WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance nuclear test

  1. Statistical analysis on the fluence factor of surveillance test data of Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyeong Geun; Kim, Min Chul; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Bong Sang; Lim, Sang Yeob; Kwon, Jun Hyun [Nuclear Materials Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The transition temperature shift (TTS) of the reactor pressure vessel materials is an important factor that determines the lifetime of a nuclear power plant. The prediction of the TTS at the end of a plant’s lifespan is calculated based on the equation of Regulatory Guide 1.99 revision 2 (RG1.99/2) from the US. The fluence factor in the equation was expressed as a power function, and the exponent value was determined by the early surveillance data in the US. Recently, an advanced approach to estimate the TTS was proposed in various countries for nuclear power plants, and Korea is considering the development of a new TTS model. In this study, the TTS trend of the Korean surveillance test results was analyzed using a nonlinear regression model and a mixed-effect model based on the power function. The nonlinear regression model yielded a similar exponent as the power function in the fluence compared with RG1.99/2. The mixed-effect model had a higher value of the exponent and showed superior goodness of fit compared with the nonlinear regression model. Compared with RG1.99/2 and RG1.99/3, the mixed-effect model provided a more accurate prediction of the TTS.

  2. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  3. The particle swarm optimization algorithm applied to nuclear systems surveillance test planning; Otimizacao aplicada ao planejamento de politicas de testes em sistemas nucleares por enxame de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Newton Norat

    2006-12-15

    This work shows a new approach to solve availability maximization problems in electromechanical systems, under periodic preventive scheduled tests. This approach uses a new Optimization tool called PSO developed by Kennedy and Eberhart (2001), Particle Swarm Optimization, integrated with probabilistic safety analysis model. Two maintenance optimization problems are solved by the proposed technique, the first one is a hypothetical electromechanical configuration and the second one is a real case from a nuclear power plant (Emergency Diesel Generators). For both problem PSO is compared to a genetic algorithm (GA). In the experiments made, PSO was able to obtain results comparable or even slightly better than those obtained b GA. Therefore, the PSO algorithm is simpler and its convergence is faster, indicating that PSO is a good alternative for solving such kind of problems. (author)

  4. Final Report for the 1st Surveillance Test of the Reactor Pressure Vessel Material (CAPSULE 2) of Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai (and others)

    2006-12-15

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 1st surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejon after the capsule was transported from Ulchin site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Ulchin unit 3 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsule 2 is 4.674E 18n/cm{sup 2}. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.920 for the 1st testing and the calculational uncertainty,7.0% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 3.913E 18n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 6th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 16 and 32EFPY would reach 9.249E 18 and 1.834E 19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Ulchin unit 3 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life.

  5. Final Report for the 1st Surveillance Test of the Reactor Pressure Vessel Material (Capsule 2) of Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 1st surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Daejon after the capsule was transported from Ulchin site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Ulchin Unit 4 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsule 2 is 4.306E+18n/cm{sup 2}. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.918 for the 1st testing and the calculational uncertainty,7.0% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 3.615E+18n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 6th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 16 and 32EFPY would reach 8.478E+18 and 1.673E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Ulchin Unit 4 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life.

  6. The 4th surveillance test and evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel material (capsule W) of Younggwang nuclear power plant unit1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwon Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-08-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 4th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejeon after the capsule was transported from Yonggwang site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Yonggwang unit 1 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules U, V, X and W are 5.555E+18, 1.662E+19, 3.358E+19, and 4.521E+19 n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of measurement versus calculation, was 0.859 for the 1st through 4th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 11.80% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.551E+19 n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 12th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 40, 48 and 56EFPY would reach 3.929E+19, 4.880E+19, 5.831E+19 and 6.782E+19 n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Yonggwang unit 1 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life. 4 refs., 41 figs., 35 tabs. (Author)

  7. Final report for the 5th surveillance test of the reactor pressure vessel material (capsule Y) of Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sam Lai; Kim, ByoungChul; Chang, Kee Ok (and others)

    2006-02-15

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 5th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Daejeon after the capsule was transported from Yonggwang site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Yonggwang unit 2 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules U, V, X, W and Y are 5.777E+18, 1.5371E+19, 3.7634E+19, 4.3045E+19, and 4.8662E+19n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.953 for the 1st through 5th testing and the calculational uncertainty,7.2% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.659E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 13th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 48, 56 and 64EFPY would reach 3.625E+19, 5.293E+19, 6.127E+19 and 6.960E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Yonggwang unit 2 showed that there would be no problem for the Pressurized Thermal Shock(PTS) during the operation until design life.

  8. The 4th surveillance test and evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel material (capsule W) of Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwon Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 4th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejeon after the capsule was transported from Kori site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Yonggwang unit 2 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules U, V, X and W are 5.762E+18, 1.5391E+19, 3.5119E+19, and 4.2610E+19 n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of measurement versus calculation, was 0.899 for the 1st through 4th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 12.3% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.357E+19 n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 11th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 40, 48 and 56EFPY would reach 3.525E+19, 4.337E+19, 5.148E+19 and 5.960E+19 n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Yonggwang unit 2 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life. 48 refs., 35 figs., 42 tabs. (Author)

  9. Nuclear Threat Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliasha, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The National Security Strategy states that the greatest threat to the American people is ``the pursuit of nuclear weapons by violent extremists and their proliferation to additional states.'' The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA) addresses a key portion of that threat by focusing on detecting nuclear and radiological materials that are out of regulatory control within permissive operating environments. However, the force protection requirements of the Department of Defense (DoD) range across a wider mission space from permissive environments, where nuclear and radiological materials can be monitored while under regulatory control, to hostile environments where nuclear and radiological materials exist in defiance of international regulations and agreements. This wider range of operating environments and the inherent physics limitations on the range of radiation detection pose great challenges to radiation detection-focused approaches to nuclear threat detection. Consequently, DoD is in the process of defining an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance approach to countering nuclear threats that considers the observable signatures of all elements that comprise a potential threat; information, funds, people, material, equipment, and infrastructure. This strategy represents a shift from radiation detection as the primary sensing modality to radiation detection as one of many sensing modalities, including the human dimension, with a heavy emphasis on data fusion. This presentation will describe the attributes of a layered sensing approach to nuclear threat detection, illustrate the approach with examples, define potential building blocks, and discuss technical challenges.

  10. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Humenik, K.E.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes an expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  11. Environmental monitoring associated with nuclear testing in French Polynesia; La surveillance de l'environnement associee aux essais nucleaires en Polynesie francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R.; Arnould, C.; Bory, P.; Ducousso, R.; Sarbach, J. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2009-07-15

    The realization of the programme of nuclear experiments in French Polynesia was accompanied by the installation by a radiological monitoring device of the environment, either the physical environment or biological, continental or marine, vegetable or animal, in order to make sure of the absence of risk for the populations. This device took all its importance with the tests carried out in the atmosphere between 1966 and 1974. Its implementation required important means in hardware and manpower with the intervention of civil and military or sometimes mixed organizations. The monitoring was naturally done in a very complete way in the zones close to the sites of tests, but also on the whole of the Polynesian territory, in particular the most populated atolls. It also carried, but in a less extended way, on remote zones, like the Andean countries, because of their geographical location. The results obtained by the various involved laboratories were gathered and interpreted in order to ensure information of the persons in charge and the authorities, in particular in Polynesia and through them the population. They were each year transmitted to the scientific committee of the United Nations for the study of the effects of ionizing radiations (UNSCEAR). The surveillance device is thus described, apart from the zones close to the zones of testing, with the presentation of the various implied organizations and the various monitoring programs. (authors)

  12. Intelligent nuclear material surveillance system for DUPIC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Ha, J. H.; Go, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) is the facility to fabricate CANDU-type fuel from spent PWR fuel material without any separation of fissile elements and fission products. Unattended continuous surveillance systems for safeguards of nuclear facility result in large amounts of image and radiation data, which require much time and effort to inspect. Therefore, it is necessary to develop system that automatically pinpoints and diagnoses the anomalies from data. In this regards, this paper presents a novel concept of the continuous surveillance system that integrates visual image and radiation data by the use of neural networks. This surveillance system is operating for safeguards of the DFDF in KAERI.

  13. Nuclear material surveillance system for DUPIC fuel development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Ha, J. H.; Go, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Unattended continuous surveillance systems for safeguards of nuclear facility result in large amounts of image and radiation data, which require much time and effort to inspect. Therefore, it is necessary to develop system that automatically pinpoints and diagnoses the anomalies from data. In this regards, this paper presents a novel concept of the continuous surveillance system that integrates visual image and radiation data by the use of neural networks based on self-organized feature mapping. This surveillance system is stably operating for safeguards of the DUPIC (DFDF) in KAERI.

  14. Environmental hardening of robots for nuclear maintenance and surveillance tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintenlang, D.E.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wheeler, R.; Roy, T. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The University of Florida, in cooperation with the Universities of Texas, Tennessee, and Michigan and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is developing an advanced robotic system for the US Department of Energy under the University Program for Robotics for Advanced Reactors. As part of this program, the University of Florida has been pursuing the development of environmentally hardened components so that autonomous robotic systems can successfully carry out their tasks under the most extreme expected environmental conditions. This requirement means that the designed robotic system with its onboard computer-based intelligence must be able to successfully complete tasks in toxic, radioactive, wet, temperature extremes, and other physically impairing environments. As part of this program, a study was carried out to determine the environmental conditions that should be set as the design criteria for robotic systems to maintain reasonable operations for nuclear plants in the course of maintenance, testing, and surveillance under all conditions, including plant upset. It was decided that Florida would build a combined environmental testing facility to test specific devices in high-radiation/high-temperature combined environments. This environmental test chamber has been built and successfully tested to over 250{degree}F. This facility will provide some of the first combined temperatures/radiation data for many large-scale integrated components.

  15. Nuclear surveillance of mRNP formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Heick

    Proper formation of mRNP requires co-transcriptional loading of proteins onto nascent transcripts. Mutations in several genes involved in mRNA processing, mRNP assembly and nuclear export lead to production of aberrant mRNPs that are retained in transcription site-associated foci. Retention...... and degradation of transcripts depend on the nuclear exosome of 3’-5’ exonucleases.We have studied connections between mRNP assembly and quality control in the yeast S. cerevisiae using mutants of the THO complex. THO is implicated in co-transcriptional mRNP assembly, but its precise role is not known. Genetic...... and biochemical data now show that a defective THO complex negatively impacts mRNA 3’-end processing. We are currently trying to understand the relationship between this phenomenon and mRNP quality control. Retention of mRNP in THO mutants is dependent on the nuclear exosome component Rrp6p. Using the solved...

  16. Nuclear RNA surveillance: role of TRAMP in controlling exosome specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karyn; Butler, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that pervasive transcription generates RNAs from nearly all regions of eukaryotic genomes. Normally, these transcripts undergo rapid degradation by a nuclear RNA surveillance system primarily featuring the RNA exosome. This multimeric protein complex plays a critical role in the efficient turnover and processing of a vast array of RNAs in the nucleus. Despite its initial discovery over a decade ago, important questions remain concerning the mechanisms that recruit and activate the nuclear exosome. Specificity and modulation of exosome activity requires additional protein cofactors, including the conserved TRAMP polyadenylation complex. Recent studies suggest that helicase and RNA-binding subunits of TRAMP direct RNA substrates for polyadenylation, which enhances their degradation by Dis3/Rrp44 and Rrp6, the two exosome-associated ribonucleases. These findings indicate that the exosome and TRAMP have evolved highly flexible functions that allow recognition of a wide range of RNA substrates. This flexibility provides the nuclear RNA surveillance system with the ability to regulate the levels of a broad range of coding and noncoding RNAs, which results in profound effects on gene expression, cellular development, gene silencing, and heterochromatin formation. This review summarizes recent findings on the nuclear RNA surveillance complexes, and speculates upon possible mechanisms for TRAMP-mediated substrate recognition and exosome activation.

  17. Nuclear RNA Surveillance: Role of TRAMP in Controlling Exosome Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Karyn; Butler, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that pervasive transcription generates RNAs from nearly all regions of eukaryotic genomes. Normally these transcripts undergo rapid degradation by a nuclear RNA surveillance system primarily featuring the RNA exosome. This multimeric protein complex plays a critical role in the efficient turnover and processing of a vast array of RNAs in the nucleus. Despite its initial discovery over a decade ago, important questions remain c...

  18. Modular Nuclear Testing Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, L. F.

    1964-07-01

    The continuing concern with efficient utilization of manpower at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the seemingly high cost of individual nuclear shots, together with the recent evolution of the L-12 scope, generated some fresh thoughts concerning more efficient procedures for the `average` test. Every time anyone looks at the problem., they tend to analyze the existing conventional approach and try to find the one or two most expensive and `lossy` factors in the can of worms. Usually this turns out to be a problem within the realm of specialization of the particular analyst! People not so directly concerned with the program tend to look for, or wish for, or even `invent` miracles`. Our present techniques appear to be the sum (and possibly even the product) of many small contributions which have all been beaten down to the same level of importance. Such a situation in any systemic problem is usually symptomatic of the need for fairly violent departures in the aver-all system approach, at least in thinking. This report proposes and details a modular nuclear testing concept.

  19. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de proceso de sellado de capsulas para probetas de vigilancia de la vasija en nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R. [ININ, Km 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  20. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. Laboratory test surveillance following acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Matheny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with hospitalized acute kidney injury (AKI are at increased risk for accelerated loss of kidney function, morbidity, and mortality. We sought to inform efforts at improving post-AKI outcomes by describing the receipt of renal-specific laboratory test surveillance among a large high-risk cohort. METHODS: We acquired clinical data from the Electronic health record (EHR of 5 Veterans Affairs (VA hospitals to identify patients hospitalized with AKI from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2009, and followed these patients for 1 year or until death, enrollment in palliative care, or improvement in renal function to estimated GFR (eGFR ≥ 60 L/min/1.73 m(2. Using demographic data, administrative codes, and laboratory test data, we evaluated the receipt and timing of outpatient testing for serum concentrations of creatinine and any as well as quantitative proteinuria recommended for CKD risk stratification. Additionally, we reported the rate of phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH monitoring recommended for chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. RESULTS: A total of 10,955 patients admitted with AKI were discharged with an eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2. During outpatient follow-up at 90 and 365 days, respectively, creatinine was measured on 69% and 85% of patients, quantitative proteinuria was measured on 6% and 12% of patients, PTH or phosphorus was measured on 10% and 15% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of creatinine was common among all patients following AKI. However, patients with AKI were infrequently monitored with assessments of quantitative proteinuria or mineral metabolism disorder, even for patients with baseline kidney disease.

  2. Laboratory test surveillance following acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Michael E; Peterson, Josh F; Eden, Svetlana K; Hung, Adriana M; Speroff, Theodore; Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Parr, Sharidan K; Ikizler, T Alp; Siew, Edward D

    2014-01-01

    Patients with hospitalized acute kidney injury (AKI) are at increased risk for accelerated loss of kidney function, morbidity, and mortality. We sought to inform efforts at improving post-AKI outcomes by describing the receipt of renal-specific laboratory test surveillance among a large high-risk cohort. We acquired clinical data from the Electronic health record (EHR) of 5 Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals to identify patients hospitalized with AKI from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2009, and followed these patients for 1 year or until death, enrollment in palliative care, or improvement in renal function to estimated GFR (eGFR) ≥ 60 L/min/1.73 m(2). Using demographic data, administrative codes, and laboratory test data, we evaluated the receipt and timing of outpatient testing for serum concentrations of creatinine and any as well as quantitative proteinuria recommended for CKD risk stratification. Additionally, we reported the rate of phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring recommended for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. A total of 10,955 patients admitted with AKI were discharged with an eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2. During outpatient follow-up at 90 and 365 days, respectively, creatinine was measured on 69% and 85% of patients, quantitative proteinuria was measured on 6% and 12% of patients, PTH or phosphorus was measured on 10% and 15% of patients. Measurement of creatinine was common among all patients following AKI. However, patients with AKI were infrequently monitored with assessments of quantitative proteinuria or mineral metabolism disorder, even for patients with baseline kidney disease.

  3. The installation and performance test of the surveillance system for DUPIC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Ho Dong; Cha, Hong Ryul

    2000-07-01

    We have developed the real time surveillance system, named by DSSS, for DUPIC test facility. The system acquires data from He-3 neutron monitors(DSNM) and CCD cameras to automatically diagnose the transportation status of nuclear material. This technical report shortly illustrates important features of hardware and software of the system.

  4. Visual interface for the automation of the instrumented pendulum of Charpy tests used in the surveillance program of reactors vessel of nuclear power plants; Interfase visual para la automatizacion del pendulo instrumentado de pruebas Charpy utilizado en el programa de vigilancia de la vasija de reactores de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Sainz M, E.; Ruiz E, J.A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km.36.5, Mpio. de Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: asrs@nuclear.inin.mx; esm@nuclear.inin.mx; jare@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    Inside the Programs of Surveillance of the nuclear power stations periodic information is required on the state that keep the materials with those that builds the vessel of the reactor. This information is obtained through some samples or test tubes that are introduced inside the core of the reactor and it is observed if its physical characteristics remain after having been subjected to the radiation changes and temperature. The rehearsal with the instrumented Charpy pendulum offers information on the behavior of fracture dynamics of a material. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it has an instrumented Charpy pendulum. The operation of this instrument is manual, having inconveniences to carry out rehearsals with radioactive material, handling of high and low temperatures, to fulfill the normative ones for the realization of the rehearsals, etc. In this work the development of a computational program is presented (virtual instrument), for the automation of the instrumented pendulum. The system has modules like: Card of data acquisition, signal processing, positioning system, tempered system, pneumatic system, compute programs like it is the visual interface for the operation of the instrumented Charpy pendulum and the acquisition of impact signals. This system shows that given the characteristics of the nuclear industry with radioactive environments, the virtual instrumentation and the automation of processes can contribute to diminish the risks to the personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  5. Results of EMC market surveillance tests for UPS systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamaeki, J. [Safety Technology Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the first wide electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) market surveillance project in Finland in which the uninterruptible power systems (UPS) on the Finnish market are monitored. Altogether 11 UPS units are EMC tested and the results of these tests are described in this paper. The effect of basic characters of UPS on the level of electromagnetic interference are analysed. (orig.) 3 refs.

  6. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  7. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  8. Optimization of Allowed Outage Time and Surveillance Test Intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Dheeb, Mujahed; Kang, Sunkoo; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO international nuclear graduate school, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The primary purpose of surveillance testing is to assure that the components of standby safety systems will be operable when they are needed in an accident. By testing these components, failures can be detected that may have occurred since the last test or the time when the equipment was last known to be operational. The probability a system or system component performs a specified function or mission under given conditions at a prescribed time is called availability (A). Unavailability (U) as a risk measure is just the complementary probability to A(t). The increase of U means the risk is increased as well. D and T have an important impact on components, or systems, unavailability. The extension of D impacts the maintenance duration distributions for at-power operations, making them longer. This, in turn, increases the unavailability due to maintenance in the systems analysis. As for T, overly-frequent surveillances can result in high system unavailability. This is because the system may be taken out of service often due to the surveillance itself and due to the repair of test-caused failures of the component. The test-caused failures include those incurred by wear and tear of the component due to the surveillances. On the other hand, as the surveillance interval increases, the component's unavailability will grow because of increased occurrences of time-dependent random failures. In that situation, the component cannot be relied upon, and accordingly the system unavailability will increase. Thus, there should be an optimal component surveillance interval in terms of the corresponding system availability. This paper aims at finding the optimal T and D which result in minimum unavailability which in turn reduces the risk. Applying the methodology in section 2 to find the values of optimal T and D for two components, i.e., safety injection pump (SIP) and turbine driven aux feedwater pump (TDAFP). Section 4 is addressing interaction between D and T. In general

  9. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, George C.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) program are presented. The objective of the research is to develop advanced nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology based on the particle bed reactor concept. A strong philosophical commitment exists in the industry/national laboratory team to emphasize testing in development activities. Nuclear testing currently underway to support development of SNTP technology is addressed.

  10. Coupon Surveillance For Corrosion Monitoring In Nuclear Fuel Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. I.; Murphy, T. R.; Deible, R.

    2012-10-01

    Aluminum and stainless steel coupons were put into a nuclear fuel basin to monitor the effect of water chemistry on the corrosion of fuel cladding. These coupons have been monitored for over ten years. The corrosion and pitting data is being used to model the kinetics and estimate the damage that is occurring to the fuel cladding.

  11. Dissecting mechanisms of nuclear mRNA surveillance in THO/sub2 complex mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rougemaille, Mathieu; Gudipati, Rajani Kanth; Olesen, Jens Raabjerg

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear exosome is involved in numerous RNA metabolic processes. Exosome degradation of rRNA, snoRNA, snRNA and tRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated by TRAMP complexes, containing either the Trf4p or Trf5p poly(A) polymerase. These enzymes are presumed to facilitate exosome access...... by appending oligo(A)-tails onto structured substrates. Another role of the nuclear exosome is that of mRNA surveillance. In strains harboring a mutated THO/Sub2p system, involved in messenger ribonucleoprotein particle biogenesis and nuclear export, the exosome-associated 3' 5' exonuclease Rrp6p is required...

  12. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and allowed outage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Moo Seong; Cheong, Chang Hyeon; Lee, Byeong Cheol [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1996-07-15

    The objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assessing the optimizes Surveillance Test Interval(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korea nuclear power plants safety. In the first year of this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modeling and results performed by domestic and international researches is performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method.

  13. Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Surveillance Identifies Clinically Significant Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Margaret M.; Maier, Lisa A.; Strand, Matthew; Silviera, Lori; Newman, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace surveillance identifies chronic beryllium disease (CBD) but it remains unknown over what time frame mild CBD will progress to a more severe form. Methods We examined physiology and treatment in 229 beryllium sensitization (BeS) and 171 CBD surveillance-identified cases diagnosed from 1982 to 2002. Never smoking CBD cases (81) were compared to never smoking BeS patients (83) to assess disease progression. We compared CBD machinists to non-machinists to examine effects of exposure. Results At baseline, CBD and BeS cases did not differ significantly in exposure time or physiology. CBD patients were more likely to have machined beryllium. Of CBD cases, 19.3% went on to require oral immunosuppressive therapy. At 30 years from first exposure, measures of gas exchange were significantly worse and total lung capacity was lower for CBD subjects. Machinists had faster disease progression as measured by pulmonary function testing and gas exchange. Conclusions Medical surveillance for CBD identifies individuals at significant risk of disease progression and impairment with sufficient time since first exposure. PMID:19681064

  14. Recurrence plots and its quantification analysis applied to the monitoring and surveillance in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naranjo, Alberto R.; Otero, Maria Elena M.; Poveda, Aylin G. [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Havana City (Cuba)]. E-mails: rolo@instec.cu; mmontesi@instec.cu; Guerra, Alexeis C. [University of Informatic Sciences, Havana City (Cuba)]. E-mail: alexeis@uci.cu

    2007-07-01

    The application of non-linear dynamic methods in many scientific fields has demonstrated its great potentiality in the early detection of significant dynamic singularities. The introduction of these methods oriented to the surveillance of anomalies and failures of nuclear reactors and their fundamental equipment have been demonstrated in the last years. Specifically, Recurrence Plot and its Quantification Analysis are methods currently used in many scientific fields. The paper focuses its attention on the estimation of the Recurrence Plots and its Quantification Analysis applied to signal samples obtained from different types of reactors: research reactor TRIGA MARK-III, BWR/5 and PHWR. Different behaviors are compared in order to look for a pattern for the characterization of the power instability events in the nuclear reactor. These outputs have a great importance for its application in systems of surveillance and monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants. For its introduction in a real time monitoring system, the authors propose some useful approaches. The results indicate the potentiality of the method for its implementation in a system of surveillance and monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants. All the calculations were performed with two computational tools developed by Marwan: Cross Recurrence Plot Toolbox for Matlab (Version 5.7, Release 22) and Visual Recurrence Analysis (Version 4.8). (author)

  15. Mortality study among veterans with dosimeter monitoring during the French nuclear tests in the Pacific; Etude de mortalite des veterans ayant beneficie d'une surveillance dosimetrique lors des essais nucleaires francais dans le Pacifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrono, G.; Pachol, H.; Segala, C. [SEPIA-sante, 31, rue de Pontivy, 56150 Baud (France)

    2011-06-15

    Background: A mortality study was carried out in a cohort of veterans present on the sites of the French nuclear experiments center in the Pacific (CEP) from 1966 to 1996, and for whom external dosimeter monitoring recordings were available. Methods: The cohort included 32,550 veterans having had at least one dosimetry recording. Current vital status was collected from the National Register of Identification of Physical People and causes of death data from the national causes of death database. Total mortality and mortality by cause were compared with mortality of the French population using standardized mortality ratios (SMR). To test the effect of a dosimeter recording higher than the threshold (0.2 mSv), i.e., no null dosimetry, the mortality of veterans was compared inside the cohort, using standardized ratios and Poisson regression models. Results: The mortality analysis was performed among 26,524 men, of whom 8% had had at least one non-null dosimeter. Five thousand four hundred and ninety-two (21%) veterans died before December 31, 2008 and causes were available for nearly 97% of these deaths. Comparing the mortality between the cohort and the French population highlighted a deficit of mortality, for all causes, by cancer and for radiation-induced pathologies; these results were related to the 'healthy worker effect'. The data showed that all causes mortality and cancer mortality of the cohort of veterans with no null dosimeter were not different from those of other veterans, but also showed an excess of hematological malignancies in this sub-population: this excess was significant in the regression model (RR = 1.82; CI 95% [1.6-2.0]). Conclusion: Among veterans with an external dosimeter monitoring recording, presence on the sites of CEP from 1966 to 1996 does not constitute a factor of increased mortality compared with the national population. However, an increased risk was observed for mortality by hematological malignancies among veterans with

  16. Neutron Dosimetry in Edf Experimental Surveillance Programme for VVER-440 Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumovsky, Milan; Erben, Oldrich; Zerola, Ladislav; Hogel, Josef; Massoud, Jean-Paul; Trollat, Christophe

    2003-06-01

    Fourteen chains containing experimental surveillance material specimens of the VVER 440/213 nuclear power reactor pressure vessels were irradiated in the surveillance channels of the Nuclear Power Plant Dukovany in the Czech Republic. The irradiation periods were one, two or three cycles. For the absolute fluence values evaluation account was taken of the time history of the reactor power and of local changes of the neutron flux along the reactor core height, and of correction factors due to the orientation of monitors with respect to the reactor core centre. Neutron fluence values above 0.5 MeV energy and above 1.0 MeV energy in the container axis at the axial positions of the sample centres and fluence values in the geometric centre of the samples were calculated making use the exponential attenuation model of the incident neutron beam.

  17. Current perspectives on the role of TRAMP in nuclear RNA surveillance and quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kewu Pan, Zhe Huang, Jimmy Tsz Hang Lee, Chi-Ming Wong State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Medicine, Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, the University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Abstract: The TRAMP complex assists the nuclear exosome to degrade a broad range of ribonucleic acid (RNA substrates by increasing both exoribonucleolytic activity and substrate specificity. However, how the interactions between the TRAMP subunits and the components of the nuclear exosome regulate their functions in RNA degradation and substrate specificity remain unclear. This review aims to provide a summary of the recent findings on the role of the TRAMP complex in nuclear RNA degradation. The new insights from recent structural biological studies are discussed. Keywords: TRAMP, nuclear exosome, NEXT, RNA surveillance

  18. The technology development for surveillance test of reactor vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Sun Phil; Park, Day Young; Choi, Kwen Jai

    1997-12-01

    Benchmark test was performed in accordance with the requirement of US NRC Reg. Guide DG-1053 for Kori unit-1 in order to determine best-estimated fast neutron fluence irradiated into reactor vessel. Since the uncertainty of radiation analysis comes from the calculation error due to neutron cross-section data, reactor core geometrical dimension, core source, mesh density, angular expansion and convergence criteria, evaluation of calculational uncertainty due to analytical method was performed in accordance with the regulatory guide and the proof was performed for entire analysis by comparing the measurement value obtained by neutron dosimetry located in surveillance capsule. Best-estimated neutron fluence in reactor vessel was calculated by bias factor, neutron flux measurement value/calculational value, from reanalysis result from previous 1st through 4th surveillance testing and finally fluence prediction was performed for the end of reactor life and the entire period of plant life extension. Pressurized thermal shock analysis was performed in accordance with 10 CFR 50.61 using the result of neutron fluence analysis in order to predict the life of reactor vessel material and the criteria of safe operation for Kori unit 1 was reestablished. (author). 55 refs., 55 figs.

  19. Active surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using stool specimens submitted for testing for Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, David B; Francois, Jeannette; Blash, Stephanie; Patel, Gopi; Jenkins, Stephen G; LaBombardi, Vincent; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Srinivasan, Arjun; Calfee, David P

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance to identify asymptomatic carriers of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a recommended strategy for CRE control in healthcare facilities. Active surveillance using stool specimens tested for Clostridium difficile is a relatively low-cost strategy to detect CRE carriers. Further evaluation of this and other risk factor-based active surveillance strategies is warranted.

  20. Surveillance System and Method having an Adaptive Sequential Probability Fault Detection Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  1. What we learn from surveillance testing of standby turbine driven and motor driven pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a comparison of the performance information collected by the author and the respective system engineers from five standby turbine driven pumps at four commercial nuclear electric generating units in the United States and from two standby motor driven pumps at two of these generating units. Information was collected from surveillance testing and from Non-Test actuations. Most of the performance information (97%) came from surveillance testing. {open_quotes}Conditional Probabilities{close_quotes} of the pumps ability to respond to a random demand were calculated for each of the seven standby pumps and compared to the historical record of the Non-Test actuations. It appears that the Conditional Probabilities are comparable to the rate of success for Non-Test actuations. The Conditional Probabilities of the standby motor driven pumps (approximately 99%) are better than the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps (82%-96% range). Recommendations were made to improve the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps.

  2. The 5th surveillance testing for Kori unit 1 reactor vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwun Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-08-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 5th surveillance testing was performed primarily by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and Westinhouse corporation partially involved in testing and calculation data evaluation in order to obtain reliable test result. Fast neutron fluences for capsule V, T, S, R and P were 5.087E+18, 1.115E+19, 1.228E+19, 2.988E+19, and 3.938E+19n/cm2, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.940 for the 1st through 5th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 7% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.9846E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 17th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 24, 32, 40 and 48EFPY would reach 3.0593E+19, 4.0695E+19, 5.0797E+19 and 6.0900E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. PTS analysis for Kori unit 1 showed that 27.93EFPY was the threshold value for 300 deg F requirement. 71 refs., 33 figs., 52 tabs. (Author)

  3. Standard Practice for Design of Surveillance Programs for Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Power Reactor Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing a surveillance program for monitoring the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials in light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels. This practice includes the minimum requirements for the design of a surveillance program, selection of vessel material to be included, and the initial schedule for evaluation of materials. 1.2 This practice was developed for all light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels for which the predicted maximum fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) at the end of license (EOL) exceeds 1 × 1021 neutrons/m2 (1 × 1017 n/cm2) at the inside surface of the reactor vessel. 1.3 This practice applies only to the planning and design of surveillance programs for reactor vessels designed and built after the effective date of this practice. Previous versions of Practice E185 apply to earlier reactor vessels. 1.4 This practice does not provide specific procedures for monitoring the radiation induced cha...

  4. Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Detonating nuclear weapons above ground sends radioactive materials into the atmosphere from the ground level up to very high elevations. Overtime, these materials settle out of the atmosphere and fall to the ground. Fallout typically contains hundreds of different radionuclides. Since the end of aboveground nuclear weapons testing, radionuclides have largely decayed away.

  5. Nuclear Power Plant environment`s surveillance by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    The main environmental issues affecting the broad acceptability of nuclear power plant are the emission of radioactive materials, the generation of radioactive waste, and the potential for nuclear accidents. All nuclear fission reactors, regardless of design, location, operator or regulator, have the potential to undergo catastrophic accidents involving loss of control of the reactor core, failure of safety systems and subsequent widespread fallout of hazardous fission products. Risk is the mathematical product of probability and consequences, so lowprobability and high-consequence accidents, by definition, have a high risk. NPP environment surveillance is a very important task in frame of risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing data had been applied for dosimeter levels first time for Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986. Just for a normal functioning of a nuclear power plant, multitemporal and multispectral satellite data in complementarily with field data are very useful tools for NPP environment surveillance and risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing is used as an important technology to help environmental research to support research analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental features nearby nuclear facilities. Digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and QuickBird data in synergy with in-situ data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air. As a test case the methodology was applied for for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda, Romania. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube River. Water temperatures captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. If during the winter thermal plume is localized to an area of a few km of NPP, the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas being about 1.5 oC, during summer and fall , is

  6. Dissecting mechanisms of nuclear mRNA surveillance in THO/sub2 complex mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rougemaille, Mathieu; Gudipati, Rajani Kanth; Olesen, Jens Raabjerg

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear exosome is involved in numerous RNA metabolic processes. Exosome degradation of rRNA, snoRNA, snRNA and tRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated by TRAMP complexes, containing either the Trf4p or Trf5p poly(A) polymerase. These enzymes are presumed to facilitate exosome access...... for both retention and degradation of nuclear restricted mRNAs. We show here that Trf4p, in the context of TRAMP, is an mRNA surveillance factor. However, unlike Rrp6p, Trf4p only partakes in RNA degradation and not in transcript retention. Surprisingly, a polyadenylation-defective Trf4p protein is fully...... active, suggesting polyadenylation-independent mRNA degradation. Transcription pulse–chase experiments show that HSP104 molecules undergoing quality control in THO/sub2 mutant strains fall into two distinct populations: One that is quickly degraded after transcription induction and another that escapes...

  7. Dissecting mechanisms of nuclear mRNA surveillance in THO/sub2 complex mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rougemaille, Mathieu; Gudipati, Rajani K; Olesen, Jens Raabjerg

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear exosome is involved in numerous RNA metabolic processes. Exosome degradation of rRNA, snoRNA, snRNA and tRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated by TRAMP complexes, containing either the Trf4p or Trf5p poly(A) polymerase. These enzymes are presumed to facilitate exosome access...... is required for both retention and degradation of nuclear restricted mRNAs. We show here that Trf4p, in the context of TRAMP, is an mRNA surveillance factor. However, unlike Rrp6p, Trf4p only partakes in RNA degradation and not in transcript retention. Surprisingly, a polyadenylation-defective Trf4p protein...... is fully active, suggesting polyadenylation-independent mRNA degradation. Transcription pulse-chase experiments show that HSP104 molecules undergoing quality control in THO/sub2 mutant strains fall into two distinct populations: One that is quickly degraded after transcription induction and another...

  8. Non-Nuclear Testing of Space Nuclear Systems at NASA MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Pearson, Boise J.; Aschenbrenner, Kenneth C.; Bradley, David E.; Dickens, Ricky; Emrich, William J.; Garber, Anne; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Harper, Roger T.; Martin, Jim J.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Highly realistic non-nuclear testing can be used to investigate and resolve potential issues with space nuclear power and propulsion systems. Non-nuclear testing is particularly useful for systems designed with fuels and materials operating within their demonstrated nuclear performance envelope. Non-nuclear testing allows thermal hydraulic, heat transfer, structural, integration, safety, operational, performance, and other potential issues to be investigated and resolved with a greater degree of flexibility and at reduced cost and schedule compared to nuclear testing. The primary limit of non-nuclear testing is that nuclear characteristics and potential nuclear issues cannot be directly investigated. However, non-nuclear testing can be used to augment the potential benefit from any nuclear testing that may be required for space nuclear system design and development. This paper describes previous and ongoing non-nuclear testing related to space nuclear systems at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  9. Community monitoring for youth violence surveillance: testing a prediction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B; Dymnicki, Allison; Kane, Candice; Quintana, Elena; Cartland, Jenifer; Bromann, Kimberly; Bhatia, Shaun; Wisnieski, Elise

    2014-08-01

    Predictive epidemiology is an embryonic field that involves developing informative signatures for disorder and tracking them using surveillance methods. Through such efforts assistance can be provided to the planning and implementation of preventive interventions. Believing that certain minor crimes indicative of gang activity are informative signatures for the emergence of serious youth violence in communities, in this study we aim to predict outbreaks of violence in neighborhoods from pre-existing levels and changes in reports of minor offenses. We develop a prediction equation that uses publicly available neighborhood-level data on disorderly conduct, vandalism, and weapons violations to predict neighborhoods likely to have increases in serious violent crime. Data for this study were taken from the Chicago Police Department ClearMap reporting system, which provided data on index and non-index crimes for each of the 844 Chicago census tracts. Data were available in three month segments for a single year (fall 2009, winter, spring, and summer 2010). Predicted change in aggravated battery and overall violent crime correlated significantly with actual change. The model was evaluated by comparing alternative models using randomly selected training and test samples, producing favorable results with reference to overfitting, seasonal variation, and spatial autocorrelation. A prediction equation based on winter and spring levels of the predictors had area under the curve ranging from .65 to .71 for aggravated battery, and .58 to .69 for overall violent crime. We discuss future development of such a model and its potential usefulness in violence prevention and community policing.

  10. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. Nuclear Weapon Testing Limitations and International Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years stopping nuclear weapon tests has been sought to support achieving international security without nuclear weapons. Testing is the critical path beyond primitive fission devices, e.g. to develop thermonuclear weapons, reduce weight and volume and increase yield. The 1958 Geneva Conference of Experts considered ways to verify a test ban. With then-limitations on seismology, and lack of in-country monitoring and on-site inspections, the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibits testing only in the atmosphere, outer space and under water, and is verified by National Technical Means. The US and USSR agreed to a limit of 150 kilotons on underground explosions in the 1970s-80s. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions. Its International Monitoring System - seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide sensors - is being used, and has easily detected testing by the DPRK. On-site inspections will be available under an in-force Treaty. A 2012 National Academy report concludes that cheating attempts would not undermine U.S. security, and the program for monitoring and extending the life of US weapons has succeeded since US testing ceased in 1992.

  14. Optimization of testing surveillance and maintenance by Particle Swarm; Optimizacion de las pruebas de vigilancia y el mantenimiento mediante particle swarm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.; Martorell, S.; Villamizar, M.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the optimization of the testing surveillance and maintenance (TS and M) plan for high-pressure injection system (HPIS) in a nuclear power plant. Using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is obtained a group of viable solutions, each one corresponding to a non-dominated solution, which can be implemented in the plant.

  15. Nuclear Fuel Test Rod Fabrication for Data Acquisition Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A nuclear fuel test rod must be fabricated with precise welding and assembly technologies, and confirmed for their soundness. Recently, we have developed various kinds of processing systems such as an orbital TIG welding system, a fiber laser welding system, an automated drilling system and a helium leak analyzer, which are able to fabricate the nuclear fuel test rods and rigs, and keep inspection systems to confirm the soundness of the nuclear fuel test rods and rids. The orbital TIG welding system can be used with two kinds of welding methods. One can perform the round welding for end-caps of a nuclear fuel test rod by an orbital head mounted in a low-pressure chamber. The other can do spot welding for a pin-hole of a nuclear fuel test rod in a high-pressure chamber to fill up helium gas of high pressure. The fiber laser welding system can weld cylindrical and 3 axis samples such as parts of a nuclear fuel test rod and instrumentation sensors which is moved by an index chuck and a 3 axis (X, Y, Z) servo stage controlled by the CNC program. To measure the real-time temperature change at the center of the nuclear fuel during the irradiation test, a thermocouple should be instrumented at that position. Therefore, a hole needs to be made at the center of fuel pellet to instrument the thermocouple. An automated drilling system can drill a fine hole into a fuel pellet without changing tools or breaking the work-piece. The helium leak analyzer (ASM-380 model of DEIXEN Co.) can check the leak of the nuclear fuel test rod filled with helium gas. This paper describes not only the assembly and fabrication methods used by the process systems, but also the results of the data acquisition test for the nuclear fuel test rod. A nuclear fuel test rod for the data acquisition test was fabricated using the welding and assembling echnologies acquired from previous tests.

  16. The 5th surveillance testing for Kori unit 2 reactor vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwon Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 5th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejeon after the capsule was transported from Kori site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Kori unit 2 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules V, R, P, T and N are 2.837E+18, 1.105E+19, 2.110E+19, 3.705E+19 and 4.831E+19n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of measurement/calculation, was 0.918 for the 1st through 5th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 11.6% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.898E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 15th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 40, 48 and 56EFPY would reach 4.203E+19, 5.232E+19, 6.262E+19 and 7.291E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Kori unit 2 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life. 49 refs., 35 figs., 48 tabs. (Author)

  17. The 4th surveillance testing for Kori unit 3 reactor vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwun Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 4th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejeon after the capsule was transported from Kori site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Kori unit 3 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules U, V, X and W are 4.983E+18, 1.641E+19, 3.158E+19, and 4.469E+19n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.840 for the 1st through 4th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 12% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.362E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 12th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 40, 48 and 56EFPY would reach 3.481E+19, 4.209E+19, 5.144E+19 and 5.974E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Kori unit 3 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life. 48 refs., 35 figs., 41 tabs. (Author)

  18. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and allowed outage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Park, Kang Min [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assesses the optimization of Surveillance Test Internal(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korean nuclear power plant safety. In this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modelings and results performed by domestic and international researches are performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method. The sensitivity analyses about the failure factors of the components are performed in the bases of the and AOT is quantified. And the reliability assessment methodology about the diesel generator is reviewed and applied to the PSA code. The qualitative assessment for the STI/AOR of RPS/ESFAS assured safety the most important system in the nuclear power plant are performed.

  19. Corrosion Surveillance for Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in Wet Basin Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.P.

    1998-10-16

    Foreign and domestic test and research reactor fuel is currently being shipped from locations over the world for storage in water filled basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The fuel was provided to many of the foreign countries as a part of the "Atoms for Peace" program in the early 1950's. In support of the wet storage of this fuel at the research reactor sites and at SRS, corrosion surveillance programs have been initiated. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) in 1996 on "Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminum-Clad Spent Fuel in Water" and scientists from ten countries worldwide were invited to participate. This paper presents a detailed discussion of the IAEA sponsored CRP and provides the updated results from corrosion surveillance activities at SRS. In May 1998, a number of news articles around the world reported stories that microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was active on the aluminum-clad spent fuel stored in the RBOF basin at SRS. This assessment was found to be in error with details presented in this paper. A biofilm was found on aluminum coupons, but resulted in no corrosion. Cracks seen on the surface were not caused by corrosion, but by stresses from the volume expansion of the oxide formed during pre-conditioning autoclaving. There has been no pitting caused by MIC or any other corrosion mechanism seen in the RBOF basin since initiation of the SRS Corrosion Surveillance Program in 1993.

  20. Nuclear cask testing films misleading and misused

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audin, L. (Audin (Lindsay), Ossining, NY (United States))

    1991-10-01

    In 1977 and 1978, Sandia National Laboratories, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE), filmed a series of crash and fire tests performed on three casks designed to transport irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. While the tests were performed to assess the applicability of scale and computer modeling techniques to actual accidents, films of them were quickly pressed into service by the DOE and nuclear utilities as proof'' to the public of the safety of the casks. In the public debate over the safety of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation, the films have served as the mainstay for the nuclear industry. Although the scripts of all the films were reviewed by USDOE officials before production, they contain numerous misleading concepts and images, and omit significant facts. The shorter versions eliminated qualifying statements contained in the longer version, and created false impressions. This paper discusses factors which cast doubt on the veracity of the films and the results of the tests.

  1. Nuclear cask testing films misleading and misused

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audin, L. [Audin (Lindsay), Ossining, NY (United States)

    1991-10-01

    In 1977 and 1978, Sandia National Laboratories, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE), filmed a series of crash and fire tests performed on three casks designed to transport irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. While the tests were performed to assess the applicability of scale and computer modeling techniques to actual accidents, films of them were quickly pressed into service by the DOE and nuclear utilities as ``proof`` to the public of the safety of the casks. In the public debate over the safety of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation, the films have served as the mainstay for the nuclear industry. Although the scripts of all the films were reviewed by USDOE officials before production, they contain numerous misleading concepts and images, and omit significant facts. The shorter versions eliminated qualifying statements contained in the longer version, and created false impressions. This paper discusses factors which cast doubt on the veracity of the films and the results of the tests.

  2. Nuclear disarmament. Options for the coming non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle; Nukleare Abruestung. Optionen fuer den kommenden Ueberpruefungszyklus des NVV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Harald

    2011-07-01

    The report is aimed on the nuclear disarmament discussion with respect to the disagreement of nuclear weapon states and those without nuclear weapons, esp. the non-aligned movement (NAM) concerning the non-proliferation treaty. The report covers the following issues: The role of the non-proliferation treaty, nuclear disarmament in the last surveillance conference 2010, the different disarmament philosophies, the possibilities of bridging the disagreement, further disarmament options for the future non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle, German options for the future surveillance cycle.

  3. Risk-Based Allowed Outage Time and Surveillance Test Interval Extensions for Angra 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. Orlando Gibelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA is used to evaluate Allowed Outage Times (AOT and Surveillance Test Intervals (STI extensions for three Angra 1 nuclear power plant safety systems. The interest in such an analysis lies on the fact that PSA comprises a risk-based tool for safety evaluation and has been increasingly applied to support both the regulatory and the operational decision-making processes. Regarding Angra 1, among other applications, PSA is meant to be an additional method that can be used by the utility to justify Technical Specification relaxation to the Brazilian regulatory body. The risk measure used in this work is the Core Damage Frequency, obtained from the Angra 1 Level 1 PSA study. AOT and STI extensions are evaluated for the Safety Injection, Service Water and Auxiliary Feedwater Systems using the SAPHIRE code. In order to compensate for the risk increase caused by the extensions, compensatory measures as (1 test of redundant train prior to entering maintenance and (2 staggered test strategy are proposed. Results have shown that the proposed AOT extensions are acceptable for two of the systems with the implementation of compensatory measures whereas STI extensions are acceptable for all three systems.

  4. Radioactive fallout from Chinese nuclear weapons test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.W.; Soldat, J.K.; Silker, W.B.; Perkins, R.W.

    1976-09-26

    Radioactive fallout from this Chinese nuclear test resulted in measurable deposition of short-lived debris over much of the United States. The fallout levels varied by more than 1000-fold and showed significant temporary or spatial fractionation with higher levels of deposition being associated with rain. The particle size with which the airborne debris was associated decreased continuously with time following detonation and a substantial fraction of the {sup 131}I was associated with inorganic and organic gases. The potential radiation dose to an infant consuming milk produced at the location of the highest concentration of {sup 131}I measured on grass was estimated to be {approximately}l rem. This dose is about 50 times the annual dose received in the vicinity of a power reactor operating under the existing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission design guides. The potential upper limit thyroid dose for the population of 17 eastern seaboard states from this single test was estimated to be about 2.4 {times} 10{sup 6} man-thyroid-rem under the assumption that all dairy cows remained on fresh pasture throughout the month following the initial decomposition of fallout debris. This dose is about 200 times the estimated dose from currently operating nuclear power reactors and about 50 times the annual US population thyroid dose that would be received from 500 GWe of nuclear power reactors in the year 2000.

