model was chosen and possibly predicted maps in Zhejiang Province were presented by ArcGIS software. Results The combination of two vital keywords at a time lag of 1 day was ultimately identified as optimal (ρ=.924, Ptimes during the outbreak. In addition to Jiaxing Municipality, Hangzhou Municipality might have had some potential epidemics in the study time from the predicted model. Conclusions Although there are limitations with early warning and unavoidable biases, Internet surveillance may be still useful for the monitoring of norovirus epidemics when a monitoring system is unavailable. PMID:28790023

  2. Molecular Surveillance Identifies Multiple Transmissions of Typhoid in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vanessa K.; Holt, Kathryn E.; Okoro, Chinyere; Baker, Stephen; Pickard, Derek J.; Marks, Florian; Page, Andrew J.; Olanipekun, Grace; Munir, Huda; Alter, Roxanne; Fey, Paul D.; Feasey, Nicholas A.; Weill, Francois-Xavier; Le Hello, Simon; Hart, Peter J.; Kariuki, Samuel; Breiman, Robert F.; Gordon, Melita A.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Jacobs, Jan; Lunguya, Octavie; Msefula, Chisomo; MacLennan, Calman A.; Keddy, Karen H.; Smith, Anthony M.; Onsare, Robert S.; De Pinna, Elizabeth; Nair, Satheesh; Amos, Ben; Dougan, Gordon; Obaro, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of typhoid in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries has been difficult to estimate, in part, due to suboptimal laboratory diagnostics. However, surveillance blood cultures at two sites in Nigeria have identified typhoid associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) as an important cause of bacteremia in children. Methods A total of 128 S. Typhi isolates from these studies in Nigeria were whole-genome sequenced, and the resulting data was used to place these Nigerian isolates into a worldwide context based on their phylogeny and carriage of molecular determinants of antibiotic resistance. Results Several distinct S. Typhi genotypes were identified in Nigeria that were related to other clusters of S. Typhi isolates from north, west and central regions of Africa. The rapidly expanding S. Typhi clade 4.3.1 (H58) previously associated with multiple antimicrobial resistances in Asia and in east, central and southern Africa, was not detected in this study. However, antimicrobial resistance was common amongst the Nigerian isolates and was associated with several plasmids, including the IncHI1 plasmid commonly associated with S. Typhi. Conclusions These data indicate that typhoid in Nigeria was established through multiple independent introductions into the country, with evidence of regional spread. MDR typhoid appears to be evolving independently of the haplotype H58 found in other typhoid endemic countries. This study highlights an urgent need for routine surveillance to monitor the epidemiology of typhoid and evolution of antimicrobial resistance within the bacterial population as a means to facilitate public health interventions to reduce the substantial morbidity and mortality of typhoid. PMID:27657909

  3. Developing a Statewide Childhood Body Mass Index Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David R.; Scruggs, Philip W.; Goc Karp, Grace; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Robinson, Clay; Lester, Michael J.; Gao, Yong; Petranek, Laura J.; Brown, Helen; Shimon, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several states have implemented childhood obesity surveillance programs supported by legislation. Representatives from Idaho wished to develop a model for childhood obesity surveillance without the support of state legislation, and subsequently report predictors of overweight and obesity in the state. Methods: A coalition comprised of…

  4. Master schedule for CY-1981 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1980-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is provided. Questions about specific entries should be referred to the authors since modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data obtained in a separate program are also reported. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Schedules are presented for the following subjects: air, Columbia River, sanitary water, surface water, ground water, foodstuffs, wildlife, soil and vegetation, external radiation measurement, portable instrument surveys, and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (JGB)

  5. Master schedule for CY-1980 Hanford Environmental Surveillance Routine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Houston, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.

    1979-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is presented. The enviromental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Data are reported on the following topics: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurement; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites;

  6. Master schedule for CY-1982 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided does not include samples which are planned to be collected during FY-1982 in support of special studies or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results. Sampling schedules are presented for the following: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurements; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (ATT)

  7. Enhanced surveillance program FY97 accomplishments. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.; Laake, B. [comp.

    1997-10-01

    This annual report is one volume of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP) FY97 Accomplishments. The complete accomplishments report consists of 11 volumes. Volume 1 includes an ESP overview and a summary of selected unclassified FY97 program highlights. Volume 1 specifically targets a general audience, reflecting about half of the tasks conducted in FY97 and emphasizing key program accomplishments and contributions. The remaining volumes of the accomplishments report are classified, organized by program focus area, and present in technical detail the progress achieved in each of the 104 FY97 program tasks. Focus areas are as follows: pits; high explosives; organics; dynamics; diagnostics; systems; secondaries; nonnuclear materials; nonnuclear components; and Surveillance Test Program upgrades.

  8. 3013/9975 Surveillance Program Interim Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; McClard, J.

    2011-06-22

    The K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) requires a surveillance program to monitor the safety performance of 3013 containers and 9975 shipping packages stored in KAMS. The SRS surveillance program [Reference 1] outlines activities for field surveillance and laboratory tests that demonstrate the packages meet the functional performance requirements described in the DSA. The SRS program also supports the complexwide Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) [Reference 2] for 3013 containers. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the SRS portion of the surveillance program activities through fiscal year 2010 (FY10) and formally communicate the interpretation of these results by the Surveillance Program Authority (SPA). Surveillance for the initial 3013 container random sampling of the Innocuous bin and the Pressure bin has been completed and there has been no indication of corrosion or significant pressurization. The maximum pressure observed was less than 50 psig, which is well below the design pressure of 699 psig for the 3013 container [Reference 3]. The data collected during surveillance of these bins has been evaluated by the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Working Group and no additional surveillance is necessary for these bins at least through FY13. A decision will be made whether additional surveillance of these bins is needed during future years of storage and as additional containers are generated. Based on the data collected to date, the SPA concludes that 3013 containers in these bins can continue to be safely stored in KAMS. This year, 13 destructive examinations (DE) were performed on random samples from the Pressure & Corrosion bin. To date, DE has been completed for approximately 30% of the random samples from the Pressure & Corrosion bin. In addition, DE has been performed on 6 engineering judgment (EJ) containers, for a total of 17 to date. This includes one container that exceeded the 3013

  9. Activity Surveillance and Hawthorne Effect to Prevent Programming Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufian Sufian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Course instructors are facing serious problems in dealing with students who plagiarize programs especially when the number of students in the course is high. Among the proposed approach to handle this problem is by using automatic detection of plagiarism in programming projects. Preventive action is required rather than curing the problem so that programming students get the right message from the beginning. Approach: To address this problem, a surveillance system was proposed to record every programming activity. It is developed in an integrated development environment so that programming activity profile in Java format is created when students are developing their Java program. A non-intrusive and non-experimental setting approach was applied in which hidden data collection is conducted to observe students’ behavior in natural programming setting. Experimental study effect i.e., Hawthorne effect and effect of expectation on subject behavior was exploited as prevention on plagiarism. Surveillance system produces two file types: Activity log to keep programming activity log information and Backup file to save the program writing record. Results: The proposed programming activity surveillance system, DwiCoder presented a programming activity report at the end of each programming session. Students can assess their own progress in developing a program in these three activities: Compilation, execution and modification. The report was presented in a simple and meaningful way to encourage student spend their own time in programming activity. Conclusion: By using DwiCoder, student’s programming activity is continuously monitored and their behavior is under control. This system provides an effective prevention method in tackling plagiarism.

  10. Establishment of a Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Reses, Hannah; Franka, Richard; Dilius, Pierre; Fenelon, Natael; Orciari, Lillian; Etheart, Melissa; Destine, Apollon; Crowdis, Kelly; Blanton, Jesse D; Francisco, Calvin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Del Rio Vilas, Victor; Haim, Joseph; Millien, Max

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 –December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9%) and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%), representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%). Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries. PMID:26600437

  11. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  12. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate.

  13. Salmonella infections in food workers identified through routine Public Health Surveillance in Minnesota: impact on outbreak recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medus, Carlota; Smith, Kirk E; Bender, Jeffrey B; Leano, Fe; Hedberg, Craig W

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of Salmonella-infected food workers identified through routine surveillance from 1997 to 2004 in Minnesota was determined in order to evaluate the impact of surveillance on the detection...

  14. Master schedule for CY-1977 Hanford Environmental Surveillance Routine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Myers, D.A.; Fix, J.J.

    1976-12-01

    Data are presented from the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site as conducted by the Environmental Evaluation Section of Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory for ERDA. Tables are presented to show levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollution in the Columbia River, sanitary water, surface water, ground water, foods, wildlife, soil, and vegetation. Data are also presented for external radiation measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters, results of portable instrument surveys, and monitoring of waste disposal sites. (HLW)

  15. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  16. Detection of imminent vein graft occlusion: what is the optimal surveillance program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinder, Chelsey N; Bandyk, Dennis F

    2009-12-01

    The prediction of infrainguinal vein bypass failure remains an inexact judgment. Patient demographics, technical factors, and vascular laboratory graft surveillance testing are helpful in identifying a high-risk graft cohort. The optimal surveillance program to detect the bypass at risk for imminent occlusion continues to be developed, but required elements are known and include clinical assessment for new or changes in limb ischemia symptoms, measurement of ankle and/or toe systolic pressure, and duplex ultrasound imaging of the bypass graft. Duplex ultrasound assessment of bypass hemodynamics may be the most accurate method to detect imminent vein graft occlusion. The finding of low graft flow during intraoperative assessment or at a scheduled surveillance study predicts failure; and if associated with an occlusive lesion, a graft revision can prolong patency. The most common abnormality producing graft failure is conduit stenosis caused by myointimal hyperplasia; and the majority can be repaired by an endovascular intervention. Frequency of testing to detect the failing bypass should be individualized to the patient, the type of arterial bypass, and prior duplex ultrasound scan findings. The focus of surveillance is on identification of the low-flow arterial bypass and timely repair of detected critical stenosis defined by duplex velocity spectra criteria of a peak systolic velocity 300 cm/s and peak systolic velocity ratio across the stenosis >3.5-correlating with >70% diameter-reducing stenosis. When conducted appropriately, a graft surveillance program should result in an unexpected graft failure rate of <3% per year.

  17. Monitoring activities review of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    The 1992 Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) is directed at the Radiological Environment Surveillance Program (RESP) activities at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of Idaho Engineering Laboratory (INEL). MAR panelists studied RESP documents and discussed their concerns with Environmental Monitoring Unit (EMU) staff and other panel members. These concerns were subsequently consolidated into a collection of recommendations with supporting discussions. Recommendations focus on specific monitoring activities, as well as the overall program. The MAR report also contains pertinent comments that should not require further action.

  18. The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP): Clinical, Diagnostic, and Epidemiological Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kalckreuth, Vera; Konings, Frank; Aaby, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ali, Mohammad; Aseffa, Abraham; Baker, Stephen; Breiman, Robert F; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Clemens, John D; Crump, John A; Cruz Espinoza, Ligia Maria; Deerin, Jessica Fung; Gasmelseed, Nagla; Sow, Amy Gassama; Im, Justin; Keddy, Karen H; Cosmas, Leonard; May, Jürgen; Meyer, Christian G; Mintz, Eric D; Montgomery, Joel M; Olack, Beatrice; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Warren, Michelle R; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    New immunization programs are dependent on data from surveillance networks and disease burden estimates to prioritize target areas and risk groups. Data regarding invasive Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are currently limited, thus hindering the implementation of preventive measures. The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) was established by the International Vaccine Institute to obtain comparable incidence data on typhoid fever and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa through standardized surveillance in multiple countries. Standardized procedures were developed and deployed across sites for study site selection, patient enrolment, laboratory procedures, quality control and quality assurance, assessment of healthcare utilization and incidence calculations. Passive surveillance for bloodstream infections among febrile patients was initiated at thirteen sentinel sites in ten countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania). Each TSAP site conducted case detection using these standardized methods to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria from the bloodstream of febrile patients. Healthcare utilization surveys were conducted to adjust population denominators in incidence calculations for differing healthcare utilization patterns and improve comparability of incidence rates across sites. By providing standardized data on the incidence of typhoid fever and iNTS disease in sub-Saharan Africa, TSAP will provide vital input for targeted typhoid fever prevention programs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Norton, Kaila J.; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduction exposure products (PREPs) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state or national levels in the US has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This paper critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. Absent regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs. PMID:19959680

  20. A new computerized program for surveillance of prosthetic arteriovenous fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Tozzi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stenosis and thrombosis are common causes of prosthetic vascular access (pVA failure. The role of arteriovenous fistula (AVF surveillance is widely debated. The aim of this paper is to present a new real-time application designed for AVF surveillance called SPIDER. Surgical staff and hemodialysis nurses are responsible for data entry. SPIDER automatically analyses data and generates alerts in case of abnormal trends. Surgical evaluation and duplex Doppler ultrasonography are then immediately performed to confirm presence of stenosis or other possible pVA defects. Surgery can be performed if required. A preliminary analysis of results will be completed at 12 months after the program begins and subsequently after 24 months. Primary assisted patency will be compared with historical using multivariate analysis. Expected results are an improvement in primary assisted pVA patency and reduction of hospitalizations. Simultaneous management of a high number of patients can become difficult due to the large amount of data required for surveillance. We want to demonstrate whether a real-time automated system could help to prevent thrombosis and graft loss.

  1. Identifying Barriers to Study Abroad Program Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    University administrators, industry professionals, and government leaders encourage college students to participate in study abroad programs. Despite an increase in the number of students going abroad, the percentage of students participating in global programs remain low. This study identified barriers to study abroad program participation at a…

  2. Characteristics of national and statewide health care-associated infection surveillance programs: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Havers, Sally M; Cheng, Allen C; Richards, Michael; Graves, Nicholas; Hall, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    There are many well-established national health care-associated infection surveillance programs (HAISPs). Although validation studies have described data quality, there is little research describing important characteristics of large HAISPs. The aim of this study was to broaden our understanding and identify key characteristics of large HAISPs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively selected leaders from national and state-based HAISPs. Interview data were analyzed following an interpretive description process. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted over a 6-month period during 2014-2015. Analysis of the data generated 5 distinct characteristics of large HAISPs: (1) triggers: surveillance was initiated by government or a cooperative of like-minded people, (2) purpose: a clear purpose is needed and determines other surveillance mechanisms, (3) data measures: consistency is more important than accuracy, (4) processes: a balance exists between the volume of data collected and resources, and (5) implementation and maintenance: a central coordinating body is crucial for uniformity and support. National HAISPs are complex and affect a broad range of stakeholders. Although the overall goal of health care-associated infection surveillance is to reduce the incidence of health care-associated infection, there are many crucial factors to be considered in attaining this goal. The findings from this study will assist the development of new HAISPs and could be used as an adjunct to evaluate existing programs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  4. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-02

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.

  5. Prescription Surveillance and Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing to Identify Pathogens during Outbreaks of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Sugiura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance, including prescription surveillance, offers a rapid method for the early detection of agents of bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases. However, it has the disadvantage of not considering definitive diagnoses. Here, we attempted to definitively diagnose pathogens using polymerase chain reaction (PCR immediately after the prescription surveillance system detected an outbreak. Specimens were collected from 50 patients with respiratory infections. PCR was used to identify the pathogens, which included 14 types of common respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Infectious agents including M. pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, rhinovirus, enterovirus, and parainfluenza virus were detected in 54% of patients. For the rapid RSV diagnosis kit, sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 85%. For the rapid adenovirus diagnosis kit, no positive results were obtained; therefore, sensitivity could not be calculated and specificity was 100%. Many patients were found to be treated for upper respiratory tract infections without the diagnosis of a specific pathogen. In Japan, an outbreak of M. pneumoniae infection began in 2011, and our results suggested that this outbreak may have included false-positive cases. By combining syndromic surveillance and PCR, we were able to rapidly and accurately identify causative pathogens during a recent respiratory infection outbreak.

  6. Incidents of potential public health significance identified using national surveillance of US poison center data (2008–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAW, R. K.; SHEIKH, S.; BRONSTEIN, A.; THOMAS, R.; SPILLER, H. A.; SCHIER, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Association of Poison Control Centers conduct national surveillance on data collected by US poison centers to identify incidents of potential public health significance (IPHS). The overarching goals of this collaboration are to improve CDC’s national surveillance capacity for public health threats, identify early markers of public health incidents and enhance situational awareness. The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is used as a surveillance system to automatically identify data anomalies. Purpose To characterize data anomalies and IPHS captured by national surveillance of poison center data over 5 years. Methods Data anomalies are identified through three surveillance methodologies: call-volume, clinical effect, and case-based. Anomalies are reviewed by a team of epidemiologists and clinical toxicologists to determine IPHS using standardized criteria. The authors reviewed IPHS identified by these surveillance activities from 2008 through 2012. Results Call-volume surveillance identified 384 IPHS; most were related to gas and fume exposures (n=229; 59.6%) with the most commonly implicated substance being carbon monoxide (CO) (n=92; 22.8%). Clinical-effect surveillance identified 138 IPHS; the majority were related to gas and fume exposures (n=58; 42.0%) and gastrointestinal complaints (n=84; 16.2%), and the most commonly implicated substance was CO (n=20; 14.4%). Among the 11 case-based surveillance definitions, the botulism case definition yielded the highest percentage of identified agent-specific illness. Conclusions A small proportion of data anomalies were designated as IPHS. Of these, CO releases were the most frequently reported IPHS and gastrointestinal syndromes were the most commonly reported illness manifestations. poison center data surveillance may be used as an approach to identify exposures, illnesses, and incidents of importance at the national and state level

  7. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  8. Establishment of a High Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Wallace

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 -December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9% and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%, representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%. Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries.

  9. Establishment of a High Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Reses, Hannah; Franka, Richard; Dilius, Pierre; Fenelon, Natael; Orciari, Lillian; Etheart, Melissa; Destine, Apollon; Crowdis, Kelly; Blanton, Jesse D; Francisco, Calvin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Del Rio Vilas, Victor; Haim, Joseph; Millien, Max

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 -December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9%) and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%), representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%). Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries.

  10. Mass surveillance, privacy, and freedom : A case for public access to information about mass government surveillance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Moore, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines judicial decisions about the legality of mass surveillance in the United States and Europe (at the European Court of Human Rights), and explores how the existence of these programs threatens individual freedom. In doing so, the chapter presents a theory of information access an

  11. Challenges in designing a national surveillance program for inflammatory bowel disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Millie D; Hutfless, Susan; Kappelman, Michael D; Khalili, Hamed; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Bernstein, Charles N; Colombel, Jean Frederic; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Herrinton, Lisa; Velayos, Fernando; Loftus, Edward V; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Chan, Andrew; Sandler, Robert S; Atreja, Ashish; Shah, Samir A; Rothman, Kenneth J; Leleiko, Neal S; Bright, Renee; Boffetta, Paolo; Myers, Kelly D; Sands, Bruce E

    2014-02-01

    This review describes the history of U.S. government funding for surveillance programs in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), provides current estimates of the incidence and prevalence of IBD in the United States, and enumerates a number of challenges faced by current and future IBD surveillance programs. A rationale for expanding the focus of IBD surveillance beyond counts of incidence and prevalence, to provide a greater understanding of the burden of IBD, disease etiology, and pathogenesis, is provided. Lessons learned from other countries are summarized, in addition to potential resources that may be used to optimize a new form of IBD surveillance in the United States. A consensus recommendation on the goals and available resources for a new model for disease surveillance are provided. This new model should focus on "surveillance of the burden of disease," including (1) natural history of disease and (2) outcomes and complications of the disease and/or treatments.

  12. High Incidence of Mammalian Orthoreovirus Identified by Environmental Surveillance in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Y Lim

    Full Text Available Wild poliovirus (WPV persists in diverse locales worldwide, spreading outward from endemic areas. In response to the international threat of WPV transmission and changes in the national vaccination policy, we established an environmental surveillance system to monitor the circulation of wild and vaccine-related poliovirus in Taiwan. From July 2012 to December 2013, we collected sewage specimens every month from 10 sewage treatment plants located throughout Taiwan. The specimens were concentrated by the two-phase separation method and then inoculated into L20B, RD, and A549 cells for virus isolation. Viral isolates were identified and serotyped by immunofluorescence assay or molecular analysis. A total of 300 sewage samples were collected, and the results showed 163 samples (54.3% were positive for virus, and 268 isolates were identified. Among these, 75 samples (25% were positive for enterovirus (EV, but no poliovirus was found. In addition, 92 isolates were identified as enteroviruses and the most common serotypes were coxsackievirus B4, coxsackievirus B3, and coxsackievirus B2. Interestingly, 102 (34% and 82 (27.3% specimens were positive for mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV and adenovirus, respectively. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be a useful additional modality for monitoring the possible presence of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus in wastewater, and can indicate the current types of viruses circulating in the population. Furthermore, since MRV was found in children with acute necrotizing encephalopathy and meningitis, the high incidence of MRV detected by environmental surveillance warrants further investigation.

  13. Tools to identify the men with prostate cancer most appropriate for active surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Getzenberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of effort is underway in order to identify those men with prostate cancer felicitous for active surveillance with greater precision than that afforded to us today. In the manuscript by Irshad et al. the authors evaluate a novel set of genes associated with senescence and aging as tools that can provide guidance regarding the indolent nature of an individual's prostate cancer with validation using both mRNA and protein analyses. While additional studies are required to understand the full impact of these findings, the innovative approach taken enhances our understanding of distinct phenotypes of prostate cancer.

  14. Impact of a surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance program in orthopedics and traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, C; Marcheix, P S; Mounier, M; Dijoux, P; Pestourie, N; Bonnevialle, P; Bonnomet, F

    2012-10-01

    Surveillance of surgical site infections (SSI) is a priority. One of the fundamental principles for the surveillance of SSI is based on receiving effective field feedback (retro-information). The aim of this study was to report the results of a program of SSI surveillance and validate the hypothesis that there is a correlation between creating a SSI surveillance program and a reduction in SSI. The protocol was based on the weekly collection of surveillance data obtained directly from the different information systems in different departments. A delay of 3 months was established before extraction and analysis of data and information from the surgical teams. The NNIS index (National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System) developed by the American surveillance system and the reduction of length of hospital stay index Journées d'hospitalisation évitées (JHE). Since the end of 2009, 7156 surgical procedures were evaluated (rate of inclusion 97.3%), and 84 SSI were registered with a significant decrease over time from 1.86% to 0.66%. A total of 418 days of hospitalization have been saved since the beginning of the surveillance system. Our surveillance system has three strong points: follow-up is continuous, specifically adapted to orthopedic traumatology and nearly exhaustive. The extraction of data directly from hospital information systems effectively improves the collection of data on surgical procedures. The implementation of a SSI surveillance protocol reduces SSI. Level III. Prospective study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blair, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-03

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.

  16. Canine leishmaniasis surveillance program in a San Marino Republic kennel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of San Marino is an autonomous State that, in view of its geographical and environmental features, can be considered a part of the Northern Italian territory, where the canine leishmaniasis (CanL is endemic. In the past, a CanL focus in the Republic's kennel was described. As a consequence of this epidemiological situation, a surveillance program was carried-out covering a 6-year period (2006-2012. A total of 1,094 sera were collected from 420 kennel dogs and examined for antibodies to Leishmania infantum by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Eighty-eight (21% dogs resulted IFAT positive (antibody titre ≥1/40. The overall seroprevalence increased in the first 4 years (2006-2010, going from 5.5% to 26.8% and then decreased in the 2 following years going to 17.9% (2011 and 3.9% (2012. The cumulative incidence constantly increased from 0.6% to 2.6%. This trend could be attributed to a changed infection pressure due to the dog turnover in the kennels. According to the observed incidence values, the CanL focus seems to be stable, supported by autochthonous transmission, new case introduction and Leishmania spp. circulation in owned dogs in the same area.

  17. [A review on the advancement of internet-based public health surveillance program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y Q; Ma, W J

    2017-02-10

    Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume. Mining and analyzing internet data, researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events. There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems, i.e. active and passive, which are distinguished by the sources of information. Through passive surveillance system, information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers. Except for serving as a real-time and convenient complementary approach to traditional disease, food safety and adverse drug reaction surveillance program, Internet-based surveillance system can also play a role in health-related behavior surveillance and policy evaluation. Although several techniques have been applied to filter information, the accuracy of internet-based surveillance system is still bothered by the false positive information. In this article, we have summarized the development and application of internet-based surveillance system in public health to provide reference for a better surveillance program in China.

  18. Development and implementation of the first national data quality standards for population-based birth defects surveillance programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderka, Marlene; Mai, Cara T; Romitti, Paul A; Copeland, Glenn; Isenburg, Jennifer; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Krikov, Sergey; Rickard, Russel; Olney, Richard S; Canfield, Mark A; Stanton, Carol; Mosley, Bridget; Kirby, Russell S

    2015-09-19

    for timeliness measures. This initial, nation-wide assessment of data quality across U.S. population-based birth defects surveillance programs highlights areas for improvement. Using this information to identify strengths and weaknesses, the birth defects surveillance community, working through the NBDPN, can enhance and implement a consistent set of standards that can promote uniformity and enable surveillance programs to work towards improving the potential of these programs.

  19. Active epidemiological surveillance in the program of poliomyelitis eradication in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main strategy of the worldwide Program of Poliomyelitis Eradication is based on immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine and active epidemiological surveillance aimed to demonstrate the absence of wild poliovirus circulation. The specification of the surveillance in the program, reporting and investigation of certain syndrome – the acute flaccid paralysis - as a specific feature of surveillance of poliomyelitis, is a new experience both for clinicians and epidemiologists. Along with the achieved results, problems in conducting the active epidemiological surveillance in Serbia, applied measures, and suggestions for improving its quality were presented. This experience might help in implementing the active surveillance for some other diseases that could be prevented by vaccine immunization.

  20. Airport sentinel surveillance and entry quarantine for dengue infections following a fever screening program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue has not reached an endemic status in Taiwan; nevertheless, we have implemented a fever screening program at airports for the early detection of febrile passengers with a dengue infection. This study is intended to assess the performance of the airport screening procedures for dengue infection. Methods We analyzed data from the national surveillance system of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. We included the imported dengue cases reported by sentinel airports and clinics as well as the domestic cases from 2007–2010. Results Approximately 44.9% (95%CI: 35.73-54.13%) of the confirmed imported dengue cases with an apparent symptom (febrile) in the viremic stage were detected via the airport fever screening program, with an estimated positive predictive value of 2.36% (95% CI: 0.96- 3.75%) and a negative predictive value > 99.99%. Fluctuations in the number of the symptomatic imported dengue cases identified in the airports (X) were associated with the total number of imported dengue cases (Y) based on a regression analysis of a biweekly surveillance (i.e., n = 104, R2X:Y = 0.61, P dengue cases (X) with a 1–2 month lead time (t) was in parallel with that of the domestic dengue cases (Y) based on a consecutive 4-year surveillance (i.e., n = 48, R2X(t-1):Y = 0.22, R2X(t-2):Y = 0.31, P dengue at the airports examined in this study indicated some limitations of the fever screening program for the prevention of importation. The screening program could assist in the rapid triage for self-quarantine of some symptomatic dengue cases that were in the viremic stage at the borders and contribute to active sentinel surveillance; however, the blocking of viral transmission to susceptible populations (neighbors or family) from all of the viremic travelers, including those with or without symptoms, is critical to prevent dengue epidemics. Therefore, the reinforcement of mosquito bite prevention and household vector control in

  1. Emerging Infections Program as Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridkin, Scott K; Cleveland, Angela A; See, Isaac; Lynfield, Ruth

    2015-09-01

    Across the United States, antimicrobial drug-resistant infections affect a diverse population, and effective interventions require concerted efforts across various public health and clinical programs. Since its onset in 1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program has provided robust and timely data on antimicrobial drug-resistant infections that have been used to inform public health action across a spectrum of partners with regard to many highly visible antimicrobial drug-resistance threats. These data span several activities within the Program, including respiratory bacterial infections, health care-associated infections, and some aspects of foodborne diseases. These data have contributed to estimates of national burden, identified populations at risk, and determined microbiological causes of infection and their outcomes, all of which have been used to inform national policy and guidelines to prevent antimicrobial drug-resistant infections.

  2. Optimal surveillance program for hepatocellular carcinoma- getting ready, but not yet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grace; Lai-Hung; Wong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) secondary to chronic viral hepatitis is a major health problem in AsianPacific regions due to the endemics of chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection. HCC surveillance has been recommended to patients who are at risk to develop HCC. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients still died in long run due to tumor recurrence. The key components of an optimal surveillance program include an accurate tumor biomarker and optimal surveillance interval. Serum alpha-fetoprotein(AFP), despite of being the most widely used biomarker for HCC surveillance, it was criticized as neither sensitive nor specific. Other HCC biomarkers, including lectin-reactive AFP(AFP-L3), des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, are still under investigations. Recent study showed cancerassociated genome-wide hypomethylation and copy number aberrations by plasma DNA bisulfite sequencing to be accurate with both sensitivity and specificity close to 90% in detecting HCC in a case-control study. Concerning the optimal surveillance interval, we believe one size does not fit all patients. Accurate risk prediction to assist prognostication with well-validated HCC risk scores would be useful to decide the need for HCC surveillance. These key components of an optimal HCC surveillance program should be further validated at a surveillance setting.

  3. Utilization of Healthcare in the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzner, Ursula; Pak, Gi Deok; Aaby, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ali, Mohammad; Aseffa, Abraham; Baker, Stephen; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Crump, John A; Deerin, Jessica; Cruz Espinoza, Ligia Maria; Gasmelseed, Nagla; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Hertz, Julian T; Im, Justin; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Keddy, Karen H; Lankoande, Bruno; Løfberg, Sandra; Meyer, Christian G; Oresto, Michael Munishi; Park, Jin Kyung; Park, Se Eun; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Sarpong, Nimako; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Gassama Sow, Amy; Tall, Adama; Teferi, Mekonnen; Worku, Alemayehu; Yeshitela, Biruk; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    Assessing healthcare utilization is important to identify weaknesses of healthcare systems, to outline action points for preventive measures and interventions, and to more accurately estimate the disease burden in a population. A healthcare utilization survey was developed for the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) to adjust incidences of salmonellosis determined through passive, healthcare facility-based surveillance. This cross-sectional survey was conducted at 11 sites in 9 sub-Saharan African countries. Demographic data and healthcare-seeking behavior were assessed at selected households. Overall and age-stratified percentages of each study population that sought healthcare at a TSAP healthcare facility and elsewhere were determined. Overall, 88% (1007/1145) and 81% (1811/2238) of the population in Polesgo and Nioko 2, Burkina Faso, respectively, and 63% (1636/2590) in Butajira, Ethiopia, sought healthcare for fever at any TSAP healthcare facility. A far smaller proportion-namely, 20%-45% of the population in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau (1743/3885), Pikine, Senegal (1473/4659), Wad-Medani, Sudan (861/3169), and Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (667/2819); 18% (483/2622) and 9% (197/2293) in Imerintsiatosika and Isotry, Madagascar, respectively; and 4% (127/3089) in Moshi, Tanzania-sought healthcare at a TSAP healthcare facility. Patients with fever preferred to visit pharmacies in Imerintsiatosika and Isotry, and favored self-management of fever in Moshi. Age-dependent differences in healthcare utilization were also observed within and across sites. Healthcare utilization for fever varied greatly across sites, and revealed that not all studied populations were under optimal surveillance. This demonstrates the importance of assessing healthcare utilization. Survey data were pivotal for the adjustment of the program's estimates of salmonellosis and other conditions associated with fever. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the

  4. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component. Qu

  5. Common cold symptoms in children: results of an Internet-based surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troullos, Emanuel; Baird, Lisa; Jayawardena, Shyamalie

    2014-06-19

    Conducting and analyzing clinical studies of cough and cold medications is challenging due to the rapid onset and short duration of the symptoms. The use of Internet-based surveillance tools is a new approach in clinical studies that is gradually becoming popular and may become a useful method of recruitment. As part of an initiative to assess the safety and efficacy of cough and cold ingredients in children 6-11 years of age, a surveillance program was proposed as a means to identify and recruit pediatric subjects for clinical studies. The objective of the study was to develop an Internet-based surveillance system and to assess the feasibility of using such a system to recruit children for common cold clinical studies, record the natural history of their cold symptoms, and determine the willingness of parents to have their children participate in clinical studies. Healthy potential subjects were recruited via parental contact online. During the 6-week surveillance period, parents completed daily surveys to record details of any cold symptoms in their children. If a child developed a cold, symptoms were followed via survey for 10 days. Additional questions evaluated the willingness of parents to have their children participate in a clinical study shortly after onset of symptoms. The enrollment target of 248 children was reached in approximately 1 week. Children from 4 distinct geographic regions of the United States were recruited. Parents reported cold symptoms in 163 children, and 134 went on to develop colds. The most prevalent symptoms were runny nose, stuffed-up nose, and sneezing. The most severe symptoms were runny nose, stuffed-up nose, and sore/scratchy throat. The severity of most symptoms peaked 1-2 days after onset. Up to 54% of parents expressed willingness to bring a sick child to a clinical center shortly after the onset of symptoms. Parents found the Internet-based surveys easy to complete. Internet-based surveillance and recruitment can be useful

  6. Linkage of traffic crash and hospitalization records with limited identifiers for enhanced public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderino, Sarah; Fung, Lawrence; Sedlar, Slavenka; Norton, Jennifer M

    2017-04-01

    Motor vehicle traffic (MVT) crashes kill or seriously injure approximately 4250 people in New York City (NYC) each year. Traditionally, NYC surveillance practices use hospitalization and crash data separately to monitor trends in MVT-related injuries, but key information linking crash circumstances to health outcomes is lost when analyzing these data sources in isolation. Our objective was to match crash reports to hospitalization records to create a traffic injury surveillance dataset that can be used to describe crash circumstances and related injury outcomes. The linkage of the two systems presents a unique challenge since the system tracking crashes and the system tracking hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits lack key identifying data such as names and dates of birth. NYC Department of Transportation provided electronic records based on reports of motor vehicle crashes submitted to the New York State Department of Motor Vehicles for all crashes occurring in NYC from 2009 to 2013. New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) ED and hospitalization administrative data from NYC hospitals were used to identify unintentional MVT-related injuries using external cause of injury codes. Since the two systems do not share unique individual identifiers, probabilistic record linkage was conducted using LinkSolv9.0. Sensitivity/specificity calculations and chi-square analyses of linkage rates were conducted to assess linkage results. From 2009-2013, there were 1,054,344 individuals involved in MVT crashes in NYC and 280,340 ED visits and hospitalizations from MVT-related injuries. There were 145,003 linked pairs, giving a linkage rate of 52% of the total MVT-related hospital records. This linkage had a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 93%. Linkage rates were comparable by age, sex, crash role, collision type, hospital county, injury location, hospital type, and hospital status, indicating no apparent biases in the match by

  7. Identifying barriers to patient acceptance of active surveillance: content analysis of online patient communications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V Mishra

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Qualitative research aimed at identifying patient acceptance of active surveillance (AS has been identified as a public health research priority. The primary objective of this study was to determine if analysis of a large-sample of anonymous internet conversations (ICs could be utilized to identify unmet public needs regarding AS. METHODS: English-language ICs regarding prostate cancer (PC treatment with AS from 2002-12 were identified using a novel internet search methodology. Web spiders were developed to mine, aggregate, and analyze content from the world-wide-web for ICs centered on AS. Collection of ICs was not restricted to any specific geographic region of origin. NLP was used to evaluate content and perform a sentiment analysis. Conversations were scored as positive, negative, or neutral. A sentiment index (SI was subsequently calculated according to the following formula to compare temporal trends in public sentiment towards AS: [(# Positive IC/#Total IC-(#Negative IC/#Total IC x 100]. RESULTS: A total of 464 ICs were identified. Sentiment increased from -13 to +2 over the study period. The increase sentiment has been driven by increased patient emphasis on quality-of-life factors and endorsement of AS by national medical organizations. Unmet needs identified in these ICs include: a gap between quantitative data regarding long-term outcomes with AS vs. conventional treatments, desire for treatment information from an unbiased specialist, and absence of public role models managed with AS. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential utility of online patient communications to provide insight into patient preferences and decision-making. Based on our findings, we recommend that multidisciplinary clinics consider including an unbiased specialist to present treatment options and that future decision tools for AS include quantitative data regarding outcomes after AS.

  8. FINAL REPORT FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe M. Aldrich

    2004-11-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

  9. Trends in Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii over a 10-year Period: Nationwide Data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed the nationwide emergence of A. baumannii in China and showed a significant increase in prevalence from 2004 to 2014. High levels of bacterial resistance were detected among samples collected from clinical settings in China, with IRAB and XDRAB being especially prevalent. This study will help to guide empirical therapy and identify at-risk groups requiring more intense interventional infection control measures, while also helping to focus surveillance efforts.

  10. Developmental Regression in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder Identified by a Population-Based Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Rice, Catherine E.; Baio, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the phenomenon of autistic regression using population-based data. The sample comprised 285 children who met the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case definition within an ongoing surveillance program. Results indicated that children with a previously documented ASD diagnosis had higher rates of autistic regression than children…

  11. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, M.; Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Borsella, B.W.; Wright, K.C.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes calendar year 1995 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring and Water Resources of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, performed at the following Waste Management Facilities: the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and tow surplus facilities. Results of the sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program, Site Environmental Surveillance Program, and the United States Geological Survey at these facilities are included in this report. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1995 environmental surveillance data with US DOE Derived Concentration Guides and with data form previous years.

  12. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Containment and Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz,R.A.

    2008-06-13

    The United States Support Program (USSP) priority for containment and surveillance (US) focuses on maintaining or improving the reliability and cost-effectiveness of C/S systems for IAEA safeguards, expanding the number of systems that are unattended and remotely monitored, and developing verification methods that help streamline the on-site inspection process. Existing IAEA C/S systems have evolved to become complex, integrated systems, which may include active seals, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments, video cameras, and other sensors. These systems operate autonomously. They send analytical data to IAEA headquarters where it can be reviewed. These systems present challenges to the goals of improved system performance, standardization, reliability, maintainability, documentation, and cost effectiveness. One critical lesson from past experiences is the need for cooperation and common objectives among the IAEA, the developer, and the facility operator, to create a successful, cost effective system. Recent USSP C/S activities include Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant safeguard systems, production of a new shift register, numerous vulnerability assessments of C/S systems, a conduit monitoring system which identifies tampering of IAEA conduit deployed in the field, fiber optic seal upgrades, unattended monitoring system software upgrades, next generation surveillance system which will upgrade existing camera systems, and support of the IAEA's development of the universal nondestructive assay data acquisition platform.

  13. Airport sentinel surveillance and entry quarantine for dengue infections following a fever screening program in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Mei-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue has not reached an endemic status in Taiwan; nevertheless, we have implemented a fever screening program at airports for the early detection of febrile passengers with a dengue infection. This study is intended to assess the performance of the airport screening procedures for dengue infection. Methods We analyzed data from the national surveillance system of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. We included the imported dengue cases reported by sentinel airports and clinics as well as the domestic cases from 2007–2010. Results Approximately 44.9% (95%CI: 35.73-54.13% of the confirmed imported dengue cases with an apparent symptom (febrile in the viremic stage were detected via the airport fever screening program, with an estimated positive predictive value of 2.36% (95% CI: 0.96- 3.75% and a negative predictive value > 99.99%. Fluctuations in the number of the symptomatic imported dengue cases identified in the airports (X were associated with the total number of imported dengue cases (Y based on a regression analysis of a biweekly surveillance (i.e., n = 104, R2X:Y = 0.61, P 2X(t-1:Y = 0.22, R2X(t-2:Y = 0.31, P  Conclusions A moderate sensitivity of detecting dengue at the airports examined in this study indicated some limitations of the fever screening program for the prevention of importation. The screening program could assist in the rapid triage for self-quarantine of some symptomatic dengue cases that were in the viremic stage at the borders and contribute to active sentinel surveillance; however, the blocking of viral transmission to susceptible populations (neighbors or family from all of the viremic travelers, including those with or without symptoms, is critical to prevent dengue epidemics. Therefore, the reinforcement of mosquito bite prevention and household vector control in dengue-endemic or dengue-competent hotspots during an epidemic season is essential and highly recommended.

  14. Surveillance in Programming Plagiarism beyond Techniques: An Incentive-Based Fishbone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Chen, Min; Liang, Yaowen; Jiang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Lots of researches have showed that plagiarism becomes a severe problem in higher education around the world, especially in programming learning for its essence. Therefore, an effective strategy for plagiarism surveillance in program learning is much essential. Some literature focus on code similarity algorithm and the related tools can help to…

  15. The Italian screening program for primary congenital hypothyroidism: actions to improve screening, diagnosis, follow-up, and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassio, A; Corbetta, C; Antonozzi, I; Calaciura, F; Caruso, U; Cesaretti, G; Gastaldi, R; Medda, E; Mosca, F; Pasquini, E; Salerno, M C; Stoppioni, V; Tonacchera, M; Weber, G; Olivieri, A

    2013-03-01

    The Italian screening program for primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is an integrated system including neonatal screening, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and nationwide surveillance of the disease. The aim of the Italian screening program for CH is to identify not only babies with severe permanent CH (core target), but also babies with mild persistent and transient forms of CH who could have a benefit from an early replacement therapy (secondary target). In the last years, despite the important results obtained in terms of standardization of screening and follow-up procedures, it has become clear the need of optimizing the program in order to harmonize the screening strategy and the screening procedures among Regions, and to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic approach in all affected infants. On the basis of available guidelines, the experience of the Italian screening and clinical reference centers, and the knowledge derived from the nation-wide surveillance activity performed by the Italian National Registry of Infants with CH, the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology together with the Italian Society for the Study of Metabolic Diseases and Neonatal Screening and the Italian National Institute of Health promoted actions aimed at improving diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and surveillance of CH in our country. In this paper the most important actions to improve the Italian screening program for CH are described. ©2013, Editrice Kurtis

  16. The Features of Genetic Prion Diseases Based on Chinese Surveillance Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Shi

    Full Text Available To identify the features of Chinese genetic prion diseases.Suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD cases that were reported under CJD surveillance were diagnosed and subtyped using the diagnostic criteria issued by the WHO. The general information concerning the patient, their clinical, MRI and EEG data, and the results of CSF 14-3-3 and PRNP sequencing were carefully collected from the database of the national CJD surveillance program and analyzed using the SPSS 11.5 statistical software program.Since 2006, 69 patients were diagnosed with genetic prion diseases and as having 15 different mutations. The median age of the 69 patients at disease onset was 53.5 years, varying from 19 to 80 years. The majority of patients displaying clinical symptoms were in the 50-59 years of age. FFI, T188K gCJD and E200K were the three most common subtypes. The disease appeared in the family histories of 43.48% of the patients. The clinical manifestations varied considerably among the various diseases. Patients who carried mutations in the N-terminus displayed a younger age of onset, were CSF 14-3-3 negative, had a family history of the condition, and experienced a longer duration of the condition. The clinical courses of T188K were significantly shorter than those of FFI and E200K gCJD, while the symptoms in the FFI group appeared at a younger age and for a longer duration. Moreover, the time intervals between the initial neurologist visit to the final diagnosis were similar among patients with FFI, T188K gCJD, E200K gCJD and other diseases.The features of Chinese genetic prion diseases are different from those seen in Europe and other Asian countries.

  17. Public Health Practice of Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Cara T; Kirby, Russell S; Correa, Adolfo; Rosenberg, Deborah; Petros, Michael; Fagen, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Birth defects remain a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States and contribute substantially to health care costs and lifelong disabilities. State population-based surveillance systems have been established to monitor birth defects, yet no recent systematic examination of their efforts in the United States has been conducted. To understand the current population-based birth defects surveillance practices in the United States. The National Birth Defects Prevention Network conducted a survey of US population-based birth defects activities that included questions about operational status, case ascertainment methodology, program infrastructure, data collection and utilization, as well as priorities and challenges for surveillance programs. Birth defects contacts in the United States, including District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, received the survey via e-mail; follow-up reminders via e-mails and telephone were used to ensure a 100% response rate. Forty-three states perform population-based surveillance for birth defects, covering approximately 80% of the live births in the United States. Seventeen primarily use an active case-finding approach and 26 use a passive case-finding approach. These programs all monitor major structural malformations; however, passive case-finding programs more often monitor a broader list of conditions, including developmental conditions and newborn screening conditions. Active case-finding programs more often use clinical reviewers, cover broader pregnancy outcomes, and collect more extensive information, such as family history. More than half of the programs (24 of 43) reported an ability to conduct follow-up studies of children with birth defects. The breadth and depth of information collected at a population level by birth defects surveillance programs in the United States serve as an important data source to guide public health action. Collaborative efforts at the state and national levels can help harmonize data

  18. Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the ORNL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program FY 1993--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1992-07-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D D program. The purpose and objectivesof this program include: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M) of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities; and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Participating D D contractors are required to prepare formal plans that document the S M programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilities included in the ORNL D D Program.

  19. Network analysis of translocated Takahe populations to identify disease surveillance targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Zoë L; VAN Andel, Mary; French, Nigel P; Gartrell, Brett D

    2014-04-01

    network in 2011. Likewise, the wild Murchison Mountains population was consistently the sink of the network. Other nodes, such as the offshore islands and the wildlife hospital, varied in importance over time. Common network descriptors and measures of centrality identified key locations for targeting disease surveillance. The visual representation of movements of animals in a population that this technique provides can aid decision makers when they evaluate translocation proposals or attempt to control a disease outbreak. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Factors Identifying Successful Adolescent Career Awareness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Mary Liz

    Helping adolescents make successful career decisions has been the concern of the education system, with a variety of methods being tried over the years. A literature review indicated that there are a number of successful programs giving adolescents a good basis from which to make career choices. State and national levels contribute funding and…

  1. Disease surveillance system evaluation as a model for improved integration and standardization of the laboratory component in the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) curriculum worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Integration of laboratory training into the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) began in 2004 and has advanced the training of laboratory scientists worldwide on the basic principles of epidemiology, disease surveillance, and outbreak investigation. The laboratory component of the FE(L)TP training has traditionally been disease specific, revolving around classroom and bench training on laboratory methods, and field placement in areas where services are needed. There is however a need to improve the integration of epidemiology elements used in surveillance, outbreak investigation, and evaluation activities with specific measurable laboratory activities that could in turn impact the overall disease surveillance and response. A systematic and clear evaluation guideline for the laboratory components of disease surveillance systems alongside the corresponding epidemiological indicators can better identify, address, and mitigate weaknesses that may exist in the entire surveillance system, and also help to integrate and standardize the FE(L)TP curriculum content. The institution of laboratory Quality Management System principles linked to a comprehensive surveillance evaluation scheme will result in improved disease surveillance, response, and overall laboratory capacity over time.

  2. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of the...

  3. Detection capacity, information gaps and the design of surveillance programs for invasive forest pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank Koch; Yakov Ben-Haim; William Smith

    2010-01-01

    Integrated pest risk maps and their underlying assessments provide broad guidance for establishing surveillance programs for invasive species, but they rarely account for knowledge gaps regarding the pest of interest or how these can be reduced. In this study we demonstrate how the somewhat competing notions of robustness to uncertainty and potential knowledge gains...

  4. Prostate Cancer: Can Multiparametric MR Imaging Help Identify Patients Who Are Candidates for Active Surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Aras, Omer; Ho, Jennifer; Hoang, Anthony; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R.; Agarwal, Harsh; Shah, Vijay; Bernardo, Marcelino; Pang, Yuxi; Daar, Dagane; McKinney, Yolanda L.; Linehan, W. Marston; Kaushal, Aradhana; Merino, Maria J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help identify patients with prostate cancer who would most appropriately be candidates for active surveillance (AS) according to current guidelines and to compare the results with those of conventional clinical assessment scoring systems, including the D’Amico, Epstein, and Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) systems, on the basis of findings at prostatectomy. Materials and Methods: This institutional review board–approved HIPAA-compliant retrospectively designed study included 133 patients (mean age, 59.3 years) with a mean prostate-specific antigen level of 6.73 ng/mL (median, 4.39 ng/mL) who underwent multiparametric MR imaging at 3.0 T before radical prostatectomy. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients were then retrospectively classified as to whether they would have met AS eligibility criteria or were better served by surgery. AS eligibility criteria for prostatectomy specimens were a dominant tumor smaller than 0.5 mL without Gleason 4 or 5 patterns or extracapsular or seminal vesicle invasion. Conventional clinical assessment scores (the D’Amico, Epstein, and CAPRA scoring systems) were compared with multiparametric MR imaging findings for predicting AS candidates. The level of significance of difference between scoring systems was determined by using the χ2 test for categoric variables with the level of significance set at P < .05. Results: Among 133 patients, 14 were eligible for AS on the basis of prostatectomy results. The sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and overall accuracy, respectively, were 93%, 25%, and 70% for the D’Amico system, 64%, 45%, and 88% for the Epstein criteria, and 93%, 20%, and 59% for the CAPRA scoring system for predicting AS candidates (P < .005 for all, χ2 test), while multiparametric MR imaging had a sensitivity of 93%, a PPV of 57%, and an overall accuracy of 92% (P < .005). Conclusion

  5. [Thirty Years of Health Surveillance of Foods in Barcelona: The "ICSA" Food Quality Research Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta-Famadas, Mireia; Rodellar-Torras, Santiago; Portaña-Tudela, Samuel; Durán-Neira, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The Food Health Quality Research Program (Investigación de la Calidad Sanitaria de los Alimentos [ICSA]) of the Public Health Agency of Barcelona (Agencia de Salud Pública de Barcelona [ASPB]) was initiated in 1984 to carry out surveillance of certain chemical and microbiological parameters related to the sanitary and safety of foods sold in the city. The present article analyzes the importance of health surveillance and provides details of the uses of the ICSA program. The main aim of this program is to evaluate whether marketed foods comply with the absence and/or established tolerance levels of specific parameters. Nevertheless, the program is able to incorporate or suppress parameters or foods that pose emerging dangers or interests not represented in current legislation. Besides, the program not only obtains a view of the parameters studied at a specific time period in each report, but also accumulates data over time, allowing risk assessment, calculation of dietary intake of contaminants, analysis of tendencies, and evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations to reduce contaminants. The program can also help in the planning of food control programs. The information obtained is disseminated nationally and internationally and is included in dossiers of contaminants issued by national and European health agencies. This demonstrates that a locally-developed surveillance system can have a wider scope and broader objectives and can provide useful information for managers, administrations, economic operators and consumers.

  6. An oil spill surveillance program for Lake Pontchartrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Ezra; Pereira, Joao F; Retana, Gabriel; Baker, Andy; Lopez, John; McCorquodale, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an oil spill surveillance strategy implemented in response to BP's 2010 MC252 oil well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. A three-pronged strategy consisted of Geographic Information System (GIS) monitoring of the surface slick, hydrodynamic modeling of the potential movement of the slick within the Basin, and weekly field reconnaissance. Our analysis was completed in near real time during the event and the results and predictions helped local responders minimize oiling impacts in Lake Pontchartrain. No prior planning was undertaken before this crisis response, and this article reports our support activities as they happened. For the GIS component, a remote sensing derived surface slick outline layer was obtained to produce near daily maps showing the slick's proximity to Lake Pontchartrain along with weather conditions and deployed response assets. This regular monitoring of the slicks' location was complemented by hydrodynamic numerical modeling that simulated the currents that determined the trajectories of oil particles. These data were ground-truthed through weekly reconnaissance trips that assessed the potential routes of oil penetration into Lake Pontchartrain for the presence of sheen, tarballs, and other oil constituents. Despite the ad hoc design and on-the-fly implementation, these three assessments provided consistent and actionable information.

  7. A four-year surveillance program for detection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Fontecha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries could use the monitoring of drug resistance in malaria parasites as an effective early warning system to develop the timely response mechanisms that are required to avert the further spread of malaria. Drug resistance surveillance is essential in areas where no drug resistance has been reported, especially if neighbouring countries have previously reported resistance. Here, we present the results of a four-year surveillance program based on the sequencing of the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum populations from endemic areas of Honduras. All isolates were susceptible to chloroquine, as revealed by the pfcrt “CVMNK” genotype in codons 72-76.

  8. A four-year surveillance program for detection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha, Gustavo A; Sanchez, Ana L; Mendoza, Meisy; Banegas, Engels; Mejía-Torres, Rosa E

    2014-07-01

    Countries could use the monitoring of drug resistance in malaria parasites as an effective early warning system to develop the timely response mechanisms that are required to avert the further spread of malaria. Drug resistance surveillance is essential in areas where no drug resistance has been reported, especially if neighbouring countries have previously reported resistance. Here, we present the results of a four-year surveillance program based on the sequencing of the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum populations from endemic areas of Honduras. All isolates were susceptible to chloroquine, as revealed by the pfcrt "CVMNK" genotype in codons 72-76.

  9. Facility Decontamination and Decommissioning Program Surveillance and Maintenance Plan, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poderis, Reed J. [NSTec; King, Rebecca A. [NSTec

    2013-09-30

    This Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan describes the activities performed between deactivation and final decommissioning of the following facilities located on the Nevada National Security Site, as documented in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order under the Industrial Sites program as decontamination and decommissioning sites: ? Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility: o EMAD Building (Building 25-3900) o Locomotive Storage Shed (Building 25-3901) ? Test Cell C (TCC) Facility: o Equipment Building (Building 25-3220) o Motor Drive Building (Building 25-3230) o Pump Shop (Building 25-3231) o Cryogenic Lab (Building 25-3232) o Ancillary Structures (e.g., dewars, water tower, piping, tanks) These facilities have been declared excess and are in various stages of deactivation (low-risk, long-term stewardship disposition state). This S&M Plan establishes and implements a solid, cost-effective, and balanced S&M program consistent with federal, state, and regulatory requirements. A graded approach is used to plan and conduct S&M activities. The goal is to maintain the facilities in a safe condition in a cost-effective manner until their final end state is achieved. This plan accomplishes the following: ? Establishes S&M objectives and framework ? Identifies programmatic guidance for S&M activities to be conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) ? Provides present facility condition information and identifies hazards ? Identifies facility-specific S&M activities to be performed and their frequency ? Identifies regulatory drivers, NNSA/NFO policies and procedures, and best management practices that necessitate implementation of S&M activities ? Provides criteria and frequencies for revisions and updates ? Establishes the process for identifying and dispositioning a condition that has not been previously identified or

  10. Verifying Elimination Programs with a Special Emphasis on Cysticercosis Endpoints and Postelimination Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukwan Handali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods are needed for determining program endpoints or postprogram surveillance for any elimination program. Cysticercosis has the necessary effective strategies and diagnostic tools for establishing an elimination program; however, tools to verify program endpoints have not been determined. Using a statistical approach, the present study proposed that taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis antibody assays could be used to determine with a high statistical confidence whether an area is free of disease. Confidence would be improved by using secondary tests such as the taeniasis coproantigen assay and necropsy of the sentinel pigs.

  11. Future Directions for NCI’s Surveillance Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the early 1970s, NCI’s SEER program has been an invaluable resource for statistics on cancer in the United States. For the past several years, SEER researchers have been working toward a much broader and comprehensive goal for providing cancer stati

  12. Evaluation of the surveillance program of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H. J.; Pedersen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Danish surveillance program of Streptococcus agalactiae in dairy herds with respect to 1) fluctuation over time of the presence of S. agalactiae in bulk tank milk, 2) sensitivity and specificity of the bacteriological method used, and 3) contamination...... of bulk tank milk samples with milk from other herds. From June to September 1996, bulk tank milk was sampled from 100 Danish dairy herds seven times, with intervals of 2 wk. The samples were examined for the presence of S. agalactiae by four different methods: 1) by the method approved for the program, 2...... the isolates. Streptococcus agalactiae was found in eight of 96 herds in which S. agalactiae had never previously been found during the surveillance program. Streptococcus agalactiae was not found in all seven sampling rounds in any of the eight herds. Comparing the approved method with supplemental findings...

  13. Improving patient safety through a multi-faceted internal surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlow, Anne; Stevens, Polly; Urmson, Lynn; Wray, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Surveillance, a method used in epidemiology to study the incidence, distribution and control of disease, is an important means of gathering and analyzing information that can be used as needed to effect change. Surveillance has been an important component of the Blueprint for Patient Safety at the Hospital for Sick Children to identify potential and existing vulnerabilities and failures and put measures in place to avoid and mitigate any harm. Reviewing internal reports and actively seeking vulnerabilities has allowed us to make important changes to improve patient safety at the hospital. In this article, we review four internal surveillance strategies that have been particularly successful in driving change - safety reports, morbidity and mortality reviews, patient safety walkarounds and shoe leather infection control rounds - and discuss the successes and challenges we have experienced.

  14. Infection surveillance and control programs in the Department of Veterans Affairs nursing home care units: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Linda; Hojlo, Christa; Kearns, Martha A; Davis, Chester; Langberg, Robert; Claggett, Maurice; Coughlin, Nancy; Miller, Michael; Gaynes, Robert; Gibert, Cynthia; Montgomery, Ona; Richards, Chesley; Danko, Linda; Roselle, Gary

    2006-03-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the capacity and current practices of the infection surveillance and control programs at the Department of Veterans Affairs' 130 nursing home care units (VA NHCUs) covering a total of 15,006 beds in 2003. All 130 VA NHCUs responded to the survey, although not all NHCUs answered every question. The majority of the VA NHCUs provided specialized services that might pose increased risks of infection. For every 8 to 10 VA NHCU beds, there was 1 regular-pressure or negative-pressure infection control room available. Each VA NHCU had an active ongoing infection surveillance and control program managed by highly educated infection control personnel (ICP), of which 96% had a minimum of a bachelor degree. A median of 12 hours per week of these ICP efforts was devoted to the infection surveillance and control activities. The most frequently used surveillance methods were targeted surveillance for specific infections and for specific organisms. Most VA NHCUs conducted surveillance for antibiotic-resistant organisms. However, VA NHCUs did not use a uniform set of definitions for nosocomial infections for their infection surveillance and control purposes. We conclude that VA NHCUs have a considerable infrastructure and capacity for infection surveillance and control. This information can be used to develop a nationwide VA NHCU nosocomial infection surveillance system.

  15. Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the ORNL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program FY 1993--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1992-07-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D&D program. The purpose and objectivesof this program include: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities; and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Participating D&D contractors are required to prepare formal plans that document the S&M programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilities included in the ORNL D&D Program.

  16. Establishment of a health surveillance program for reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) into Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Gidona; Girling, Simon; Pizzi, Romain; Meredith, Anna; Rosell, Frank; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin

    2012-10-01

    In 2009 and 2010 16 Norwegian Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were reintroduced to Knapdale, Scotland as part of a 5-yr reintroduction trial (Scottish Beaver Trial). Despite numerous reintroduction programs throughout Europe there is no published information concerning recommended health surveillance during beaver reintroduction and only one publication describing causes of mortality. We describe the establishment of a health surveillance program based on International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and governmental guidelines, and report preliminary results based on the fecal and blood samples following the completion of the first stage of reintroduction. Animals underwent at least one general anesthetic to allow collection of fecal and blood samples and a thorough clinical examination. No bacterial enteric pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated, nor were Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. However, numerous helminths including Travassosius rufus and Stichorchis subtriquetrus were detected. Five animals were positive for Leptospira antibodies. This included Leptospira saxkoebing, Leptospira canicola, Leptospira copenhageni, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, Leptospira autumnalis, and Leptospira javanica. The highest loss of animals (20%) was during the statutory 6-mo rabies quarantine period. No common cause of death was determined. The rabies quarantine conditions were waived for four remaining animals, three of which were introduced to the wild successfully. The authors recommend the shortest possible quarantine period when introducing beavers, but allowing for the minimum recommended IUCN 35 days to allow for implementation of the initial stage of the health surveillance program, examination of animals, sample collection, and processing.

  17. Standard Practice for Design of Surveillance Programs for Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Power Reactor Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing a surveillance program for monitoring the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials in light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels. This practice includes the minimum requirements for the design of a surveillance program, selection of vessel material to be included, and the initial schedule for evaluation of materials. 1.2 This practice was developed for all light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels for which the predicted maximum fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) at the end of license (EOL) exceeds 1 × 1021 neutrons/m2 (1 × 1017 n/cm2) at the inside surface of the reactor vessel. 1.3 This practice applies only to the planning and design of surveillance programs for reactor vessels designed and built after the effective date of this practice. Previous versions of Practice E185 apply to earlier reactor vessels. 1.4 This practice does not provide specific procedures for monitoring the radiation induced cha...

  18. How Can We Identify the Elimination of Infectious Diseases? Experience From an Active Measles Laboratory Surveillance System in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Un; Kang, Hae Ji; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Young-Joon; Park, Ok; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Sung Soon; Jeong, Eun Kyeong

    2015-11-01

    Global efforts have markedly decreased the disease burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Many countries have made considerable progress toward the elimination of measles. As elimination is approached, the very low incidence achieved by high vaccination coverage has underscored the need for a sensitive and timely surveillance system. In the Republic of Korea, an active laboratory surveillance system (ALSS) was implemented to supplement the existing passive surveillance system in 2006. The ALSS connects 5 major commercial laboratories and the national measles reference laboratory, where referred samples with positive or equivocal results are retested. Annually, from 2009 to 2013, 3714 suspected cases were detected through the ALSS, an expansion of 8- to 57-fold, compared with only the passive surveillance system. The ALSS, with its sensitivity and timeliness, is a reasonable strategy to supplement the existing measles surveillance system and to help identify the elimination of measles.

  19. A NEW POSSIBILITY FOR SURVEILLANCE: DO WE IDENTIFY ALL CASES OF LEPTOSPIROSIS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Raissa Matos; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Oliveira, Augusto César Aragão; Bezerra, Laiane Fernanda de Melo; Gomes, Almira Maria Monteiro; Colares, Jeová Keny Baima; Lima, Danielle Malta

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a febrile disease with a typically underestimated global incidence, especially in regions where dengue is endemic. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately determine the number of leptospirosis cases in these areas, which contributes to significant under-reporting this disease. In this study, we estimated the number of possible leptospirosis cases among dengue-like cases that were reported during 2008, 2010, and 2012 in the city of Fortaleza, northeast Brazil. Patients were evaluated for dengue and leptospirosis using immunoenzymatic tests for IgM antibodies that were specific to each pathogen. Among the suspected cases of dengue that resulted as negative in laboratory tests, 10.8% (2008), 19.2% (2010), and 30.8% (2012) were confirmed to be leptospirosis. Considering the cases reported by the surveillance authority as dengue that were subsequently discarded based on the laboratory test results, we estimate that the number of actual leptospirosis cases may be 26 to 49 times higher than those diagnosed and reported by the Health Services. Furthermore, we believe that approximately 20% of dengue-like cases may be leptospirosis cases in areas where the two diseases are endemic.

  20. The effect of a "surveillance nurse" telephone support intervention in a home care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ronald; Godin, Lori

    2015-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of a unique "surveillance nurse" telephone support intervention for community-dwelling elderly individuals in a home care program. A combined propensity-based covariate-matching procedure was used to pair each individual who received the intervention ("treatment" condition, nT = 930) to a similar individual who did not receive the intervention ("control" condition, nC1 = 930) from among a large pool of potential control individuals (nC0 = 4656). The intervention consisted of regularly scheduled telephone calls from a surveillance nurse to proactively assess the individual's well-being, care plan status, use of and need for services (home support, adult day program, physiotherapy, etc.) and home environment (e.g., informal caregiver support). Treatment and control conditions were compared with respect to four service utilization outcomes: (1) rate of survival in the community before institutionalization in an assisted living or nursing home facility or death, (2) rate of emergency room registrations, (3) rate of acute care hospitalizations, and (4) rate of days in hospital, during home care enrollment. Results indicated a beneficial effect of the surveillance nurse intervention on reducing rate of service utilization by increasing the duration of the home care episode.

  1. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2016-07-30

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to evaluate seven process aspects. Data were gathered by interviews with stakeholders, participant questionnaires, and from registries of the company and occupational health service. Results Two recruitment strategies were used: open invitation or automatic participation. Of the 986 eligible workers, 305 participated in the program. Average reach was 53 %. Two out of five program components could not be assessed on dose delivered, dose received and fidelity. If components were assessable, 85-100 % of the components was delivered, 66-100 % of the components was received by participants, and fidelity was 100 %. Participants were satisfied with the WHS program (mean score 7.6). Contextual factors that facilitated implementation were among others societal developments and management support. Factors that formed barriers were program novelty and delayed follow-up. Conclusion The WHS program was well received by participants. Not all participants were offered the same number of program components, and not all components were performed according to protocol. Deviation from protocol is an indication of program failure and may affect program effectiveness.

  2. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening.

  3. SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan Update for 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 441.1-­1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE 2008), requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.”This 2017 update reflects changes to the surveillance plan resulting from surveillance findings as documented in Reeves et al. 2016. These findings include observations of corrosion in SAVY and Hagan containers and the indication (in one SAVY container) of possible filter membrane thermal degradation. This surveillance plan update documents the rationale for selecting surveillance containers, specifies the containers for 2017 surveillance, and identifies a minimum set of containers for 2018 surveillance. This update contains important changes to the previous surveillance plans.

  4. Geocoding capacity of birth defects surveillance programs: results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network Geocoding Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; O'Leary, Leslie A; Rickard, Russel S; Mason, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    A Web-based survey focusing on geocoding of birth defects data was developed and administrated to gain an understanding of the capacity of state birth defects programs to geocode maternal residence and to identify barriers to geocoding birth defects data. The survey consisted of 21 questions related to geocoding of maternal residence, type of software used, barriers to geocoding, and data linkage. In August 2007, an e-mail with a Web link to the survey was sent to all state birth defects program contacts in the United States, including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requesting they complete the online survey. By October 2007, 39 (74%) out of 53 birth defects program contacts completed the survey. Although nearly all birth defects programs collect maternal residential data, many are not currently geocoding that data. Results indicated that 97% of the programs that completed the survey reported they collected data on maternal residence, 53% of which reported that the birth defects surveillance data were geocoded to the street address level using maternal residential address at delivery. Twenty six percent of the programs that do not currently geocode the data identified "Software and address reference file are not available" as the most significant barrier to geocoding; another 16% chose "Lack of funding" as the most significant barrier to geocoding. Since geocoding is an important component of spatial analyses used to detect potential clusters of birth defects, leveraging resources to overcome the barriers that prevent programs from geocoding is important.

  5. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Results of the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walop Wikke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE is so rare in developed countries with measles immunization programs that national active surveillance is now needed to capture sufficient number of cases for meaningful analysis of data. Through the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP, the SSPE study was able to document a national incidence and determine the epidemiology of affected Canadian children. Methods Between 1997 and 2000, the CPSP surveyed monthly 1978 to 2294 Canadian pediatricians and sub-specialists for SSPE cases. The response rate varied from 82–86% over those years. Results Altogether, four SSPE cases were reported to the CPSP: one case before, two during and one after the study period. The incidence of SSPE in Canadian children was 0.06/million children/year. Of the four cases, diagnosed between ages four and 17 years, three children had measles infection in infancy. All children showed a progressive course of dementia, loss of motor skills and epilepsy. Two children were treated with isoprinosine and intraventricular interferon but died in less than three years from disease onset. One child did not have any treatment and died after seven years of illness. One child received intraventricular ribavirin and remains alive, but markedly impaired, nine years following diagnosis. Conclusion The CPSP has demonstrated that Canadian paediatricians and paediatric neurologists may encounter cases of SSPE. This report highlights the clinical course of affected Canadian children and provides a review of the disease and its management.

  6. A focused ethnographic study of Alberta cattle veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sawford

    Full Text Available The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.

  7. A focused ethnographic study of Alberta cattle veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.

  8. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Alberta Cattle Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and Perceptions of Surveillance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance. PMID:23741397

  9. Decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance report for FY 1991. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwinkle, T. W.; Cannon, T. R.; Ford, M. K.; Holder, Jr., L.; Clotfelter, O. K.; Faulkner, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Wooten, H. O.

    1991-12-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program has three distinct phases: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S&M); (2) decontamination and removal of hazardous materials and equipment (which DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., calls Phase I of remediation); and (3) decommissioning and ultimate disposal, regulatory compliance monitoring, and property transfer (which DOE Headquarters calls Phase II of remediation). A large part of D&D is devoted to S&M at each of the sites. Our S&M activities, which are performed on facilities awaiting decommissioning, are designed to minimize potential hazards to human health and the environment by: ensuring adequate containment of residual radioactive and hazardous materials; and, providing physical safety and security controls to minimize potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public. Typically, we classify maintenance activities as either routine or special (major repairs). Routine maintenance includes such activities as painting, cleaning, vegetation control, minor structural repairs, filter changes, and building system(s) checks. Special maintenance includes Occupational Safety and Health Act facility upgrades, roof repairs, and equipment overhaul. Surveillance activities include inspections, radiological measurements, reporting, records maintenance, and security (as required) for controlling and monitoring access to facilities. This report summarizes out FY 1991 S&M activities for the Tennessee plant sites, which include the K-25 Site, the Gas Centrifuge facilities, ORNL, and the Y-12 Plant.

  10. What Have We Learned From the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen; Hombach, Joachim; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) was established in 2009 to fill the data void concerning invasive Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and to specifically estimate the burden of bloodstream infections caused by the key pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. TSAP has achieved this ambitious target, finding high incidences of typhoid fever in both rural and urban populations in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The results of TSAP will undoubtedly dictate the direction of future typhoid fever research in Africa, and at last provides a key piece of the disease burden jigsaw puzzle. With the dawn of new Vi conjugate vaccines against Salmonella Typhi, the next priority for the typhoid community must be providing the required data on these vaccines so they can be licensed and provided to those in high-risk groups and locations across sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  11. Risk factors for changing test classification in the Danish surveillance program for Salmonella in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lennarth Ravn; Warnick, L. D.; Greiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    A surveillance program in which all cattle herds in Denmark are classified into Salmonella infection categories has been in place since 2002. Dairy herds were considered test negative and thus most likely free of infection if Salmonella antibody measurements were consistently low in bulk tank milk...... samples collected every 3 mo. Herds were considered test positive and thus most likely infected if the 4-quarter moving average bulk tank milk antibody concentration was high or if there was a large increase in the most recent measurement compared with the average value from the previous 3 samples....... The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for changing from test negative to positive, which was indicative of herds becoming infected from one quarter of the year to the next, and risk factors for changing from test positive to negative, which was indicative of herds recovering from infection...

  12. A new surveillance indicator identifying optimal timeliness and accuracy: application to the Korean National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System for 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, H S; Cho, S I; Lee, J K; Park, H K; Lee, E G; Kwon, J W

    2013-12-01

    Although immediate notification of a case is crucial for epidemic control, clinicians may delay notification due to uncertainties in diagnosis, reflecting a trade-off between timeliness and the accuracy of surveillance. We assessed this trade-off for four epidemic-prone diseases that require immediate notification of suspected cases: shigellosis, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and cholera in the Korean National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System data for 2001-2007. Timeliness was measured as the time to registration (T R), being the time interval from symptom onset to notification by the clinician to the local public health centre. We introduced a new index, 'time-accuracy trade-off ratio' to indicate time saved by clinical vs. laboratory-based notifications. Clinical notifications comprised 34.4% of total notifications, and these showed a shorter median T R than laboratory-based notifications (1-4 days). The trade-off ratio was greatest for shigellosis (3.3 days), and smallest for typhoid fever (0.6 days). A higher trade-off ratio provides stronger evidence for clinical notification without waiting for laboratory confirmation.

  13. Economic evaluation and budget impact analysis of the surveillance program for hepatocellular carcinoma in Thai chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangmala, Pannapa; Chaikledkaew, Usa; Tanwandee, Tawesak; Pongchareonsuk, Petcharat

    2014-01-01

    The incidence rate and the treatment costs of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are high, especially in Thailand. Previous studies indicated that early detection by a surveillance program could help by down-staging. This study aimed to compare the costs and health outcomes associated with the introduction of a HCC surveillance program with no program and to estimate the budget impact if the HCC surveillance program were implemented. A cost utility analysis using a decision tree and Markov models was used to compare costs and outcomes during the lifetime period based on a societal perspective between alternative HCC surveillance strategies with no program. Costs included direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs. Health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs), and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The results were presented in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Thai THB per QALY gained. One- way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to investigate parameter uncertainties. Budget impact analysis (BIA) was performed based on the governmental perspective. Semi-annual ultrasonography (US) and semi-annual ultrasonography plus alpha-fetoprotein (US plus AFP) as the first screening for HCC surveillance would be cost-effective options at the willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of 160,000 THB per QALY gained compared with no surveillance program (ICER=118,796 and ICER=123,451 THB/QALY), respectively. The semi-annual US plus AFP yielded more net monetary benefit, but caused a substantially higher budget (237 to 502 million THB) than semi-annual US (81 to 201 million THB) during the next ten fiscal years. Our results suggested that a semi-annual US program should be used as the first screening for HCC surveillance and included in the benefit package of Thai health insurance schemes for both chronic hepatitis B males and females aged between 40-50 years. In addition, policy makers considered the program could be feasible

  14. Design, baseline characteristics, and early findings of the MPS VI (mucopolysaccharidosis VI) Clinical Surveillance Program (CSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksz, Christian J; Giugliani, Roberto; Harmatz, Paul; Lampe, Christina; Martins, Ana Maria; Pastores, Gregory M; Steiner, Robert D; Leão Teles, Elisa; Valayannopoulos, Vassili

    2013-03-01

    To outline the design, baseline data, and 5-year follow-up data of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI enrolled in the Clinical Surveillance Program (CSP), a voluntary, multinational, observational program. The MPS VI CSP was opened in 2005 to collect, for at least 15 years, observational data from standard clinical and laboratory assessments of patients with MPS VI. Baseline and follow-up data are documented by participating physicians in electronic case report forms. Between September 2005 and March 2010 the CSP enrolled 132 patients, including 123 who received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with galsulfase. Median age at enrolment was 13 years (range 1-59). Mean baseline data showed impaired growth, hepatosplenomegaly, and reduced endurance and pulmonary function. The most common findings were heart valve disease (90%), reduced visual acuity (79%), impaired hearing (59%), and hepatosplenomegaly (54%). Follow-up data up to 5 years in patients with pre- and post-ERT measurements showed a decrease in urinary glycosaminoglycans and increases in height and weight in patients MPS VI to date. This first report provides information on the design and implementation of the program and population statistics for several clinical variables in patients with MPS VI. Data collected over 5 years suggest that ERT provides clinical benefit and is well-tolerated with no new safety concerns.

  15. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of the...

  16. Drug-induced acute myocardial infarction: identifying 'prime suspects' from electronic healthcare records-based surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preciosa M Coloma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drug-related adverse events remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality and impose huge burden on healthcare costs. Routinely collected electronic healthcare data give a good snapshot of how drugs are being used in 'real-world' settings. OBJECTIVE: To describe a strategy that identifies potentially drug-induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI from a large international healthcare data network. METHODS: Post-marketing safety surveillance was conducted in seven population-based healthcare databases in three countries (Denmark, Italy, and the Netherlands using anonymised demographic, clinical, and prescription/dispensing data representing 21,171,291 individuals with 154,474,063 person-years of follow-up in the period 1996-2010. Primary care physicians' medical records and administrative claims containing reimbursements for filled prescriptions, laboratory tests, and hospitalisations were evaluated using a three-tier triage system of detection, filtering, and substantiation that generated a list of drugs potentially associated with AMI. Outcome of interest was statistically significant increased risk of AMI during drug exposure that has not been previously described in current literature and is biologically plausible. RESULTS: Overall, 163 drugs were identified to be associated with increased risk of AMI during preliminary screening. Of these, 124 drugs were eliminated after adjustment for possible bias and confounding. With subsequent application of criteria for novelty and biological plausibility, association with AMI remained for nine drugs ('prime suspects': azithromycin; erythromycin; roxithromycin; metoclopramide; cisapride; domperidone; betamethasone; fluconazole; and megestrol acetate. LIMITATIONS: Although global health status, co-morbidities, and time-invariant factors were adjusted for, residual confounding cannot be ruled out. CONCLUSION: A strategy to identify potentially drug-induced AMI from electronic healthcare

  17. Trends in Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii over a 10-year Period: Nationwide Data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Lyu, Yuan; Li, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Using data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program conducted biennially, we investigated the secular changes in the resistance of 2917 isolates of A. baumannii from 2004 to 2014 to differ antimicrobial agents. Methods: Pathogen samples were collected from 17 to 20 hospitals located in the eastern, central, and western regions of China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by a 2-fold agar dilution method, and antimicrobial susceptibility was established using the 2014 Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute-approved breakpoints. Isolates not susceptible to all the tested aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, β-lactams, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors and carbapenems were defined as extensively drug resistant. Results: The rates of nonsusceptibility to common antimicrobial agents remained high (>65%) over the years with some fluctuations to certain agents. The prevalence of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) increased from 13.3% in 2004 to 70.5% in 2014 and that of extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDRAB) increased from 11.1% in 2004 to 60.4% in 2014. The activity of tigecycline was stable with MIC90 ≤4 mg/L against A. baumannii from 2009 to 2014. Susceptibility to colistin remained high (97.0%) from 2009 to 2014. The prevalence of XDRAB increased in all the three surveillance regions over the years and was significantly higher in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) wards than non-ICU wards. Conclusions: This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed the nationwide emergence of A. baumannii in China and showed a significant increase in prevalence from 2004 to 2014. High levels of bacterial resistance were detected among samples collected from clinical settings in China, with IRAB and XDRAB being especially prevalent. This study will help to guide empirical therapy and identify at-risk groups requiring more

  18. Trends in Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii over a 10-year Period: Nationwide Data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Lyu, Yuan; Li, Yun

    2017-03-20

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Using data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program conducted biennially, we investigated the secular changes in the resistance of 2917 isolates of A. baumannii from 2004 to 2014 to differ antimicrobial agents. Pathogen samples were collected from 17 to 20 hospitals located in the eastern, central, and western regions of China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by a 2-fold agar dilution method, and antimicrobial susceptibility was established using the 2014 Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute-approved breakpoints. Isolates not susceptible to all the tested aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, β-lactams, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors and carbapenems were defined as extensively drug resistant. The rates of nonsusceptibility to common antimicrobial agents remained high (>65%) over the years with some fluctuations to certain agents. The prevalence of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) increased from 13.3% in 2004 to 70.5% in 2014 and that of extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDRAB) increased from 11.1% in 2004 to 60.4% in 2014. The activity of tigecycline was stable with MIC90 ≤4 mg/L against A. baumannii from 2009 to 2014. Susceptibility to colistin remained high (97.0%) from 2009 to 2014. The prevalence of XDRAB increased in all the three surveillance regions over the years and was significantly higher in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) wards than non-ICU wards. This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed the nationwide emergence of A. baumannii in China and showed a significant increase in prevalence from 2004 to 2014. High levels of bacterial resistance were detected among samples collected from clinical settings in China, with IRAB and XDRAB being especially prevalent. This study will help to guide empirical therapy and identify at-risk groups requiring more intense interventional infection control

  19. Emergence of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex over 10 years: Nationwide data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Shu-Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Longitudinal multicenter surveillance data on ABC from different sources in Taiwan have not been published. Using data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR conducted biennially, we investigated the secular change in resistance of 1640 ABC from 2002 to 2010 (TSAR period III to VII to different antimicrobial agents and identified factors associated with imipenem-resistant and extensively drug-resistant ABC (IRABC and XDRABC. Methods Isolates were collected by TSAR from the same 26 hospitals located in all 4 regions of Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by reference broth microdilution method. Isolates nonsusceptible to all tested aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, β-lactam, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors, and carbapenems were defined as extensively drug-resistant (XDR. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between predictor variables among patients with resistant ABC and patients with non-resistant ABC. Results The prevalence of IRABC increased from 3.4% in 2002 to 58.7% in 2010 (P P 55% over the years with some fluctuations before and after TSAR V (2006 on some agents. Multivariate analysis revealed that recovery from elderly patients, origins other than blood, from ICU settings, or geographic regions are independent factors associated with IRABC and XDRABC. Although the prevalence of XDRABC increased in all four regions of Taiwan over the years, central Taiwan had higher prevalence of XDRABC starting in 2008. Susceptibility to polymyxin remained high (99.8%. Conclusions This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed significant increase and nationwide emergence of IRABC and XDRABC in Taiwan over the years. This study also identified factors associated with IRABC and XDRABC to help guide empirical therapy

  20. Emergence of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex over 10 years: nationwide data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shu-Chen; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Wang, Hui-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Chen, Pei-Chen; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Huang, I-Wen; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang

    2012-08-28

    Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC) has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Longitudinal multicenter surveillance data on ABC from different sources in Taiwan have not been published. Using data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) conducted biennially, we investigated the secular change in resistance of 1640 ABC from 2002 to 2010 (TSAR period III to VII) to different antimicrobial agents and identified factors associated with imipenem-resistant and extensively drug-resistant ABC (IRABC and XDRABC). Isolates were collected by TSAR from the same 26 hospitals located in all 4 regions of Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by reference broth microdilution method. Isolates nonsusceptible to all tested aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, β-lactam, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors, and carbapenems were defined as extensively drug-resistant (XDR). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between predictor variables among patients with resistant ABC and patients with non-resistant ABC. The prevalence of IRABC increased from 3.4% in 2002 to 58.7% in 2010 (P 55%) over the years with some fluctuations before and after TSAR V (2006) on some agents. Multivariate analysis revealed that recovery from elderly patients, origins other than blood, from ICU settings, or geographic regions are independent factors associated with IRABC and XDRABC. Although the prevalence of XDRABC increased in all four regions of Taiwan over the years, central Taiwan had higher prevalence of XDRABC starting in 2008. Susceptibility to polymyxin remained high (99.8%). This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed significant increase and nationwide emergence of IRABC and XDRABC in Taiwan over the years. This study also identified factors associated with IRABC and XDRABC to help guide empirical therapy and at-risk groups requiring more intense interventional infection

  1. [Literature review on human influenza epidemics occurred before the implementation plan for sentinel surveillance program in the DRC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwembe-Ngabana, Edith; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Kebela-Ilunga, Benoit; Londa, Emile Okitolo; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), several influenza epidemics are ignored because they are confused with other infectious diseases which have similar symptoms. Our study aims to assess influenza epidemics occurred in the DRC before 2008, year of the implementation of the influenza surveillance program in the DRC. We searched all the documents [articles, report,…] about influenza epidemic or acute respiratory infections [ARI] in the DRC before 2008 by using chosen key words. Epidemic description elements were identified and analyzed in each report. 4 documents have been found that had no article published. The sites of the epidemic outbreak were the rural health zones in Koshibanda and Kahemba, Bandundu [1995 and 2007], in Bosobolo, Equator [2002] and in Kinshasa [2002-2003]. Attack and lethality rates were 3.9% and 16% in Koshibanda respectively; 0.1% and 2% in Kinshasa; 47.5% and 1.5% in Bosobolo and 14.6% and 2.9% in Kahemba. Children less than 5 years of age were the most affected. Their attack rates ranged between 22.6 and 57.7% and lethality rates ranged between 3.2 and 3.7%. The two epidemics in Bosobolo and Kinshasa were associated with H3N2 influenza virus. This literature review highlights a high morbidity and mortality due to rare influenza epidemics in the DRC.

  2. Postmarketing surveillance of new food ingredients: results from the program with the fat replacer olestra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, G S; Kuter, D J; Roll, K T; Taylor, S L; Zorich, N L

    2001-04-01

    Market introduction of savory snacks containing olestra offered an opportunity to evaluate the safety of olestra in a free-living population and thereby compare the outcome to the previously established safety profile determined in clinical trials in which subjects were required to eat predetermined amounts at prescribed intervals. Therefore, a multifaceted postmarketing surveillance program was designed to evaluate consumer experience and safety of olestra in the marketplace. Customer comments were solicited through toll-free telephone numbers. Collected data were evaluated by both internal and external medical experts. About 10% of toll-free telephone calls reported health effects, most of which were gastrointestinal (GI) in nature. Clinical studies were designed and conducted to determine potential GI effects under the range of consumption patterns reported by toll-free calls. Health effects reported were those found commonly in the general population and analyses of the data found no biological reason to conclude that serious or meaningful health effects were the result of olestra consumption.

  3. Surveillance programs in Denmark has revealed the circulation of novel reassortant influenza A viruses in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    avH1N1 and H3N2 which is different from the dominating European H1N2 subtype (1). The prevalence of the H1N1pdm09 virus in swine has increased since 2009 in some countries including Denmark. Here we present the results of the national passive surveillance program on influenza in swine performed from...... by the combination of the gene segments hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In most European countries, the avian-like (av)H1N1, the 2009 pandemic variant (H1N1pdm09), H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes have constituted the dominating SIV subtypes during recent years. In Denmark, the H1N2 subtype is a reassortant between......Swine influenza is a respiratory disease caused by multiple subtypes of influenza A virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is enzootic in swine populations in Europe, Asia, North and South America. The influenza A virus genome consist of eight distinct gene segments and SIV subtypes are defined...