  5. A history of US nuclear testing and its influence on nuclear thought, 1945-1963

    CERN Document Server

    Blades, David M

    2014-01-01

    As states continue to pursue nuclear weaponry, nuclear testing remains an important political issue in the twenty-first century. This survey examines how and why the U.S. conducted nuclear tests from 1945 through 1963 and the resulting influence on key questions from normalization and de-normalization up to the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  6. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) was started in 1955 under the Atomic Energy Commission as project Rover and was assigned to Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Nevada Test Site was selected in 1956 and facility construction began in 1957. The KIWI-A was tested on July 1, 1959 for 5 minutes at 70MW. KIWI-A1 was tested on July 8, 1960 for 6 minutes at 85MW. KIWI-A3 was tested on October 10, 1960 for 5 minutes at 100MW. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was formed in 1958. On August 31, 1960 the AEC and NASA established the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office and named Harold Finger as Director. Immediately following the formation of SNPO, contracts were awarded for the Reactor In Flight Test (RIFT), master plan for the Nuclear Rocket Engine Development Station (NRDS), and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA). From December 7, 1961 to November 30, 1962, the KIWI-B1A, KIWI-B1B, and KIWI-B4A were tested at test cell A. The last two engines were only tested for several seconds before noticeable failure of the fuel elements. Harold Finger called a stop to any further hot fire testing until the problem was well understood. The KIWI-B4A cold flow test showed the problem to be related to fluid dynamics of hydrogen interstitial flow causing fuel element vibrations. President Kennedy visited the NTS one week after the KIWI-B4A failure and got to see the engine starting to be disassembled in the maintenance facility. The KIWI-B4D and KIWI-B4E were modified to not have the vibration problems and were tested in test cell C. The NERVA NRX program started testing in early 1964 with NRX-A1 cold flow test series (unfueled graphite core), NRX-A2 and NRX-A3 power test series up to 1122 MW for 13 minutes. In March 1966, the NRX-EST (Engine System Test) was the first breadboard using flight functional relationship and total operating time of 116 minutes. The NRX-EST demonstrated the feasibility of a hot bleed cycle. The NRX-A5 had multiple start

  7. Dielectric Heaters for Testing Spacecraft Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert; Bitteker, Leo; Godfroy, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A document proposes the development of radio-frequency-(RF)-driven dielectric heaters for non-nuclear thermal testing of the cores of nuclear-fission reactors for spacecraft. Like the electrical-resistance heaters used heretofore for such testing, the dielectric heaters would be inserted in the reactors in place of nuclear fuel rods. A typical heater according to the proposal would consist of a rod of lossy dielectric material sized and shaped like a fuel rod and containing an electrically conductive rod along its center line. Exploiting the dielectric loss mechanism that is usually considered a nuisance in other applications, an RF signal, typically at a frequency .50 MHz and an amplitude between 2 and 5 kV, would be applied to the central conductor to heat the dielectric material. The main advantage of the proposal is that the wiring needed for the RF dielectric heating would be simpler and easier to fabricate than is the wiring needed for resistance heating. In some applications, it might be possible to eliminate all heater wiring and, instead, beam the RF heating power into the dielectric rods from external antennas.

  8. Experimental test of nuclear magnetization distribution and nuclear structure models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beirsdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lopez-Urrutia, J Crespo R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Utter, S. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-02-26

    Models exist that ascribe the nuclear magnetic fields to the presence of a single nucleon whose spin is not neutralized by pairing it up with that of another nucleon; other models assume that the generation of the magnetic field is shared among some or all nucleons throughout the nucleus. All models predict the same magnetic field external to the nucleus since this is an anchor provided by experiments. The models differ, however, in their predictions of the magnetic field arrangement within the nucleus for which no data exist. The only way to distinguish which model gives the correct description of the nucleus would be to use a probe inserted into the nucleus. The goal of our project was to develop exactly such a probe and to use it to measure fundamental nuclear quantities that have eluded experimental scrutiny. The need for accurately knowing such quantities extends far beyond nuclear physics and has ramifications in parity violation experiments on atomic traps and the testing of the standard model in elementary particle physics. Unlike scattering experiments that employ streams of free particles, our technique to probe the internal magnetic field distribution of the nucleus rests on using a single bound electron. Quantum mechanics shows that an electron in the innermost orbital surrounding the nucleus constantly dives into the nucleus and thus samples the fields that exist inside. This sampling of the nucleus usually results in only minute shifts in the electron' s average orbital, which would be difficult to detect. By studying two particular energy states of the electron, we can, however, dramatically enhance the effects of the distribution of the magnetic fields in the nucleus. In fact about 2% of the energy difference between the two states, dubbed the hyperfine splitting, is determined by the effects related to the distribution of magnetic fields in the nucleus, A precise measurement of this energy difference (better than 0.01%) would then allow us to

  9. Components production and assemble of the irradiation capsule of the Surveillance Program of Materials of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde;Fabricacion de componentes y ensamble de la capsula de irradiacion del Programa de Vigilancia de Materiales de la central nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, A. [ININ, Departamento de Tecnologia de Materiales, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    To predict the effects of the neutrons radiation and the thermal environment about the mechanical properties of the reactor vessel materials of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, a surveillance program is implemented according to the outlines settled by Astm E185-02 -Standard practice for design of surveillance programs for light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels-. This program includes the installation of three irradiation capsules of similar materials to those of the reactor vessels, these samples are test tubes for mechanical practices of impact and tension. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research and due to the infrastructure as well as of the actual human resources of the Pilot Plant of Nuclear Fuel Assembles Production it was possible to realize the materials rebuilding extracted in 2005 of Unit 2 of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde as well as the production, assemble and reassignment of the irradiation capsule made in 2006. At the present time the surveillance materials extracted in 2008 of Unit 1 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde are reconstituting and the components are manufactured for the assembles of the irradiation capsule that will be reinstalled in the reactor vessel in 2010. The purpose of the present work is to describe the necessary components as well as its disposition during the assembles of the irradiation capsule for the surveillance program of the reactors vessel of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  10. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and Allowed Outage Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Moo Seong; Cheong, Chang Hyeon; Ryu, Yeong Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Heo, Chang Wook; Kim, Do Hyeong; Kim, Joo Yeol; Kim, Yun Ik; Yang, Hei Chang [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    Objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assesses the optimization of Surveillance Test Interval(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korean nuclear power plants safety. In the first year of this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modeling and results performed by domestic and international researches are performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method. In the second year of this study, the sensitivity analyses about the failure factors of the components are performed in the bases of the assessment methodologies of the first study, the interaction modeling of the STI and AOT is quantified. And the reliability assessment methodology about the diesel generator is reviewed and applied to the PSA code.

  11. Social living environment of population in the surveillance area of Rivne nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilipko, V A; Ozerova, Iu Iu; Morozova, M M; Shevchenko, K K

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the key factors of social well-being of the population in surveillance zone Rivne NPP. Materials and methods. Sociological, hygienic and mathematical methods i.e. comparison of generalized performance characteristics such as relative and average values, expression of interactions between factors using a pairwise correlation (r) were used in the paper. A questionnaire was developed for the public opinion polls with independent blocks of issues: the study of living environment/conditions through the assay of adequacy of ten major areas of life, assessment of satisfaction with the quality of life in household sphere and components and cost items of family budget, satisfaction level of medical care, "Integral Index of Social Well-being" Test (IISW). The sample was representative by age and gender for population of the surveillance zone of Rivne NPP (n=220, 6.7% sampling error). Results. According to opinion polls there is a negative impact on social well-being of low sufficiency in issues of socio-political life, social security and social relations. More than a half of population feels no any socio-economic compensation for the risk of Rivne NPP function in their daily lives. The overall satisfaction index in recreational and cultural sphere is close to the national average value, which may indirectly indicate to a positive impact of subventions to the social infrastructure of surveillance zone. However, satisfaction of population in the required medical care is extremely low, as is the case throughout Ukraine, due to several factors, such as lack of specialists, poor providing with essential medicines, and high cost of medicines. Conclusions. The list of benefits and compensations associated with living near the functioning NPP needs improvement and coordination with opinion of local communities. Their implementation at that needs a permanent information support. Some links are established between areas that are

  12. Studies of Health Effects from Nuclear Testing near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Grosche

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear bomb testing conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan is of great importance for today’s radiation protection research, particularly in the area of low dose exposures. This type of radiation is of particular interest due to the lack of research in this field and how it impacts population health. In order to understand the possible health effects of nuclear bomb testing, it is important to determine what studies have been conducted on the effects of low dose exposure and dosimetry, and evaluate new epidemiologic data and biological material collected from populations living in proximity to the test site. With time, new epidemiological data has been made available, and it is possible that these data may be linked to biological samples. Next to linking existing and newly available data to examine health effects, the existing dosimetry system needs to be expanded and further developed to include residential areas, which have not yet been taken into account. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of previous studies evaluating the health effects of nuclear testing, including some information on dosimetry efforts, and pointing out directions for future epidemiologic studies.

  13. Testing the Nuclear Will of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    better to continue to develop Japan’s economy . If Japan were to develop nuclear weapons, the fear was that it would damage trade relations with more...Tokyo, Kure, and Osaka universities.24 The knowledge gained from the Japanese scientists was invaluable as they had either studied nuclear technology...rested on the United States; and (4) Japan’s economy could not support the development of nuclear weapons. The main point of this chapter draws out

  14. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Offer Tools for Nuclear Testing—and Solving Nuclear Mysteries ,” Washington Post, November 1, 2011, p. 1. Horovitz, Liviu, “A Detour Strategy for the...Today, October 2009, pp. 46-52. Kimball, Daryl, “Reconsidering the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: Sorting Fact from Fiction ,” Arms Control Association

  15. Surface Disturbances at the Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site: Another Indicator of Nuclear Testing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabian, Frank V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coblentz, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-02-03

    A review of available very high-resolution commercial satellite imagery (bracketing the time of North Korea’s most recent underground nuclear test on 9 September 2016 at the Punggye-ri Underground Nuclear Test Site) has led to the detection and identification of several minor surface disturbances on the southern flank of Mt. Mantap. These surface disturbances occur in the form of small landslides, either alone or together with small zones of disturbed bare rock that appear to have been vertically lofted (“spalled”) as a result of the most recent underground explosion. Typically, spall can be uniquely attributed to underground nuclear testing and is not a result of natural processes. However, given the time gap of up to three months between images (pre- and post-event), which was coincident with a period of heavy typhoon flooding in the area1, it is not possible to determine whether the small landslides were exclusively explosion induced, the consequence of heavy rainfall erosion, or some combination of the two.

  16. Nuclear Analyses of Indian LLCB Test Blanket System in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, H. L.; Shaw, A. K.; Danani, C.; Chaudhuri, Paritosh

    2017-04-01

    Heading towards the Nuclear Fusion Reactor Program, India is developing Lead Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) tritium breeding blanket for its future fusion Reactor. A mock-up of the LLCB blanket is proposed to be tested in ITER equatorial port no.2, to ensure the overall performance of blanket in reactor relevant nuclear fusion environment. Nuclear analyses play an important role in LLCB Test Blanket System design & development. It is required for tritium breeding estimation, thermal-hydraulic design, coolants process design, radioactive waste management, equipment maintenance & replacement strategies and nuclear safety. The nuclear behaviour of LLCB test blanket module in ITER is predicated in terms of nuclear responses such as tritium production, nuclear heating, neutron fluxes and radiation damages. Radiation shielding capability of LLCB TBS inside and outside bio-shield was also assessed to fulfill ITER shielding requirements. In order to supports the rad-waste and safety assessment, nuclear activation analyses were carried out and radioactivity data were generated for LLCB TBS components. Nuclear analyses of LLCB TBS are performed using ITER recommended nuclear analyses codes (i.e. MCNP, EASY), nuclear cross section data libraries (i.e. FENDL 2.1, EAF) and neutronic model (ITER C-lite v.l). The paper describes a comprehensive nuclear performance of LLCB TBS in ITER.

  17. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the senate, authorizing the approval of the agreement between the French government and the preliminary commission of the organization of the nuclear test ban treaty, about the conduct of the activities relative to the international control facilities, including the post-certification activities; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de Loi, adopte par le Senat, autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et la Commission preparatoire de l'organisation du traite d'interdiction complete des essais nucleaires sur la conduite des activites relatives aux installations de surveillance international, y compris les activites posterieures a la certification (ensemble une annexe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, R

    2003-12-01

    France and the preliminary commission of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty organization (CTBTO) concluded on July 13, 2001, an agreement about the conduct of the activities relative to the international surveillance facilities. This agreement aims at organizing the modalities of implementation of the surveillance activities carried out by the technical secretariat of the preliminary committee of CTBTO in the French territory. This document is the report of the French national assembly about the project of law for the approval of this agreement. It presents the difficult implementation of an international test ban system, the French commitment in the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT), and the main dispositions of the agreement of July 13, 2001. (J.S.)

  18. The advisability of prototypic testing for space nuclear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, Roger X.

    2005-07-01

    From October 1987 until 1993, the US Department of Defense conducted the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program. This program's objective was to design and develop a high specific impulse, high thrust-to-weight nuclear thermal rocket engine for upper stage applications. The author was the program manager for this program until 1992. Numerous analytical, programmatic and experimental results were generated during this period of time. This paper reviews the accomplishments of the program and highlights the importance of prototypic testing for all aspects of a space nuclear program so that a reliable and safe system compliant with all regulatory requirements can be effectively engineered. Specifically, the paper will recount how many non-prototypic tests we performed only to have more representative tests consistently generate different results. This was particularly true in area of direct nuclear heat generation. As nuclear tests are generally much more expensive than non-nuclear tests, programs attempt to avoid such tests in favor of less expensive non-nuclear tests. Each time this approach was followed, the SNTP program found these tests to not be verified by nuclear heated testing. Hence the author recommends that wherever possible, a spiral development approach that includes exploratory and confirmatory experimental testing be employed to ensure a viable design.

  19. Acoustic emission monitoring of hot functional testing: Watts Bar Unit 1 Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, P.H.; Dawson, J.F.; Friesel, M.A.; Harris, J.C.; Pappas, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of selected pressure boundary areas at TVA's Watts Bar, Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant during hot functional preservice testing is described in this report. The report deals with background, methodology, and results. The work discussed here is a major milestone in a program supported by NRC to develop and demonstrate application of AE monitoring for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate growing flaws. The subject work demonstrated that anticipated problem areas can be overcome. Work is continuing toward AE monitoring during reactor operation.

  20. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities Subpanel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, George C.; Warren, John W.; Martinell, John; Clark, John S.; Perkins, David

    1993-04-01

    On 20 Jul. 1989, in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President George Bush proclaimed his vision for manned space exploration. He stated, 'First for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space Station Freedom, the next critical step in our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then, a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars.' On 2 Nov. 1989, the President approved a national space policy reaffirming the long range goal of the civil space program: to 'expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.' And on 11 May 1990, he specified the goal of landing Astronauts on Mars by 2019, the 50th anniversary of man's first steps on the Moon. To safely and ever permanently venture beyond near Earth environment as charged by the President, mankind must bring to bear extensive new technologies. These include heavy lift launch capability from Earth to low-Earth orbit, automated space rendezvous and docking of large masses, zero gravity countermeasures, and closed loop life support systems. One technology enhancing, and perhaps enabling, the piloted Mars missions is nuclear propulsion, with great benefits over chemical propulsion. Asserting the potential benefits of nuclear propulsion, NASA has sponsored workshops in Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and has initiated a tri-agency planning process to ensure that appropriate resources are engaged to meet this exciting technical challenge. At the core of this planning process, NASA, DOE, and DOD established six Nuclear Propulsion Technical Panels in 1991 to provide groundwork for a possible tri-agency Nuclear Propulsion Program and to address the President's vision by advocating an aggressive program in nuclear propulsion. To this end the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel has focused it energies; this final report

  1. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities Subpanel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, George C.; Warren, John W.; Martinell, John; Clark, John S.; Perkins, David

    1993-01-01

    On 20 Jul. 1989, in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President George Bush proclaimed his vision for manned space exploration. He stated, 'First for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space Station Freedom, the next critical step in our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then, a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars.' On 2 Nov. 1989, the President approved a national space policy reaffirming the long range goal of the civil space program: to 'expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.' And on 11 May 1990, he specified the goal of landing Astronauts on Mars by 2019, the 50th anniversary of man's first steps on the Moon. To safely and ever permanently venture beyond near Earth environment as charged by the President, mankind must bring to bear extensive new technologies. These include heavy lift launch capability from Earth to low-Earth orbit, automated space rendezvous and docking of large masses, zero gravity countermeasures, and closed loop life support systems. One technology enhancing, and perhaps enabling, the piloted Mars missions is nuclear propulsion, with great benefits over chemical propulsion. Asserting the potential benefits of nuclear propulsion, NASA has sponsored workshops in Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and has initiated a tri-agency planning process to ensure that appropriate resources are engaged to meet this exciting technical challenge. At the core of this planning process, NASA, DOE, and DOD established six Nuclear Propulsion Technical Panels in 1991 to provide groundwork for a possible tri-agency Nuclear Propulsion Program and to address the President's vision by advocating an aggressive program in nuclear propulsion. To this end the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel has focused it energies; this final report

  2. United States nuclear tests, July 1945 through September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air.

  3. Recent irradiation tests for future nuclear system at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Yang, Seong Woo; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The capsule at HANARO is a device that evaluates the irradiation effects of nuclear materials and fuels, which can reproduce the environment of nuclear power plants and accelerate to reach to the end of life condition. As the integrity assessment and the extension of lifetime of nuclear power plants are recently considered as important issues in Korea, the requirements for irradiation test are gradually being increased. The capacity and capability irradiation tests at HANARO are becoming important because Korea strives to develop SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) and VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) among the future nuclear system and to export the research reactors and to develop the fusion reactor technology.

  4. Sensitivity of surveillance testing for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Jessica P; Peterson, Lance R; Thomson, Richard B; Miller, Becky A; Wright, Marc-Oliver; Schora, Donna M; Robicsek, Ari

    2014-11-01

    We tested intensive care unit patients for colonization with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) and compared the results with those of concurrent clinical cultures. The sensitivity of the surveillance test for detecting MDR GNB was 58.8% (95% confidence interval, 48.6 to 68.5%). Among 133 patients with positive surveillance tests, 61% had no prior clinical culture with MDR GNB.

  5. Initial test and evaluation of the millimeter-wave holographic surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Schur, Anne; Harris, Wyllona M.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    1997-01-01

    A test and evaluation pilot study was conducted in January 1996 at Sea-Tac International Airport in Seattle, Washington to determine the initial effectiveness of the Millimeter- wave Holographic Weapons Surveillance System. This is a new personnel surveillance systems for the detection of concealed metal, plastic, and ceramic weapons and other threatening materials. Two different frequency bands were used in the study: Ku band and Ka band. Over 7000 Millimeter-wave (MM-wave) holographic images were obtained on 21 different models. The 7000 images were used to produce simulated real-time surveillance system videos. The videos were constructed by obtaining 36 images of the models at 10 degree increments for 360 degree coverage. A library of two hundred videos were produced for this pilot study: 100 at Ku band and 100 at Ka band. The videos contained either a threat or no threat. The threats were concealed at different locations on the models. Various innocuous items and different clothing combinations were also used n the construction of these videos. Twenty-nine certified Sea-Tac screeners were used in the initial test and evaluation of this new surveillance technology. Each screener viewed 160 MM-wave videos: 80 Ku band and 80 Ka band. The ratio of non- threat to threat videos per band was three to one. Test and evaluation software was developed to collect data from the screeners on-line for the type and location of threat detected. The primary measures of screener performance used to evaluate this new technology included, the probability of detection, the probability of a false alarm, measures of screener sensitivity and bias, and threat detection time.

  6. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David F.; Allen, George C.; Shipers, Larry R.; Dobranich, Dean; Ottinger, Cathy A.; Harmon, Charles D.; Fan, Wesley C.; Todosow, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized.

  7. Study on Different Crossover Mechanisms of Genetic Algorithm for Test Interval Optimization for Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Mehra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance tests are performed periodically on standby systems of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP, as they improve the systems’ availability on demand. High availability of safety critical systems is very essential to NPP safety, hence, careful analysis is required to schedule the surveillance activities for such systems in a cost effective way without compromising the plant safety. This forms an optimization problem wherein, two different cases can be formulated for deciding the value of Surveillance Test Interval. In one case, cost is the objective function to be minimized while unavailability is constrained to be at a given level and in another case, unavailability is minimized for a given cost level. Here, optimization is done using Genetic Algorithm (GA and real encoding has been employed as it caters well to the requirements of this problem. A detailed procedure for GA formulation is described in this paper. Two different crossover methods, arithmetical crossover and blend crossover are explored and compared in this study to arrive at the most suitable crossover method for such type of problems.

  8. Leak test of the charcoal filter in the nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Lee, Key Soon; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Oh, Yon Woo; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Choo, Yong Sun; Kim, Sung Jung

    1998-06-01

    In the heating, ventilation and air conditioning(HVAC) system, pre-filter, HEPA(high efficiency particle air) filter and charcoal filter are instrumented in order to filter off the radioactive substance in the nuclear facility. Equipment of the charcoal filter off the radioactive substance in the nuclear facility. Equipment of the charcoal filter at the hot cell where manipulates the nuclear fuel irradiated in the nuclear reactor is essential for shutting off the leakage of the radioiodine which is produced from the cutting procedures of nuclear fuel. Also, the leak test of installed filter should be performed perfectly. In addition, charcoal filter is instrumented to filter the radioactive gas such as radioiodine which is produced in the nuclear facility. In this technical report, the theoretical discussion, the experimental procedures and the precautions of the leak test of charcoal filter are described. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Managing genetic tests, surveillance, and preventive medicine under a public health insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova-Neumann, Lilia; Hoy, Michael

    2014-03-01

    There is a prospect in the medium to long term future of substantial advancements in the understanding of the relationship between disease and genetics. We consider the implications of increased information from genetic tests about predisposition to diseases from the perspective of managing health care provision under a public health insurance scheme. In particular, we consider how such information may potentially improve the targeting of medical surveillance (or prevention) activities to improve the chances of early detection of disease onset. We show that the moral hazard implications inherent in surveillance and prevention decisions that are chosen to be privately rather than socially optimal may be exacerbated by increased information about person-specific predisposition to disease.

  10. [Evaluation of the test results on hepatitis B pilot surveillance labortory in 9 provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-zhen; Cui, Fu-qiang; Gong, Xiao-hong

    2010-06-01

    To assess the test quality of HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HAV IgM in the laboratories of Hepatitis B pilot surveillance provinces. Blood serum from each of the Hepatitis B pilot surveillance provinces were collected to verify the test results. The Chemiluminescence Microparticle Immuno Assay (CMIA), ARCHITECT i2000 automatic light detector and test reagents produced by U.S.A. Abbott corporation were used in the retest. Using the Abbott reagent CMIA test results as the criteria, the domestic made ELISA reagents sensitivity, specificity, the total coincidence rate and Yoden index of HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HAV IgM were evaluated in Hepatitis B pilot surveillance provinces. In the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) reported Hepatitis B cases, the proportion of detecting HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM was 98.53% and 39.49% respectively. Through the verification test to the reported cases in Hepatitis B pilot surveillance provinces, the original and veritication diagnosis 01 the reported eases was quite different. Among 197 acute Hepatitis B reported cases, 56 cases were agreeable with diagnosis cretirea, accounting for 28.42%. Among 1046 chronic Hepatitis B reported cases, the verification diagnosis of 602 cases was consistent with the original diagnosis, accounting for 57.55%. By using Abbott reagent and CMIA method to test again, it was found that the verification test results using domesticmade reagent and ELISA assay were low consistency compared with the test results of Abbott reagent CMIA method. The detection result of home-made reagents by ELISA compared with the Abbott reagents CMIA, the sensitivity and the total coincidence rate of HBsAg were over 95%, Kappa value was 0.439, and specificity was only 50.00%. The sensitivity, the total coincidence rate and the specificity of Anti-HBc IgM were moderate level, Kappa value was 0.516. The sensitivity of Anti-HAV IgM were 20%, and the total coincidence and specificity were higher, Kappa value was 0

  11. Nuclear Thermal and Blast Hardness Validation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-03

    testing and subassemblies, components, and coupons are used to conduct thermal testing . Test coupons must be representative of the exposed area on...enclosure. 3.2.2 Data instrumentation for the thermal test should include thermocouples to measure the free field, test item (usually coupons...applicable, and perform final checkouts. f. Perform the thermal test and record data and video of the test item response. g. Once it is safe to

  12. Environmental surveillance status and assessment of the marking of ground waters and waterways around nuclear sites and radioactive waste old warehousing sites. Report for the High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety; Etat de la surveillance environnementale et bilan du marquage des nappes phreatiques et des cours d'eau autour des sites nucleaires et des entreposages anciens de dechets radioactifs. Rapport pour le Haut comite pour la transparence et l'information sur la securite nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    After a recall of the general objectives of environment radioactivity surveillance (notions about origin and behaviour of radioactive species in the environment, role of surveillance), this report describes the environment surveillance organisation and the investigations performed by the IRSN. It presents an overview of the current knowledge of the radiological status around the various French nuclear sites (radioactive effluent rejections, nuclear waste old warehousing sites, surface waters and soils, ground waters). It recalls and describes how surveillance results are published by the different involved parties. Each site is more precisely presented in appendix with its geological context, its surveillance equipment and results.

  13. Uptake of genetic testing and long-term tumor surveillance in von Hippel-Lindau disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez Mireya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by germline mutations in the VHL gene. Patients have significant morbidity and mortality secondary to vascular tumors. Disease management is centered on tumor surveillance that allows early detection and treatment. Presymptomatic genetic testing is therefore recommended, including in at-risk children. Methods We tested 17 families (n = 109 individuals for VHL mutations including 43 children under the age of 18. Personalized genetic counseling was provided pre and post-test and the individuals undergoing presymptomatic testing filled out questionnaires gathering socio-demographic, psychological and psychiatric data. Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of the VHL gene. Mutation-carriers were screened for VHL disease-related tumors and were offered follow-up annual examinations. Results Mutations were identified in 36 patients, 17 of whom were asymptomatic. In the initial screening, we identified at least one tumor in five of 17 previously asymptomatic individuals. At the end of five years, only 38.9% of the mutation-carriers continued participating in our tumor surveillance program. During this time, 14 mutation carriers developed a total of 32 new tumors, three of whom died of complications. Gender, education, income, marital status and religiosity were not found to be associated with adherence to the surveillance protocol. Follow-up adherence was also independent of pre-test depression, severity of disease, or number of affected family members. The only statistically significant predictor of adherence was being symptomatic at the time of testing (OR = 5; 95% CI 1.2 - 20.3; p = 0.02. Pre-test anxiety was more commonly observed in patients that discontinued follow-up (64.7% vs. 35.3%; p = 0.01. Conclusions The high initial uptake rate of genetic testing for VHL disease, including in minors, allowed the discontinuation of unnecessary screening

  14. Operation Grenadier. Onsite radiological safety report for announced nuclear tests, October 1984-September 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, O.W.; Eubank, B.F.

    1986-09-01

    Grenadier was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site from October 1, 1984 through September 30, 1985. This report includes those experiments publicly announced. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear experiment by a telemetry system. Monitors with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeros before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene coverage was provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific operational procedures are defined.

  15. Composite sequential Monte Carlo test for post-market vaccine safety surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ivair R

    2016-04-30

    Group sequential hypothesis testing is now widely used to analyze prospective data. If Monte Carlo simulation is used to construct the signaling threshold, the challenge is how to manage the type I error probability for each one of the multiple tests without losing control on the overall significance level. This paper introduces a valid method for a true management of the alpha spending at each one of a sequence of Monte Carlo tests. The method also enables the use of a sequential simulation strategy for each Monte Carlo test, which is useful for saving computational execution time. Thus, the proposed procedure allows for sequential Monte Carlo test in sequential analysis, and this is the reason that it is called 'composite sequential' test. An upper bound for the potential power losses from the proposed method is deduced. The composite sequential design is illustrated through an application for post-market vaccine safety surveillance data.

  16. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  17. Potential Biases Introduced by Conflating Screening and Diagnostic Testing in Colorectal Cancer Screening Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Elizabeth A; Griffith, Derek M; West, Brady T; Janz, Nancy K; Resnicow, Ken; Morris, Arden M

    2015-12-01

    Screening and postsymptomatic diagnostic testing are often conflated in cancer screening surveillance research. We examined the error in estimated colorectal cancer screening prevalence due to the conflation of screening and diagnostic testing. Using data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey, we compared weighted prevalence estimates of the use of all testing (screening and diagnostic) and screening in at-risk adults and calculated the overestimation of screening prevalence across sociodemographic groups. The population screening prevalence was overestimated by 23.3%, and the level of overestimation varied widely across sociodemographic groups (median, 22.6%; mean, 24.8%). The highest levels of overestimation were in non-Hispanic white females (27.4%), adults ages 50-54 years (32.0%), and those with the highest socioeconomic vulnerability [low educational attainment (31.3%), low poverty ratio (32.5%), no usual source of health care (54.4%), and not insured (51.6%); all P colorectal cancer screening prevalence was overestimated, and patterns of overestimation often aligned with social and economic vulnerability. These results are of concern to researchers who use survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess cancer screening behaviors, as it is currently not designed to distinguish diagnostic testing from screening. Surveillance research in cancer screening that does not consider the impetus for testing risks measurement error of screening prevalence, impeding progress toward improving population health. Ultimately, to craft relevant screening benchmarks and interventions, we must look beyond "what" and "when" and include "why." ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals at a former nuclear weapons plant: piloting of an exposure surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    Cleanup of former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facilities involves potential exposures to various hazardous chemicals. We have collaboratively developed and piloted an exposure database and surveillance system for cleanup worker hazardous chemical exposure data with a cleanup contractor at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A unique system feature is the incorporation of a 34-category work task-coding scheme. This report presents an overview of the data captured by this system during development and piloting from March 1995 through August 1998. All air samples collected were entered into the system. Of the 859 breathing zone samples collected, 103 unique employees and 39 unique compounds were represented. Breathing zone exposure levels were usually low (86% of breathing zone samples were below analytical limits of detection). The use of respirators and other exposure controls was high (87 and 88%, respectively). Occasional high-level excursions did occur. Detailed quantitative summaries are provided for the six most monitored compounds: asbestos, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, lead, and methylene chloride. Task and job title data were successfully collected for most samples, and showed specific cleanup activities by pipe fitters to be the most commonly represented in the database. Importantly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the implementation of integrated exposure database and surveillance systems by practicing industrial hygienists employed in industry as well as the preventive potential and research uses of such systems. This exposure database and surveillance system--the central features of which are applicable in any industrial work setting--has enabled one of the first systematic quantitative characterizations of DOE cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals.

  19. Nuclear instrumentation system operating experience and nuclear instrument testing in the EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yingling, G. E.; Curran, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    In March of 1972 three wide range nuclear channels were purchased from Gulf Atomics Corporation and installed in EBR-II as a test. The three channels were operated as a test until April 1975 when they became a permanent part of the reactor shutdown system. Also described are the activities involved in evaluating and qualifying neutron detectors for LMFBR applications. Included are descriptions of the ANL Components Technology Division Test Program and the EBR-II Nuclear Instrument Test Facilities (NITF) used for the in-reactor testing and a summary of program test results from EBR-II.

  20. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Thomas, Jr.

    2014-05-01

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a "threat to peace and security", in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  1. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases.......Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel test...... interpretation and a positive dependence in test specificity reduces the specificity of serial interpretation. We calculate conditional covariances as a measure of dependence between binary tests and show their relationship to kappa (a chance-corrected measure of test agreement). We use published data...

  2. Risk factors for changing test classification in the Danish surveillance program for Salmonella in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lennarth Ravn; Warnick, L. D.; Greiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    A surveillance program in which all cattle herds in Denmark are classified into Salmonella infection categories has been in place since 2002. Dairy herds were considered test negative and thus most likely free of infection if Salmonella antibody measurements were consistently low in bulk tank milk...... samples collected every 3 mo. Herds were considered test positive and thus most likely infected if the 4-quarter moving average bulk tank milk antibody concentration was high or if there was a large increase in the most recent measurement compared with the average value from the previous 3 samples....... The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for changing from test negative to positive, which was indicative of herds becoming infected from one quarter of the year to the next, and risk factors for changing from test positive to negative, which was indicative of herds recovering from infection...

  3. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  4. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  5. Nuclear thermal propulsion test facility requirements and development strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, George C.; Warren, John; Clark, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) subpanel of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Test Facilities Panel evaluated facility requirements and strategies for nuclear thermal propulsion systems development. High pressure, solid core concepts were considered as the baseline for the evaluation, with low pressure concepts an alternative. The work of the NTP subpanel revealed that a wealth of facilities already exists to support NTP development, and that only a few new facilities must be constructed. Some modifications to existing facilities will be required. Present funding emphasis should be on long-lead-time items for the major new ground test facility complex and on facilities supporting nuclear fuel development, hot hydrogen flow test facilities, and low power critical facilities.

  6. Tritium as an indicator of venues for nuclear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Mulgin, S I; Zhdanov, S V

    2013-10-01

    Currently, due to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons there is a highly topical issue of an accurate verification of nuclear explosion venues. This paper proposes to consider new method for verification by using tritium as an indicator. Detailed studies of the tritium content in the air were carried in the locations of underground nuclear tests - "Balapan" and "Degelen" testing sites located in Semipalatinsk Test Site. The paper presents data on the levels and distribution of tritium in the air where tunnels and boreholes are located - explosion epicentres, wellheads and tunnel portals, as well as in estuarine areas of the venues for the underground nuclear explosions (UNE). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear thermal propulsion test facility requirements and development strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, George C.; Clark, John S.; Warren, John; Perkins, David R.; Martinell, John

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) subpanel of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Test Facilities Panel evaluated facility requirements and strategies for nuclear thermal propulsion systems development. High pressure, solid core concepts were considered as the baseline for the evaluation, with low pressure concepts an alternative. The work of the NTP subpanel revealed that a wealth of facilities already exists to support NTP development, and that only a few new facilities must be constructed. Some modifications to existing facilities will be required. Present funding emphasis should be on long-lead-time items for the major new ground test facility complex and on facilities supporting nuclear fuel development, hot hydrogen flow test facilities, and low power critical facilities.

  8. Dissecting mechanisms of nuclear mRNA surveillance in THO/sub2 complex mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rougemaille, Mathieu; Gudipati, Rajani K; Olesen, Jens Raabjerg

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear exosome is involved in numerous RNA metabolic processes. Exosome degradation of rRNA, snoRNA, snRNA and tRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated by TRAMP complexes, containing either the Trf4p or Trf5p poly(A) polymerase. These enzymes are presumed to facilitate exosome access...

  9. Initial Nuclear Radiation Hardness Validation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-03

    Test Business Management Division (TEDT-TMB) US Army Developmental Test Command 314 Longs Corner Road Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5055 11...Above Increase in VCE (Sat) Logic Devices TTL 10K - Above Not concern @ tactical GTD levels Memory - DRAM CMOS 3K – Above Data corruption and shift in...1E13 Not concern @ tactical NF levels Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) IGBT 8E11 - Above Increase in VCE (Sat) Logic Devices TTL > 1E13

  10. Performance tests for integral reactor nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Dong-Seong; Yim, Jeong-Sik; Lee, Chong-Tak; Kim, Han-Soo; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ho; Cheon, Jin-Sik; Oh, Je-Yong

    2006-02-15

    An integral type reactor SMART plans to utilize metallic Zr-U fuel which is Zr-based alloy with 34{approx}38 wt% U. In order to verify the technologies for the design and manufacturing of the fuel and get a license, performance tests were carried out. Experimental Fuel Assembly (EFA) manufactured in KAERI is being successfully irradiated in the MIR reactor of RIAR from September 4 2004, and it has achieved burnup of 0.21 g/cc as of January 25 2006. Thermal properties of irradiated Zr-U fuel were measured. Up to the phase transformation temperature, thermal diffusivity increased linearly in proportion to temperature. However its dependence on the burnup was not significant. RIA tests with 4 unirradiated Zr-U fuel rods were performed in Kurchatov Institute to establish a safety criterion. In the case of the un-irradiated Zr-U fuel, the energy deposition during the control rod ejection accident should be less than 172 cal/g to prevent the failure accompanying fuel fragmentation and dispersal. Finally the irradiation tests of fuel rods have been performed at HANARO. The HITE-2 test was successfully completed up to a burnup of 0.31 g/cc. The HITE-3 test began in February 2004 and will be continued up to a target burnup of 0.6 g/cc.

  11. Surveillance system for DUPIC fuel development facility (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. D.; Park, C. S.; Cha, H. R.; Hong, J. S.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    DUPIC Surveillance System is developed to process image data and radiation data together to diagnose intelligently the transportation status of the nuclear material, which makes it possible that usual DUPIC process be carried out without interruption under the surveillance. We developed the neutron monitor for surveillance and the system which takes and processes radiation data and image data, where the system is under the test operation after installed at DFDF (Dupic Fuel Development Facility)

  12. Reliability of case definitions for public health surveillance assessed by Round-Robin test methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Hermann

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case definitions have been recognized to be important elements of public health surveillance systems. They are to assure comparability and consistency of surveillance data and have crucial impact on the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of a surveillance system. The reliability of case definitions has rarely been investigated systematically. Methods We conducted a Round-Robin test by asking all 425 local health departments (LHD and the 16 state health departments (SHD in Germany to classify a selection of 68 case examples using case definitions. By multivariate analysis we investigated factors linked to classification agreement with a gold standard, which was defined by an expert panel. Results A total of 7870 classifications were done by 396 LHD (93% and all SHD. Reporting sensitivity was 90.0%, positive predictive value 76.6%. Polio case examples had the lowest reporting precision, salmonellosis case examples the highest (OR = 0.008; CI: 0.005–0.013. Case definitions with a check-list format of clinical criteria resulted in higher reporting precision than case definitions with a narrative description (OR = 3.08; CI: 2.47–3.83. Reporting precision was higher among SHD compared to LHD (OR = 1.52; CI: 1.14–2.02. Conclusion Our findings led to a systematic revision of the German case definitions and build the basis for general recommendations for the creation of case definitions. These include, among others, that testable yes/no criteria in a check-list format is likely to improve reliability, and that software used for data transmission should be designed in strict accordance with the case definitions. The findings of this study are largely applicable to case definitions in many other countries or international networks as they share the same structural and editorial characteristics of the case definitions evaluated in this study before their revision.

  13. Nuclear Test-Experimental Science: Annual report, fiscal year 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Donohue, M.L.; Bucciarelli, G.; Hymer, J.D.; Kirvel, R.D.; Middleton, C.; Prono, J.; Reid, S.; Strack, B. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Fiscal year 1988 has been a significant, rewarding, and exciting period for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's nuclear testing program. It was significant in that the Laboratory's new director chose to focus strongly on the program's activities and to commit to a revitalized emphasis on testing and the experimental science that underlies it. It was rewarding in that revolutionary new measurement techniques were fielded on recent important and highly complicated underground nuclear tests with truly incredible results. And it was exciting in that the sophisticated and fundamental problems of weapons science that are now being addressed experimentally are yielding new challenges and understanding in ways that stimulate and reward the brightest and best of scientists. During FY88 the program was reorganized to emphasize our commitment to experimental science. The name of the program was changed to reflect this commitment, becoming the Nuclear Test-Experimental Science (NTES) Program.

  14. Task force for integral test of High Energy nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    According to completion of the JENDL-High Energy file for neutron nuclear cross sections up to 50 MeV, a task force for integral test of high energy nuclear data was organized to discuss a guide line for integral test activities. A status of existing differential and integral experiments and how to perform such a test were discussed in the task force. Here the purpose and outline of the task force is explained with some future problems raised in discussion among the task member. (author)

  15. A labelled discrete choice experiment adds realism to the choices presented: preferences for surveillance tests for Barrett esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donkers Bas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrete choice experiments (DCEs allow systematic assessment of preferences by asking respondents to choose between scenarios. We conducted a labelled discrete choice experiment with realistic choices to investigate patients' trade-offs between the expected health gains and the burden of testing in surveillance of Barrett esophagus (BE. Methods Fifteen choice scenarios were selected based on 2 attributes: 1 type of test (endoscopy and two less burdensome fictitious tests, 2 frequency of surveillance. Each test-frequency combination was associated with its own realistic decrease in risk of dying from esophageal adenocarcinoma. A conditional logit model was fitted. Results Of 297 eligible patients (155 BE and 142 with non-specific upper GI symptoms, 247 completed the questionnaire (84%. Patients preferred surveillance to no surveillance. Current surveillance schemes of once every 1–2 years were amongst the most preferred alternatives. Higher health gains were preferred over those with lower health gains, except when test frequencies exceeded once a year. For similar health gains, patients preferred video-capsule over saliva swab and least preferred endoscopy. Conclusion This first example of a labelled DCE using realistic scenarios in a healthcare context shows that such experiments are feasible. A comparison of labelled and unlabelled designs taking into account setting and research question is recommended.

  16. Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Helium Accumulation Fluence Monitors for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E706 (IIIC)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the concept and use of helium accumulation for neutron fluence dosimetry for reactor vessel surveillance. Although this test method is directed toward applications in vessel surveillance, the concepts and techniques are equally applicable to the general field of neutron dosimetry. The various applications of this test method for reactor vessel surveillance are as follows: 1.1.1 Helium accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) capsules, 1.1.2 Unencapsulated, or cadmium or gadolinium covered, radiometric monitors (RM) and HAFM wires for helium analysis, 1.1.3 Charpy test block samples for helium accumulation, and 1.1.4 Reactor vessel (RV) wall samples for helium accumulation. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Enhanced surveillance program FY1998 accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, J

    1998-10-01

    This report highlights the accomplishments of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP), the highest-priority research and development effort in stockpile management today. This is volume one of eleven, the unclassified summary of selected program highlights. These highlights fall into the following focus areas: pits, high explosives, organics, dynamics, diagnostics, systems, secondaries, materials-aging models, non-nuclear components, and routine surveillance testing system upgrades. Principal investigators from around the DOE complex contributed to this report.

  18. The Nuclear Orphan Receptor NR2F6 Is a Central Checkpoint for Cancer Immune Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Hermann-Kleiter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 6 (NR2F6 is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Here, we show that genetic ablation of Nr2f6 significantly improves survival in the murine transgenic TRAMP prostate cancer model. Furthermore, Nr2f6−/− mice spontaneously reject implanted tumors and develop host-protective immunological memory against tumor rechallenge. This is paralleled by increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and higher expression levels of interleukin 2 and interferon γ at the tumor site. Mechanistically, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-intrinsic NR2F6 acts as a direct repressor of the NFAT/AP-1 complex on both the interleukin 2 and the interferon γ cytokine promoters, attenuating their transcriptional thresholds. Adoptive transfer of Nr2f6-deficient T cells into tumor-bearing immunocompetent mice is sufficient to delay tumor outgrowth. Altogether, this defines NR2F6 as an intracellular immune checkpoint in effector T cells, governing the amplitude of anti-cancer immunity.

  19. Ground-based remote sensing profiling and numerical weather prediction model to manage nuclear power plants meteorological surveillance in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Calpini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The meteorological surveillance of the four nuclear power plants in Switzerland is of first importance in a densely populated area such as the Swiss Plateau. The project "Centrales Nucléaires et Météorologie" CN-MET aimed at providing a new security tool based on one hand on the development of a high resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP model. The latter is providing essential nowcasting information in case of a radioactive release from a nuclear power plant in Switzerland. On the other hand, the model input over the Swiss Plateau is generated by a dedicated network of surface and upper air observations including remote sensing instruments (wind profilers and temperature/humidity passive microwave radiometers. This network is built upon three main sites ideally located for measuring the inflow/outflow and central conditions of the main wind field in the planetary boundary layer over the Swiss Plateau, as well as a number of surface automatic weather stations (AWS. The network data are assimilated in real-time into the fine grid NWP model using a rapid update cycle of eight runs per day (one forecast every three hours. This high resolution NWP model has replaced the former security tool based on in situ observations (in particular one meteorological mast at each of the power plants and a local dispersion model. It is used to forecast the dynamics of the atmosphere in the planetary boundary layer (typically the first 4 km above ground layer and over a time scale of 24 h. This tool provides at any time (e.g. starting at the initial time of a nuclear power plant release the best picture of the 24-h evolution of the air mass over the Swiss Plateau and furthermore generates the input data (in the form of simulated values substituting in situ observations required for the local dispersion model used at each of the nuclear power plants locations. This paper is presenting the concept and two validation studies as well as the results of an

  20. Survey of hazardous materials used in nuclear testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, E.A.; Fabryka-Martin, J.

    1991-02-01

    The use of hazardous'' materials in routine underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site has been reviewed. In addition the inventory of test yields, originally reported in 1976 has been updated. A trail down-hole inventory'' has been conducted for a selected test. The inorganic hazardous materials introduced during testing (with the exception of lead and the fissionable materials) produce an incremental change in the quantity of such materials already present in the geologic media surrounding the test points. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  1. Verifying seismic design of nuclear reactors by testing. Volume 1: test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-20

    This document sets forth recommendations for a verification program to test the ability of operational nuclear power plants to achieve safe shutdown immediately following a safe-shutdown earthquake. The purpose of the study is to develop a program plan to provide assurance by physical demonstration that nuclear power plants are earthquake resistant and to allow nuclear power plant operators to (1) decide whether tests should be conducted on their facilities, (2) specify the tests that should be performed, and (3) estimate the cost of the effort to complete the recommended test program.

  2. Surveillance of Strontium-90 in Foods after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, various radionuclides were released into the environment. In this study, we surveyed strontium-90 ((90)Sr) concentrations in several foodstuffs. Strontium-90 is thought to be the third most important residual radionuclide in food collected after the Fukushima Daiichi, NPP accident after following cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and cesium-134 ((134)Cs). Results of (90)Sr analyses indicated that (90)Sr was detect in 25 of the 40 radioactive cesium (r-Cs) positive samples collected in areas around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, ranging in distance from 50 to 250 km. R-Cs positive samples were defined as containing both (134)Cs and (137)Cs which are considered to be indicators of the after-effects of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. We also detected (90)Sr in 8 of 13 r-Cs negative samples, in which (134)Cs was not detected. Strontium-90 concentrations in the r-Cs positive samples did not significantly exceed the (90)Sr concentrations in r-Cs negative samples or the (90)Sr concentration ranges in comparable food groups found in previous surveys before the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. Thus, (90)Sr concentrations in r-Cs positive samples were indistinguishable from the background (90)Sr concentrations arising from global fallout prior to the Fukushima accident, suggesting that no marked increase of (90)Sr concentrations has occurred in r-Cs positive samples as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.