  4. Identifying wound prevalence using the Mobile Wound Care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judi; Cullen, Marianne; Chambers, Helen; Mitchell, Eleanor; Steers, Nicole; Khalil, Hanan

    2014-06-01

    Measuring the prevalence of wounds within health care systems is a challenging and complex undertaking. This is often compounded by the clinicians' training, the availability of the required data to collect, incomplete documentation and lack of reporting of this type of data across the various health care settings. To date, there is little published data on wound prevalence across regions or states. This study aims to identify the number and types of wounds treated in the Gippsland area using the Mobile Wound Care (MWC™) program. The MWC program has enabled clinicians in Gippsland to collect data on wounds managed by district nurses from four health services. The main outcomes measured were patient characteristics, wound characteristics and treatment characteristics of wounds in Gippsland. These data create several clinical and research opportunities. The identification of predominant wound aetiologies in Gippsland provides a basis on which to determine a regional wound prospective and the impact of the regional epidemiology. Training that incorporates best practice guidelines can be tailored to the most prevalent wound types. Clinical pathways that encompass the Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines for the management of venous leg ulcers can be introduced and the clinical and economical outcomes can be quantitatively measured. The MWC allows healing times (days) to be benchmarked both regionally and against established literature, for example, venous leg ulcers.

  5. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  6. Deployment Surveillance Report: Traumatic Brain Injury Identified from Hospitalization and Air Evacuation Records - Army, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    been associated with increased risk of seizures, postconcussion syndrome, deficits in social functioning, and mental health disorders [5]. Though...c) The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC) classified the DVBIC TBI codes into three functional categories (that is, TBI, postconcussion ...850-854, and Injury Prevention Report No. 12-HF-0F7E-09, 01 Jan 2004-31 Dec 2009 4 950.1-950.3). Postconcussion syndrome includes current effects of

  7. Impact of potential changes to the current bovine spongiform encephalopathy surveillance programs for slaughter cattle and fallen stock in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Murray, Noel; Shinoda, Naoki; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    Cattle slaughtered in Japan for human consumption, regardless of their age, have been tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) since October 2001. Beginning in April 2004, all fallen stock from 24 months of age also have been tested. We evaluated the impact of potential changes to the current BSE surveillance programs for both slaughter cattle and fallen stock using a simple stochastic model. We calculated the probability that a BSE-infected dairy cow, Wagyu beef animal, Wagyu-Holstein cross steer or heifer, or Holstein steer slaughtered for human consumption or arising as fallen stock would be tested and detected. Four surveillance strategies were explored for cattle slaughtered for human consumption, with the minimum age at testing set at 0, 21, 31, or 41 months. Three surveillance strategies were explored for fallen stock, with the minimum age at testing set at 24, 31, or 41 months. Increasing the minimum age of testing from 0 to 21 months for both dairy cattle and Wagyu beef cattle had very little impact on the probability that a BSE-infected animal slaughtered for human consumption would be detected. Although increasing the minimum age at testing from 21 to 31 or 41 months would lead to fewer slaughtered animals being tested, the impact on the probability of detecting infected animals would be insignificant. The probability of infected Wagyu-Holstein crosses and Holstein steers being detected at slaughter or as fallen stock would be very low under all surveillance strategies.

  8. Feasibility and acceptability of a workers’ health surveillance program for hospital physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn M. Ruitenburg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Workers’ Health Surveillance (WHS program is an occupational health strategy used to detect and address the health of individual workers to improve their ability to work. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of a new job-specific WHS for hospital physicians. Material and Methods: All hospital physicians of the general surgery, radiotherapy and obstetrics and gynecology departments from 1 academic hospital were invited to participate in the WHS by the in-company occupational health service. An occupational physician and a medical assistant were trained to use the protocol. Feasibility was operationalized as the received and delivered dose, observed success factors and potential obstacles. Acceptability was assessed by asking whether the WHS was desirable and feasible for future use and by estimating the effects on health and work ability. Written questions and semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participating physicians, 5 department managers and the 2 occupational health professionals involved in the study. Results: One-third of the hospital physicians (34% participated in every part of the WHS. The delivered dose was 77/84 (92%. Almost all hospital physicians who received recommendations expected to adhere to this advice. The study participants appreciated the organization of the WHS. This WHS was positively graded (8 out of 10 max in terms of acceptability. Positive effects of the WHS on health, work functioning and long-term work ability were perceived by 2/3 of the physicians. Conclusions: The new job-specific WHS for hospital physicians showed good feasibility and acceptability among participating hospital physicians, occupational health professionals and medical managers.

  9. Identifying Enterprise Leverage Points in Defense Acquisition Program Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Planning Guidance SPI Schedule Efficiency SPO System Program Office SPOC Special Access Required (SAR) Programs Oversight Committee SPRG...Air Force office of Financial Management and Budget; SES = Senior Executive Service; SPOC /SPRG/SAR = classified financial review system for

  10. The new classification system for slaughter-pig herds in the Danish Salmonella surveillance-and-control program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Stege, Helle; Dahl, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Danish surveillance-and-control program for Salmonella in slaughter pigs was introduced in 1995. The key element of the program is a quick and correct identification of herds with high seroprevalence. After 5 years, the classification scheme was evaluated-and a revision was made. Data from two...... the Danish Salmonella Database including all herds in 2000. The classification scheme has been adjusted on the following points. (1) The sampling has been simplified into 60, 75, or 100 samples per herd per year depending on herd size. This means more-precise estimates for the seroprevalence among smaller...

  11. Identifying Strategies Programs Adopt to Meet Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Standards in Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert G.; Moore, Justin B.; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Saunders, Ruth; Beighle, Aaron; Khan, M. Mahmud; Chandler, Jessica; Brazendale, Keith; Randell, Allison; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The YMCA of USA has adopted Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Standards for its afterschool programs (ASPs). Little is known about strategies YMCA ASPs are implementing to achieve Standards and these strategies' effectiveness. Aims: (1) Identify strategies implemented in YMCA ASPs and (2) evaluate the relationship between…

  12. DVT surveillance program in the ICU: analysis of cost-effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai K Malhotra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venous Thrombo-embolism (VTE--Deep venous thrombosis (DVT and/or pulmonary embolism (PE--in traumatized patients causes significant morbidity and mortality. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of DVT surveillance in reducing PE, and performs a cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: All traumatized patients admitted to the adult ICU underwent twice weekly DVT surveillance by bilateral lower extremity venous Duplex examination (48-month surveillance period--SP. The rates of DVT and PE were recorded and compared to the rates observed in the 36-month pre-surveillance period (PSP. All patients in both periods received mechanical and pharmacologic prophylaxis unless contraindicated. Total costs--diagnostic, therapeutic and surveillance--for both periods were recorded and the incremental cost for each Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY gained was calculated. RESULTS: 4234 patients were eligible (PSP--1422 and SP--2812. Rate of DVT in SP (2.8% was significantly higher than in PSP (1.3% - p<0.05, and rate of PE in SP (0.7% was significantly lower than that in PSP (1.5% - p<0.05. Logistic regression demonstrated that surveillance was an independent predictor of increased DVT detection (OR: 2.53 - CI: 1.462-4.378 and decreased PE incidence (OR: 0.487 - CI: 0.262-0.904. The incremental cost was $509,091/life saved in the base case, translating to $29,102/QALY gained. A sensitivity analysis over four of the parameters used in the model indicated that the incremental cost ranged from $18,661 to $48,821/QALY gained. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance of traumatized ICU patients increases DVT detection and reduces PE incidence. Costs in terms of QALY gained compares favorably with other interventions accepted by society.

  13. Epidemiological surveillance linked to an outreach psychological support program after the Xynthia storm in Charente-Maritime, France, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguenaud, Marie-Eve; Germonneau, Philippe; Leseigneur, Jackie; Chavagnat, Jean-Jacques; Motreff, Yvon; Vivier-Darrigol, Martine; Pirard, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Following the Xynthia storm of February 2010 in France, an outreach program was initiated by the regional health authorities during the post-emergency phase to improve access to mental health care for the population exposed to the floods. The program was designed to complement routine health and social care services. It relied on a special telephone service and outreach consultations located in the town halls of the five most affected cities. The objective of this outreach service was to provide initial psychological counseling free of charge and without appointment. Another objective was to refer persons for appropriate treatment and follow-up by routine health care services. A surveillance program was developed to monitor the use of mental health services by first-time users, describe outreach service users with psychological manifestations, and provide timely information to decision makers. Health providers working in affected towns were asked to complete an individual record sheet for each person who displayed psychological manifestations directly or indirectly linked with the storm on their first visit, and to send it to the regional health office. Participation was voluntary. Data analysis was performed monthly during the six-month surveillance period. Only mental health providers participated in the surveillance. A total of 227 individual files were sent from April 7 through September 19, 2010. New cases were mainly female adults, and one fifth had a past history of psychiatric illness. Depressive signs and anxiety were the most commonly reported symptoms, followed by signs of post-traumatic stress disorder. A total of five feedback reports were produced for surveillance participants (informants) and authorities. With initiation in the post-emergency phase of a disaster and timely regular feedback, the surveillance program enabled the authors to describe the occurrence of psychological distress, monitor mental health service use by first-time users, and

  14. Status report - The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, J; McFaull, S; Thompson, W; Skinner, R; Do, M T; Fréchette, M; Mukhi, S

    2016-06-01

    This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP's overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools-designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product)-is revealing eCHIRPP's potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends.

  15. Status report - The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Crain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP’s overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools—designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product—is revealing eCHIRPP’s potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends.

  16. A nationwide cohort study of stage I seminoma patients followed on a surveillance program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Lauritsen, Jakob; Gundgaard, Maria Gry

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing concerns about late effects after adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma have made surveillance an attractive alternative. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surveillance strategy in a nationwide cohort study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective, population-based st......BACKGROUND: Increasing concerns about late effects after adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma have made surveillance an attractive alternative. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surveillance strategy in a nationwide cohort study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective, population......-based study of Danish patients diagnosed with stage I seminoma between 1984 and 2008 and followed for 5 yr (n=1954). Patient data were linked with national registries on November 30, 2012, to obtain information on late relapse, vital status, and cause of death. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS...... factor was excluded from analysis. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study and the number of missing values in analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In the world's largest study of stage I seminoma patients, we found surveillance to be a safe alternative to adjuvant therapies. Tumor size...

  17. Health care-associated Clostridium difficile infection in adults admitted to acute care hospitals in Canada: a Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Denise; Miller, Mark; Simor, Andrew; Taylor, Geoffrey; Gardam, Michael; McGeer, Allison; Hutchinson, James; Moore, Dorothy; Kelly, Sharon; Boyd, David; Mulvey, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequent cause of health care-associated infectious diarrhea in industrialized countries. The only previous report describing the incidence of health care-associated CDI (HA CDI) in Canada was conducted in 1997 by the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. We re-examined the incidence of HA CDI with an emphasis on patient outcomes. A prospective surveillance was conducted from 1 November 2004 through 30 April 2005. Basic demographic data were collected, including age, sex, type of patient ward where the patient was hospitalized on the day HA CDI was identified, and patient comorbidities. Data regarding severe outcome were collected 30 days after the diagnosis of HA CDI; severe outcome was defined as an admission to the intensive care unit because of complications of CDI, colectomy due to CDI, and/or death attributable to CDI. A total of 1430 adults with HA CDI were identified in 29 hospitals during the 6-month surveillance period. The overall incidence rate of HA CDI for adult patients admitted to these hospitals was 4.6 cases per 1000 patient admissions and 65 per 100,000 patient-days. At 30 days after onset of HA CDI, 233 patients (16.3%) had died from all causes; 31 deaths (2.2%) were a direct result of CDI, and 51 deaths (3.6%) were indirectly related to CDI, for a total attributable mortality rate of 5.7%. The rates are remarkably similar to those found in our previous study; although we found wide variations in HA CDI among the participating hospitals. However, the attributable mortality increased almost 4-fold (5.7% vs. 1.5%; P<.001).

  18. Prospective multicenter surveillance identifies Staphylococcus aureus infections caused by livestock-associated strains in an agricultural state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rajeshwari; Wu, James; Carrel, Margaret; O'Brien, Ashley; Quick, Megan; Farina, Sarah; Wardyn, Shylo; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Grenier, Dylan; Smith, Tara C

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a surveillance study to investigate the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in Iowa, using a convenience sample. Diagnostic laboratories submitted 20 S. aureus isolates per month for a 20-month period between 2011 and 2013. Of the 2226 isolates analyzed, 73.6% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 26.4% were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). S. aureus infections in 25 patients (1%) were caused by ST398- and ST9-associated strain types, and appeared to be a common occurrence in areas of the state with the highest numbers of hogs and hog farms. Twenty nine (5.1%) of MSSA isolates and 10 (40.0%) livestock-associated strains were multi-drug resistant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards identifying programming expertise with the use of physiological measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogiorgos, Dimosthenis; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper we propose means of measuring programming expertise on novice and expert programmers. Our approach is to measure the cognitive load of programmers while they assess Java/Python code in accordance with their experience in programming. Our hypothesis is that expert programmers...

  20. Identifying Inter-task Communication in Shared Memory Programming Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Karlsson, Sven; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Modern computers often use multi-core architectures, cov- ering clusters of homogeneous cores for high performance computing,to heterogeneous architectures typically found in embedded systems. To efficiently program such architectures, it is important to be able to par- tition and map programs on...

  1. Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease: potential roles of birth defects surveillance programs--United States, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    In September 2011, the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) approved the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (SACHDNC) 2010 recommendation that all newborns be screened for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) using pulse oximetry, a noninvasive test of blood oxygenation, to prevent mortality and morbidity. CDC partnered with the National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) to conduct a survey designed to assess state birth defect surveillance programs' potential roles, capabilities, and readiness to assist with newborn screening activities for CCHD. States were surveyed in November 2010, after the initial SACHDNC recommendation, and again in November 2011, after the Secretary's approval. From 2010 to 2011, the number of birth defects surveillance programs involved in CCHD screening increased from one to 10. Barriers exist, such as the lack of legislative authority, staffing, funding, and informatics infrastructure. Sixty-seven percent of programs take an average of more than 12 months to collect complete data on birth defect cases, including congenital heart defects. An assessment of state birth defects programs' existing data and capability to lead the evaluation of screening for CCHD is warranted.

  2. Towards identifying programming expertise with the use of physiological measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogiorgos, Dimosthenis; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper we propose means of measuring programming expertise on novice and expert programmers. Our approach is to measure the cognitive load of programmers while they assess Java/Python code in accordance with their experience in programming. Our hypothesis is that expert programmer...... encounter smaller pupillary dilation within programming problem solving tasks. We aim to evaluate our hypothesis using the EMIP Distributed Data Collection in order to confirm or reject our approach.......In this position paper we propose means of measuring programming expertise on novice and expert programmers. Our approach is to measure the cognitive load of programmers while they assess Java/Python code in accordance with their experience in programming. Our hypothesis is that expert programmers...

  3. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  4. OPPIDUM surveillance program: 20 years of information on drug abuse in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities.

  5. Program Transformation to Identify List-Based Parallel Skeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kannan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Algorithmic skeletons are used as building-blocks to ease the task of parallel programming by abstracting the details of parallel implementation from the developer. Most existing libraries provide implementations of skeletons that are defined over flat data types such as lists or arrays. However, skeleton-based parallel programming is still very challenging as it requires intricate analysis of the underlying algorithm and often uses inefficient intermediate data structures. Further, the algorithmic structure of a given program may not match those of list-based skeletons. In this paper, we present a method to automatically transform any given program to one that is defined over a list and is more likely to contain instances of list-based skeletons. This facilitates the parallel execution of a transformed program using existing implementations of list-based parallel skeletons. Further, by using an existing transformation called distillation in conjunction with our method, we produce transformed programs that contain fewer inefficient intermediate data structures.

  6. Evaluation of the US Army Institute of Public Health Destination Monitoring Program, a food safety surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp-Santos, Kamala; Havas, Karyn; Vest, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The Destination Monitoring Program, operated by the US Army Public Health Command (APHC), is one component that supports the APHC Veterinary Service's mission to ensure safety and quality of food procured for the Department of Defense (DoD). This program relies on retail product testing to ensure compliance of production facilities and distributors that supply food to the DoD. This program was assessed to determine the validity and timeliness by specifically evaluating whether sample size of items collected was adequate, if food samples collected were representative of risk, and whether the program returns results in a timely manner. Data was collected from the US Army Veterinary Services Lotus Notes database, including all food samples collected and submitted from APHC Region-North for the purposes of destination monitoring from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. For most food items, only one sample was submitted for testing. The ability to correctly identify a contaminated food lot may be limited by reliance on test results from only one sample, as the level of confidence in a negative test result is low. The food groups most frequently sampled by APHC correlated with the commodities that were implicated in foodborne illness in the United States. Food items to be submitted were equally distributed among districts and branches, but sections within large branches submitted relatively few food samples compared to sections within smaller branches and districts. Finally, laboratory results were not available for about half the food items prior to their respective expiration dates.

  7. BAQMAP. Air Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Program for Botswana. Mission 1 Report 4-22 November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkestad, T.; Dreiem, R.; Hermansen, O.; Knudsen, S.

    1996-12-31

    This report is concerned with the start of a joint project between the authorities in Botswana and Norway on the development of an air pollution monitoring and surveillance program for Botswana. NILU will provide assistance in the fields of (1) Siting and establishment of an air pollution monitoring network, (2) Laboratory techniques, methods and routines, (3) Quality control and quality assurance procedures, (4) Emission data bases, (5) Statistical data analysis and reporting, (6) Atmospheric dispersion model estimates for air quality planning and assessment analysis. This is the report of the Norwegian team after their first visit to Botswana. 1 ref., 13 figs., 35 tabs.

  8. Simulation model estimates of test accuracy and predictive values for the Danish Salmonella surveillance program in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnick, L.D.; Nielsen, L.R.; Nielsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    antibody measurements for infected and noninfected herds were determined from field study data. Herd infection was defined as having either >= 1 Salmonella culture-positive fecal sample or >= 5% within-herd prevalence based on antibody measurements in serum or milk from individual animals. No distinction......The Danish government and cattle industry instituted a Salmonella surveillance program in October 2002 to help reduce Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Dublin (S. Dublin) infections. All dairy herds are tested by measuring antibodies in bulk tank milk at 3-month intervals. The program...... is based on a well-established ELISA, but the overall test program accuracy and misclassification was not previously investigated. We developed a model to simulate repeated bulk tank milk antibody measurements for dairy herds conditional on true infection status. The distributions of bulk tank milk...

  9. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION): Methods of the Surveillance Program, 2011–2012 Through 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompier, Thomas P.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Kerr, Zachary Y.; Hayden, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Context Previous epidemiologic researchers have examined time-loss (TL) injuries in high school student-athletes, but little is known about the frequency of non–time-loss (NTL) injuries in these athletes. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) Surveillance Program and provide descriptive epidemiology of TL and NTL injuries across athletes in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 147 high schools in 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Athletic trainers documented injuries and exposures using commercially available injury-tracking software packages. Standard injury-tracking software was modified by the software vendors to conform to the surveillance needs of this project. The modified software exported a set of common data elements, stripped of personally identifiable information, to a centralized automated verification and validation system before they were included in the centralized research database. Dependent measures were injury and exposure frequencies and injury rates with 95% confidence intervals stratified by sport, sex, and injury type (TL or NTL). Results Over the 3-year period, a total of 2337 team seasons across 27 sports resulted in 47 014 injuries and 5 146 355 athlete-exposures. The NTL injuries accounted for 38 765 (82.45%) and TL injuries for 8249 (17.55%) of the total. Conclusions The NTL injuries accounted for a substantial amount of the total number of injuries sustained by high school student-athletes. This project demonstrates the feasibility of creating large-scale injury surveillance systems using commercially available injury-tracking software. PMID:26067620

  10. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  11. Identifying Needs to Develop a PBL Staff Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Prarthana

    2013-01-01

    Staff development is a crucial element for educational intervention. Recognizing the importance of staff development, this study aims to pin-point suitable methodologies in developing a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) academic staff development program for a higher education institute where PBL has become an intervention alternative. The study aims…

  12. Identifying Needs: A Missing Part in Teacher Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Moeini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverse compositions of student populations, changing paradigms in teaching and learning, and changing expectations about the quality of education occur in every society at an unexpected rate. In the absence of well designed professional development programs, teachers have been expected to learn how to improve their teaching on their own, learn from trial and error, and individually seek the required professional development. In the new educational era, the trial and error teaching, and take it or leave it professional development programs cannot be accepted anymore. Teacher training is more than the matter of only mastery of certain practical knowledge, pedagogical skills, and techniques. It has to concern teachers’ own perception about the fields in which they don’t feel knowledgeable. This article is a theoretical study intended to give an insight into teachers’ training, their professional development, importance of needs analysis, and integration of needs analysis and information and communication technology in teacher preparation programs. It emphasizes that information and communication technology can enhance teachers’ learning and their professional developments by giving opportunities to initiate new ideas through their training programs.

  13. Effects of Breakpoint Changes on Carbapenem Susceptibility Rates ofEnterobacteriaceae: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, United States, 2008 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Rennie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of clinical resistance, breakpoints for many antimicrobial agents are often set high. Clinical failures following use of the agents over time requires re-evaluation of breakpoints. This is based on patient response, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic information and in vitro minimal inhibitory concentration data. Data from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program has shown that Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint changes for carbapenems that occurred between 2008 and 2012 in North America have resulted in decreased levels of susceptibility for some species. In particular, reduced susceptibility to imipenem was observed for Proteus mirabilis (35% and Morganella morganii (80%. Minor decreases in susceptibility were also noted for Enterobacter species with ertapenem (5% and imipenem (4.3%, and Serratia species with imipenem (6.4%. No significant decreases in susceptibility were observed for meropenem following the breakpoint changes. There were no earlier breakpoints established for doripenem. Very few of these Enterobacteriaceae produce carbapenamase enzymes; therefore, the clinical significance of these changes has not yet been clearly determined. In conclusion, ongoing surveillance studies with in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration data are essential in predicting the need for breakpoint changes and in identifying the impact of such changes on the percent susceptibility of different species.

  14. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1.

  15. A nationwide cohort study of stage I seminoma patients followed on a surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Lauritsen, Jakob; Gundgaard, Maria Gry; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Christensen, Ib Jarle; von der Maase, Hans; Daugaard, Gedske

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concerns about late effects after adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma have made surveillance an attractive alternative. To evaluate the surveillance strategy in a nationwide cohort study. A retrospective, population-based study of Danish patients diagnosed with stage I seminoma between 1984 and 2008 and followed for 5 yr (n=1954). Patient data were linked with national registries on November 30, 2012, to obtain information on late relapse, vital status, and cause of death. Disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival, relapse rates, time to relapse, detection of relapse, and prognostic factors for relapse were described for the cohort. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine survival probabilities. A Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis of prognostic factors. Median follow-up time was 15.1 yr. In total, 369 patients relapsed after a median 13.7 mo. DSS after 15 yr was 99.3%. Tumor size was a significant factor for relapse. Either vascular invasion or invasion of epididymis was significant if the other factor was excluded from analysis. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study and the number of missing values in analysis. In the world's largest study of stage I seminoma patients, we found surveillance to be a safe alternative to adjuvant therapies. Tumor size was a significant factor for relapse, together with either invasion of epididymis or vascular invasion. In this nationwide study, we looked at the outcomes of patients with stage I seminoma followed for 5 yr. We found that surveillance is a safe alternative to adjuvant treatment. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Editorial: Best Practices in Surveillance of Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Sachin; Gaddam, Srinivas

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic surveillance in Barrett's esophagus (BE) has numerous limitations and thus provides several opportunities for improving the effectiveness of our current surveillance strategies. Several risk stratification and prediction tools have been investigated to identify patients at highest risk for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Persistence of non-dysplastic BE (NDBE) has been proposed as an indicator of lower risk of progression to EAC. This editorial highlights the variable results and methodologies in studies evaluating persistence of NDBE as a risk stratification tool in the surveillance of BE patients and provides guidance for optimizing outcomes in BE patients enrolled in surveillance programs.

  17. Identifying needs to develop a PBL staff development program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Coffin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Staff development is a crucial element for educational intervention. Recognizing the importance of staff development, this study aims to pin-point suitable methodologies in developing a Problem-Based Learning (PBL academic staff development program for a higher education institute where PBL has become an intervention alternative. The study aims to answer the following research questions 1 how can university academic staff be assisted to acquire pedagogical competences for an initiative of the implementation of PBL curriculum? 2 What kinds of support do university academic staff need in order to maintain PBL implementation? Through a combination of a literature review, interviews with 6 PBL experts which emphasize the importance of PBL facilitators, and document analysis of reflection notes from 18 trainees of a PBL workshop, this study will produce a guideline in developing a PBL Academic Staff Development Program for an institute wishes to implement and retain PBL as the education strategy.

  18. Identifying Needs: A Missing Part in Teacher Training Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein Moeini

    2008-01-01

    Diverse compositions of student populations, changing paradigms in teaching and learning, and changing expectations about the quality of education occur in every society at an unexpected rate. In the absence of well designed professional development programs, teachers have been expected to learn how to improve their teaching on their own, learn from trial and error, and individually seek the required professional development. In the new educational era, the trial and error teaching, and take ...

  19. Identifying attributes of GPU programs for difficulty evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Tristram

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available General-purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPGPU has great potential to accelerate many scientific models and algorithms. However, some problems are considerably more difficult to accelerate than others, and it may be challenging for those new to GPGPU to ascertain the difficulty of accelerating a particular problem. Through what was learned in the acceleration of three problems, problem attributes have been identified that can assist in the evaluation of the difficulty of accelerating a problem on a GPU. The identified attributes are a problem's available parallelism, inherent parallelism, synchronisation requirements, and data transfer requirements. We envisage that with further development, these attributes could form the foundation of a difficulty classification system that could be used to determine whether GPU acceleration is practical for a candidate GPU acceleration problem, aid in identifying appropriate techniques and optimisations, and outline the required GPGPU knowledge.

  20. The longitudinal time course of QTc in early infancy. Preliminary results of a prospective sudden infant death syndrome surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, M S; Trippel, D L; Buckles, D S; Young, R H; Dolan, P L; Gillette, P C

    1991-03-01

    Eleven hundred one healthy neonates in Charleston County, SC, were enrolled in a prospective, serial measurement sudden infant death syndrome/QT surveillance program. Automated computer-enhanced ECGs were recorded at 1 day of age in the hospital nursery and again at 1 week and 1, 2, and 3 months in the participant's home. At 1 year, the families were contacted by phone or mail and questioned as to the health of the child. Validation studies demonstrated the computer-enhanced ECGs to be 96% accurate, whereas traditional ECG recording and measurement was 94% accurate. No systematic differences in the QTc according to race and sex were observed. There were parallel longitudinal time courses for each race and sex group with a significant (P less than .001) shortening of the QTc at 1 week. There was no evidence of tracking of the QTc during the first 3 months of life. In conclusion, (1) automated, enhanced ECG QTc intervals are superior to traditional electrocardiography while retaining the advantages of automation; (2) there is a significant shortening of the QTc during the first month of life; and (3) a home follow-up sudden infant death syndrome surveillance program is feasible and produces accurate, reliable information.

  1. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Canada: results from the Canadian nosocomial infection surveillance program, 1999-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner-Agostini, Marianna; Johnston, B Lynn; Simor, Andrew E; Embil, John; Matlow, Anne; Mulvey, Michael; Ormiston, Debbie; Conly, John

    2008-03-01

    Surveillance for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in sentinel Canadian hospitals has been conducted since 1999. From 1999 to 2005, the rate of VRE detection increased from 0.37 to 1.32 cases per 1,000 patients admitted, and the rate of VRE infection increased from 0.02 to 0.05 cases per 1,000 patients admitted. Thirty-three percent of all patients with VRE detected that were reported during 1999-2005 were identified in 2005, with increases seen in all regions of Canada. Although the incidence rate of VRE carriage in Canada is increasing, it remains very low.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Illness, and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health At A Glance, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program (IISP) has monitored the health of contractor workers at selected DOE sites since 1990. For the first time, the IISP has sufficient data to describe, in a collective manner, the health trends occurring among workers at a number of DOE sites during a 10-year period. This brief report and the more detailed Worker Health Summary assess illness and injury trends of DOE workers according to gender, age, occupational group, and program office over the 10-year period, 1995 through 2004. During this time, over 137,000 individual contractor workers were employed at the 15 DOE sites participating in the IISP.

  3. BAQMAP Air Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Program for Botswana. Mission 2 Report 27 January - 18 February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkestad, T.

    1997-12-31

    This report is concerned with Mission 2 of a joint project between the authorities in Botswana and Norway on the development of an air pollution monitoring and surveillance program for Botswana. Mission 2 was undertaken as part of the annual meeting on 4 February 1997. Discussions and decision on the air quality program was performed after the annual meeting. Passive samplers for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} were installed in Selebi-Phikwe and Francistown. The samplers measured air pollution from the BCL smelter and traffic, respectively, during the first two weeks of February 1997. The samplers have been analysed and the results are given in this report, which also includes a status report. 13 tabs.

  4. Molecular programming of steady-state dendritic cells: impact on autoimmunity and tumor immune surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dylan J; Ohashi, Pamela S

    2013-05-01

    Dendritic cells are master regulators of immunity. Immature dendritic cells are essential for maintaining self-tolerance, while mature dendritic cells initiate a variety of specialized immune responses. Dendritic cell quiescence is often viewed as a default state that requires exogenous stimuli to induce maturation. However, recent studies have identified dendritic cell quiescence factors that actively program dendritic cells to an immature state. In the absence of these factors, dendritic cells spontaneously become immunogenic and can induce autoimmune responses. Herein we discuss two such factors, NF-κB1 and A20, that preserve dendritic cell immaturity through their regulation of NF-κB signaling. Loss of either of these factors increases dendritic cell immunogenicity, suggesting that they may be important targets for enhancing dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapies. Alternatively, defects in molecules critical for maintaining steady-state DCs may provide novel biomarkers that identify patients who have enhanced natural antitumor immunity or that correlate with better responses to various immunotherapies.

  5. HIV incidence estimate combining HIV/AIDS surveillance, testing history information and HIV test to identify recent infections in Lazio, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammone Alessia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of serological methods in HIV/AIDS routine surveillance systems to identify persons with recently acquired HIV infection has been proposed as a tool which may provide an accurate description of the current transmission patterns of HIV. Using the information about recent infection it is possible to estimate HIV incidence, according to the model proposed by Karon et al. in 2008, that accounts for the effect of testing practices on the number of persons detected as recently infected. Methods We used data from HIV/AIDS surveillance in the period 2004-2008 to identify newly diagnosed persons. These were classified with recent/non-recent infection on the basis of an avidity index result, or laboratory evidence of recently acquired infection (i.e., previous documented negative HIV test within 6 months; or presence of HIV RNA or p24 antigen with simultaneous negative/indeterminate HIV antibody test. Multiple imputation was used to impute missing information. The incidence estimate was obtained as the number of persons detected as recently infected divided by the estimated probability of detection. Estimates were stratified by calendar year, transmission category, gender and nationality. Results During the period considered 3,633 new HIV diagnoses were reported to the regional surveillance system. Applying the model, we estimated that in 2004-2008 there were 5,465 new infections (95%CI: 4,538-6,461; stratifying by transmission category, the estimated number of infections was 2,599 among heterosexual contacts, 2,208 among men-who-have-sex-with-men, and 763 among injecting-drug-users. In 2008 there were 952 (625-1,229 new HIV infections (incidence of 19.9 per 100,000 person-years. In 2008, for men-who-have-sex-with-men (691 per 100,000 person-years and injecting drug users (577 per 100,000 person-years the incidence remained comparatively high with respect to the general population, although a decreasing pattern during

  6. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  7. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy, Illness and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health Summary, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program has created an opportunity to assess illness and injury rates and patterns among workers at participating sites for well over a decade. The Worker Health Summary introduces an additional perspective on worker health with the introduction of analyses comparing the experience of sites in different program offices and a focus on time trends covering a decade of worker illness and injury experience. These analyses by program office suggest that illness and injury patterns among National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) workers diverge in many ways from those seen among Environmental Management (EM) and Science workers for reasons not yet understood. These differences will receive further investigation in future special focus studies, as will other findings of interest. With the time depth now available in our data, the Worker Health Summary reveals an additional nuance in worker health trends: changing health patterns in a specialized and skilled but aging work force. Older workers are becoming an increasing percentage of the work force, and their absence rates for diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are increasing as well. The impact of these emerging health issues, if properly addressed, can be managed to maintain or even enhance worker health and productivity. Prevention strategies designed to reduce the toll of these health conditions appear warranted, and this report gives us an indication of where to focus them. The analyses that follow reflect the Illness and Injury Surveillance Program’s continued commitment to apply a public health perspective in protecting the health of DOE’s work force.

  9. The Where is Norovirus Control Lost (WINCL) Study: an enhanced surveillance project to identify norovirus index cases in care settings in the UK and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennie; Haig, Caroline E; McCowan, Colin; Leanord, Alistair; Loveday, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background: Norovirus outbreaks have a significant impact on all care settings; little is known about the index cases from whom these outbreaks initiate. Aim: To identify and categorise norovirus outbreak index cases in care settings. Methods: A mixed-methods, multi-centre, prospective, enhanced surveillance study identified and categorised index cases in acute and non-acute care settings. Results: From 54 participating centres, 537 outbreaks were reported (November 2013 to April 2014): 383 (71.3%) in acute care facilities (ACF); 115 (21.4%) in residential or care homes (RCH) and 39 (7.3%) in other care settings (OCS). Index cases were identified in 424 (79%) outbreaks. Of the 245 index cases who were asymptomatic on admission and not transferred within/into the care setting, 123 (50%) had been an inpatient/resident for 4 days. Four themes emerged: missing the diagnosis, care service under pressure, delay in outbreak control measures and patient/resident location and proximity. Conclusion: The true index case is commonly not identified as the cause of a norovirus outbreak with at least 50% of index cases being misclassified. Unrecognised norovirus cross-transmission occurs frequently suggesting that either Standard Infection Control Precautions (SICPs) are being insufficiently well applied, and or SICPs are themselves are insufficient to prevent outbreaks.

  10. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  11. Temperature diagnostic to identify high risk areas and optimize Legionella pneumophila surveillance in hot water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Emilie; Fey, Stéphanie; Charron, Dominique; Lalancette, Cindy; Cantin, Philippe; Dolcé, Patrick; Laferrière, Céline; Déziel, Eric; Prévost, Michèle

    2015-03-15

    Legionella pneumophila is frequently detected in hot water distribution systems and thermal control is a common measure implemented by health care facilities. A risk assessment based on water temperature profiling and temperature distribution within the network is proposed, to guide effective monitoring strategies and allow the identification of high risk areas. Temperature and heat loss at control points (water heater, recirculation, representative points-of-use) were monitored in various sections of five health care facilities hot water distribution systems and results used to develop a temperature-based risk assessment tool. Detailed investigations show that defective return valves in faucets can cause widespread temperature losses because of hot and cold water mixing. Systems in which water temperature coming out of the water heaters was kept consistently above 60 °C and maintained above 55 °C across the network were negative for Legionella by culture or qPCR. For systems not meeting these temperature criteria, risk areas for L. pneumophila were identified using temperature profiling and system's characterization; higher risk was confirmed by more frequent microbiological detection by culture and qPCR. Results confirmed that maintaining sufficiently high temperatures within hot water distribution systems suppressed L. pneumophila culturability. However, the risk remains as shown by the persistence of L. pneumophila by qPCR.

  12. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2017-03-24

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In total 305 workers participated in the trial. Outcomes were retrieved during a WHS program, by multiple questionnaires, and from company registries. Primary outcomes were sickness absence, work ability, and productivity. Secondary outcomes were health, vitality, and psychosocial workload. Data were analyzed with linear and logistic multilevel models. Cost-benefit analyses from the employer's perspective were performed as well. Results Primary outcomes sickness absence (OR = 1.40), work ability (B = -0.63) and productivity (OR = 0.71) were better in the control condition. Secondary outcomes did not or minimally differ between conditions. Of the 12 secondary outcomes, the only outcome that scored better in the experimental condition was meaning of work (B = 0.18). Controlling for confounders did not or minimally change the results. However, our stepped wedge design did not enable adjustment for confounding in the last two periods of the trial. The WHS program resulted in higher costs for the employer on the short and middle term. Conclusions Primary outcomes did not improve after program implementation and secondary outcomes remained equal after implementation. The program was not cost-beneficial after 1-3 year follow-up. Main limitation that may have contributed to absence of positive effects may be program failure, because interventions were not deployed as intended.

  13. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  14. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  15. Resistance to beta-lactams among blood isolates of Salmonella spp. in European hospitals : results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program 1997-98

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzouvelekis, LS; Lukova, [No Value; Tassios, PT; Fluit, AC; Jones, RN; Legakis, NJ

    2003-01-01

    The susceptibility to beta -lactams and the beta -lactamase content of 110 Salmonella spp. blood isolates collected during 1997-98 in 19 European centers participating in the SENTRY Surveillance Program were studied. Thirty-one isolates (28%) were resistant to penicillins, due to production of TEM-1

  16. Resistance to beta-lactams among blood isolates of Salmonella spp. in European hospitals : results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program 1997-98

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzouvelekis, LS; Lukova, [No Value; Tassios, PT; Fluit, AC; Jones, RN; Legakis, NJ

    2003-01-01

    The susceptibility to beta -lactams and the beta -lactamase content of 110 Salmonella spp. blood isolates collected during 1997-98 in 19 European centers participating in the SENTRY Surveillance Program were studied. Thirty-one isolates (28%) were resistant to penicillins, due to production of TEM-1

  17. Differences in MRSA prevalence and resistance patterns in a tertiary center before and after joining an international program for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, Olivera; Jovanovic, Snezana; Stosovic, Branka; Tosic, Tanja; Jovanovic, Milica; Nartey, Naomi; Todorovic, Jovana; Markovic-Denic, Ljiljana

    2016-12-08

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged as one of the most important causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs), especially the multidrug resistant clones. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence and resistance patterns of MRSA bacteremia in the major tertiary-care academic and referral center in Serbia before and after implementing an active antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. Laboratory-based before-after study was conducted during a two-year period (January 2012 to December 2013) in Clinical Centre of Serbia. Isolation and identification of bacterial strains were done following standard microbiological procedures. During the AMR surveillance, nearly twice more bloodstream samples were collected compared to the year without surveillance (1,528 vs. 855). In total, 43 isolates of MRSA were identified. MRSA was significantly more prevalent during the AMR surveillance compared to the previous year [14 (66.7%) to 29 (76.3%); P = 0.046]. During the AMR surveillance, MRSA more frequently originated from medical departments compared to intensive care unit, surgical department, and internal medicine (P = 0.027) indicating increasing MRSA infections in patients with less severe clinical condition and no apparent risk factors. Higher prevalence of MRSA and its lower susceptibility to erythromycin were revealed by implementation of active AMR surveillance, which may reflect more thoughtful collection of bloodstream samples from patients with suspected BSI.

  18. [Role of the National Poliovirus Laboratory for the Program of eradication and poliomyelitis surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trallero, Gloria; Cabrerizo, María; Avellón, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish acute flaccid paralysis surveillance network is coordinated by the National Poliovirus Laboratory (NPL), which, since 1998, carries out polioviruses (PV) and other enteroviruses detected characterization by cell culture and molecular techniques. A total of 110,725 (70046+40679) samples were studied between 1998-2012 and enteroviruses were detected in 8% of these. Among these enteroviruses 241 PV were characterized as PV Sabin-like, except samples belong to an imported poliomyelitis case, all of which were characterised as vaccine derived PV type 2. The NPL has carried out the serotyping and the intratypic differentiation of all the isolated PV in Spain of any syndrome. It is shown that wild PV has not circulated in our country during the 15 years studied and that has led to the signing of the Act of the "eradication of poliomyelitis in Spain" by WHO in 2001, and the /"certification of the eradication of wild PV free for European countries" on 21 June 2002. Currently only 3 countries have endemic transmission of wild PV (Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria). Until a complete worldwide eradication, was achieved, Spain will actively continue to participate in the maintenance of the poliomyelitis eradication infrastructure by monitoring and vaccination as well as the wild PV containment plan to avoid the spread of wild PV.

  19. A preliminary study for the development of indices and the current state of surgical site infections (SSIs) in Korea: the Korean Surgical Site Infection Surveillance (KOSSIS) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Jin; Lee, Kil Yeon; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jae Gil; Choi, Hee Jung; Chun, Hee Kyung; Kang, Jung Gu

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to develop an effective system for surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance and examine the current domestic state of SSIs for common abdominal surgeries in Korea. The Korean Surgical Site Infection Surveillance (KOSSIS) program was developed as an SSI surveillance system. A prospective multicenter study in nine university-affiliated or general hospitals was conducted for patients who underwent gastrectomy, cholecystectomy, appendectomy, colectomy, or proctectomy between August 16 and September 30 in 2012. Patients were monitored for up to 30 days by combining direct observation and a postdischarge surgeon survey. Data on SSIs were prospectively collected with KOSSIS secretarial support according to a common protocol. Operation-specific SSI rates were stratified according to risk factors and compared with data from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS) and National Healthcare Safety Network. A focus group interview was conducted with participating hospitals for feedback. A total of 1,088 operations were monitored: 207 gastrectomies, 318 cholecystectomies, 270 appendectomies, 197 colectomies, and 96 proctectomies. Operation-specific SSI rates determined by the KOSSIS program were substantially higher than those found in KONIS (7.73% [95% confidence interval, 4.5%-12.3%] vs. 3.4% for gastrectomies, 10.15% [95% confidence interval, 6.1%-15.2%] vs. 4.0% for colectomy, and 13.5% [95% confidence interval, 7.4%-22.0%] vs. 4.2% for proctectomy). Despite a short surveillance period and heterogenous group of hospitals, our results suggest that KOSSIS could be a useful program to enhance SSI surveillance in Korea.

  20. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-03-26

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions.