  3. Survival and Intra-Nuclear Trafficking of Burkholderia pseudomallei: Strategies of Evasion from Immune Surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelu, Jamuna; Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Thimma, Jaikumar; Mariappan, Vanitha; Kang, Wen-Tyng; Choh, Leang-Chung; Wong, Kum Thong

    2017-01-01

    Background During infection, successful bacterial clearance is achieved via the host immune system acting in conjunction with appropriate antibiotic therapy. However, it still remains a tip of the iceberg as to where persistent pathogens namely, Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei) reside/hide to escape from host immune sensors and antimicrobial pressure. Methods We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate post-mortem tissue sections of patients with clinical melioidosis to identify the localisation of a recently identified gut microbiome, B. pseudomallei within host cells. The intranuclear presence of B. pseudomallei was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of experimentally infected guinea pig spleen tissues and Live Z-stack, and ImageJ analysis of fluorescence microscopy analysis of in vitro infection of A549 human lung epithelial cells. Results TEM investigations revealed intranuclear localization of B. pseudomallei in cells of infected human lung and guinea pig spleen tissues. We also found that B. pseudomallei induced actin polymerization following infection of A549 human lung epithelial cells. Infected A549 lung epithelial cells using 3D-Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the intranuclear localization of B. pseudomallei. Conclusion B. pseudomallei was found within the nuclear compartment of host cells. The nucleus may play a role as an occult or transient niche for persistence of intracellular pathogens, potentially leading to recurrrent episodes or recrudescence of infection. PMID:28045926

  4. Survival and Intra-Nuclear Trafficking of Burkholderia pseudomallei: Strategies of Evasion from Immune Surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamuna Vadivelu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During infection, successful bacterial clearance is achieved via the host immune system acting in conjunction with appropriate antibiotic therapy. However, it still remains a tip of the iceberg as to where persistent pathogens namely, Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei reside/hide to escape from host immune sensors and antimicrobial pressure.We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM to investigate post-mortem tissue sections of patients with clinical melioidosis to identify the localisation of a recently identified gut microbiome, B. pseudomallei within host cells. The intranuclear presence of B. pseudomallei was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM of experimentally infected guinea pig spleen tissues and Live Z-stack, and ImageJ analysis of fluorescence microscopy analysis of in vitro infection of A549 human lung epithelial cells.TEM investigations revealed intranuclear localization of B. pseudomallei in cells of infected human lung and guinea pig spleen tissues. We also found that B. pseudomallei induced actin polymerization following infection of A549 human lung epithelial cells. Infected A549 lung epithelial cells using 3D-Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM and immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the intranuclear localization of B. pseudomallei.B. pseudomallei was found within the nuclear compartment of host cells. The nucleus may play a role as an occult or transient niche for persistence of intracellular pathogens, potentially leading to recurrrent episodes or recrudescence of infection.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  6. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium metal

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium metal to determine compliance with specifications.

  7. Nuclear thermal rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

    1993-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket can be enhanced through the use of unconventional nozzles as part of the propulsion system. The Nuclear Thermal Rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program being conducted at the NASA Lewis is outlined and the advantages of a plug nozzle are described. A facility description, experimental designs and schematics are given. Results of pretest performance analyses show that high nozzle performance can be attained despite substantial nozzle length reduction through the use of plug nozzles as compared to a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pretest measurement uncertainty analyses indicate that specific impulse values are expected to be within + or - 1.17 pct.

  8. Resettlement of Bikini Atoll U.S. Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Stuart, M.L.; Stoker, A.C.; Hamilton, T.F.

    1999-09-09

    The US conducted a nuclear testing program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands from 1946 through 1958. Several atolls, including Bikini, were contaminated as a result of the nuclear detonations. Since 1974 the authors have conducted an extensive research and monitoring program to determine the radiological conditions at the atolls, identify the critical radionuclides and pathways, estimate the radiological dose to current or resettling populations, and develop remedial measures to reduce the dose to atoll populations. This paper describes exposure pathways and radionuclides; composition of atoll soils; radionuclide transport and dose estimates; remedial measures; and reduction in dose from a combined option.

  9. Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAnn Long; Michael Murphy

    2008-07-01

    Prior to April 2007, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation department. Calibration and performance testing on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor was performed, but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no performance test program. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability Manager volunteered to take over performance testing of all SNM portal monitors at NTS in order to strengthen the program and meet U.S. Department of Energy Order requirements. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with developing a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, developing and implementing procedures, troubleshooting and repair, validating the process, physical control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and implementing the performance test program.

  10. Space exploration initiative candidate nuclear propulsion test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darrell; Clark, John S.

    1993-01-01

    One-page descriptions for approximately 200 existing government, university, and industry facilities which may be available in the future to support SEI nuclear propulsion technology development and test program requirements are provided. To facilitate use of the information, the candidate facilities are listed both by location (Index L) and by Facility Type (Index FT). The included one-page descriptions provide a brief narrative description of facility capability, suggest potential uses for each facility, and designate a point of contact for additional information that may be needed in the future. The Nuclear Propulsion Office at NASA Lewis presently plans to maintain, expand, and update this information periodically for use by NASA, DOE, and DOD personnel involved in planning various phases of the SEI Nuclear Propulsion Project.

  11. Guidelines for inservice testing at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, P.

    1995-04-01

    The staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) gives licensees guidelines and recommendations for developing and implementing programs for the inservice testing of pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants. The staff discusses the regulations; the components to be included in an inservice testing program; and the preparation and content of cold shutdown justifications, refueling outage justifications, and requests for relief from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code requirements. The staff also gives specific guidance on relief acceptable to the NRC and advises licensees in the use of this information at their facilities. The staff discusses the revised standard technical specifications for the inservice testing program requirements and gives guidance on the process a licensee may follow upon finding an instance of noncompliance with the Code.

  12. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  13. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, David J.; Power, Kevin P.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency rocket propulsion systems are essential for humanity to venture beyond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rockets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of highest performing chemical propellant engines. NTP utilizes the coolant of a nuclear reactor to produce propulsive thrust. An NTP engine produces thrust by flowing hydrogen through a nuclear reactor to cool the reactor, heating the hydrogen and expelling it through a rocket nozzle. The hot gaseous hydrogen is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; however, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. NTP ground testing is more difficult than chemical engine testing since current environmental regulations do not allow/permit open air testing of NTP as was done in the 1960's and 1970's for the Rover/NERVA program. A new and innovative approach to rocket engine ground test is required to mitigate the unique health and safety risks associated with the potential entrainment of radioactive waste from the NTP engine reactor core into the engine exhaust. Several studies have been conducted since the ROVER/NERVA program in the 1970's investigating NTP engine ground test options to understand the technical feasibility, identify technical challenges and associated risks and provide rough order of magnitude cost estimates for facility development and test operations. The options can be divided into two distinct schemes; (1) real-time filtering of the engine exhaust and its release to the environment or (2) capture and storage of engine exhaust for subsequent processing.

  14. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.; Reed, William C.; Welland, Henry J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway.

  15. On site inspection for nuclear test ban verirication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Marschall

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of verifying compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty is mainly a technical one. However the problem of detecting, locating and identifying nuclear explosions has, since the late 1950s, been intimately involved with the political problems associated with negotiating a treaty. In fact there are few other areas in which policy, diplomacy and science have been so interwoven. This paper attempts to illustrate how technology can. be applied to solve some of the political problems which arise when considering the role of an On Site Inspection (OSI to determine whether or not a nuclear explosion, in violation of a treaty, has occurred or not. It is hoped that the reader, with a scientific background, but with little or no experience of treaty negotiations, will gain an. insight as to how technical matters can interact with political requirements. The demands made on scientists to provide technical support for negotiating and rnonitoring compliance of a treaty have increased significanfly over the last 40 years. This is a period in which a number of major treaties have contained a significant technical component e.g. the Limited Test Ban Treaty (Threshold Treaty and the Chemical Weapon Convention. This paper gives an indication of some of the political decisions which will have to be made and suggests some of the technical methods which are of value in the identification of a clandestine nuclear explosion.

  16. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames.1,2 Conventional storable propellants produce average specific impulse. Nuclear thermal rockets capable of producing high specific impulse are proposed. Nuclear thermal rockets employ heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K), and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited.3 The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. The purpose of the testing is to obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials, as-fabricated, and determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures. The fission process of the planned fissile material and the resulting heating performance is well known and does not therefore require that active fissile material be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  17. Nuclear weapons tests and environmental consequences: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prăvălie, Remus

    2014-10-01

    The beginning of the atomic age marked the outset of nuclear weapons testing, which is responsible for the radioactive contamination of a large number of sites worldwide. The paper aims to analyze nuclear weapons tests conducted in the second half of the twentieth century, highlighting the impact of radioactive pollution on the atmospheric, aquatic, and underground environments. Special attention was given to the concentration of main radioactive isotopes which were released, such as ¹⁴C, ¹³⁷Cs, and ⁹⁰Sr, generally stored in the atmosphere and marine environment. In addition, an attempt was made to trace the spatial delimitation of the most heavily contaminated sites worldwide, and to note the human exposure which has caused a significantly increased incidence of thyroidal cancer locally and regionally. The United States is one of the important examples of assessing the correlation between the increase in the thyroid cancer incidence rate and the continental-scale radioactive contamination with ¹³¹I, a radioactive isotope which was released in large amounts during the nuclear tests carried out in the main test site, Nevada.

  18. Improving the space surveillance telescope's performance using multi-hypothesis testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Zingarelli, J.; Cain, Stephen [Air Force Institute of Technology, 2950 Hobson Way, Bldg 641, Wright Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Pearce, Eric; Lambour, Richard [Lincoln Labratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States); Blake, Travis [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 675 North Randolph Street Arlington, VA 22203 (United States); Peterson, Curtis J. R., E-mail: John.Zingarelli@afit.edu [United States Air Force, 1690 Air Force Pentagon, Washington, DC 20330 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency program designed to detect objects in space like near Earth asteroids and space debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) belt. Binary hypothesis test (BHT) methods have historically been used to facilitate the detection of new objects in space. In this paper a multi-hypothesis detection strategy is introduced to improve the detection performance of SST. In this context, the multi-hypothesis testing (MHT) determines if an unresolvable point source is in either the center, a corner, or a side of a pixel in contrast to BHT, which only tests whether an object is in the pixel or not. The images recorded by SST are undersampled such as to cause aliasing, which degrades the performance of traditional detection schemes. The equations for the MHT are derived in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which is computed by subtracting the background light level around the pixel being tested and dividing by the standard deviation of the noise. A new method for determining the local noise statistics that rejects outliers is introduced in combination with the MHT. An experiment using observations of a known GEO satellite are used to demonstrate the improved detection performance of the new algorithm over algorithms previously reported in the literature. The results show a significant improvement in the probability of detection by as much as 50% over existing algorithms. In addition to detection, the S/N results prove to be linearly related to the least-squares estimates of point source irradiance, thus improving photometric accuracy.

  19. Studies and development of essential systems in the surveillance program, life extension potential of the vessel and master curve in nuclear power plants; Estudios y desarrollo de sistemas necesarios en el programa de vigilancia, potencial extension de vida de la vasija y curva maestra en nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M.; Perez R, N., E-mail: jesus.romero@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Automatizacion e Instrumentacion, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The nuclear power plants owners should demonstrate that the effects of the embrittlement by neutronic radiation do not commit the structural integrity of the pressure vessel of the nuclear reactors, so much under conditions of routine operation as below an accident postulate. In consequence, in Mexico surveillance programs of the vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde exist, in which three surveillance capsules are have by reactor. A surveillance capsule is composed by a support and between six and eight containers for test tubes and dosemeters. The containers for test tubes are of two types: rectangular container for Charpy V test tubes and cylindrical container for tension test tubes. These test tubes are subject to a same or bigger neutronic flow that of the vessel, being representative witness of the mechanical conditions of the vessel. The objective of to assay the test tubes to impact is to evaluate the embrittlement grade of the vessel beforehand during its useful life of operation, as well as to determinate the running of the ductile-fragile transition temperature in function of the time. (Author)

  20. Sequential probability ratio tests for reactor signal validation and sensor surveillance applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humenik, K. (Maryland Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA)); Gross, K.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1989-11-09

    This paper examines the properties of sequential probability ratio tests (SPRT's) and the application of these tests to nuclear power reactor operation. Recently SPRT's have been applied to delayed-neutron (DN) signal data analysis using actual reactor data from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, which is operated by Argonne National Laboratory. The implementation of this research as part of an expert system is described. Mathematical properties of the SPRT are investigated, and theoretical results are validated with tests that use DN-signal data taken from the EBR-II in Idaho. Variations of the basic SPRT and applications to general signal validation are also explored. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Seismological analysis of the fourth North Korean nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Gernot; Gestermann, Nicolai; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea has conducted its fourth underground nuclear explosions on 06.01.2016 at 01:30 (UTC). The explosion was clearly detected and located by the seismic network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Additional seismic stations of international earthquake monitoring networks at regional distances, which are not part of the IMS, are used to precisely estimate the epicenter of the event in the North Hamgyong province (41.38°N / 129.05°E). It is located in the area of the North Korean Punggye-ri nuclear test site, where the verified nuclear tests from 2006, 2009, and 2013 were conducted as well. The analysis of the recorded seismic signals provides the evidence, that the event was originated by an explosive source. The amplitudes as well as the spectral characteristics of the signals were examined. Furthermore, the similarity of the signals with those from the three former nuclear tests suggests very similar source type. The seismograms at the 8,200 km distant IMS station GERES in Germany, for example, show the same P phase signal for all four explosions, differing in the amplitude only. The comparison of the measured amplitudes results in the increasing magnitude with the chronology of the explosions from 2006 (mb 4.2), 2009 (mb 4.8) until 2013 (mb 5.1), whereas the explosion in 2016 had approximately the same magnitude as that one three years before. Derived from the magnitude, a yield of 14 kt TNT equivalents was estimated for both explosions in 2013 and 2016; in 2006 and 2009 yields were 0.7 kt and 5.4 kt, respectively. However, a large inherent uncertainty for these values has to be taken into account. The estimation of the absolute yield of the explosions depends very much on the local geological situation and the degree of decoupling of the explosive from the surrounding rock. Due to the missing corresponding information, reliable magnitude-yield estimation for the

  2. Fallout from atmospheric bomb tests and releases from nuclear installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkle, H.; Murith, C.; Surbeck, H.

    This work presents the radioactivity monitoring programme in Switzerland. Environmental radioactivity measurements for atomic bomb test fallout are discussed together with the radiation doses to the public caused by fallout. In the second part the monitoring programme around nuclear power stations is presented. The radioactivity releases to the environment, the results of the monitoring programme and the radiation doses to the public in the vicinity of the plants are discussed.

  3. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  4. Surveillance and Testing for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Saudi Arabia, April 2015–February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A.; Alzahrani, Abdullah G.; Salameh, Iyad; Abdirizak, Fatima; Alhakeem, Raafat; Algarni, Homoud; El Nil, Osman A.; Mohammed, Mutaz; Assiri, Abdullah M.; Alabdely, Hail M.; Watson, John T.; Gerber, Susan I.

    2017-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has reported >80% of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases worldwide. During April 2015–February 2016, Saudi Arabia identified and tested 57,363 persons (18.4/10,000 residents) with suspected MERS-CoV infection; 384 (0.7%) tested positive. Robust, extensive, and timely surveillance is critical for limiting virus transmission. PMID:28322710

  5. Specific antigen serologic tests in leprosy: implications for epidemiological surveillance of leprosy cases and household contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Paula Mendes; Coelho, Angélica da Conceição Oliveira; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Lana, Francisco Carlos Félix

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is a lack of straightforward tests for field application and known biomarkers for predicting leprosy progression in infected individuals. OBJECTIVE The aim was to analyse the response to infection by Mycobacterium leprae based on the reactivity of specific antigens: natural disaccharide linked to human serum albumin via an octyl (NDOHSA), a semisynthetic phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I); Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (LID-1) and natural disaccharide octyl - Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (NDOLID). METHODS The study population consisted of 130 leprosy cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 and 277 household contacts. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyse the reactivity of antibodies against NDOHSA, LID-1 and NDOLID. The samples and controls were tested in duplicate, and the antibody titer was expressed as an ELISA index. Data collection was made by home visits with application of questionnaire and dermatological evaluation of all household contacts to identify signs and symptoms of leprosy. FINDINGS Significant differences in the median ELISA results were observed among leprosy cases in treatment, leprosy cases that had completed treatment and household contacts. Higher proportions of seropositivity were observed in leprosy cases in treatment. Seropositivity was also higher in multibacillary in relation to paucibacillary, with the difference reaching statistical significance. Lower titers were observed among cases with a longer treatment time or discharge. For household contacts, the differences according to the clinical characteristics of the leprosy index case were less pronounced than expected. Other factors, such as the endemicity of leprosy, exposure outside the residence and genetic characteristics, appeared to have a greater influence on the seropositivity. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Serologic tests could be used as auxiliary tools for determining the operational

  6. French experience in transient data collection and fatigue monitoring of PWR`s nuclear steam supply system; Experience francaise sur la comptabilisation des transitoires et la surveillance en fatigue des chaudieres REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaton, M.; Morilhat, P.; Savoldelli, D.; Genette, P.

    1995-10-01

    Electricite de France (EDF), the french national electricity company, is operating 54 standardized pressurizer water reactors. This about 500 reactor-years experience in nuclear stations operation and maintenance area has allowed EDF to develop its own strategy for monitoring of age-related degradations of NPP systems and components relevant for plant safety and reliability. After more than fifteen years of experience in regulatory transient data collection and seven years of successful fatigue monitoring prototypes experimentation, EDF decided to design a new system called SYSFAC (acronym for SYsteme de Surveillance en FAtigue de la Chaudiere) devoted to transient logging and thermal fatigue monitoring of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The system is fully automatic and directly connected to the on-site data acquisition network without any complementary instrumentation. A functional transient detection module and a mechanical transient detection module are in charge of the general transient data collection. A fatigue monitoring module is aimed towards a precise surveillance of five specific zones particularly sensible to thermal fatigue. After the first step of preliminary studies, the industrial phase of the SYSFAC project is currently going on, with hardware and software tests and implementation. The first SYSFAC system will be delivered to the pilot power plant by the beginning of 1996. The extension to all EDF`s nuclear 900 MW is planned after one more year of feedback experience. (authors). 12 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Nuclear analysis of ITER Test Blanket Module Port Plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villari, Rosaria, E-mail: rosaria.villari@enea.it [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Kim, Byoung Yoon; Barabash, Vladimir; Giancarli, Luciano; Levesy, Bruno; Loughlin, Michael; Merola, Mario [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pascal, Romain [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Petrizzi, Luigino [European Commission, DG Research & Innovation G5, CDMA 00/030, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Polunovsky, Eduard; Van Der Laan, Jaap G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 3D nuclear analysis of the ITER TBM Port Plug (PP). • Calculations of neutron fluxes, nuclear heating, damage and He-production in TBM PP components. • Shutdown dose rate assessment with Advanced D1S method considering different configurations. • Potential design improvements to reduce the shutdown dose rate in the port interspace. - Abstract: Nuclear analyses have been performed for the ITER Test Blanket Module Port Plug (TBM PP) using the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo Code. A detailed 3D model of the TBM Port Plug with dummy TBM has been integrated into the ITER MCNP model (B-lite v.3). Neutron fluxes, nuclear heating, helium production and neutron damage have been calculated in all the TBM PP components. Global shutdown dose rate calculations have also been performed with Advanced D1S method for different configurations of the TBM PP system. This paper presents the results of these analyses and discusses potential design improvements aiming to further reduce the shutdown dose rate in the port interspace.

  8. Testing of Small Graphite Samples for Nuclear Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Chapman

    2010-11-01

    Accurately determining the mechanical properties of small irradiated samples is crucial to predicting the behavior of the overal irradiated graphite components within a Very High Temperature Reactor. The sample size allowed in a material test reactor, however, is limited, and this poses some difficulties with respect to mechanical testing. In the case of graphite with a larger grain size, a small sample may exhibit characteristics not representative of the bulk material, leading to inaccuracies in the data. A study to determine a potential size effect on the tensile strength was pursued under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. It focuses first on optimizing the tensile testing procedure identified in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard C 781-08. Once the testing procedure was verified, a size effect was assessed by gradually reducing the diameter of the specimens. By monitoring the material response, a size effect was successfully identified.

  9. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG is being revised to provide applicants and licensees with the most current information on testing safety-related actuators in nuclear power plants. This...

  10. Genotyping using whole-genome sequencing is a realistic alternative to surveillance based on phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Kaas, Rolf Sommer;

    2013-01-01

    genes and MLST types (where MLST stands for multilocus sequence typing). ResFinder results were compared with phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing results using EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values and MLST types. Results: A total of 3051 different phenotypic tests were performed; 482 led......-genome sequencing (WGS) may soon be within reach even for routine surveillance and clinical diagnostics. The aim of this study was to evaluate WGS as a routine tool for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance compared with current phenotypic procedures. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed...... on 200 isolates originating from Danish pigs, covering four bacterial species. Genomic DNA was purified from all isolates and sequenced as paired-end reads on the Illumina platform. The web servers ResFinder and MLST (www.genomicepidemiology.org) were used to identify acquired antimicrobial resistance...

  11. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test.

  12. Azimuthal anisotropies as stringent test for nuclear transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, P.; Rami, F.; Donà, R.; Coffin, J. P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Jundt, F.; Kuhn, C.; Roy, C.; de Schauenburg, B.; Tizniti, L.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J. P.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Bendarag, A.; Berek, G.; Best, D.; Biegansky, J.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Dupieux, P.; Dželalija, M.; Fan, Z. G.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R. P.; Gobbi, A.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S. C.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Manko, V.; Moisa, D.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J. L.; Sadchikov, A. G.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K. M.; Trzaska, M.; Wang, G. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.; Hartnack, C.; FOPI Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    Azimuthal distributions of charged particles and intermediate mass fragments emitted in Au+Au collisions at 600 A MeV have been measured using the FOPI facility at GSI-Darmstadt. Data show a strong increase of the in-plane azimuthal anisotropy ratio with the charge of the detected fragment. Intermediate mass fragments are found to exhibit a strong momentum-space alignment with respect of the reaction plane. The experimental results are presented as a function of the polar centre-of-mass angle and over a broad range of impact parameters. They are compared to the predictions of the Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics model using three different parametrisations of the equation of state. We show that such highly accurate data provide stringent test for microscopic transport models and can potentially constrain separately the stiffness of the nuclear equation of state and the momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction.

  13. Pyroprocessing of Fast Flux Test Facility Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.R. Westphal; G.L. Fredrickson; G.G. Galbreth; D. Vaden; M.D. Elliott; J.C. Price; E.M. Honeyfield; M.N. Patterson; L. A. Wurth

    2013-10-01

    Used nuclear fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was recently transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory and processed by pyroprocessing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. Approximately 213 kg of uranium from sodium-bonded metallic FFTF fuel was processed over a one year period with the equipment previously used for the processing of EBR-II used fuel. The peak burnup of the FFTF fuel ranged from 10 to 15 atom% for the 900+ chopped elements processed. Fifteen low-enriched uranium ingots were cast following the electrorefining and distillation operations to recover approximately 192 kg of uranium. A material balance on the primary fuel constituents, uranium and zirconium, during the FFTF campaign will be presented along with a brief description of operating parameters. Recoverable uranium during the pyroprocessing of FFTF nuclear fuel was greater than 95% while the purity of the final electrorefined uranium products exceeded 99%.

  14. Direct digital control of furnaces irradiated in nuclear reactors; Surveillance et regulation multiplexee par calculateur numerique de fours irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joumard, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    An experimental direct digital control system has been realised in the 'C.E.N.G.', in order to verify that a computer makes easier the control of the experiments done in the nuclear reactors and to solve the theoretical and technical difficulties. The regulation is applied to thermal processes. The sampled data systems theory permits to choose the type of an efficient and simple digital compensator, and to establish a diagram which gives the values of the correcting parameters (obtained by minimizing the difference between the output and the input when perturbations occur). The programme execute, in simultaneity, supervision and regulation. Complex possibilities of printing out measures and alarms existed. The computer works out an incremental correction which makes step motors to turn. These motors act on the heating organs. The theoretical values and answers have been confirmed. The accuracy was limited essentially by the input quantification (1/1000 th). The comfort of such a system has been noticeable. (author) [French] Une installation de controle numerique direct fut realisee a titre experimental au C.E.N.G pour verifier qu'un ordinateur rendait plus aisee l'exploitation des experiences faites en pile nucleaire et pour degager les difficultes theoriques et techniques. La regulation s'applique a des processus thermiques. La theorie des systemes echantillonnes a permis de choisir un type de correcteur numerique simple et efficace et d'etablir un abaque qui donne les valeurs des parametres correcteurs minimisant les ecarts enregistres entre la reponse et la consigne en presence de perturbations. Le programme effectuait simultanement de la surveillance et de la regulation. Une restitution complexe des informations et des alarmes sur machine a ecrire etait possible. Le calculateur elaborait une correction incrementielle qui faisait tourner des moteurs pas a pas, lesquels commandaient les organes de puissance de chauffage. Les valeurs

  15. Fission xenon in trinities from the first nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshik, Alexander; Pravdivtseva, Olga; Hohenberg, Charles

    2008-04-01

    Trinitites, greenish glassy remnants found in the crater of the first nuclear test, refer to the molten material of the desert where the Trinity test was conducted. Recently the Los Alamos Lab^1 suggested that the sand was first vaporized by the fireball and then precipitated onto a cooler desert surface forming trinitites. We measured the Xe mass-spectra during stepped pyrolysis of two trinitites and found an unusual Xe isotopic structure, dominated by ^132Xe and ^131Xe compared to the nominal fission yield spectra, which cannot be due to n-capture or any other nuclear processes. This structure is caused by the chemical separation of the immediate neutron-rich fission products, a process similar to CFF observed in the Oklo natural reactor^2. When quantitatively applied to our observations it suggests that 17 min after the test one of the samples had a temperature of 1390^oC, while 5 min after the test the other was at 1320^oC. These results contribute to a reconstruction of the cooling history of the trinities and a demonstration of which formation scenario is the more likely. ^1V. Montoya et al, Denver X-ray Conf. (2007), ^2A. Meshik, C. Hohenberg and O. Pravdivtseva, PRL 93, 182302 (2004).

  16. Development of Modeling Approaches for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel R.; Allgood, Daniel C.; Nguyen, Ke

    2014-01-01

    High efficiency of rocket propul-sion systems is essential for humanity to venture be-yond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rock-ets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. NASA is in the pro-cess of developing a new NTP engine, and is evaluat-ing ground test facility concepts that allow for the thor-ough testing of NTP devices. NTP engine exhaust, hot gaseous hydrogen, is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; how-ever, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. Several options are being investigated to mitigate this hazard potential with one option in particular that completely contains the engine exhaust during engine test operations. The exhaust products are subsequently disposed of between engine tests. For this concept (see Figure 1), oxygen is injected into the high-temperature hydrogen exhaust that reacts to produce steam, excess oxygen and any trace amounts of radioactive noble gases released by off-nominal NTP engine reactor performance. Water is injected to condense the potentially contaminated steam into water. This water and the gaseous oxygen (GO2) are subsequently passed to a containment area where the water and GO2 are separated into separate containment tanks.

  17. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David E.; Mireles, Omar R.; Hickman, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (Isp) and relatively high thrust in order to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average Isp. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) capable of high Isp thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements is limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements which employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact RF heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  18. A new role of proficiency testing in nuclear analytical work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The most recent definition of measurement result requires a statement of uncertainty whenever results obtained by nuclear or other quantitative methods of analysis are reported. Proficiency testing (PT) therefore must include the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased quantity values...... that fully reflects the uncertainties reported by participants in a PT-scheme and permits calculation of En numbers to distinguish whether or not measurement results are consistent with the accepted definition of the measurand. The strategy is applied to PT-data from a recent international laboratory...

  19. Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Jeff Daniels; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) have reached agreement on a corrective action strategy applicable to address the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations. This strategy is described in detail in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 2000). As part of the corrective action strategy, the nuclear detonations that occurred underground were identified as geographically distinct corrective action units (CAUs). The strategic objective for each CAU is to estimate over a 1,000-yr time period, with uncertainty quantified, the three-dimensional extent of groundwater contamination that would be considered unsafe for domestic and municipal use. Two types of boundaries (contaminant and compliance) are discussed in the FFACO that will map the three-dimensional extent of radionuclide contamination. The contaminant boundary will identify the region wi th 95 percent certainty that contaminants do not exist above a threshold value. It will be prepared by the DOE and presented to NDEP. The compliance boundary will be produced as a result of negotiation between the DOE and NDEP, and can be coincident with, or differ from, the contaminant boundary. Two different thresholds are considered for the contaminant boundary. One is based on the enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for radionuclides, which were developed as a requirement of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The other is a risk-based threshold considering applicable lifetime excess cancer-risk-based criteria The contaminant boundary for the Faultless underground nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is calculated using a newly developed groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model that incorporates aspects of both the original three-dimensional model (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and the two-dimensional model developed for the Faultless data decision

  20. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. C.; Beck, D. F.; Harmon, C. D.; Shipers, L. R.

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program.

  1. Prescription Surveillance and Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing to Identify Pathogens during Outbreaks of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Sugiura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance, including prescription surveillance, offers a rapid method for the early detection of agents of bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases. However, it has the disadvantage of not considering definitive diagnoses. Here, we attempted to definitively diagnose pathogens using polymerase chain reaction (PCR immediately after the prescription surveillance system detected an outbreak. Specimens were collected from 50 patients with respiratory infections. PCR was used to identify the pathogens, which included 14 types of common respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Infectious agents including M. pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, rhinovirus, enterovirus, and parainfluenza virus were detected in 54% of patients. For the rapid RSV diagnosis kit, sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 85%. For the rapid adenovirus diagnosis kit, no positive results were obtained; therefore, sensitivity could not be calculated and specificity was 100%. Many patients were found to be treated for upper respiratory tract infections without the diagnosis of a specific pathogen. In Japan, an outbreak of M. pneumoniae infection began in 2011, and our results suggested that this outbreak may have included false-positive cases. By combining syndromic surveillance and PCR, we were able to rapidly and accurately identify causative pathogens during a recent respiratory infection outbreak.

  2. Operation of the nuclear fuel cycle test facilities -Operation of the hot test loop facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, S. Y.; Jeong, M. K.; Park, C. K.; Yang, S. K.; Won, S. Y.; Song, C. H.; Jeon, H. K.; Jeong, H. J.; Cho, S.; Min, K. H.; Jeong, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A performance and reliability of a advanced nuclear fuel and reactor newly designed should be verified by performing the thermal hydraulics tests. In thermal hydraulics research team, the thermal hydraulics tests associated with the development of an advanced nuclear fuel and reactor haven been carried out with the test facilities, such as the Hot Test Loop operated under high temperature and pressure conditions, Cold Test Loop, RCS Loop and B and C Loop. The objective of this project is to obtain the available experimental data and to develop the advanced measuring techniques through taking full advantage of the facilities. The facilities operated by the thermal hydraulics research team have been maintained and repaired in order to carry out the thermal hydraulics tests necessary for providing the available data. The performance tests for the double grid type bottom end piece which was improved on the debris filtering effectivity were performed using the PWR-Hot Test Loop. The CANDU-Hot Test Loop was operated to carry out the pressure drop tests and strength tests of CANFLEX fuel. The Cold Test Loop was used to obtain the local velocity data in subchannel within HANARO fuel bundle and to study a thermal mixing characteristic of PWR fuel bundle. RCS thermal hydraulic loop was constructed and the experiments have been carried out to measure the critical heat flux. In B and C Loop, the performance tests for each component were carried out. (author). 19 tabs., 78 figs., 19 refs.

  3. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  4. Local fallout from nuclear test detonations. Volume 2. Compilation of fallout patterns and related test data. Supplement. Foreign nuclear tests. Sanitized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenthau, M.; Showers, R.L.

    1964-10-01

    The available fallout patterns and related test data for nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United Kingdom, the Republic of France, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, are included in this supplement to NDL-TR-34. The related test data for the British and French tests include: date and time of detonation, location of test site, total yield, fission yield, type of burst and placement, height of burst, cloud-top and -bottom heights, crater data, and wind information up to nuclear cloud-top height. No fallout patterns are available for any of the Soviet detonations. The list of Soviet detonations, which is as comprehensive as possible, contains the chronological order of the detonations, date, yield, type of burst and location of test site.

  5. Bikini Atoll coral biodiversity resilience five decades after nuclear testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Zoe T. [Museum of Tropical Queensland, Flinders St, Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia) and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia) and School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia); NRAS - Marshall Islands: Natural Resource Assessment Surveys (Australia)], E-mail: zoe.richards@jcu.edu.au; Beger, Maria [Ecology Centre and Commonwealth Research Facility for Applied Environmental Decision Analysis, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); NRAS - Marshall Islands: Natural Resource Assessment Surveys (Australia); Pinca, Silvia [College of the Marshall Islands, Majuro, Marshall Islands, NRAS - Marshall Islands: Natural Resource Assessment Surveys (Australia); Wallace, Carden C. [Museum of Tropical Queensland, Flinders St, Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)

    2008-03-15

    Five decades after a series of nuclear tests began, we provide evidence that 70% of the Bikini Atoll zooxanthellate coral assemblage is resilient to large-scale anthropogenic disturbance. Species composition in 2002 was assessed and compared to that seen prior to nuclear testing. A total of 183 scleractinian coral species was recorded, compared to 126 species recorded in the previous study (excluding synonomies, 148 including synonomies). We found that 42 coral species may be locally extinct at Bikini. Fourteen of these losses may be pseudo-losses due to inconsistent taxonomy between the two studies or insufficient sampling in the second study, however 28 species appear to represent genuine losses. Of these losses, 16 species are obligate lagoonal specialists and 12 have wider habitat compatibility. Twelve species are recorded from Bikini for the first time. We suggest the highly diverse Rongelap Atoll to the east of Bikini may have contributed larval propagules to facilitate the partial resilience of coral biodiversity in the absence of additional anthropogenic threats.

  6. Simulating the venting of radioactivity from a soviet nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Daniel J.; Peterson, Kendall R.

    Fresh fission products were found in several routine air samples in Europe during the second and third weeks of March 1987. Initially, it was suspected that the radionuclides, principally 133Xe and 131I, had been accidentally released from a European facility handling nuclear materials. However, the announcement of an underground nuclear test at Semipalatinsk, U.S.S.R. on 26 February 1987 suggested that the elevated amounts of radioactivity may, instead, have been caused by a venting episode. Upon learning of these events, we simulated the transport and diffusion of 133Xe with our Hemispheric MEDIC and ADPIC models, assuming Semipalatinsk to be the source of the radioactive emissions. The correspondence between the calculated concentrations and the daily average 133Xe measurements made by the Federal Office for Civil Protection in F.R.G. was excellent. While this agreement does not, in itself, prove that an atmospheric venting of radioactive material occurred at Semipalatinsk, a body of circumstantial evidence exists which, when added together, strongly supports this conclusion. Our calculations suggested a total fission yield of about 40 kt, which is within the 20-150 kt range of tests acknowledged by the U.S.S.R. Finally, dose calculations indicated that no health or environmental impact occurred outside of the U.S.S.R. due to the suspected venting of 133Xe. However, the inhalation dose resulting from 133I, an unmodeled component of the radioactive cloud, represented a greater potential risk to public health.

  7. Testing piezoelectric sensors in a nuclear reactor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Brian T.; Suprock, Andy; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2017-02-01

    Several Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs, such as the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD), Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), Light Water Reactor Sustainability, and Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants (NGNP), are investigating new fuels, materials, and inspection paradigms for advanced and existing reactors. A key objective of such programs is to understand the performance of these fuels and materials during irradiation. In DOE-NE's FCRD program, ultrasonic based technology was identified as a key approach that should be pursued to obtain the high-fidelity, high-accuracy data required to characterize the behavior and performance of new candidate fuels and structural materials during irradiation testing. The radiation, high temperatures, and pressure can limit the available tools and characterization methods. In this work piezoelectric transducers capable of making these measurements are developed. Specifically, three piezoelectric sensors (Bismuth Titanate, Aluminum Nitride, and Zinc Oxide) are tested in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research reactor to a fast neutron fluence of 8.65×1020 nf/cm2. It is demonstrated that Bismuth Titanate is capable of transduction up to 5 × 1020 nf/cm2, Zinc Oxide is capable of transduction up to at least 6.27 × 1020 nf/cm2, and Aluminum Nitride is capable of transduction up to at least 8.65 × 1020 nf/cm2.

  8. Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

  9. Model of a Nuclear Thermal Test Pipe Using Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    1.2 Problem and Scope .. ............................. 3 1.3 Particle Bed Reactor .. .......................... 3 1.4 Nuclear Thermal Rocket .. ........................ 4...development of both the nuclear thermal rocket and space nuclear power technologies. The nuclear thermal rocket can be used to reduce the travel time to...1991). The manned mission to Mars is not the only use for the nuclear thermal rocket . Ramsthaler and Sulmeisters (1988:21) have determined that among

  10. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Fuel Element Testing in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    To satisfy the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) testing milestone, a graphite composite fuel element using a uranium simulant was received from the Oakridge National Lab and tested in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) at various operating conditions. The nominal operating conditions required to satisfy the milestone consisted of running the fuel element for a few minutes at a temperature of at least 2000 K with flowing hydrogen. This milestone test was successfully accomplished without incident.

  11. Feasibility of utilizing the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 rapid test in onchocerciasis surveillance in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, Yakou; Storey, Helen L; Barrett, Kelsey L; Gerth-Guyette, Emily; Di Giorgio, Laura; Golden, Allison; Faulx, Dunia; Kalnoky, Michael; Ndiaye, Marie Khemesse Ngom; Sy, Ngayo; Mané, Malang; Faye, Babacar; Sarr, Mamadou; Dioukhane, Elhadji Mamadou; Peck, Roger B; Guinot, Philippe; de Los Santos, Tala

    2017-10-03

    As effective onchocerciasis control efforts in Africa transition to elimination efforts, different diagnostic tools are required to support country programs. Senegal, with its long standing, successful control program, is transitioning to using the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 (Ov16) rapid test over traditional skin snip microscopy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating the Ov16 rapid test into onchocerciasis surveillance activities in Senegal, based on the following attributes of acceptability, usability, and cost. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 13 villages in southeastern Senegal in May 2016. Individuals 5 years and older were invited to participate in a demographic questionnaire, an Ov16 rapid test, a skin snip biopsy, and an acceptability interview. Rapid test technicians were interviewed and a costing analysis was conducted. Of 1,173 participants, 1,169 (99.7%) agreed to the rapid test while 383 (32.7%) agreed to skin snip microscopy. The sero-positivity rate of the rapid test among those tested was 2.6% with zero positives 10 years and younger. None of the 383 skin snips were positive for Ov microfilaria. Community members appreciated that the rapid test was performed quickly, was not painful, and provided reliable results. The total costs for this surveillance activity was $22,272.83, with a cost per test conducted at $3.14 for rapid test, $7.58 for skin snip microscopy, and $13.43 for shared costs. If no participants had refused skin snip microscopy, the total cost per method with shared costs would have been around $16 per person tested. In this area with low onchocerciasis sero-positivity, there was high acceptability and perceived value of the rapid test by community members and technicians. This study provides evidence of the feasibility of implementing the Ov16 rapid test in Senegal and may be informative to other country programs transitioning to Ov16 serologic tools.

  12. An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

    2009-12-01

    Bogazici University and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is acting as the Turkish National Data Center (NDC) and responsible for the operation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) Primary Seismic Station (PS-43) under Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center for the verification of compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) since February 2000. The NDC is responsible for operating two arrays which are part of the IMS, as well as for transmitting data from these stations to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. The Belbasi array was established in 1951, as a four-element (Benioff 1051) seismic array as part of the United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS). Turkish General Staff (TGS) and U.S. Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) under the Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement (DECA) jointly operated this short period array. The station was upgraded and several seismometers were added to array during 1951 and 1994 and the station code was changed from BSRS (Belbasi Seismic Research Station) to BRTR-PS43 later on. PS-43 is composed of two sub-arrays (Ankara and Keskin): the medium-period array with a ~40 km radius located in Ankara and the short-period array with a ~3 km radius located in Keskin. Each array has a broadband element located at the middle of the circular geometry. Short period instruments are installed at depth 30 meters from the surface while medium and broadband instruments are installed at depth 60 meters from surface. On 25 May 2009, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) claimed that it had conducted a nuclear test. Corresponding seismic event was recorded by IMS and IDC released first automatic estimation of time (00:54:43 GMT), location (41.2896°N and 129.0480°E) and the magnitude (4.52 mb) of the event in less than two hours time (USGS: 00:54:43 GMT; 41.306°N, 129.029°E; 4.7 mb) During our preliminary analysis of the 25th May 2009 DPRK

  13. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Alan P

    2015-01-01

    .... Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation...

  14. Single versus double testing of meat-juice samples for Salmonella antibodies, in the Danish pig-herd surveillance programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekeroth, Lars; Alban, Lis; Feld, Niels Christian

    2003-01-01

    In Denmark, a national serological surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in pigs has been in operation since 1995. The programme is based on the Danish mix-ELISA and uses double testing (two ELISA-wells used per sample) of meat-juice samples taken in relation to slaughter. All herds...... are classified monthly into one of the three levels; the classification is based on the percentage of positive serological results in the previous 3 months. In connection with evaluation of the programme in 2001, we investigated whether single testing (testing in one well only) could be expected...... to be sufficiently precise compared to double testing. Data from the year 2000 were used, and mathematical modelling. Single testing was simulated by randomised selection of one of the two results in the double testing. A slight increase in the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples (1.02-1.09 times more through...

  15. Testing of Liquid Metal Components for Nuclear Surface Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Godfroy, T. J.; Schoenfeld, M.; Webster, K.; Briggs, M. H.; Geng, S. M.; Adkins, H. E.; Werner, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to perform testing at both the module/component level and in near prototypic reactor configurations using a non-nuclear test methodology allowed for evaluation of two components critical to the development of a potential nuclear fission power system for the lunar surface. A pair of 1 kW Stirling power convertors, similar to the type that would be used in a reactor system to convert heat to electricity, were integrated into a reactor simulator system to determine their performance using pumped NaK as the hot side working fluid. The performance in the pumped-NaK system met or exceed the baseline performance measurements where the converters were electrically heated. At the maximum hot-side temperature of 550 C the maximum output power was 2375 watts. A specially-designed test apparatus was fabricated and used to quantify the performance of an annular linear induction pump that is similar to the type that could be used to circulate liquid metal through the core of a space reactor system. The errors on the measurements were generally much smaller than the magnitude of the measurements, permitting accurate performance evaluation over a wide range of operating conditions. The pump produced flow rates spanning roughly 0.16 to 5.7 l/s (2.5 to 90 GPM), and delta p levels from less than 1 kPa to 90 kPa (greater than 0.145 psi to roughly 13 psi). At the nominal FSP system operating temperature of 525 C the maximum efficiency was just over 4%.

  16. 78 FR 25488 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear..., ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' DG-1235 is proposed Revision 1 of RG... Stations in order to demonstrate their ability to perform their intended safety functions under...

  17. A test of syndromic surveillance using a severe acute respiratory syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, David J; Arquilla, Bonnie; Heffernan, Richard; Kramer, Martin; Anderson, Todd; Bernstein, David; Augenbraun, Michael

    2009-05-01

    We describe a field simulation that was conducted using volunteers to assess the ability of 3 hospitals in a network to manage a large influx of patients with a potentially communicable disease. This drill provided the opportunity to evaluate the ability of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (NYC-DOHMH) emergency department chief complaint syndromic surveillance system to detect a cluster of patients with febrile respiratory illness. The evaluation was a prospective simulation. The clinical picture was modeled on severe acute respiratory syndrome symptoms. Forty-four volunteers participated in the drill as mock patients. Records from 42 patients (95%) were successfully transmitted to the NYC-DOHMH. The electronic chief complaint for 24 (57%) of these patients indicated febrile or respiratory illness. The drill did not generate a statistical signal in the NYC-DOHMH SaTScan analysis. The 42 drill patients were classified in 8 hierarchical categories based on chief complaints: sepsis (2), cold (3), diarrhea (2), respiratory (20), fever/flu (4), vomit (3), and other (8). The number of respiratory visits, while elevated on the day of the drill, did not appear particularly unusual when compared with the 14-day baseline period used for spatial analyses. This drill with a cluster of patients with febrile respiratory illness failed to trigger a signal from the NYC-DOHMH emergency department chief complaint syndromic surveillance system. This highlighted several limitations and challenges to syndromic surveillance monitoring.

  18. An Assessment of Testing Requirement Impacts on Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Facility Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipers, Larry R.; Ottinger, Cathy A.; Sanchez, Lawrence C.

    1994-07-01

    Programs to develop solid core nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been under way at the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). These programs have recognized the need for a new ground test facility to support development of NTP systems. However, the different military and civilian applications have led to different ground test facility requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as landlord and operator of the proposed research reactor test facilities has initiated an effort to explore opportunities for a common ground test facility to meet both DoD and NASA needs. The baseline design and operating limits of the proposed DoD NTP ground test facility are described. The NASA ground test facility requirements are reviewed and their potential impact on the DoD facility baseline is discussed.

  19. An assessment of testing requirement impacts on nuclear thermal propulsion ground test facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipers, L.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.

    1993-10-25

    Programs to develop solid core nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been under way at the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). These programs have recognized the need for a new ground test facility to support development of NTP systems. However, the different military and civilian applications have led to different ground test facility requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as landlord and operator of the proposed research reactor test facilities has initiated an effort to explore opportunities for a common ground test facility to meet both DoD and NASA needs. The baseline design and operating limits of the proposed DoD NTP ground test facility are described. The NASA ground test facility requirements are reviewed and their potential impact on the DoD facility baseline is discussed.

  20. Epidemiological Surveillance at Electricite de France and Gaz de France: Health Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Employers between 1993 and 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, A.; Gros, H.; Carrier, E.; Labon, G.