  1. Epidemiology and Microbiologic Characterization of Nosocomial Candidemia from a Brazilian National Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, André Mario; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; Edmond, Michael B; Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Siqueira, Ricardo Andreotti; da Mota, Vivian Pereira; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia is a growing problem in hospitals all over the world. Despite advances in the medical support of critically ill patients, candidiasis leads to prolonged hospitalization, and has a crude mortality rate around 50%. We conducted a multicenter surveillance study in 16 hospitals distributed across five regions of Brazil to assess the incidence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, and risk factors for bloodstream infections due to Candida species. From June 2007 to March 2010, we studied a total of 2,563 nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI) episodes. Candida spp. was the 7th most prevalent agent. Most of the patients were male, with a median age of 56 years. A total of 64 patients (46.7%) were in the ICU when candidemia occurred. Malignancies were the most common underlying condition (32%). The crude mortality rate of candidemia during the hospital admission was 72.2%. Non-albicans species of Candida accounted for 65.7% of the 137 yeast isolates. C. albicans (34.3%), Candida parapsilosis (24.1%), Candida tropicalis (15.3%) and Candida glabrata (10.2%) were the most prevalent species. Only 47 out of 137 Candida isolates were sent to the reference laboratory for antifungal susceptibility testing. All C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the 5 antifungal drugs tested. Among 11 C. glabrata isolates, 36% were resistant to fluconazole, and 64% SDD. All of them were susceptible to anidulafungin and amphotericin B. We observed that C. glabrata is emerging as a major player among non-albicans Candida spp. and fluconazole resistance was primarily confined to C. glabrata and C. krusei strains. Candida resistance to echinocandins and amphotericin B remains rare in Brazil. Mortality rates remain increasingly higher than that observed in the Northern Hemisphere countries, emphasizing the need for improving local practices of clinical management of candidemia, including early diagnosis, source control and precise

  2. Mark of the reconstitution process of the surveillance program of the CLV; Calificacion del proceso de reconstitucion del programa de vigilancia de CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, J.; Hernandez, R.; Fernandez, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jrc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    surveillance program of the reactor vessel of the nucleo electric central of Mexico it evaluates the mechanical state of the vessel, for it are had surveillance capsules with a series of witness test tubes, subjected to a similar or major neutron flux to that of the vessel. The objective is to evaluate in advance the embrittlement grade of the vessel in its design life. However the number of capsules with the witness test tubes it is only for the design life of the plant and at the moment the nucleo electric plants negotiate an extension of life of these, until for 20 years or more, of there the importance of this witness material that stores the information of the damage accumulated by irradiation. This material requires to be taken advantage after being rehearsed and the normative one settles down as obligatory to qualify the rebuilding process to obtain other 'new' Charpy test tubes that are again introduced in the reactor, reusing this material, as much for the surveillance program as for the extension of the plant life. In this work the qualification of the welding process by 'Stud Welding' for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes of the surveillance program of the BWR reactor Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant, Veracruz, Mexico is described. (Author)

  3. Design of a computer program for the registration of implantable medical device, field safety corrective action and advers events, as a tool for medical device surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Márquez-Peiró

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the features of computer program to support the activity of the responsible for surveillance of medical devices. To evaluate their use after one year of implementation in a hospital. Method: The stages of the process were: description of the activities of medical devices surveillance and implant registration, definition of functionality and data processing, creation of databases, implementation in a private hospital which manages PS, validation of the program and analysis of their usefulness. Results: SIVIPS was developed using Acces®. Main variables were described for all the activities of the responsible for medical device surveillance (implants, alert, medical device incidents, including for in vitro diagnostics and all the functionalities of the computer program. SIVIPS was introduced in a pharmacy service with one pharmacist for the management of medical devices. One year after its implementation we had registered 564 implants with a description by type of implant, 31 alerts and 6 incidents. SIVIPS allow monitoring of the actions taken in these cases. Conclusions: SIVIPS® is the first tool to support the activity of medical device surveillance. It is an easy tool that allows the registration of alerts and medical device related incidents, and registration of implants performed in the center, which will improve the traceability of the PS.

  4. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Alberta Cattle Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and Perceptions of Surveillance Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Sawford; Ardene Robinson Vollman; Craig Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemen...

  6. Identifying the Most Sensitive and Specific Sign and Symptom Combinations for Cholera: Results from an Analysis of Laboratory-Based Surveillance Data from Haiti, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucien, Mentor Ali Ber; Schaad, Nicolas; Steenland, Maria W.; Mintz, Eric D.; Emmanuel, Rossignol; Freeman, Nicole; Boncy, Jacques; Adrien, Paul; Joseph, Gerard A.; Katz, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2010, over 700,000 cholera cases have been reported in Haiti. We used data from laboratory-based surveillance for diarrhea in Haiti to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the cholera case definitions recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). From April 2012 to May 2013, we tested 1,878 samples from hospitalized patients with acute watery diarrhea; 1,178 (62.7%) yielded Vibrio cholerae O1. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHO case definition for cholera in an epidemic setting were 91.3% and 43.1%, respectively, and the PPV and NPV were 72.8% and 74.8%, respectively. The WHO case definition for cholera in an area where cholera is not known to be present had lower sensitivity (63.1%) and NPV (55.1%) but higher specificity (74.2%) and PPV (80.0%). When laboratory diagnostic testing is not immediately available, clinicians can evaluate signs and symptoms to more accurately identify cholera patients. PMID:25732682

  7. A Program Evaluation Model: Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Identify Outcome Indicators in Outcomes-Based Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Rita C.

    2011-01-01

    Outcomes-based program evaluation is a systematic approach to identifying outcome indicators and measuring results against those indicators. One dimension of program evaluation is assessing the level of learner acquisition to determine if learning objectives were achieved as intended. The purpose of the proposed model is to use Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  8. Security Vs. Liberty: How to Measure Privacy Costs in Domestic Surveillance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    online retailers . . . . I for one doubt that people would accept without complaint the warrantless disclosure to the Government of a list of every...5 D. PROBLEMS AND HYPOTHESES ...............................................................7 E . METHODS AND SOURCES...NSA: SHAMROCK .................................................................14 e . FBI: Counterintelligence Program

  9. 40 CFR 172.8 - Program surveillance and reporting of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of testing at each site of application. It will further be the responsibility of the permittee to... include: (i) All data gathered during the testing program; field notes need not be submitted but must be... provided for elsewhere in this part, in the case of any meat-producing animals or birds that receive...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Reactor Vessel Material Surveillance Program Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... within the physical constraints of the system, the neutron spectrum, temperature history, and maximum... light water nuclear power reactors which result from exposure of these materials to neutron irradiation and the thermal environment. Under the program, fracture toughness test data are obtained...

  11. Head Injury Secondary to Suspected Child Maltreatment: Results of a Prospective Canadian National Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Susan; Ward, Michelle; Moreau, Katherine; Fortin, Gilles; King, Jim; MacKay, Morag; Plint, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the incidence, clinical features, and demographic profile of head injury secondary to suspected child maltreatment (abuse or neglect) in Canada to help inform the development and evaluation of prevention programs for abusive head injuries. Methods: From March 1, 2005 to February 28, 2008, an average of 2,545…

  12. Evaluation of ADS-B Surveillance Data to Identify Flight Operations with Reduced Safety Margin in the National Airspace System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of the FAA's plans for modernization of the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system, Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) will be the basis of the...

  13. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  14. Leveraging Administrative Data for Program Evaluations: A Method for Linking Data Sets Without Unique Identifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorden, Andrea L; Radcliff, Tiffany A; Jiang, Luohua; Horel, Scott A; Smith, Matthew L; Lorig, Kate; Howell, Benjamin L; Whitelaw, Nancy; Ory, Marcia

    2016-06-01

    In community-based wellness programs, Social Security Numbers (SSNs) are rarely collected to encourage participation and protect participant privacy. One measure of program effectiveness includes changes in health care utilization. For the 65 and over population, health care utilization is captured in Medicare administrative claims data. Therefore, methods as described in this article for linking participant information to administrative data are useful for program evaluations where unique identifiers such as SSN are not available. Following fuzzy matching methodologies, participant information from the National Study of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program was linked to Medicare administrative data. Linking variables included participant name, date of birth, gender, address, and ZIP code. Seventy-eight percent of participants were linked to their Medicare claims data. Linking program participant information to Medicare administrative data where unique identifiers are not available provides researchers with the ability to leverage claims data to better understand program effects.

  15. Using Work Action Analysis to Identify Web-Portal Requirements for a Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, George

    2007-01-01

    This article describes using Work Action Analysis (WAA) as a method for identifying requirements for a web-based portal that supports a professional development program. WAA is a cognitive systems engineering method for modeling multi-agent systems to support design and evaluation. A WAA model of the professional development program of the…

  16. 42 CFR 137.301 - How are project and program environmental review costs identified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are project and program environmental review... HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.301 How are project and program environmental review costs identified? (a)...

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  18. Heavy manual work, exposure to vibration and Dupuytren's disease? Results of a surveillance program for musculoskeletal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Bodin, Julie; Ha, Catherine; Goubault, Pierre; Lebreton, Marine; Chastang, Jean François; Imbernon, Ellen; Leclerc, Annette; Goldberg, Marcel; Roquelaure, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In view of the debate about occupational factors in Dupuytren’s disease, the aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of the disease in men and its relationship with work exposure, and especially to distinguish heavy manual work with and without significant use of vibrating tools by using data from a surveillance program for musculoskeletal disorders. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in France between 2002 and 2004. Dupuytren’s disease was diagnosed clinically by one of the 83 occupational physicians involved in the program. Exposure in relation to work status and occupational risk factors was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire, and was categorized according to vibration exposure (defined as use of vibrating tools ≥2h/day), heavy manual work without vibration exposure [defined as use of hand tools ≥2h/day (use of vibrating tools ≥2h/day excluded) and Borg scale ≥15/20] and no form of such exposure. Bivariate and multivariate associations using logistic models were recorded in men and also in those with over 10 years at the same job. Results Of the 2,161 men, 1.3% (n=27) suffered from Dupuytren’s disease (mean age 47.1+/−6.7 years). Heavy manual work without vibration exposure was significantly associated with the disease (adjusted odds ratio - aOR- 3.9[1.3;11.5]) adjusted on age and diabetes), as was the use of vibrating tools (aOR 5.1[2.1;12.2]). These associations remained significant among subjects with over 10 years at the same job, with increases in aOR of 6.1[1.5;25.0] and 10.7[3.4;34.6], respectively. Conclusion Despite the limited number of cases, occupational exposure, including both vibration exposure and heavy manual work without significant vibration exposure, was associated with Dupuytren’s disease. PMID:22213840

  19. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Using data from a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system to assess trends and influence nutrition programs and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasima Akhter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* of Helen Keller International (HKI, Bangladesh, implemented in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh’s (GOB Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN from 1990 until 2006, is among the longest running surveillance systems; and was implemented with an overall goal to monitor nutrition and health status of children and mothers in Bangladesh. From 1990-1997, NSP data collection included rural and urban poor populations of disaster prone areas of Bangladesh. Since 1998, it evolved into a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system in rural Bangladesh and also continued assessing trends of malnutrition in urban poor areas. Over the 16 year period, the NSP produced plethora of information that was packaged and shared as bulletins, in peer reviewed journal articles, as presentations at conferences, seminars, workshops. The NSP had a flexible framework that allowed it to assess trends and underlying factors of malnutrition, monitor and evaluate selected programs and conduct special studies related to current and emerging issues. NSP findings were available to contribute to program development and supported policy discussions in-country and internationally. The NSP continuously highlighted the importance of monitoring, which is not only an indispensible element for a successful program, but also helps prioritization and decision making to maximize utilization of limited resources for developing countries burdened with numerous problems to address. The NSP provides an example of a technically sound surveillance system with rapid turnover of data and findings, which is imperative to successful program planning, policy formulation and tracking progress toward developmental goals.Le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* de l’association Helen Keller International (HKI, mis en œuvre au Bangladesh en partenariat avec l’Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN,

  1. Cost-effectiveness of surveillance programs for families at high and moderate risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Olsen, Kim; Bojesen, Stig E; Gerdes, Anne-Marie M

    2007-01-01

    and moderate risk of HNPCC are offered surveillance from age 25 and age 45, respectively. The model includes costs for all families referred to genetic counseling, including genetic risk assessment, mutation analysis, and surveillance in relevant families with or without known mutation, plus the costs related...... the moderate risk group is evaluated genetically but not offered surveillance. Sensitivity analysis showed these findings to be robust, although cost-effectiveness can be improved in cases of more conservative referrals to genetic counseling. CONCLUSIONS: The result for high risk families confirms the findings...

  2. Multicenter evaluation of resistance patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolated from clinical specimens in Brazil: RESISTNET surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Paz Oplustil

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance programs are essential to detect the increase of antimicrobial resistance, and several different programs are being conducted in many countries. The RESISTNET is a surveillance program for bacterial resistance against several antimicrobial agents initiated in 1998 among Latin American countries. In Brazil, several centers were invited to join this surveillance and a total of 11 centers (6 from São Paulo and 5 from other states participated in the study. All results were analyzed using the WHONET program. A total of 894 Escherichia coli, 386 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 70 Shigella spp and 57 Salmonella spp strains were analyzed in this study from April, 1998, to April, 1999. Susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method using NCCLS 1998 guidelines for several different drugs. For all strains, imipenem was the most effective drug (100% of the strains were susceptible. Klebsiella pneumoniae presented a high resistance rate to ampicillin (96.4%. The rate of probable ESBL producers among K. pneumoniae strains was 36.3%, most of them being isolated from catheters (58.8%. Among all Escherichia coli strains analyzed, the highest resistance rate was found for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (46.9% and the majority of the resistant strains were isolated from urine samples (47.8%. Among Salmonella spp, the resistance rates were low for all antibiotics tested. For Shigella spp strains there was a high resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (80.0%. No resistance to ceftriaxone was observed in these strains. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is critical for the successful management of infectious diseases. The results of this survey show significant resistance rates among these bacteria which are responsible for several types of human infections.

  3. Multicenter evaluation of resistance patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolated from clinical specimens in Brazil: RESISTNET surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Paz Oplustil

    Full Text Available Surveillance programs are essential to detect the increase of antimicrobial resistance, and several different programs are being conducted in many countries. The RESISTNET is a surveillance program for bacterial resistance against several antimicrobial agents initiated in 1998 among Latin American countries. In Brazil, several centers were invited to join this surveillance and a total of 11 centers (6 from São Paulo and 5 from other states participated in the study. All results were analyzed using the WHONET program. A total of 894 Escherichia coli, 386 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 70 Shigella spp and 57 Salmonella spp strains were analyzed in this study from April, 1998, to April, 1999. Susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method using NCCLS 1998 guidelines for several different drugs. For all strains, imipenem was the most effective drug (100% of the strains were susceptible. Klebsiella pneumoniae presented a high resistance rate to ampicillin (96.4%. The rate of probable ESBL producers among K. pneumoniae strains was 36.3%, most of them being isolated from catheters (58.8%. Among all Escherichia coli strains analyzed, the highest resistance rate was found for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (46.9% and the majority of the resistant strains were isolated from urine samples (47.8%. Among Salmonella spp, the resistance rates were low for all antibiotics tested. For Shigella spp strains there was a high resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (80.0%. No resistance to ceftriaxone was observed in these strains. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is critical for the successful management of infectious diseases. The results of this survey show significant resistance rates among these bacteria which are responsible for several types of human infections.

  4. The added value of a surveillance human biomonitoring program: The case of FLEHS in Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Hans; Colles, Ann; Morrens, Bert; Mampaey, Maja; Coertjens, Dries; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet; Loots, Ilse; Chovanova, Hana; Winderickx, Wim; Van Campenhout, Karen

    2016-09-20

    Since 2002, the Flemish Government decided to carry out the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS), an extended human biomonitoring (HBM) program, which is integrated in the environmental health policy. Through the FLEHS studies, a vast amount of data such as biomarkers of exposure and effect, exposure-effect associations, time trends and geographical differences, became available to the Flemish policy makers. In order to facilitate the policy interpretation, a phased action-plan was developed collaboratively by FLEHS researchers and policy makers. In this article we look back on more than 15 years of investments of the Flemish government in HBM and reflect on how this large scaled and challenging HBM-initiative contributed to shaping the environmental health policy in Flanders. We used the FLEHS I (2002-2006) and II (2007-2011) results on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the resulting policy actions as an example to illustrate the added value of HBM for policy making. Policy measures for POPs, including source-related regulation (e.g. further optimization and tightening of existing Flemish legislation on open fires), investment in monitoring networks and communication and awareness campaigns, are presented and the added value for environmental health policy is discussed. We also reflect on how HBM can support science and innovation in the environmental monitoring context. Finally, we describe what society can gain from HBM in terms of opportunities for (1) feeding the political and societal debate, (2) stimulating community involvement and (3) empowering participants and citizens. All together, the gained insights and phased action plan showed that next to compliance with high scientific standards, results of the Flemish human biomonitoring campaign could be translated in targeted policy actions even for chemicals that have since long been regulated.

  5. Sri Lankan National Melioidosis Surveillance Program Uncovers a Nationwide Distribution of Invasive Melioidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Enoka M; Merritt, Adam J; Ler, Yi-Horng; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Inglis, Timothy J J

    2016-02-01

    The epidemiologic status of melioidosis in Sri Lanka was unclear from the few previous case reports. We established laboratory support for a case definition and started a nationwide case-finding study. Suspected Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates were collated, identified by polymerase chain reaction assay, referred for Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and named according to the international MLST database. Between 2006 and early 2014, there were 32 patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis with an increasing annual total and a falling fatality rate. Patients were predominantly from rural communities, diabetic, and male. The major clinical presentations were sepsis, pneumonia, soft tissue and joint infections, and other focal infection. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates came from all parts of Sri Lanka except the Sabaragamuwa Province, the south central hill country, and parts of northern Sri Lanka. Bacterial isolates belonged to 18 multilocus sequence types, one of which (ST 1137) was associated with septicemia and a single-organ focus (Fisher's exact, P = 0.004). Melioidosis is an established endemic infection throughout Sri Lanka, and is caused by multiple genotypes of B. pseudomallei, which form a distinct geographic group based upon related sequence types (BURST) cluster at the junction of the southeast Asian and Australasian clades.

  6. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  7. Sustainability of a successful malaria surveillance and treatment program in a Runggus community in Sabah, east Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, J L; Chee, K C; Vun, Y S; Awang, J; Chin, K H; Kan, S K

    1996-09-01

    another, despite their close geographic proximity. The monthly number of VHV-diagnosed patients from the school and kampungs communities and the monthly number of true malaria patients in the two groups were significantly correlated. Sustainability of SPKP was linked to an ongoing process of social change which involved co-operative networking between the government health sector and the community. This in turn provided a stimulus for malaria abatement efforts. When Runggus people themselves control and maintain ownership of community-based malaria programs, the function of SPKP as a malaria surveillance system and an antimalarial drug distribution network is vastly improved.

  8. Injuries in the North--analysis of 20 years of surveillance data collected by the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Minh T; Fréchette, Mylène; McFaull, Steven; Denning, Bryany; Ruta, Mike; Thompson, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Injury is a major public health concern, particularly for Canadians living in Arctic regions where the harsh physical and social conditions pose additional challenges. Surveillance data collected over the past 2 decades through the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) provide insights into the burden of injuries in certain parts of Canada. This study aims to summarize and compare patterns of injuries in the Northwest Territories (NWT) and Nunavut to other southern communities across Canada. Analysis was based on CHIRPP data covering the period 1991-2010. Proportionate injury ratio (PIR) and its 95% confidence interval were used to summarize and compare the injury experience of Canadians living in the Arctic regions to other CHIRPP sites across Canada. Between 1991 and 2010, there were 65,116 reported injuries. Approximately 83% of the cases were unintentional in nature; however, significantly higher proportions were observed for assaults and maltreatment (PIR = 2.80, 95% CI: 2.72-2.88) among Canadians living in northern communities. Significantly higher proportions were also observed for crushing/amputations (PIR = 2.28, 95% CI: 2.14-2.44), poison/toxic effects (PIR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.15-1.28), drowning/asphyxiations (PIR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.33-1.74) and frostbites (PIR = 7.39, 95% CI: 6.60-8.28). The use of all-terrain vehicles or snowmobiles also resulted in significantly higher proportions of injuries (PIR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.79-2.09). This study contributes to the limited literature describing injuries in northern communities where the harsh physical and social climates pose additional challenges. Excesses in the proportions identified in this study could be useful in identifying strategies needed to minimize injury risks in northern communities within Canada.

  9. Bayesian pretest probability estimation for primary malignant bone tumors based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benndorf, Matthias; Neubauer, Jakob; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar

    2017-03-01

    In the diagnostic process of primary bone tumors, patient age, tumor localization and to a lesser extent sex affect the differential diagnosis. We therefore aim to develop a pretest probability calculator for primary malignant bone tumors based on population data taking these variables into account. We access the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute, 2015 release) database and analyze data of all primary malignant bone tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2012. We record age at diagnosis, tumor localization according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-O-3) and sex. We take relative probability of the single tumor entity as a surrogate parameter for unadjusted pretest probability. We build a probabilistic (naïve Bayes) classifier to calculate pretest probabilities adjusted for age, tumor localization and sex. We analyze data from 12,931 patients (647 chondroblastic osteosarcomas, 3659 chondrosarcomas, 1080 chordomas, 185 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas, 2006 Ewing's sarcomas, 281 fibroblastic osteosarcomas, 129 fibrosarcomas, 291 fibrous malignant histiocytomas, 289 malignant giant cell tumors, 238 myxoid chondrosarcomas, 3730 osteosarcomas, 252 parosteal osteosarcomas, 144 telangiectatic osteosarcomas). We make our probability calculator accessible at http://ebm-radiology.com/bayesbone/index.html . We provide exhaustive tables for age and localization data. Results from tenfold cross-validation show that in 79.8 % of cases the pretest probability is correctly raised. Our approach employs population data to calculate relative pretest probabilities for primary malignant bone tumors. The calculator is not diagnostic in nature. However, resulting probabilities might serve as an initial evaluation of probabilities of tumors on the differential diagnosis list.

  10. Carbapenem non-susceptible enterobacteriaceae in Quebec, Canada: results of a laboratory surveillance program (2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Lefebvre

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE represent a major public health concern because these bacteria are usually extensively resistant to most antibiotics. In order to evaluate their dissemination in Quebec, a surveillance program was introduced in 2010. We report the molecular and epidemiological profiles of CPE isolates collected. Between August 2010 and December 2012, a total of 742 non-duplicate isolates non-susceptible to carbapenems were analysed. AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase production were detected by Etest and carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test (MHT. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined using broth microdilution or Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The presence of genes encoding carbapenemases as well as other β-lactamases was detected using PCR. Of the 742 isolates tested, 169 (22.8% were CPE. Of these 169 isolates, 151 (89.3% harboured a blaKPC gene while the remaining isolates carried blaSME (n = 9, blaOXA-48 (n = 5, blaNDM (n = 3, and blaNMC (n = 1 genes. Among the 93 KPC strains presenting with a unique pattern (unique PFGE pattern and/or unique antibiotics susceptibility profile, 99% were resistant to ertapenem, 95% to imipenem, 87% to meropenem, 97% to aztreonam, 31% to colistin and 2% to tigecycline. In 19 patients, 2 to 5 KPC strains from different species or with a different PFGE pattern were isolated. CPE strains were present in the province of Quebec with the majority of strains harbouring KPC. Alternately, SME, OXA-48 and NMC containing strains were rarely found.

  11. Mono- and combination drug therapies in hospitalized patients with bipolar depression. Data from the European drug surveillance program AMSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeberle Anne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression several guidelines exist. It is largely unknown, to what extent the prescriptions in daily clinical routine correspond to these evidence based recommendations and which combinations of psychotropic drugs are frequently used. Methods The prescriptions of psychotropic drugs were investigated of all in-patients with bipolar depression (n = 2246; time period 1994–2009 from hospitals participating in the drug surveillance program AMSP. For the drug use in 2010, 221 cases were analysed additionally. Results From 1994 to 2009, 85% of all patients received more than one class of psychotropic substances: 74% received antidepressants in combination therapy, 55% antipsychotics, 48% anticonvulsants and 33% lithium. When given in combination, lithium is the most often prescribed substance for bipolar depression (33%, followed by valproic acid (23%, mirtazapine and venlafaxine (16% each, quetiapine (15%, lamotrigine (14% and olanzapine (13%. Both, lithium and valproic acid are often combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, but also with mirtazapine und venlafaxine. Combinations of more than one antidepressant occur quite often, whereby combinations with bupropion, paroxetine, fluoxetine or fluvoxamine are very rare. In 2010, quetiapine (alone and combined was the most frequently prescribed drug (39%; aripiprazole was administered in 10%. Conclusion Combinations of antidepressants (SSRI, mirtazapine, venlafaxine with mood stabilizers (lithium, valproic acid, lamotrigine and / or atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine, olanzapine are common. Of most of those combinations the efficacy has not been studied. The use of aripiprazole and the concomitant use of two or three antidepressants contrast the guidelines.

  12. Systematic review of reporting rates of adverse events following immunization: an international comparison of post-marketing surveillance programs with reference to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biao; Page, Andrew; Wang, Huaqing; Taylor, Richard; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-01-11

    China is the most populous country in the world, with an annual birth cohort of approximately 16 million, requiring an average of 500 million vaccine doses administered annually. In China, over 30 domestic and less than 10 overseas vaccine manufacturers supply over 60 licensed vaccine products, representing a growing vaccine market mainly due to recent additions to the national immunization schedule, but data on post-marketing surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) are sparse. To compare reporting rates for various categories of AEFI from China with other routine post-marketing surveillance programs internationally. Systematic review of published studies reporting rates of AEFI by vaccine, category of reaction and age from post-marketing surveillance systems in English and Chinese languages. Overall AEFI reporting rates (all vaccines, all ages) in Chinese studies were consistent with those from similar international studies elsewhere, but there was substantial heterogeneity in regional reporting rates in China (range 2.3-37.8/100,000 doses). The highest AEFI reporting rates were for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis whole-cell (DTwP) and acellular (DTaP) vaccines (range 3.3-181.1/100,000 doses for DTwP; range 3.5-92.6/100,000 doses for DTaP), with higher median rates for DTwP than DTaP, and higher than expected rates for DTaP vaccine. Similar higher rates for DTwP and DTaP containing vaccines, and relatively lower rates for vaccines against hepatitis B virus, poliovirus, and Japanese encephalitis virus were found in China and elsewhere in the world. Overall AEFI reporting rates in China were consistent with similar post-marketing surveillance systems in other countries. Sources of regional heterogeneity in AEFI reporting rates, and their relationships to differing vaccine manufacturers versus differing surveillance practices, require further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M G Steuten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L M G Steuten1, K M M Lemmens2, A P Nieboer2, H JM Vrijhoef31Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Health, Organisation, Policy and Economics, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Erasmus University Medical Centre, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Integrated Care, Maastricht, The NetherlandsObjective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified.Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multi-component disease management or chronic care programs for adults with COPD, describing process, intermediate, and end results of care. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and descriptively summarized.Results: Twenty articles describing 17 unique COPD programs were included. There is little evidence for significant improvements in process and intermediate outcomes, except for increased provision of patient self-management education and improved disease-specific knowledge. Overall, the COPD programs generate end results equivalent to usual care, but programs containing ≥3 components show lower relative risks for hospitalization. There is limited scope for programs to break-even or save money.Conclusion: Identifying cost effective multi-component COPD programs remains a challenge due to scarce methodologically sound studies that demonstrate significant improvements on process, intermediate and end results of care. Estimations of potential cost effectiveness of specific programs illustrated in this paper can, in the absence of ‘perfect data’, support timely decision-making regarding these programs. Nevertheless, well-designed health economic studies are needed to decrease the current decision

  14. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  15. Analysis to evaluate predictors of fiberboard aging to guide surveillance sampling for the 9975 life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Daugherty, William L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hackney, Elizabeth R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-09

    During surveillance of the 9975 shipping package at the Savannah River Site K-Area Complex, several package dimensions are recorded. The analysis described in this report shows that, based on the current data analysis, two of these measurements, Upper Assembly Outer Diameter (UAOD) and Upper Assembly Inside Height (UAIH), do not have statistically significant aging trends regardless of wattage levels. In contrast, this analysis indicates that the measurement of Air Shield Gap (ASGap) does show a significant increase with age. It appears that the increase is greater for high wattage containers, but this result is dominated by two measurements from high-wattage containers. For all three indicators, additional high-wattage, older containers need to be examined before any definitive conclusions can be reached. In addition, the current analysis indicates that ASGap measurements for low and medium wattage containers are increasing slowly over time. To reduce uncertainties and better capture the aging trend for these containers, additional low and medium wattage older containers should also be examined. Based on this analysis, surveillance guidance is to augment surveillance containers resulting from 3013 surveillance with 9975-focused sampling that targets older, high wattage containers and also includes some older, low and medium wattage containers. This focused sampling began in 2015 and will continue in 2016. The UAOD, UAIH and ASGap data are highly variable. It is possible that additional factors such as seasonal variation and packaging site location might reduce variability and be useful for focusing surveillance and predicting aging.

  16. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  17. Testing the Effectiveness of the North Shore - LIJ Health System’s Bioterrorism Response Program to Identified Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    queue, active or completed calls between the hours of 2/14/2007 1:35:17 AM and 2/14/2007 1:35:17 PM Line Chart: 25 26 Pie ...Abdominal Pain Syncope (Fainting) Nausea Headache Skin Lesion Vomiting Coughing Fever Difficulty Breathing Diarrhea...2/14/2007 7:54:00 AM Skin Lesion 1413139 From NShore 2/14/2007 7:58:00 AM Abdominal Pain 1080081 From NShore 30 2/14

  18. Comparison of Cursive Handwriting Instruction Programs among Students without Identified Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimel, Kristin; Candler, Catherine; Neville-Smith, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of cursive handwriting programs in improving letter legibility and form in third-grade students without identified handwriting problems. Four months into the school year, cursive handwriting was assessed for a sample of convenience of 50 third-grade students. Subsequently, students received…

  19. Identifying Effective Strategies to Providing Technical Support to One-to-One Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of this study was that while one-to-one initiatives in the K-12 environment are growing, the technical support personnel that work in these environments are experiencing problems supporting these initiatives. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify common problems of providing technical support in a one-to-one laptop program,…

  20. An Educational Program to Assist Clinicians in Identifying Elder Investment Fraud and Financial Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Whitney L.; Roush, Robert E.; Moye, Jennifer; Kunik, Mark E.; Wilson, Nancy L.; Taffet, George E.; Naik, Aanand D.

    2012-01-01

    Due to age-related factors and illnesses, older adults may become vulnerable to elder investment fraud and financial exploitation (EIFFE). The authors describe the development and preliminary evaluation of an educational program to raise awareness and assist clinicians in identifying older adults at risk. Participants (n = 127) gave high ratings…

  1. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  2. 14 CFR 1221.112 - Use of the NASA Program Identifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., NASA Program Identifiers, NASA Flags, and the Agency's Unified Visual Communications System § 1221.112... badge on a coin, medal, plaque, or other commemorative souvenirs. (c) The manufacture and sale or free... for Public Affairs. (e) The manufacture, sale, or use of any colorable imitation of the design of...

  3. An Educational Program to Assist Clinicians in Identifying Elder Investment Fraud and Financial Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Whitney L.; Roush, Robert E.; Moye, Jennifer; Kunik, Mark E.; Wilson, Nancy L.; Taffet, George E.; Naik, Aanand D.

    2012-01-01

    Due to age-related factors and illnesses, older adults may become vulnerable to elder investment fraud and financial exploitation (EIFFE). The authors describe the development and preliminary evaluation of an educational program to raise awareness and assist clinicians in identifying older adults at risk. Participants (n = 127) gave high ratings…

  4. Sourcing Program: To identify outstanding women and ethnic minorities in research and research management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, S.H.

    1991-08-01

    To meet the challenges of the changing demographics and a projected shortage of technically trained workers in the 21st century, Lawrence Livermore National (LLNL) is increasing its commitment to develop a diverse work force with the abilities to carry out the Laboratory's missions. In addition to the recruitment programs already established at LLNL, a sourcing program to identify outstanding women and minorities in research and research management was initiated in the summer of 1990. A research methodology, time table, selection criteria, and data generation strategy were designed and implemented for this program. Through extensive contacts with R D facilities, women's and minority professional organizations, national research councils, technical professional societies and universities, other sourcing programs were investigated and evaluated and a network of contacts and resources was developed. This report describes the design and implementation of the sourcing program targeting outstanding women and minorities in science and engineering. It details the investigation and evaluation of sourcing programs in other R D facilities and provides information regarding methods and sources used to identify potential candidates. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. 10 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Identifying the key personnel in a nurse-initiated hospital waste reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott-Levy, Ruth; Fazzini, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States generate more than 6600 tons of trash a day and approximately 85% of the waste is nonhazardous solid waste such as food, cardboard, and plastic. Treatment and management of hospital waste can lead to environmental problems for the communities that receive the waste. One health system's shared governance model provided the foundation to develop a nurse-led hospital waste reduction program that focused on point-of-care waste management. Waste reduction program development required working with a variety of departments within and external to the health system. The interdisciplinary approach informed the development of the waste reduction program. This article identifies the key departments that were necessary to include when developing a hospital waste reduction program.

  6. Identifying Feasible Physical Activity Programs for Long-Term Care Homes in the Ontario Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Saad; Newhouse, Ian; Malik, Ali; Heckman, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Structured exercise programs for frail institutionalized seniors have shown improvement in physical, functional, and psychological health of this population. However, the ‘feasibility’ of implementation of such programs in real settings is seldom discussed. The purpose of this systematic review was to gauge feasibility of exercise and falls prevention programs from the perspective of long-term care homes in Ontario, given the recent changes in funding for publically funded physiotherapy services. Method Six electronic databases were searched by two independent researchers for randomized controlled trials that targeted long-term care residents and included exercise as an independent component of the intervention. Results A total of 39 studies were included in this review. A majority of these interventions were led by physiotherapist(s), carried out three times per week for 30–45 minutes per session. However, a few group-based interventions that were led by long-term care staff, volunteers, or trained non-exercise specialists were identified that also required minimal equipment. Conclusion This systematic review has identified ‘feasible’ physical activity and falls prevention programs that required minimal investment in staff and equipment, and demonstrated positive outcomes. Implementation of such programs represents cost-effective means of providing long-term care residents with meaningful gains in physical, psychological, and social health. PMID:26180563

  7. In Vitro Activity of Imipenem against Carbapenemase-Positive Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Collected by the SMART Global Surveillance Program from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, James A; Lob, Sibylle H; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Badal, Robert E; Young, Katherine; Motyl, Mary R; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-06-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program collected 103,960 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from 2008 to 2014. From this isolate collection, all ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates (MIC, ≥1 μg/ml; n = 3,428) and 9,371 isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis with an ertapenem-susceptible extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive phenotype were assessed for the presence of common carbapenemase genes using a Check-MDR CT101 microarray (Check-Points, Wageningen, the Netherlands) and published multiplex PCR assays. Testing identified 1,493 isolates that harbored a carbapenemase gene (1,485 ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates and 8 ertapenem-susceptible ESBL-positive isolates) and accounted for 1.4% (1,493/103,960) of all isolates of Enterobacteriaceae The most frequently identified carbapenemase genes were the KPC (n = 794), OXA-48-like (n = 300), and NDM (n = 290) genes. Carbapenemase genes were most frequently identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1,127), Escherichia coli (n = 149), and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 110). Among the carbapenemase-positive isolates, 66.7% (2/3), 37.0% (111/300), 20.0% (8/40), 3.3% (3/92), 2.3% (18/794), and 0% (0/290) of the isolates with genes for GES, OXA-48-like, IMP, VIM, KPC, and NDM, respectively, were susceptible to imipenem (MIC, ≤1 μg/ml). Isolates that tested as susceptible to imipenem were not uncommon among carbapenemase-positive isolates (9.4%, 141/1,493) and most frequently carried OXA-48-like enzymes (78.7%; 111/141); however, overall, these isolates remained rare (0.1%, 141/103,960). The practice of screening clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that test as susceptible to carbapenems in vitro for the presence of carbapenemase genes remains controversial and requires further study. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  9. Adherence to the breast cancer surveillance program for women at risk for familial breast and ovarian cancer versus overscreening: a monocenter study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Lisa; Keller, Monika; Bruckner, Thomas; Golatta, Michael; Eismann, Sabine; Evers, Christina; Dikow, Nicola; Sohn, Christof; Heil, Jörg; Schott, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer among women worldwide and in 5-10 % of cases is of hereditary origin, mainly due to BRCA1/2 mutations. Therefore, the German Consortium for Familial Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) with its 15 specialized academic centers offers families at high risk for familial/hereditary cancer a multimodal breast cancer surveillance program (MBCS) with regular breast MRI, mammography, ultrasound, and palpation. So far, we know a lot about the psychological effects of genetic testing, but we know little about risk-correlated adherence to MBCS or prophylactic surgery over time. The aim of this study was to investigate counselees' adherence to recommendations for MBCS in order to adjust the care supply and define predictors for incompliance. All counselees, who attended HBOC consultation at the University Hospital Heidelberg between July 01, 2009 and July 01, 2011 were eligible to participate. A tripartite questionnaire containing sociodemographic information, psychological parameters, behavioral questions, and medical data collection from the German consortium were used. A high participation rate was achieved among the study population, with 72 % returning the questionnaire. This study showed a rate of 59 % of full-adherers to the MBCS. Significant predictors for partial or full adherence were having children (p = 0.0221), younger daughters (p = 0.01795), a higher awareness of the topic HBOC (p = 0.01795, p breast cancer risk (p adherence of MBCS, prospective studies are needed to understand counselees' needs to further improve surveillance programs and adherence to them. Adherence to the breast cancer surveillance program for women at risk for familial breast and ovarian cancer versus overscreening-a monocenter study in Germany.

  10. Contemporary prevalence of BRO beta-lactamases in Moraxella catarrhalis: report from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (North America, 1997 to 2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Sader, Helio S; Fritsche, Thomas R; Jones, Ronald N

    2006-10-01

    A total of 7,860 community-acquired Moraxella catarrhalis isolates (SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997 to 2004) were tested by broth microdilution methods, and 399 randomly selected strains from North American sites were tested for BRO-1 and BRO-2 by PCR methods. Several antimicrobials remained very active, including amoxicillin-clavulanate (MIC90s, BRO-2 incidence rates by year were 3 to 4% overall (96 to 97% for BRO-1) and were the highest in Canada (7.9%), with the incidence in the United States being only 2.0%.

  11. Evaluation of Prerequisite Programs Implementation and Hygiene Practices at Social Food Services through Audits and Microbiological Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayoa, Roncesvalles; Yánez, Nathaly; Díez-Leturia, María; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Vitas, Ana Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Prerequisite programs are considered the most efficient tool for a successful implementation of self-control systems to ensure food safety. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of these programs in 15 catering services located in Navarra and the Basque Country (regions in northern Spain), through on-site audits and microbiological analyses. The implementation of the prerequisite program was incomplete in 60% of the sample. The unobserved temperature control during both the storage and preparation of meals in 20% of the kitchens reveals misunderstanding in the importance of checking these critical control points. A high level of food safety and hygiene (absence of pathogens) was observed in the analyzed meals, while 27.8% of the tested surfaces exceeded the established limit for total mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (≤100 CFU/25 cm²). The group of hand-contact surfaces (oven door handles and aprons) showed the highest level of total mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and Enterobacteriaceae, and the differences observed with respect to the food-contact surfaces (work and distribution utensils) were statistically significant (P food workers' hands, lower levels of microorganisms were observed in the handlers wearing gloves (that is, for Staphylococcus spp we identified 43 CFU/cm2 on average compared with 4 CFU/cm2 (P food handlers, through specific activities such as informal meetings and theoretical-practical sessions adapted to the characteristics of each establishment.

  12. Qualitative Comparative Analysis: A Hybrid Method for Identifying Factors Associated with Program Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragun, Deborah; Pal, Tuya; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Baldwin, Julie; Hampel, Heather; DeBate, Rita D

    2016-07-01

    Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was developed over 25 years ago to bridge the qualitative and quantitative research gap. Upon searching PubMed and the Journal of Mixed Methods Research, this review identified 30 original research studies that utilized QCA. Perceptions that QCA is complex and provides few relative advantages over other methods may be limiting QCA adoption. Thus, to overcome these perceptions, this article demonstrates how to perform QCA using data from fifteen institutions that implemented universal tumor screening (UTS) programs to identify patients at high risk for hereditary colorectal cancer. In this example, QCA revealed a combination of conditions unique to effective UTS programs. Results informed additional research and provided a model for improving patient follow-through after a positive screen.

  13. The Usefulness of Appreciative Inquiry As a Method to Identify Mass Sports Program Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadine VAN GRAMBERG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the relationship between good health and physical activity is well known. Despite the growth of public mass sports programs in many countries, few evaluate them to ensure they meet their targets. Measuring organizational effectiveness and program success in public sports organizations is difficult and cannot be done directly as it involves a number of complex dimensions involving both internal (organizational and external (customer factors. Recognizing this, the paper advances the Appreciative Inquiry approach as a culturally sensitive method to focus on the positives of human experience rather than finding faults or gaps and as a means of identifying the success factors of service delivery. The paper outlines the research strategy to investigate success in Malaysian mass sport programs.

  14. Surveillance for Stage I Nonseminoma Testicular Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Gundgaard, Maria Gry; Mortensen, Mette Saksø

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe treatment results in a large cohort with stage I nonseminoma germ cell cancer (NSGCC) treated in a surveillance program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2007, 1,226 patients with stage I NSGCC, including high-risk patients with vascular invasion......, were observed in a surveillance program. RESULTS: The relapse rate after orchiectomy alone was 30.6% at 5 years. Presence of vascular invasion together with embryonal carcinoma and rete testis invasion in the testicular primary identified a group with a relapse risk of 50%. Without risk factors....... Relapses after 5 years were seen in 0.5% of the whole cohort or in 1.6% of relapsing patients. The majority of relapses (94.4%) belonged to the good prognostic group according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification. The disease-specific survival at 15 years was 99...

  15. Can a general health surveillance between birth and 10 months identify children with mental disorder at 1(1/2) year? A case-control study nested in cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard;

    2008-01-01

    Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome.......Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome....

  16. EPIMIC: A Simple Homemade Computer Program for Real-Time EPIdemiological Surveillance and Alert Based on MICrobiological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Abat, Cédric; Charrel, Rémi; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases (IDs) are major causes of morbidity and mortality and their surveillance is critical. In 2002, we implemented a simple and versatile homemade tool, named EPIMIC, for the real-time systematic automated surveillance of IDs at Marseille university hospitals, based on the data from our clinical microbiology laboratory, including clinical samples, tests and diagnoses. This tool was specifically designed to detect abnormal events as IDs are rarely predicted and modeled. EPIMIC operates using Microsoft Excel software and requires no particular computer skills or resources. An abnormal event corresponds to an increase above, or a decrease below threshold values calculated based on the mean of historical data plus or minus 2 standard deviations, respectively. Between November 2002 and October 2013 (11 years), 293 items were surveyed weekly, including 38 clinical samples, 86 pathogens, 79 diagnosis tests, and 39 antibacterial resistance patterns. The mean duration of surveillance was 7.6 years (range, 1 month-10.9 years). A total of 108,427 Microsoft Excel file cells were filled with counts of clinical samples, and 110,017 cells were filled with counts of diagnoses. A total of 1,390,689 samples were analyzed. Among them, 172,180 were found to be positive for a pathogen. EPIMIC generated a mean number of 0.5 alert/week on abnormal events. EPIMIC proved to be efficient for real-time automated laboratory-based surveillance and alerting at our university hospital clinical microbiology laboratory-scale. It is freely downloadable from the following URL: http://www.mediterranee-infection.com/article.php?larub=157&titre=bulletin-epidemiologique (last accessed: 20/11/2015).

  17. Identifying real and perceived barriers to therapeutic education programs for individuals with inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Lorna; Sangrar, Ruheena; Bornstein, Carolyn; Lukmanji, Sara; Hapuhennedige, Sandani; Thorne, Carter; Beattie, Karen A

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic Education Programs (TEPs) grounded in self-management principles have been shown to improve quality of life of patients with chronic conditions and reduce patient-related healthcare costs. Though these programs are becoming more readily available, patients often experience barriers in participating. This study sought to identify barriers faced by inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients in attending a TEP and understand how patients overcame perceived barriers. A mixed-method study design was used. Questionnaires were distributed to individuals with IA who were invited to attend a TEP between 2010 and 2013. Respondents were those that chose not to attend (group A), individuals who attended ≤4 of 10 sessions (group B), individuals who attended ≥5 of 10 sessions prior to May 2013 (group C), and individuals who attended ≥5 of 10 sessions from June 2013 to November 2013 (group D). Individuals in group D were also invited to participate in focus groups to discuss how they had overcome perceived barriers. Real barriers identified by individuals in groups A and B included time, distance, and cost associated with attendance. Individuals who overcame perceived barriers (groups C and D) discussed strategies they used to do so. Aspects of the overall program experience and access to clinic and program also contributed to patients being able to overcome barriers. Time, distance, and cost are external barriers that prevented individuals from utilizing self-management education opportunities. These barriers were overcome if and when individuals had resources available to them. Readiness for behavior change also influenced commitment to participate in the program.

  18. The effectiveness of a health-surveillance program for caisson saturation divers in a tunnel-boring machine: a microbiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rees Vellinga, T P; Sterk, W; Van Dijk, F J H

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this field study is to report and evaluate the implementation of a health surveillance program we developed to monitor the microbiological load for saturation divers, including preventive and therapeutic interventions. We extended the DMAC protocol for Saturation Diving Chamber Hygiene and added some components: ear inspections, swabs and environmental swabs every third day. The implementation was evaluated by analyzing the results of the activities. In a pre-saturation dive check we examined a total of 17 divers. Here we present the data from all seven saturation phases, collected over a period of 1.5 years. In every saturation phase we have found pathogenic bacteria or fungi in divers and in the environment, but more in some periods than in others. We did not observe any serious infection that required a diver to abort his stay in the living chamber. This health surveillance program has demonstrated the potential value of an early warning system to prevent problems. The bacterial load found in divers and in the environment was clearly visible. Prevention could be improved by more consistent implementation of the protocol. Fortunately, the infections had no serious consequences for the health of the workers or for the continuation of the work process.

  19. Discordant detection of avian influenza virus subtypes in time and space between poultry and wild birds; Towards improvement of surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josanne H; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Schutten, Martin; Guldemeester, Judith; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Elbers, Armin R W; Slaterus, Roy; Hornman, Menno; Koch, Guus; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses from wild birds can cause outbreaks in poultry, and occasionally infect humans upon exposure to infected poultry. Identification and characterization of viral reservoirs and transmission routes is important to develop strategies that prevent infection of poultry, and subsequently virus transmission between poultry holdings and to humans. Based on spatial, temporal and phylogenetic analyses of data generated as part of intense and large-scale influenza surveillance programs in wild birds and poultry in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2011, we demonstrate that LPAIV subtype distribution differed between wild birds and poultry, suggestive of host-range restrictions. LPAIV isolated from Dutch poultry were genetically most closely related to LPAIV isolated from wild birds in the Netherlands or occasionally elsewhere in Western Europe. However, a relatively long time interval was observed between the isolations of related viruses from wild birds and poultry. Spatial analyses provided evidence for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) being more abundant near primary infected poultry farms. Detailed year-round investigation of virus prevalence and wild bird species distribution and behavior near poultry farms should be used to improve risk assessment in relation to avian influenza virus introduction and retarget avian influenza surveillance programs.

  20. Validación de un programa de vigilancia de infecciones nosocomiales Validation of a nosocomial infections surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigfrido Rangel-Frausto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Validar el programa de vigilancia de infecciones nosocomiales y conocer la morbilidad y la mortalidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Un médico especialmente capacitado, realizó vigilancia intensiva de todos los pacientes admitidos en el hospital. Los casos de infección fueron discutidos con otros dos médicos y el resultado se comparó con la vigilancia rutinaria. Se incluyó a todos los pacientes hospitalizados del 11 de julio al 12 de agosto de 1995, que no tenían un proceso infeccioso activo o que no manifestaban un periodo de incubación a su ingreso. Se siguieron diariamente y se registraron datos de: edad, sexo y padecimiento de ingreso. Se recabó información sobre tratamiento antimicrobiano, microrganismo aislado y susceptibilidad. Se evaluó el estado clínico final y se estimó el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria. RESULTADOS. De 429 pacientes, 45 desarrollaron infección nosocomial (casos y 384 no lo hicieron (controles. La incidencia de infecciones nosocomiales fue de 10.48/100. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del programa fueron de 93.3 y 98.7%, respectivamente. La mortalidad en los infectados fue de 11.11%, y en el grupo de los no infectados, de 2.4%. El promedio de estancia hospitalaria fue de 20 y 11 días, para infectados y no infectados, respectivamente (pOBJECTIVES. To validate the nosocomial infections surveillance system, establish its impact in morbi-mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Surveillance of every single patient admited during a one month period was done by one of us (DMG. Each posibile case was discussed with two other hospital epidemiologists (SPLR, MSRF. This intensive surveillance was compared against the routinely surveillance performed by the nurses. We included all hospitalized patients between 11th July and 12th of August according to CDC (Atlanta, GA nosocomial infections definitions. Patients were followed everyday and information about age, gender, underlying diagnosis, microorganisms responsible

  1. Identifying barriers that hinder onsite parental involvement in a school-based health promotion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Wray, Linda A; Treviño, Roberto P; Hernandez, Arthur E; Yin, Zenong; Ulbrecht, Jan S

    2010-09-01

    We investigated whether barriers to onsite parental involvement in the Bienestar Health Program Parent Component could be identified and whether participation rates could be increased by addressing these barriers. All nonparticipating parents of fourth-grade students of San Antonio Independent School District from 4 schools, which were selected randomly from 20 intervention schools in Bienestar, were invited to take part in this study. A total of 47 of 223 (21%) parents engaged in one of four focus groups offered. Parents identified barriers to their involvement in Bienestar that fit into five descriptive categories: (a) low value, (b) high cost, (c) competing family demands, (d) concerns about the program design, and (e) social role norms. The Bienestar Parent Component was then modified according to the focus group findings, which resulted in a marked increase in parental involvement from 17% to 37% overall. These findings suggest that even when parents are involved in the initial design of parent-friendly and culturally sensitive programs, as was the case for Bienestar, maximizing parental involvement may require additional assessment, identification, and remediation of barriers.

  2. Video Surveillance: Privacy Issues and Legal Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    . There is a need to balance the usage of video surveillance against its negative impact on privacy. This chapter aims to highlight the privacy issues in video surveillance and provides a model to help identify the privacy requirements in a video surveillance system. The authors make a step in the direction...

  3. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Q. Clark

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines—chosen for sparse neuronal expression—to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°. A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program.

  4. Crypto and empire: the contradictions of counter-surveillance advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürses, S.; Kundnani, A.; Van Hoboken, J.

    2016-01-01

    Since Edward Snowden’s revelations of US and UK surveillance programs, privacy advocates, progressive security engineers, and policy makers have been seeking to win majority support for countering surveillance. The problem is framed as the replacement of targeted surveillance with mass surveillance

  5. Surveillance of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  6. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  7. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  8. Children aged 12–59 months missed through the National Vitamin A Capsule Distribution Program in Bangladesh: findings of the Nutritional Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Akhter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available From January 1990 to December 2006, Helen Keller International implemented the Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP in Bangladesh, which has been used to conduct regular surveillance and special surveys to provide information on health and nutritional status of children and mothers, and report on the coverage and impact of nutrition and health programs in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB distributes vitamin A Capsule (VAC among children aged 12–59 months biannually. The NSP data was analyzed to assess VAC coverage and to explore which children were less likely to receive a VAC in order to help GOB identify necessary modifications aimed at higher coverage of VAC among all eligible children. Results showed that coverage among girls and boys was not different (P=0.970. However, coverage was consistently lower among children aged 12-23 months compared to older children (24–59 months (P≤0.001 in each of the distribution rounds. Coverage among children from poorer households was lower than among children from wealthiest households (P<0.001, with the extent of this difference varying by round. Coverage was significantly higher if households had had contact with a government health assistant in the last month (P<0.001; and among households who owned a radio or a TV compared to those who did not. The VAC distribution campaign needs to be strengthened to cover the children who are currently not reached; especially younger children, children living in underserved regions, children from poorer households and from households with less contact with health service providers or mass media.De janvier 1990 à décembre 2006, l’ONG Helen Keller International a mis en oeuvre le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP au Bangladesh. Ce projet a permis de réaliser une surveillance régulière et des études ciblées afin de recueillir des informations sur l’état de santé et l’état nutritionnel des mères et des enfants, et de

  9. Healthy or unhealthy migrants? Identifying internal migration effects on mortality in Africa using health and demographic surveillance systems of the INDEPTH network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Carren; Bocquier, Philippe; Béguy, Donatien; Afolabi, Sulaimon; Augusto, Orvalho; Derra, Karim; Herbst, Kobus; Lankoande, Bruno; Odhiambo, Frank; Otiende, Mark; Soura, Abdramane; Wamukoya, Marylene; Zabré, Pascal; White, Michael J; Collinson, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Migration has been hypothesised to be selective on health but this healthy migrant hypothesis has generally been tested at destinations, and for only one type of flow, from deprived to better-off areas. The circulatory nature of migration is rarely accounted for. This study examines the relationship between different types of internal migration and adult mortality in Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) populations in West, East, and Southern Africa, and asks how the processes of selection, adaptation and propagation explain the migration-mortality relationship experienced in these contexts. The paper uses longitudinal data representing approximately 900 000 adults living in nine sub-Saharan African HDSS sites of the INDEPTH Network. Event History Analysis techniques are employed to examine the relationship between all-cause mortality and migration status, over periods ranging from 3 to 14 years for a total of nearly 4.5 million person-years. The study confirms the importance of migration in explaining variation in mortality, and the diversity of the migration-mortality relationship over a range of rural and urban local areas in the three African regions. The results confirm that the pattern of migration-mortality relationship is not exclusively explained by selection but also by propagation and adaptation. Consequences for public health policy are drawn.

  10. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  11. Identifying and categorizing cobenefits in state-supported Australian indigenous environmental management programs: international research implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Barber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant natural resource management investment is flowing to bioculturally diverse areas occupied by indigenous and other socioeconomically and politically marginalized groups. Such investment focuses on environmental benefit but may also generate ancillary economic, social, and other cobenefits. Increased investor interest in such cobenefits is driving the emerging research literature on cobenefit identification, categorization, and assessment. For local people undertaking community-based natural resource management, this emerging cobenefit discourse creates opportunities for more holistic program assessments that better reflect local perspectives, but it also contains risks of increased reporting burdens and institutional capture. Here, we synthesize and critically review the cobenefit literature arising from Australian indigenous cultural and natural resource management programs, a context in which there is a strong investor interest in cobenefits, particularly from government. We identify a wide suite of cobenefits in the existing literature and highlight previously unrecognized conceptual gaps and elisions in cobenefit categorization, including inconsistencies in category definition, the underanalysis of key categories, and a lack of systematic attention to beneficiaries as well as benefits. We propose a clarified and expanded conceptual framework to identify consistently the full suite of benefits, thereby enabling further assessment, valuation, and development of incentive mechanisms, standards, and guidelines. Our analysis has implications for community-based natural resource management assessment in a wide range of international contexts.

  12. Emergency department surveillance of injuries associated with bunk beds: the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFaull, S R; Fréchette, M; Skinner, R

    2012-12-01

    Due to space constraints, bunk beds are a common sleeping arrangement in many homes. The height and design of the structure can present a fall and strangulation hazard, especially for young children. The primary purpose of this study was to describe bunk bed-related injuries reported to the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), 1990-2009. CHIRPP is an injury and poisoning surveillance system operating in 11 pediatric and 4 general emergency departments across Canada. Records were extracted using CHIRPP product codes and narratives. Over the 20-year surveillance period, 6002 individuals presented to Canadian emergency departments for an injury associated with a bunk bed. Overall, the frequency of bunk bed-related injuries in CHIRPP has remained relatively stable with an average annual percent change of 21.2% (21.8% to 20.5%). Over 90% of upper bunk-related injuries were due to falls and children 3-5 years of age were most frequently injured (471.2/100 000 CHIRPP cases). Children with bunk bed-related injuries continue to present to Canadian emergency departments, many with significant injuries. Injury prevention efforts should focus on children under 6 years of age.

  13. The Department of Defense Global, Laboratory-Based Influenza Surveillance Program: Technical Report on Program Methods for the 2012-2013 Influenza Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    outbreaks occurred in vaccinees . Observing that vaccine -induced immunity waned and that the influenza virus gradually adapted to escape vaccine -induced...2014-1676, 14 Apr 2014 breakthrough in vaccine coverage, ensuring that emerging flu strains are collected in a timely manner and reported to CDC...surveillance, laboratory analysis and reporting, and on scientific contributions to influenza vaccine development and influenza virology. The two main

  14. State-based surveillance for selected hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulihan, Mary M; Feuchtbaum, Lisa; Jordan, Lanetta; Kirby, Russell S; Snyder, Angela; Young, William; Greene, Yvonne; Telfair, Joseph; Wang, Ying; Cramer, William; Werner, Ellen M; Kenney, Kristy; Creary, Melissa; Grant, Althea M

    2015-02-01

    The lack of an ongoing surveillance system for hemoglobinopathies in the United States impedes the ability of public health organizations to identify individuals with these conditions, monitor their health-care utilization and clinical outcomes, and understand the effect these conditions have on the health-care system. This article describes the results of a pilot program that supported the development of the infrastructure and data collection methods for a state-based surveillance system for selected hemoglobinopathies. The system was designed to identify and gather information on all people living with a hemoglobinopathy diagnosis (sickle cell diseases or thalassemias) in the participating states during 2004-2008. Novel, three-level case definitions were developed, and multiple data sets were used to collect information. In total, 31,144 individuals who had a hemoglobinopathy diagnosis during the study period were identified in California; 39,633 in Florida; 20,815 in Georgia; 12,680 in Michigan; 34,853 in New York, and 8,696 in North Carolina. This approach provides a possible model for the development of state-based hemoglobinopathy surveillance systems.

  15. Inappropriate colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, R A

    2011-11-15

    Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.

  16. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  17. Comparative transcriptional profiling of the axolotl limb identifies a tripartite regeneration-specific gene program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Knapp

    Full Text Available Understanding how the limb blastema is established after the initial wound healing response is an important aspect of regeneration research. Here we performed parallel expression profile time courses of healing lateral wounds versus amputated limbs in axolotl. This comparison between wound healing and regeneration allowed us to identify amputation-specific genes. By clustering the expression profiles of these samples, we could detect three distinguishable phases of gene expression - early wound healing followed by a transition-phase leading to establishment of the limb development program, which correspond to the three phases of limb regeneration that had been defined by morphological criteria. By focusing on the transition-phase, we identified 93 strictly amputation-associated genes many of which are implicated in oxidative-stress response, chromatin modification, epithelial development or limb development. We further classified the genes based on whether they were or were not significantly expressed in the developing limb bud. The specific localization of 53 selected candidates within the blastema was investigated by in situ hybridization. In summary, we identified a set of genes that are expressed specifically during regeneration and are therefore, likely candidates for the regulation of blastema formation.

  18. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  19. Severe morbidity after antiretroviral (ART) initiation: active surveillance in HIV care programs, the IeDEA West Africa collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Yao; Zannou Djimon, Marcel; Messou, Eugène; Balestre, Eric; Kouakou, Martial; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Ahouada, Carin; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Dabis, François; Lewden, Charlotte; Minga, Albert

    2015-04-09

    The causes of severe morbidity in health facilities implementing Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) programmes are poorly documented in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to describe severe morbidity among HIV-infected patients after ART initiation, based on data from an active surveillance system established within a network of specialized care facilities in West African cities. Within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA)--West Africa collaboration, we conducted a prospective, multicenter data collection that involved two facilities in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and one in Cotonou, Benin. Among HIV-infected adults receiving ART, events were recorded using a standardized form. A simple case-definition of severe morbidity (death, hospitalization, fever>38°5C, Karnofsky indexART in ambulatory HIV care facilities in West Africa. Meanwhile, additional studies are needed due to the undiagnosed aspect of severe morbidity in substantial proportion.

  20. [Total eclipse of the sun in August 11, 1999: a program of prevention and surveillance of ocular complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixsaut, G; Coulombier, D; Malfait, P; Bodaghi, B; Espinoza, P

    2000-01-01

    Watching directly at the sun without appropriate protection, particularly during a solar eclipse, can cause severe retinal injuries. On 11 August 1999, a total solar eclipse crossed France. The Direction Générale de la Santé implemented a prevention strategy. A formal agreement was developed with manufacturers and importers of protective glasses and more than 30 million glasses, conformed with safety standards, were distributed in France. Information campaign reach the whole population in France. In order to evaluate the impact of this campaign, The National Institute of Public Health in France implemented a nation-wide surveillance of ocular complications related to the eclipse. Information on patients was collected using a standardised questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to the 5,600 private and public sector ophthalmologists practising in France and to five hundred hospital emergency units. A total of 147 patients were reported to have had a retinal injury associated with viewing the eclipse. Seventeen cases were severe (visual acuity eclipse in three regions in the south of France which were sunny on 11th August. One hundred and six patients (67% aged 30 years and more) presented with keratitis. Thirty-six per cent occurred in 2 northern regions of France, which were overcast on the day. A hundred patients watched the whole eclipse without any protection, 74 reported to have removed their EC glasses, and 32 used non-appropriate devices. Only 4 patients presenting with retinal injury reported having used the EC glasses the whole time whilst viewing the eclipse. France is the only country in Europe to have implemented an exhaustive prospective surveillance of ocular injuries related to the solar eclipse. According to current data, the quality and availability of EC glasses did not contribute significantly to ocular injuries. Clinical and epidemiological studies are being conducted in order to further document the evolution of patients presenting with

  1. At-a-glance, Emergency department surveillance of thermal burns and scalds, electronic Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, J; McFaull, S; Rao, D P; Do, M T; Thompson, W

    2017-01-01

    Although fatality and hospitalization rates for burns in Canada have declined over time, less serious cases still commonly present to the emergency department (ED). The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) is an injury and poisoning surveillance system administered by the Public Health Agency of Canada, operating in emergency departments of 17 hospitals. Overall, cases reported in 2013 were scalds and contact burns from hot objects. The leading direct causes of scalds were hot beverages and hot water. The leading causes of contact burns were stoves/ovens and fireplaces/accessories. While the overall proportion of burns was highest among females, males comprised a higher proportion of burns from all mechanisms except scalds.

  2. Identifying diabetes knowledge network nodes as sites for a diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesler, Wilbert M; Arcury, Thomas A; Skelly, Anne H; Nash, Sally; Soward, April; Dougherty, Molly

    2006-12-01

    This paper reports on the methods used and results of a study that identified specific places within a community that have the potential to be sites for a diabetes prevention program. These sites, termed diabetes knowledge network nodes (DKNNs), are based on the concept of socio-spatial knowledge networks (SSKNs), the web of social relationships within which people obtain knowledge about type 2 diabetes. The target population for the study was working poor African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans of both sexes in a small rural southern town who had not been diagnosed with diabetes. Information was collected from a sample of 121 respondents on the places they visited in carrying out their daily activities. Data on number of visits to specific sites, degree of familiarity with these sites, and ratings of sites as places to receive diabetes information were used to develop three categories of DKNNs for six subgroups based on ethnicity and sex. Primary potential sites of importance to one or more subgroups included churches, grocery stores, drugstores, the local library, a beauty salon, laundromats, a community service agency, and a branch of the County Health Department. Secondary potential sites included gas stations, restaurants, banks, and post offices. Latent potential sites included three medical facilities. Most of the DKNNs were located either in the downtown area or in one of two shopping areas along the most used highway that passed through the town. The procedures used in this study can be generalized to other communities and prevention programs for other chronic diseases.

  3. Empirically Identified Subgroups of Children Served in Part C Early Intervention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaum, Batya; Celimli-Aksoy, Seniz

    2017-09-01

    Early intervention (EI) programs under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act serve a developmentally heterogeneous population of infants and toddlers with or at risk of developmental delays or disabilities. The aim of this study was to identify empirically distinct subgroups of children in EI so as to inform early prognosis and service planning. We applied mixture modeling to developmental assessment data from 1513 children who enrolled in a large, urban EI program between 2009 and 2013. The observed variables were children's EI-entry developmental quotients (DQs) in 5 domains (communication, cognitive, motor, adaptive, and personal-social) as assessed by the Battelle Developmental Inventory, Second Edition. A 4-class model showed the best fit to the data, revealing subgroups with distinct developmental profiles. Children in the first subgroup showed a severe delay in communication with less severe delays in the other domains. Children in the second subgroup likewise showed a severe delay in communication, but with comparably severe delays in the cognitive and motor domains. Profiles for the third and fourth subgroups showed the same overall patterns as those for the first and second subgroups, respectively, but to a less severe degree. Developmental trajectories differed by subgroup. Consideration of subgroups based on children's developmental assessment scores provides insight into underlying commonalities among children with different presenting diagnoses on entry into EI. The subgroups also have clinical relevance in terms of both practitioners' and parents' understanding of children's likely service needs and developmental trajectories.

  4. Surveillance issues in inflammatory bowel disease: ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, D; Onken, J

    2001-02-01

    This review article on the surveillance of patients with ulcerative colitis provides an overview of the criteria for evaluating screening and surveillance programs and applies the criteria to the available evidence to determine the effectiveness of the surveillance of patients with ulcerative colitis. We examine the clinical outcomes associated with surveillance, the additional clinical time required to confirm the diagnosis of dysplasia and cancer, compliance with surveillance and follow-up, and the effectiveness of the individual components of a surveillance program, including colonoscopy and pathologist's interpretation. The disability associated with colectomy is considered, as are the cost and acceptability of surveillance programs. Patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis are at risk for developing colorectal cancer. Recommended surveillance colonoscopy should be supported. New endoscopic and histopathologic techniques to improve the identification of high-risk patients may enhance the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surveillance practices.

  5. Identifying and assessing highly hazardous drugs within quality risk management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Robert G; Schatz, Anthony R; Kimmel, Tracy A; Ader, Allan; Naumann, Bruce D; Weideman, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    Historically, pharmaceutical industry regulatory guidelines have assigned certain active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to various categories of concern, such as "cytotoxic", "hormones", and "steroids". These categories have been used to identify APIs requiring segregation or dedication in order to prevent cross-contamination and protect the quality and safety of drug products. Since these terms were never defined by regulatory authorities, and many novel pharmacological mechanisms challenge these categories, there is a recognized need to modify the historical use of these terms. The application of a risk-based approach using a health-based limit, such as an acceptable daily exposure (ADE), is more appropriate for the development of a Quality Risk Management Program (QRMP) than the use of categories of concern. The toxicological and pharmacological characteristics of these categories are discussed to help identify and prioritize compounds requiring special attention. Controlling airborne concentrations and the contamination of product contact surfaces in accordance with values derived from quantitative risk assessments can prevent adverse effects in workers and patients, regardless of specific categorical designations to which these APIs have been assigned. The authors acknowledge the movement away from placing compounds into categories and, while not yet universal, the importance of basing QRMPs on compound-specific ADEs and risk assessments. Based on the results of a risk assessment, segregation and dedication may also be required for some compounds to prevent cross contamination during manufacture of APIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Scoping review on search queries and social media for disease surveillance: a chronology of innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Theresa Marie; Rajic, Andrijana; Young, Ian; Robiadek, Katie; Pham, Mai T; Funk, Julie A

    2013-07-18

    The threat of a global pandemic posed by outbreaks of influenza H5N1 (1997) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, 2002), both diseases of zoonotic origin, provoked interest in improving early warning systems and reinforced the need for combining data from different sources. It led to the use of search query data from search engines such as Google and Yahoo! as an indicator of when and where influenza was occurring. This methodology has subsequently been extended to other diseases and has led to experimentation with new types of social media for disease surveillance. The objective of this scoping review was to formally assess the current state of knowledge regarding the use of search queries and social media for disease surveillance in order to inform future work on early detection and more effective mitigation of the effects of foodborne illness. Structured scoping review methods were used to identify, characterize, and evaluate all published primary research, expert review, and commentary articles regarding the use of social media in surveillance of infectious diseases from 2002-2011. Thirty-two primary research articles and 19 reviews and case studies were identified as relevant. Most relevant citations were peer-reviewed journal articles (29/32, 91%) published in 2010-11 (28/32, 88%) and reported use of a Google program for surveillance of influenza. Only four primary research articles investigated social media in the context of foodborne disease or gastroenteritis. Most authors (21/32 articles, 66%) reported that social media-based surveillance had comparable performance when compared to an existing surveillance program. The most commonly reported strengths of social media surveillance programs included their effectiveness (21/32, 66%) and rapid detection of disease (21/32, 66%). The most commonly reported weaknesses were the potential for false positive (16/32, 50%) and false negative (11/32, 34%) results. Most authors (24/32, 75%) recommended that

  7. 国家动物源细菌耐药性监测工作的探讨和建议%Discussion and Suggestion on the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Surveillance Program in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾欣; 金凌艳; 蔡金华; 刘雅妮; 王蓓

    2009-01-01

    The foreign profile of antimicrobial resistance monitoring and surveillance program in animal, and the purpose of resistance monitoring and surveillance program were described. A variety of factors to be considered for resistance monitoring and surveillance program were introduced and discussed, including the animal species, food products, Sampling strategies, specimens collecting, bacterial species, antimicrobials, standardized susceptibility testing, quality control, database design and recording, report and analysis of result. Suggestion was pointed out about antimicrobial resistance monitoring and surveillance program in the future.%介绍了国外动物源细菌耐药性监测工作的情况及目标,对我国的动物源细菌耐药性监测工作需考虑的许多因素进行了介绍和讨论,包括动物品种、食品、采样方法、样本的收集、细菌品种、抗菌药物、标准药敏试验法、质控、结果记录和数据库设计、报告和结果分析等,并对今后的动物源细菌耐药性监测工作提出了建议.

  8. Changes in drug use patterns reported on the web after the introduction of ADF OxyContin: findings from the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System Web Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K; Haynes, Colleen; Besharat, Andrea; Green, Jody L

    2017-09-01

    This qualitative study summarizes information that individuals shared online about use of OxyContin following the August 2010 introduction of the abuse deterrent formulation (ADF). The primary objective was to study online posts that endorsed continued use of OxyContin or a switch from OxyContin to another formulation of oxycodone or another substance altogether following the introduction of the ADF. A secondary objective was to determine whether posts revealed that the ADF led to cessation of OxyContin use. Data were collected with the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance System Web Monitoring Program, an online surveillance system that collects and organizes posts about prescription drugs from social media websites, blogs, and forums from 3Q2009 to 4Q2014 using a commercially available web platform. Posts were categorized by whether they conveyed a switch to drugs other than reformulated OxyContin or a continuation of reformulated OxyContin abuse. "Switch posts" primarily discussed switching to immediate-release opioids. "Continue abusing" posts identified tampering strategies for alternate routes of administration, oral use, and continued use although post authors were generally unhappy with the experience. No reference to OxyContin cessation as a function of the introduction of the ADF was found; however, discontinued use was discussed. Web Monitoring data are useful for capturing cross sections of Internet conversation reflecting reactions to new drug formulations. These data support the notion that users will gravitate to non-ADFs generally, and to immediate-release non-ADF opioid formulations, specifically, as long as these options remain on the market. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  10. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  11. Mixed Integer Linear Programming based machine learning approach identifies regulators of telomerase in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, Alexandra M; Maicher, André; Dieckmann, Anna K; Oswald, Marcus; Eils, Roland; Kupiec, Martin; Luke, Brian; König, Rainer

    2016-06-02

    Understanding telomere length maintenance mechanisms is central in cancer biology as their dysregulation is one of the hallmarks for immortalization of cancer cells. Important for this well-balanced control is the transcriptional regulation of the telomerase genes. We integrated Mixed Integer Linear Programming models into a comparative machine learning based approach to identify regulatory interactions that best explain the discrepancy of telomerase transcript levels in yeast mutants with deleted regulators showing aberrant telomere length, when compared to mutants with normal telomere length. We uncover novel regulators of telomerase expression, several of which affect histone levels or modifications. In particular, our results point to the transcription factors Sum1, Hst1 and Srb2 as being important for the regulation of EST1 transcription, and we validated the effect of Sum1 experimentally. We compiled our machine learning method leading to a user friendly package for R which can straightforwardly be applied to similar problems integrating gene regulator binding information and expression profiles of samples of e.g. different phenotypes, diseases or treatments.

  12. Mixed Integer Linear Programming based machine learning approach identifies regulators of telomerase in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, Alexandra M.; Maicher, André; Dieckmann, Anna K.; Oswald, Marcus; Eils, Roland; Kupiec, Martin; Luke, Brian; König, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Understanding telomere length maintenance mechanisms is central in cancer biology as their dysregulation is one of the hallmarks for immortalization of cancer cells. Important for this well-balanced control is the transcriptional regulation of the telomerase genes. We integrated Mixed Integer Linear Programming models into a comparative machine learning based approach to identify regulatory interactions that best explain the discrepancy of telomerase transcript levels in yeast mutants with deleted regulators showing aberrant telomere length, when compared to mutants with normal telomere length. We uncover novel regulators of telomerase expression, several of which affect histone levels or modifications. In particular, our results point to the transcription factors Sum1, Hst1 and Srb2 as being important for the regulation of EST1 transcription, and we validated the effect of Sum1 experimentally. We compiled our machine learning method leading to a user friendly package for R which can straightforwardly be applied to similar problems integrating gene regulator binding information and expression profiles of samples of e.g. different phenotypes, diseases or treatments. PMID:26908654

  13. Selective amputation of the pharynx identifies a FoxA-dependent regeneration program in planaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Carolyn E; Seidel, Chris W; McKinney, Sean A; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Planarian flatworms regenerate every organ after amputation. Adult pluripotent stem cells drive this ability, but how injury activates and directs stem cells into the appropriate lineages is unclear. Here we describe a single-organ regeneration assay in which ejection of the planarian pharynx is selectively induced by brief exposure of animals to sodium azide. To identify genes required for pharynx regeneration, we performed an RNAi screen of 356 genes upregulated after amputation, using successful feeding as a proxy for regeneration. We found that knockdown of 20 genes caused a wide range of regeneration phenotypes and that RNAi of the forkhead transcription factor FoxA, which is expressed in a subpopulation of stem cells, specifically inhibited regrowth of the pharynx. Selective amputation of the pharynx therefore permits the identification of genes required for organ-specific regeneration and suggests an ancient function for FoxA-dependent transcriptional programs in driving regeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02238.001 PMID:24737865

  14. Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin America: results from SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (Latin America, 2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, Ana C; Castanheira, Mariana; Jones, Ronald N; Sader, Hélio S

    2012-08-01

    This study updates the frequency and resistance rates of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin American medical centers enrolled in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. A total of 12,811 bacterial organisms, including 5704 Gram-negative bacilli (44.5%), were consecutively collected (1 per patient) between January 2008 and December 2010 from 10 Latin American medical centers located in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method at a central laboratory. All Gram-negative organisms with reduced susceptibility to imipenem or meropenem (MIC, ≥ 2 μg/mL) were screened for carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test and by polymerase chain reaction. ESBL rates were 18.1%, 12.8%, 23.8%, and 48.4% among Escherichia coli and 60.4%, 49.9%, 59.2%, and 33.3% among Klebsiella spp. from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, respectively. Meropenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella spp. rate was highest in Brazil (11.1%), followed by Argentina (8.2%), Chile (5.0%), and Mexico (0.8%). Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae was not detected in 2008, but emerged in 2009 (10 strains) and increased significantly in 2010 (44; P 77% overall coverage against the 5 most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacilli from Latin American Medical centers participating in the SENTRY Program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Increasing Challenge of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli: Results of a 5-Year Active Surveillance Program in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Mario; Geraci, Daniela M; Bonura, Celestino; Saporito, Laura; Graziano, Giorgio; Insinga, Vincenzo; Aleo, Aurora; Vecchio, Davide; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are increasingly reported.We conducted a 5-year prospective cohort surveillance study in a tertiary NICU of the hospital "Paolo Giaccone," Palermo, Italy. Our objectives were to describe incidence and trends of MDR GNB colonization and the characteristics of the most prevalent organisms and to identify the risk factors for colonization. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were prospectively collected. Active surveillance cultures (ASCs) were obtained weekly. Clusters of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by conventional and molecular epidemiological tools.During the study period, 1152 infants were enrolled in the study. Prevalences of colonization by MDR GNB, ESBL-producing GNB and multiple species/genera averaged, respectively, 28.8%, 11.7%, and 3.7%. Prevalence and incidence density of colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing GNB showed an upward trend through the surveillance period. Rates of ESBL-producing E coli and K pneumoniae colonization showed wide fluctuations peaking over the last 2 years. The only independent variables associated with colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing organisms and multiple colonization were, respectively, the days of NICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.041), the days of exposure to ampicillin-sulbactam (OR 1.040), and the days of formula feeding (OR 1.031). Most clusters of E coli and K pneumoniae colonization were associated with different lineages. Ten out of 12 clusters had an outborn infant as their index case.Our study confirms that MDR GNB are an increasing challenge to NICUs. The universal once-a-week approach allowed us to understand the epidemiology of MDR GNB, to timely detect new clones and institute contact precautions, and to assess risk factors. Collection of these data can be an important tool to

  16. Sustaining Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Schools: Needs and Barriers Identified by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…

  17. Identifying Target Audiences for Graduate Programs among Mid-Career Communications Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra A.; Rose, Patricia B.

    1994-01-01

    A study of 308 communications professionals in south Florida investigated interest in graduate programs, both formal degree programs and professional continuing education. Results indicate the primary reason for enrollment in a formal degree program is not economic but perceived benefit to the employer. More minority group members wanted formal…

  18. Building a National Security Program at a Small School: Identifying Opportunities and Overcoming Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Michael; Schortgen, Francis

    2016-01-01

    This article offers insights into the overall program development process and--institutional obstacles and constraints notwithstanding--successful introduction of a new national security program at a small liberal arts university at a time of growing institutional prioritization of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs.…

  19. Availability of state-based obesity surveillance data on high school students with disabilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Lowry, Brienne Davis; Buscaj, Emilie; Zisko, Leigh; Rimmer, James H

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of public health surveillance data on obesity among American children with disabilities in state-based surveillance programs. We reviewed annual cross-sectional datasets in state-level surveillance programs for high school students, implemented 2001-2011, for the inclusion of weight and height and disability screening questions. When datasets included a disability screen, its content and consistency of use across years were examined. We identified 54 surveillance programs with 261 annual datasets containing obesity data. Twelve surveillance programs in 11 states included a disability screening question that could be used to extract obesity data for high school students with disabilities, leaving the other 39 states with no state-level obesity data for students with disabilities. A total of 43 annual datasets, 16.5 % of the available datasets, could be used to estimate the obesity status of students with disabilities. The frequency of use of disability questions varied across states, and the content of the questions often changed across years and within a state. We concluded that state surveillance programs rarely contained questions that could be used to identify high school students with disabilities. This limits the availability of data that can be used to monitor obesity and related health statuses among this population in the majority of states.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of endoscopic screening followed by surveillance for Barrett's esophagus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiere, Josephine M; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2009-12-01

    Screening interventions for Barrett's esophagus (BE) are appealing, but there is little supporting evidence. We reviewed health economics studies about BE endoscopic screening followed by, as required, endoscopic surveillance ("screening and surveillance" hereafter) to help inform the design and conduct of future research. Health economics studies about BE screening and surveillance were identified using electronic database searches and personal contact with authors of identified studies. No studies examined general population screening. Five US studies published between 2003 and 2007 examined the cost effectiveness of screening and surveillance (against no intervention) in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). There was no randomized trial evidence to inform model construction. Assumptions about prevalence and transition probabilities between BE histologic subtypes and about surveillance and treatment protocols varied substantially between studies. Parameters such as potential BE diagnosis-related reduction in quality of life or increase in health care use, diagnostic accuracy, and infrastructural costs (for quality assurance) were considered either "optimistically" or not at all. Only 2 studies considered endoscopic treatments. No study considered the recently introduced radiofrequency ablation technique, or the potential for biomarker-based risk stratification of surveillance interval or duration. Current health economics evidence is likely to have provided optimistic cost-effectiveness estimates and is not sufficient to support introduction of endoscopic BE screening programs among GERD patients. The evidence does not adequately incorporate novel (endoscopic) treatments and the potential for (clinical, endoscopic, or biomarker-based) risk stratification of surveillance. Future research should aim to encompass both these factors.

  1. Resurgence of Diphtheria in North Kerala, India, 2016: Laboratory Supported Case-Based Surveillance Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangal, Lucky; Joshi, Sudhir; Anandan, Shalini; Balaji, Veeraraghavan; Johnson, Jaichand; Satapathy, Asish; Haldar, Pradeep; Rayru, Ramesh; Ramamurthy, Srinath; Raghavan, Asha; Bhatnagar, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    As part of national program, laboratory supported vaccine preventable diseases surveillance was initiated in Kerala in 2015. Mechanisms have been strengthened for case investigation, reporting, and data management. Specimens collected and sent to state and reference laboratories for confirmation and molecular surveillance. The major objective of this study is to understand the epidemiological information generated through surveillance system and its utilization for action. Surveillance data captured from reporting register, case investigation forms, and laboratory reports was analyzed. Cases were allotted unique ID and no personal identifying information was used for analysis. Throat swabs were collected from investigated cases as part of surveillance system. All Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates were confirmed with standard biochemical tests, ELEK's test, and real-time PCR. Isolates were characterized using whole genome-based multi locus sequence typing method. Case investigation forms and laboratory results were recorded electronically. Public health response by government was also reviewed. A total of 533 cases were identified in 11 districts of Kerala in 2016, of which 92% occurred in 3 districts of north Kerala; Malappuram, Kozhikode, and Kannur. Almost 79% cases occurred in >10 years age group. In surveillance for providing real-time information on disease occurrence and mortality is imperative. The epidemiological data thus generated was used for targeted interventions and to formulate vaccine policies. The data on molecular surveillance have given an insight on strain variation and transmission patterns.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  3. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  4. Principles in sampling design, lessons, and recommendations from a multi-year, multi-port surveillance program in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly-introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay), and designed an ada...

  5. Principles in sampling design, lessons, and recommendations from a multi-year, multi-port surveillance program in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly-introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay), and designed an ada...

  6. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  7. Ethnopharmacological survey: a selection strategy to identify medicinal plants for a local phytotherapy program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Liparini Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological studies are important for documenting and protecting cultural and traditional knowledge associated with the medical use of biodiversity. In this paper, we present a survey on medicinal plants used by locals in a community of Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil, as a strategy to select medicinal plants for a phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. Eleven knowledgeable local informants were chosen by snowball sampling and interviewed about the use of medicinal plants. Plant samples were collected, herborised and then identified using traditional techniques and specialised literature. We sampled 107 medicinal plant species belonging to 86 genera and 39 families, predominantly Asteraceae with 16 species. Costus spicatus (Jacq. Sw, M. pulegium L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Ruta graveolens L. were found to have Consensus of Main Use corrected (CMUc values above 50%, which were in agreement with the traditional uses described by the informants. However, species with CMUc values equal to or above 20%, combined with the scientific information survey, were also used to select medicinal plants for the phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. The selection of medicinal plants based on the CMUc index from this particular community, in combination with the scientific survey, appears to be an effective strategy for the implementation of phytotherapy programs.Estudos etnofarmacológicos são importantes no registro e na preservação de conhecimentos de uma cultura tradicional associada ao uso medicinal da biodiversidade. No presente trabalho, foi realizado o levantamento das plantas medicinais utilizadas por conhecedores populares na comunidade de Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, como ferramenta para auxiliar na seleção de espécies vegetais visando à implantação de um programa de fitoterapia local na comunidade estudada. Participaram 11 conhecedores escolhidos por amostragem Bola de Neve e submetidos a

  8. Provider-identified barriers and facilitators to implementing a supported employment program in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Bridget A; Ottomanelli, Lisa; O'Connor, Danielle R; Trainor, John K

    2017-03-08

    In a 5-year study, individual placement and support (IPS) significantly increased employment rate of United States Veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI), a historically underemployed population. In a follow-up study, data on barriers and facilitators to IPS implementation were identified. Over 24 months of implementation, 82 key medical and vocational staff underwent semi-structured interviews (n = 130). Interviews were digitally recorded and qualitatively analyzed (ATLAS.ti v0.7) using a constant comparative method to generate themes. Some barriers to implementation occurred throughout the study, such as Veterans' lack of motivation and providers' difficulty integrating vocational and medical rehabilitation. Other barriers emerged at specific stages, for example, early barriers included a large geographic service area and a large patient caseload, and late barriers included need for staff education. Facilitators were mostly constant throughout implementation and included leadership support and successful integration of vocational staff into the medical care team. Implementation strategies need to be adjusted as implementation progresses and matures. The strategies that succeeded in this setting, which were situated in a real-world context of providing IPS as a part of SCI medical care, may inform implementation of IPS for other populations with physical disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Key facilitators to IPS in SCI implementation are integrating vocational staff with expertise in IPS and SCI on clinical rehabilitation teams and providing leadership support. Ongoing barriers to IPS in SCI include patient specific and program administration factors such as caseload size and staffing patterns. Varying implementation strategies are needed to address barriers as they arise and facilitate successful implementation.