    2004-07-01

    Because the 17,500 employees working in nuclear power plants at Electricite de France, the national power company, may be exposed to a wide variety of industrial hazards, the health insurance department of the company has set up an epidemiologic surveillance programme for them. This descriptive, cross-sectional,and exhaustive study examined sick-leaves, mortality and cancer incidence to assess the health of the employees working from 1993 through 1998. The analysis comparing the employees in nuclear power plants, considered exposed, to the rest of the personnel of Electricite de France-Gaz de France, the non-exposed (125,000 persons) showed that globally, the employees in the nuclear sector appeared to have fewer health problems than the other company employees. This was true regardless of age and especially for men, operating employees, and supervisory employees. Nonetheless three points must be noted: non-work accidents generated a non-significant excess of absenteeism and mortality among these employees, especially among management and supervisory personnel; suicides affected supervisors in particular; and an excess of primary malignant brain tumors affected both mortality (RR{sub 1}.96, NS) and incidence, especially among operating employees (RR=2.87, 95% CL=(1.00-8.43)). No excess of malignant blood disease was observed. (Author) 38 refs.

  1. Ice cloud modeling upgrade to GRC's Advanced Surveillance Test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Anthony L.; Robbins, Howard M.

    1995-09-01

    The development and evaluation of signal and data processing algorithms for IR surveillance systems is critically dependent on realistic simulations of targets and background. The Advanced Surveillance Testbed has been developed by GRC to perform such simulations. It has recently been upgraded to include models for the scattering of sunlight from high-altitude clouds of ice-crystals. The ice cloud models in the Advanced Surveillance Testbed are designed primarily for the SWIR and MWIR bands. The ice clouds are assumed to have nominally flat upper surfaces, and to be composed of hexagonal crystals (plates, columns, or intermediates), with any of several alternative distributions of shapes and sizes. The ice- crystals are assumed to rotate randomly about their hexagonal axes, but the user can choose from several models for the orientation of this axis: random isotropic, random horizonal, or nominally vertical. A single scattering model is used, with the small-angle forward scattering removed by renormalization. The scattering is calculated by geometrical optics, using algorithms based on the papers published by Liou, Takano, Cai, and Coleman. However, the GRC implementation includes some innovations that greatly increase its computational efficiency. In the SWIR band, the refractive index is highly variable. Its imaginary part varies by orders of magnitude, and its real part can be less than unity, causing total external reflections. Therefore, it is necessary to perform the computations for multiple IR wavelengths and combine the results. The calculations include two-way atmospheric transmission for the relevant wavelengths and the assumed cloud altitude. The model and its utility will be discussed.

  2. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1

  3. Current Ground Test Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    About 20 different NTP engines/ reactors were tested from 1959 to 1972 as part of the Rover and Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program. Most were tested in open air at test cell A or test cell C, at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Even after serious engine breakdowns of the reactor (e.g., Phoebus 1A), the test cells were cleaned up for other engine tests. The engine test stand (ETS) was made for high altitude (approximately 1 psia) testing of an NTP engine with a flight configuration, but still had the exhaust released to open air. The Rover/NERVA program became aware of new environmental regulations which would prohibit the release of any significant quantity of radioactive particulates and noble gases into the open air. The nuclear furnace (NF-1) was the last reactor tested before the program was cancelled in 1973, but successfully demonstrated a scrubber concept on how to filter the NTP exhaust. The NF-1 was demonstrated in the summer of 1972. The NF-1 used a 44MW reactor and operated each run for approximately 90 minutes. The system cooled the hot hydrogen exhaust from the engine with a water spray before entering a particle filter. The exhaust then passed through a series of heat exchangers and water separators to help remove water from the exhaust and further reduce the exhaust temperatures. The exhaust was next prepared for the charcoal trap by passing through a dryer and effluent cooler to bring exhaust temperatures close to liquid nitrogen. At those low temperatures, most of the noble gases (e.g., Xe and Kr made from fission products) get captured in the charcoal trap. The filtered hydrogen is finally passed through a flare stack and released to the air. The concept was overall successful but did show a La plating on some surfaces and had multiple recommendations for improvement. The most recent detailed study on the NTP scrubber concept was performed by the ARES Corporation in 2006. The concept is based on a 50,000 lbf thrust engine

  4. Experimental facility for testing nuclear instruments for planetary landing missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, Dmitry; Mitrofanov, Igor; Litvak, Maxim; Kozyrev, Alexander; Sanin, Anton; Vostrukhin, Andrey

    2017-04-01

    The experimental facility for testing and calibration of nuclear planetology instruments has been built in the frame of JINR and Space Research Institute (Moscow) cooperation. The Martian soil model from silicate glass with dimensions 3.82 x 3.21 m and total weight near 30 tons has been assembled in the facility. The glass material was chosen for imitation of dry Martian regolith. The heterogeneous model has been proposed and developed to achieve the most possible similarity with Martian soil in part of the average elemental composition by adding layers of necessary materials, such as iron, aluminum, and chlorine. The presence of subsurface water ice is simulated by adding layers of polyethylene at different depths inside glass model assembly. Neutron generator was used as a neutron source to induce characteristic gamma rays for testing active neutron and gamma spectrometers to define elements composition of the model. The instrumentation was able to detect gamma lines attributed to H, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca and Fe. The identified elements compose up to 95 wt % of total mass of the planetary soil model. This results will be used for designing scientific instruments to performing experiments of active neutron and gamma ray spectroscopy on the surface of the planets during Russian and international missions Luna-Glob, Luna-Resource and ExoMars-2020.

  5. Accountability and non-proliferation nuclear regime: a review of the mutual surveillance Brazilian-Argentine model for nuclear safeguards; Accountability e regime de nao proliferacao nuclear: uma avaliacao do modelo de vigilancia mutua brasileiro-argentina de salvaguardas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles

    2014-08-01

    The regimes of accountability, the organizations of global governance and institutional arrangements of global governance of nuclear non-proliferation and of Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards are the subject of research. The starting point is the importance of the institutional model of global governance for the effective control of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. In this context, the research investigates how to structure the current arrangements of the international nuclear non-proliferation and what is the performance of model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards in relation to accountability regimes of global governance. For that, was searched the current literature of three theoretical dimensions: accountability, global governance and global governance organizations. In relation to the research method was used the case study and the treatment technique of data the analysis of content. The results allowed: to establish an evaluation model based on accountability mechanisms; to assess how behaves the model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine Nuclear Safeguards front of the proposed accountability regime; and to measure the degree to which regional arrangements that work with systems of global governance can strengthen these international systems. (author)

  6. Single versus double testing of meat-juice samples for Salmonella antibodies, in the Danish pig-herd surveillance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeroth, Lars; Alban, Lis; Feld, Niels

    2003-08-01

    In Denmark, a national serological surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in pigs has been in operation since 1995. The programme is based on the Danish mix-ELISA and uses double testing (two ELISA-wells used per sample) of meat-juice samples taken in relation to slaughter. All herds are classified monthly into one of the three levels; the classification is based on the percentage of positive serological results in the previous 3 months. In connection with evaluation of the programme in 2001, we investigated whether single testing (testing in one well only) could be expected to be sufficiently precise compared to double testing. Data from the year 2000 were used, and mathematical modelling. Single testing was simulated by randomised selection of one of the two results in the double testing. A slight increase in the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples (1.02-1.09 times more through the four quarters of the year 2000) was found in the simulated single testing, as compared to the double testing. Around 0.5% of the herds would be allocated to another herd level in single testing-almost equal numbers one level up and one level down. No herd being seronegative in double testing would be allocated to levels 2 or 3 (herds with >40 or >70%, respectively, serological reactors) in single testing. The prevalence of "false-positive" diagnoses (positive in single testing and negative in double testing) and inversely defined "false-negative" diagnoses varied from 4.2 to 8.7% and from 3.2 to 4.5%, respectively, through the four quarters of the year 2000. The probability of allocating a herd to a wrong level due to sampling error was on the average 6.2 (varying from 1.66 to over 100) times higher than the probability of allocating a herd to a wrong level due to the test inaccuracy introduced by going from double to single testing. This is, however, an average; a herd with a true prevalence close to one of the level border cut-offs (40 and 70% weighted seroprevalence

  7. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    09/205_119828.html; and Foster Klug and Matthew Pennington, “Photos Show NKorea Nuclear Readiness,” Associated Press/ ABC News, December 28, 2012, http...the CTBT, lack of Chinese ratification, U.S. efforts to seek renegotiation of the ABM Treaty, and efforts to ban nuclear weapons in the Middle East led...Readiness,” Associated Press/ ABC News, December 28, 2012, http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/ap- exclusive-photos-show-nkorea-nuclear

  8. North Korea’s 2009 Nuclear Test: Containment, Monitoring, Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    50 years of the nuclear weapons era, radiochemistry techniques were developed and used to determine the characteristics (such as yield, materials...meet national needs. Similarly, Congress, in P.L. 111-140, Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act, found, “The number of radiochemistry programs and

  9. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  10. A Hydrogen Containment Process For Nuclear Thermal Engine Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. The hydrogen exhaust from the engine is contained in two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. The burner burns off the majority of the hydrogen, and the remaining hydrogen is removed in the tubular heat exchanger through the species recombination mechanism. A multi-dimensional, pressure-based multiphase computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to conceptually sizing the oxygen-rich burner, while a one-dimensional thermal analysis methodology was used to conceptually sizing the heat exchanger. Subsequently, a steady-state operation of the entire hydrogen containment process, from pressure vessel, through nozzle, diffuser, burner and heat exchanger, was simulated numerically, with the afore-mentioned computational fluid dynamics methodology. The computational results show that 99% of hydrogen reduction is achieved at the end of the burner, and the rest of the hydrogen is removed to a trivial level in the heat exchanger. The computed flammability at the exit of the heat exchanger is less than the lower flammability limit, confirming the hydrogen containment capability of the proposed process.

  11. Radionuclide Partitioning in an Underground Nuclear Test Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, T P; Hu, Q; Zhao, P; Conrado, C L; Dickerson, R; Eaton, G F; Kersting, A B; Moran, J E; Nimz, G; Powell, B A; Ramon, E C; Ryerson, F J; Williams, R W; Wooddy, P T; Zavarin, M

    2009-01-09

    In 2004, a borehole was drilled into the 1983 Chancellor underground nuclear test cavity to investigate the distribution of radionuclides within the cavity. Sidewall core samples were collected from a range of depths within the re-entry hole and two sidetrack holes. Upon completion of drilling, casing was installed and a submersible pump was used to collect groundwater samples. Test debris and groundwater samples were analyzed for a variety of radionuclides including the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 155}Eu, the activation products {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 154}Eu, and the actinides U, Pu, and Am. In addition, the physical and bulk chemical properties of the test debris were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Microprobe measurements. Analytical results were used to evaluate the partitioning of radionuclides between the melt glass, rubble, and groundwater phases in the Chancellor test cavity. Three comparative approaches were used to calculate partitioning values, though each method could not be applied to every nuclide. These approaches are based on: (1) the average Area 19 inventory from Bowen et al. (2001); (2) melt glass, rubble, and groundwater mass estimates from Zhao et al. (2008); and (3) fission product mass yield data from England and Rider (1994). The U and Pu analyses of the test debris are classified and partitioning estimates for these elements were calculated directly from the classified Miller et al. (2002) inventory for the Chancellor test. The partitioning results from this study were compared to partitioning data that were previously published by the IAEA (1998). Predictions of radionuclide distributions from the two studies are in agreement for a majority of the nuclides under consideration. Substantial differences were noted in the partitioning values for {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, and uranium. These differences are attributable to two factors

  12. Use of bioindicators in the environmental radiological surveillance of Mexican Nuclear Center; Utilizacion de biondicadores en la vigilancia radiologica ambiental del Centro Nuclear de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaso P, M.I.; Segovia, N.; Herrera, T.; Perez S, E.; Cervantes, M.L.; Quintero, E.; Palacios, J.; Acosta, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Herrera, T. [UNAM Instituto Biologia, 04510 Ciudad Univ., Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    Cs-137 and K-40 concentrations were determined in soil samples and wild eatable mushrooms at the forest ecosystem of Mexican Nuclear Center and its surrounding area. The evaluation was carried out with a low bottom gamma spectroscopy system including a high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The local species that showed greater soil-mushroom transference factor, for Cs-137, were Clavariadelphus truncatus, Cortinarius caerulescenc, Gomphus floccosus and Lyophyllum decastes. The Cs-137 levels obtained in the mushroom samples of Nuclear Center, were in general slightly lower than those of adjacent places, which indicates that this Center is not polluting the atmosphere with such radionuclide. (Author)

  13. Simulation model estimates of test accuracy and predictive values for the Danish Salmonella surveillance program in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnick, L.D.; Nielsen, L.R.; Nielsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    antibody measurements for infected and noninfected herds were determined from field study data. Herd infection was defined as having either >= 1 Salmonella culture-positive fecal sample or >= 5% within-herd prevalence based on antibody measurements in serum or milk from individual animals. No distinction......The Danish government and cattle industry instituted a Salmonella surveillance program in October 2002 to help reduce Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Dublin (S. Dublin) infections. All dairy herds are tested by measuring antibodies in bulk tank milk at 3-month intervals. The program...... is based on a well-established ELISA, but the overall test program accuracy and misclassification was not previously investigated. We developed a model to simulate repeated bulk tank milk antibody measurements for dairy herds conditional on true infection status. The distributions of bulk tank milk...

  14. Evaluation of Multiplex-Based Antibody Testing for Use in Large-Scale Surveillance for Yaws: a Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Gretchen M; Mitja, Oriol; Goodhew, Brook; Pillay, Allan; Lammie, Patrick J; Castro, Arnold; Moses, Penias; Chen, Cheng; Ye, Tun; Ballard, Ronald; Martin, Diana L

    2016-05-01

    WHO has targeted yaws for global eradication by 2020. The program goals are to interrupt the transmission in countries where yaws is endemic and to certify countries as yaws free where yaws was endemic in the past. No new rapid plasmin reagin (RPR) seroreactivity in young children is required for certification of elimination at a country level. We sought to evaluate whether antibody responses to specific treponemal antigens measured in a high-throughput multiplex bead array (MBA) assay differentiate past versus current infection and whether a nontreponemal lipoidal antigen test can be incorporated into the MBA. Serum and dried blood spot specimens collected for yaws surveillance projects in Ghana, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea (PNG) were run on MBA to measure antibodies against recombinant p17 (rp17) and treponemal membrane protein A (TmpA) treponemal antigens. Results were compared to standard treponemal laboratory (TPPA or TPHA [TPP(H)A]) and quantitative RPR test data. Of 589 specimens, 241 were TPP(H)A(+)/RPR(+), 88 were TPP(H)A(+)/RPR(-), 6 were TPP(H)A(-)/RPR(+), and 254 were negative for both tests. Compared to TPP(H)A, reactive concordance of rp17 was 93.7%, while reactive concordance of TmpA was only 81.9%. TmpA-specific reactivity showed good correlation with RPR titers (R(2) = 0.41; P RPR testing (cardiolipin) were not detected in the MBA. Our results suggest that TmpA can be used as a treponemal antigen marker for recent or active infection and potentially replace RPR in a high-throughput multiplex tool for large-scale yaws surveillance.

  15. Analysis of North Korea's Nuclear Tests under Prospect Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Ryu, Jae Soo; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Jun, Eunju; Kim, Mi Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    North Korea has chosen nuclear weapons as the means to protect its sovereignty. Despite international society's endeavors and sanctions to encourage North Korea to abandon its nuclear ambition, North Korea has repeatedly conducted nuclear testing. In this paper, the reason for North Korea's addiction to a nuclear arsenal is addressed within the framework of cognitive psychology. The prospect theory addresses an epistemological approach usually overlooked in rational choice theories. It provides useful implications why North Korea, being under a crisis situation has thrown out a stable choice but taken on a risky one such as nuclear testing. Under the viewpoint of prospect theory, nuclear tests by North Korea can be understood as follows: The first nuclear test in 2006 is seen as a trial to escape from loss areas such as financial sanctions and regime threats; the second test in 2009 was interpreted as a consequence of the strategy to recover losses by making a direct confrontation against the United States; and the third test in 2013 was understood as an attempt to strengthen internal solidarity after Kim Jong-eun inherited the dynasty, as well as to enhance bargaining power against the United States. Thus, it can be summarized that Pyongyang repeated its nuclear tests to escape from a negative domain and to settle into a positive one. In addition, in the future, North Korea may not be willing to readily give up its nuclear capabilities to ensure the survival of its own regime.

  16. Non-destructive Testing Dummy Nuclear Fuel Rods by Neutron Radiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Guo-hai; HAN; Song-bai; HE; Lin-feng; WANG; Yu; WANG; Hong-li; LIU; Yun-tao; CHEN; Dong-feng

    2013-01-01

    As a unique non-destructive testing technique,neutron radiography can be used to measure nuclear fuel rods with radioactivity.The images of the dummy nuclear fuel rods were obtained at the CARR.Through imaging analysis methods,the structure defections,the hydrogen accumulation in the cladding and the 235U enrichment of the pellet were studied and analyzed.Experiences for non-destructive testing real PWR nuclear fuel rods by NR

  17. Hydrogen Wave Heater for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Component Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) as a propulsion concept which could provide the fastest trip times to Mars and as the preferred concept for...

  18. Subsurface Completion Report for Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echelard, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska, in 1965, 1969, and 1971. The effects of the Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin tests on the environment were extensively investigated during and following the detonations, and the area continues to be monitored today. This report is intended to document the basis for the Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin (hereafter referred to as ''Amchitka Site'') subsurface completion recommendation of No Further Remedial Action Planned with Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance, and define the long-term surveillance and maintenance strategy for the subsurface. A number of factors were considered in evaluating and selecting this recommendation for the Amchitka Site. Historical studies and monitoring data, ongoing monitoring data, the results of groundwater modeling, and the results of an independent stakeholder-guided scientific investigation were also considered in deciding the completion action. Water sampling during and following the testing showed no indication that radionuclides were released to the near surface, or marine environment with the exception of tritium, krypton-85, and iodine-131 found in the immediate vicinity of Long Shot surface ground zero. One year after Long Shot, only tritium was detectable (Merritt and Fuller, 1977). These tritium levels, which were routinely monitored and have continued to decline since the test, are above background levels but well below the current safe drinking water standard. There are currently no feasible means to contain or remove radionuclides in or around the test cavities beneath the sites. Surface remediation was conducted in 2001. Eleven drilling mud pits associated with the Long Shot, Milrow and Cannikin sites were remediated. Ten pits were remediated by stabilizing the contaminants and constructing an impermeable cap over each pit. One pit was remediated by removing all of the contaminated mud

  19. Subsurface Completion Report for Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echelard, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska, in 1965, 1969, and 1971. The effects of the Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin tests on the environment were extensively investigated during and following the detonations, and the area continues to be monitored today. This report is intended to document the basis for the Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin (hereafter referred to as ''Amchitka Site'') subsurface completion recommendation of No Further Remedial Action Planned with Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance, and define the long-term surveillance and maintenance strategy for the subsurface. A number of factors were considered in evaluating and selecting this recommendation for the Amchitka Site. Historical studies and monitoring data, ongoing monitoring data, the results of groundwater modeling, and the results of an independent stakeholder-guided scientific investigation were also considered in deciding the completion action. Water sampling during and following the testing showed no indication that radionuclides were released to the near surface, or marine environment with the exception of tritium, krypton-85, and iodine-131 found in the immediate vicinity of Long Shot surface ground zero. One year after Long Shot, only tritium was detectable (Merritt and Fuller, 1977). These tritium levels, which were routinely monitored and have continued to decline since the test, are above background levels but well below the current safe drinking water standard. There are currently no feasible means to contain or remove radionuclides in or around the test cavities beneath the sites. Surface remediation was conducted in 2001. Eleven drilling mud pits associated with the Long Shot, Milrow and Cannikin sites were remediated. Ten pits were remediated by stabilizing the contaminants and constructing an impermeable cap over each pit. One pit was remediated by removing all of the contaminated mud

  20. Non-destructive-Testing of Nuclear Fuel Element by Means of Neutron Imaging Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel element is the key component of nuclear reactor. People have to make strictly testing of the element to make sure the reactor operating safely. Neutron imaging is one of Non-destructive-Testing (NDT) techniques, which are very important techniques for

  1. Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L

    2017-04-21

    Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture(†); if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.

  2. Situation of the environmental surveillance and situation of the water table and rivers labelling around nuclear sites and old radioactive waste storages. Report for the high committee for the transparency and information on nuclear safety; Etat de la surveillance environnementale et bilan du marquage des nappes phreatiques et des cours d'eau autour des sites nucleaires et des entreposages anciens de dechets radioactifs. Rapport pour le haut comite pour la transparence et l'information sur la securite nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The High Committee for the openness and information on nuclear safety (H.C.T.I.S.N.) requested a study at I.R.S.N. concerning the situation of the surveillance of media and their quality and the diffusion of this information near the public, the identification of ground water or rivers that would present a radiological or chemical labelling, the link of these elements with the future national network of the radioactivity measurement in environment. This assessment must also allow to take stock of the situation relative to the surveillance of the quality of ground water that flow out of the level of old radioactive waste storages, especially registered in the ANDRA inventory. I.R.S.N. chose to limit its contribution: to the sites housing nuclear base installations and nuclear base installations that have been classified secret that come under the Minister in charge of energy; to old radioactive wastes storages located in these installations. (N.C.)

  3. Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Solid State Track Recorder (SSTR) Monitors for Reactor Surveillance, E706(IIIB)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the use of solid-state track recorders (SSTRs) for neutron dosimetry in light-water reactor (LWR) applications. These applications extend from low neutron fluence to high neutron fluence, including high power pressure vessel surveillance and test reactor irradiations as well as low power benchmark field measurement. (1) This test method replaces Method E 418. This test method is more detailed and special attention is given to the use of state-of-the-art manual and automated track counting methods to attain high absolute accuracies. In-situ dosimetry in actual high fluence-high temperature LWR applications is emphasized. 1.2 This test method includes SSTR analysis by both manual and automated methods. To attain a desired accuracy, the track scanning method selected places limits on the allowable track density. Typically good results are obtained in the range of 5 to 800 000 tracks/cm2 and accurate results at higher track densities have been demonstrated for some cases. (2) Trac...

  4. Risk factors for changing test classification in the Danish surveillance program for Salmonella in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lennarth Ravn; Warnick, L. D.; Greiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    test positive to negative, whereas the breed and neighbor factors were not found to be important for small herds. Organic production was associated with remaining test positive, but not with becoming test positive. The results emphasize the importance of external and internal biosecurity measures...

  5. Without Testing: Stockpile Stewardship in the Second Nuclear Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, Joseph C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-07

    Stockpile stewardship is a topic dear to my heart. I’ve been fascinated by it, and I’ve lived it—mostly on the technical side but also on the policy side from 2009 to 2010 at Stanford University as a visiting scholar and the inaugural William J. Perry Fellow. At Stanford I worked with Perry, former secretary of defense, and Sig Hecker, former Los Alamos Lab director (1986–1997), looking at nuclear deterrence, nuclear policy, and stockpile stewardship and at where all this was headed.

  6. Lessons Learned in Applying Accelerometers to Nuclear Effects Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Walter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exoatmospheric nuclear effects, such as those that would be encounter by reentry bodies, provide instantaneous (near zero-duration, impulsive loading of structures. Endoatmospheric nuclear effects possess an impulse that is finite in duration, but whose rise time is still instantaneous. The commonality of these loadings is that they initiate waves propagating through structures, resulting in extremely short duration accelerations to free surfaces where accelerometers are mounted. Over the years, attempts have been made to measure free surface accelerations using ceramic, quartz, and piezoresistive accelerometers. This paper describes the lessons learned, and looks to the future. It also provides a history of shock accelerometer development.

  7. Improving national surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis in Denmark through electronic reporting of specific antibody index testing from 2010 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram Benny; Espenhain, L; Mølbak, K

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the results of automated surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Denmark using the national microbiology database (MiBa), and to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed LNB at a national level. MiBa-based surveillance includes electronic transfer of labora......Our aim was to evaluate the results of automated surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Denmark using the national microbiology database (MiBa), and to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed LNB at a national level. MiBa-based surveillance includes electronic transfer...

  8. Foucault, surveillance, and carbon monoxide testing within stop-smoking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Aimee; Ashton, Kathryn; Phillips, Rhiannon

    2015-07-01

    Health professionals have adopted proactive testing for early evidence of disease. Researchers have identified that this leads to enumerated understandings and shapes behavior in productive ways. Smoking-cessation advisors regularly test clients for carbon monoxide (CO), but client views of this had not previously been explored. We interviewed 23 clients of a United Kingdom-based stop-smoking service regarding their experiences of CO testing. The majority of participants were successful quitters. We used ATLAS.ti 7 as a data-management tool during structured qualitative analysis. Our findings reveal that clients believed the results of their CO tests. Many became enumerated in their understanding, and thus placed themselves in a hierarchy with other members of their group. Almost all clients found that knowing their CO test score was motivating. We conclude that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of CO testing among clients who do not quit.

  9. Operation TEAPOT, 1955 Continental Nuclear Weapons Test Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-23

    Engineering Co., Inc.) ATTN: Mr. Richard V. Nutley 2753 S. Highland P.O. Box 14100 Phone: (702) 734-3194 Las Vegas, Nevada 89114 FTS: 598-3194 Source...DASA. WT-1225. 10/28/59. 98 Pages. (A05) AD 460 282.* 236. McConnel, E.; Sampson, G. 0.; Sharf , J. M. "The Effect of Nuclear Explosions on Commercially

  10. NASTRAN Analysis Comparison to Shock Tube Tests Used to Simulate Nuclear Overpressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheless, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents a study of the effectiveness of the NASTRAN computer code for predicting structural response to nuclear blast overpressures. NASTRAN's effectiveness is determined by comparing results against shock tube tests used to simulate nuclear overpressures. Seven panels of various configurations are compared in this study. Panel deflections are the criteria used to measure NASTRAN's effectiveness. This study is a result of needed improvements in the survivability/vulnerability analyses subjected to nuclear blast.

  11. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Thermal hydraulic tests for reactor safety system-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Moon Kee; Park, Choon Kyung; Yang, Sun Kyoo; Chun, Se Yung; Song, Chul Hwa; Jun, Hyung Kil; Jung, Heung Joon; Won, Soon Yun; Cho, Yung Roh; Min, Kyung Hoh; Jung, Jang Hwan; Jang, Suk Kyoo; Kim, Bok Deuk; Kim, Wooi Kyung; Huh, Jin; Kim, Sook Kwan; Moon, Sang Kee; Lee, Sang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    The present research aims at the development of the thermal hydraulic verification test technology for the safety system of the conventional and advanced nuclear power plant and the development of the advanced thermal hydraulic measuring techniques. In this research, test facilities simulating the primary coolant system and safety system are being constructed for the design verification tests of the existing and advanced nuclear power plant. 97 figs, 14 tabs, 65 refs. (Author).

  12. High Fidelity Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing: Analysis and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power system, providing system characterization data and allowing one to work through various fabrication, assembly and integration issues without the cost and time associated with a full ground nuclear test. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Testing with non-optimized heater elements allows one to assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. High fidelity thermal simulators that match both the static and the dynamic fuel pin performance that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor can vastly increase the value of non-nuclear test results. With optimized simulators, the integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronie response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing, providing a better assessment of system integration issues, characterization of integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assessment of potential design improvements' at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial conceptual thermal simulator designs are determined by simple one-dimensional analysis at a single axial location and at steady state conditions; feasible concepts are then input into a detailed three-dimensional model for comparison to expected fuel pin performance. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance for a proposed reactor design is determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and comparison is made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analyses, a conceptual high fidelity design can developed. Test results presented in this paper correspond to a "first cut" simulator design for a potential

  13. Completion of Flow Interruption Capability Test Stand for Functional Qualification Test of Valves Used in Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Dao-xi; QI; Xiao-guang; ZHAI; Wei-ming; YANG; Bing; ZHOU; Ping

    2013-01-01

    The flow interruption capability test of valve is used for researching the capability of the valves used in nuclear power plants emergently shut off the flow,when the reactor loop is in emergency situations,especially in the design basis accident conditions.This test is one of the most difficult tests in the functional

  14. JOINT INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE, & RECONNAISSANCE (ISR) TEST & EVALUATION (JISR-TE) FACILITY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To meet the needs of the Warfighter, the JISR-TE facility provides the US, NATO, and Coalition members standards conformance testing of imagery capabilities across...

  15. Long Term Outcomes of BRCA1/BRCA2 Testing: Risk Reduction and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marc D.; Isaacs, Claudine; Graves, Kristi D.; Poggi, Elizabeth; Peshkin, Beth N.; Gell, Christy; Finch, Clinton; Kelly, Scott; Taylor, Kathryn L.; Perley, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Purpose For BRCA1/BRCA2 gene testing to benefit public health, mutation carriers must initiate appropriate risk management strategies. There has been little research examining the long-term use and prospective predictors of the full range of risk management behaviors among women who have undergone BRCA1/2 testing. We evaluated long-term uptake and predictors of risk reducing mastectomy (RRM), risk reducing oophorectomy (RRBSO), chemoprevention and cancer screening among women at a mean of 5.3 years post testing. Patients and Methods Participants were 465 women who underwent BRCA1/2 testing. Prior to genetic counseling, we measured family/personal cancer history, sociodemographics, perceived risk, cancer-specific and general distress. We contacted patients at a mean of 5.3-years post-testing to measure use of: RRM; RRBSO; chemoprevention; breast and ovarian cancer screening. Results Among participants with intact breasts and/or ovaries at the time of testing, BRCA1/2 carriers were significantly more likely to obtain RRM (37%) and RRBSO (65%) compared to women who received uninformative (RRM=6.8%; RRBSO=13.3%) or negative (RRM=0%; RRBSO=1.9%) results. Among carriers, pre-counseling anxiety was associated with subsequent uptake of RRM. RRO was predicted by age. Carriers were also more likely have used breast cancer chemoprevention and have obtained a screening MRI. Conclusion This prospective evaluation of the uptake and predictors of long-term management outcomes provides a clearer picture of decision making in this population. By a mean of 5.3 years post-testing, more than 80% of carriers had obtained RRM, RRBSO or both, suggesting that BRCA1/2 testing is likely to favorably impact breast and ovarian cancer outcomes. PMID:21717445

  16. Development and evaluation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for quality control tests and radiological protection activities in a Nuclear Medicine Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krempser, Alexandre R., E-mail: krempser@peb.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEB/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Biomedica; Soares, Alexandre B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Corbo, Rossana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (FM/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2011-07-01

    The quality management in Nuclear Medicine Services is a requirement of national and international standards. The Brazilian regulatory agency in health surveillance, the Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA), in its Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada (Collegiate Directory Resolution) no. 38, requires the elaboration of documents describing the technical and clinical routine activities. This study aimed to elaborate, implement and evaluate Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for quality control tests and radiological protection activities in the Nuclear Medicine Service of a university hospital. Eighteen SOPs were developed, involving tasks related to dose calibrator, gamma camera, Geiger-Muller detectors and radiological protection activities. The performance of its application was evaluated for a period of six months. It was observed a reduction in 75% of reported operational errors and 42% of the number of reported incidents with contamination by radioactive material. The SOPs were adequate and successful in its application. New procedures involving clinical activities will also be developed and evaluated. (author)

  17. HIV incidence estimate combining HIV/AIDS surveillance, testing history information and HIV test to identify recent infections in Lazio, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammone Alessia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of serological methods in HIV/AIDS routine surveillance systems to identify persons with recently acquired HIV infection has been proposed as a tool which may provide an accurate description of the current transmission patterns of HIV. Using the information about recent infection it is possible to estimate HIV incidence, according to the model proposed by Karon et al. in 2008, that accounts for the effect of testing practices on the number of persons detected as recently infected. Methods We used data from HIV/AIDS surveillance in the period 2004-2008 to identify newly diagnosed persons. These were classified with recent/non-recent infection on the basis of an avidity index result, or laboratory evidence of recently acquired infection (i.e., previous documented negative HIV test within 6 months; or presence of HIV RNA or p24 antigen with simultaneous negative/indeterminate HIV antibody test. Multiple imputation was used to impute missing information. The incidence estimate was obtained as the number of persons detected as recently infected divided by the estimated probability of detection. Estimates were stratified by calendar year, transmission category, gender and nationality. Results During the period considered 3,633 new HIV diagnoses were reported to the regional surveillance system. Applying the model, we estimated that in 2004-2008 there were 5,465 new infections (95%CI: 4,538-6,461; stratifying by transmission category, the estimated number of infections was 2,599 among heterosexual contacts, 2,208 among men-who-have-sex-with-men, and 763 among injecting-drug-users. In 2008 there were 952 (625-1,229 new HIV infections (incidence of 19.9 per 100,000 person-years. In 2008, for men-who-have-sex-with-men (691 per 100,000 person-years and injecting drug users (577 per 100,000 person-years the incidence remained comparatively high with respect to the general population, although a decreasing pattern during

  18. Comparison of Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Data from State-Mandated School Physical Fitness Testing and a Districtwide Surveillance Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaokham, Christina B.; Hillidge, Sharon; Serpas, Shaila; McDonald, Eric; Nader, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately one third of California school-age children are overweight or obese. Legislative approaches to assessing obesity have focused on school-based data collection. During 2010-2011, the Chula Vista Elementary School District conducted districtwide surveillance and state-mandated physical fitness testing (PFT) among fifth grade…

  19. Comparison of Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Data from State-Mandated School Physical Fitness Testing and a Districtwide Surveillance Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaokham, Christina B.; Hillidge, Sharon; Serpas, Shaila; McDonald, Eric; Nader, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately one third of California school-age children are overweight or obese. Legislative approaches to assessing obesity have focused on school-based data collection. During 2010-2011, the Chula Vista Elementary School District conducted districtwide surveillance and state-mandated physical fitness testing (PFT) among fifth grade…

  20. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site. Nuclear chimney analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, J.M.

    1985-12-01

    Investigations of barometric pressure testing of NTS nuclear chimneys were reviewed. This review includes the models used in the interpretation, methods of analysis, and results. Analytic and semi-analytic models were presented and applied to both historical data and new data taken for this current project. An interpretation technique based on non-linear least squares methods was used to analyze this data in terms of historic and more recent chimney models. Finally, a detailed discussion of radioactive gas transport due to surface barometric pressure fluctuations was presented. This mechanism of transport, referred to as ''barometric pumping,'' is presented in terms of conditions likely to be encountered at the NTS. The report concludes with a discussion of the current understanding of gas flow properties in the alluvial and volcanic areas of the NTS, and suggestions for future efforts directed toward increasing this understanding are presented.

  1. Hanford spent nuclear fuel hot conditioning system test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1997-09-16

    This document provides the test procedures for cold testing of the prototype Hot Conditioning System (HCS) at the 306E Facility. The primary objective of this testing is to confirm design choices and provide data for the detailed design package prior to procurement of the process equipment. The current scope of testing in this document includes a fabricability study of the HCS, equipment performance testing of the HCS components, heat-up and cool-down cycle simulation, and robotic arm testing.

  2. Ongoing research experiments at the former Soviet nuclear test site in eastern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, William S.; Kluchko, Luke J.; Konovalov, Vladimir; Vouille, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    Degelen mountain, located in EasternKazakhstan near the city of Semipalatinsk, was once the Soviets most active underground nuclear test site. Two hundred fifteen nuclear tests were conducted in 181 tunnels driven horizontally into its many ridges--almost twice the number of tests as at any other Soviet underground nuclear test site. It was also the site of the first Soviet underground nuclear test--a 1-kiloton device detonated on October 11, 1961. Until recently, the details of testing at Degelen were kept secret and have been the subject of considerable speculation. However, in 1991, the Semipalatinsk test site became part of the newly independent Republic of Kazakhstan; and in 1995, the Kazakhstani government concluded an agreement with the U.S. Department of Defense to eliminate the nuclear testing infrastructure in Kazakhstan. This agreement, which calls for the "demilitarization of the infrastructure directly associated with the nuclear weapons test tunnels," has been implemented as the "Degelen Mountain Tunnel Closure Program." The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, in partnership with the Department of Energy, has permitted the use of the tunnel closure project at the former nuclear test site as a foundation on which to support cost-effective, research-and-development-funded experiments. These experiments are principally designed to improve U.S. capabilities to monitor and verify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), but have provided a new source of information on the effects of nuclear and chemical explosions on hard, fractured rock environments. These new data extends and confirms the results of recent Russian publications on the rock environment at the site and the mechanical effects of large-scale chemical and nuclear testing. In 1998, a large-scale tunnel closure experiment, Omega-1, was conducted in Tunnel 214 at Degelen mountain. In this experiment, a 100-ton chemical explosive blast was used to test technologies for monitoring the

  3. Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for yaws infection in a community surveillance setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yaws is a non-venereal treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue. The WHO has launched a worldwide control programme, which aims to eradicate yaws by 2020. The development of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT for serological diagnosis in the isolated communities affected by yaws is a key requirement for the successful implementation of the WHO strategy. We conducted a study to evaluate the utility of the DPP test in screening for yaws, utilizing samples collected as part of a community prevalence survey conducted in the Solomon Islands. 415 serum samples were tested using both traditional syphilis serology (TPPA and quantitative RPR and the Chembio DPP Syphilis Screen and Confirm RDT. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT as compared to gold standard serology. The sensitivity of the RDT against TPPA was 58.5% and the specificity was 97.6%. The sensitivity of the RDT against RPR was 41.7% and the specificity was 95.2%. The sensitivity of the DPP was strongly related to the RPR titre with a sensitivity of 92.0% for an RPR titre of >1/16. Wider access to DPP testing would improve our understanding of worldwide yaws case reporting and the test may play a key role in assessing patients presenting with yaws like lesions in a post-mass drug administration (MDA setting.

  4. EMERGENCY RESPONSE OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN SAKHALIN REGION TO THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Darizhapov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of the Administration of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Sakhalin Region in organizing prevention of conditions that endanger the public radiation safety related to the nuclear accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The authors present results of the measurements of the radiation situation in the Sakhalin region and propose ways to improve organizational and sanitary-hygienic measures aimed on ensuring public protectiony in events of radiation accidents.

  5. Nuclear Propulsion and Power Non-Nuclear Test Facility (NP2NTF): Preliminary Analysis and Feasibility Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors, which power nuclear propulsion and power systems, and the nuclear radiation and residual radioactivity associated with these systems, impose...

  6. Field Evaluation of a Coproantigen Detection Test for Fascioliasis Diagnosis and Surveillance in Human Hyperendemic Areas of Andean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, María Adela; Periago, María Victoria; Pérez-Crespo, Ignacio; Angles, René; Villegas, Fidel; Aguirre, Carlos; Strauss, Wilma; Espinoza, José R.; Herrera, Patricia; Terashima, Angelica; Tamayo, Hugo; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA) was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. Methodology and Findings A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD) and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg) in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg), nor in Huacullani high burden cases (≥400 epg), although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg). Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg). Conclusions The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the chronic phase

  7. Field evaluation of a coproantigen detection test for fascioliasis diagnosis and surveillance in human hyperendemic areas of Andean countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Adela Valero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg, nor in Huacullani high burden cases (≥ 400 epg, although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg. Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg. CONCLUSIONS: The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the

  8. A Combined Disk Test for Direct Differentiation of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Surveillance Rectal Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkotou, Olympia; Poulou, Aggeliki; Kristo, Ioulia; Vrioni, Georgia; Themeli-Digalaki, Katerina; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2013-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are rapidly spreading worldwide. Early detection of fecal CPE carriers is essential for effective infection control. Here, we evaluated the performance of a meropenem combined disk test (CDT) for rapidly differentiating CPE isolates directly from rectal swabs. The screening method was applied for 189 rectal swabs from hospitalized patients at high risk for CPE carriage. Swabs were suspended in 1 ml saline and cultured for confluent growth onto a MacConkey agar plate with a meropenem (MER) disk alone, a MER disk plus phenyl boronic acid (PBA), a MER disk plus EDTA, and a MER disk plus PBA and EDTA. An inhibition zone of ≤25 mm around the MER disk alone indicated carriage of carbapenem-resistant organisms. Furthermore, ≥5-mm differences in the inhibition zone between MER disks without and with the inhibitors (PBA, EDTA, or both) were considered positive results for detecting Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), metallo-β-lactamase (MBL), or both carbapenemases, respectively. For comparison, rectal suspensions were tested using MacConkey plates with ertapenem (MacERT) disks and PCR (PCR-S) for carbapenemase genes. Of the 189 samples, 97 were genotypically confirmed as CPE positive by one of the three protocols tested. The CDT, MacERT disks, and PCR-S assays exhibited sensitivities of 94.8%, 96.9%, and 94.8% and specificities of 100%, 98.9%, and 100%, respectively, for detecting CPE-positive swabs. Moreover, the CDT correctly differentiated the production of KPC, MBL, or both carbapenemases in 78 of the 97 (80.4%) CPE-positive rectal swabs. Our results demonstrate that the CDT may provide a simple and inexpensive method for detecting and differentiating the carbapenemase type within a single day without requiring further testing and additional delay, supporting the timely implementation of infection control measures. PMID:23843486

  9. Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Testing in Human Influenza Viruses: A Laboratory Surveillance Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okomo-Adhiambo, Margaret; Sleeman, Katrina; Ballenger, Kristina; Nguyen, Ha T.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Sheu, Tiffany G.; Smagala, James; Li, Yan; Klimov, Alexander I.; Gubareva, Larisa V.

    2010-01-01

    Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are vital in managing seasonal and pandemic influenza infections. NAI susceptibilities of virus isolates (n = 5540) collected during the 2008–2009 influenza season were assessed in the chemiluminescent neuraminidase inhibition (NI) assay. Box-and-whisker plot analyses of log-transformed IC50s were performed for each virus type/subtype and NAI to identify outliers which were characterized based on a statistical cutoff of IC50 >3 interquartile ranges (IQR) from the 75th percentile. Among 1533 seasonal H1N1 viruses tested, 1431 (93.3%) were outliers for oseltamivir; they all harbored the H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase (NA) and were reported as oseltamivir-resistant. Only 15 (0.7%) of pandemic 2009 H1N1 viruses tested (n = 2259) were resistant to oseltamivir. All influenza A(H3N2) (n = 834) and B (n = 914) viruses were sensitive to oseltamivir, except for one A(H3N2) and one B virus, with D151V and D197E (D198E in N2 numbering) mutations in the NA, respectively. All viruses tested were sensitive to zanamivir, except for six seasonal A(H1N1) and several A(H3N2) outliers (n = 22) which exhibited cell culture induced mutations at residue D151 of the NA. A subset of viruses (n = 1058) tested for peramivir were sensitive to the drug, with exception of H275Y variants that exhibited reduced susceptibility to this NAI. This study summarizes baseline susceptibility patterns of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses, and seeks to contribute towards criteria for defining NAI resistance. PMID:21994620

  10. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-28

    considers a U.S. contribution to a global system to monitor events that might violate the CTBT. The FY2008 appropriation was $23.8 million; the FY2009...ratified the CTBT. On December 17, 2007, Representative Tauscher introduced H.Res. 882, “[e] xpressing the sense of the House of Representatives that...Limited, January 13, 2007. 26 “Indian Lawmakers Attack U.S. Nuclear Deal,” Global Security Newswire, November 29, 2007. 27 Kathy Gannon, “New Pakistani

  11. Airborne and Ground-Based Optical Characterization of Legacy Underground Nuclear Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, S.; Craven, J.; Anderson, D.; Dzur, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Detecting, locating, and characterizing suspected underground nuclear test sites is a U.S. security priority. Currently, global underground nuclear explosion monitoring relies on seismic and infrasound sensor networks to provide rapid initial detection of potential underground nuclear tests. While seismic and infrasound might be able to generally locate potential underground nuclear tests, additional sensing methods might be required to further pinpoint test site locations. Optical remote sensing is a robust approach for site location and characterization due to the ability it provides to search large areas relatively quickly, resolve surface features in fine detail, and perform these tasks non-intrusively. Optical remote sensing provides both cultural and surface geological information about a site, for example, operational infrastructure, surface fractures. Surface geological information, when combined with known or estimated subsurface geologic information, could provide clues concerning test parameters. We have characterized two legacy nuclear test sites on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), U20ak and U20az using helicopter-, ground- and unmanned aerial system-based RGB imagery and light detection and ranging (lidar) systems. The multi-faceted information garnered from these different sensing modalities has allowed us to build a knowledge base of how a nuclear test site might look when sensed remotely, and the standoff distances required to resolve important site characteristics.

  12. United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-12-01

    This document list chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Revision 15, dated December 2000.

  13. United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-09-01

    This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. This is Revision 16, dated September 2015.

  14. High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing: Analysis and Initial Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Kapernick, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power system, providing system characterization data and allowing one to work through various fabrication, assembly and integration issues without the cost and time associated with a full ground nuclear test. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Testing with non-optimized heater elements allows one to assess thermal, heat transfer. and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. High fidelity thermal simulators that match both the static and the dynamic fuel pin performance that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor can vastly increase the value of non-nuclear test results. With optimized simulators, the integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics and assess potential design improvements at relatively small fiscal investment. Initial conceptual thermal simulator designs are determined by simple one-dimensional analysis at a single axial location and at steady state conditions; feasible concepts are then input into a detailed three-dimensional model for comparison to expected fuel pin performance. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance for a proposed reactor design is determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and comparison is made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analyses, a conceptual high fidelity design is developed

  15. Verification and Uncertainty Reduction of Amchitka Underground Nuclear Testing Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2006-02-01

    The modeling of Amchitka underground nuclear tests conducted in 2002 is verified and uncertainty in model input parameters, as well as predictions, has been reduced using newly collected data obtained by the summer 2004 field expedition of CRESP. Newly collected data that pertain to the groundwater model include magnetotelluric (MT) surveys conducted on the island to determine the subsurface salinity and porosity structure of the subsurface, and bathymetric surveys to determine the bathymetric maps of the areas offshore from the Long Shot and Cannikin Sites. Analysis and interpretation of the MT data yielded information on the location of the transition zone, and porosity profiles showing porosity values decaying with depth. These new data sets are used to verify the original model in terms of model parameters, model structure, and model output verification. In addition, by using the new data along with the existing data (chemistry and head data), the uncertainty in model input and output is decreased by conditioning on all the available data. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach is adapted for developing new input parameter distributions conditioned on prior knowledge and new data. The MCMC approach is a form of Bayesian conditioning that is constructed in such a way that it produces samples of the model parameters that eventually converge to a stationary posterior distribution. The Bayesian MCMC approach enhances probabilistic assessment. Instead of simply propagating uncertainty forward from input parameters into model predictions (i.e., traditional Monte Carlo approach), MCMC propagates uncertainty backward from data onto parameters, and then forward from parameters into predictions. Comparisons between new data and the original model, and conditioning on all available data using MCMC method, yield the following results and conclusions: (1) Model structure is verified at Long Shot and Cannikin where the high-resolution bathymetric data collected by CRESP

  16. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  17. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-05

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  18. Modeling and Testing of Non-Nuclear, Highpower Simulated Nuclear Thermal Rocket Reactor Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Daniel R.

    2005-01-01

    When the President offered his new vision for space exploration in January of 2004, he said, "Our third goal is to return to the moon by 2020, as the launching point for missions beyond," and, "With the experience and knowledge gained on the moon, we will then be ready to take the next steps of space exploration: human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond." A human mission to Mars implies the need to move large payloads as rapidly as possible, in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Furthermore, with the scientific advancements possible with Project Prometheus and its Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), (these use electric propulsion), there is a renewed interest in deep space exploration propulsion systems. According to many mission analyses, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), with its relatively high thrust and high specific impulse, is a serious candidate for such missions. Nuclear rockets utilize fission energy to heat a reactor core to very high temperatures. Hydrogen gas flowing through the core then becomes superheated and exits the engine at very high exhaust velocities. The combination of temperature and low molecular weight results in an engine with specific impulses above 900 seconds. This is almost twice the performance of the LOX/LH2 space shuttle engines, and the impact of this performance would be to reduce the trip time of a manned Mars mission from the 2.5 years, possible with chemical engines, to about 12-14 months.

  19. Subsize specimen testing of nuclear reactor pressure vessel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.S. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Materials Research Center; Rosinski, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cannon, N.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A new methodology is proposed to correlate the upper shelf energy (USE) of full size and subsize Charpy specimens of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel plate material, A533B. The methodology appears to be more satisfactory than the methodologies proposed earlier. USE of a notched-only specimen is partitioned into macro-crack initiation and crack propagation energies. USE of a notched and precracked specimen provides the crack propagation energy. {Delta}USE, the difference between the USE`s of notched-only and precracked specimens, is an estimate of the crack initiation energy. {Delta}USE was normalized by a factor involving the dimensions of the Charpy specimen and the stress concentration factor at the notch root. The normalized values of the {Delta}USE were found to be invariant with specimen size.

  20. Subsize specimen testing of nuclear reactor pressure vessel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.S. (Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Materials Research Center); Rosinski, S.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Cannon, N.S. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Hamilton, M.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed to correlate the upper shelf energy (USE) of full size and subsize Charpy specimens of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel plate material, A533B. The methodology appears to be more satisfactory than the methodologies proposed earlier. USE of a notched-only specimen is partitioned into macro-crack initiation and crack propagation energies. USE of a notched and precracked specimen provides the crack propagation energy. [Delta]USE, the difference between the USE's of notched-only and precracked specimens, is an estimate of the crack initiation energy. [Delta]USE was normalized by a factor involving the dimensions of the Charpy specimen and the stress concentration factor at the notch root. The normalized values of the [Delta]USE were found to be invariant with specimen size.

  1. Laboratory tests of low density astrophysical nuclear equations of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L; Hagel, K; Wada, R; Natowitz, J B; Shlomo, S; Bonasera, A; Röpke, G; Typel, S; Chen, Z; Huang, M; Wang, J; Zheng, H; Kowalski, S; Barbui, M; Rodrigues, M R D; Schmidt, K; Fabris, D; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Rizzi, V; Viesti, G; Cinausero, M; Prete, G; Keutgen, T; El Masri, Y; Majka, Z; Ma, Y G

    2012-04-27

    Clustering in low density nuclear matter has been investigated using the NIMROD multidetector at Texas A&M University. Thermal coalescence modes were employed to extract densities, ρ, and temperatures, T, for evolving systems formed in collisions of 47A MeV (40)Ar+(112)Sn, (124)Sn and (64)Zn+(112)Sn, (124)Sn. The yields of d, t, (3)He, and (4)He have been determined at ρ=0.002 to 0.03 nucleons/fm(3) and T=5 to 11 MeV. The experimentally derived equilibrium constants for α particle production are compared with those predicted by a number of astrophysical equations of state. The data provide important new constraints on the model calculations.

  2. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a comprehensive understanding of requirements for a facility that could safely conduct effluent treatment for a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket...

  3. Uncertainty quantification for discrimination of nuclear events as violations of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Jamison; Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles

    2016-05-01

    Enforcement of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will involve monitoring for radiologic indicators of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). A UNE produces a variety of radioisotopes which then decay through connected radionuclide chains. A particular species of interest is xenon, namely the four isotopes (131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe, and (135)Xe. Due to their half lives, some of these isotopes can exist in the subsurface for more than 100 days. This convenient timescale, combined with modern detection capabilities, makes the xenon family a desirable candidate for UNE detection. Ratios of these isotopes as a function of time have been studied in the past for distinguishing nuclear explosions from civilian nuclear applications. However, the initial yields from UNEs have been treated as fixed values. In reality, these independent yields are uncertain to a large degree. This study quantifies the uncertainty in xenon ratios as a result of these uncertain initial conditions to better bound the values that xenon ratios can assume. We have successfully used a combination of analytical and sampling based statistical methods to reliably bound xenon isotopic ratios. We have also conducted a sensitivity analysis and found that xenon isotopic ratios are primarily sensitive to only a few of many uncertain initial conditions.

  4. Optimization and studies of the welding processes, automation of the sealing welding system and fracture mechanics in the vessels surveillance in nuclear power plants; Optimizacion y estudios de los procesos de soldadura, automatizacion del sistema de soldadura de sellado y mecanica de fractura en la vigilancia de vasijas en nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama R, G.

    2011-07-01

    Inside this work the optimization of two welding systems is described, as well as the conclusion of a system for the qualification of containers sealing in the National Institute of Nuclear Research that have application in the surveillance programs of nuclear reactors vessels and the correspondent extension of the operation license. The test tubes Charpy are assay to evaluate the embrittlement grade, when obtaining the increment in the reference temperature and the decrease of the absorbed maximum energy, in the transition curve fragile-ductile of the material. After the test two test tube halves are obtained that should take advantage to follow the surveillance of the vessel and their possible operation extension, this is achieved by means of rebuilding (being obtained of a tested test tube two reconstituted test tubes). The welding system for the rebuilding of test tubes Charpy, was optimized when diminishing the union force at solder, achieving the elimination of the rejection for penetration lack for spill. For this work temperature measurements were carried out at different distances of the welding interface from 1 up to 12 mm, obtaining temperature profiles. With the maximum temperatures were obtained a graph and equation that represents the maximum temperature regarding the distance of the interface, giving as a result practical the elimination of other temperature measurements. The reconstituted test tubes were introduced inside pressurized containers with helium of ultra high purity to 1 pressure atmosphere. This process was carried out in the welding system for containers sealing, where an automatic process was implemented by means of an application developed in the program LabVIEW, reducing operation times and allowing the remote control of the process, the acquisition parameters as well as the generation of welding reports, avoiding with this the human error. (Author)

  5. Development of Welding and Instrumentation Technology for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang Young; Ahn, Sung Ho; Heo, Sung Ho; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Ka Hye [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    It is necessary to develop various types of welding, instrumentation and helium gas filling techniques that can conduct TIG spot welding exactly at a pin-hole of the end-cap on the nuclear fuel rod to fill up helium gas. The welding process is one of the most important among the instrumentation processes of the nuclear fuel test rod. To manufacture the nuclear fuel test rod, a precision welding system needs to be fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rod jointing the various sensors and end-caps on a fuel cladding tube, which is charged with fuel pellets and component parts. We therefore designed and fabricated an orbital TIG welding system and a laser welding system. This paper describes not only some experiment results from weld tests for the parts of a nuclear fuel test rod, but also the contents for the instrumentation process of the dummy fuel test rod installed with the C-type T. C. A dummy nuclear fuel test rod was successfully fabricated with the welding and instrumentation technologies acquired with various tests. In the test results, the round welding has shown a good weldability at both the orbital TIG welding system and the fiber laser welding system. The spot welding to fill up helium gas has shown a good welding performance at a welding current of 30A, welding time of 0.4 sec and gap of 1 mm in a helium gas atmosphere. The soundness of the nuclear fuel test rod sealed by a mechanical sealing method was confirmed by helium leak tests and microstructural analyses.

  6. Proving test on the seismic reliability of nuclear power plant: PWR reactor containment vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Teiichi; Ohno, Tokue; Yoshikawa, Eiji.

    1989-01-01

    Seismic reliability proving tests of nuclear power plant facilities are carried out by the Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center, using the large-scale, high-performance vibration table of Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, and sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. In 1982, the seismic reliability proving test of a PWR containment vessel was conducted using a test component of reduced scale 1/3.7. As a result of this test, the test component proved to have structural soundness against earthquakes, and at the same time its stable function was proved by leak tests which were carried out before and after the vibration test. In 1983, the detailed analysis and evaluation of these test results were carried out, and the analysis methods for evaluating strength against earthquakes were established. The seismic analysis and evaluation on the actual containment vessel were then performed using these analysis methods, and the safety and reliability of the PWR reactor containment vessel were confirmed.

  7. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  8. Cancer in People Exposed to Nuclear Weapons Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small number being done at the Trinity (New Mexico) and South Atlantic testing sites. Military maneuvers involving ... In Cancer A-Z Cancer Basics Cancer Causes Breast Cancer Colon and Rectal Cancer Skin Cancer Lung Cancer ...

  9. Used nuclear fuel separations process simulation and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, C.; Krebs, J.F.; Copple, J.M.; Frey, K.E.; Maggos, L.E.; Figueroa, J.; Willit, J.L.; Papadias, D.D. [Argonne National Laboratory: 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent efforts in separations process simulation at Argonne have expanded from the traditional focus on solvent extraction flowsheet design in order to capture process dynamics and to simulate other components, processing and systems of a used nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. For example, the Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction (AMUSE) code has been enhanced to make it both more portable and more readily extensible. Moving away from a spreadsheet environment makes the addition of new species and processes simpler for the expert user, which should enable more rapid implementation of chemical models that simulate evolving processes. The dyAMUSE (dynamic AMUSE) version allows the simulation of transient behavior across an extractor. Electrochemical separations have now been modeled using spreadsheet codes that simulate the electrochemical recycle of fast reactor fuel. The user can follow the evolution of the salt, products, and waste compositions in the electro-refiner, cathode processors, and drawdown as a function of fuel batches treated. To further expand capabilities in integrating multiple unit operations, a platform for linking mathematical models representing the different operations that comprise a reprocessing facility was adapted to enable systems-level analysis and optimization of facility functions. (authors)

  10. Temporal trends in childhood leukaemia incidence following exposure to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard; Darby, Sarah C; Murphy, Michael F G

    2010-05-01

    Notably raised rates of childhood leukaemia incidence have been found near some nuclear installations, in particular Sellafield and Dounreay in the United Kingdom, but risk assessments have concluded that the radiation doses estimated to have been received by children or in utero as a result of operations at these installations are much too small to account for the reported increases in incidence. This has led to speculation that the risk of childhood leukaemia arising from internal exposure to radiation following the intake of radioactive material released from nuclear facilities has been substantially underestimated. The radionuclides discharged from many nuclear installations are similar to those released into the global environment by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, which was at its height in the late-1950s and early-1960s. Measurements of anthropogenic radionuclides in members of the general public resident in the vicinity of Sellafield and Dounreay have found levels that do not differ greatly from those in persons living remote from nuclear installations that are due to ubiquitous exposure to the radioactive debris of nuclear weapons testing. Therefore, if the leukaemia risk to children resulting from deposition within the body of radioactive material discharged from nuclear facilities has been grossly underestimated, then a pronounced excess of childhood leukaemia would have been expected as a consequence of the short period of intense atmospheric weapons testing. We have examined childhood leukaemia incidence in 11 large-scale cancer registries in three continents for which data were available at least as early as 1962. We found no evidence of a wave of excess cases corresponding to the peak of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. The absence of a discernible increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia following the period of maximum exposure to the radioactive debris of this testing weighs heavily against the suggestion that

  11. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  12. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., DG-1269 ``Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear... lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit comments by May 13, 2013....

  13. Concepts for Small-Scale Testing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschman, Steven Craig [Idaho National Laboratory; Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    This report documents a concept for a small-scale test involving between one and three Boiling Water Rector (BWR) high burnup (HBU) fuel assemblies. This test would be similar to the DOE funded High Burn-Up (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project to confirm the behavior of used high burn-up fuel under prototypic conditions, only on a smaller scale. The test concept proposed would collect data from fuel stored under prototypic dry storage conditions to mimic, as closely as possible, the conditions HBU UNF experiences during all stages of dry storage: loading, cask drying, inert gas backfilling, and transfer to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for multi-year storage.

  14. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  15. Integral Benchmark Data for Nuclear Data Testing Through the ICSBEP & IRPhEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Jim Gulliford; Ian Hill

    2013-10-01

    The status of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was last discussed directly with the nuclear data community at ND2007. Since ND2007, integral benchmark data that are available for nuclear data testing have increased significantly. The status of the ICSBEP and the IRPhEP is discussed and selected benchmark configurations that have been added to the ICSBEP and IRPhEP Handbooks since ND2007 are highlighted.

  16. Site Earthquake Characteristics and Dynamic Parameter Test of Phase Ⅲ Qinshan Nuclear Power Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOV Nian-qing; ZHAO Zai-li; QIN Min

    2009-01-01

    The earthquake characteristics and geological structure of the site to sitting the Qinshan Nuclear Power Station are closely related. According to site investigation drilling, sampling, seismic sound logging wave test in single-hole and cross-hole, laboratory wave velocity test of intact rock, together with analysis of the site geological conditions, the seismic wave test results of the site between strata lithology and the geologic structure were studied. The relationships of seismic waves with the site lithology and the geologic structure were set up.The dynamic parameters of different grades of weathering profile were deduced. The results assist the seismic design of Phase Ⅲ Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, China.

  17. Fallout Deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak Nuclear Weapons Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E.; Simon, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m-2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for all the 31 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands an...

  18. Study of Avian Tuberculosis in a Zoo at the Bogota savannah through Tuberculin Testing and Active Epidemiologic Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rodríguez Martínez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow of wild birds is a weakness in epidemiologic surveillance because of its unknown potential as a source of disease dissemination. The investigation focused on an epidemiological tracking of the mixed wild bird population in a zoo in the Bogota Savannah, where three birds died with a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis. In order to verify the presence of Mycobacterium avium and to plan the required measures to avoid risk factors, a control group of five poultry birds of the Hy Line Brown variety that had already been exposed was used, as well as a sentinel group of the poultry birds from the same batch as the control group, and an external control group of 102 birds from cages near the area of the problem. Retrospective and prospective studies were carried out through histopathological, microbiological, epidemiological and molecular analysis. One hundred percent (100% of the birds from the original cages that died were genotypically diagnosed with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium. Thirty-five percent (35.5% of the sentinel group was affected by Mycobacterium avium, 28.6% by Mycobacterium gordonae, 14.3% by Mycobacterium chelonae and 21.4% by a mycobacterium that is very difficult to classify. The other animals outside the cage showed no evidence of infection. It is concluded that the problematic enclosure is affected by avian tuberculosis, which is of high risk both for birds and for humans. The poultry used as sentinels are excellent infective agent detectors, particularly of mycobacteria present in the environment, and the tuberculin test is a good indicator of infection with this type of microorganisms in poultry.

  19. Guideline to good practices for postmaintenance testing at DOE nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Purpose of this guide is to provide contractor maintenance organizations with information that may be used for development and implementation of a postmaintenance testing process for structures, systems, and components at DOE nuclear facilities. It is intended to be an example guideline for the implementation of DOE Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter 2, Element 9, Postmaintenance Testing.

  20. Fabrication and Testing of Nuclear-Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Hardware Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Efficient nuclear-thermal propulsion requires heating a low molecular weight gas, typically hydrogen, to high temperature and expelling it through a nozzle. The...

  1. A Hydrogen Containment Process for Nuclear Thermal Engine Ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a new total hydrogen containment process to enable the testing required for NTP engine development. This H2 removal process comprises of two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a shell-and-tube type of heat exchanger. This new process is demonstrated by simulation of the steady state operation of the engine firing at nominal conditions.

  2. Description of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) cryogenic and hot-hydrogen test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.A.; Riffle, G.K.; Merdich, J.A. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, Garrett Fluid Systems Division, 1300 W. Warner Rd. P.O. Box 22200, Tempe, Arizona 85282 (United States))

    1993-01-15

    Cryogenic and high-temperature and high-pressure hydrogen test capabilities are required for component development and qualification for the U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. To effectively support the non-nuclear test needs of the SNTP program, as well as other specialized programs that utilize hydrogen as a working fluid, Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, Garrett Fluid Systems Division (GFSD) is currently developing a hydrogen test facility at our remote San Tan test site. The facility is specifically designed to support turbopump, propellant management valves, instrumentation and general materials evaluation testing with hydrogen at pressures and temperatures representative of actual SNTP engine operating conditions. This paper presents a general description of the SNTP hot-hydrogen test facility including test capabilities, technical approach, and technical status.

  3. Description of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) cryogenic and hot-hydrogen test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David A.; Riffle, George K.; Merdich, Jeff A.

    1993-01-01

    Cryogenic and high-temperature and high-pressure hydrogen test capabilities are required for component development and qualification for the U.S. Air Force Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. To effectively support the non-nuclear test needs of the SNTP program, as well as other specialized programs that utilize hydrogen as a working fluid, Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, Garrett Fluid Systems Division (GFSD) is currently developing a hydrogen test facility at our remote San Tan test site. The facility is specifically designed to support turbopump, propellant management valves, instrumentation and general materials evaluation testing with hydrogen at pressures and temperatures representative of actual SNTP engine operating conditions. This paper presents a general description of the SNTP hot-hydrogen test facility including test capabilities, technical approach, and technical status.

  4. The World Health Organization Recommendations for Trachoma Surveillance, Experience in Nepal and Added Benefit of Testing for Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis pgp3 Protein: NESTS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea I Zambrano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO now requires a second surveillance survey for trachoma after an impact assessment has found follicular trachoma (TF <5% to determine if re-emergence has occurred. Using new WHO guidelines, we undertook surveillance surveys, and determined the prevalence of infection and antibody positivity, in two districts in Nepal.20 clusters were randomly selected within each district, 15 were randomly selected for antibody testing. In each cluster, we randomly selected 50 children ages 1-9 years and 100 adults ≥15 years. TF and trachomatous trichiasis (TT were evaluated. Conjunctival swabs to test for chlamydial infection using GenXpert platform were obtained, and dried blood spots were collected to test for antibodies to Chlamydia Trachomatis pgp3 using the Luminex platform.3 cases of TF were found in the two districts, and one case of infection. Pgp3 antibody positivity was 2·4% (95% confidence interval: 1·4%, 3·7%, and did not increase with age (P = 0.24. No clustering of antibody positivity within communities was found. TT prevalence was <1/1,000 population.The surveillance surveys, as proposed by WHO, showed no evidence for re-emergence of trachoma in two districts of Nepal. The low level and no significant increase by age in seroprevalence of antibodies to C trachomatis pgp3 antigen deserve further investigation as a marker of interruption of transmission.

  5. The World Health Organization Recommendations for Trachoma Surveillance, Experience in Nepal and Added Benefit of Testing for Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis pgp3 Protein: NESTS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Andrea I.; Sharma, Shekhar; Crowley, Kathryn; Dize, Laura; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Mishra, Sailesh K.; Rotondo, Lisa A.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; West, Sheila K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) now requires a second surveillance survey for trachoma after an impact assessment has found follicular trachoma (TF) <5% to determine if re-emergence has occurred. Using new WHO guidelines, we undertook surveillance surveys, and determined the prevalence of infection and antibody positivity, in two districts in Nepal. Methods 20 clusters were randomly selected within each district, 15 were randomly selected for antibody testing. In each cluster, we randomly selected 50 children ages 1–9 years and 100 adults ≥15 years. TF and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) were evaluated. Conjunctival swabs to test for chlamydial infection using GenXpert platform were obtained, and dried blood spots were collected to test for antibodies to Chlamydia Trachomatis pgp3 using the Luminex platform. Findings 3 cases of TF were found in the two districts, and one case of infection. Pgp3 antibody positivity was 2·4% (95% confidence interval: 1·4%, 3·7%), and did not increase with age (P = 0.24). No clustering of antibody positivity within communities was found. TT prevalence was <1/1,000 population. Interpretation The surveillance surveys, as proposed by WHO, showed no evidence for re-emergence of trachoma in two districts of Nepal. The low level and no significant increase by age in seroprevalence of antibodies to C trachomatis pgp3 antigen deserve further investigation as a marker of interruption of transmission. PMID:27654497

  6. Anomalous transient uplift observed at the Lop Nor, China nuclear test site using satellite radar interferometry time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, P.; Buckley, S. M.; Yang, D.; Carle, S. F.

    2011-12-01

    Anomalous uplift is observed at the Lop Nor, China nuclear test site using ERS satellite SAR data. Using an InSAR time-series analysis method, we show that an increase in absolute uplift with time is observed between 1997 and 1999. The signal is collocated with past underground nuclear tests. Due to the collocation in space with past underground tests we postulate a nuclear test-related hydrothermal source for the uplift signal. A possible mechanism is presented that can account for the observed transient uplift and is consistent with documented thermal regimes associated with underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site).

  7. 1962 Pacific Nuclear Tests (Operation DOMINIC) RADSAFE. Enclosure N

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-06-04

    and sent to the proper cognizant agency: Surgeons General, U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force; Chief, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Navy Department; Chief...was intended to be representative of the Fijian Island Group. Samples of vegetation, milk, soil, and water were collected periodically...range of\\ N-B-3-4 ^tf&’-ivj mMnwvtMwwi -■■ ■ each test device. This will include such vulnerable elements as plants and tree stands, man-made

  8. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA.

  9. Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Datasets for Seismic Research and Nuclear Test Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, S. B.; Morozov, I. B.; Morozova, E. A.; Richards, P. G.; Solodilov, L. N.

    2001-12-01

    Within the next four years, IRIS databases will receive from the University of Wyoming and GEON recordings from nine ultra-long range Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) projects conducted between 1970-1989 in the former Soviet Union: QUARTZ, CRATON, KIMBERLITE, METEORITE, RIFT, RUBY, BATHOLIT, BAZALT, and AGATE. Jointly sponsored by the Department of Defense and National Science Foundation, this effort will bring the unique recordings of 22 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs) and hundreds of crustal-scale chemical shots to the broad seismological and monitoring research communities. A grid of reversed PNE profiles (plus fan recording for RUBY) covers the East European Platform, the Ural Mountains, the West Siberian Platform, the Siberian craton, and the Baikal Rift. Dense, 3-component, short-period recordings along these profiles provide a valuable source of seismic information for seismic calibration of these vast aseismic regions. DSS recordings offer unique opportunities to study propagation effects of body waves and regional seismic phases, to examine their correlation with geologic and tectonic features, to develop unusually well constrained models of the structure of the crust and upper mantle to 600-700 km depth, and to explore the variability of explosion discriminants such as spectral ratios of P- and S-waves. Though the data principally concern properties of the crust and upper mantle, some of the profiles also show strong reflections from the core-mantle boundary. We summarize the recent findings from the analysis of PNE datasets in Northern Eurasia. These results include (1) unusually detailed velocity and attenuation structure of the crust and uppermost mantle, (2) characterization of crustal attenuation through coda measurements, (3) constraints on seismic scattering from within the crust and uppermost mantle, (4) detailed imaging of the crustal basement using receiver functions, (5) continuous observations of the regional phases from the PNEs within 0

  10. Audit of Helicobacter pylori Testing in Microbiology Laboratories in England: To Inform Compliance with NICE Guidance and the Feasibility of Routine Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie Allison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidance recommends that dyspeptic patients are tested for Helicobacter pylori using a urea breath test, stool antigen test, or serology. Antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is globally increasing, but treatment in England is rarely guided by susceptibility testing or surveillance. Aims. To determine compliance of microbiology laboratories in England with NICE guidance and whether laboratories perform culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST. Methods. In 2015, 170 accredited English microbiology laboratories were surveyed, by email. Results. 121/170 (71% laboratories responded; 96% provided H. pylori testing (78% on site. 94% provided H. pylori diagnosis using stool antigen; only four provided serology as their noninvasive test; 3/4 of these encouraged urea breath tests in their acute trusts. Only 22/94 (23% of the laboratories performed H. pylori cultures from gastric biopsies on site; 9/22 performed AST, but the vast majority processed less than one specimen/week. Conclusions. Only five laboratories in England do not comply with NICE guidance; these will need the guidance reinforced. National surveillance needs to be implemented; culture-based AST would need to be centralised. Moving forward, detection of resistance in H. pylori from stool specimens using molecular methods (PCR needs to be explored.

  11. FMCT after South Asia's tests. A view from a nuclear-weapon state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L.A. [Science Applications Int. Corp. (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Proposals to negotiate an international treaty to cutoff the production of plutonium and highly-enriched uranium for nuclear weapons have been on the international nuclear agenda for many decades. Hopes in the early 1990s that it would be possible finally to negotiate a FMCT, however, have not been borne out. Instead, a deadlock had ensued at the Geneva CD. It remains to be seen whether the recent nuclear tests by India and Pakistan will contribute to breaking that deadlock - or only to foreclosing any prospects for negotiating cutoff in the foreseeable future. The key lies in the attitudes of Delhi and Islamabad - influenced to the extent possible by the efforts of the international community to convince both countries' leaders to stop short of an escalating nuclear war in the region. Regardless, there are a variety of other initiatives aimed at heightening transparency and controls over the nuclear weapons materials in the five NPT nuclear weapon states that could be pursued as part of broader ongoing efforts to roll back the Cold War nuclear legacies.

  12. Summary of inspection findings of licensee inservice testing programs at United States commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, A.; Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    Periodic inspections of pump and valve inservice testing (IST) programs in United States commercial nuclear power plants are performed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regional Inspectors to verify licensee regulatory compliance and licensee commitments. IST inspections are conducted using NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves{close_quotes} (IP 73756), which was updated on July 27, 1995. A large number of IST inspections have also been conducted using Temporary Instruction 2515/114, {open_quotes}Inspection Requirements for Generic Letter 89-04, Acceptable Inservice Testing Programs{close_quotes} (TI-2515/114), which was issued January 15, 1992. A majority of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants have had an IST inspection to either IP 73756 or TI 2515/114. This paper is intended to summarize the significant and recurring findings from a number of these inspections since January of 1990.

  13. Geology of the Chinese nuclear test site near Lop Nor, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese underground nuclear test site in the Kuruktag and Kyzyltag mountains of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China, is the location of sixteen underground tests that occurred between 1969 and 1992. The largest test to date, conducted on 21 May 1992, had a reported yield of about one megaton. Geophysical properties of the rocks and a large-scale geologic map of part of the test area were published by the Chinese in 1986 and 1987 and are the first site-specific data available for this test site. In areas of low relief, underground nuclear testing has occurred below the water table, in shafts drilled vertically into dense, low porosity Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. Additional testing in areas of more rugged terrain has occurred in horizontal tunnels, probably above the water table. At least one of these tunnels was driven into granite. The upper 50 m of the rock in the area of the vertical tests is weathered and fractured; these conditions have been shown to influence the magnitude of the disturbance of the land surface after a nuclear explosion. These descriptions suggest hard rock coupling at depth and a closer resemblance to the former Soviet test site in eastern Kazakhstan than to the U.S. test site in Nevada. ?? 1994.

  14. Discrimination and Relocation of The 2013 North Korea Underground Nuclear Test: A New Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianipar, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    We successfully give contribution in discriminating the 2013 North Korea underground nuclear test from natural earthquakes by using analysis of ratio of seismic energy and seismic moment (Ɵ) and analysis of the rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the shallow seismic event which occurred in the region of North Korea mainland and vicinity in last decade. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminated from a natural or tectonic earthquake. The 2013 North Korea test earthquake had 2.817822 x 1019 N.m of the seismic moment and 7.652314 x 1014 N.m of radiated seismic energy and -4.56 of the Ɵ value. The equivalent Ɵ value with the two previous nuclear events and differences with natural earthquakes was considered as an implication of the explosion event. The rupture duration value of this event was 11.13 s. The very low value of the rupture duration from the three nuclear tests event shows us the characteristic of the explosion. We also give contribution in determining the high precision location of the 2013 nuclear test earthquake using relocation algorithm of Modified Joint Hypocenter Determination (MJHD) and double difference using IMS CTBTO, BMKG, regional and global seismic stations respectively. We also compared the relative location results with absolute location method of Simulated Annealing (SA). Results of the all relocation method in this study show the locations with distance less than 7 km from the Punggye-ri nuclear test facility. A result was compared with the relocation results by all possible combination of seismic phase data and stations and by previous researchers and analyzed using topographic data satellite imagery. We proposed that the northwest of the Punggye-ri facility (named "A" location) in coordinate 129.04 E and 41.29 N with elevation around 2050-2150 meter is the high possibility location of the 2013 North Korea underground nuclear test.

  15. Development of deterioration models and tests of structural materials for nuclear containment structures(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Byung Hwan [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The nuclear containment structures are very important infrastructures which require much cost for construction and maintenance. If these structures lose their functions and do not ensure their safety, great losses of human lives and properties will result. Therefore, the nuclear containment structures should secure appropriate safety and functions during these service lives. The nuclear concrete structures start to experience deterioration due to severe environmental condition, even though the concrete structures exhibit generally superior durability. It is, therefore, necessary to take appropriate actions at each stage of planning, design and construction to secure safety and functionability. Thorough examination of deterioration mechanism and comprehensive tests have been conducted to explore the durability characteristics of nuclear concrete structures. 88 refs., 70 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  16. Characteristics of patients patch tested in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network, 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; Giménez-Arnau, Ana

    2015-01-01

    from 63 530 consultations collected by 53 departments from 12 countries participating in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) ( www.essca-dc.org) between 2009 and 2012. RESULTS: Considerable variation in the prevalence of the MOAHLFA factors between departments was found...

  17. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  18. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  19. Instrumentation and control developments in the Los Alamos nuclear test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy contracts the Los Alamos National Laboratory to carry out a Nuclear Weapons Test Program in support of the national defense. The program is one of ongoing research to design, build, and test prototype nuclear devices. The goal is to determine what should ultimately be incorporated into the nation's nuclear defense stockpile. All nuclear tests are conducted underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This paper describes the instrumentation and control techniques used by Los Alamos to carry out the tests. Specifically, the contrast between historical methods and new, computer-based technology are discussed. Previous techniques required large numbers of expensive, heavy hardwire cables extending from the surface to the diagnostics rack at the bottom of the vertical shaft. These cables, which provided singular control/monitor functions, have been replaced by a few optical fibers and power cables. This significant savings has been enabled through the adaptation of industrial process control technology using programmable computer control and distributed input/output. Finally, an ongoing process of developing and applying the most suitable instrumentation and control technology to the unique requirements of the Test Program is discussed. 2 refs.

  20. Validation Tests of a Non-Nuclear Combined Asphalt and Soil Density Gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 14 -1 0 Validation Tests of a Non-Nuclear Combined Asphalt and Soil Density Gauge G eo te ch ni ca l a nd S tr uc tu...Validation Tests of a Non-Nuclear Combined Asphalt and Soil Density Gauge Ernest S. Berney IV and Mariely Mejías-Santiago, Geotechnical and Structures...Engineer Research and Development Center in Vicksburg, MS validated the effectiveness of the Soil Density Gauge (SDG) and the Combined Asphalt Soil

  1. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook the Integrated Field Exercise (IFE) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5 – 2 kT underground explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research evaluates two of the OSI techniques, including laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in situ gamma-spectrometry for 17 particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear weapon tests. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and OSI timeframes.

  2. Study of evaluation techniques of software testing and V and V in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Cheong; Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Shin, C. Y.; Park, N. J. [Chungnam Nationl Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The study of activities to solve software safety and quality must be executed in base of establishing software development process for digitalized nuclear plant. Especially study of software testing and verification and validation must executed. For this purpose methodologies and tools which can improve software qualities are evaluated and software testing and V and V which can be applied to software life cycle are investigated. This study establish a guideline that can assure software safety and reliability requirements in digitalized nuclear plant systems and can be used as a guidebook of software development process to assure software quality many software development organization.

  3. Nuclear tests: the late indemnification of victims; Essais nucleaire: l'indemnisation tardive des victimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonneau, S. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 (France)

    2010-04-15

    The author briefly recalls the historical context of the creation of the CEA and outlines the silence and denial about the radioactive contamination of military personnel during the nuclear tests performed in the Algerian Sahara and in Polynesia. He also outlines the continuous action of the association of veterans and victims of these nuclear tests which gathered proofs of health consequences. He comments the content and scope of application of laws which have been lately adopted (in 2010) to acknowledge these facts and indemnify the victims

  4. Global nuclear energy partnership fuels transient testing at the Sandia National Laboratories nuclear facilities : planning and facility infrastructure options.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, John E.; Wright, Steven Alan; Tikare, Veena; MacLean, Heather J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Peters, Curtis D.; Vernon, Milton E.; Pickard, Paul S.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership fuels development program is currently developing metallic, oxide, and nitride fuel forms as candidate fuels for an Advanced Burner Reactor. The Advance Burner Reactor is being designed to fission actinides efficiently, thereby reducing the long-term storage requirements for spent fuel repositories. Small fuel samples are being fabricated and evaluated with different transuranic loadings and with extensive burnup using the Advanced Test Reactor. During the next several years, numerous fuel samples will be fabricated, evaluated, and tested, with the eventual goal of developing a transmuter fuel database that supports the down selection to the most suitable fuel type. To provide a comparative database of safety margins for the range of potential transmuter fuels, this report describes a plan to conduct a set of early transient tests in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories. The Annular Core Research Reactor is uniquely qualified to perform these types of tests because of its wide range of operating capabilities and large dry central cavity which extents through the center of the core. The goal of the fuels testing program is to demonstrate that the design and fabrication processes are of sufficient quality that the fuel will not fail at its design limit--up to a specified burnup, power density, and operating temperature. Transient testing is required to determine the fuel pin failure thresholds and to demonstrate that adequate fuel failure margins exist during the postulated design basis accidents.

  5. A Methodology for Modeling Nuclear Power Plant Passive Component Aging in Probabilistic Risk Assessment under the Impact of Operating Conditions, Surveillance and Maintenance Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler Yigitoglu, Askin

    In the context of long operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) (i.e., 60-80 years, and beyond), investigation of the aging of passive systems, structures and components (SSCs) is important to assess safety margins and to decide on reactor life extension as indicated within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. In the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology, evaluating the potential significance of aging of passive SSCs on plant risk is challenging. Although passive SSC failure rates can be added as initiating event frequencies or basic event failure rates in the traditional event-tree/fault-tree methodology, these failure rates are generally based on generic plant failure data which means that the true state of a specific plant is not reflected in a realistic manner on aging effects. Dynamic PRA methodologies have gained attention recently due to their capability to account for the plant state and thus address the difficulties in the traditional PRA modeling of aging effects of passive components using physics-based models (and also in the modeling of digital instrumentation and control systems). Physics-based models can capture the impact of complex aging processes (e.g., fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, etc.) on SSCs and can be utilized to estimate passive SSC failure rates using realistic NPP data from reactor simulation, as well as considering effects of surveillance and maintenance activities. The objectives of this dissertation are twofold: The development of a methodology for the incorporation of aging modeling of passive SSC into a reactor simulation environment to provide a framework for evaluation of their risk contribution in both the dynamic and traditional PRA; and the demonstration of the methodology through its application to pressurizer surge line pipe weld and steam generator tubes in commercial nuclear power plants. In the proposed methodology, a

  6. The glass bead game: nuclear tourism at the Australian weapon test sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, S R

    1998-01-01

    In mid-summer 1997, just as the United States National Cancer Institute was acknowledging that the nuclear bomb tests at the Nevada Test Site may ultimately cause up to 75,000 cases of thyroid cancer in people who were living in the USA in the 1950s and 1960s, the Australian authorities were mooting the possibility that the Maralinga test sites in South Australia should become a tourist attraction. Some Aboriginal tribal leaders welcomed this proposed use when the 20 million Pounds 'clean-up' being paid for by the United Kingdom government as some compensation for using the area for its weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s is completed. This paper surveys the attempts to clean up the site of UK nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s, not least by attempting to vitrify vast tracts of desert.

  7. Evaluation of the hydrologic source term from underground nuclear tests in Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site: The Cambric test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W L; Bruton, C J; Carle, S F; Kersting, A B; Pawloski, G A; Rard, J A; Shumaker, D E; Smith, D K; Tompson, A F

    1999-03-23

    The objectives of this project are to develop and apply a modeling frame- work to quantitatively evaluate the nature and extent of radionuclide migration within the immediate, near field environment about an underground nuclear test. Specifically, it will involve evaluation of ² The speciation and abundance of radionuclides that are introduced into groundwater as aqueous species or colloids, and ² The rate and extent of radionuclide movement, dilution, and reaction in groundwater surrounding the working point of a test. To be clear, interest will only be focused on processes that have occurred well after the nuclear test, as opposed to the more dynamic processes that take place during or immediately after detonation. The meaning of "near field" in this case will loosely refer to a volume of diameter 4-8 Rc, centered on the working point and chimney of the test, where Rc is the radius of the blast cavity. For a given nuclear test, this information will collectively comprise the test's "hydrologic source term". This work relies on and is being supported by existing data, analyses, and interpretations that have been made at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the American nuclear test program and previous and ongoing studies related to radionuclide migration in the subsurface (Kersting, 1996).

  8. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Its Relevance for the Global Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáša ADAŠKOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT is one of important international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament measures. One of its pillars is the verification mechanism that has been built as an international system of nuclear testing detection to enable the control of observance of the obligations anchored in the CTBT. Despite the great relevance to the global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts, the CTBT is still not in force. The main aim of the article is to summarize the importance of the CTBT and its entry into force not only from the international relations perspective but also from the perspective of the technical implementation of the monitoring system.

  9. Bounds test approach to cointegration and causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane

    2010-01-15

    This paper attempts to examine the dynamic relationship between economic growth, nuclear energy consumption, labor and capital for India for the period 1969-2006. Applying the bounds test approach to cointegration developed by we find that there was a short- and a long-run relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth. Using four long-run estimators we also found that nuclear energy consumption has a positive and a statistically significant impact on India's economic growth. Further, applying the approach to Granger causality and the variance decomposition approach developed by, we found a positive and a significant uni-directional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth without feedback. This implies that economic growth in India is dependent on nuclear energy consumption where a decrease in nuclear energy consumption may lead to a decrease in real income. For a fast growing energy-dependent economy this may have far-reaching implications for economic growth. India's economic growth can be frustrated if energy conservation measures are undertaken without due regard to the negative impact they have on economic growth. (author)

  10. 77 FR 50722 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1208, ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems... entitled ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

  11. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide... with regard to the maintenance, testing, and replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries...

  12. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity; Journees organisees par la Section Environnement de la SFRP, surveillance de la radioactivite de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Th.; Gitzinger, C.; Jaunet, P.; Eberbach, F.; Clavel, B.; Hemidy, P.Y.; Perrier, G.; Kiper, Ch.; Peres, J.M.; Josset, M.; Calvez, M.; Leclerc, M.; Leclerc, E.; Aubert, C.; Levelut, M.N.; Debayle, Ch.; Mayer, St.; Renaud, Ph.; Leprieur, F.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Monfort, M.; Baron, Y.; Target, A

    2008-07-01

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  13. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D. [comps.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  14. Review of recent benchmark experiments on integral test for high energy nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Konno, Chikara; Fukahori, Tokio; Hayashi, Katsumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    A survey work of recent benchmark experiments on an integral test for high energy nuclear data evaluation was carried out as one of the work of the Task Force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this paper the results are compiled and the status of recent benchmark experiments is described. (author)

  15. Design of Testing Set-up for Nuclear Fuel Rod by Neutron Radiography at CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Guo-hai; HAN; Song-bai; WANG; Hong-li; HAO; Li-jie; WU; Mei-mei; HE; Lin-feng; WANG; Yu; LIU; Yun-tao; SUN; Kai; CHEN; Dong-feng

    2012-01-01

    <正>An experimental set-up dedicated to non-destructively test a 15 cm long pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear fuel rod by neutron radiography (NR) is designed and fabricated. It consists of three parts: Transport container, imaging block and steel support. The design of the transport container was optimized with Monte-Carlo simulation by the MCNP code.

  16. Potential Benefits of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amponsah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Data Centers established around the globe with the support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization are used to monitor and manage its data, to control and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapon test explosions. The National Data Center in Ghana was established in February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Center is mandated to collate seismic, radionuclide, infrasound and hydroacoustic data for monitoring nuclear test explosions for global peace. The data are obtained from our neighboring country Cote d’Ivoire and the International Data Center in Austria. The objectives of the Data Center include the following: receive and use data from the International Monitoring System (IMS stations and products derived from the IMS from the International Data Center for verification and compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and for earthquake hazard studies. From 2010 to date local seismic events from the Center are catalogued for earthquake hazard studies in the country. The data are also made available to our stakeholders for earthquake disaster risk reduction. The benefits of the National Data Center to Ghana are numerous. Apart from the data for seismic hazard studies, it can also provide data for research in fisheries, for the study of the crustal structure among others. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.5402

  17. Potential Benefits of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Amponsah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Data Centers established around the globe with the support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization are used to monitor and manage its data, to control and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapon test explosions. The National Data Center in Ghana was established in February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Center is mandated to collate seismic, radionuclide, infrasound and hydroacoustic data for monitoring nuclear test explosions for global peace. The data are obtained from our neighboring country Cote d’Ivoire and the International Data Center in Austria. The objectives of the Data Center include the following: receive and use data from the International Monitoring System (IMS stations and products derived from the IMS from the International Data Center for verification and compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and for earthquake hazard studies. From 2010 to date local seismic events from the Center are catalogued for earthquake hazard studies in the country. The data are also made available to our stakeholders for earthquake disaster risk reduction. The benefits of the National Data Center to Ghana are numerous. Apart from the data for seismic hazard studies, it can also provide data for research in fisheries, for the study of the crustal structure among others.

  18. SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan Update for 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 441.1-­1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE 2008), requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.”This 2017 update reflects changes to the surveillance plan resulting from surveillance findings as documented in Reeves et al. 2016. These findings include observations of corrosion in SAVY and Hagan containers and the indication (in one SAVY container) of possible filter membrane thermal degradation. This surveillance plan update documents the rationale for selecting surveillance containers, specifies the containers for 2017 surveillance, and identifies a minimum set of containers for 2018 surveillance. This update contains important changes to the previous surveillance plans.

  19. Feasibility of AEDC test facility support for nuclear thermal propulsion system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roler, Max A.; Turner, Eugene E.; Bradley, Dale

    1993-06-01

    Test facility requirements to support the development of nuclear propulsion have been evaluated and shortfalls within current test facility capabilities identified. The development of a nonnuclear heat source capable of heating the high-pressure, high mass flowrate hydrogen propellant to the required operating temperature has been identified as a key enabling technology. Other significant issues identified were the safety aspects associated with the cooling, pumping, and disposal of the hot hydrogen exhaust gas. The rocket test facilities at the U.S. Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) were evaluated to determine the ability to support the operationally realistic testing of 'nonirradiated' nuclear propulsion components and/or subassemblies under simulated altitude conditions. An overview of the results from this evaluation process is presented herein.

  20. Feasibility of AEDC test facility support for nuclear thermal propulsion system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roler, M.A.; Turner, E.E.; Bradley, D.

    1993-06-01

    Test facility requirements to support the development of nuclear propulsion have been evaluated and shortfalls within current test facility capabilities identified. The development of a nonnuclear heat source capable of heating the high-pressure, high mass flowrate hydrogen propellant to the required operating temperature has been identified as a key enabling technology. Other significant issues identified were the safety aspects associated with the cooling, pumping, and disposal of the hot hydrogen exhaust gas. The rocket test facilities at the U.S. Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) were evaluated to determine the ability to support the operationally realistic testing of 'nonirradiated' nuclear propulsion components and/or subassemblies under simulated altitude conditions. An overview of the results from this evaluation process is presented herein. 3 refs.

  1. Tests for determining impact resistance and strength of glass used for nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnell, L.R.

    1979-05-01

    Tests are described for determining the impact resistance (Section A) and static tensile strength (Section B) of glasses containing simulated or actual nuclear wastes. This report describes the development and use of these tests to rank different glasses, to assess effects of devitrification, and to examine the effect of impact energy on resulting surface area. For clarity this report is divided into two sections, Impact Resistance and Tensile Strength.

  2. Ground Testing a Nuclear Thermal Rocket: Design of a sub-scale demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Bedsun; Debra Lee; Margaret Townsend; Clay A. Cooper; Jennifer Chapman; Ronald Samborsky; Mel Bulman; Daniel Brasuell; Stanley K. Borowski

    2012-07-01

    In 2008, the NASA Mars Architecture Team found that the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) was the preferred propulsion system out of all the combinations of chemical propulsion, solar electric, nuclear electric, aerobrake, and NTR studied. Recently, the National Research Council committee reviewing the NASA Technology Roadmaps recommended the NTR as one of the top 16 technologies that should be pursued by NASA. One of the main issues with developing a NTR for future missions is the ability to economically test the full system on the ground. In the late 1990s, the Sub-surface Active Filtering of Exhaust (SAFE) concept was first proposed by Howe as a method to test NTRs at full power and full duration. The concept relied on firing the NTR into one of the test holes at the Nevada Test Site which had been constructed to test nuclear weapons. In 2011, the cost of testing a NTR and the cost of performing a proof of concept experiment were evaluated.

  3. Chemical Reactivity Testing for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, H.C.

    1999-01-24

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) summarizes requirements used by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Incorporated (LMES) Development Division at Y-12 for conducting chemical reactivity testing of Department of Energy (DOE) owned spent nuclear fuel, sponsored by the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). The requirements are based on the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 (Statement of Work for Laboratory Determination of Uranium Hydride Oxidation Reaction Kinetics.) This QAPjP will utilize the quality assurance program at Y-12, QA-101PD, revision 1, and existing implementing procedures for the most part in meeting the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 requirements, exceptions will be noted.

  4. Vibration test report on crossover piping system in seismic isolation nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Shinohara, Takaharu; Terada, Shuji; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Tomita, Tsuneo; Kondo, Toshinari

    1999-03-01

    In a seismic isolation nuclear facility, crossover piping system is subjected to large relative displacement and inertia forces during earthquakes. Hinged bellows expansion joints are utilized for accommodation to such the large displacement. This report describes tests for validation of developed simulation code with analytical models. Seismic experiments by a vibration test machine were conducted using actual size piping system models. A comparison between test results and analytical results showed a favorable agreement. The vibration test demonstrated that the structural integrity of this piping system would be maintained during earthquakes. (H. Itami)

  5. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2011; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2012-08-15

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2011. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air

  6. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty.