  9. Frequent screening with serial neck ultrasound is more likely to identify false-positive abnormalities than clinically significant disease in the surveillance of intermediate risk papillary thyroid cancer patients without suspicious findings on follow-up ultrasound evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiling Yang, Samantha; Bach, Ariadne M; Tuttle, R Michael; Fish, Stephanie A

    2015-04-01

    American Thyroid Association (ATA) intermediate-risk thyroid cancer patients who achieve an excellent treatment response demonstrate a low risk of structural disease recurrence. Despite this fact, most patients undergo frequent surveillance neck ultrasound (US) during follow-up. The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical utility of routine screening neck US in ATA intermediate-risk patients documented to have a nonstimulated thyroglobulin less than 1.0 ng/mL and a neck US without suspicious findings after therapy. Retrospective review of 90 ATA intermediate-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma patients treated with total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation in a tertiary referral center. A comparison between the frequency of finding false-positive US abnormalities and the frequency of identifying structural disease recurrence in the study cohort was measured. Over a median of 10 years, 90 patients had a median of six US (range 2-16). Structural disease recurrence was identified in 10% (9 of 90) at a median of 6.3 years. Recurrence was associated with other clinical indicators of disease in 5 of the 90 patients (5.6%, 5 of 90) and was detected without other signs of recurrence in four patients (4.8%, 4 of 84). False-positive US abnormalities were identified in 57% (51 of 90), leading to additional testing, which failed to identify clinically significant disease. In ATA intermediate-risk patients who have a nonstimulated thyroglobulin less than 1.0 ng/mL and a neck US without suspicious findings after therapy, frequent US screening during follow-up is more likely to identify false-positive abnormalities than clinically significant structural disease recurrence.

  10. 40 CFR 52.2030 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2030 Section 52.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2030 Source surveillance...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1431 - CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each program manager who maintains program aircraft under a CAMP must establish and maintain a system for the continuing analysis and surveillance of the performance and effectiveness of its inspection program and the...

  12. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  13. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  14. An Achievement Degree Analysis Approach to Identifying Learning Problems in Object-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinjawi, Arwa A.; Al-Nuaim, Hana A.; Krause, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Students often face difficulties while learning object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts. Many papers have presented various assessment methods for diagnosing learning problems to improve the teaching of programming in computer science (CS) higher education. The research presented in this article illustrates that although max-min composition is…

  15. Incidence and trends of cardiovascular mortality after common cancers in young adults:Analysis of surveillance, epidemiology and end-results program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadeer G Al-Kindi; Guilherme H Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular mortality(CVM) in survivors of major cancers and identify its trends over the past two decades. METHODS: We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end-results 19 registry to identify young adults(20-49 years), diagnosed with the following major primary cancers: Lung, breast, liver/intrahepatic bile duct, pancreas, prostate, colorectal, and ovarian from 1990 through 2012 and identified the cumulative incidence of CVM after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: We identified a total of 301923 cancers(breast 173748, lung 38938, colorectal 31722, prostate 22848, ovary 16065, liver 9444, pancreas 9158). A total of 2297(0.8%) of patients had incident CVM. Lung(10-year cumulative CVM 2.4%) and liver(1.73%) cancers had the highest incidence of CVM, while breast(0.6%) and prostate(1.2%) had the lowest CVM mortality, even after multiple adjustments(P < 0.001). Overall, there was a significant improvement in CVM since 1990 [2005-2012 vs 1990-1994, adjusted HR 0.63(0.54-0.72), P < 0.001]. This was driven by improvements in CVM in lung cancers(P = 0.02), breast(P < 0.001), and a trend in ovarian cancer(P = 0.097).There was no statistically significant improvement in CVM among survivors of colorectal, pancreatic, liver, or prostate cancers.CONCLUSION: The risk of CVM differs among different cancers, and is highest among survivors of lung and liver cancers. The incidence of CVM has decreased over the past 2 decades mainly among survivors of lung and breast cancers.

  16. The incidence of nosocomial infection in the Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia: ICU-acquired nosocomial infection surveillance program 1998-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaidi, S W; Sukro, J; Dan, A

    2001-06-01

    CU-acquired nosocomial infection (NI) remains one of the major causes of ICU mortality. This study presents the incidence of ICU-acquired nosocomial infection in ICU HUKM for the years 1998 and 1999, as part of the ongoing ICU-acquired nosocomial infection surveillance program. The overall incidence was 23%. The main types of NI was lower respiratory tract infection (15.3%), primary bacteraemia (8.1%), ventilator associated pneumonia (5.4%), urinary tract infection (2.0%), skin infection (1.6%) central venous catheter sepsis (1.2%) and surgical skin infection (0.8%). The overall culture positive nosocomial infection rate was only 12.1%, majority from the lungs (12.6%), blood (7.3%), skin swabs (2.0%), and urine (1.6%). The main gram-negative organism cultured was Acinetobacter sp. (19%) and Staph. aureus (8.5%) was the gram-positive organism. The overall ICU mortality rate was 27.5% of which 60.9% of patients who died were attributed directly to sepsis.

  17. Pediatric and adult malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors: an analysis of data from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirian, E Susan; Goodman, J Clay; New, Pamela; Scheurer, Michael E

    2014-02-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare soft tissue sarcomas that arise predominantly from Schwann cells. Despite the fact that MPNSTs have high local recurrence rates and are generally associated with poor prognosis, little is known about prognostic factors or effective clinical management for this tumor type. The purpose of this study was to describe the distributions of patient and tumor characteristics and to identify predictors of cause-specific survival among MPNST cases reported to SEER between 1973 and 2008. Patient and tumor characteristics were compared between pediatric and adult MPNST cases. Cox regression and tree-based survival analysis were used to examine factors associated with MPNST-related mortality separately among adults and children. A total of 1,315 MPNST cases were isolated from the 1973-2008 SEER dataset. Among pediatric cases, sex, race, and radiation therapy predicted MPNST survival, whereas among adults, tumor site, tumor grade, number of primary tumors, and tumor size were significant predictors. As tumor size at diagnosis/resection may be the only somewhat "modifiable" prognostic factor, future studies should aim to identify biological and social attributes associated with tumor size at diagnosis, separately among individuals with and without NF-1, in order to help identify earlier opportunities for clinical intervention.

  18. A Field Program to Identify TRI Chemicals and Determine Emission Factors from DoD Munitions Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    FINAL REPORT to STRATEGIC ENVIROMENTAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (SERDP) on A FIELD PROGRAM TO IDENTIFY TRI CHEMICALS...adhere to EPCRA, including the toxic release inventory (TRI) requirements. A particularly difficult reporting issue for DoD concerns air emissions...primarily because of constraints imposed on the physical location of the lidar due to laser safety issues . The lack of flexibility in repositioning

  19. Prevalence of rotavirus genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program: report of rotavirus surveillance in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Durmaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age throughout the world. This sentinel surveillance study was aimed to obtain baseline data on the rotavirus G and P genotypes across Turkey before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program. METHODS: Rotavirus antigen-positive samples were collected from 2102 children less than 5 years of age who attended hospitals participating in the Turkish Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the laboratories of participating hospitals by commercial serological tests such as latex agglutination, immunochromatographic test or enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using consensus primers detecting the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. RESULTS: RT-PCR found rotavirus RNA in 1644 (78.2% of the samples tested. The highest rate of rotavirus positivity (38.7% was observed among children in the 13 to 24 month age group, followed by children in the age group of 25 to 36 months (28.3%. A total of eight different G types, six different P types, and 42 different G-P combinations were obtained. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G9 and two common P types (P[8] and P[4] accounted for 95.1% and 98.8% of the strains, respectively. G9P[8] was the most common G/P combination found in 40.5% of the strains followed by G1P[8] (21.6%, G2P[8] (9.3%, G2P[4] (6.5%, G3P[8] (3.5%, and finally, G4P[8] (3.4%. These six common genotypes included 83.7% of the strains tested in this study. The rate of uncommon genotypes was 14%. CONCLUSION: The majority of the strains analyzed belonged to the G1-G4 and G9 genotypes, suggesting high coverage of current rotavirus vaccines. This study also demonstrates a dramatic increase in G9 genotype across the country.

  20. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  1. Manual development: A strategy for identifying core components of integrated health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooss, Angela; Hartman, Megan; Ibañez, Gladys

    2015-12-01

    Integrated care models are gaining popularity as a clinical strategy to reduce costs and improve client outcomes; however, implementation of such complex models requires an understanding of programmatic core components essential to producing positive outcomes. To promote this understanding, evaluators can work collaboratively with organization staff and leaderships to gather information on program implementation, adaptations, organizational buy-in, and project outcomes. In 2011, SAMHSA funded two Miami health clinics to implement integrated care models in co-located settings. Changes in the federal healthcare landscape, non-Medicaid expansion for Florida, and the complexity of projects goals led evaluators to facilitate a core component review as part of evaluation. A manual was developed throughout the project and captured a description, adaptations, inputs needed, lessons learned, and sustainability for each integrated care component. To increase chances for program success, evaluators should institute a method to better define core components of new programs and implementation adaptations, while keeping program replication in mind. Breaking down the program structurally gave the evaluation utility for stakeholders, and ultimately served as a resource for organizations to better understand their program model. The manual also continues to serve as a dissemination and replication source for other providers looking to implement integrated care.

  2. The Ontario Universal Typing of Tuberculosis (OUT-TB Surveillance Program – What It Means to You

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Bolotin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a serious disease that is transmitted primarily by the airborne route. Effective disease control and outbreak management requires the timely diagnosis, isolation and treatment of infected individuals with active disease; contact tracing to identify secondary cases likely to benefit from treatment of latent infection; and laboratory identification or confirmation of epidemiologically linked cases. TB genotyping enables the comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC strains and the identification of cases that may or may not be linked. The increased availability of molecular methods for genotyping has allowed for greater discrimination of MTBC strains and greatly enhanced understanding of TB transmission patterns.

  3. Elevated blood lead in California adults, 1987: results of a statewide surveillance program based on laboratory reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L; Sutton, P; Jones, J R; Kizer, K W

    1990-08-01

    California medical laboratories that test for blood lead are required to report results exceeding 1.21 mumols/L (25 micrograms/dl). Between April and December 1987, the California Department of Health Services received 3,077 blood lead reports from 34 laboratories for 1,293 civilian, non-institutionalized adults. Approximately 1 percent of all reports exceeded 3.87 mumols/L (80 micrograms/dl), 7 percent exceeded 2.42 mumols/L (50 micrograms/dl), and 21 percent exceeded 1.93 mumols/L (40 micrograms/dl). Individuals tested were overwhelmingly male (94 percent), disproportionately Hispanic surnamed (44 percent), and most often residents of Los Angeles County (81 percent). Workers in lead smelting, battery manufacturing, and brass foundries accounted for nearly 80 percent of reports. Construction, radiator repair, pottery and ceramics manufacturing, and gun firing ranges accounted for the remainder. All adults with reports of greater than or equal to 2.90 mumols/L who were contacted reported on occupational exposure. Approximately half were not in routine medical monitoring programs. Despite OSHA standards, elevated blood lead with the potential for serious acute and chronic lead poisoning in California adults remains a significant public health and major occupational health concern.

  4. Monitoring data quality in syndromic surveillance: Learnings from a resource limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Venkatarao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is in the process of integrating all disease surveillance systems with the support of a World Bank funded program called the Integrated Disease Surveillance System. In this context the objective of the study was to evaluate the components of the Orissa Multi Disease Surveillance System. Materials and Methods: Multistage sampling was carried out, starting with four districts, followed by sequentially sampling two blocks; and in each block, two sectors and two health sub-centers were selected, all based on the best and worst performances. Two study instruments were developed for data validation, for assessing the components of the surveillance and diagnostic algorithm. The Organizational Ethics Group reviewed and approved the study. Results: In all 178 study subjects participated in the survey. The case definition of suspected meningitis in disease surveillance was found to be difficult, with only 29.94%, who could be correctly identified. Syndromic diagnosis following the diagnostic algorithm was difficult for suspected malaria (28.1%, ′unusual syndrome′ (28.1%, and simple diarrhea (62%. Only 17% could correctly answer questions on follow-up cases, but only 50% prioritized diseases. Our study showed that 54% cross-checked the data before compilation. Many (22% faltered on timeliness even during emergencies. The constraints identified were logistics (56% and telecommunication (41%. The reason for participation in surveillance was job responsibility (34.83%. Conclusions: Most of the deficiencies arose from human errors when carrying out day-to-day processes of surveillance activities, hence, should be improved by retraining. Enhanced laboratory support and electronic transmission would improve data quality and timeliness. Validity of some of the case definitions need to be rechecked. Training Programs should focus on motivating the surveillance personnel.

  5. Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abry, Tashia; Hulleman, Chris S.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…

  6. Navigating the Leadership Landscape: Creating an Inventory to Identify Leadership Education Programs for Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Matthew; Verma, Sarita; Tassone, Maria; Seltzer, Jane; Careau, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    As health systems become increasingly complex, there is growing emphasis on collaborative leadership education for health system change. The Canadian Interprofessional Health Leadership Collaborative conducted research on this phenomenon through a scoping and systematic review of the health leadership literature, key informant interviews and an inventory of health leadership programs in Canada. The inventory is unique, accounting for educational programming missed by traditional scholarly literature reviews. A major finding is that different health professions have access to health leadership education in different stages of their careers. This pioneering inventory suggests that needs may differ between health professions but also that there is a growing demand for multiple types of programs for specific targeted audiences, and a strategic need for collaborative leadership education in healthcare.

  7. Mechanisms of prenatal programing: identifying and distinguishing the impact of steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Barrett, Emily S

    2014-01-01

    Developmental programing is gaining considerable leverage as a conceptual framework for understanding individual variability in human behavioral and somatic health. The current mini-review examines some of the key conceptual and methodological challenges for developmental programing research focused on fetal sex steroid exposure and physical, behavioral, physiological, and health outcomes. Specifically, we consider the bases for focusing on sex steroids, methods for assessing prenatal steroid hormone exposure, confounding factors, and the most relevant postnatal outcomes. We conclude with a brief consideration, based on current knowledge, of the applications of the existing findings for further research and practice.

  8. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Meat Cutting. Module 3.0: Identifying and Cutting Meat and By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on identifying and cutting of meat and by-products is the third of three (CE 028 291-293) in the meat cutting course of a bilingual skills training program. The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience in the cutting of beef, pork, poultry, lamb, and mutton. Module objectives are for students to develop…

  9. Use of a Remote Controlled Plane to Identify Cold Tolerant Clones from Early Stages of a Selection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress tolerance is one of the most important selection traits for sugarcane. However, it is a time consuming and laborious process to identify stress tolerant clones from among the thousands of clones in the early stages of a selection program. Additionally, some of the weather-related stress event...

  10. Identifying Local Benefits of Early Childhood Development Programs Using Regional Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A.; Rolnick, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" by Timothy J. Bartik. Timothy Bartik's timely book contributes to an important conversation about the role of government in promoting investments in children in the years before traditional public schooling typically begins. Until…

  11. An Empirically-Based Statewide System for Identifying Quality Pre-Kindergarten Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey M.; Landry, Susan H.; Anthony, Jason L.; Swank, Paul R.; Crawford, April D.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an empirically-based statewide system that links information about pre-kindergarten programs with children's school readiness scores to certify pre-kindergarten classrooms as promoting school readiness. Over 8,000 children from 1,255 pre-kindergarten classrooms were followed longitudinally for one year. Pre-kindergarten quality…

  12. Identifying Best Practices in Civic Education: Lessons from the Student Voices Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Lauren; Pasek, Josh; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    2007-01-01

    School-based civic education is increasingly recognized as an effective means for increasing political awareness and participation in American youth. This study examines the Student Voices curriculum, implemented in 22 Philadelphia high schools, to assess program activities that mediate gains in outcomes linked to future political participation…

  13. Risk Stratification using Human Papillomavirus Testing among Women with Equivocally Abnormal Cytology: Results from a State-wide Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Hunt, William C; Schiffman, Mark; Katki, Hormuzd A; Cheung, Li C; Cuzick, Jack; Myers, Orrin; Castle, Philip E; Wheeler, Cosette M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines for cervical cancer screening have incorporated comparative risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) for various screening outcomes to determine management. Few cohorts are large enough to distinguish CIN3+ risks among women with minor abnormalities vs. negative cytology because of low incidence. The New Mexico HPV Pap Registry offers a unique opportunity to evaluate cervical cancer screening in a diverse population across a broad-spectrum of health service delivery. Methods Kaplan-Meier and logistic-Weibull survival models were used to estimate cumulative risks of CIN3+ among women aged 21–64 who were screened in New Mexico between 2007–2011 with negative, equivocal or mildly abnormal cytology, i.e., atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; with or without HPV triage), or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Results We identified 452,045 women meeting the selection criteria. The 3-year CIN3+ risks for women with negative, ASC-US and LSIL cytology were: 0.30%, 2.6%, and 5.2%, respectively. HPV triage of ASC-US stratified 3-year CIN3+ risks were 0.72% for HPV-negative and 7.7% for HPV-positive. Risks tended to decline after age 30 for all screening results. Conclusions In this state-wide population-based cohort, cytology and HPV triage of ASC-US stratified women’s CIN3+ risk into similar patterns observed previously, suggesting the validity of screening guidelines for diverse populations in the United States (U.S.). Absolute risk estimates should be compared across other large populations. Impact Strategies for HPV triage of ASC-US derived from clinical trials are upheld in large clinical practice settings and across diverse screening populations in the U.S.. PMID:26518316

  14. The Development and Implementation of an Outreach Program to Identify Acute and Recent HIV Infections in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvera, Richard; Stein, Dylan; Hutt, Richard; Hagerty, Robert; Daskalakis, Demetre; Valentine, Fred; Marmor, Michael

    2010-03-05

    Since 2004, the authors have been operating First Call NYU, an outreach program to identify acute and recent HIV infections, also called primary HIV infections, among targeted at-risk communities in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. First Call NYU employed mass media advertising campaigns, outreach to healthcare providers in NYC, and Internet-based efforts including search engine optimization (SEO) and Internet-based advertising to achieve these goals. Between October 2004 and October 2008, 571 individuals were screened through this program, leading to 446 unique, in-person screening visits. 47 primary HIV infections, including 14 acute and 33 recent HIV infections, were identified. Internet and traditional recruitment methods can be used to increase self-referrals for screening following possible exposure to HIV. Community education of at-risk groups, with the goal of increased self-diagnosis of possible acute HIV infection, may be a useful addition to traditional efforts to identify such individuals.

  15. The epidemiology of malignant giant cell tumors of bone: an analysis of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (1975–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Schwartz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant giant cell tumor (GCT of bone is a rare tumor with debilitating consequences. Patients with GCT of bone typically present with mechanical difficulty and pain as a result of bone destruction and are at an increased risk for fracture. Because of its unusual occurrence, little is known about the epidemiology of malignant GCT of bone. This report offers the first reliable population-based estimates of incidence, patient demographics, treatment course and survival for malignancy in GCT of bone in the United States. Using data from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER program, we estimated the overall incidence and determinants of survival among patients diagnosed with malignant GCT of bone from 1975-2004. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate demographic and clinical determinants of survival among malignant GCT cases. Based on analyses of 117 malignant GCT cases, the estimated annual incidence in the United States was 1.6 per 10,000,000 persons per year. Incidence was highest among adults aged 20 to 44 years (2.4 per 10,000,000 per year and most patients were diagnosed with localized (31.6% or regional (29.9% disease compared to distant disease (16.2%. Approximately 85% of patients survived at least 5 years, with survival poorest among older patients and those with evidence of distant metastases at time of diagnosis. The current study represents the largest systematic investigation examining the occurrence and distribution of malignancy in GCT of bone in the general U.S. population. We confirm its rare occurrence and suggest that age and stage at diagnosis are strongly associated with long-term survival.

  16. Effect of occupational polychlorinated biphenyls exposure on quality-adjusted life years over time at the HELPcB surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, A; Gaum, P M; Schettgen, T; Kraus, T; Gube, M; Lang, J

    2015-01-01

    HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls [PCB]) is a surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a capacitor recycling company and other concerned individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and on quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The EQ-5D-3L questionnaire was used to determine the HRQL. After three cross-sectional examinations at intervals of 1 yr, the longitudinal development of QALY was compared by repeated-measurement analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The cohort was split at the 95th percentile of the comparison group for each PCB congener; known confounders such as age were taken into account. A significant difference in height and development of QALY over time was shown for the higher chlorinated non-dioxin-like PCB (hcPCB) congeners. A significant between-groups effect was found on PCB 153, PCB 180, and the sum of hcPCB. It was found that QALY decreased in the high-burden group and QALY stabilized after yr 2 in the normal-burden group. Taking the dimensions of the EQ-5D into account, the between-groups effect seems to be based predominantly on the dimension anxiety. The development of the within-group effect, however, seems to be based on the dimension mobility. This study detected a significant influence of hcPCB on the development of HRQL and QALYs over time according to the level of internal PCB burden.

  17. Survival by histologic subtype in stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer based on data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei Y

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Karynsa Cetin1, David S Ettinger2, Yong-jiang Hei3, Cynthia D O'Malley11Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 2Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Global Development, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USABackground: The role of histology in the targeted management of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC has garnered renewed attention in recent years. We provide contemporary population-based estimates of survival and an assessment of important prognostic factors in stage IV NSCLC by major histologic subtype.Methods: Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER Program, we stratified 51,749 incident stage IV NSCLC patients (1988–2003 with follow-up through 2006 by major histologic subtype. We used Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods to describe overall survival and the prognostic influence of select patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics for each histologic subgroup.Results: Survival was highest in patients with bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma (1-year survival: 29.1% and lowest in those with large cell tumors (1-year survival: 12.8%. Diagnosis in later years, female gender, younger age, either Asian/Pacific Islander or Hispanic race/ethnicity, lower tumor grade, and surgery or beam radiation as part of first-line treatment were generally independently associated with a decreased risk of death, but the prognostic significance of some of these factors (age, ethnicity, tumor grade varied according to histologic subtype.Conclusion: Findings demonstrate a poor prognosis across histologic subtypes in stage IV NSCLC patients but highlight differences in both absolute survival and the relative importance of select prognostic factors by histologic subclassification. More research using other sources of population-based data could help clarify the role of histology in the presentation, management, and prognosis of late

  18. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

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    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  19. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems and mod...

  20. Developing a program to identify and track corrosion in nuclear plant raw water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spires PE, G.V. [KTA - Tator Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Pickles PE, S.B. [Senior Engineer, Ontario Power Generation, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Findings derived from a comprehensive plant performance survey at Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) nuclear units convinced management that it would be prudent to expand the ongoing power piping Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) induced wall thinning base-lining and tracking program to encompass the raw cooling water systems as well. Such systems are subject to a distinctly different class of pipe wall thinning (PWT) mechanisms than the FAC that degrades high-energy power piping. This paper describes the PWT corrosion assessment and tracking program that has been developed and is currently being implemented by OPG for the raw cooling water (i.e., Service Water) systems within it's nuclear generating stations. Interim databases are used prior to initial inspection rounds to catalogue the prospective locations. For each piping system being surveyed, these interim databases include physical coordinates for the candidate locations, the type and wall thickness of the components comprising each location, ranking indications and recommended NDE methodologies as a function of the anticipated corrosion mechanisms. Rationales for assessing corrosion susceptibility and ranking prospective inspection sites are expounded by way of notations built into the database. (authors)

  1. Identifying Nursing Interventions in a Cancer Screening Program Using Nursing Interventions Classification Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Llucia; Lluch, María Teresa; Falcó, Anna Marta; García, Montse; Puig, Montse

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate which Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) labels correspond to specific nursing interventions provided during cancer screening to establish a nursing documentation system. This descriptive study was conducted to identify and classify the interventions that cancer screening nurses perform based on an initial list. The initial list was grouped into 15 interventions that corresponded to four domains and eight classes. The study found expert consensus regarding the duties of cancer screening nurses and identified 15 interventions that should be implemented in clinical practice for cancer screening care, according to the NIC taxonomy. This study is the first step in developing indicators to assess nursing performance in cancer screening, and it helps to establish the core competency requirements for cancer screening nurses. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  2. Identifying barriers to mental health system improvements: an examination of community participation in assertive community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating the best available evidence into program standards is essential if system-wide improvements in the delivery of community-based mental health services are to be achieved. Since the beginning of the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT program movement, program standards have included a role for the community. In particular, ACT program standards have sought to ensure that members of the local community are involved in governance and that former clients participate in service delivery as "Peer Support Specialists". This paper reports on the extent to which ACT program standards related to community participation have been implemented and identifies barriers to full compliance. Methods Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through a telephone survey of ACT Program Coordinators in Ontario, Canada, using a census sample of the existing 66 ACT programs. A thematic approach to content analysis was used to analyze respondents' qualitative comments. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and included means, frequencies, independent t-tests and Pearson Correlations. Results An 85% response rate was achieved. Of the 33 program standards, the two that received the lowest perceived compliance ratings were the two standards directly concerning community participation. Specifically, the standard to have a functioning Community Advisory Body and the standard requiring the inclusion of a Peer Support Specialist. The three major themes that emerged from the survey data with respect to the barriers to fully implementing the Community Advisory Body were: external issues; standard related issues; and, organizational/structural related issues. The three major themes concerning barriers to implementing the Peer Support Specialist role were: human resource related issues; organizational/structural related issues; and, standard related issues. Conclusions The reasons for low compliance of ACT programs with community

  3. Tuberculosis en trabajadores de la salud: importancia de los programas de vigilancia y control Tuberculosis in healthcare workers: importance of surveillance and control programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner

    2000-02-01

    follow-up were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with odds ratios, p-values, and 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analysis were done with chi². Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to analyze times to conversion. RESULTS: Surveillance was done in 1617 workers (68% female and 32% male. Mean age was 26.9±7.6(15-68 years. Job positions were 30.5% nurses, 14.6% residents and 14.1% interns. Place of origin was Mexico City in 65.8%. BCG vaccination was present in 71.6% and 15.1% had previous PPD. Admission PPD was positive in 39.6%, negative in 48.3% and 12.1% were lost to follow-up. On negatives, 483 booster shots were applied, and 49 additional positives were found. Follow-up was done in 231 workers, of which 100 (43.3% converted. The mean time for conversion was 22.8±12.4 months. The conversion rate at twelve months was 20%. Fifty workers received/accepted isoniazid prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of workers were PPD-positive; booster shots allowed the detection of an additional 10%. A high conversion rate underscores the need to organize tuberculosis control programs in Mexico.

  4. Eradication of gastric cancer and more efficient gastric cancer surveillance in Japan: two peas in a pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David Y; Asaka, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We provide a historical review and update on current thinking regarding the possibility of elimination of gastric cancer from Japan. Because Helicobacter pylori infection is the cause gastric cancer, its elimination forms the cornerstone of eradication of gastric cancer. However, simply eradicating H. pylori from the entire population will not immediately solve the problem because many patients with H. pylori infections have already developed the precursor lesion, atrophic gastritis. Cure of H. pylori in these high risk patients will only reduce the risk of subsequent cancer. In contrast, treatment of low risk patients will prevent cancer. Thus, to eliminate gastric cancer it is necessary to identify and treat all infected individuals. In addition, those at increased risk for gastric cancer (i.e., atrophic gastritis irrespective of age) should be considered for endoscopic surveillance to identify those cancers that develop at an early stage. We propose that severity and extent of atrophy be used to separate those expected to benefit from endoscopy and annual surveillance from those with little or no potential benefit. We suggest an algorithm for eradicating gastric cancer that incorporates H. pylori and atrophic gastritis testing, H. pylori therapy, and surveillance to institute a program of surveillance restricted to those who could benefit most (i.e., those with moderate or severe atrophy). This will also allow a much closer matching of surveillance capacity and surveillance need making surveillance more clinically- and cost-effective.

  5. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems...... and models for interpreting surveillance data as part of ongoing control or eradication programmes. Two Danish examples are outlined. The first illustrates how models were used in documenting country freedom from disease (trichinellosis) and the second demonstrates how models were of assistance in predicting...

  6. A Method to Identify and Analyze Biological Programs through Automated Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Hillel; Smith, Austin; Martello, Graziano; Emmott, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Predictive biology is elusive because rigorous, data-constrained, mechanistic models of complex biological systems are difficult to derive and validate. Current approaches tend to construct and examine static interaction network models, which are descriptively rich but often lack explanatory and predictive power, or dynamic models that can be simulated to reproduce known behavior. However, in such approaches implicit assumptions are introduced as typically only one mechanism is considered, and exhaustively investigating all scenarios is impractical using simulation. To address these limitations, we present a methodology based on automated formal reasoning, which permits the synthesis and analysis of the complete set of logical models consistent with experimental observations. We test hypotheses against all candidate models, and remove the need for simulation by characterizing and simultaneously analyzing all mechanistic explanations of observed behavior. Our methodology transforms knowledge of complex biological processes from sets of possible interactions and experimental observations to precise, predictive biological programs governing cell function. PMID:27668090

  7. Comparing cancer vs normal gene expression profiles identifies new disease entities and common transcriptional programs in AML patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Jendholm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression profiling has been used extensively to characterize cancer, identify novel subtypes, and improve patient stratification. However, it has largely failed to identify transcriptional programs that differ between cancer and corresponding normal cells and has not been efficient in iden......-karyotype AML, which allowed for the generation of a highly prognostic survival signature. Collectively, our CvN method holds great potential as a tool for the analysis of gene expression profiles of cancer patients.......Gene expression profiling has been used extensively to characterize cancer, identify novel subtypes, and improve patient stratification. However, it has largely failed to identify transcriptional programs that differ between cancer and corresponding normal cells and has not been efficient...... in identifying expression changes fundamental to disease etiology. Here we present a method that facilitates the comparison of any cancer sample to its nearest normal cellular counterpart, using acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as a model. We first generated a gene expression-based landscape of the normal...

  8. 基于互联网信息的公共卫生监测进展%A review on the advancement of internet-based public health surveillance program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永谦; 马文军

    2017-01-01

    互联网数据因其更新快和数据量丰富的特点被引入公共卫生监测领域.通过挖掘分析互联网中丰富的健康相关信息,研究者建立基于互联网的公共卫生监测系统,以快速估计人群中健康相关事件的分布.基于互联网的公共卫生监测系统根据信息来源不同可分为主动式监测系统和被动式监测系统.相较于传统监测系统,基于互联网的监测系统具有及时性佳和成本低的优点,还可在健康相关行为监测和卫生政策评价等传统监测力所不逮的领域发挥作用.但由于假阳性消息的存在,基于互联网的监测系统存在准确性不佳的缺点.本文介绍基于互联网的公共卫生监测进展及其在疾病预警中的应用,为我国开展相关工作提供参考.%Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume.Mining and analyzing internet data,researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events.There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems,i.e.active and passive,which are distinguished by the sources of information.Through passive surveillance system,information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers.Except for serving as a real-time and convenient complementary approach to traditional disease,food safety and adverse drug reaction surveillance program,Internet-based surveillance system can also play a role in health-related behavior surveillance and policy evaluation.Although several techniques have been applied to filter information,the accuracy of internet-based surveillance system is still bothered by the false positive information.In this article,we have summarized the development and application of internet-based surveillance system in public health to provide reference for a better surveillance

  9. Evaluation of multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Frisén,Marianne; Andersson, Eva; Schiöler, Linus

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate surveillance is of interest in many areas such as industrial production, bioterrorism detection, spatial surveillance, and financial transaction strategies. Some of the suggested approaches to multivariate surveillance have been multivariate counterparts to the univariate Shewhart, EWMA, and CUSUM methods. Our emphasis is on the special challenges of evaluating multivariate surveillance methods. Some new measures are suggested and the properties of several measures are demonstrat...

  10. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  11. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  12. The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: A Multidisciplinary Approach for the Early Detection and Response to Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    from laboratory diag- nosis or syndromic surveillance. This human disease surveillance is described elsewhere [46] and will not be discussed here...northeastern Kenya, and southeastern Ethiopia in 2000-01. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 2003, 97:515-518. 39. Paddock CD, Sumner JW, Comer JA, Zaki SR, Goldsmith...mammals in the Republic of Korea. J Wild Dis 2010, 46(1):165-172. 46. Lombardo J, Burkom H, Elbert E, Magruder S, Lewis SH, Loschen W, Sari J, Sniegoski C

  13. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  14. Identifying determinants of nations' wetland management programs using structural equation modeling: An exploratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, M.K.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Reams, M.A.; Templet, P.H.; Grace, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Integrated management and policy models suggest that solutions to environmental issues may be linked to the socioeconomic and political Characteristics of a nation. In this study, we empirically explore these suggestions by applying them to the wetland management activities of nations. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate a model of national wetland management effort and one of national wetland protection. Using five predictor variables of social capital, economic capital, environmental and political characteristics, and land-use pressure, the multivariate models were able to explain 60% of the variation in nations' wetland protection efforts based on data from 90 nations, as defined by level of participation, in the international wetland convention. Social capital had the largest direct effect on wetland protection efforts, suggesting that increased social development may eventually lead to better wetland protection. In contrast, increasing economic development had a negative linear relationship with wetland protection efforts, suggesting the need for explicit wetland protection programs as nations continue to focus on economic development. Government, environmental characteristics, and land-use pressure also had a positive direct effect on wetland protection, and mediated the effect of social capital on wetland protection. Explicit wetland protection policies, combined with a focus on social development, would lead to better wetland protection at the national level.

  15. Synthesis of evidence of diagnostic tests and preventive programs identifying pre-diabetes type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Tučková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D has become the main type of diabetes in children and it is expected that in countries with high income diabetes it is projected to be one of the leading causes of death by 2030. Another fact is that programs and tests diagnosing pre-diabetes type 2 (T2P-DMC are missing. Methods: The aim of the paper is to present the steps for the synthesis of the evidence within the brand new type of the systematic review (SR: SR of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA. Using the acronym PIRD it was developed a review question, search strategy and inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The initial search was done in two databases (MedLine and Cinahl with 2 025 results. The second search after the improvement of the sensitivity and the specificity was done in 15 databases with 3 681 results. Conclusion: This methodological paper introduces how to conduct the systematic review protocols of diagnostic test accuracy on the example of T2P-DMC.

  16. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. Use of a Web-based Delphi for identifying critical components of a professional science master's program in biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantz, Jeannine Wells

    The primary purpose of this research was to develop a model for a professional science master's program combining biotechnology and business. The objectives were to identify stakeholder preferences for various dimensions of a professional science master's program combining biotechnology and business and to identify differences in priorities between subgroups. A secondary purpose was to examine user preferences between Web-based and traditional methods of conducting a Delphi study and the panelist's impressions of its usefulness for program development. Prior to the first round, demographic data were collected on panelists regarding their gender, age, years experience in their current field, position title and education levels. Round 1 started with eight open-ended questions designed to investigate (a) learning objectives, (b) internships, (c) thesis vs. non-thesis degrees, (d) program focus (e) possible entry level positions, (f) roles for the industry advisory board, (g) recommended hours of hands-on experience and (h) other issues of importance. The final round ended with three questions to assess the panelists' perception of the usefulness of the Delphi for program development in higher education. Twenty-four panelists started Round 1 and participation in subsequent rounds varied from 17 in Round 2 to 11 in Round 4. Education level varied and included all levels of education in science and business. Issues emerged early in the study regarding development of different program tracks and the program goals, which were clarified in subsequent rounds. Significant differences occurred between industry and academic subgroups for two tracks, six skills designated for tracks, method of evaluating the internship, and entry-level positions appropriate for new graduates. When analyzed by level of confidence (high confidence vs. low confidence), significant differences occurred for (a) the number of semesters of hands-on experience students should have upon graduation, (b

  18. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  19. A retrospective analysis of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (bovine herpes virus-1) surveillance program in Norway using Monte Carlo simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Tharaldsen, J.; Jarp, J.

    2001-01-01

    Serological surveillance for antibodies against bovine herpes virus type I (BHV-1) which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis has been carried out since 1992 in Norway. Since 1993 (when a single infected herd was detected) all bulk-milk and pooled-serum...

  20. CHOIS: enabling grid technologies for obesity surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Arun K; Jackson, Victoria; Nandkumar, Radha; Sproat, Jill; Zhu, Weimo; Krahling, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    CHOIS, the Child Health and Obesity Informatics System, is developed using open source portal technology with three-tiered Open Grid Services Architecture, an accepted standard for accessing Grid Computing and other services under Open Grid Collaborating Environments (OGCE). Its web application provides web based forms with 112 different fields to enter data ranging from demographic, height & weight for BMI, to genomic information. Automatic computation of BMI, BMI percentile and the risk of obesity alert are embedded into this system. After successful testing of the prototype, CHOIS is now ready to be used by the Illinois Department of Human Services (DHS) for obesity surveillance. This HIPAA & FERPA compliant secure system, integrating large databases in a high performance grid computing environment, enables school-nurse to collect data on school children and report statistical and surveillance information on BMI to identify those at-risk and obese for obesity prevention and intervention programs.

  1. Best Practices in Dengue Surveillance: A Report from the Asia-Pacific and Americas Dengue Prevention Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Mark E.; Stone, Amy; Fitzsimons, David W.; Hanna, Jeffrey N.; Lam, Sai Kit; Vong, Sirenda; Guzman, Maria G.; Mendez-Galvan, Jorge F.; Halstead, Scott B.; Letson, G. William; Kuritsky, Joel; Mahoney, Richard; Margolis, Harold S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a virus infection that is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito and can cause severe disease especially in children. Dengue fever is a major problem in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Methodology/Principal Findings We invited dengue experts from around the world to attend meetings to discuss dengue surveillance. We reviewed literature, heard detailed reports on surveillance programs, and shared expert opinions. Results Presentations by 22 countries were heard during the 2.5 day meetings. We describe the best methods of surveillance in general, the stakeholders in dengue surveillance, and the steps from mosquito bite to reporting of a dengue case to explore how best to carry out dengue surveillance. We also provide details and a comparison of the dengue surveillance programs by the presenting countries. Conclusions/Significance The experts provided recommendations for achieving the best possible data from dengue surveillance accepting the realities of the real world (e.g., limited funding and staff). Their recommendations included: (1) Every dengue endemic country should make reporting of dengue cases to the government mandatory; (2) electronic reporting systems should be developed and used; (3) at minimum dengue surveillance data should include incidence, hospitalization rates, deaths by age group; (4) additional studies should be completed to check the sensitivity of the system; (5) laboratories should share expertise and data; (6) tests that identify dengue virus should be used in patients with fever for four days or less and antibody tests should be used after day 4 to diagnose dengue; and (7) early detection and prediction of dengue outbreaks should be goals for national surveillance systems. PMID:21103381

  2. 优化正己烷作业人群职业健康监护技术方案研究%Study on optimization of technical program of occupational health surveillance for workers exposed to n-hexane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉斌; 黄汉林; 李宏玲; 江嘉欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To carry out an optimization of technical program of occupational health surveillance( OHS)for workers exposed to n-hexane,and to improve its accessibility. Methods According to the theory of evidence-based medi-cine,this research analyzed the target diseases,screening items and interval period of the pre-employment/on-job/off-post physical examination required by GBZ 188 Technical Specifications of Occupational Health Surveillance,and reviewed the collected articles on common issues of OHS from literature database,such as the China National Knowledge Internet ( CNKI),WanFang and PubMed,in order to select proper indicators,promote an optimization and guideline of OHS for workers exposed to n-hexane with primary application. Results The optimization of technical program and application guide of OHS for workers exposed to n-hexane was established by altering nerve conduction velocity and serum neuron-specific enolase as biomarkers of effect,urine 2,5-hexanedione as biomarkers of exposure;adding urine glucose as identifi-cation indicators;adding diabetes complicated with peripheral nerve damage,vitamin B deficiency,minors and female employees with pregnancy or lactation as occupational contraindications. Conclusion The optimization is practical and proved to be applicable in OHS for workers exposed to n-hexane.%目的:建立正己烷作业人群职业健康监护( OHS )优化方案和应用指南,提高职业健康监护的可操作性。方法从循证医学角度出发,对GBZ 188《职业健康监护技术规范》规定的对正己烷作业人群开展上岗前、在岗期间和离岗时OHS的目标疾病、健康检查内容和周期等内容进行分析,以OHS工作中的常见问题为线索,通过中国期刊全文数据库( CNKI)、万方数据库和PubMed进行文献检索,筛选优化指标,提出正己烷作业人群OHS技术优化方案和应用指南,初步推广应用。结果成功建立正己烷作业人群OHS技术

  3. Integrated Healthcare Delivery: A Qualitative Research Approach to Identifying and Harmonizing Perspectives of Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease Programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Rubin Means

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available While some evidence supports the beneficial effects of integrating neglected tropical disease (NTD programs to optimize coverage and reduce costs, there is minimal information regarding when or how to effectively operationalize program integration. The lack of systematic analyses of integration experiences and of integration processes may act as an impediment to achieving more effective NTD programming. We aimed to learn about the experiences of NTD stakeholders and their perceptions of integration.We evaluated differences in the definitions, roles, perceived effectiveness, and implementation experiences of integrated NTD programs among a variety of NTD stakeholder groups, including multilateral organizations, funding partners, implementation partners, national Ministry of Health (MOH teams, district MOH teams, volunteer rural health workers, and community members participating in NTD campaigns. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted. Coding of themes involved a mix of applying in-vivo open coding and a priori thematic coding from a start list.In total, 41 interviews were conducted. Salient themes varied by stakeholder, however dominant themes on integration included: significant variations in definitions, differential effectiveness of specific integrated NTD activities, community member perceptions of NTD programs, the influence of funders, perceived facilitators, perceived barriers, and the effects of integration on health system strength. In general, stakeholder groups provided unique perspectives, rather than contrarian points of view, on the same topics. The stakeholders identified more advantages to integration than disadvantages, however there are a number of both unique facilitators and challenges to integration from the perspective of each stakeholder group.Qualitative data suggest several structural, process, and technical opportunities that could be addressed to promote more effective and efficient integrated NTD

  4. Forewarning of poliovirus outbreaks in the Horn of Africa: an assessment of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and routine immunization systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allison Taylor; Sodha, Samir; Warren, Wick C; Sergon, Kibet; Kiptoon, Shem; Ogange, John; Ahmeda, Abdi Hassan; Eshetu, Messeret; Corkum, Melissa; Pillai, Satish; Scobie, Heather; Mdodo, Rennatus; Tack, Danielle M; Halldin, Cara; Appelgren, Kristie; Kretsinger, Katrina; Bensyl, Diana M; Njeru, Ian; Kolongei, Titus; Muigai, Juliet; Ismail, Amina; Okiror, Samuel O

    2014-11-01

    Although the Horn of Africa region has successfully eliminated endemic poliovirus circulation, it remains at risk for reintroduction. International partners assisted Kenya in identifying gaps in the polio surveillance and routine immunization programs, and provided recommendations for improved surveillance and routine immunization during the health system decentralization process. Structured questionnaires collected information about acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance resources, training, data monitoring, and supervision at provincial, district, and health facility levels. The routine immunization program information collected included questions about vaccine and resource availability, cold chain, logistics, health-care services and access, outreach coverage data, microplanning, and management and monitoring of AFP surveillance. Although AFP surveillance met national performance standards, widespread deficiencies and limited resources were observed and reported at all levels. Deficiencies were related to provider knowledge, funding, training, and supervision, and were particularly evident at the health facility level. Gap analysis assists in maximizing resources and capacity building in countries where surveillance and routine immunization lag behind other health priorities. Limited resources for surveillance and routine immunization systems in the region indicate a risk for additional outbreaks of wild poliovirus and other vaccine-preventable illnesses. Monitoring and evaluation of program strengthening activities are needed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Evaluation of Syndromic Surveillance Systems in 6 US State and Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mathew J; Yoon, Paula W; Collins, James M; Davidson, Arthur J; Mac Kenzie, William R

    2017-09-28

    Evaluating public health surveillance systems is critical to ensuring that conditions of public health importance are appropriately monitored. Our objectives were to qualitatively evaluate 6 state and local health departments that were early adopters of syndromic surveillance in order to (1) understand the characteristics and current uses, (2) identify the most and least useful syndromes to monitor, (3) gauge the utility for early warning and outbreak detection, and (4) assess how syndromic surveillance impacted their daily decision making. We adapted evaluation guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and gathered input from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention subject matter experts in public health surveillance to develop a questionnaire. We interviewed staff members from a convenience sample of 6 local and state health departments with syndromic surveillance programs that had been in operation for more than 10 years. Three of the 6 interviewees provided an example of using syndromic surveillance to identify an outbreak (ie, cluster of foodborne illness in 1 jurisdiction) or detect a surge in cases for seasonal conditions (eg, influenza in 2 jurisdictions) prior to traditional, disease-specific systems. Although all interviewees noted that syndromic surveillance has not been routinely useful or efficient for early outbreak detection or case finding in their jurisdictions, all agreed that the information can be used to improve their understanding of dynamic disease control environments and conditions (eg, situational awareness) in their communities. In the jurisdictions studied, syndromic surveillance may be useful for monitoring the spread and intensity of large outbreaks of disease, especially influenza; enhancing public health awareness of mass gatherings and natural disasters; and assessing new, otherwise unmonitored conditions when real-time alternatives are unavailable. Future studies should explore opportunities to

  6. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohen, K.; Stoker, A.; Stone, G. [and others

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1992. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1992 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, laboratory employees, or the environment.

  7. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1995. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring result to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1995 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  8. Identifying Well-Connected Opinion Leaders for Informal Health Promotion: The Example of the ASSIST Smoking Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Jo; Audrey, Suzanne; Campbell, Rona; Moore, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    Methods used to select opinion leaders for informal behavior change interventions vary, affecting the role they adopt and the outcomes of interventions. The development of successful identification methods requires evidence that these methods achieve their aims. This study explored whether the "whole community" nomination process used in the ASSIST smoking prevention program successfully identified "peer supporters" who were well placed within their school social networks to diffuse an antismoking message to their peers. Data were collected in the United Kingdom during A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial. Behavioral data were provided at baseline and post intervention by all students. Social network data were provided post intervention by students in four control and six intervention schools. Centrality measures calculated using UCINET demonstrate that the ASSIST nomination process successfully identified peer supporters who were more socially connected than others in their year and who had social connections across the entire year group including the program's target group. The results indicate that three simple questions can identify individuals who are held in high esteem by their year group and who also have the interpersonal networks required of opinion leaders to successfully disseminate smoke-free messages through their social networks. This approach could be used in other informal health promotion initiatives.

  9. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  10. Trends in animal rabies surveillance in the endemic state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Pastrana, Misael E; Oliveira, Camila S F; Capanema, Renato O; Nicolino, Rafael R; Oviedo-Socarras, Teresa J; Haddad, João Paulo A

    2015-03-01

    Rabies is a viral zoonosis affecting mammal species and causes large economic losses. Included among the neglected diseases, it is still insufficiently addressed by governments and the international community, despite formal surveillance and control programs. This study used a dataset of 10,112 rabies diagnoses in animals provided by the Brazilian passive surveillance system from 2001 to 2012. The positivity rate of the tested samples was 26.4%, and a reduction in the total samples sent during the last six years was observed. The kernel density map indicated case concentration in the south region and a decrease in density of rabies cases in the second period studied (2007 to 2012). The directional trend of positive rabies diagnoses remained in the south region, as shown by the standard deviational ellipse. The spatial scan statistic identified three large clusters of positive diagnoses, one in the first period (2001-2006) and two in the second period (2007-2012), indicating an expansion of risk areas. The decrease in rabies cases from 2006 to 2012 does not necessarily reflect lower viral circulation or improvement in actions by epidemiological surveillance; this decrease could indicate a deficiency in epidemiological surveillance during the observation period due to the increase in the silent areas. Surveillance should maintain an increasing or constant number of tests during the years in addition to a reduction in the number of outbreaks of rabies, which would indicate a lower positivity rate. The findings in this study indicate deterioration in the effectiveness of the passive surveillance for rabies. The number of rabies cases, total number of tests performed and positivity rate are good indicators for evaluating passive surveillance. This paper can function as a guide for the assessment and improvement of the actions in passive surveillance of rabies.

  11. Periprosthetic Infection following Primary Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: The Impact of Limiting the Postoperative Surveillance Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Virginia R; Mitchell, Robyn; Vachon, Julie; Alexandre, Stéphanie; Amaratunga, Kanchana; Smith, Stephanie; Vearncombe, Mary; Davis, Ian; Mertz, Dominik; Henderson, Elizabeth; John, Michael; Johnston, Lynn; Lemieux, Camille; Pelude, Linda; Gravel, Denise

    2017-02-01

    BACKGROUND Hip and knee arthroplasty infections are associated with considerable healthcare costs. The merits of reducing the postoperative surveillance period from 1 year to 90 days have been debated. OBJECTIVES To report the first pan-Canadian hip and knee periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates and to describe the implications of a shorter (90-day) postoperative surveillance period. METHODS Prospective surveillance for infection following hip and knee arthroplasty was conducted by hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) using standard surveillance definitions. RESULTS Overall hip and knee PJI rates were 1.64 and 1.52 per 100 procedures, respectively. Deep incisional and organ-space hip and knee PJI rates were 0.96 and 0.71, respectively. In total, 93% of hip PJIs and 92% of knee PJIs were identified within 90 days, with a median time to detection of 21 days. However, 11%-16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections were not detected within 90 days. This rate was reduced to 3%-4% at 180 days post procedure. Anaerobic and polymicrobial infections had the shortest median time from procedure to detection (17 and 18 days, respectively) compared with infections due to other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS PJI rates were similar to those reported elsewhere, although differences in national surveillance systems limit direct comparisons. Our results suggest that a postoperative surveillance period of 90 days will detect the majority of PJIs; however, up to 16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections may be missed. Extending the surveillance period to 180 days could allow for a better estimate of disease burden. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:147-153.

  12. Secure surveillance videotapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pepper, S. [International Safeguards Project Office, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system`s tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal.

  13. Surveillance Recommendations in Reducing Risk of and Optimally Managing Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostby, Pamela L.; Armer, Jane M.; Dale, Paul S.; Van Loo, Margaret J.; Wilbanks, Cassie L.; Stewart, Bob R.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), a chronic, debilitating, and disfiguring condition that is progressive and requires lifelong self-management of symptoms. It has been reported that over 40% of the 2.5 million breast cancer survivors in the United States may meet the criteria for BCRL during their lifetimes. Ongoing surveillance, beginning with pre-operative assessment, has been effective in identifying subclinical lymphedema (LE). A prospective model for surveillance is necessary in order to detect BCRL at an early stage when there is the best chance to reduce risk or slow progression. Physical methods for monitoring and assessment, such as circumferential arm measures, perometry, bioimpedance; exercise programs; prophylactic and early-intervention compression garments; and referral for complete decongestive therapy are all interventions to consider in the development of a BCRL surveillance program. In addition, supportive-educative programs and interactive engagement for symptom self-management should also be implemented. The importance of interdisciplinary collaboration is integral to the success of an effective personalized medicine program in breast cancer-related lymphedema surveillance. PMID:25563360

  14. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  15. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  16. Nutrient profiling can help identify foods of good nutritional quality for their price: a validation study with linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Ferguson, Elaine L; Drewnowski, Adam; Darmon, Nicole

    2008-06-01

    Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient content. They may help identify foods with a good nutritional quality for their price. This hypothesis was tested using diet modeling with linear programming. Analyses were undertaken using food intake data from the nationally representative French INCA (enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires) survey and its associated food composition and price database. For each food, a nutrient profile score was defined as the ratio between the previously published nutrient density score (NDS) and the limited nutrient score (LIM); a nutritional quality for price indicator was developed and calculated from the relationship between its NDS:LIM and energy cost (in euro/100 kcal). We developed linear programming models to design diets that fulfilled increasing levels of nutritional constraints at a minimal cost. The median NDS:LIM values of foods selected in modeled diets increased as the levels of nutritional constraints increased (P = 0.005). In addition, the proportion of foods with a good nutritional quality for price indicator was higher (P quality for their price. Linear programming is a useful tool for testing nutrient profiling systems and validating the concept of nutrient profiling.

  17. Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system: coordinating national data on antimicrobial use and resistance for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnidge, John D; Meleady, Kathy T

    2017-06-22

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the process of establishment and coordination of the national Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system.Methods Existing surveillance programs conducted by health organisations at state or multi-jurisdictional levels were reviewed, and gaps and opportunities identified for the development of a national system. In view of the time frame available as part of the Australian Government Department of Health funding agreement, the strategy used by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care was to commence work with existing surveillance programs, expanding and enhancing them and developing new systems where gaps were identified. Using the specifications of the AURA national system, the data from each of these elements were then analysed and reported. The system provides coverage for the acute and community sectors for antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance.Results The AURA surveillance system integrates eight streams of surveillance activities, including passive and targeted surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance from hospitals (public and private) and the community (general practitioners and aged care homes). A gap was identified in timely surveillance of critical antimicrobial resistances (CARs), which resulted in the development of the national CARAlert system. The first comprehensive analyses of data across the surveillance programs was published in June 2016, providing baseline data for future reports to build on.Conclusion The AURA surveillance system has established the framework and foundation systems for an integrated and comprehensive picture of both antimicrobial use and resistance in Australia over time. National coordination and support will improve data collection, standardisation and analysis, and will facilitate collaboration across the states and territories, the Australian Government and the private sector. AURA publications will

  18. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  19. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Alan P

    2015-01-01

    .... Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation...

  20. The importance of waterborne disease outbreak surveillance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Franz Craun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of the causes of disease outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water in the United States have helped inform prevention efforts at the national, state, and local levels. This article describes the changing nature of disease outbreaks in public water systems during 1971-2008 and discusses the importance of a collaborative waterborne outbreak surveillance system established in 1971. Increasing reports of outbreaks throughout the early 1980s emphasized that microbial contaminants remained a health-risk challenge for suppliers of drinking water. Outbreak investigations identified the responsible etiologic agents and deficiencies in the treatment and distribution of drinking water, especially the high risk associated with unfiltered surface water systems. Surveillance information was important in establishing an effective research program that guided government regulations and industry actions to improve drinking water quality. Recent surveillance statistics suggest that prevention efforts based on these research findings have been effective in reducing outbreak risks especially for surface water systems.

  1. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-12-21

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

  2. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-03

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures.

  3. Are hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance programs effective at improving the therapeutic options?: ¿mejoran las opciones terapéuticas de estos pacientes? Eficacia de los programas de cribado de hepatocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zapata

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate whether the current surveillance programs (ultrasonography and alpha-fetoprotein testing every six months are successful in detecting patients in the early stages. Material and methods: the health records of all patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma in Donostia Hospital between 2003 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Eighty-five patients (11 women and 74 men were included in the study and demographic data, risk factors and clinical data were obtained. Patients were split into two groups according to whether or not they had been included in a surveillance program. Results: seventy per cent of patients of the surveillance group is diagnosed in early stage opposite to 26.7% of patients in no surveillance group (p Objetivo: determinar si la utilización en nuestro medio del programa de cribado de HCC establecido -alfa-fetoproteína (AFP y ecografia semestral- en pacientes con hepatopatía crónica permite detectar pacientes en estadios precoces de la enfermedad. Material y métodos: Diseño experimental: estudio retrospectivo. Criterios diagnósticos de HCC: 2 o más técnicas de imagen con lesión hipervascular mayor de 2 cm o 1 técnica de imagen con lesión hipervascular mayor de 2 cm asociado a AFP mayor de 400 ng/ml. Pacientes: 85 pacientes diagnosticados de HCC en el Hospital Donostia entre los años 2003 y 2005. Datos analizados: información demográfica (sexo, edad, factores de riesgo (alcohol, virus de hepatitis, hemocromatosis, otras enfermedades asociadas, e información clínica (etiología de la hepatopatía, estadio de Child-Pugh, determinación de AFP, hallazgos radiológicos, criterios de resecabilidad, tratamiento recibido, evolución. Se divide la muestra en dos grupos según hubieran seguido o no un programa de cribado. Resultados: el 70% de los pacientes del grupo de cribado se diagnostican en estadio precoz frente al 26,7% del grupo de no cribado (p < 0,05. Trece pacientes no pueden recibir

  4. Impact of postdischarge surveillance on surgical site infection rates for several surgical procedures: results from the nosocomial surveillance network in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniën, Judith; Wille, Jan C; Snoeren, Ruud L M M; Hof, Susan van den

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the number of surgical site infections (SSIs) registered after hospital discharge with respect to various surgical procedures and to identify the procedures for which postdischarge surveillance (PDS) is most important. DESIGN: Prospective SSI surveillance with voluntary PDS.

  5. Toward More Efficient Surveillance of Barrett's Esophagus: Identification and Exclusion of Patients at Low Risk of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Mats; Bright, Tim; Schloithe, Ann; Mayne, George C; Chen, Gang; Bull, Jeff; Bampton, Peter A; Fraser, Robert J L; Gatenby, Piers A; Gordon, Louisa G; Watson, David I

    2017-04-01

    Endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is probably not cost-effective. A sub-population with BE at increased risk of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) who could be targeted for cost-effective surveillance was sought. The outcome for BE surveillance from 2003 to 2012 in a structured program was reviewed. Incidence rates and incidence rate ratios for developing HGD or EAC were calculated. Risk stratification identified individuals who could be considered for exclusion from surveillance. A health-state transition Markov cohort model evaluated the cost-effectiveness of focusing on higher-risk individuals. During 2067 person-years of follow-up of 640 patients, 17 individuals progressed to HGD or EAC (annual IR 0.8%). Individuals with columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) ≥2 cm had an annual IR of 1.2% and >8-fold increased relative risk of HGD or EAC, compared to CLE surveillance cohort after the first endoscopy to individuals with CLE ≥2 cm, or dysplasia, followed by a further restriction after the second endoscopy-exclusion of patients without intestinal metaplasia-removed 296 (46%) patients, and 767 (37%) person-years from surveillance. Limiting surveillance to the remaining individuals reduced the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio from US$60,858 to US$33,807 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Further restrictions were tested but failed to improve cost-effectiveness. Based on stratification of risk, the number of patients requiring surveillance can be reduced by at least a third. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of US$50,000 per QALY, surveillance of higher-risk individuals becomes cost-effective.

  6. Mortality Surveillance in the U.S. Army 20052014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Army Publ ic Heal th Center (Provis ional Public Health Report Army Public Health Center (Provisional) Army Public Health Center (Provisional...Public Health Report Mortality Surveillance in the U.S. Army 2005-2014 PHR No. S.0034370-14 Approved for public release, distribution unlimited...Disease Surveillance Portfolio Behavioral and Social Health Outcomes Program Mortality Surveillance in the U.S. Army 2005–2014 Brent E

  7. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  8. Surveillance and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is as much about surveillance as about persuasive technologies (PTs). With regard to PTs it raises the question about the ethical limits of persuasion. It will be argued that even some forms of self-imposed persuasive soft surveillance technologies may be considered unethical. Therefore,

  9. Identifying strengths and weaknesses in the utilization of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in a nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Paula L; Botwinski, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is used in nursing to assess students' transfer of classroom and laboratory learning experiences into simulated clinical practice. OSCE is a performance-based exam in which students are observed demonstrating a multitude of clinical behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify strengths and weaknesses in the utilization of OSCE in this nursing program with 60 full-time students ages 21 to 23. An evaluation methodology was used for this study. Interviews were conducted with two groups: faculty facilitators of OSCE and standardized patients (SPs). Areas of focus were: data collection of students' performance, SP selection and training, and modification of the Nursing Interview Interaction Scale (NIIS). It was found that with appropriate SP selection and training, utilization of appropriate tools, and good data collection, OSCE can offer a valid and reliable means of testing nursing students' clinical competencies.

  10. Cause of Death in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Nepal Obtained Through Community-Based Surveillance: Is Reducing Maternal Mortality the Right Priority for Women's Health Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist

    2015-01-01

    We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births).

  11. Strategic Priorities for Physical Activity Surveillance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E; Carlson, Susan A; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Berrigan, David; Carlson, Cynthia; Dorn, Joan M; Heath, Gregory W; Kohl, Harold W; Lee, I-Min; Lee, Sarah M; Másse, Louise C; Morrow, James R; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Pivarnik, James M; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Rodgers, Anne B; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Troiano, Richard P; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Wendel, Arthur

    2016-10-01

    Develop strategic priorities to guide future physical activity surveillance in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine convened a scientific roundtable of physical activity and measurement experts. Participants summarized the current state of aerobic physical activity surveillance for adults, focusing on practice and research needs in three areas: 1) behavior, 2) human movement, and 3) community supports. Needs and challenges for each area were identified. At the conclusion of the meeting, experts identified one overarching strategy and five strategic priorities to guide future surveillance. The identified overarching strategy was to develop a national plan for physical activity surveillance similar to the U.S. National Physical Activity Plan for promotion. The purpose of the plan would be to enhance coordination and collaboration within and between sectors, such as transportation and public health, and to address specific strategic priorities identified at the roundtable. These strategic priorities were used 1) to identify and prioritize physical activity constructs; 2) to assess the psychometric properties of instruments for physical activity surveillance; 3) to provide training and technical assistance for those collecting, analyzing, or interpreting surveillance data; 4) to explore accessing data from alternative sources; and 5) to improve communication, translation, and dissemination about estimates of physical activity from surveillance systems. This roundtable provided strategic priorities for physical activity surveillance in the United States. A first step is to develop a national plan for physical activity surveillance that would provide an operating framework from which to execute these priorities.

  12. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  13. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Abbas Motevalian; Mashyaneh Haddadi; Hesam Akbari; Reza Khorramirouz; Soheil Saadat; Arash Tehrani; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System) in order to better monitor injury conditions,improve protection ways and promote safety.Methods:At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries.Then all the available documents from World Health OrganizationEastern Mediterranean Regional Organization,as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed.Later a national stakeholder's consultation was held to collect opinions and views.A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance.Results:The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems,mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry,need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers,incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry.The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility,acceptability,simplicity,usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts.Contusions:Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran.The following elements should be added to the questionnaire:identifier,manner of arrival to the hospital,situation of the injured patient,consumption of alcohol and opioids,other involved participants in the accident,intention,severity and site of injury,side effects of surgery and medication,as well as one month follow-up results.Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months.Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches.

  14. The Sharper Image for Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    A technique adapted by Livermore scientists to take the twinkle out of stars is now being used to improve the resolution of long-range surveillance systems trained on earthbound objects. The speckle-imaging technique involves taking tens to hundreds of pictures with short-exposure times and reconstructing a single, sharp image using image-processing software. The technique drew the interest of Livermore engineer Carmen Carrano. She developed a prototype remote-surveillance system that can produce a detailed image of a face from a couple of kilometers away. The system also helps identify vehicles tens of kilometers away and improves the viewing of large structures more than 60 kilometers away.

  15. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Summary Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Chancroid Selected STDs Appendix Appendix Interpreting STD Surveillance Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors ...

  16. Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Widowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of disease in Indonesia is limited. Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. Methods In January - December 2006, a prospective, hospital-based surveillance was carried out in children aged less than five years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples were examined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed to be positive by EIA. Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of the specimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%. Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present with dehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94% vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03. Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of pediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This finding warrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease, such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:22-7].

  17. Can We Use Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis as a Surveillance Tool for National Trachoma Control Programs? Results from a District Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sheila K.; Munoz, Beatriz; Weaver, Jerusha; Mrango, Zakayo; Dize, Laura; Gaydos, Charlotte; Quinn, Thomas C.; Martin, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is targeted for elimination by 2020. World Health Organization advises districts to undertake surveillance when follicular trachoma (TF) hamlets in Kilosa district, Tanzania, and randomly selected 50 children ages 1–9 per hamlet. The tarsal conjunctivae were graded for trachoma (TF), tested for C. trachomatis infection (Aptima Combo2 assay: Hologic, San Diego, CA), and a dried blood spot processed for antibodies to C. trachomatis pgp3 using a multiplex bead assay on a Luminex 100 platform. Principal findings The prevalence of trachoma (TF) was 0.4%, well below the hamlets, 22 had neither infection nor TF. Antibody positivity overall was low, 7.5% and increased with age from 5.2% in 1–3 year olds, to 9.3% in 7–9 year olds (p = 0.015). In 16 of the 30 hamlets, no children ages 1–3 years had antibodies to pgp3. Conclusions The antibody status of the 1–3 year olds indicates low cumulative exposure to infection during the surveillance period. Four years post MDA, there is no evidence for re-emergence of follicular trachoma. PMID:26771906

  18. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  19. Surveillance and Monitoring of Dialysis Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalathaksha Kumbar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access is the lifeline of a hemodialysis patient. Currently arteriovenous fistula and graft are considered the permanent options for vascular access. Monitoring and surveillance of vascular access are an integral part of the care of hemodialysis patient. Although different techniques and methods are available for identifying access dysfunction, the scientific evidence for the optimal methodology is lacking. A small number of randomized controlled trials have been performed evaluating different surveillance techniques. We performed a study of the recent literature published in the PUBMED, to review the scientific evidence on different methodologies currently being used for surveillance and monitoring and their impact on the care of the dialysis access. The limited randomized studies especially involving fistulae and small sample size of the published studies with conflicting results highlight the need for a larger multicentered randomized study with hard clinical end points to evaluate the optimal surveillance strategy for both fistula and graft.

  20. Security and Privacy in Video Surveillance: Requirements and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    Use of video surveillance has substantially increased in the last few decades. Modern video surveillance systems are equipped with techniques that allow traversal of data in an effective and efficient manner, giving massive powers to operators and potentially compromising the privacy of anyone...... observed by the system. Several techniques to protect the privacy of individuals have therefore been proposed, but very little research work has focused on the specific security requirements of video surveillance data (in transit or in storage) and on authorizing access to this data. In this paper, we...... present a general model of video surveillance systems that will help identify the major security and privacy requirements for a video surveillance system and we use this model to identify practical challenges in ensuring the security of video surveillance data in all stages (in transit and at rest). Our...

  1. Assessment of the core and support functions of the Integrated Disease Surveillance system in Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Revati K; Shukla, Sharvari; Shardul, Savita; Ashtekar, Nutan; Valsa, Sapna; Awate, Pradip; Marx, Michael

    2013-06-13

    Monitoring the progress of the Integrated Disease Surveillance (IDS) strategy is an important component to ensure its sustainability in the state of Maharashtra in India. The purpose of the study was to document the baseline performance of the system on its core and support functions and to understand the challenges for its transition from an externally funded "project" to a state owned surveillance "program". Multi-centre, retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study to assess the structure, core and support surveillance functions using modified WHO generic questionnaires. All 34 districts in the state and randomly identified 46 facilities and 25 labs were included in the study. Case definitions were rarely used at the periphery. Limited laboratory capacity at all levels compromised case and outbreak confirmation. Only 53% districts could confirm all priority diseases. Stool sample processing was the weakest at the periphery. Availability of transport media, trained staff, and rapid diagnostic tests were main challenges at the periphery. Data analysis was weak at both district and facility levels. Outbreak thresholds were better understood at facility level (59%) than at the district (18%). None of the outbreak indicator targets were met and submission of final outbreak report was the weakest. Feedback and training was significantly better (p challenges exist. Support functions (laboratory, transport and communication equipment, training, supervision, human and other resources) are particularly weak at the district level. Structural integration and establishing permanent state and district surveillance officer positions will ensure leadership; improve performance; support continuity; and offer sustainability to the program. Institutionalizing the integrated disease surveillance strategy through skills based personnel development and infrastructure strengthening at district levels is the only way to avoid it from ending up isolated! Improving surveillance

  2. 1999 Environmental Monitoring Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. V. Street

    2000-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1999 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory management and operating contractor Environmental Monitoring Program. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1999 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the expectation of nitrogen in two disposal pond effluent streams iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal well, and coliform bacteria in drinking water systems at two facilities. Maintenance activities were performed on the two drinking water systems and tested prior to putting back into service. The monitoring and surveillance results demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  3. 25 CFR 1000.130 - Does a Tribe/Consortium need to be identified in an authorizing statute in order for a program or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does a Tribe/Consortium need to be identified in an authorizing statute in order for a program or element of a program to be included in a non-BIA AFA? 1000.130... § 1000.130 Does a Tribe/Consortium need to be identified in an authorizing statute in order for a...

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci in 2002-2003. Results of the multinational GRASP Surveillance Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekmann, Susan E; Heilmann, Kris P; Richter, Sandra S

    2005-01-01

    A multinational surveillance study, GRASP, was conducted between November 2002 and April 2003 with the aim of assessing rates of antimicrobial resistance among 2656 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2486 isolates of group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, 1358 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae...... and 1047 of Moraxella catarrhalis from 20 countries in Europe, eastern Asia and southern Africa. Conspicuous differences between various countries were noted in the S. pneumoniae resistance rates observed for penicillin (0-79.2%) and erythromycin (4-66%), along with other antimicrobials. The percentage...... of MDR strains was above 25% in 8 of the 20 countries studied. Group A streptococcal macrolide resistance rates ranged from 0% to 35% by country, while rates of beta-lactamase production ranged from 0% to 39% for H. influenzae and 80-100% for M. catarrhalis. Antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae remains...

  5. Safety experience with bosentan in 146 children 2-11 years old with pulmonary arterial hypertension: results from the European Postmarketing Surveillance program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghetti, M.; Hoeper, M.M.; Kiely, D.G.;

    2008-01-01

    The oral dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan has been shown to improve the short- and medium-term course of adult pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, data from clinical studies in children are limited. This analysis investigated the safety profile of bosentan in pediatric...... patients in a European, prospective, noninterventional, Internet-based postmarketing surveillance database (Tracleer PMS). Pediatric patients (aged 2-11 y) were compared with patients aged > or =12 y. Over a 30-mo period, 4994 patients, including 146 bosentan-naive pediatric patients (51.4% males), were...... captured in the database. Predominant etiologies in children were idiopathic PAH (40.4%) and PAH related to congenital heart disease (45.2%). The majority of children were in New York Heart Association functional class II (28.1%) or III (50.7%), and median exposure to bosentan was 29.1 wk. Elevated...

  6. Functions of environmental epidemiology and surveillance in state health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, Martha; Anderson, Henry; Blackmore, Carina; Fagliano, Jerald; Heumann, Michael; Kass, Daniel; McGeehin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Public health surveillance and epidemiology are the foundations for disease prevention because they provide the factual basis from which agencies can set priorities, plan programs, and take actions to protect the public's health. Surveillance for noninfectious diseases associated with exposure to agents in the environment like lead and pesticides has been a function of state health departments for more than 3 decades, but many state programs do not have adequate funding or staff for this function. Following the efforts to identify core public health epidemiology functions in chronic diseases, injury, and occupational health and safety, a workgroup of public health environmental epidemiologists operating within the organizational structure of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists has defined the essential core functions of noninfectious disease environmental epidemiology that should be present in every state health department and additional functions of a comprehensive program. These functions are described in terms of the "10 Essential Environmental Public Health Services" and their associated performance standards. Application of these consensus core and expanded functions should help state and large metropolitan health departments allocate resources and prioritize activities of their environmental epidemiologists, thus improving the delivery of environmental health services to the public.

  7. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  8. Incidentally detected lung nodules: clinical predictors of adherence to fleischner society surveillance guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2014-02-28

    The objective of this study was to determine adherence to incidentally detected lung nodule computed tomographic (CT) surveillance recommendations and identify demographic and clinical factors that increase the likelihood of CT surveillance.

  9. 76 FR 62321 - Airworthiness Directives; Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... certain Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) traffic alert and collision avoidance system...) traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) units with part numbers identified in ACSS...

  10. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  11. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  12. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  13. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Battlefield Acoustic Sensing, Multimodal Sensing, and Networked Sensing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications by Latasha Solomon, Wesley Wang, and Miriam Häge...Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications by Latasha Solomon Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Wesley Wang...Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  15. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  16. Enhancing Surveillance for Arboviral Infections in the Arizona Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Orion; Vanskike, Frank; Ernst, Kacey; Komatsu, Ken; Margolis, Harold; Waterman, Stephen; Tippit, Laura; Tomashek, Kay; Wertheimer, Anne; Montiel, Sonia; Golenko, Catherine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective To enhance arboviral surveillance and laboratory capacity to establish a surveillance baseline for the emerging threat of Dengue fever in the Arizona-Mexico border region. Introduction West Nile Virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) are both arboviruses which are transmitted to humans by an infected mosquito bite during blood-meal feeding. The clinical presentations of non-neuroinvasive WNV and dengue fever are similar, and symptoms may include acute onset of high fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, nausea, vomiting, and often a maculopapular rash. More serious manifestations of these viruses include fatal encephalitis and meningitis in WNV patients and fatal hemorrhagic disease in dengue patients. Over the last decade, WNV has spread rapidly across North America, reaching Arizona in 2004, and has become a significant cause of human illness since that time. Even though dengue has been described as primarily a disease of the tropics and sub-tropical areas, there is a small but significant risk for dengue outbreaks in the continental United States as evidenced by surveillance efforts in Texas that identified local dengue transmission in 2005. In recent years, outbreaks of dengue have occurred in Mexico border states, most notably Sonora in 2010. That same year, Arizona had the highest incidence of WNV cases in the U.S. including number of neuroinvasive disease cases, total cases, and number of deaths per state. The emergence of DENV and WNV as important public health problems maybe have been due to non-effective mosquito control, global demographic changes (urbanization and population growth), increased air travel, and inadequate surveillance. Methods Vector mapping: Mapping techniques will be utilized to visually depict Aedes aegypti populations captured from previous seasonal public health environmental vector trapping programs. Laboratory capacity: Multi-state laboratory training by CDC Dengue Branch was held in October 2012. Surveillance: The WNV cases

  17. Components production and assemble of the irradiation capsule of the Surveillance Program of Materials of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde;Fabricacion de componentes y ensamble de la capsula de irradiacion del Programa de Vigilancia de Materiales de la central nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, A. [ININ, Departamento de Tecnologia de Materiales, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    To predict the effects of the neutrons radiation and the thermal environment about the mechanical properties of the reactor vessel materials of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, a surveillance program is implemented according to the outlines settled by Astm E185-02 -Standard practice for design of surveillance programs for light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels-. This program includes the installation of three irradiation capsules of similar materials to those of the reactor vessels, these samples are test tubes for mechanical practices of impact and tension. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research and due to the infrastructure as well as of the actual human resources of the Pilot Plant of Nuclear Fuel Assembles Production it was possible to realize the materials rebuilding extracted in 2005 of Unit 2 of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde as well as the production, assemble and reassignment of the irradiation capsule made in 2006. At the present time the surveillance materials extracted in 2008 of Unit 1 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde are reconstituting and the components are manufactured for the assembles of the irradiation capsule that will be reinstalled in the reactor vessel in 2010. The purpose of the present work is to describe the necessary components as well as its disposition during the assembles of the irradiation capsule for the surveillance program of the reactors vessel of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  18. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Thomas Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  19. Surveillance for occupational respiratory diseases in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Vinicius C; Pinheiro, Germania A

    2015-06-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa.

  20. Prospective surgical site infection surveillance in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Ryen; Singh, Ameet; Weese, J Scott

    2015-01-01

    To 1) describe the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) in dogs undergoing surgery at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre; 2) describe and compare procedure-specific SSI rates; and 3) identify factors associated with development of SSI. Prospective, cohort study Dogs (n = 846) undergoing surgery during 45 weeks (September 2010-July 2011). Follow-up telephone conversation with dog owners was performed 30 days postoperatively, with additional 1-year follow-up performed for cases with surgical implants. A standardized questionnaire was administered to detect and characterize SSI. SSI were identified in 26 (3.0%) dogs; 11 (42%) were classified as superficial SSI, whereas 13 were deep, and 2 were organ/space. Of the confirmed SSI, only 17 (65%) were documented in the medical records. Hypotension (P = .011), class of surgery (P = .029), and use of an implant (P = .001) increased the risk of SSI. Microbial cultures were submitted for 19 cases (73%) and of those, 74% were staphylococci. SSI can result in devastating consequences in dogs and understanding risk factors is critical to target prevention practices. Whereas some risk factors such as hypotension are modifiable, others such as class of surgery are not. When possible, active surveillance should be used as part of a hospital infection control program. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney disposal site. The site is in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site may be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Cheney disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete and the NRC formally accepts this plan. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Cheney disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  3. Occupational injuries in Canadian youth: an analysis of 22 years of surveillance data collected from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pratt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inexperience, inadequate training and differential hazard exposure may contribute to a higher risk of injury in young workers. This study describes features of work-related injuries in young Canadians to identify areas for potential occupational injury prevention strategies. Methods: We analyzed records for youth aged 10–17 presenting to Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP emergency departments (EDs from 1991–2012. We classified work-related injuries into job groups corresponding to National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 codes and conducted descriptive analyses to assess injury profiles by job group. Age- and sex-adjusted proportionate injury ratios (PIRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to compare the nature of injuries between occupational and non-occupational events overall and by job group. Results: Of the 6046 injuries (0.72% of events in this age group that occurred during work, 63.9% were among males. Youth in food and beverage occupations (54.6% males made up 35.4% of work-related ED visits and 10.2% of work-related hospital admissions, while primary industry workers (76.4% males made up 4.8% of workrelated ED visits and 24.6% of work-related hospital admissions. PIRs were significantly elevated for burns (9.77, 95% CI: 8.94–10.67, crushing/amputations (6.72, 95% CI: 5.79–7.80, electrical injuries (6.04, 95% CI: 3.64–10.00, bites (5.09, 95% CI: 4.47–5.79, open wounds (2.68, 95% CI: 2.59–2.78 and eye injuries (2.50, 95% CI: 2.20–2.83 in occupational versus non-occupational events. These were largely driven by high proportional incidence of injury types unique to job groups. Conclusion: Our findings provide occupation group-specific information on common injury types that can be used to support targeted approaches to reduce incidence of youth injury in the workplace.

  4. Identifying sources of children's consumption of junk food in Boston after-school programs, April-May 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Austin, S Bryn; Cradock, Angie L; Giles, Catherine M; Lee, Rebekka M; Davison, Kirsten K; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2014-11-20

    Little is known about how the nutrition environment in after-school settings may affect children's dietary intake. We measured the nutritional quality of after-school snacks provided by programs participating in the National School Lunch Program or the Child and Adult Care Food Program and compared them with snacks brought from home or purchased elsewhere (nonprogram snacks). We quantified the effect of nonprogram snacks on the dietary intake of children who also received program-provided snacks during after-school time. Our study objective was to determine how different sources of snacks affect children's snack consumption in after-school settings. We recorded snacks served to and brought in by 298 children in 18 after-school programs in Boston, Massachusetts, on 5 program days in April and May 2011. We measured children's snack consumption on 2 program days using a validated observation protocol. We then calculated within-child change-in-change models to estimate the effect of nonprogram snacks on children's dietary intake after school. Nonprogram snacks contained more sugary beverages and candy than program-provided snacks. Having a nonprogram snack was associated with significantly higher consumption of total calories (+114.7 kcal, P foods with added sugars (+0.5 servings; P foods and nearly twice as many calories than on days when they consumed only program-provided snacks. Policy strategies limiting nonprogram snacks or setting nutritional standards for them in after-school settings should be explored further as a way to promote child health.

  5. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  6. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  7. 青海海西州地区牛羊布鲁菌氏病监测方案的研究%Study on the Surveillance Program for Bovine and Sheep Brucellosis in Haixi Zhou Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡双龙

    2012-01-01

      目的探索适合青海省海西州地区牛、羊布鲁氏菌病的监测方案,净化布鲁氏菌病.利用琥红平板凝集试验(RBPT)、全乳环状试验(MRT)和试管凝集试验(SAT)对1200份牛血清中376份奶牛血清、677份羊血清,以及376份牛奶进行检测.结果RBPT检测1200份牛血清中9份可疑,3份阳性;376份奶牛血清中3份可疑,1份阳性;其他牛6份可疑,2份阳性;677份羊血清中3份可疑.MRT检测376份奶样中5份可疑,1份阳性.SAT重复检测的20份血清中2份为阳性,RBPT与MRT结果的符合率为100%.结论三种检测方法的联合使用适合大样本的进行布鲁氏菌病的监测,为基层布鲁氏菌病的监测方案的研究提供了理论依据.%  To explore the suitable cattle and sheep brucellosis surveillance and eradication programs in Haixi Prefecture of Qinghai province region. 1200 bovine serum samples including 376 dairy cow serum samples,677 sheep serum samples and 376 milk samples were detected by using the Rose Bengal plate agglutination test(RBPT),whole milk ring test(MRT)and standard tube agglutination test(SAT).Results showed that among 1200 bovine serum samples,3 were positive and 9 were suspicious(including 1 positive and 3 suspicious among 376 dairy cow serum samples)and among 677 sheep serum samples,3 were suspicious by RBPT.Among 376 milk samples,5 were suspicous by MRT.2 out 20 serum samples retested by SAT were positive.The coincidence between RBPT and MRT for detection of Brucella in serum samples was 100%.In conclusion,joint use of the three assays(RBPT,MRT and SAT)were suitable for brucellosis surveillance of large amount of samples,thus providing a theoretical basis for making grassroots brucellosis surveillance pragrams.

  8. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Is Imaging Surveillance Robust, and Does It Influence Long-term Mortality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waduud, Mohammed Abdul, E-mail: m.a.waduud@doctors.org.uk [Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom); Choong, Wen Ling, E-mail: wenlingchoong@nhs.net [Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, NHS Grampian, Department of Surgery (United Kingdom); Ritchie, Moira, E-mail: moirasim9@gmail.com; Williams, Claire, E-mail: c.williams.3@research.gla.ac.uk [University of Glasgow, Institute of Health and Wellbeing Glasgow (United Kingdom); Yadavali, Reddi, E-mail: reddi.yadavali@nhs.net [Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, NHS Grampian, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Lim, Shueh, E-mail: s.lim.06@aberdeen.ac.uk [Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, NHS Lothian, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Buchanan, Fraser, E-mail: f.buchanan.11@aberdeen.ac.uk [University of Aberdeen, The School of Medicine and Dentistry (United Kingdom); Bhat, Raj, E-mail: raj.bhat@nhs.net [Ninewells Hospital, NHS Tayside, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Ramanathan, Krishnappan, E-mail: k.ramanathan@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, School of Medicine (United Kingdom); Ingram, Susan, E-mail: susan.ingram@luht.scot.nhs.uk; Cormack, Laura, E-mail: lgcormack@googlemail.com [Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, NHS Lothian, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Moss, Jonathan G., E-mail: jon.moss@ggc.scot.nhs.uk [Gartnavel General Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeEndovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is the dominant treatment strategy for abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, as a result of uncertainty regarding long-term durability, an ongoing imaging surveillance program is required. The aim of the study was to assess EVAR surveillance in Scotland and its effect on all-cause and aneurysm-related mortality.MethodsA retrospective analysis of all EVAR procedures carried out in the four main Scottish vascular units. The primary outcome measure was the implementation of post-EVAR imaging surveillance across Scotland. Patients were identified locally and then categorized as having complete, incomplete, or no surveillance. Secondary outcome measures were all-cause mortality and aneurysm-related mortality. Cause of death was obtained from death certificates.ResultsData were available for 569 patients from the years 2001 to 2012. All centers had data for a minimum of 5 contiguous years. Surveillance ranged from 1.66 to 4.55 years (median 3.03 years). Overall, 53 % had complete imaging surveillance, 43 % incomplete, and 4 % none. For the whole cohort, all-cause 5-year mortality was 33.5 % (95 % confidence interval 28.0–38.6) and aneurysm-related mortality was 4.5 % (.8–7.3). All-cause mortality in patients with complete, incomplete, and no imaging was 49.9 % (39.2–58.6), 19.1 % (12.6–25.2), and 47.2 % (17.7–66.2), respectively. Aneurysm-related mortality was 3.7 % (1.8–7.4), 4.4 % (2.2–8.9), and 9.5 % (2.5–33.0), respectively. All-cause mortality was significantly higher in patients with complete compared to incomplete imaging surveillance (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in aneurysm-related mortality (p = 0.2).ConclusionOnly half of EVAR patients underwent complete long-term imaging surveillance. However, incomplete imaging could not be linked to any increase in mortality. Further work is required to establish the role and deliverability of EVAR imaging surveillance.