  7. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R. [Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Holliday, K. S. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-05-21

    Nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. The resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  8. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R.; Holliday, K. S.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. The resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  9. OSIRIS—Gamma-ray spectroscopy software for on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, A.J., E-mail: Gus.Caffrey@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bowyer, T.W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Egger, A.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hall, J.C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, S.M.; Krebs, K.M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kreek, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Jordan, D.V.; Milbrath, B.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Padgett, S.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Wharton, C.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wimer, N.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We have designed and tested software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—OSIRIS—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,{sup 131}I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for OSIRIS testing. These spectra were measured where possible, or generated by modeling. The test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, OSIRIS correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.

  10. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative effluent containment system (ECS) that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal.

  11. Some results of a simulated test for administration of activity in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropesa, P. [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), San Jose de las Lajas, Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: poropesa@centis.edu.cu; Hernandez, A.T. [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), San Jose de las Lajas, Habana (Cuba); Serra, R.A. [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), San Jose de las Lajas, Habana (Cuba); Varela, C. [Centro de Control Estatal de Equipos Medicos (CCEEM). Havana (Cuba); Woods, M.J. [Ionising Radiation Metrology Consultants Ltd, Teddington (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    This paper describes the results obtained using a simulated test for administration of activity in nuclear medicine between 2002 and 2004. Measurements in the radionuclide calibrator are made during the different stages of the procedure. The test attempts to obtain supplementary information on the quality of the measurement, with the aim of evaluating in a more complete way the accuracy of the administered activity value compared with the prescribed one. The participants' performance has been assessed by means of a statistical analysis of the reported data. Dependences between several attributes of the simulated administration tests results are discussed. Specifically, the proportion of satisfactory results in the 2003-2004 period was found to be higher than in 2002. It reveals an improvement of the activity administration in the Cuban nuclear medicine departments since 2003.

  12. Results of the first nuclear blowdown test on single fuel rods (LOC-11 Series in PBF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, J.R.; Evans, D.R.; McCardell, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first nuclear blowdown tests (LOC-11A, LOC-11B, LOC-11C) ever conducted. The Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Test Series is being conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, near Idaho Falls, Idaho, for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objective of the LOC-11 tests was to obtain data on the behavior of pressurized and unpressurized rods when exposed to a blowdown similar to that expected in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during a hypothesized double-ended cold-leg break. The data are being used for the development and verification of analytical models that are used to predict coolant and fuel rod pressure during a LOCA in a PWR.

  13. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapon explosive tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to calculate the maximum time available for detection of the OSI-relevant radionuclides. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site - now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 × 10(-11) to 1 × 10(-9) of the atmospheric release (per m(2)), and has been used in this paper to evaluate an OSI and the OSI-relevant radionuclides at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the OSI-relevant radionuclides by 99.7% within 2 years of detonation, such that detection throughout the hypothesized inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In-reactor tests of the nuclear light bulb rocket concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauntt, R. O.; Slutz, S. A.; Latham, T. S.; Roman, W. C.; Rogers, R. J.

    1992-07-01

    An overview is given of the closed-cycle Gas Core Nuclear Rocket outlining scenarios for its use in short-duration Mars missions and results of Nuclear Light Bulb (NLB) tests. Isothermal and nonnuclear tests are described which confirmed the fundamental concepts behind the NLB. NLB reference-engine performance characteristics are given for hypothetical engines that could be used for manned Mars missions. Vehicle/propulsion sizing is based on a Mars mission with three trans-Mars impulse burns, capture and escape burns, and a total mission duration of 600 days. The engine would have a specific impulse of 1870 seconds, a 412-kN thrust, and a thrust/weight ratio of 1.3. Reactor tests including small-scale in-reactor tests are shown to be prerequisites for studying: (1) fluid mechanical confinement of the gaseous nuclear fuel; (2) buffer gas separation and circulation; and (3) the minimization of transparent wall-heat loading. The reactor tests are shown to be critical for establishing the feasibility of the NLB concept.

  15. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapons tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables and data quality objectives expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte Underground Nuclear Test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to assess an OSI. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site – now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 x 10-11 to 1 x 10-9 of the atmospheric release (per m2), and has been used to evaluate a hypothetical OSI at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the 17 OSI relevant radionuclides by 99.7%, such that detection throughout the inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest.

  16. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  17. Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Differential Calorimeter Measuring the Nuclear Heating in Material Testing Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amharrak, H.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Carette, M.; Brun, J.; De Vita, C.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.-F.; Guimbal, P.

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material. Then these measurements are used for other materials, other geometries, or other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. This paper will present new simulations with MCNP Monte-Carlo transport code to determine the gamma heating profile inside the calorimeter. The whole complex geometry of the sensor has been considered. We use as an input source in the model, the photon spectra calculated in various positions of CARMEN-1 irradiation program in OSIRIS reactor. After a description of the differential calorimeter device, the MCNP modeling used for the calculations of radial profile of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements will be introduced. The obtained results of different simulations will be detailed and discussed in this paper. The charged particle equilibrium inside the calorimeter elements will be studied. Then we will focus on parametric studies of the various components of the calorimeter. The influence of source type will be also took into account. Moreover the influence of the material used for the sample will be described.

  18. Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Differential Calorimeter Measuring the Nuclear Heating in Material Testing Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amharrak H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material. Then these measurements are used for other materials, other geometries, or other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. This paper will present new simulations with MCNP Monte-Carlo transport code to determine the gamma heating profile inside the calorimeter. The whole complex geometry of the sensor has been considered. We use as an input source in the model, the photon spectra calculated in various positions of CARMEN-1 irradiation program in OSIRIS reactor. After a description of the differential calorimeter device, the MCNP modeling used for the calculations of radial profile of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements will be introduced. The obtained results of different simulations will be detailed and discussed in this paper. The charged particle equilibrium inside the calorimeter elements will be studied. Then we will focus on parametric studies of the various components of the calorimeter. The influence of source type will be also took into account. Moreover the influence of the material used for the sample will be described.

  19. Surveillance of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  20. Measurements of extinct fission products in nuclear bomb debris: Determination of the yield of the Trinity nuclear test 70 y later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Susan K; Pollington, Anthony D; Waidmann, Christopher R; Kinman, William S; Wende, Allison M; Miller, Jeffrey L; Berger, Jennifer A; Oldham, Warren J; Selby, Hugh D

    2016-07-19

    This paper describes an approach to measuring extinct fission products that would allow for the characterization of a nuclear test at any time. The isotopic composition of molybdenum in five samples of glassy debris from the 1945 Trinity nuclear test has been measured. Nonnatural molybdenum isotopic compositions were observed, reflecting an input from the decay of the short-lived fission products (95)Zr and (97)Zr. By measuring both the perturbation of the (95)Mo/(96)Mo and (97)Mo/(96)Mo isotopic ratios and the total amount of molybdenum in the Trinity nuclear debris samples, it is possible to calculate the original concentrations of the (95)Zr and (97)Zr isotopes formed in the nuclear detonation. Together with a determination of the amount of plutonium in the debris, these measurements of extinct fission products allow for new estimates of the efficiency and yield of the historic Trinity test.

  1. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  2. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  3. Full-Scale Accident Testing in Support of Used Nuclear Fuel Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric R.; Rechard, Rob P.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2014-09-01

    The safe transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is an important aspect of the waste management system of the United States. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently certifies spent nuclear fuel rail cask designs based primarily on numerical modeling of hypothetical accident conditions augmented with some small scale testing. However, NRC initiated a Package Performance Study (PPS) in 2001 to examine the response of full-scale rail casks in extreme transportation accidents. The objectives of PPS were to demonstrate the safety of transportation casks and to provide high-fidelity data for validating the modeling. Although work on the PPS eventually stopped, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future recommended in 2012 that the test plans be re-examined. This recommendation was in recognition of substantial public feedback calling for a full-scale severe accident test of a rail cask to verify evaluations by NRC, which find that risk from the transport of spent fuel in certified casks is extremely low. This report, which serves as the re-assessment, provides a summary of the history of the PPS planning, identifies the objectives and technical issues that drove the scope of the PPS, and presents a possible path for moving forward in planning to conduct a full-scale cask test. Because full-scale testing is expensive, the value of such testing on public perceptions and public acceptance is important. Consequently, the path forward starts with a public perception component followed by two additional components: accident simulation and first responder training. The proposed path forward presents a series of study options with several points where the package performance study could be redirected if warranted.

  4. Simple hyperaemia test as a screening method in the postoperative surveillance of infrainguinal in situ vein bypasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T V

    1995-01-01

    . The optimal value of the waveform parameters for discrimination between bypasses with and without evidence of stenoses was determined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. MAIN RESULTS: Complete Duplex scanning of the entire graft revealed an increase in the peak systolic velocity by a factor...... follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Single point waveform analysis of vein bypass velocity profile at rest and during reactive hyperaemia is a simple screening method providing diagnostic and prognostic information which may be of value in the postoperative surveillance of infrainguinal vein bypasses....

  5. 76 FR 52355 - NUREG-1482, Revision 2, “Guidelines for Inservice Testing at Nuclear Power Plants, Draft Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... COMMISSION NUREG-1482, Revision 2, ``Guidelines for Inservice Testing at Nuclear Power Plants, Draft Report... a document entitled: NUREG-1482, Revision 2, ``Guidelines for Inservice Testing at Nuclear Power... was submitted previously for public comments as draft NUREG-1946. Based on public comments,...

  6. 78 FR 47011 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This... software elements if those systems include software. This RG is one of six RG revisions addressing...

  7. Fallout Deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak Nuclear Weapons Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E.; Simon, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m-2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for all the 31 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 25 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers. PMID:20622548

  8. Fallout deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 23 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers.

  9. Ionospheric Signatures of North Korean Nuclear Test on 12 February 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, M.; Kim, D.; Yang, Y. M.; Lee, J.; Komjathy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies on interactions between the atmospheric waves and ionospheric perturbations concluded that the acoustic-gravity waves triggered by solid earth events such as earthquakes, tsunamis and underground nuclear tests may be used in detecting the ionospheric perturbations. Ionospheric perturbations have been observed using sounding radars and GPS remote sensing techniques since 1970s. As primary examples, ionospheric disturbances associated with 2006 and 2009 North Korean underground nuclear tests were observed using GPS measurements. In this work, we processed GNSS stations in South Korea and Japan and analyzed traveling ionospheric disturbances that were coincident with the 2013 North Korean underground test. North Korea conducted the third underground nuclear test at 2:57 UTC on February 12, 2013. The magnitude of earthquake generated by this event was registered to be an Mw 5.1 event. After analyzing GPS measurements from nearby stations, strong ionospheric perturbations were observed 15-30 minutes after the reported event, and the disturbances were shown to have primarily two different wave trains. The maximum VTEC perturbations turned out to be between 0.4 to 0.7 TECU. Five stations located in the northwest-to-southeast direction were also scrutinized for the propagation direction and amplitude variation related to ionospheric wave structures. The results clearly showed that the maximum amplitude of the waves may be higher as the stations are closer to the epicenter indicating that the waveforms may propagate away from the epicenter. In this research, we will analyze the characteristics of the detected ionospheric perturbations associated with the underground nuclear test. These findings are expected to verify our modeling results. We hope to get a better understanding of the influence of man-made hazards on the temporal and spatial variability of the global ionosphere.

  10. Modeling Noble Gas Transport and Detection for The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles R.

    2014-03-01

    Detonation gases released by an underground nuclear test include trace amounts of 133Xe and 37Ar. In the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, On Site Inspection Protocol, such gases released from or sampled at the soil surface could be used to indicate the occurrence of an explosion in violation of the treaty. To better estimate the levels of detectability from an underground nuclear test (UNE), we developed mathematical models to evaluate the processes of 133Xe and 37Ar transport in fractured rock. Two models are developed respectively for representing thermal and isothermal transport. When the thermal process becomes minor under the condition of low temperature and low liquid saturation, the subsurface system is described using an isothermal and single-gas-phase transport model and barometric pumping becomes the major driving force to deliver 133Xe and 37Ar to the ground surface. A thermal test is simulated using a nonisothermal and two-phase transport model. In the model, steam production and bubble expansion are the major processes driving noble gas components to ground surface. After the temperature in the chimney drops below boiling, barometric pumping takes over the role as the major transport process.

  11. User input verification and test driven development in the NJOY21 nuclear data processing code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainer, Amelia Jo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCartney, Austin Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-21

    Before physically-meaningful data can be used in nuclear simulation codes, the data must be interpreted and manipulated by a nuclear data processing code so as to extract the relevant quantities (e.g. cross sections and angular distributions). Perhaps the most popular and widely-trusted of these processing codes is NJOY, which has been developed and improved over the course of 10 major releases since its creation at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the mid-1970’s. The current phase of NJOY development is the creation of NJOY21, which will be a vast improvement from its predecessor, NJOY2016. Designed to be fast, intuitive, accessible, and capable of handling both established and modern formats of nuclear data, NJOY21 will address many issues that many NJOY users face, while remaining functional for those who prefer the existing format. Although early in its development, NJOY21 is quickly providing input validation to check user input. By providing rapid and helpful responses to users while writing input files, NJOY21 will prove to be more intuitive and easy to use than any of its predecessors. Furthermore, during its development, NJOY21 is subject to regular testing, such that its test coverage must strictly increase with the addition of any production code. This thorough testing will allow developers and NJOY users to establish confidence in NJOY21 as it gains functionality. This document serves as a discussion regarding the current state input checking and testing practices of NJOY21.

  12. Turning Points in Containment of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, B C; Rambo, J T; Pawloski, G A; Burkhard, N R

    2006-11-21

    Sometime in 1987 Billy Hudson, a long-time LLNL Containment Scientist and the Task Leader for Containment Diagnostics, put together a presentation entitled ''Turning Points in Containment''. This presentation identifies challenges, lessons learned, and changes made in containment practice over a 20-year period, from 1967-1987. Besides providing a significant historical summary, the presentation is valuable as we maintain a position of readiness 14 years after the last underground nuclear detonation. It is particularly valuable to personnel who are new to the program and have no first-hand experience in implementing underground nuclear test containment for actual tests. We now view this material as a unique containment summary with timeless importance. We envision this report to be particularly useful to new Containment Program members and anyone interested in the history of underground nuclear test containment practices. We believe that the Barnwell test, detonated in 1989, would have been added to this summary if Billy Hudson had the opportunity to update the presentation. We have chosen to add a few slides to the end of the original presentation to describe the issues and lessons learned from Barnwell.

  13. The struggle of the veterans of the French nuclear tests; La lutte des veterans des essais nucleaires francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The question debated in this article concerns the demand of compensation and recognition of the impact on their health of nuclear tests. The military personnel that worked during nuclear tests in French Polynesia and the Sahara sites, but also the inhabitants of the atolls of Moruroa and Fangataufa equally in French Polynesia. An observatory of the veterans health has been created in order to improve the medical management of military personnel and former military personnel. An association 'Moruroa e tatou' contains the Polynesian former workers of the Nuclear tests of the Pacific and the association A.V.E.N. contains the veterans of nuclear tests. numerous examples are detailed. The question is tackled too for the consequences on health of the British nuclear tests, in Australia, Christmas Islands, and New Zealand. (N.C.)

  14. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  15. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A;

    2015-01-01

    of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data......: Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance...

  16. Development of Phenomenological Models of Underground Nuclear Tests on Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site - BENHAM and TYBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1999-09-21

    Although it is well accepted that underground nuclear explosions modify the in situ geologic media around the explosion point, the details of these changes are neither well understood nor well documented. As part of the engineering and containment process before a nuclear test, the physical environment is characterized to some extent to predict how the explosion will interact with the in situ media. However, a more detailed characterization of the physical environment surrounding an expended site is needed to successfully model radionuclide transport in the groundwater away from the detonation point. It is important to understand how the media have been altered and where the radionuclides are deposited. Once understood, this information on modified geologic media can be incorporated into a phenomenological model that is suitable for input to computer simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. The primary goals of this study are to (1) identify the modification of the media at a pertinent scale, and (2) provide this information to researchers modeling radionuclide transport in groundwater for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Results from this study are most applicable at near-field scale (a model domain of about 500 m) and intermediate-field scale (a model domain of about 5 km) for which detailed information can be maximized as it is incorporated in the modeling grids. UGTA collected data on radionuclides in groundwater during recent drilling at the ER-20-5 site, which is near BENHAM and TYBO on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Computer simulations are being performed to better understand radionuclide transport. The objectives of this modeling effort include: evaluating site-specific information from the BENHAM and TYBO tests on Pahute Mesa; augmenting the above data set with generalized containment data; and developing a phenomenological model suitable for input to

  17. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85{degree}C and 25{degree}C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. A practical approach for implementing risk-based inservice testing of pumps at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, R.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maret, D.; Seniuk, P.; Smith, L.

    1996-12-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development`s (CRTD) Research Task Force on Risk-Based Inservice Testing has developed guidelines for risk-based inservice testing (IST) of pumps and valves. These guidelines are intended to help the ASME Operation and Maintenance (OM) Committee to enhance plant safety while focussing appropriate testing resources on critical components. This paper describes a practical approach for implementing those guidelines for pumps at nuclear power plants. The approach, as described in this paper, relies on input, direction, and assistance from several entities such as the ASME Code Committees, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the National Laboratories, as well as industry groups and personnel with applicable expertise. Key parts of the risk-based IST process that are addressed here include: identification of important failure modes, identification of significant failure causes, assessing the effectiveness of testing and maintenance activities, development of alternative testing and maintenance strategies, and assessing the effectiveness of alternative testing strategies with present ASME Code requirements. Finally, the paper suggests a method of implementing this process into the ASME OM Code for pump testing.

  19. Testing nuclear parton distributions with pA collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Quiroga-Arias, Paloma; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2010-01-01

    Global perturbative QCD analyses, based on large data sets from electron-proton and hadron collider experiments, provide tight constraints on the parton distribution function (PDF) in the proton. The extension of these analyses to nuclear parton distributions (nPDF) has attracted much interest in recent years. nPDFs are needed as benchmarks for the characterization of hot QCD matter in nucleus-nucleus collisions, and attract further interest since they may show novel signatures of non-linear density-dependent QCD evolution. However, it is not known from first principles whether the factorization of long-range phenomena into process-independent parton distribution, which underlies global PDF extractions for the proton, extends to nuclear effects. As a consequence, assessing the reliability of nPDFs for benchmark calculations goes beyond testing the numerical accuracy of their extraction and requires phenomenological tests of the factorization assumption. Here we argue that a proton-nucleus collision program at...

  20. Testing collinear factorization and nuclear parton distributions with pA collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Quiroga-Arias, Paloma; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2011-01-01

    Global perturbative QCD analyses, based on large data sets from electron-proton and hadron collider experiments, provide tight constraints on the parton distribution function (PDF) in the proton. The extension of these analyses to nuclear parton distributions (nPDF) has attracted much interest in recent years. nPDFs are needed as benchmarks for the characterization of hot QCD matter in nucleus-nucleus collisions, and attract further interest since they may show novel signatures of non- linear density-dependent QCD evolution. However, it is not known from first principles whether the factorization of long-range phenomena into process-independent parton distribution, which underlies global PDF extractions for the proton, extends to nuclear effects. As a consequence, assessing the reliability of nPDFs for benchmark calculations goes beyond testing the numerical accuracy of their extraction and requires phenomenological tests of the factorization assumption. Here we argue that a proton-nucleus collision program a...

  1. UK National Data Centre archive of seismic recordings of (presumed) underground nuclear tests 1964-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John; Peacock, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    The year 1996 has particular significance for forensic seismologists. This was the year when the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was signed in September at the United Nations, setting an international norm against nuclear testing. Blacknest, as a long time seismic centre for research into detecting and identifying underground explosions using seismology, provided significant technical advice during the CTBT negotiations. Since 1962 seismic recordings of both presumed nuclear explosions and earthquakes from the four seismometer arrays Eskdalemuir, Scotland (EKA), Yellowknife, Canada (YKA), Gauribidanur, India (GBA), and Warramunga, Australia (WRA) have been copied, digitised, and saved. There was a possibility this archive would be lost. It was decided to process the records and catalogue them for distribution to other groups and institutions. This work continues at Blacknest but the archive is no longer under threat. In addition much of the archive of analogue tape recordings has been re-digitised with modern equipment, allowing sampling rates of 100 rather than 20 Hz.

  2. Thermal-hydraulic tests of a recirculation cooling installation for the Rostov nuclear power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balunov, B. F.; Balashov, V. A.; Il'in, V. A.; Krayushnikov, V. V.; Lychakov, V. D.; Meshalkin, V. V.; Ustinov, A. N.; Shcheglov, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    Results obtained from thermal-hydraulic tests of the recirculation cooling installation used as part of the air cooling system under the containments of the Rostov nuclear power station Units 3 and 4 are presented. The operating modes of the installation during normal operation (air cooling on the surface of finned tubes), under the conditions of anticipated operational occurrences (air cooling and steam condensation from a steam-air mixture), and during an accident (condensation of pure steam) are considered. Agreement is obtained between the results of tests and calculations carried out according to the recommendations given in the relevant regulatory documents. A procedure of carrying out thermal calculation for the case of steam condensation from a steam-air mixture on the surface of fins is proposed. The possibility of efficient use of the recirculation cooling installation in the system for reducing emergency pressure under the containment of a nuclear power station is demonstrated.

  3. Surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators : Improving Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ability of transparent surface coatings to reduce xenon diffusion into plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon monitoring equipment, used with in the framework of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A large part of the equipment used in this context incorporates plastic scintillators which are in direct contact with the radioactive gas to be detected. One problem with such setup is that radioxenon...

  4. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  5. Non-Nuclear Testing of Compact Reactor Technologies at NASA MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Pearson, J. Boise; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Safe, reliable, compact, autonomous, long-life fission systems have numerous potential applications, both terrestrially and in space. Technologies and facilities developed in support of these systems could be useful to a variety of concepts. At moderate power levels, fission systems can be designed to operate for decades without the need for refueling. In addition, fast neutron damage to cladding and structural materials can be maintained at an acceptable level. Nuclear design codes have advanced to the stage where high confidence in the behavior and performance of a system can be achieved prior to initial testing. To help ensure reactor affordability, an optimal strategy must be devised for development and qualification. That strategy typically involves a combination of non-nuclear and nuclear testing. Non-nuclear testing is particularly useful for concepts in which nuclear operating characteristics are well understood and nuclear effects such as burnup and radiation damage are not likely to be significant. To be mass efficient, a SFPS must operate at higher coolant temperatures and use different types of power conversion than typical terrestrial reactors. The primary reason is the difficulty in rejecting excess heat to space. Although many options exist, NASA s current reference SFPS uses a fast spectrum, pumped-NaK cooled reactor coupled to a Stirling power conversion subsystem. The reference system uses technology with significant terrestrial heritage while still providing excellent performance. In addition, technologies from the SFPS system could be applicable to compact terrestrial systems. Recent non-nuclear testing at NASA s Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) has helped assess the viability of the reference SFPS and evaluate methods for system integration. In July, 2011 an Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) provided by Idaho National Laboratory was tested at the EFF-TF to assess performance and verify suitability for use in a10 kWe technology

  6. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico; Definicion de la longitud minima de inserto en la reconstitucion de probetas Charpy para vigilancia y extension de vida de vasijas en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M., E-mail: jesus.romero@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm{sup 3} in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  7. An Overview of Comprehensive Inspection Technologies Under Investigation at Legacy Underground Nuclear Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; Townsend, M.; Drellack, S.

    2013-12-01

    Comprehensive Inspection Technologies (CIT) under investigation include methods that might be of use in detecting a clandestine underground nuclear test. These include techniques for detecting noble gases, visual observation methods, hyperspectral imaging, controlled- and passive-source seismic surveys, and other geophysical methods. Noble gas detection studies include a series of experiments called the Noble Gas Migration (NGM) experiments, that explore the fundamental parameters that determine the capability to detect radioxenon isotopes and 37Ar produced in underground nuclear tests. These isotopes are of interest to both the International Monitoring System (IMS) global monitoring and On-Site Inspection (OSI) regimes. Through a unique combination of field experiments, sampling of radioactive noble gas from a legacy underground nuclear test, large-scale hydrogeologic computer simulations, and a regimen involving carefully designed field-sampling techniques, the experiments are providing information about the production, release, and sampling challenges that determine the ability to detect these two important noble gases. Other CIT experiments explore and validate geophysical (controlled-source and passive-source seismic, gravity, electrical, magnetic, etc.) and optical techniques (both visual and instrument-based) that greatly enhance the understanding of the efficiency of these techniques for OSI, including how to better integrate the various technologies with each other and individually at different physical scales. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/NV/25936--1840.

  8. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex. [Construction and operation of proposed facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report.

  9. Test Suite for Nuclear Data I: Deterministic Calculations for Critical Assemblies and Replacement Coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruet, J; Brown, D A; Descalle, M

    2006-05-22

    The authors describe tools developed by the Computational Nuclear Physics group for testing the quality of internally developed nuclear data and the fidelity of translations from ENDF formatted data to ENDL formatted data used by Livermore. These tests include S{sub n} calculations for the effective k value characterizing critical assemblies and for replacement coefficients of different materials embedded in the Godiva and Jezebel critical assemblies. For those assemblies and replacement materials for which reliable experimental information is available, these calculations provide an integral check on the quality of data. Because members of the ENDF and reactor communities use calculations for these same assemblies in their validation process, a comparison between their results with ENDF formatted data and their results with data translated into the ENDL format provides a strong check on the accuracy of translations. As a first application of the test suite they present a study comparing ENDL 99 and ENDF/B-V. They also consider the quality of the ENDF/B-V translation previously done by the Computational Nuclear Physics group. No significant errors are found.

  10. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  11. Loss-of-Use Damages From U.S. Nuclear Testing in the Marshall Islands: Technical Analysis of the Nuclear Claims Tribunal’s Methodology and Alternative Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-12

    Islands (RMI) Changed Circumstances Petition, which requests $522 million in additional compensation for loss-of-use of Enewetak and Bikini atolls due to...the U.S. Government conducted an intensive program of nuclear testing on Bikini and Enewetak , two remote Northwesterly atolls in the RMI. Sixty-six...6 Gary Lee, “Postwar Pacific Fallout Wider than Thought,” Washington Post, February 24, 1994. On the Enewetak atoll , 43 above-ground nuclear devices

  12. The re-instrumentation irradiation test of nuclear fuel using fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Yong; Joung, C. Y.; Hong, J. T.; Ahn, S. H.; Choo, K. N. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    This report is the status art report on re-instrumentation. The main techniques described in this report are technology that is developed in Norway HALDEN and domestic research facilities. Although re-instrumentation is not gone vigorously after 1990, HALDEN's re-instrumentation equipment was made until recently. In the meantime, re-instrumentation research was gone in domestic, but irradiation test did not performed actually. But DUPIC fuel irradiation is similar to re-instrumentation, so the irradiation test can be utilized directly to the Fuel Test Loop

  13. Nuclear power plant Olkiluoto 3. Containment leakage test under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Tobias [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Munich (Germany). Measaruement Technology Dept.

    2015-01-15

    Modern nuclear power plants place high demands on the design and execution of safety checks. TUEV SUED supported the containment leakage test for the largest- capacity third generation nuclear power plant in the world - Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. The experts successfully met the challenges presented by exceptional parameters of the project. The containment of Olkiluoto 3 is unique in that the vessel's volume is 80,000 m{sup 3} while measurements were carried out over a period of ten days. To execute the test, 75 temperature and 15 humidity sensors had to be installed and correctly interlinked by more than ten kilometres of cable. These instruments also needed to withstand an absolute pressure of 6 bar, ambient temperatures of 30 C and high levels of humidity. These conditions required comprehensive preparation and a high amount of qualification tests. Parts of the qualifications were carried out at the autoclave system of the Technical University in Munich, Germany, where the project test conditions could be simulated. The software required to determine the tests was developed by TUEV SUED and verified by German's national accreditation body DAkkS under ISO 17025. TUEV SUED enabled the test schedule to continue without delay by analysing all recorded data continuously on site, including pressure, temperature, humidity and leakage mass flow curves. With the comprehensive preparation, data acquisition system recording measurements continuously and the on-time result calculation, all components of the leak-tightness assessment were successfully completed in accordance with requirements.

  14. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Rulison Underground Nuclear Test Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earman, S.; Chapman, J.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations that were used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater from these sites is an important part of the preliminary risk analysis. These evaluations are undertaken to allow prioritization of the test areas in terms of risk, provide a quantitative basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work at the sites, and provide a framework for assessing data needs to be filled by site characterization. The Rulison site in west-central Colorado was the location of an underground detonation of a 40-kiloton nuclear device in 1969. The test took place 2,568 m below ground surface in the Mesaverde Formation. Though located below the regional water table, none of the bedrock formations at the site yielded water during hydraulic tests, indicating extremely low permeability conditions. The scenario evaluated was the migration of radionuclides from the blast-created cavity through the Mesaverde Formation. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides from the test are contained entirely within the area currently administered by DOE. The transport calculations are most sensitive to changes in the mean groundwater velocity and the correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity, with transport of strontium and cesium also sensitive to the sorption coefficient.

  15. Tests of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for active target time projection chambers in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancin, J., E-mail: pancin@ganil.fr [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Damoy, S.; Perez Loureiro, D. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Chambert, V.; Dorangeville, F. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Druillole, F. [CEA, DSM/Irfu/SEDI, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Grinyer, G.F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Lermitage, A.; Maroni, A.; Noël, G. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Porte, C.; Roger, T. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Rosier, P. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Suen, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France)

    2014-01-21

    Active target detection systems, where the gas used as the detection medium is also a target for nuclear reactions, have been used for a wide variety of nuclear physics applications since the eighties. Improvements in Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) and in micro-electronics achieved in the last decade permit the development of a new generation of active targets with higher granularity pad planes that allow spatial and time information to be determined with unprecedented accuracy. A novel active target and time projection chamber (ACTAR TPC), that will be used to study reactions and decays of exotic nuclei at facilities such as SPIRAL2, is presently under development and will be based on MPGD technology. Several MPGDs (Micromegas and Thick GEM) coupled to a 2×2 mm{sup 2} pixelated pad plane have been tested and their performances have been determined with different gases over a wide range of pressures. Of particular interest for nuclear physics experiments are the angular and energy resolutions. The angular resolution has been determined to be better than 1° FWHM for short traces of about 4 cm in length and the energy resolution deduced from the particle range was found to be better than 5% for 5.5 MeV α particles. These performances have been compared to Geant4 simulations. These experimental results validate the use of these detectors for several applications in nuclear physics.

  16. Multiphase, multicomponent flow and transport models for Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty monitoring and nuclear waste disposal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy

    Open challenges remain in using numerical models of subsurface flow and transport systems to make useful predictions related to nuclear waste storage and nonproliferation. The work presented here addresses the sensitivity of model results to unknown parameters, states, and processes, particularly uncertainties related to incorporating previously unrepresented processes (e.g., explosion-induced fracturing, hydrous mineral dehydration) into a subsurface flow and transport numerical simulator. The Finite Element Heat and Mass (FEHM) transfer code is used for all numerical models in this research. An experimental campaign intended to validate the predictive capability of numerical models that include the strongly coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes in bedded salt is also presented. Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce radionuclide gases that may seep to the surface over weeks to months. The estimated timing of gas arrival at the surface may be used to deploy personnel and equipment to the site of a suspected UNE, if allowed under the terms of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. A model was developed using FEHM that considers barometrically pumped gas transport through a simplified fractured medium and was used to quantify the impact of uncertainties in hydrologic parameters (fracture aperture, matrix permeability, porosity, and saturation) and season of detonation on the timing of gas breakthrough. Numerical sensitivity analyses were performed for the case of a 1 kt UNE at a 400 m burial depth. Gas arrival time was found to be most affected by matrix permeability and fracture aperture. Gases having higher diffusivity were more sensitive to uncertainty in the rock properties. The effect of seasonality in the barometric pressure forcing was found to be important, with detonations in March the least likely to be detectable based on barometric data for Rainier Mesa, Nevada. Monte Carlo modeling was also used to predict the window of

  17. Simple hyperaemia test as a screening method in the postoperative surveillance of infrainguinal in situ vein bypasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T V

    1995-01-01

    . The optimal value of the waveform parameters for discrimination between bypasses with and without evidence of stenoses was determined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. MAIN RESULTS: Complete Duplex scanning of the entire graft revealed an increase in the peak systolic velocity by a factor......OBJECTIVES: To develop a simple protocol for ultrasound Duplex surveillance of infrainguinal vein bypasses. DESIGN: The value of three Doppler waveform parameters, obtained from a single point of the bypass, for identification of stenoses was studied in 91 in situ vein bypasses. Midgraft peak...... response assessed by TAMV ratio proved the best parameter for identification of graft stenoses. A TAMV ratio of 2.0 or less correctly identified 21 of the 24 lesions (sensitivity 88%, specificity 75%) and none of the three bypasses with evidence of stenoses and TAMV ratios exceeding 2.0 failed during...

  18. New signatures of underground nuclear tests revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, P.; Larsen, S.; Galloway, D.; Laczniak, R.J.; Walter, W.R.; Foxall, W.; Zucca, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    New observations of surface displacement caused by past underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are presented using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). The InSAR data reveal both coseismic and postseismic subsidence signals that extend one kilometer or more across regardless of whether or not a surface crater was formed from each test. While surface craters and other coseismic surface effects (ground cracks, etc.) may be detectable using high resolution optical or other remote sensing techniques, these broader, more subtle subsidence signals (one to several centimeters distributed over an area 1-2 kilometers across) are not detectable using other methods [Barker et al., 1998]. A time series of interferograms reveal that the postseismic signals develop and persist for months to years after the tests and that different rates and styles of deformation occur depending on the geologic and hydrologic setting and conditions of the local test area.

  19. Development of Mechanical Sealing and Laser Welding Technology to Instrument Thermocouple for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Zircaloy-4 of the nuclear fuel test rod, AISI 316L of the mechanical sealing parts, and the MI (mineral insulated) cable at a thermocouple instrumentation are hetero-metals, and are difficult to weld to dissimilar materials. Therefore, a mechanical sealing method to instrument the thermocouple should be conducted using two kinds of sealing process as follows: One is a mechanical sealing process using Swagelok, which is composed of sealing components that consists of an end-cap, a seal tube, a compression ring and a Swagelok nut. The other is a laser welding process used to join a seal tube, and an MI cable, which are made of the same material. The mechanical sealing process should be sealed up with the mechanical contact compressed by the strength forced between a seal tube and an end-cap, and the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a seal tube and an MI cable. Therefore, the mechanical sealing and laser welding techniques need to be developed to accurately measure the centerline temperature of the nuclear fuel test rod in an experimental reactor. The mechanical sealing and laser welding tests were conducted to develop the thermocouple instrumentation techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The optimum torque value of a Swagelok nut to seal the mechanical sealing part between the end-cap and seal tube was established through various torque tests using a torque wrench. The optimum laser welding conditions to seal the welding part between a seal tube and an MI cable were obtained through various welding tests using a laser welding system.

  20. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  1. A geochemical approach to constraining the formation of glassy fallout debris from nuclear tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamici, Chloë E.; Kinman, William S.; Fournelle, John H.; Zimmer, Mindy M.; Pollington, Anthony D.; Rector, Kirk D.

    2017-01-01

    Glassy nuclear fallout debris from near-surface nuclear tests is fundamentally reprocessed earth material. A geochemical approach to analysis of glassy fallout is uniquely suited to determine the means of reprocessing and shed light on the mechanisms of fallout formation. An improved understanding of fallout formation is of interest both for its potential to guide post-detonation nuclear forensic investigations and in the context of possible affinities between glassy debris and other glasses generated by high-energy natural events, such as meteorite impacts and lightning strikes. This study presents a large major-element compositional dataset for glasses within aerodynamic fallout from the Trinity nuclear test ("trinitite") and a geochemically based analysis of the glass compositional trends. Silica-rich and alkali-rich trinitite glasses show compositions and textures consistent with formation through melting of individual mineral grains—quartz and alkali feldspar, respectively—from the test-site sediment. The volumetrically dominant glass phase—called the CaMgFe glass—shows extreme major-element compositional variability. Compositional trends in the CaMgFe glass are most consistent with formation through volatility-controlled condensation from compositionally heterogeneous plasma. Radioactivity occurs only in CaMgFe glass, indicating that co-condensation of evaporated bulk ground material and trace device material was the main mechanism of radioisotope incorporation into trinitite. CaMgFe trinitite glasses overlap compositionally with basalts, rhyolites, fulgurites, tektites, and microtektites but display greater compositional diversity than all of these naturally formed glasses. Indeed, the most refractory CaMgFe glasses compositionally resemble early solar system condensates—specifically, CAIs.

  2. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.

  3. Assessment of artificial radionuclides issued from French nuclear bomb testing at Mururoa (French Polynesia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.-M.; Thomas, A.J. (Ecole Normale Superieure, Montrouge (France). Inst. de Biogeochimie Marine); Charrier, B.; Cousteau, J.-Y.; Sarano, F. (Fondation Cousteau, Paris (France))

    1990-03-01

    The Mururoa lagoon was sampled immediately after a nuclear test. {sup 131}I was found in sediments and plankton. Official French sources explain its occurrence by an accidental release during a control operation. Long-lived nuclides ({sup 137}Cs, Pu isotopes, etc) are ascribed to past local atmospheric tests. Their total flux to the Pacific Ocean is markedly low as compared to discharges by major reprocessing plants. Radionuclides short-term impact on Pacific ecosystems and man is insignificant. Long-term processes could not be assessed. (author).

  4. Bayesian Zero-Failure (BAZE) reliability demonstration testing procedure for components of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, R.A.

    1977-06-01

    A Bayesian-Zero-Failure (BAZE) reliability demonstration testing procedure is presented. The method is developed for an exponential failure-time model and a gamma prior distribution on the failure-rate. A simple graphical approach using percentiles is used to fit the prior distribution. The procedure is given in an easily applied step-by-step form which does not require the use of a computer for its implementation. The BAZE approach is used to obtain sample test plans for selected components of nuclear reactor safety systems.

  5. Development of Causality Analyzer for Maintenance/Test Tasks in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Oh, Kye Min; Kim, So Young; Kim, Tae Mi; Ahmed, Rizwan [KyungHee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this project is to propose a causality analyzer for maintenance/test tasks in nuclear power plants in terms of fault tree analysis and turbine cycle simulation for a secondary side. In nuclear power plants, a lot of efforts to reduce unanticipated trips caused by maintenance or tests have been conducted, so many of trip causalities in a primary side were eliminated. However, it is still difficult to effectively recognize the causalities for the tasks of maintenance/tests in a secondary side. This study, therefore, attempted to propose a methodology based on fault tree analysis and derate simulation, which is particularly applicable for a secondary side. Ultimately, it is possible to develop the guidelines to warn the vulnerability in the tasks by proactively providing the human errors from maintenance or tests. The products of this study is able to predict the enhancement of plant availability by correlating the human errors resulting from maintenance/tests with a various type of plant losses

  6. Surveillance data bases, analysis, and standardization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kam, F.B.K.

    1990-09-26

    The traveler presented a paper at the Seventh ASTM-EURATOM Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry and co-chaired an oral session on Computer Codes and Methods. Papers of considerable interest to the NRC Surveillance Dosimetry Program involved statistically based adjustment procedures and uncertainties. The information exchange meetings with Czechoslovakia and Hungary were very enlightening. Lack of large computers have hindered their surveillance program. They depended very highly on information from their measurement programs which were somewhat limited because of the lack of sophisticated electronics. The Nuclear Research Institute at Rez had to rely on expensive mockups of power reactor configurations to test their fluence exposures. Computers, computer codes, and updated nuclear data would advance their technology rapidly, and they were not hesitant to admit this fact. Both eastern-bloc countries said that IBM is providing an IBM 3090 for educational purposes but research and development studies would have very limited access. They were very apologetic that their currencies were not convertible, and any exchange means that they could provide services or pay for US scientists in their respective countries, but funding for their scientists in the United States, or expenses that involved payment in dollars, must come from us.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.R.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin, clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge), remove the contents from the canisters and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. This report describes fuel handling development testing performed from May 1, 1997 through the end of August 1997. Testing during this period was mainly focused on performance of a Schilling Robotic Systems` Conan manipulator used to simulate a custom designed version, labeled Konan, being fabricated for K-Basin deployment. In addition to the manipulator, the camera viewing system, process table layout, and fuel handling processes were evaluated. The Conan test manipulator was installed and fully functional for testing in early 1997. Formal testing began May 1. The purposes of fuel handling development testing were to provide proof of concept and criteria, optimize equipment layout, initialize the process definition, and identify special needs/tools and required design changes to support development of the performance specification. The test program was set up to accomplish these objectives through cold (non-radiological) development testing using simulated and prototype equipment.

  8. Simulation of the nuclear fuel assembly drop test with LS-Dyna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkevich, P., E-mail: petya2306@gmail.com; Abramov, V.; Yuremenko, V.; Piminov, V.; Makarov, V.; Afanasiev, A.

    2014-04-01

    Transportation of the nuclear fuel containing objects is especially sensitive to accidental drops, as any event, affecting the fuel spacial arrangement, alters also neutron multiplication factor and can result in uncontrolled chain reaction. The latter is particularly important for nuclear fuel being immersed in water. Apart from that, fall can result in a mechanical damage of the fuel rods, which can cause environmental pollution by radionuclides. Final and intermediate fuel configurations during the accident depend on the impact velocity and the angle between falling object and the surface. Experiments cannot cover all the possible variants of drops, as it would result in their unacceptable prices. Therefore elaboration of the approaches to numerically simulate such kind of accidents is an essential step in the nuclear fuel transportation safety analysis and is the principal goal of the present research. Series of drop tests with fuel assemblies (FA) models of different complexity have been performed and numerically simulated with LS-Dyna software in order to proof the reliability of such kind of analysis. The paper contains description of the drop test experimental facility, some experimental results and their numerical simulation. It has been found that the finite element model of the FA and the material properties used for the simulation provide reliable predictions of the FA materials deformation and failure in case of accidental drops onto a rigid surface.

  9. CALMOS: Innovative device for the measurement of nuclear heating in material testing reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcreff, H. [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission CEA, Saclay Center, DEN/DANS/DRSN/SIREN, Gif Sur Yvette, 91191 (France)

    2011-07-01

    An R and D program has been carried out since 2002 in order to improve gamma heating measurements in the 70 MWth OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor operated by CEA's Nuclear Energy Div. at the Saclay research center. Throughout this program an innovative calorimetric probe associated to a specific handling system has been designed in order to make measurements both along the fissile height and on the upper part of the core, where nuclear heating rates still remain high. Two mock-ups of the probe were manufactured and tested in 2005 and 2009 in ex-core area of OSIRIS reactor for the process validation, while a displacement system has been especially designed to move the probe axially. A final probe has been designed thanks to modeling results and to preliminary measurements obtained with mock-ups irradiated to a heating level of 2W/g, This paper gives an overview of the development, describes the calorimetric probe, and expected advantages such as the possibility to use complementary methods to get the nuclear heating measurement. Results obtained with mock-ups irradiated in ex-core area of the reactor are presented and discussed. (authors)

  10. Phase II: Field Detector Development For Undeclared/Declared Nuclear Testing For Treaty Verfiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriz, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hunter, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-02

    Radioactive xenon isotopes are a critical part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) for the detection or confirmation of nuclear weapons tests as well as on-site treaty verification monitoring. On-site monitoring is not currently conducted because there are no commercially available small/robust field detector devices to measure the radioactive xenon isotopes. Xenon is an ideal signature to detect clandestine nuclear events since they are difficult to contain and can diffuse and migrate through soils due to their inert nature. There are four key radioxenon isotopes used in monitoring: 135Xe (9 hour half-life), 133mXe (2 day half-life), 133Xe (5 day half-life) and 131mXe (12 day half-life) that decay through beta emission and gamma emission. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a leader in the field of gas collections and has developed highly selective molecular sieves that allow for the collection of xenon gas directly from air. Phase I assessed the development of a small, robust beta-gamma coincidence counting system, that combines collection and in situ detection methodologies. Phase II of the project began development of the custom electronics enabling 2D beta-gamma coincidence analysis in a field portable system. This will be a significant advancement for field detection/quantification of short-lived xenon isotopes that would not survive transport time for laboratory analysis.

  11. Comparison of the Microbial Community Composition at Yucca Mountain and Laboratory Test Nuclear Repository Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J; Carrillo, C; Dias, V

    2002-10-09

    The microbiological community structure within a proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV was determined. Microbial growth from collected rock was detected using simulated ground water as a growth medium, with or without amendment of a carbon source. Grown isolates were identified by 16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis. A more complete compositional analysis of the microbial community located at the proposed nuclear waste repository site was performed using environmental DNA isolation and subsequent identification of amplified 16s rDNA genes. Concurrently, a series of corrosion testing tanks that simulate the evolution of anticipated environmental conditions within the proposed repository have been subjected to the same type of analyses.

  12. Insights to repository performance through study of a nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D K; Kersting, A B; Thompson, J L; Finnegan, D L

    2000-07-12

    Underground nuclear test sites offer an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate processes relevant to high-level waste repository performance in the absence of engineered barriers. Radionuclide migration programs at the Nevada Test Site represent a twenty-five year systematic investigation of the diverse radiologic source terms residual from weapons testing and the evolution of the hydrologic source term which comprises those radionuclides dissolved in or otherwise available for transport by groundwater. The Nevada Test Site shares actinide source terms, correlative geology, an identical tectonic setting, similar climate, and a thick unsaturated zone with the adjacent proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository and provides a natural laboratory to assess long-term radionuclide transport in the near field. Analog studies may ultimately help validate predictions of radionuclide transport from the Yucca Mountain repository.

  13. 78 FR 71676 - NUREG-1482, Revision 2, “Guidelines for Inservice Testing at Nuclear Power Plants, Final Report”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... COMMISSION NUREG-1482, Revision 2, ``Guidelines for Inservice Testing at Nuclear Power Plants, Final Report.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a final report entitled: NUREG-1482, Revision 2....'' In the previous Revisions 0 and 1 of NUREG-1482, the NRC staff provides licensees guidelines...

  14. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  15. In situ radiation measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, W.J.