  9. Program of environmental radiological surveillance of the radioactive wastes storage center of Maquixco in the period January-December 1991; Programa de vigilancia radiologica ambiental del centro de almacenamiento de deschos radiactivos de Maquixco en el periodo Enero-Diciembre dde 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaso P, M.I

    1991-12-15

    The primary objective of all program of environmental radiological surveillance (PVRA), it is to follow the evolution of the radioactive content of the links of the chains that constitute the different ways of transfer of the radioactivity toward the man, with the purpose of making a realistic evaluation of the environmental impact produced by the installation under surveillance. In the CADER in Mexico, only accidents or escapes of radioactivity of slow evolution can be detected. At the moment the radioactive wastes in this installation are not treated. In this report the results obtained during the year 1991 are presented. (Author)

  10. Antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole, a novel anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporin, tested against contemporary pathogens: results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2005-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2008-05-01

    Ceftobiprole is a 1st-in-class anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) extended-spectrum cephalosporin currently in clinical trials for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) and nosocomial pneumonia. This agent is also active against other prominent Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, making it an attractive candidate for broad-spectrum therapy. We evaluated the in vitro potency of ceftobiprole tested against the most commonly occurring bacterial pathogens as part of a global surveillance study for the years 2005 to 2006 (>60 medical centers in North America, Latin America, and Europe). All isolates (40 675) were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole inhibited 100% and >99% of tested S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci at Ceftobiprole was also broadly active against Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic and viridans group streptococci, inhibiting >98% of isolates at ceftobiprole was generally inactive against Enterococcus faecium, the majority of Enterococcus faecalis strains (95.7%) were inhibited at ceftobiprole and ceftazidime), ceftobiprole and cefepime were superior to ceftazidime against Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ceftobiprole was equal in potency to ceftazidime (MIC50, 2 microg/mL) and 2-fold more potent than cefepime. None of these agents inhibited >45% of Acinetobacter spp. at 8 mug/mL. Ceftobiprole is a new anti-MRSA beta-lactam with recognized activity against the most commonly occurring Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, similar to that of extended-spectrum cephems. These characteristics warrant continued evaluation of the agent as empiric therapy for cSSSIs, and in pneumonia, especially in those institutions/regions where MRSA and P. aeruginosa may be prevalent.

  11. Conditional Survival in Pediatric Malignancies: Analysis of data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Ann C; Yong, Jian; Dietz, Andrew; Kreiter, Erin; Yasui, Yutaka; Bleyer, Archie; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term survivors of pediatric cancer are at risk for life-threatening late effects of their cancer. Previous studies have shown excesses in long-term mortality within high-risk groups defined by demographic and treatment characteristics. Methods To investigate conditional survival in a pediatric cancer population, we performed an analysis of conditional survival in the original Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database registry. The overall probability of death for patients in 5 years and 10 years after they survived 5, 10, 15, and 20 years since cancer diagnosis, and cause-specific death in 10 years for 5-year survivors were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Results Among CCSS and SEER patients who were alive 5 years post cancer diagnosis, within each diagnosis group at least 92% are alive in the subsequent 5 years, except leukemia patients of whom only 88% of 5-year survivors remain alive in the subsequent 5 years. The probability of all-cause mortality in the next 10 years on patients who survived at least 5 years after diagnosis, was 8.8% in CCSS and 10.6% in SEER, approximately three quarter of which were due to neoplasms as causes of death. Conclusion The risk of death of pediatric cancer survivors in 10 years can vary between diagnosis groups by at most 12% even up to 20 years post diagnosis. This information is clinically important in counseling patients on their conditional survival, particularly when survivors are seen in long-term follow-up. PMID:25557134

  12. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  13. Surveillance and Conformity in Competitive Youth Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Underpinned by a Foucauldian analysis of sporting practices, this paper identifies the disciplinary mechanism of surveillance at work in competitive youth swimming. It highlights the ways in which swimmers and their coaches are subject to and apply this mechanism to produce embodied conformity to normative behaviour and obedient, docile bodies.…

  14. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  15. Event-driven surveillance possibilities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    The Web has become a rich source of personal information in the last few years. People twitter, blog, and chat online. Current feelings, experiences or latest news are posted. For instance, first hints to disease outbreaks, customer preferences, or political changes could be identified with this data. Surveillance or early warning systems enable such detection of changes and support humans in getting information on changing situations. However, the variety of data that could be considered for surveillance is immense, ranging from sensor-measured values to collected counts and information extra

  16. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  17. Learning from state surveillance of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longjohn, Matt; Sheon, Amy R; Card-Higginson, Paula; Nader, Philip R; Mason, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Data on childhood obesity collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention helped reveal the nation's epidemic of overweight and obese children. But more information is needed. Collecting body mass index (BMI)-the widely accepted measurement of childhood weight status-at the state and local levels can be instrumental in identifying and tracking obesity trends, designing interventions to help overweight children, and guiding broader policy solutions. Approximately thirty states have enacted or proposed BMI surveillance laws and regulations. Arkansas stands out as the state with the highest-quality surveillance data. Innovative strategies being pursued in a number of other states should be explored for broader dissemination.

  18. Active surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using stool specimens submitted for testing for Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, David B; Francois, Jeannette; Blash, Stephanie; Patel, Gopi; Jenkins, Stephen G; LaBombardi, Vincent; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Srinivasan, Arjun; Calfee, David P

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance to identify asymptomatic carriers of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a recommended strategy for CRE control in healthcare facilities. Active surveillance using stool specimens tested for Clostridium difficile is a relatively low-cost strategy to detect CRE carriers. Further evaluation of this and other risk factor-based active surveillance strategies is warranted.

  19. Identifying optimal regional solid waste management strategies through an inexact integer programming model containing infinite objectives and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Huang, Guo-He; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Lu, Hong-Wei

    2009-01-01

    The previous inexact mixed-integer linear programming (IMILP) method can only tackle problems with coefficients of the objective function and constraints being crisp intervals, while the existing inexact mixed-integer semi-infinite programming (IMISIP) method can only deal with single-objective programming problems as it merely allows the number of constraints to be infinite. This study proposes, an inexact mixed-integer bi-infinite programming (IMIBIP) method by incorporating the concept of functional intervals into the programming framework. Different from the existing methods, the IMIBIP can tackle the inexact programming problems that contain both infinite objectives and constraints. The developed method is applied to capacity planning of waste management systems under a variety of uncertainties. Four scenarios are considered for comparing the solutions of IMIBIP with those of IMILP. The results indicate that reasonable solutions can be generated by the IMIBIP method. Compared with IMILP, the system cost from IMIBIP would be relatively high since the fluctuating market factors are considered; however, the IMILP solutions are associated with a raised system reliability level and a reduced constraint violation risk level.

  20. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  1. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  2. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  3. Insights from Smart Meters: Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors, and Characteristics That Drive Savings in Behavior-Based Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perry, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In this report, we use smart meter data to analyze specific actions, behaviors, and characteristics that drive energy savings in a BB program. Specifically, we examine a Home Energy Report (HER) program. These programs typically obtain 1% to 3% annual savings, and recent studies have shown hourly savings of between 0.5% and 3%.1 But what is driving these savings? What types of households tend to be “high-savers,” and what behaviors are they adopting? There are several possibilities: one-time behaviors (e.g., changing thermostat settings), reoccurring habitual behaviors (e.g., turning off lights), and equipment purchase behaviors (e.g., energy efficient appliances); these may vary across households, regions, and over time.

  4. Insights from Smart Meters. Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors and Characteristics that drive savings in Behavior-Based Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perry, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pacific Gas & Electric, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sullivan, Michael [Nexant, San Francisco, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In this report, we use smart meter data to analyze specific actions, behaviors, and characteristics that drive energy savings in a behavior-based (BB) program. Specifically, we examine a Home Energy Report (HER) program. These programs typically obtain 1% to 3% annual savings, and recent studies have shown hourly savings of between 0.5% and 3%. But what is driving these savings? What types of households tend to be “high-savers”, and what behaviors are they adopting? There are several possibilities: one-time behaviors (e.g., changing thermostat settings); reoccurring habitual behaviors (e.g., turning off lights); and equipment purchase behaviors (e.g., energy efficient appliances), and these may vary across households, regions, and over time.

  5. World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance White Paper on Surveillance and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Campostrini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is not a research paper on risk factor surveillance. It is an effort by a key group of researchers and practitioners of risk factor surveillance to define the current state of the art and to identify the key issues involved in the current practice of behavioral risk factor surveillance. Those of us who are the principal authors have worked and carried out research in this area for some three decades. As a result of a series of global meetings beginning in 1999 and continuing every two years since then, a collective working group of the International Union of Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE was formed under the name World Alliance of Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS. Under this banner the organization sought to write a comprehensive statement on the importance of surveillance to health promotion and public health. This paper, which has been revised and reviewed by established peers in the field, is the result. It provides the reader with a clear summary of the major issues that need to be considered by any and all seeking to carry out behavioral risk factor surveillance.

  6. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  7. Survey of residential and day schools for deaf students in the United States that identify themselves as bilingual-bicultural programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSasso, Carol; Lollis, Jana

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to determine how many residential and day schools for deaf and hard-of-hearing students in the United States described themselves as bilingual-bicultural (BiBi) programs and to describe characteristics of those programs related to initial implementation, whether a single language (e.g., English or ASL) is promoted as the first language (L1) and the language of instruction for all deaf students, how English is conveyed conversationally to deaf students, the quality of ASL abilities of BiBi instructional and support staff; general characteristics of the curriculum and the specific reading and bicultural components of the curriculum; and characteristics of research being conducted to establish the efficacy of BiBi methods. Ninety-one percent (n = 71) of the 78 day and residential schools listed in the 1998 Directory of the American Annals of the Deaf participated in the survey, with 19 schools identifying themselves as BiBi. These included 16 residential schools and 3 day schools. Depending on the source for numbers of students in residential and day schools at the time of the survey, between 36% and 40% of students were in programs that identified themselves as BiBi. Sixteen of the programs reported becoming a BiBi program between 1989 and 1994 and only three after 1994. Of the 19 programs, 37% reported use of manually coded English (MCE) for conveying English to the students. Fluency in ASL of instructional and support staff varied, with 47% of the programs reporting that no more than half of the instructional staff were fluent in ASL and 68% of the programs reporting that no more than half of the support staff were fluent. Only 21% of the 19 programs reported having a formal BiBi curriculum with annual goals and suggested materials and procedures for teachers. Research implications of these data are discussed.

  8. Risk Factors of Children Who Exited from an Early Intervention Program without an Identified Disability and Returned with a Developmental Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Peggy P.; Kass, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to identify risk factors for children at greatest risk of delayed diagnosis of developmental disability. Two thousand four hundred and thirty-nine children were selected for this study due to their participation in the California Early Start (ES) Program in 1998. Comparisons were made among children that…

  9. 2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. Identifying and explaining the variability in development and implementation costs of disease management programs in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiachristas, Apostolos; Waters, Bethany Hipple; Adams, Samantha A; Bal, Roland; Mölken, Maureen P M M Rutten-van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, disease management programs (DMPs) are used to treat chronic diseases. Their aim is to improve care and to control the rising expenditures related to chronic diseases. A bundled payment was introduced to facilitate the implementation of DMPs. This payment is an all-in

  13. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of evolution of public health surveillance from historical perspective: from Hippocrates, Black Death and quarantine, recording of vital events for the first time, first field investigation, legislations that were developed over time and modern concepts in public health surveillance. Eradication of small pox is an important achievement in public health surveillance but the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and Influenza pandemics suggest still there is a room for improvement. Recently new global disease surveillance networks like FluNet and DengueNet were developed as internet sites for monitoring influenza and dengue information. In spite of these developments, global public health surveillance still remains unevenly distributed. There is a need for increased international cooperation to address the global needs of public health surveillance.

  14. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Health, Safety and Security Illness and Injury Surveillance Program Worker Health at a Glance, 2000-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Cliff [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Richter, Bonnie [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-01-23

    The Worker Health at a Glance, 2000 – 2009 provides an overview of selected illness and injury patterns among the current DOE contractor workforce that have emerged over the 10-years covered by this report. This report is a roll-up of data from 16 individual DOE sites, assigned to one of three program offices (Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration). In this report, an absences is defined as 40 or more consecutive work hours (5+ calendar days) off the job. Shorter absences were not included.

  15. Analytical challenges for emerging public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolka, Henry; Walker, David W; English, Roseanne; Katzoff, Myron J; Scogin, Gail; Neuhaus, Elizabeth

    2012-07-27

    The root of effective disease control and prevention is an informed understanding of the epidemiology of a particular disease based on sound scientific interpretation of evidence. Such evidence must frequently be transformed from raw data into consumable information before it can be used for making decisions, determining policy, and conducting programs. However, the work of building such evidence in public health practice--doing the right thing at the right time--is essentially hidden from view. Surveillance involves acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting data and information from several sources across various systems. Achieving the goals and objectives of surveillance investments requires attention to analytic requirements of such systems. The process requires computer programming, statistical reasoning, subject matter expertise, often modeling, and effective communication skills.

  16. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-05

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  17. Validation according to OIE criteria of a monoclonal, recombinant p26-based, serologic competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as screening method in surveillance programs for the detection of Equine infectious anemia virus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Roberto; Autorino, Gian Luca; Ricci, Ida; Frontoso, Raffaele; Rosone, Francesca; Simula, Massimiliano; Scicluna, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The Italian National Reference Center for equine infectious anemia (CRAIE; Rome, Italy) developed and validated a monoclonal, recombinant p26-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of EIA virus antibodies employing the 2010 criteria of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). The following parameters were evaluated: cutoff values, repeatability, reproducibility, concordance, analytical sensitivity (Se), absolute analytical specificity (Sp), and diagnostic Se and Sp. Positive and negative predictive values were also defined in relation to the estimated prevalence. When the cELISA was used as a screening test for 96,468 samples in the Italian EIA surveillance program, 17% more EIA cases were detected than by the agar gel immunodiffusion test, and the apparent diagnostic Sp estimated from these samples was 99.8%, which was more than the diagnostic Sp (80.2%) estimated from validation. The high Se and Sp of the cELISA confirm its fit for purpose as a screening test. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Building 9401-2 Plating Shop Surveillance and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-05-01

    This document provides a plan for implementing surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities to ensure that Building 9401-2 Plating Shop is maintained in a cost effective and environmentally secure configuration until subsequent closure during the final disposition phase of decommissioning. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) G430.1A-2, Surveillance and Maintenance During Facility Disposition (1997), was used as guidance in the development of this plan. The S and M Plan incorporates DOE O 430.1A, Life Cycle Asset Management (LCAM) (1998a) direction to provide for conducting surveillance and maintenance activities required to maintain the facility and remaining hazardous and radioactive materials, wastes, and contamination in a stable and known condition pending facility disposition. Recommendations in the S and M plan have been made that may not be requirement-based but would reduce the cost and frequency of surveillance and maintenance activities. During the course of S and M activities, the facility's condition may change so as to present an immediate or developing hazard or unsatisfactory condition. Corrective action should be coordinated with the appropriate support organizations using the requirements and guidance stated in procedure Y10-202, Rev. 1, Integrated Safety Management Program, (Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES), 1998a) implemented at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the methodology of the Nuclear Operations Conduct of Operations Manual (LMES, 1999) for the Depleted Uranium Operations (DUO) organization. The key S and M objectives applicable to the Plating Shop are to: Ensure adequate containment of remaining residual material in exhaust stacks and outside process piping, stored chemicals awaiting offsite shipment, and items located in the Radioactive Material Area (RMA); Provide access control into the facility and physical safety to S and M personnel; Maintain the facility in a manner that will protect the public, the environment, and

  19. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  20. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at BNL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  1. Educational ranking of schools providing nutrition program in Iran: A strategy to identify the strengths and weaknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mojtahedzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After two decades of expansion of universities of medical sciences and increasing the number of students as one of the most attainable solutions to overcome sub-standard status of Iranian workforce in health section, quality of medical education has recently taken priority in national health plans. The purpose of this study was designing a benchmark tool for determining differences in the field of education among schools offering nutrition programs in Iran by stratifying their educational services. Methods: To measure the educational performance of schools providing nutrition programs nationwide, a benchmarking tool consisting of more than 50 indicators was developed by a special committee via brainstorming and nominal group. The weight given to each indicator was defined through consensus developing methods. Each school was asked to introduce a representative who would complete a questionnaire designed to collect schools’ information. Next, all the divisions were visited by one of the project's members and the school’s representative. Then, data retrieval was performed and verified at the project’s office. The average score of each school for each indicator was calculated. Finally, a special computer software was applied to perform the final analysis. Results: A total of 50 indicators were designed in the form of tree diagram and were weighted via consensus agreement. The medical universities offering nutritional programs were compared using the designed model. Conclusion: This study defined the educational strengths and weaknesses of nutrition program in Iranian schools that could be used as a measure for authorities to devise practical strategies for qualitative and quantitative improvement in medical education.

  2. Design Science Methodology Applied to a Chemical Surveillance Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhuanyi; Han, Kyungsik; Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Henry, Michael J.

    2017-05-11

    Public health surveillance systems gain significant benefits from integrating existing early incident detection systems,supported by closed data sources, with open source data.However, identifying potential alerting incidents relies on finding accurate, reliable sources and presenting the high volume of data in a way that increases analysts work efficiency; a challenge for any system that leverages open source data. In this paper, we present the design concept and the applied design science research methodology of ChemVeillance, a chemical analyst surveillance system.Our work portrays a system design and approach that translates theoretical methodology into practice creating a powerful surveillance system built for specific use cases.Researchers, designers, developers, and related professionals in the health surveillance community can build upon the principles and methodology described here to enhance and broaden current surveillance systems leading to improved situational awareness based on a robust integrated early warning system.

  3. Childhood TB Surveillance: Bridging the Knowledge Gap to Inform Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a leading cause of death globally. Natural history studies show that young children are at particularly high risk of progression to active TB and severe, disseminated disease following infection. Despite this, high-quality regional and global surveillance data on the burden of childhood TB are lacking. We discuss the unique aspects of TB in children that make diagnosis and therefore surveillance challenging; the limitations of available surveillance data; other data which provide insights into the true burden of childhood TB. Improved surveillance is among the key research priorities identified for childhood TB, but progress to date has been slow. Recent advances in TB diagnostics, and standardized clinical diagnostic guidelines and case definitions, all provide opportunities for new strategies to improve surveillance. Better-quality data on the burden and trends of childhood TB will inform and improve both public health policy and clinical practice.

  4. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Ewing, Alexander; Mandel, Michele G; Simmons, Katharine B; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2016-11-25

    early medical abortions increased 5%. Deaths of women associated with complications from abortion for 2013 are being investigated as part of CDC's Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System. In 2012, the most recent year for which data were available, four women were identified to have died as a result of complications from known legal induced abortion. No reported deaths were associated with known illegal induced abortion. Among the 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013, the decreases in the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions that occurred during 2009-2012 continued from 2012 to 2013, resulting in historic lows for all three measures of abortion. The data in this report can help program planners and policymakers identify groups of women with highest rates of abortion. Unintended pregnancy is the major contributor to abortion. Increasing access to and use of contraception, including the most effective methods, can reduce unintended pregnancies and further reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of unusual nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin America: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Gales

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility of 176 unusual non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB collected from Latin America region through the SENTRY Program between 1997 and 2002 was evaluated by broth microdilution according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Nearly 74% of the NF-BGN belonged to the following genera/species: Burkholderia spp. (83, Achromobacter spp. (25, Ralstonia pickettii (16, Alcaligenes spp. (12, and Cryseobacterium spp. (12. Generally, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (MIC50, 16 µg/ml; 18.8% susceptible and meropenem (MIC50, 8 µg/ml; 50% susceptible against Ralstonia pickettii. Since selection of the most appropriate antimicrobial agents for testing and reporting has not been established by the NCCLS for many of NF-GNB species, results from large multicenter studies may help to guide the best empiric therapy.

  6. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. Automating the surveillance of healthcare-associated infections

    OpenAIRE

    van Mourik, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are among the most common complications of medical care, affecting one in twenty-five hospitalized patients on any given day. Surveillance of HAI by systematically assessing patients for the development of an infection is a key component of successful infection prevention programs, both to measure the effects of an intervention and to assess quality of care. Traditional methods of surveillance, manual review of patients’ medical records, are time-consumi...

  14. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  20. Identifying and overcoming implementation challenges: Experience of 59 noninstitutional long-term services and support pilot programs in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jennifer L; Adjognon, Omonyêlé L; Engle, Ryann L; Shin, Marlena H; Afable, Melissa K; Rudin, Whitney; White, Bert; Shay, Kenneth; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen

    2017-01-25

    From 2010 to 2013, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) funded a large pilot initiative to implement noninstitutional long-term services and supports (LTSS) programs to support aging Veterans. Our team evaluated implementation of 59 VA noninstitutional LTSS programs. The specific objectives of this study are to (a) examine the challenges influencing program implementation comparing active sites that remained open and inactive sites that closed during the funding period and (b) identify ways that active sites overcame the challenges they experienced. Key informant semistructured interviews occurred between 2011 and 2013. We conducted 217 telephone interviews over four time points. Content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. The study team met regularly to define each challenge, review all codes, and discuss discrepancies. For each follow-up interview with the sites, the list of established challenges was used as a priori themes. Emergent data were also coded. The challenges affecting implementation included human resources and staffing issues, infrastructure, resources allocation and geography, referrals and marketing, leadership support, and team dynamics and processes. Programs were able to overcome challenges by communicating with team members and other areas in the organization, utilizing information technology solutions, creative use of staff and flexible schedules, and obtaining additional resources. This study highlights several common challenges programs can address during the program implementation. The most often mentioned strategy was effective communication. Strategies also targeted several components of the organization including organizational functions and processes (e.g., importance of coordination within a team and across disciplines to provide good care), infrastructure (e.g., information technology and human resources), and program fit with priorities in the organization (e.g., leadership support). Anticipating potential pitfalls of

  1. Monitoring and Surveillance of Hemodialysis Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Nischal; Anvari, Evamaria; McLennan, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    Access surveillance using invasive or noninvasive methods with an objective to improve access patency and decrease hospital admissions for access dysfunction in dialysis population has been promoted, but its success to predict incipient thrombosis and subsequent access failure is a controversial topic. Some studies have shown improvement in access outcomes, while others have failed to demonstrate an ideal method to diagnose access problems. Furthermore, the use of endovascular interventions such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty to timely correct access problem might itself be a promoter of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis during balloon angioplasty. There are significant costs and efforts associated with routine dialysis surveillance; therefore, it is necessary to understand whether such programs will help improve access-related problems and guarantee adequate dialysis care. It is generally agreed upon that despite the lack of guaranteed success of surveillance, such strategies have helped improve dialysis management, resulted in decreased costs and hospitalizations, and represented clinically relevant indications of failure prior to planning any radiological or surgical intervention. In this study, the authors review monitoring and surveillance measures in place, and their associated merits and limitations to detect stenosis and prevent incidences of vascular access thrombosis.

  2. Surveillance of employees involved in coal-derived materials research with emphasis on the dermatologic portion of the surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.S. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Special surveillance of employees involved in coal-derived materials research was begun in February, 1975. These evaluations were in addition to the basic medical surveillance of all employees at ORNL. Included in this health assessment are laboratory studies every 18 months of all employees followed by a physical exam by a physician or P.A. for employees 45 years and older. Physician exams are performed every 36 months for employees under age 45. This presentation covers the details and findings of the special skin surveillance program. 3 refs.

  3. History of trichinellosis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancou J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of trichinellosis, which existed in ancient times as testified by the discovery of parasite larvae on an Egyptian mummy, unfolded in several stages: discovery of encapsulated larvae (in the 1820s, identification and scientific description of these larvae (Paget Owen, 1835, followed by experimental infestations of animals (dogs, pigs, rabbits, mice or of humans as from 1850.The main occurrences of trichinellosis were followed with particular attention in Europe (Germany, Denmark, France, etc. and in the United States of America at the end of the XIXth century. They affected numerous domestic animal species (pigs, horses, etc. or wildlife and humans. Germany paid the heaviest toll with regard to the disease in humans, between 1860 and 1880, with several thousands of patients and more than 500 deaths.Different trichinellosis surveillance systems were set up in the relevant countries in the 1860s. In humans, this surveillance was carried out on affected living patients by a biopsy of the biceps muscles and subsequently by an analysis of eosinophilia (1895. In animals, surveillance was for a long time solely based on postmortem examination of the muscles of the affected animals. This method was used for the first time in 863 in Germany, and from the 1 890s, on several hundreds of thousands of pigs in Europe or in the United States of America.

  4. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008) Evaluación del programa integral de vigilancia de la salud de los trabajadores que han estado expuestos a amianto en España (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat García Gómez; Rosario Castañeda; Vega García López; Manuel Martínez Vidal; Vicent Villanueva; Mercedes Elvira Espinosa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectivene...

  5. Characteristics of the IAEA correlation monitor material for surveillance programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Kim; Valo, Matti; Rintamaa, Rauno; Toerroenen, Kari; Ahlstrand, Ralf

    1989-08-01

    Correlation monitor material developed to meet the needs of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Association) coordinated research program for optimizing reactor pressure vessel surveillance programs and their analysis is described. The material is intended to serve as a reference within the IAEA for future vessel surveillance programs throughout the world. The results of an extensive evaluation of the material in the as-received condition are presented. The mechanical properties measured at different temperatures include Charpy V notch and instrumented precracked Charpy data. Elastic-plastic fracture toughness is studied. Specimen size and geometry are varied in the tests. Correlations between different fracture properties are evaluated and discussed.

  6. Latex allergy symptoms among health care workers: results from a university health and safety surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, Carol; Duncan, Jacqueline; Archibong, Emma; Østbye, Truls; Pompeii, Lisa A; Dement, John

    2011-01-01

    We sought to describe risk factors for latex glove allergy symptoms among health care workers by combining data from an active clinical surveillance program and a comprehensive occupational health surveillance system. A total of 4,584 employers completed a latex allergy questionnaire. Six percent (n = 276) of subjects reported symptoms consistent with latex allergy. Years of latex glove use was a significant risk factor for latex allergy symptoms even after controlling for the effects of atopy, gender, age, race, fruit, and other allergies. Nurses, medical or lab technicians, physician's assistants, other clinical professionals, and housekeepers had the highest prevalence of latex glove allergy symptoms. Forty subjects (0.87%) who were confirmed as having latex sensitization. Sensitizsation may have been underestimated due to use of specific IgE antibody, less sensitive than skin-prick testing, and tiered design leading to laboratory assessment on a subset of the cohort. This surveillance program identified risk factors for latex allergy symptoms. Our findings provide a basis for tailoring future prevention strategies.

  7. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Nieto, R; Soler, A; Pelayo, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Markowska-Daniel, I; Pridotkas, G; Nurmoja, I; Granta, R; Simón, A; Pérez, C; Martín, E; Fernández-Pacheco, P; Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs.

  8. Identifying Aspects of the Post-Transcriptional Program Governing the Proteome of the Green Alga Micromonas pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, Peter H; Guo, Jian; Reistetter, Emily Nahas; Purvine, Samuel; Ansong, Charles K; van Baren, Marijke J; Wong, Chee-Hong; Wei, Chia-Lin; Smith, Richard D; Callister, Stephen J; Stuart, Joshua M; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2016-01-01

    Micromonas is a unicellular motile alga within the Prasinophyceae, a green algal group that is related to land plants. This picoeukaryote (<2 μm diameter) is widespread in the marine environment but is not well understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine shifts in mRNA and protein expression over the course of the day-night cycle using triplicated mid-exponential, nutrient replete cultures of Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545. Samples were collected at key transition points during the diel cycle for evaluation using high-throughput LC-MS proteomics. In conjunction, matched mRNA samples from the same time points were sequenced using pair-ended directional Illumina RNA-Seq to investigate the dynamics and relationship between the mRNA and protein expression programs of M. pusilla. Similar to a prior study of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, we found significant divergence in the mRNA and proteomics expression dynamics in response to the light:dark cycle. Additionally, expressional responses of genes and the proteins they encoded could also be variable within the same metabolic pathway, such as we observed in the oxygenic photosynthesis pathway. A regression framework was used to predict protein levels from both mRNA expression and gene-specific sequence-based features. Several features in the genome sequence were found to influence protein abundance including codon usage as well as 3' UTR length and structure. Collectively, our studies provide insights into the regulation of the proteome over a diel cycle as well as the relationships between transcriptional and translational programs in the widespread marine green alga Micromonas.

  9. Identifying Aspects of the Post-Transcriptional Program Governing the Proteome of the Green Alga Micromonas pusilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltman, Peter H.; Guo, Jian; Reistetter, Emily Nahas; Purvine, Samuel; Ansong, Charles K.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Wong, Chee-Hong; Wei, Chia-Lin; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Mills, Ken

    2016-07-19

    Micromonas is a unicellular green alga that belongs to the prasinophytes, a sister lineage to land plants. This picoeukaryotic (<2 μm diameter) alga is widespread in the marine environment but still not understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine the mRNA and protein level changes that take place over the course of the day-night cycle using mid-exponential nutrient replete cultures of Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 grown and analyzed in biological triplicate. During the experiment, samples were collected at key transition points during the diel for evaluation using high-throughput LC-MS proteomics. We also sequenced matched mRNA samples from the same time points, using pair-ended directional Illumina RNA-Seq to investigate the dynamics and relationship between the mRNA and protein expression programs of M. pusilla. Similar to a prior study of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, we found significant divergence in the mRNA and proteomics expression dynamics in response to the light:dark cycle. Additionally, expressional responses of genes and the proteins they encoded could also be variable within the same metabolic pathway, such as the oxygenic photosynthesis pathway. A regression framework was used to predict protein levels using both mRNA expression and gene-specific sequence-based features. Several features in the genome sequence were found to influence protein abundance including the codon usage and the length of the 3’ UTR. Collectively, our studies provide insights into the regulation of the proteome over a diel as relationships between the transcriptional and translational programs in the widespread marine green alga Micromonas.

  10. Identifying Aspects of the Post-Transcriptional Program Governing the Proteome of the Green Alga Micromonas pusilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Waltman

    Full Text Available Micromonas is a unicellular motile alga within the Prasinophyceae, a green algal group that is related to land plants. This picoeukaryote (<2 μm diameter is widespread in the marine environment but is not well understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine shifts in mRNA and protein expression over the course of the day-night cycle using triplicated mid-exponential, nutrient replete cultures of Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545. Samples were collected at key transition points during the diel cycle for evaluation using high-throughput LC-MS proteomics. In conjunction, matched mRNA samples from the same time points were sequenced using pair-ended directional Illumina RNA-Seq to investigate the dynamics and relationship between the mRNA and protein expression programs of M. pusilla. Similar to a prior study of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, we found significant divergence in the mRNA and proteomics expression dynamics in response to the light:dark cycle. Additionally, expressional responses of genes and the proteins they encoded could also be variable within the same metabolic pathway, such as we observed in the oxygenic photosynthesis pathway. A regression framework was used to predict protein levels from both mRNA expression and gene-specific sequence-based features. Several features in the genome sequence were found to influence protein abundance including codon usage as well as 3' UTR length and structure. Collectively, our studies provide insights into the regulation of the proteome over a diel cycle as well as the relationships between transcriptional and translational programs in the widespread marine green alga Micromonas.

  11. Innovation of High-risk Infants Follow-up Surveillance System in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodeiry, Behzad; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Heidarabadi, Seifoallah; Ebadi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood development is one of the most social determinants of health that must be notified in order to reducing social gap and inequity. In spite of increasingly developing intensive neonatal care wards and decreasing neonatal mortality rate, there is no follow-up surveillance system to identify high-risk infants (HRI) and their health problems for timely intervention after discharge. This study was carried out to design and pilot high-risk infant follow-ups (HRIFs) surveillance system, in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS), in 2012-2013. In this qualitative research after studying international documents, consensus about criteria of HRIs accomplished by focus group discussion. Then, Delphi agreement technique was used to finalizing assessment timetable. In the second phase, we piloted the designed surveillance system in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of TUOMS. Pilot study was implemented by follow-up team organized in designed model at the first phase of the study. Then, the findings of the pilot study were being assessed by an expert panel. If the members agreed on made decisions, they were being placed on the agenda of the national committee of development care of newborns for final approval. High-risk infants follow-up surveillance system was designed in following steps: Defining of evidence-based criteria of HRIs, organizing the follow-up team, regulating the organs and neurodevelopment assessment timetable, publishing a health certificate notebook for HRIs, and designing Access database software for data collection, report and evaluation. We designed and piloted HRIFs surveillance system, so this system was institutionalized in Alzahra Hospital, finally. It can be prepared to apply in the whole country, after detecting the quantitative outcomes and developing the program in East Azarbijan.

  12. Decrease in mortality in Lynch syndrome families because of surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E. de; Hendriks, Y.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Boer, S.Y. de; Cats, A.; Griffioen, G.; Nagengast, F.M.; Nelis, F.G.; Rookus, M.A.; Vasen, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lynch syndrome family members have a high risk of developing colorectal (CRC), endometrial (EC), and other cancers. A large-scale surveillance program was introduced in The Netherlands in the late 1980s. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effectiveness of this program by a

  13. Characteristics of the Built Environment and the Presence of the Norway Rat in New York City: Results From a Neighborhood Rat Surveillance Program, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Bragdon, Caroline; Olson, Carolyn; Merlino, Mario; Bonaparte, Sancia

    2016-06-01

    Characteristics of an urban setting such as New York City (NYC), including readily available putrescible waste and ample underground infrastructure, make it highly attractive to the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). To identify property and neighborhood characteristics associated with rat presence, recent inspectional results were analyzed from over 77,000 properties in the Bronx and Manhattan. Variables capturing the location and density of factors believed to promote rat populations were tested individually and in combination in models predicting rat activity. We found that property-specific characteristics typically associated with high garbage volume, including large numbers of residential units, public ownership, and open-space designation (parks, outdoor recreation, or vacant land) were the most important factors in explaining increased rat presence across neighborhoods in NYC. Interventions that involved improved garbage management and street sanitation within a designated area reduced the likelihood of finding rats, especially in medium- and high-poverty neighborhoods. Neighborhood characteristics, such as being near a railroad or subway line, having a school nearby, the presence of numerous restaurants, or having older infrastructure, also contributed to the increased likelihood of rats. Our results support the use of built environment data to target community-level interventions and capture emerging rat infestations.

  14. Enhanced surveillance of maternal mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Larissa J; Lloyd, Linda E; Selwyn, Beatrice J

    2012-12-01

    Maternal mortality is often used to measure health and well-being for women. Improved surveillance efforts can improve maternal mortality estimates and inform the development of strategies to address the needs of maternal and child health populations. The purpose of this study was to provide better estimates of maternal mortality in Texas by using enhanced surveillance methods. Results from our analyses of fetal death and live birth records in Texas from 2000 through 2006 were then linked to pregnancy-related death records and death records of women of childbearing age (15-44 years) in Texas from 2001 through 2006. Enhanced surveillance identified almost 3.5 times as many deaths that might be associated with pregnancy than do current methods and confirmed a persistent race/ethnicity trend in maternal mortality. The leading cause of these 2001-2006 pregnancy-associated deaths was accidents. Enhanced surveillance allows the identification of additional deaths possibly associated with pregnancy and provides a stable foundation to investigate trends further and to review maternal mortality cases systematically.

  15. A surveillance sector review applied to infectious diseases at a country level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easther Sally

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new International Health Regulations (IHR require World Health Organization (WHO member states to assess their core capacity for surveillance. Such reviews also have the potential to identify important surveillance gaps, improve the organisation of disparate surveillance systems and to focus attention on upstream hazards, determinants and interventions. Methods We developed a surveillance sector review method for evaluating all of the surveillance systems and related activities across a sector, in this case those concerned with infectious diseases in New Zealand. The first stage was a systematic description of these surveillance systems using a newly developed framework and classification system. Key informant interviews were conducted to validate the available information on the systems identified. Results We identified 91 surveillance systems and related activities in the 12 coherent categories of infectious diseases examined. The majority (n = 40 or 44% of these were disease surveillance systems. They covered all categories, particularly for more severe outcomes including those resulting in death or hospitalisations. Except for some notifiable diseases and influenza, surveillance of less severe, but important infectious diseases occurring in the community was largely absent. There were 31 systems (34% for surveillance of upstream infectious disease hazards, including risk and protective factors. This area tended to have many potential gaps and lack integration, partly because such systems were operated by a range of different agencies, often outside the health sector. There were fewer surveillance systems for determinants, including population size and characteristics (n = 9, and interventions (n = 11. Conclusions It was possible to create and populate a workable framework for describing all the infectious diseases surveillance systems and related activities in a single developed country and to identify potential

  16. Effectiveness of a nurse-based outreach program for identifying and treating psychiatric illness in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabins, P V; Black, B S; Roca, R; German, P; McGuire, M; Robbins, B; Rye, R; Brant, L

    2000-06-07

    Elderly persons with psychiatric disorders are less likely than younger adults to be diagnosed as having a mental disorder and receive needed mental health treatment. Lack of access to care is 1 possible cause of this disparity. To determine whether a nurse-based mobile outreach program to seriously mentally ill elderly persons is more effective than usual care in diminishing levels of depression, psychiatric symptoms, and undesirable moves (eg, nursing home placement, eviction, board and care placement). Prospective randomized trial conducted between March 1993 and April 1996 to assess the effectiveness of the Psychogeriatric Assessment and Treatment in City Housing (PATCH) program. Six urban public housing sites for elderly persons in Baltimore, Md. A total of 945 (83%) of 1195 residents in the 6 sites underwent screening for psychiatric illness. Among those screened, 342 screened positive and 603 screened negative. All screen-positive subjects aged 60 years and older (n=310) and a 10% random sample of screen-negative subjects aged 60 years and older (n=61) were selected for a structured psychiatric interview. Eleven subjects moved or died; 245 (82%) of those who screened positive and 53 (88%) of those who screened negative were evaluated to determine who had a psychiatric disorder. Data were weighted to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders at the 6 sites. Among the 6 sites, residents in 3 buildings were randomized to receive the PATCH model intervention, which included educating building staff to be case finders, performing assessment in residents' apartments, and providing care when indicated; and residents in the remaining 3 buildings were randomized to receive usual care (comparison group). Number of undesirable moves and scores on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), a measure of depressive symptoms, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), a measure of psychiatric symptoms and behavioral disorder, in intervention vs

  17. Preliminary clinical prediction rule for identifying patients with ankylosing spondylitis who are likely to respond to an exercise program: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary clinical prediction rule to identify the potential predictors for identifying patients presenting with ankylosing spondylitis who are likely to respond to a specific exercise program. Consecutive patients with ankylosing spondylitis underwent a standardized examination and then received eight physical therapy sessions during a 2-mo period, which included an exercise program based on the treatment of the shortened muscle chains, following the guideline described by the global posture re-education method. Patients were classified as having experienced a successful outcome at 1 mo after discharge based on a 20% reduction on Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index and self-report perceived recovery. Potential predictor variables were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model to determine the most accurate set of variables for identifying treatment success. Data from 35 patients were included, of which 16 (46%) experienced a successful outcome. A clinical prediction rule with three variables (physical role >37, bodily pain >27, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index >31) was identified. The most accurate predictor of success was if the patient exhibited two of the three variables, and the positive likelihood ratio was 11.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-76.0) and the posttest probability of success increased to 91%. The accuracy of prediction declined if either 1/3 (+likelihood ratio = 7.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-113.5) or 3/3 (+likelihood ratio = 2.6, 95% confidence interval, 1.6-4.0) variables were present. The present preliminary clinical prediction rule provides the potential to identify patients with ankylosing spondylitis who are likely to experience short-term follow-up success with a specific exercise program. Future studies are necessary to validate the clinical prediction rule.

  18. A survey of the methods used in shelter and rescue programs to identify feral and frightened pet cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Margaret R; Miller, Katherine A; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen V; Weisbrot, Lila A M

    2010-08-01

    Despite the lack of validated methods for differentiating feral from frightened socialized cats upon intake to animal welfare agencies, these organizations must make handling and disposition decisions for millions of cats each year based on their presumed socialization status. We conducted a nationwide survey of feline welfare stakeholders to learn about methods used to evaluate and categorize incoming cats, amount of time cats are held before assessment, disposition options available, and the level of cooperation among welfare agencies to minimize euthanasia of ferals. A wide variety of assessment methods were described and only 15% of 555 respondents had written guidelines. Holding periods of 1-3 days were common, and cats deemed feral were often euthanased. About half the shelters transferred ferals to trap-neuter-return (TNR) programs at least occasionally. Results highlight the need for validated assessment methods to facilitate judicious holding and disposition decisions for unowned cats at time of intake. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Innovating for quality and value: Utilizing national quality improvement programs to identify opportunities for responsible surgical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Russell K; Skarsgard, Erik D

    2015-06-01

    Innovation in surgical techniques, technology, and care processes are essential for improving the care and outcomes of surgical patients, including children. The time and cost associated with surgical innovation can be significant, and unless it leads to improvements in outcome at equivalent or lower costs, it adds little or no value from the perspective of the patients, and decreases the overall resources available to our already financially constrained healthcare system. The emergence of a safety and quality mandate in surgery, and the development of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) allow needs-based surgical care innovation which leads to value-based improvement in care. In addition to general and procedure-specific clinical outcomes, surgeons should consider the measurement of quality from the patients' perspective. To this end, the integration of validated Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) into actionable, benchmarked institutional outcomes reporting has the potential to facilitate quality improvement in process, treatment and technology that optimizes value for our patients and health system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using Probabilistic-Risky Programming Models in Identifying Optimized Pattern of Cultivation under Risk Conditions (Case Study: Shoshtar Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kelashemi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Using Telser and Kataoka models of probabilistic-riskymathematical programming, the present research is to determine the optimized pattern of cultivating the agricultural products of Shoshtar region under risky conditions. In order to consider the risk in the mentioned models, time period of agricultural years 1996-1997 till 2004-2005 was taken into account. Results from Telser and Kataoka models showed that due to accepting the risk amounts, most of the optimized amounts suggest the tomato cultivation during the cultivation period of fall, and watermelon cultivation during the cultivation period of spring. On the basis of results, due to allocation of agricultural lands of Shoshtar to tomato and watermeloncultivation and specializing the farming activity in this province,gross profit of agricultural production system can be increasedto 6116047000 and 727782272 thousand Rials, respectively.The results of understudy models were investigated under different income scenarios and probabilistic levels of risk acceptance. Correct policy making in order to offer the suitable equipments for adjusting the effects of lack of certainty and risks due to the climatic unwanted conditions in production process of agricultural products of Shoshtar region improve the life situation of farmers of the mentioned region.