    1996-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, during the period of July 21-30, 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at selected areas on the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. The survey was part of a cooperative effort between the United States team and teams of radiation scientists from the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. In addition to in situ radiation measurements made by the United States and Russian teams, soil samples were collected and analyzed by the Russian and Kazakhstani teams. All teams conducted their measurements at ten locations within the test site. The United States team also made a number of additional measurements to locate and verify the positions of three potential fallout plumes containing plutonium contamination from nonnuclear tests. In addition, the United States team made several measurements in Kurchatov City, the housing area used by personnel and their families who work(ed) at the test sites. Comparisons between the United States and Russian in situ measurements and the soil sample results are presented as well as comparisons with a Soviet aerial survey conducted in 1990-1991. The agreement between the different types of measurements made by all three countries was quite good.

  16. Handling missing data in transmission disequilibrium test in nuclear families with one affected offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, Gulhan

    2012-01-01

    The Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) compares frequencies of transmission of two alleles from heterozygote parents to an affected offspring. This test requires all genotypes to be known from all members of the nuclear families. However, obtaining all genotypes in a study might not be possible for some families, in which case, a data set results in missing genotypes. There are many techniques of handling missing genotypes in parents but only a few in offspring. The robust TDT (rTDT) is one of the methods that handles missing genotypes for all members of nuclear families [with one affected offspring]. Even though all family members can be imputed, the rTDT is a conservative test with low power. We propose a new method, Mendelian Inheritance TDT (MITDT-ONE), that controls type I error and has high power. The MITDT-ONE uses Mendelian Inheritance properties, and takes population frequencies of the disease allele and marker allele into account in the rTDT method. One of the advantages of using the MITDT-ONE is that the MITDT-ONE can identify additional significant genes that are not found by the rTDT. We demonstrate the performances of both tests along with Sib-TDT (S-TDT) in Monte Carlo simulation studies. Moreover, we apply our method to the type 1 diabetes data from the Warren families in the United Kingdom to identify significant genes that are related to type 1 diabetes.

  17. Handling missing data in transmission disequilibrium test in nuclear families with one affected offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulhan Bourget

    Full Text Available The Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT compares frequencies of transmission of two alleles from heterozygote parents to an affected offspring. This test requires all genotypes to be known from all members of the nuclear families. However, obtaining all genotypes in a study might not be possible for some families, in which case, a data set results in missing genotypes. There are many techniques of handling missing genotypes in parents but only a few in offspring. The robust TDT (rTDT is one of the methods that handles missing genotypes for all members of nuclear families [with one affected offspring]. Even though all family members can be imputed, the rTDT is a conservative test with low power. We propose a new method, Mendelian Inheritance TDT (MITDT-ONE, that controls type I error and has high power. The MITDT-ONE uses Mendelian Inheritance properties, and takes population frequencies of the disease allele and marker allele into account in the rTDT method. One of the advantages of using the MITDT-ONE is that the MITDT-ONE can identify additional significant genes that are not found by the rTDT. We demonstrate the performances of both tests along with Sib-TDT (S-TDT in Monte Carlo simulation studies. Moreover, we apply our method to the type 1 diabetes data from the Warren families in the United Kingdom to identify significant genes that are related to type 1 diabetes.

  18. Spectral modulation effect in teleseismic P-waves from DPRK nuclear tests recorded at different azimuths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Yefim; Kim, So Gu; Hofstetter, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Two underground nuclear explosions conducted by North Korea in 2009 and 2013 were recorded by the Israel Seismic Network. Pronounced coherent minima (spectral nulls) at 1.2-1.3 Hz were revealed in the spectra of teleseismic P-waves. For a ground-truth explosion with a shallow source depth (relatively to an earthquake), this phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of the interference between the down-going P-wave and the pP phase reflected from the Earth's surface. A similar effect was observed at ISN stations for the Pakistan nuclear explosion at a different frequency 1.7 Hz indicating a source and not site-effect. Similar spectral minima with about the same frequency were observed in teleseismic P-waves of all three North Korea explosions (including the 2006 test) recorded at network stations and arrays in Kazakhstan (KURK), Norway (NORESS, ARCESS), Australia (Alice Springs, Warramunga) and Canada (Yellowknife), covering a broad azimuthal range. Data of the 2013 test at Warramunga array showed harmonic spectral modulation with several minima, evidencing a clear interference effect. These observations support the above-mentioned interpretation. Based on the null frequency dependency on the near-surface acoustic velocity and the source depth, the depth of the North Korea tests was estimated as ~2 km (different from the value ~1 km reported by USGS for the third test). This unusual depth estimation needs an additional validation based on more stations and verification by other methods.

  19. Geology in the Vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM Underground Nuclear Tests, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. B. Prothro

    2001-12-01

    Recent radiochemical evidence from groundwater characterization and monitoring wells in the vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM underground nuclear tests in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site, suggests that migration of radionuclides within groundwater beneath this portion of Area 20 may be more rapid than previously thought. In order to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions in the TYBO-BENHAM area for more accurate flow and transport modeling, a reevaluation of the subsurface geologic environment in the vicinity of the two underground tests was conducted. Eight existing drill holes provided subsurface control for the area. These holes included groundwater characterization and monitoring wells, exploratory holes, and large-diameter emplacement holes used for underground nuclear weapons tests. Detailed and consistent geologic descriptions of these holes were produced by updating existing geologic descriptions with data from petrographic, chemical, and mineralogic analyses, and current stratigraphic concepts of the region. The updated descriptions, along with surface geologic data, were used to develop a detailed geologic model of the TYBO-BENHAM area. This model is represented by diagrams that correlate stratigraphic, lithologic, and alteration intervals between holes, and by isopach and structure maps and geologic cross sections. Regional data outside the TYBO-BENHAM area were included in the isopach and structure maps to better evaluate the geology of the TYBO-BENHAM area in a regional context. The geologic model was then evaluated with regard to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration to assess the model's implications for flow and transport modeling. Implications include: (1) confirmation of the general hydrogeology of the area described in previous studies; (2) the presence of two previously unrecognized buried faults that could act as zones of enhanced permeability within aquifers; and (3) secondary alteration within tuff confining

  20. Sturdy on Orbital TIG Welding Properties for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Changyoung; Hong, Jintae; Kim, Kahye; Huh, Sungho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We developed a precision TIG welding system that is able to weld the seam between end-caps and a fuel cladding tube for the nuclear fuel test rod and rig. This system can be mainly classified into an orbital TIG welder (AMI, M-207A) and a pressure chamber. The orbital TIG welder can be independently used, and it consists of a power supply unit, a microprocessor, water cooling unit, a gas supply unit and an orbital weld head. In this welder, the power supply unit mainly supplies GTAW power for a welding specimen and controls an arc starting of high frequency, supping of purge gas, arc rotation through the orbital TIG welding head, and automatic timing functions. In addition, the pressure chamber is used to make the welded surface of the cladding specimen clean with the inert gas filled inside the chamber. To precisely weld the cladding tube, a welding process needs to establish a schedule program for an orbital TIG welding. Therefore, the weld tests were performed on a cladding tube and dummy rods under various conditions. This paper describes not only test results on parameters of the purge gas flow rates and the chamber gas pressures for the orbital TIG welding, but also test results on the program establishment of an orbital TIG welding system to weld the fuel test rods. Various welding tests were performed to develop the orbital TIG welding techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The width of HAZ of a cladding specimen welded with the identical power during an orbital TIG welding cycle was continuously increased from a welded start-point to a weld end-point because of heat accumulation. The welding effect of the PGFR and CGP shows a relatively large difference for FSS and LSS. Each hole on the cladding specimens was formed in the 1bar CGP with the 20L/min PGFR but not made in the case of the PGFR of 10L/min in the CGP of 2bar. The optimum schedule program of the orbital TIG welding system to weld the nuclear fuel test rod was established through the program

  1. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiment Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaine Grover

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will have differing compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during initial start-up of

  2. Distribution of 99Tc and 129I in the Vicinity of Underground Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P; Hu, Q; Rose, T P; Nimz, G J; Zavarin, M

    2006-03-17

    {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I are important contributors to risk assessment due to their long half-lives and high mobility as aqueous anionic species. We analyzed {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I in groundwater samples in and near 11 underground nuclear tests and in melt glass and rock samples retrieved from the Chancellor test cavity, Nevada Test Site. The {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio ranges from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -6} in cavity water and 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -9} in satellite wells. The {sup 99}Tc concentration ranges from 3 to 10{sup -4} Bq/L in cavity waters and from 0.3 to 10{sup -4} Bq/L in satellite wells. Downstream migration is apparent for both radionuclides. However, it is affected by both retardation and initial distribution. In-situ {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I K{sub d}s calculated using rubble and water concentrations are 3 to 22 mL/g and 0 to 0.12 mL/g, respectively and are suggestive of mildly reducing conditions. {sup 129}I distribution in the melt glass, rubble and groundwater of the Chancellor test cavity is 28%, 24% and 48%, respectively; for {sup 99}Tc, it is 65%, 35% and 0.3%, respectively. Our partitioning estimates differ from those of underground tests in French Polynesia, implying that fission product distribution may vary from test to test. Factors that may influence this distribution include geologic conditions (e.g. lithology, water and CO{sub 2} content) and the cooling history of the test cavity.

  3. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kotter, D.; Walrath, W.M.; Zamecnik, R.J. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-07-01

    We present a summary of efforts associated with the installation of an integrated system for the surveillance and monitoring of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides in long-term storage. The product of this effort will include a Pu storage requirements document, baseline integrated monitoring and surveillance system (IMSS) prototype and test bed that will be installed in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) nuclear material vault at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), and a Pu tracking database including data analysis capabilities. The prototype will be based on a minimal set of vault and package monitoring requirements as derived from applicable DOE documentation and guidelines, detailed in the requirements document, including DOE-STD-3013-96. The use of standardized requirements will aid individual sites in the selection of sensors that best suit their needs while the prototype IMSS, located at ANL-W, will be used as a test bed to compare and contrast sensor performance against a baseline integrated system (the IMSS), demonstrate system capabilities, evaluate potential technology gaps, and test new hardware and software designs using various storage configurations. With efforts currently underway to repackage and store a substantial quantity of plutonium and plutonium-bearing material within the DOE complex, this is an opportune time to undertake such a project. 4 refs.

  4. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  5. Selected fault testing of electronic isolation devices used in nuclear power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaran, M.; Hillman, K.; Taylor, J.; Lara, J.; Wilhelm, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Electronic isolation devices are used in nuclear power plants to provide electrical separation between safety and non-safety circuits and systems. Major fault testing in an earlier program indicated that some energy may pass through an isolation device when a fault at the maximum credible potential is applied in the transverse mode to its output terminals. During subsequent field qualification testing of isolators, concerns were raised that the worst case fault, that is, the maximum credible fault (MCF), may not occur with a fault at the maximum credible potential, but rather at some lower potential. The present test program investigates whether problems can arise when fault levels up to the MCF potential are applied to the output terminals of an isolator. The fault energy passed through an isolated device during a fault was measured to determine whether the levels are great enough to potentially damage or degrade performance of equipment on the input (Class 1E) side of the isolator.

  6. Mars Sample Return and Flight Test of a Small Bimodal Nuclear Rocket and ISRU Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.; Wolinsky, Jason J.; Bilyeu, Michael B.; Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    A combined Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) flight test and Mars Sample Return mission (MSR) is explored as a means of "jump-starting" NTR development. Development of a small-scale engine with relevant fuel and performance could more affordably and quickly "pathfind" the way to larger scale engines. A flight test with subsequent inflight postirradiation evaluation may also be more affordable and expedient compared to ground testing and associated facilities and approvals. Mission trades and a reference scenario based upon a single expendable launch vehicle (ELV) are discussed. A novel "single stack" spacecraft/lander/ascent vehicle concept is described configured around a "top-mounted" downward firing NTR, reusable common tank, and "bottom-mount" bus, payload and landing gear. Requirements for a hypothetical NTR engine are described that would be capable of direct thermal propulsion with either hydrogen or methane propellant, and modest electrical power generation during cruise and Mars surface insitu resource utilization (ISRU) propellant production.

  7. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for subsampling and for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride UF6. Most of these test methods are in routine use to determine conformance to UF6 specifications in the Enrichment and Conversion Facilities. 1.2 The analytical procedures in this document appear in the following order: Note 1—Subcommittee C26.05 will confer with C26.02 concerning the renumbered section in Test Methods C761 to determine how concerns with renumbering these sections, as analytical methods are replaced with stand-alone analytical methods, are best addressed in subsequent publications. Sections Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride 7 - 10 Gravimetric Determination of Uranium 11 - 19 Titrimetric Determination of Uranium 20 Preparation of High-Purity U3O 8 21 Isotopic Analysis 22 Isotopic Analysis by Double-Standard Mass-Spectrometer Method 23 - 29 Determination of Hydrocarbons, Chlorocarbons, and Partially Substitut...

  8. Evaluation of the Hydrologic Source Term from Underground Nuclear Tests on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site: The CHESHIRE Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G A; Tompson, A F B; Carle, S F; Bourcier, W L; Bruton, C J; Daniels, J I; Maxwell, R M; Shumaker, D E; Smith, D K; Zavarin, M

    2001-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop, summarize, and interpret a series of detailed unclassified simulations that forecast the nature and extent of radionuclide release and near-field migration in groundwater away from the CHESHIRE underground nuclear test at Pahute Mesa at the NTS over 1000 yrs. Collectively, these results are called the CHESHIRE Hydrologic Source Term (HST). The CHESHIRE underground nuclear test was one of 76 underground nuclear tests that were fired below or within 100 m of the water table between 1965 and 1992 in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS. These areas now comprise the Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit (CAU) for which a separate subregional scale flow and transport model is being developed by the UGTA Project to forecast the larger-scale migration of radionuclides from underground tests on Pahute Mesa. The current simulations are being developed, on one hand, to more fully understand the complex coupled processes involved in radionuclide migration, with a specific focus on the CHESHIRE test. While remaining unclassified, they are as site specific as possible and involve a level of modeling detail that is commensurate with the most fundamental processes, conservative assumptions, and representative data sets available. However, the simulation results are also being developed so that they may be simplified and interpreted for use as a source term boundary condition at the CHESHIRE location in the Pahute Mesa CAU model. In addition, the processes of simplification and interpretation will provide generalized insight as to how the source term behavior at other tests may be considered or otherwise represented in the Pahute Mesa CAU model.

  9. Testing collinear factorization and nuclear parton distributions with pA collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroga-Arias, Paloma [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Milhano, Jose Guilherme [CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Av. Rovisco Pais 1, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Wiedemann, Urs Achim, E-mail: pquiroga@fpaxpl.usc.es [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-01-01

    Global perturbative QCD analyses, based on large data sets from electron-proton and hadron collider experiments, provide tight constraints on the parton distribution function (PDF) in the proton. The extension of these analyses to nuclear parton distributions (nPDF) has attracted much interest in recent years. nPDFs are needed as benchmarks for the characterization of hot QCD matter in nucleus-nucleus collisions, and attract further interest since they may show novel signatures of non- linear density-dependent QCD evolution. However, it is not known from first principles whether the factorization of long-range phenomena into process-independent parton distribution, which underlies global PDF extractions for the proton, extends to nuclear effects. As a consequence, assessing the reliability of nPDFs for benchmark calculations goes beyond testing the numerical accuracy of their extraction and requires phenomenological tests of the factorization assumption. Here we argue that a proton-nucleus collision program at the LHC would provide a set of measurements allowing for unprecedented tests of the factorization assumption underlying global nPDF fits.

  10. Capabilities Development for Transient Testing of Advanced Nuclear Fuels at TREAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolstenhulme, N. E.; Baker, C. C.; Bess, J. D.; Davis, C. B.; Hill, C. M.; Housley, G. K.; Jensen, C. B.; Jerred, N. D.; O' Brien, R. C.; Snow, S. D.; Wachs, D. M.

    2016-09-01

    The TREAT facility is a unique capability at the Idaho National Laboratory currently being prepared for resumption of nuclear transient testing. Accordingly, designs for several transient irradiation tests are being pursued to enable development of advanced nuclear fuels and materials. In addition to the reactor itself, the foundation for TREAT’s capabilities also include a suite of irradiation vehicles and supporting infrastructure to provide the desired specimen boundary conditions while supporting a variety of instrumentation needs. The challenge of creating these vehicles, especially since many of the modern data needs were not historically addressed in TREAT experiment vehicles, has necessitated a sizeable engineering effort. This effort is currently underway and maturing rapidly. This paper summarizes the status, future plans, and rationale for TREAT experiment vehicle capabilities. Much of the current progress is focused around understanding and demonstrating the behavior of fuel design with enhanced accident tolerance in water-cooled reactors. Additionally, several related efforts are underway to facilitate transient testing in liquid sodium, inert gas, and steam environments. This paper discusses why such a variety of capabilities are needed, outlines plans to accomplish them, and describes the relationship between transient data needs and the irradiation hardware that will support the gathering of this information.

  11. Design and Test Plans for a Non-Nuclear Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee; Palac, Donald; Gibson, Marc; Houts, Michael; Warren, John; Werner, James; Poston, David; Qualls, Arthur Lou; Radel, Ross; Harlow, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) team is developing concepts and technologies for affordable nuclear Fission Power Systems (FPSs) to support future exploration missions. A key deliverable is the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The TDU will assemble the major elements of a notional FPS with a non-nuclear reactor simulator (Rx Sim) and demonstrate system-level performance in thermal vacuum. The Rx Sim includes an electrical resistance heat source and a liquid metal heat transport loop that simulates the reactor thermal interface and expected dynamic response. A power conversion unit (PCU) generates electric power utilizing the liquid metal heat source and rejects waste heat to a heat rejection system (HRS). The HRS includes a pumped water heat removal loop coupled to radiator panels suspended in the thermal-vacuum facility. The basic test plan is to subject the system to realistic operating conditions and gather data to evaluate performance sensitivity, control stability, and response characteristics. Upon completion of the testing, the technology is expected to satisfy the requirements for Technology Readiness Level 6 (System Demonstration in an Operational and Relevant Environment) based on the use of high-fidelity hardware and prototypic software tested under realistic conditions and correlated with analytical predictions.

  12. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

  13. Recent advances of annular centrifugal extractor for hot test of nuclear waste partitioning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeXiang-Ming; YanYu-Shun; 等

    1998-01-01

    Advances are being made in the design of the annular centrifugal extractor fornuclear fuel reprocessing extraction process studies.The extractors have been built and tested.Twelve stages of this extractor and 50 stages are used toimplement the TRPO process for the cleanup ofcommercial and defense nuclear waste liquids,respectively.Following advances are available:(1) simple way of assembly and disassembly between rotor part and housing part of extractor,ease of manipulator operation;(2)automatic sampling from housing of extractor in hot cell;(3) compact multi-stage housing system;(4) easy interstage link;(5) computer data acquisition and monitoring system of speed.

  14. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project Shoal Area for the protection of the public and the environment.

  15. Concept study of a hydrogen containment process during nuclear thermal engine ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric T.; Canabal, Francisco

    A new hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. It utilizes two thermophysical steps to contain the hydrogen exhaust. First, the decomposition of hydrogen through oxygen-rich combustion at higher temperature; second, the recombination of remaining hydrogen with radicals at low temperature. This is achieved with two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. A computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to analyze the entire process on a three-dimensional domain. The computed flammability at the exit of the heat exchanger was less than the lower flammability limit, confirming the hydrogen containment capability of the proposed process.

  16. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data.

  17. From Ground Truth to Space: Surface, Subsurface and Remote Observations Associated with Nuclear Test Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Anderson, D.; Burt, C.; Craven, J.; Kimblin, C.; McKenna, I.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Miller, E.; Yocky, D. A.; Haas, D.

    2016-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) result in numerous signatures that manifest on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Currently, prompt signals, such as the detection of seismic waves provide only generalized locations and the timing and amplitude of non-prompt signals are difficult to predict. As such, research into improving the detection, location, and identification of suspect events has been conducted, resulting in advancement of nuclear test detection science. In this presentation, we demonstrate the scalar variably of surface and subsurface observables, briefly discuss current capabilities to locate, detect and characterize potential nuclear explosion locations, and explain how emergent technologies and amalgamation of disparate data sets will facilitate improved monitoring and verification. At the smaller scales, material and fracture characterization efforts on rock collected from legacy UNE sites and from underground experiments using chemical explosions can be incorporated into predictive modeling efforts. Spatial analyses of digital elevation models and orthoimagery of both modern conventional and legacy nuclear sites show subtle surface topographic changes and damage at nearby outcrops. Additionally, at sites where such technology cannot penetrate vegetative cover, it is possible to use the vegetation itself as both a companion signature reflecting geologic conditions and showing subsurface impacts to water, nutrients, and chemicals. Aerial systems based on RGB imagery, light detection and ranging, and hyperspectral imaging can allow for combined remote sensing modalities to perform pattern recognition and classification tasks. Finally, more remote systems such as satellite based synthetic aperture radar and satellite imagery are other techniques in development for UNE site detection, location and characterization.

  18. Dynamic parameters test of Haiyang Nuclear Power Engineering in reactor areas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N.; Zhao, S.; Sun, L.

    2012-12-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Project is located in Haiyang city, China. It consists of 6×1000MW AP1000 Nuclear Power generator sets. The dynamic parameters of the rockmass are essential for the design of the nuclear power plant. No.1 and No.2 reactor area are taken as research target in this paper. Sonic logging, single hole and cross-hole wave velocity are carried out respectively on the site. There are four types of rock lithology within the measured depth. They are siltstone, fine sandstone, shale and allgovite. The total depth of sonic logging is 409.8m and 2049 test points. The sound wave velocity of the rocks are respectively 5521 m/s, 5576m/s, 5318 m/s and 5576 m/s. Accroding to the statistic data, among medium weathered fine sandstone, fairly broken is majority, broken and relatively integrity are second, part of integrity. Medium weathered siltstone, relatively integrity is mojority, fairly broken is second. Medium weathered shale, fairly broken is majority, broken and relatively integrity for the next and part of integrity. Slight weathered fine sandstone, siltstone, shale and allgovite, integrity is the mojority, relatively integrity for the next, part of fairly broken.The single hole wave velocity tests are set in two boreholesin No.1 reactor area and No.2 reactor area respectively. The test depths of two holes are 2-24m, and the others are 2-40m. The wave velocity data are calculated at different depth in each holes and dynamic parameters. According to the test statistic data, the wave velocity and the dynamic parameter values of rockmass are distinctly influenced by the weathering degree. The test results are list in table 1. 3 groups of cross hole wave velocity tests are set for No.1 and 2 reactor area, No.1 reactor area: B16, B16-1, B20(Direction:175°, depth: 100m); B10, B10-1, B11(269°, 40m); B21, B21-1, B17(154°, 40m); with HB16, HB10, HB21 as trigger holes; No.2 reactor area: B47, B47-1, HB51(176°, 100m); B40, B40-1, B41(272°, 40m); B42, B42-1, B

  19. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey

  20. External radiotherapy or surveillance of stage 1 testes seminomas: comparison of irradiation doses delivered to the last testis; Radiotherapie externe ou surveillance des seminomes testiculaires de stade 1: comparaison des doses d'irradiation delivrees au testicule restant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massabeau, C.; Filleron, T.; Delpuech, B.; Chevreau, C.; Mourey, L.; Bachaud, J.M. [Institut Claudius-Regaud, 31 - Toulouse (France); CHU Rangueil, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2009-10-15

    Objective of the study: After orchidectomy, the standard treatment of seminoma s (stage 1) is adjuvant irradiation of ganglions currently supplanted by the strategy of simple surveillance because of recurrence rate under 20% and an excellent prognosis. Our prospective study had for objective to study by in vivo dosimetry the radiation doses delivered to the sane testis during an adjuvant irradiation of ganglion versus CT scan surveillance. The adjuvant irradiation of stage 1 seminomas delivers an insignificant dose to the sane testis in the guise of lead protection, almost twenty times inferior to that one delivered during a CT scan surveillance on ten years. These doses are negligible regarding the doses susceptible to affect the spermatogenesis and the fertility. (N.C.)

  1. The Ultimate Experiment Proving the Beneficial Effect of Low Level Radiation and Safety of Nuclear Power Plant: Serendipity of the Airborne Nuclear Weapons Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Peter

    1997-11-01

    The cancer deaths per 100,000 U.S. population plotted as a function of time (year) over the past 60 years can be represented by a smooth curve except the years 1952-1978 where the data points fall below the smooth curve indicating a reduction of cancer ceaths of a total of 418,000. This anormaly is traced, through the space-time correlation of the mortalities with the 48 States, to the airborne nuclear weapons tests (mostly in Nevada) during that period when 500 nuclear bombs were exploded in air, generating an extra amount of radiation of 30 mrem/year. From this serendipitous experiment we deduce the law of the beneficial effect of low level radiation that a doubling of the background radiation (as in Colorado) will reduce cancer death rate by 24.3%. The actual rate of reduction in Colorado is 25% lower than the national average. Thus the law is verified. In another aspect Kerala,India has a background radiation 20 times higher than normal and it has a life expectancy 10.7 years longer than average India, thus showing the great beneficial affect of low level radiation. Concerning the nuclear power plant safety, the 500 bombs exploded are equivalent to 50 Chernobyl type nuclear plant explosions, the results of which are the reduction of 418,000 cancer deaths. Thus the nuclear industry is absolutely safe under any catastrophic disasters that may befall on the 414 nuclear plant now operating on the earth. The beneficial effects of radiation have been taken advantage of in folklores and health practices in Brazil, Chekoslovakia, Germany and Colorado. These health practices can benefit from the radiation generated from nuclear power and the nuclear waste disposal problem can be solved by turning trashes into treasures.

  2. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  3. Neptunium Transport Behavior in the Vicinity of Underground Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P; Tinnacher, R M; Zavarin, M; Williams, R W; Kersting, A B

    2010-12-03

    We used short lived {sup 239}Np as a yield tracer and state of the art magnetic sector ICP-MS to measure ultra low levels of {sup 237}Np in a number of 'hot wells' at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The results indicate that {sup 237}Np concentrations at the Almendro, Cambric, Dalhart, Cheshire and Chancellor sites, are in the range of 3 x 10{sup -5} to 7 x 10{sup -2} pCi/L and well below the MCL for alpha emitting radionuclides (15 pCi/L) (EPA, 2009). Thus, while Np transport is believed to occur at the NNSS, activities are expected to be well below the regulatory limits for alpha-emitting radionuclides. We also compared {sup 237}Np concentration data to other radionuclides, including tritium, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and plutonium, to evaluate the relative {sup 237}Np transport behavior. Based on isotope ratios relative to published unclassified Radiologic Source Terms (Bowen et al., 1999) and taking into consideration radionuclide distribution between melt glass, rubble and groundwater (IAEA, 1998), {sup 237}Np appears to be substantially less mobile than tritium and other non-sorbing radionuclides, as expected. However, this analysis also suggests that {sup 237}Np mobility is surprisingly similar to that of plutonium. The similar transport behavior of Np and Pu can be explained by one of two possibilities: (1) Np(IV) and Pu(IV) oxidation states dominate under mildly reducing NNSS groundwater conditions resulting in similar transport behavior or (2) apparent Np transport is the result of transport of its parent {sup 241}Pu and {sup 241}Am isotopes and subsequent decay to {sup 237}Np. Finally, measured {sup 237}Np concentrations were compared to recent Hydrologic Source Term (HST) models. The 237Np data collected from three wells in Frenchman Flat (RNM-1, RNM-2S, and UE-5n) are in good agreement with recent HST transport model predictions (Carle et al., 2005). The agreement

  4. FY 2016 Status Report: CIRFT Testing on Spent Nuclear Fuels and Hydride Reorientation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Yan, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Bevard, Bruce B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-08-04

    This report provides a detailed description of the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) testing conducted on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) rods in FY 2016, including hydride reorientation test results. Contact-based measurement, or three-LVDT-based curvature measurement, of SNF rods has proven to be quite reliable in CIRFT testing. However, how the linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) head contacts the SNF rod may have a significant effect on the curvature measurement, depending on the magnitude and direction of rod curvature. To correct such contact/curvature issues, sensor spacing, defined as the amount of separation between the three LVDT probes, is a critical measurement that can be used to calculate rod curvature once the deflections are obtained. Recently developed CIRFT data analyses procedures were integrated into FY 2016 CIRFT testing results for the curvature measurements. The variations in fatigue life are provided in terms of moment, equivalent stress, curvature, and equivalent strain for the tested SNFs. The equivalent stress plot collapsed the data points from all of the SNFs into a single zone. A detailed examination revealed that, at same stress level, fatigue lives display a descending order as follows: H. B. Robinson Nuclear Power Station (HBR), Limerick Nuclear Power Station (LMK), mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX). If looking at the strain, then LMK fuel has a slightly longer fatigue life than HBR fuel, but the difference is subtle. The knee point of endurance limit in the curve of moment and curvature or equivalent quantities is more clearly defined for LMK and HBR fuels. The treatment affects the fatigue life of specimens. Both a drop of 12 in. and radial hydride treatment (RHT) have a negative impact on fatigue life. The effect of thermal annealing on MOX fuel rods was relatively small at higher amplitude but became significant at low amplitude of moment. Thermal annealing tended to extend the fatigue life of

  5. FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF) BEFORE UPGRADE TO COMPONENT TEST FACILITY (CTF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL; Canik, John [ORNL; Diem, Stephanie J [ORNL; Milora, Stanley L [ORNL; Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sontag, Aaron C [ORNL; Fogarty, P. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lumsdaine, Arnold [ORNL; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Burgess, Thomas W [ORNL; Cole, Michael J [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Patton, Bradley D [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL; Yoder, III, Graydon L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The compact (R0~1.2-1.3m) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is aimed at providing a fully integrated, continuously driven fusion nuclear environment of copious fusion neutrons. This facility would be used to test, discover, and understand the complex challenges of fusion plasma material interactions, nuclear material interactions, tritium fuel management, and power extraction. Such a facility properly designed would provide, initially at the JET-level plasma pressure (~30%T2) and conditions (e.g., Hot-Ion H-Mode, Q<1)), an outboard fusion neutron flux of 0.25 MW/m2 while requiring a fusion power of ~19 MW. If and when this research is successful, its performance can be extended to 1 MW/m2 and ~76 MW by reaching for twice the JET plasma pressure and Q. High-safety factor q and moderate-plasmas are used to minimize or eliminate plasma-induced disruptions, to deliver reliably a neutron fluence of 1 MW-yr/m2 and a duty factor of 10% presently anticipated for the FNS research. Success of this research will depend on achieving time-efficient installation and replacement of all internal components using remote handling (RH). This in turn requires modular designs for the internal components, including the single-turn toroidal field coil center-post. These device goals would further dictate placement of support structures and vacuum weld seals behind the internal and shielding components. If these goals could be achieved, the FNSF would further provide a ready upgrade path to the Component Test Facility (CTF), which would aim to test, for 6 MW-yr/m2 and 30% duty cycle, the demanding fusion nuclear engineering and technologies for DEMO. This FNSF-CTF would thereby complement the ITER Program, and support and help mitigate the risks of an aggressive world fusion DEMO R&D Program. The key physics and technology research needed in the next decade to manage the potential risks of this FNSF are identified.

  6. 77 FR 50720 - Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1207, ``Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of... revision endorses, with clarifications, the enhanced consensus practices for test documentation...

  7. Evaluation of Anti-Nuclear antibody test results in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevreste Çelikbilek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of this study is to evaluate anti-nuclear antibody (ANA test results obtained between 2009 and 2011. Methods: Of a totally 5068 cases tested for ANA by indirect immunofluorescence method (IIFA, randomly chosen 982 ANA-positive cases were reviewed in terms of gender, level and pattern of fluorescence, anti-dsDNA (anti-double stranded DNA and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA profile. Anti-dsDNA levels and anti-ENA profiles were determined by enzyme linked immune assay (ELISA and immune-blotting (IB, respectively. Results: Sex distribution of ANA positive patients was determined as 756 (77% females and 226 (23% males. Fifty per cent of the cases were from rheumatology department, 20% from gastroenterology and 30% from other units. Fluorescence levels were considered borderline or weak positive in 62.6% of the samples. The most frequent patterns were homogeneous (23%, speckled (22%, homogeneous-speckled (15.5% and nucleolar (13.5%. Anti-dsDNA were studied in 759 ANA positive patients and 66 (8.7% samples were found positive, being 44 of them (68.8% with homogeneous pattern and the rest with speckled, nucleolar, nuclear dots, centromeric or midbody patterns. Totally 131 (31.6% of 414 samples studied for anti-ENA profile were found positive. The first four frequent profiles were SSA (34.4%, SSA-SSB (16.8%, Scl70 (16% and Sm/RNP (9.2%. Conclusion: Our results are similar with the current related literature. It is known that autoantibodies can be detectable before clinical symptoms being apparent, especially in SLE. Therefore, borderline or weak fluorescence levels should also be reported and the patients having them should be followed-up carefully. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(2: 63-68

  8. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (LTSMP) for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (the Gnome site). The Gnome site is approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad in Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 1). The site was the location of a 3-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test and radioisotope groundwater tracer test. The tests resulted in residual contamination and post-detonation features that require long-term oversight. Long-term responsibility for the site was transferred from the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office to LM on October 1, 2006. Responsibilities include surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of institutional controls (ICs) as part of the long-term stewardship of the site. Long-term stewardship is designed to ensure protection of human health and the environment.

  9. Interim report spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.; Potter, J.D.; Smalley, J.T.; Baker, C.P.; Jaquish, W.R.

    1997-06-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project at the Hanford Site. The project will retrieve spent nuclear fuel, clean and remove fuel from canisters, repackage fuel into baskets, and load fuel into a multi-canister overpack (MCO) for vacuum drying and interim dry storage. The FRS is required to retrieve basin fuel canisters, clean fuel elements sufficiently of uranium corrosion products (or sludge), empty fuel from canisters, sort debris and scrap from whole elements, and repackage fuel in baskets in preparation for MCO loading. The purpose of fuel handling development testing was to examine the systems ability to accomplish mission activities, optimization of equipment layouts for initial process definition, identification of special needs/tools, verification of required design changes to support performance specification development, and validation of estimated activity times/throughput. The test program was set up to accomplish this purpose through cold development testing using simulated and prototype equipment; cold demonstration testing using vendor expertise and systems; and graphical computer modeling to confirm feasibility and throughput. To test the fuel handling process, a test mockup that represented the process table was fabricated and installed. The test mockup included a Schilling HV series manipulator that was prototypic of the Schilling Hydra manipulator. The process table mockup included the tipping station, sorting area, disassembly and inspection zones, fuel staging areas, and basket loading stations. The test results clearly indicate that the Schilling Hydra arm cannot effectively perform the fuel handling tasks required unless it is attached to some device that can impart vertical translation, azimuth rotation, and X-Y translation. Other test results indicate the importance of camera locations and capabilities, and of the jaw and end effector tool design. 5 refs., 35 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Standard test method for splitting tensile strength for brittle nuclear waste forms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1989-01-01

    1.1 This test method is used to measure the static splitting tensile strength of cylindrical specimens of brittle nuclear waste forms. It provides splitting tensile-strength data that can be used to compare the strength of waste forms when tests are done on one size of specimen. 1.2 The test method is applicable to glass, ceramic, and concrete waste forms that are sufficiently homogeneous (Note 1) but not to coated-particle, metal-matrix, bituminous, or plastic waste forms, or concretes with large-scale heterogeneities. Cementitious waste forms with heterogeneities >1 to 2 mm and 5 mm can be tested using this procedure provided the specimen size is increased from the reference size of 12.7 mm diameter by 6 mm length, to 51 mm diameter by 100 mm length, as recommended in Test Method C 496 and Practice C 192. Note 1—Generally, the specimen structural or microstructural heterogeneities must be less than about one-tenth the diameter of the specimen. 1.3 This test method can be used as a quality control chec...

  11. Netherlands' National Fukushima Stress Test for the Borssele Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    This is the National Report of the Kingdom of the Netherlands on the post-Fukushima 'stress test' of the Borssele (one unit) Nuclear Power Plant, the KCB. This report complies with the guidelines published by ENSREG (European Nuclear Safety Regulator Group) in May (objectives and scope) and October 2011 (structure of report) for National Reports. The operator of the KCB has submitted a Licensee Report to the regulatory body, that addresses all topics prescribed in the ENSREG guidelines for the 'stress test' and meets the prescribed format. The National Report presents conclusions about licensee's compliance with its design basis. The conclusions are based on the Licensee Report as well as on several decades of regulatory oversight, including regulatory inspections, evaluations of various applications for modification of the licences, regulatory control of the special Long-Term Operation programme and the various extensive Periodic Safety Reviews. The National Report presents conclusions on the safety margins identified in the Licensee Report. The National report notes the measures proposed and considered in the Licensee Report. In principle, the regulatory body can endorse various of these measures, but further assessment is needed to establish the effectiveness of these. The regulatory body proposes additional topics suitable for (more detailed) assessment.

  12. Final Report - Spent Nuclear Fuel Retrieval System Manipulator System Cold Validation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jackson; G.R. Kiebel

    1999-08-24

    Manipulator system cold validation testing (CVT) was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin; clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge); remove the contents from the canisters; and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. The FRS is composed of three major subsystems. The Manipulator Subsystem provides remote handling of fuel, scrap, and debris; the In-Pool Equipment subsystem performs cleaning of fuel and provides a work surface for handling materials; and the Remote Viewing Subsystem provides for remote viewing of the work area by operators. There are two complete and identical FRS systems, one to be installed in the K-West basin and one to be installed in the K-East basin. Another partial system will be installed in a cold test facility to provide for operator training.

  13. Plutonium and uranium contamination in soils from former nuclear weapon test sites in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, D. P.; Hotchkis, M. A. C.

    2013-01-01

    The British government performed a number of nuclear weapon tests on Australian territory from 1952 through to 1963 with the cooperation of the Australian government. Nine fission bombs were detonated in South Australia at Emu Junction and Maralinga, and a further three fission weapons were detonated in the Monte Bello Islands off the coast of Western Australia. A number of soil samples were collected by the Australian Radiation Laboratories in 1972 and 1978 during field surveys at these nuclear weapon test sites. They were analysed by gamma spectrometry and, for a select few samples, by alpha spectrometry to measure the remaining activities of fission products, activation products and weapon materials. We have remeasured a number of these Montebello Islands and Emu Junction soil samples using the ANTARES AMS facility, ANSTO. These samples were analysed for plutonium and uranium isotopic ratios and isotopic concentrations. Very low 240Pu/239Pu ratios were measured at both sites (∼0.05 for Alpha Island and ∼0.02 for Emu Field), substantially below global fallout averages. Well correlated but widely varying 236U and plutonium concentrations were measured across both sites, but 233U did not correlate with these other isotopes and instead showed correlation with distance from ground zero, indicating in situ production in the soils.

  14. Gamma ray beams for Nuclear Astrophysics: first results of tests and simulations of the ELISSA array

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cognata, M.; Anzalone, A.; Balabanski, D.; Chesnevskaya, S.; Crucillà, V.; Filipescu, D. M.; Guardo, G. L.; Gulino, M.; Lattuada, D.; Matei, C.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Taffara, A.; Tesileanu, O.; Tumino, A.; Xu, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, under construction in Magurele near Bucharest in Romania, will provide high-intensity and high-resolution gamma ray beams that can be used to address hotly debated problems in nuclear astrophysics. For this purpose, a silicon strip detector array (named ELISSA) will be realized in a common effort by ELI-NP and INFN-LNS (Catania, Italy), in order to measure excitation functions and angular distributions over a wide energy and angular range. A prototype of ELISSA was built and tested at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) in Catania with the support of ELI-NP. On this occasion, we carried out experiments with alpha sources and with a 11 MeV 7Li beam. Thanks to our approach, the first results of those tests show up a very good energy resolution (better than 1%) and very good position resolution, of the order of 1 mm. Below 1 MeV, a resolution of the order of 6 mm is found, still good enough for the measurement of angular distribution and the kinematical identification of the reactions induced on the target by gamma beams.

  15. Background Radiation Survey of the Radiological/Nuclear Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Okada

    2010-09-16

    In preparation for operations at the Radiological/Nuclear Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Complex (Rad/NucCTEC), the Department of Homeland Security Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DHS/DNDO) requested that personnel from the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) conduct a survey of the present radiological conditions at the facility. The measurements consist of the exposure rate from a high-pressure ion chamber (HPIC), high-resolution spectra from a high-purity germanium (HPGe) system in an in situ configuration, and low-resolution spectra from a sodium iodide (NaI) detector in a radiation detection backpack. Measurements with these systems were collected at discrete locations within the facility. Measurements were also collected by carrying the VECTOR backpack throughout the complex to generate a map of the entire area. The area was also to be surveyed with the Kiwi (an array of eight-2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch NaI detectors) from the Aerial Measuring Systems; however, conflicts with test preparation activities at the site prevented this from being accomplished.

  16. RCGVS design improvement and depressurization capability tests for Ulchin nuclear power plant units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Kang Sik; Seong, Ho Je; Jeong, Won Sang; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Keun Hyo; Choi, Kwon Sik; Oh, Chul Sung [Korea Electric Power Cooperation, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The Reactor Coolant Gas Vent System(RCGVS) design for Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (UCN 3 and 4) has been improved from the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (YGN 3 and 4) based on the evaluation results for depressurization capability tests performed at YGN 3 and 4. There has been a series of plant safety analyses for Natural Circulation Cooldown(NCC) event and thermo-dynamic analyses with RELAP5 code for the steam blowdown phenomena in order to optimize the orifice size of UCN 3 and 4 RCGVS. Based on these analyses results, the RCGVS orifics size for UCN 3 and 4 has been reduced to 9/32 inch from the 11/32 inch for YGN 3 and 4. The depressurization capability tests, which were performed at UCN 3 in order to verify the FSAR NCC analysis results, show that the RCGVS depressurization rates are being within the acceptable ranges. Therefore, it is concluded that the orificed flow path of UCN 3 and 4 RCGVS is adequately designed, and can provide the safety-grade depressurization capability required for a safe plant operation. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  17. A A field test for extremity dose assessment during outages at Korean nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2013-05-01

    During maintenance on the water chamber of a steam generator, the pressuriser heater and the pressure tube feeder in nuclear power plants, workers are likely to receive high radiation doses due to the severe workplace conditions. In particular, it is expected that workers' hands would receive the highest radiation doses because of their contact with the radioactive materials. In this study, field tests for extremity dose assessments in radiation workers undertaking contact tasks with high radiation doses were conducted during outages at pressurised water reactors and pressurised heavy water reactors in Korea. In the test, the radiation workers were required to wear additional thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) on their backs and wrists and an extremity dosemeter on the finger, as well as a main TLD on the chest while performing the maintenance tasks.

  18. NASA solar dynamic ground test demonstration (GTD) program and its application to space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, William B.; Shaltens, Richard K.

    1993-01-01

    Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems are readily adaptable to any heat source contemplated for space application. The inert gas working fluid can be used directly in gas-cooled reactors and coupled to a variety of heat sources (reactor, isotope or solar) by a heat exchanger. This point is demonstrated by the incorporation in the NASA 2 kWe Solar Dynamic (SD) Space Power Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) Program of the turboalternator-compressor and recuperator from the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) program. This paper will review the goals and status of the SD GTD Program, initiated in April 1992. The performance of the BIPS isotope-heated system will be compared to the solar-heated GTD system incorporating the BIPS components and the applicability of the GTD test bed to dynamics space nuclear power R&D will be discussed.

  19. Nuclear counting filter based on a centered Skellam test and a double exponential smoothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Dumazert, Jonathan; Rohee, Emmanuel; Normand Stephane [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Online nuclear counting represents a challenge due to the stochastic nature of radioactivity. The count data have to be filtered in order to provide a precise and accurate estimation of the count rate, this with a response time compatible with the application in view. An innovative filter is presented in this paper addressing this issue. It is a nonlinear filter based on a Centered Skellam Test (CST) giving a local maximum likelihood estimation of the signal based on a Poisson distribution assumption. This nonlinear approach allows to smooth the counting signal while maintaining a fast response when brutal change activity occur. The filter has been improved by the implementation of a Brown's double Exponential Smoothing (BES). The filter has been validated and compared to other state of the art smoothing filters. The CST-BES filter shows a significant improvement compared to all tested smoothing filters. (authors)

  20. Early works on the nuclear microprobe for microelectronics irradiation tests at the CEICI (Sevilla, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, F.R., E-mail: rogelio@gte.esi.us.es [Electronic Engineering Dept., School of Engineering, Sevilla University, Avda. de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Morilla, Y. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CNA, Sevilla University, C/Thomas Alva Edison n0 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Mogollon, J.M. [Electronic Engineering Dept., School of Engineering, Sevilla University, Avda. de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Lopez, J.; Labrador, J.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CNA, Sevilla University, C/Thomas Alva Edison n0 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Aguirre, M.A. [Electronic Engineering Dept., School of Engineering, Sevilla University, Avda. de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Particle radiation effects are a fundamental problem in the use of numerous electronic devices for space applications, which is aggravated with the technology shrinking towards smaller and smaller scales. The suitability of low-energy accelerators for irradiation testing is being considered nowadays. Moreover, the possibility to use a nuclear microprobe, with a lateral resolution of a few microns, allows us to evaluate the behavior under ion irradiation of specific elements in an electronic device. The CEICI is the new CEnter for Integrated Circuits Irradiation tests, created into the facilities at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) in Sevilla-Spain. We have verified that our 3 MV Tandem accelerator, typically used for ion beam characterization of materials, is also a valuable tool to perform irradiation experiments in the low LET (Linear Energy Transfer) region.

  1. Nuclear Facility Accident (NFAC) Unit Test Report For HPAC Version 6.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ronald W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Division; Morris, Robert W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Division; Sulfredge, Charles David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Division

    2015-12-01

    This is a unit test report for the Nuclear Facility Accident (NFAC) model for the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) version 6.3. NFAC’s responsibility as an HPAC component is three-fold. First, it must present an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) by which users can view and edit the definition of an NFAC incident. Second, for each incident defined, NFAC must interact with RTH to create activity table inputs and associate them with pseudo materials to be transported via SCIPUFF. Third, NFAC must create SCIPUFF releases with the associated pseudo materials for transport and dispersion. The goal of NFAC unit testing is to verify that the inputs it produces are correct for the source term or model definition as specified by the user via the GUI.

  2. FY15 Status Report: CIRFT Testing of Spent Nuclear Fuel Rods from Boiler Water Reactor Limerick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jiang, Hao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a systematic study of used nuclear fuel (UNF, also known as spent nuclear fuel [SNF]) integrity under simulated transportation environments using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) hot-cell testing technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in August 2013. Under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsorship, ORNL completed four benchmark tests, four static tests, and twelve dynamic or cycle tests on H. B. Robinson (HBR) high burn-up (HBU) fuel. The clad of the HBR fuels was made of Zircaloy-4. Testing was continued in fiscal year (FY) 2014 using Department of Energy (DOE) funds. The additional CIRFT was conducted on three HBR rods (R3, R4, and R5) in which two specimens failed and one specimen was tested to over 2.23 10⁷ cycles without failing. The data analysis on all the HBR UNF rods demonstrated that it is necessary to characterize the fatigue life of the UNF rods in terms of (1) the curvature amplitude and (2) the maximum absolute of curvature extremes. The maximum extremes are significant because they signify the maximum of tensile stress for the outer fiber of the bending rod. CIRFT testing has also addressed a large variation in hydrogen content on the HBR rods. While the load amplitude is the dominant factor that controls the fatigue life of bending rods, the hydrogen content also has an important effect on the lifetime attained at each load range tested. In FY 15, ten SNF rod segments from BWR Limerick were tested using ORNL CIRFT, with one under static and nine dynamic loading conditions. Under static unidirectional loading, a moment of 85 N·m was obtained at maximum curvature 4.0 m⁻¹. The specimen did not show any sign of failure in three repeated loading cycles to almost same maximum curvature. Ten cyclic tests were conducted with amplitude varying from 15.2 to 7.1 N·m. Failure was observed in nine of the tested rod specimens. The cycles to failure were

  3. Extragenital Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing and Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men—STD Surveillance Network, United States, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Monica E.; Kidd, Sarah; Llata, Eloisa; Stenger, Mark; Braxton, Jim; Asbel, Lenore; Bernstein, Kyle; Gratzer, Beau; Jespersen, Megan; Kerani, Roxanne; Mettenbrink, Christie; Mohamed, Mukhtar; Pathela, Preeti; Schumacher, Christina; Stirland, Ali; Stover, Jeff; Tabidze, Irina; Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Weinstock, Hillard

    2015-01-01

    Background Gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) are the most commonly reported notifiable diseases in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) be screened for urogenital GC/CT, rectal GC/CT, and pharyngeal GC. We describe extragenital GC/CT testing and infections among MSM attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Methods The STD Surveillance Network collects patient data from 42 STD clinics. We assessed the proportion of MSM attending these clinics during July 2011–June 2012 who were tested and positive for extragenital GC/CT at their most recent visit or in the preceding 12 months and the number of extragenital infections that would have remained undetected with urethral screening alone. Results Of 21 994 MSM, 83.9% were tested for urogenital GC, 65.9% for pharyngeal GC, 50.4% for rectal GC, 81.4% for urogenital CT, 31.7% for pharyngeal CT, and 45.9% for rectal CT. Of MSM tested, 11.1% tested positive for urogenital GC, 7.9% for pharyngeal GC, 10.2% for rectal GC, 8.4% for urogenital CT, 2.9% for pharyngeal CT, and 14.1% for rectal CT. More than 70% of extragenital GC infections and 85% of extragenital CT infections were associated with negative urethral tests at the same visit and would not have been detected with urethral screening alone. Conclusions Extragenital GC/CT was common among MSM attending STD clinics, but many MSM were not tested. Most extragenital infections would not have been identified, and likely would have remained untreated, with urethral screening alone. Efforts are needed to facilitate implementation of extragenital GC/CT screening recommendations for MSM. PMID:24647015

  4. Unexpectedly high leprosy seroprevalence detected using a random surveillance strategy in midwestern Brazil: A comparison of ELISA and a rapid diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, Marco Andrey C; de Paula, Natália A; Gomes, Ciro M; Vernal, Sebastian; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Lugão, Helena B; de Abreu, Marilda M M; Botini, Patrícia; Duthie, Malcolm S; Spencer, John S; Soares, Rosa Castália F R; Foss, Norma T

    2017-02-01

    Leprosy diagnosis is mainly based on clinical evaluation, although this approach is difficult, especially for untrained physicians. We conducted a temporary campaign to detect previously unknown leprosy cases in midwestern Brazil and to compare the performance of different serological tests. A mobile clinic was stationed at the main bus terminal in Brasília, Brazil. Volunteers were quizzed and given a clinical exam to allow categorization as either patients, known contacts of patients or non-contacts, and blood was collected to determine anti-PGL-I and anti-LID-1 antibody titers by ELISA and by the NDO-LID rapid test. New cases of leprosy and the impact of performing this broad random surveillance strategy were evaluated. Accuracy values and concordance between the test results were evaluated among all groups. Four hundred thirty-four individuals were evaluated, and 44 (10.1%) were diagnosed with leprosy. Borderline forms were the most frequent presentation. Both tests presented higher positivity in those individuals with multibacillary disease. Serological tests demonstrated specificities arround 70% for anti-PGL-1 and anti-LID ELISA; and arround 40% for NDO-LID. Sensitivities ranged from 48 to 62%. A substantial agreement between NDO-LID and ELISA with concomitant positive results was found within leprosy patients (Kappa index = 0.79 CI95% 0.36-1.22). The unexpectedly high leprosy prevalence in this population indicates ongoing community-based exposure to Mycobacterium leprae antigens and high rates of subclinical infection. All tests showed low specificity and sensitivity values and therefore cannot be considered for use as stand-alone diagnostics. Rather, considering their positivity among MB patients and non-patients, these tests can be considered effective tools for screening and identifying individuals at high risk who might benefit from regular monitoring.

  5. Description of the cryogenic and hot-hydrogen test facility being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. A.; Riffle, G. K.; Merdich, Jeff A.

    1993-06-01

    The cryogenic and hot-hydrogen test facility being developed for the USAF Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is described along with the test capabilities, technical approach, and technical status. Particular attention is given to the hydrogen test facility control and data acquisition and the hot hydrogen gas generator (HHGG). The hydrogen test facility will be be ready for operation in conjunction with cryogenic test capability by late 1994.

  6. Failure Probabilities and MR Performance Criteria versus variation in Surveillance Interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Tae Young; Yeom, Dong Un; Cho, Kung Su [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    As a part of efforts to develop a fleet-wide Maintenance Rule program of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP), we are developing a CANDU program. Three CANDU reactors were connected to the grid between July 1997 and October 1999. Initially, the same design and Technical Specifications were applied. One reactor (Unit A) has been operated by Plant 1 organization while the other two reactors (Units B and C) have been operated by a different organization of Plant 2. Each organization has different operating procedures and surveillance intervals, which influence the component reliabilities and Maintenance Rule performance criteria according to the variation in surveillance test intervals (STIs). This paper evaluates the influence of different surveillance test intervals on the Maintenance Rule program and component failure probability and recommends some considerations to prevent these problems

  7. Dose assessment for sheep exposed to fallout from nuclear test Nancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L.B.; Soldat, J.K.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Murphy, D.W.

    1982-10-01

    Radiation doses were estimated for sheep wintering on Nevada ranges during the testing at the Nevada Test Site of the nuclear weapon Nancy on March 24, 1953. Exposure pathways considered were inhalation of radionuclides from both cloud passage and resuspension, external exposure of the total body and skin, and ingestion of contaminated forage and soil. Physiological, metabolic, and dosimetric data needed for these calculations were obtained from data appropriate for the sheep. Dose rate and radionuclide deposition values for shot Nancy were used. Radionuclide deposition and retention on the desert vegetation were obtained from data collected during several nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Existing dosimetric computer programs, whose libraries were modified to include the sheep data, and specially developed models were used to estimate the dose commitment for the sheep. The total-body dose for reference sheep located within the 40-mR/hr (H+12) isopleth from all modes of exposure was estimated to be 2.6 rad. Ingestion of fallout on edible vegetation contributed the majority of the dose, whereas inhalation of radionuclides and consumption of contaminated soil from the ground contributed little to the internal doses. The dose to the thyroid of ewes from radioiodine and other radionuclides reaching the thyroid was approximately 400 rad. The calculated uniform dose to the reticulo-rumen was 4 rad; however, if fallout particles were assumed to concentrate in the ventral rumen, a localized dose of 200 rad could have been received by the rumen wall. Estimated dose to the bare skin of ewes was 120 rad. The dose to the fetal thyroid from radioiodine ingested by a pregnant ewe grazing at a location where the dose rate was 40 mR/hr (H+12) was estimated to be 700 rad, or approximately twice the dose to the maternal thyroid.

  8. Experimental results from pressure testing a 1:6-scale nuclear power plant containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horschel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the testing of a 1:6-scale, reinforced-concrete containment building at Sandia National Laboratories, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The scale-model, Light Water Reactor (LWR) containment building was designed and built to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., and was instrumented with over 1200 transducers to prepare for the test. The containment model was tested to failure to determine its response to static internal overpressurization. As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s program on containment integrity, the test results will be used to assess the capability of analytical methods to predict the performance of containments under severe-accident loads. The scaled dimensions of the cylindrical wall and hemispherical dome were typical of a full-size containment. Other typical features included in the heavily reinforced model were equipment hatches, personnel air locks, several small piping penetrations, and a ihin steel liner that was attached to the concrete by headed studs. In addition to the transducers attached to the model, an acoustic detection system and several video and still cameras were used during testing to gather data and to aid in the conduct of the test. The model and its instrumentation are briefly discussed, and is followed by the testing procedures and measured response of the containment model. A summary discussion is included to aid in understanding the significance of the test as it applies to real world reinforced concrete containment structures. The data gathered during SIT and overpressure testing are included as an appendix.

  9. Development of Testing Platform for Digital I and C System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G. Y.; Kim, Y. M.; Jeong, C. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    According to digitalization of the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) I and C (Instrumentation and Control) system, cyber threats against I and C system are increased. Moreover, the complexity of I and C system are increased due to adopt the up-to-date technologies (i. e., smart sensor, wireless network, and Field Programmable Gate Array / Complex Programmable Logic Device) into NPP's I and C system. For example, new issues such as cyber threat are introduced from digitalized I and C systems and components to replace obsolete analog equipment in existing NPPs. Furthermore, use of wireless communication, FPGA/CPLD, and smart sensor could introduce new considerations such as Defense-in-Depth and Diversity. Therefore, the proof testing for digital I and C system is required to verify the adverse effect from use of up-to-date digital technologies and identify the criteria to resolve and mitigate (or prevent) the (possibility of) effects. The objective of this study is developing the Testing Platform for the proof testing. The digital I and C System Test Platform is implemented using test platform hardware, component software, and architectural design. The digital I and C testing platform includes the safety-related PLC and relevant ladder logics, Windows-based C++ codes for host PC. For software, there are seven spike models to confirm the each module's functionality and generate/monitor the signals to/from PLCs. For future work, digital I and C System Test Platform architecture will be implemented using spike models. And a set of acceptance test against cyber security, smart sensor, wireless network, and FPGA/CPLD will be conducted using digital I and C System Test Platform.

  10. Teste de proficiência para medições de radioatividade na medicina nuclear Proficiency test for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Iwahara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho dos calibradores de radionuclídeos de 55 serviços de medicina nuclear brasileiros em medição de atividade de radiofármaco contendo 99Tc m. Testes de proficiência foram aplicados em 63 resultados originados do programa de comparação promovido pelo Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes do Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O desempenho foi avaliado em relação ao critério de aceitação de ±10% de exatidão exigido pela norma brasileira e também aos critérios estabelecidos pela ISO/IEC Guide 43-1, e classificado como "aceitável" ou "não aceitável". Amostras de 99Tc m usadas nas comparações foram fornecidas por alguns dos participantes e calibradas no Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes para determinar o valor de referência da atividade. RESULTADOS: Esta comparação com o 99Tc m mostrou que o desempenho aceitável atendendo à exigência da norma regulatória foi de 82,5%, enquanto pelos critérios estabelecidos pela norma ISO/IEC 43-1 foi de 81,0%. Por outro lado, calibradores de radionuclídeos com detector Geiger-Müller apresentaram desempenho inferior quando comparados com os dotados com câmara de ionização. CONCLU-SÃO: Nesta comparação, a avaliação do desempenho baseada nos critérios da ISO/IEC 43-1, os quais são aplicados a laboratórios analíticos, apesar de serem mais restritivas, foi bastante consistente com o critério de exatidão exigido pela norma nacional.OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of radionuclide calibrators in 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in the measurement of 99Tc m radiopharmaceutical activity. Proficiency tests were applied to data sets with 63 results originated from the comparison program developed by Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes of Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The calibrators' performance was

  11. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-12-21

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

  12. Rail Shock and Vibration Pre-Test Modeling of a Used Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Philip J.; Best, Ralph E.; Maheras, Steven J.; McConnell, Paul E.; Orchard, John

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology, has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct the research and development activities related to storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The mission of the UFDC is to identify alternatives and conduct scientific research and technology development to enable storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel and HLW generated by existing and future nuclear fuel cycles. The Storage and Transportation staff within the UFDC is responsible for addressing issues regarding the long-term or extended storage (ES) of UNF and its subsequent transportation. Available information is not sufficient to determine the ability of ES UNF, including high-burnup fuel, to withstand shock and vibration forces that could occur when the UNF is shipped by rail from nuclear power plant sites to a storage or disposal facility. There are three major gaps in the available information – 1) the forces that UNF assemblies would be subjected to when transported by rail, 2) the mechanical characteristics of fuel rod cladding, which is an essential structure for controlling the geometry of the UNF, a safety related feature, and 3) modeling methodologies to evaluate multiple possible degradation or damage mechanisms over the UNF lifetime. In order to address the first gap, options for tests to determine the physical response of surrogate UNF assemblies subjected to shock and vibration forces that are expected to be experienced during normal conditions of transportation (NCT) by rail must be identified and evaluated. The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to obtain data that will help researchers understand the mechanical loads that ES UNF assemblies would be subjected to under normal conditions of transportation and to fortify the computer modeling that will be necessary to evaluate the impact

  13. Recent developments in firearms noise and hearing conservation: hearing protection fit testing,noise measurement and hearing surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David McBride

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL continues to be a prevalent problem in Military Service. Purpose To assess the ‘SureFire’ earplug, a Hearing Protective Device (HPD, within the context of a hearing conservation programme. Methods The ‘VeriPro’ system was used to test the HPD attenuation, with Otoacoustic emission (OAE ‘base-line’ hearing tests. Noise exposure was measured during test firing, and a post exposure OAE test was carried out to measure any deterioration in hearing due to excess noise exposure. Results Better attenuation was achieved in right ears. The HPDs were rated to reduce the noise by at least 15 dB in 84% of those exposed, the actual attenuation lying in the range between 8.4 and 23.6 dBA. The median noise level was 110 dBA. The OAE testing did not show any significant before and after differences. Discussion. Some individuals achieved good HPD fit, some quite poor. The average noise levels received were excessive, but the daily noise dose was within acceptable limits because of the short duration of exposure, possibly explaining the non-significant differences in OAEs. We recommend that individuals should only use HPDs which are ‘fit proven’. Additional testing under more typical conditions with a larger group is required, but OAEs show promise as a practical monitoring tool.

  14. An estimate of Sandia resources for underground nuclear weapons effects testing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomber, Thomas M.; Zeuch, David Henry

    2003-11-01

    We conducted a study of the time and resources that would be required for Sandia National Laboratories to once again perform nuclear weapons effects experiments of the sort that it did in the past. The study is predicated on the assumptions that if underground nuclear weapons effects testing (UG/NWET) is ever resumed, (1) a brief series of tests (i.e., 2-3) would be done, and (2) all required resources other than those specific to SNL experiments would be provided by others. The questions that we sought to answer were: (1) What experiments would SNL want to do and why? (2) How much would they cost? (3) How long would they take to field? To answer these questions, we convened panels of subject matter experts first to identify five experiments representative of those that SNL has done in the past, and then to determine the costs and timelines to design, fabricate and field each of them. We found that it would cost $76M to $84M to do all five experiments, including 164 to 174 FTEs to conduct all five experiments in a single test. Planning and expenditures for some of the experiments needed to start as early as 5.5 years prior to zero-day, and some work would continue up to 2 years beyond the event. Using experienced personnel as mentors, SNL could probably field such experiments within the next five years. However, beyond that time frame, loss of personnel would place us in the position of essentially starting over.

  15. Relationship between a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded HIV testing initiative and past-year testing by race/ethnicity: a multilevel analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Caldwell, Julia T; Ford, Chandra L; Mulatu, Mesfin S; Godette, Dionne C

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) expanded testing initiative (ETI) aims to bolster HIV testing among populations disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic by providing additional funding to health departments serving these communities. ETI prioritizes testing in clinical settings; therefore, we examined the relationship between state-level ETI participation and past-year HIV testing among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adult respondents to the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System who accessed health services within the 12 months prior to being interviewed. Controlling for individual- and state-level characteristics in a multilevel logistic regression model, ETI participation was independently and positively associated with past-year testing, but this association varied by race/ethnicity. Hispanics had higher odds (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11-2.02) and American Indian/Alaska Natives had lower odds (AOR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.43-0.99) of testing if they resided in states with (vs. without) ETI participation. State-level ETI participation did not significantly alter past-year testing among other racial/ethnic groups. Prioritizing public health resources in states most affected by HIV can improve testing patterns, but other mechanisms likely influence which racial/ethnic groups undergo testing.

  16. HIV incidence in rural South Africa: comparison of estimates from longitudinal surveillance and cross-sectional cBED assay testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Bärnighausen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The BED IgG-Capture Enzyme Immunoassay (cBED assay, a test of recent HIV infection, has been used to estimate HIV incidence in cross-sectional HIV surveys. However, there has been concern that the assay overestimates HIV incidence to an unknown extent because it falsely classifies some individuals with non-recent HIV infections as recently infected. We used data from a longitudinal HIV surveillance in rural South Africa to measure the fraction of people with non-recent HIV infection who are falsely classified as recently HIV-infected by the cBED assay (the long-term false-positive ratio (FPR and compared cBED assay-based HIV incidence estimates to longitudinally measured HIV incidence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the long-term FPR in individuals with two positive HIV tests (in the HIV surveillance, 2003-2006 more than 306 days apart (sample size n = 1,065. We implemented four different formulae to calculate HIV incidence using cBED assay testing (n = 11,755 and obtained confidence intervals (CIs by directly calculating the central 95(th percentile of incidence values. We observed 4,869 individuals over 7,685 person-years for longitudinal HIV incidence estimation. The long-term FPR was 0.0169 (95% CI 0.0100-0.0266. Using this FPR, the cross-sectional cBED-based HIV incidence estimates (per 100 people per year varied between 3.03 (95% CI 2.44-3.63 and 3.19 (95% CI 2.57-3.82, depending on the incidence formula. Using a long-term FPR of 0.0560 based on previous studies, HIV incidence estimates varied between 0.65 (95% CI 0.00-1.32 and 0.71 (95% CI 0.00-1.43. The longitudinally measured HIV incidence was 3.09 per 100 people per year (95% CI 2.69-3.52, after adjustment to the sex-age distribution of the sample used in cBED assay-based estimation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In a rural community in South Africa with high HIV prevalence, the long-term FPR of the cBED assay is substantially lower than previous estimates. The c

  17. Safety of laboratory analyzers for infection testing - results of the market surveillance by the BfArM until end 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekmeier R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The European Directive 98/79/EC on in vitro diagnostic medical devices (IVD stipulates the marketing and post market surveillance of IVD in the European Economic Area. In cases of issues and field corrective actions, the manufacturers have to inform the responsible Competent Authorities (CA. In Germany, the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM is the responsible CA for most IVD, with a small subset of IVD for immune hematological and infectiological testing as well as tissue typing as specified in Annex II of the Directive, being within the responsibility of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute (PEI. In this study, all issues regarding laboratory analyzers for infection testing and their consumables, but not reagents, kits and general culture media, reported to the BfArM between begin 1999 and end of 2007 were analyzed in respect to the sources of report, the underlying product failure and the performed corrective actions. Within the observation period a total of 1471 reports for IVD were received of which 73 related to the IVD for infection testing were included in our study. Reports were predominantly received from manufacturers (56 and competent authorities (15. Affected products were most frequently those for immunological analysis (42 whereas those based on culturing techniques (17 and molecular biological techniques (14 played only minor roles. In all these groups, laboratory analyzers (55 were more frequently affected than their consumables (18. Investigations of the manufacturers were able to identify the underlying root causes of product failures in 62 cases (84.9%. In 2 cases (2.7% the root cause remained unclear and in 9 cases (12.3% a product failure was excluded or a user error was the underlying cause. Product failures in laboratory analyzers were most frequently caused by software errors (31 and constructional faults (8 whereas the predominant cause of product failure in consumables were errors in production and

  18. International law and arms control: Soviet Union and Russia’s stance on nuclear test ban treaties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Hessmann Dalaqua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-lasting struggle against nuclear tests can be examined through different perspectives. In this paper, the focus will be on the part played by the USSR and Russia in the international efforts aimed at establishing legal instruments to outlaw nuclear explosions in space, underground, under water and in the atmosphere.  A luta contra os testes nucleares pode ser examinada sob diferentes perspectivas. Aqui, o foco recairá sobre o papel desempenhado pela União Soviética e Rússia na criação de instrumentos legais para proibir explosões nucleares no espaço, no subsolo, debaixo da água e na atmosfera.

  19. Summary of experimental tests of elastomeric seismic isolation bearings for use in nuclear reactor plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, R.W.; Chang, Y.W.; Kulak, R.F.

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes an experimental test program for isolator bearings which was developed to help establish the viability of using laminated elastomer bearings for base isolation of nuclear reactor plants. The goal of the test program is to determine the performance characteristics of laminated seismic isolation bearings under a wide range of loadings. Tests were performed on scale-size laminated seismic isolators both within the design shear strain range to determine the response of the bearing under expected earthquake loading conditions, and beyond the design range to determine failure modes and to establish safety margins. Three types of bearings, each produced from a different manufacturer, have been tested: (1) high shape factor-high damping-high shear modulus bearings; (2) medium shape factor-high damping-high shear modulus bearings; and (3) medium shape factor-high damping-low shear modulus bearings. All of these tests described in this report were performed at the Earthquake Engineering Research Center at the University of California, Berkeley, with technical assistance from ANL. The tests performed on the three types of bearings have confirmed the high performance characteristics of the high damping-high and low shear modulus elastomeric bearings. The bearings have shown that they are capable of having extremely large shear strains before failure occurs. The most common failure mechanism was the debonding of the top steel plate from the isolators. This failure mechanism can be virtually eliminated by improved manufacturing quality control. The most important result of the failure test of the isolators is the fact that bearings can sustain large horizontal displacement, several times larger than the design value, with failure. Their performance in moderate and strong earthquakes will be far superior to conventional structures.

  20. Summary of experimental tests of elastomeric seismic isolation bearings for use in nuclear reactor plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, R.W.; Chang, Y.W.; Kulak, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental test program for isolator bearings which was developed to help establish the viability of using laminated elastomer bearings for base isolation of nuclear reactor plants. The goal of the test program is to determine the performance characteristics of laminated seismic isolation bearings under a wide range of loadings. Tests were performed on scale-size laminated seismic isolators both within the design shear strain range to determine the response of the bearing under expected earthquake loading conditions, and beyond the design range to determine failure modes and to establish safety margins. Three types of bearings, each produced from a different manufacturer, have been tested: (1) high shape factor-high damping-high shear modulus bearings; (2) medium shape factor-high damping-high shear modulus bearings; and (3) medium shape factor-high damping-low shear modulus bearings. All of these tests described in this report were performed at the Earthquake Engineering Research Center at the University of California, Berkeley, with technical assistance from ANL. The tests performed on the three types of bearings have confirmed the high performance characteristics of the high damping-high and low shear modulus elastomeric bearings. The bearings have shown that they are capable of having extremely large shear strains before failure occurs. The most common failure mechanism was the debonding of the top steel plate from the isolators. This failure mechanism can be virtually eliminated by improved manufacturing quality control. The most important result of the failure test of the isolators is the fact that bearings can sustain large horizontal displacement, several times larger than the design value, with failure. Their performance in moderate and strong earthquakes will be far superior to conventional structures.

  1. Evaluation of the Canadian Rheumatology Association Choosing Wisely recommendation concerning anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Canadian Rheumatology Association Choosing Wisely recommendation concerning anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) testing. Patients with joint pain/stiffness/swelling were assessed to determine if ANA testing was indicated. An a priori threshold was set before ANA testing would be considered. Those who did not have ANA testing ordered were followed for 1 year to determine if any of them went on to have a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or other connective tissue disease. A parallel study was conducted with a similar a priori threshold for the use of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody testing in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and again, patients were followed for 1 year. A total of 866 subjects were examined, 509 females (58.8 %) and 357 males (41.2 %). The mean age of the group was 47.5 ± 16.8 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 12.0 ± 5.6 weeks. Of the 866 subjects, 68 met an a priori threshold for ordering ANA, RF, and anti-CCP testing. Of these 68, there was a newly diagnosed case of SLE, 4 newly diagnosed cases of RA, and 3 cases of polymyalgia rheumatica. The remaining 798 subjects were followed for approximately 1 year and none developed evidence of SLE, RA, or other connective tissue disease. In the evaluation of non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms, setting an a priori threshold for ordering serology in keeping with the spirit of the Canadian Rheumatology Association Choosing Wisely recommendation for antibody testing results in a very low risk of missing a case of systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. IMPACT ANALYSES AND TESTS OF CONCRETE OVERPACKS OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE CASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANGHOON LEE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A concrete cask is an option for spent nuclear fuel interim storage. A concrete cask usually consists of a metallic canister which confines the spent nuclear fuel assemblies and a concrete overpack. When the overpack undergoes a missile impact, which might be caused by a tornado or an aircraft crash, it should sustain an acceptable level of structural integrity so that its radiation shielding capability and the retrievability of the canister are maintained. A missile impact against a concrete overpack produces two damage modes, local damage and global damage. In conventional approaches [1], those two damage modes are decoupled and evaluated separately. The local damage of concrete is usually evaluated by empirical formulas, while the global damage is evaluated by finite element analysis. However, this decoupled approach may lead to a very conservative estimation of both damages. In this research, finite element analysis with material failure models and element erosion is applied to the evaluation of local and global damage of concrete overpacks under high speed missile impacts. Two types of concrete overpacks with different configurations are considered. The numerical simulation results are compared with test results, and it is shown that the finite element analysis predicts both local and global damage qualitatively well, but the quantitative accuracy of the results are highly dependent on the fine-tuning of material and failure parameters.

  3. Chemical reactivity testing for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, L.W.

    2000-02-08

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) summarizes requirements used by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Incorporated (LMES) Development Division at Y-12 for conducting chemical reactivity testing of Department of Energy (DOE) owned spent nuclear fuel, sponsored by the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). The requirements are based on the NSNFP Statement of work PRO-007 (Statement of Work for Laboratory Determination of Uranium Hydride Oxidation Reaction Kinetics.) This QAPjP will utilize the quality assurance program at Y-12, Y60-101PD, Quality Program Description, and existing implementing procedures for the most part in meeting the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 requirements, exceptions will be noted. The project consists of conducting three separate series of related experiments, ''Passivation of Uranium Hydride Powder With Oxygen and Water'', '''Passivation of Uranium Hydride Powder with Surface Characterization'', and ''Electrochemical Measure of Uranium Hydride Corrosion Rate''.

  4. Thermal nuclear pulse simulation at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.; Ralph, M.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Ghanbari, C.M. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Oeding, R.; Shaw, K. (PDA Engineering, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico is being used to simulate the thermal pulse from a nuclear weapon on relatively large surfaces. Pulses varying in length from 2 seconds to 7 seconds have been produced. The desired pulse length varies as a function of the yield of the weapon being simulated. The present experiment capability can accommodate samples as large as 1.2 {times} 1.5 meters. Samples can be flat or three-dimensional. Samples exposed have ranged from fabrics (protective clothing) to an aircraft canopy and cockpit system, complete with a mannequin in a flight suit and helmet. In addition, a windowed wind tunnel has been constructed which permits exposure of flight surface materials to thermal transients with air speed of Mach 0.8. The wind tunnel can accommodate samples up to .48 {times} .76 meters or an array of smaller samples. The maximum flux capability of the NSTTF is about 70 calories/cm{sup 2}-sec. A black-body temperature of about 6000 K is produced by the solar beam and is therefore ideal for simulating the nuclear source. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Machine learning for radioxenon event classification for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocki, Trevor J., E-mail: trevor_stocki@hc-sc.gc.c [Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, A.L. 6302D1, Ottawa, ON, K1A 1C1 (Canada); Li, Guichong; Japkowicz, Nathalie [School of Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ottawa, 800 King Edward Avenue, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Ungar, R. Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, A.L. 6302D1, Ottawa, ON, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    A method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of {sup 131m}Xe, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 133m}Xe, and {sup 135}Xe by radionuclide monitoring. Several explosion samples were simulated based on real data since the measured data of this type is quite rare. These data sets consisted of different circumstances of a nuclear explosion, and are used as training data sets to establish an effective classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning. A study was conducted involving classic induction algorithms in machine learning including Naive Bayes, Neural Networks, Decision Trees, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines, that revealed that they can successfully be used in this practical application. In particular, our studies show that many induction algorithms in machine learning outperform a simple linear discriminator when a signal is found in a high radioxenon background environment.

  6. A test case of computer aided motion planning for nuclear maintenance operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitzberger, E.; Bouchet, J.L. [Electricite de France (EDF), Dept. Surveillance Diagnostic Maintenance, 78 - Chatou (France); Schmitzberger, E. [Institut National Polytechnique, CRAN, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2001-07-01

    Needs for improved tools for nuclear power plant maintenance preparation are expressed by EDF engineering. These are an easier and better management of logistics constraints such as free spaces for motions or handling tasks. The lack of generic or well suited tools and the specificity of nuclear maintenance operation have led EDF R and D to develop its own motion planning tools in collaboration with LAAS-CNRS, Utrecht University and the software publisher CADCENTRE within the framework of the three years Esprit LTR project MOLOG. EDF users needs will be summed up in the first part of the paper under the title ''Motion feasibility studies for maintenance operation'' and then compared to the current industrial offer in the ''Software's background'''s part. The definition and objectives ''Towards motion planning tools'' follows. It explains why maintenance preparation pertains to automatic motion planning and how it makes studies much simpler. The ''MOLOG's Benchmark and first result'''s part describes the test-case used to evaluate the MOLOG project and gives an outlook at the results obtained so far. (author)

  7. Choosing the correct empirical antibiotic for urinary tract infection in pediatric: Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli by E-Test method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Sedighi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs are of the most common bacterial diseases worldwide. We investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from pediatric patients with community acquired urinary tract infection (UTI to find a clinical guidance for choosing a right empirical antibiotic in these patients.In this cross sectional study, 100 urine specimens which were positive for E. coli had been investigated for antibiotics susceptibility pattern. The susceptibility to Co-trimoxazol (25μg, Amikacin (30μg, Ceftriaxone (30μg, Nalidixic Acid (30μg, Cefixime (5μg, and Nitrofurantoin (300μg tested with Disk diffusion agar and MIC determined with the E-test.Mean age of patients was 38 Months. Girls had greater proportion than boys (74 versus 26%. In Disk diffusion method, 26% of the isolates were susceptible to cotrimoxazole. Susceptibility to amikacin, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and cefixime was 94%, 66%, 97%, 62% and 52%, respectively. By E-Test method and according to CLSI criteria susceptibility for co-trimoxazol, amikacin, ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid was 37%, 97%, 67% and 50%, respectively. The highest percentage of agreement between Disk diffusion and E-Test method was found for amikacin (96% and the lowest percentage for co-trimoxazole (89%.Treatment failure, prolonged or repeated hospitalization, increased costs of care, and increased mortality are some consequence of bacterial resistance in UTIs. Misuse of antibiotics in each geographic location directly affects antibiotic resistance pattern. In the treatment of UTI, proper selection of antimicrobial agents should be relevant to the bacterial susceptibility testing surveillance. According to our results, amikacin as an injectable drug and nitrofurantoin as an oral agent could be used as a drug of choice in our region for children with UTIs.

  8. The modification and evaluation of an ELISA test for the surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in wild ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruvot Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is often used to test wildlife samples for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP infection. However, commercially available kits are only validated for use with domestic ruminant species. A literature review was performed to document the current use of MAP serum ELISA in wild and semi-domestic ruminants. We then modified and evaluated a commercial ELISA kit (IDEXX Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit for use with species for which it was not originally developed: elk (Cervus elaphus, bison (Bison bison and caribou (Rangifer tarandus. We tested the affinity of different conjugates for immunoglobulin G (IgG isolated from these species, performed checkerboard tests to determine the optimal dilutions of samples and conjugates, and established cut-off values using two different methods: a Receiver Operational Curve on a panel of known samples for elk, and an alternate method involving a panel of unknown serum samples for the three species. Results We found that the anti-bovine conjugate included in the IDEXX ELISA kit has limited affinity for elk, bison, and caribou IgG. Protein G showed good affinity for IgG of all three species, while anti-deer conjugate also bound elk and caribou IgG. Using Protein G with elk serum, a cut-off sample-to-positive (S/P value of 0.22 was selected, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 90%, respectively, whereas, using an anti-deer conjugate with elk serum, an S/P cut-off value of 0.29 gave a sensitivity of 68%, with 100% specificity. Cut-off values for bison and caribou using the Protein G conjugate were 0.17 and 0.25 respectively. Conclusions Due to incomplete reporting and a lack of test validation, it is difficult to critically appraise results of many sero-surveys that have previously been done for MAP in wildlife. Commercial ELISA kits may have limited or no capacity to detect antibodies from species other than for

  9. The network architecture and site test of DCIS in Lungmen nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. K. [Instrument and Control Section, Lungmen Nuclear Power Station, Taiwan Power Company, Taipei County Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01

    The Lungmen Nuclear Power Station (LMNPS) is located in North-Eastern Seashore of Taiwan. LMNPP has two units. Each unit generates 1350 Megawatts. It is the first ABWR Plant in Taiwan and is under-construction now. Due to contractual arrangement, there are seven large I and C suppliers/designers, which are GE NUMAC, DRS, Invensys, GEIS, Hitachi, MHI, and Stone and Webster company. The Distributed Control and Information System (DCIS) in Lungmen are fully integrated with the state-of-the-art computer and network technology. General Electric is the leading designer for integration of DCIS. This paper presents Network Architecture and the Site Test of DCIS. The network architectures are follows. GE NUMAC System adopts the point to point architecture, DRS System adopts Ring type architecture with SCRAMNET protocol, Inevnsys system adopts IGiga Byte Backbone mesh network with Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, GEIS adopts Ethernet network with EGD protocol, Hitachi adopts ring type network with proprietary protocol. MHI adopt Ethernet network with UDP. The data-links are used for connection between different suppliers. The DCIS architecture supports the plant automation, the alarm prioritization and alarm suppression, and uniform MMI screen for entire plant. The Test Program regarding the integration of different network architectures and Initial DCIS architecture Setup for 161KV Energization will be discussed. Test tool for improving site test schedule, and lessons learned from FAT will be discussed too. And conclusions are at the end of this paper. (authors)

  10. A micro hot test of the Chalmers-GANEX extraction system on used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauhn, L.; Hedberg, M.; Aneheim, E.; Ekberg, C.; Loefstroem-Engdahl, E.; Skarnemark, G. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivaegen 4, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, a 'micro hot test' has been performed using the Chalmers-GANEX (Group Actinide Extraction) system for partitioning of used nuclear fuel. The test included a pre-extraction step using N,N-di-2- ethylhexyl-butyramide (DEHBA) in n-octanol to remove the bulk part of the uranium. This pre-extraction was followed by a group extraction of actinides using the mixture of TBP and CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP in cyclohexanone as suggested in the Chalmers-GANEX process, and a three stage stripping of the extracted actinides. Distribution ratios for the extractions and stripping were determined based on a combination of γ- and α-spectrometry, as well as ICP-MS measurements. Successful extraction of uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides neptunium, americium and curium was achieved. However, measurements also indicated that co-extraction of europium occurs to some extent during the separation. These results were expected based on previous experiments using trace concentrations of actinides and lanthanides. Since this test was only performed in one stage with respect to the group actinide extraction, it is expected that multi stage tests will give even better results. (authors)

  11. The assessment of radiation exposures in native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frohmberg, E.; Goble, R.; Sanchez, V.; Quigley, D.

    2000-02-01

    Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from eating small game. The dose reconstruction model assumptions about cattle feeding practices across a year are unlikely to apply to the native communities as are other model assumptions about diet. Thus exposures from drinking milk and eating vegetables have not yet been properly estimated for these communities. Through consultations with members of the affected communities, these deficiencies could be corrected and the dose reconstruction extended to Native Americans. An illustration of the feasibility of extending the dose reconstruction is provided by a sample calculation to estimate radiation exposures to the thyroid from eating radio-iodine-contaminated rabbit thyroids after the Dedan test. The illustration is continued with a discussion of how the calculation results may be used to make estimates for other tests and other locations.

  12. Antimicrobial activity against a global collection of skin and skin structure pathogens: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.), 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tärnberg, Maria; Nilsson, Lennart E; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    As part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) we report antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates collected globally from integumentary sources between 2010 and 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations and antimicrobial resistance were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (US Food and Drug Administration breakpoints against tigecycline). The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to identify statistically significant changes in resistance. Global rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 38% and 43%, respectively. No S. aureus isolates were resistant to linezolid or vancomycin; all isolates were susceptible to tigecycline. Two percent of Enterococcus faecalis and 28% of Enterococcus faecium were vancomycin-resistant. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers accounted for 22% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 16% of Escherichia coli. Resistance to minocycline among E. faecalis, E. faecium, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli decreased significantly (pintegumentary sources, rates of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are stabilizing. Carbapenems and tigecycline have retained their in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Few agents were active against A. baumannii; its increasing resistance is cause for concern. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  14. Characteristics of patients patch tested in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network, 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; Gimenez-Arnau, Ana; Frosch, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Filon, Francesca Larese; Dugonik, Aleksandra; Bircher, Andreas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundPatch test results often vary between departments, and also between countries. Such variation may be partly attributable to systematic effects introduced by patient characteristics, differing exposures, patient selection, or methodological differences. ObjectiveTo examine the amount of var

  15. STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS FROM HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE SOLUTIONS USING MONOSODIUM TITANATE 1. SIMULANT TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOBBS, D. T.; BARNES, M. J.; PULMANO, R. L.; MARSHALL, K. M.; EDWARDS, T. B.; BRONIKOWSKI, M. G.; FINK, S. D.

    2005-04-14

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal. Separation processes planned at SRS include caustic side solvent extraction, for {sup 137}Cs removal, and ion exchange/sorption of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides with an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from simulated waste solutions. These tests evaluated the influence of ionic strength, temperature, solution composition and the oxidation state of plutonium.

  16. An integrated software testing framework for FGA-based controllers in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Yeob; Kim, Eun Sub; Yoo, Jun Beom [Div. of Computer Science and Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Jun; Choi, Jong Gyun [MMIS Lab., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have received much attention from the nuclear industry as an alternative platform to programmable logic controllers for digital instrumentation and control. The software aspect of FPGA development consists of several steps of synthesis and refinement, and also requires verification activities, such as simulations that are performed individually at each step. This study proposed an integrated software-testing framework for simulating all artifacts of the FPGA software development simultaneously and evaluating whether all artifacts work correctly using common oracle programs. This method also generates a massive number of meaningful simulation scenarios that reflect reactor shutdown logics. The experiment, which was performed on two FPGA software implementations, showed that it can dramatically save both time and costs.

  17. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide powder and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Total Carbon by Combustion and Gravimetry 7-17 Total Boron by Titrimetry 18-28 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 29-38 Chloride and Fluoride Separation by Pyrohydrolysis 39-45 Chloride by Constant-Current Coulometry 46-54 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 55-63 Water by Constant-Voltage Coulometry 64-72 Impurities by Spectrochemical Analysis 73-81 Soluble Boron by Titrimetry 82-95 Soluble Carbon by a Manometric Measurement 96-105 Metallic Impurities by a Direct Reader Spectrometric Method 106-114

  18. Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R. [eds.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test ban monitoring. We focused on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems. The second goal of the symposium was to establish a dialogue between seismologists and explosion-source code calculators. The meeting was divided into five main sessions: explosion source phenomenology, material response modeling, numerical simulations, the seismic source, and phenomenology from near source to far field. We feel the symposium reached many of its goals. Individual papers submitted at the conference are indexed separately on the data base.

  19. Development and Testing of a Groundwater Management Model for the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test, Central Nevada Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas P. Boyle; Gregg Lamorey; Scott Bassett; Greg Pohll; Jenny Chapman

    2006-01-25

    This document describes the development and application of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) and surrounding areas that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and state personnel to evaluate the impact of future proposed scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage the necessary temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the CNTA and surrounding Hot Creek Valley. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, geothermal energy production, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to the region near CNTA and others did not, together they demonstrate the usefulness of the management tool for managers who need to evaluate the impact proposed changes in groundwater use in or near CNTA may have on radionuclide migration.

  20. Final report spent nuclear fuel retrieval system primary cleaning development testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Developmental testing of the primary cleaning station for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and canisters is reported. A primary clean machine will be used to remove the gross sludge from canisters and fuel while maintaining water quality in the downstream process area. To facilitate SNF separation from canisters and minimize the impact to water quality, all canisters will be subjected to mechanical agitation and flushing with the Primary Clean Station. The Primary Clean Station consists of an outer containment box with an internally mounted, perforated wash basket. A single canister containing up to 14 fuel assemblies will be loaded into the wash basket, the confinement box lid closed, and the wash basket rotated for a fixed cycle time. During this cycle, basin water will be flushed through the wash basket and containment box to remove and entrain the sludge and carry it out of the box. Primary cleaning tests were performed to provide information concerning the removal of sludge from the fuel assemblies while in the basin canisters. The testing was also used to determine if additional fuel cleaning is required outside of the fuel canisters. Hydraulic performance and water demand requirements of the cleaning station were also evaluated. Thirty tests are reported in this document. Tests demonstrated that sludge can be dislodged and suspended sufficiently to remove it from the canister. Examination of fuel elements after cleaning suggested that more than 95% of the exposed fuel surfaces were cleaned so that no visual evidence of remained. As a result of testing, recommendations are made for the cleaning cycle. 3 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Irradiation Test in HANARO of the Parts of an X-Gen Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H. (and others)

    2008-08-15

    An instrumented capsule of 07M-13N was designed, fabricated and irradiated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of the parts of an X-Gen nuclear fuel assembly for PWR requested by KNF. Some specimens requested by Westinghouse Co. and Hanyang university were also inserted. 389 KNF specimens such as bucking and spring test specimens of 1x1 cell spacer grid, tensile, microstructure and tensile of welded parts, irradiation growth, spring test specimens made of HANA tube, Zirlo, Zircaloy-4, Inconel-718 were placed in the capsule. The capsule was composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and an independent electric heater at each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 7 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe (2 sets contain additional Nb-Ag) neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. The capsule was irradiated for 59.19days (4 cycles) in the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 300 {approx} 420 .deg. C(for KNF specimens) up to a fast neutron fluence of 1.27x10{sup 21}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1MeV). After an irradiation test, the main body of the capsule was cut off at the bottom of the protection tube with a cutting system and it was transported to the IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility). The irradiated specimens were tested to evaluate the irradiation performance of the parts of an X-Gen fuel assembly in the IMEF hot cell.

  2. A Study on the Dynamic Analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Test Rig Using 1-Way Fluid-Structure Coupled Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tae-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Joung, Chang-Young; Heo, Sung-Ho; Jang, Seo-Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    1-way fluid-structure coupled analysis is used to estimate the dynamic characteristic of the fuel test rig. the motion at the bottom of the test rig is confirmed. The maximum deformation of the test rig is 0.11 mm. The structural integrity of the test rig is performed by using the comparison with the Von-mises stress of the analysis and yield stress of the material. It is evaluated that the motion at the bottom of the test rig is able to cause other structural problem. Using the 2-way fluid-structural coupled analysis, the structural integrity of the test rig will be performed in further paper. The cooling water with specific flow rate was flowed in the nuclear fuel test rig. The structural integrity of the test rig was affected by the vibration. The fluid-induced vibration test had to be performed to obtain the amplitude of the vibration on the structure. Various test systems was developed. Flow-induced vibration and pressure drop experimental tester was developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The vibration test with high fluid flow rate was difficult by the tester. To generate the nuclear fuel test environment, coolant flow simulation system was developed. The scaled nuclear fuel test was able to be performed by the simulation system. The mock-up model of the test rig was used in the simulation system. The mock-up model in the simulation system was manufactured with scaled down full model. In this paper, the fluid induced vibration characteristic of the full model in the nuclear fuel test is studied. The hydraulic pressure on the velocity of the fluid was calculated. The static structure analysis was performed by using the pressure. The structural integrity was assessed using the results of the analysis.

  3. An Empirical Study on Ultrasonic Testing in Lieu of Radiography for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Traci L.; Pardini, Allan F.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Prowant, Matthew S.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-09-01

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the capability, effectiveness, and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) as a replacement method for radiographic testing (RT) for inspecting nuclear power plant (NPP) components. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate UT techniques to assess their ability to detect, locate, size, and characterize fabrication flaws in typical NPP weldments. This particular study focused on the evaluation of four carbon steel pipe-to-pipe welds on specimens that ranged in thicknesses from 19.05 mm (0.75 in.) to 27.8 mm (1.094 in.) and were 355.6 mm (14.0 in.) or 406.4 mm (16.0 in.) in diameter. The pipe welds contained both implanted (intentional) fabrication flaws as well as bonus (unintentional) flaws throughout the entire thickness of the weld and the adjacent base material. The fabrication flaws were a combination of planar and volumetric flaw types, including incomplete fusion, incomplete penetration, cracks, porosity, and slag inclusions. The examinations were conducted using phased-array UT (PA UT) techniques applied primarily for detection and length sizing of the flaws. Radiographic examinations were also conducted on the specimens with RT detection and length sizing results being used to establish true state. This paper will discuss the comparison of UT and RT (true state) detection results conducted to date along with a discussion on the technical gaps that need to be addressed before these methods can be used interchangeably for repair and replacement activities for NPP components.

  4. Parametric study of the energy deposition inside the calorimeter measuring the nuclear heating in Material Testing Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amharrak, H., E-mail: hicham.amharrak@im2np.fr [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Reynard-Carette, C. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Carette, M.; Brun, J.; De Vita, C. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Université de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J-F. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-11-01

    The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material and two calorimetric cells. Then these measurements are used for other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. This paper will present simulations with MCNP5 Monte-Carlo transport code (using ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library) to evaluate the nuclear heating inside the calorimeter during irradiation campaigns of the CARMEN-1P mock-up inside OSIRIS reactor periphery (MTR based on Saclay, France). The whole complete geometry of the sensor has been considered. The calculation method corresponds to a calculation in two steps. Consequently, we used as an input source in the model, the neutron and photon spectra calculated in various experimental locations tested during the irradiation campaign (H9, H10, H11, D9). After a description of the differential calorimeter sensor, the MCNP5 model used for the calculations of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements is introduced by two quantities: KERMA and energy deposition rate per mass unit. The Charged Particle Equilibrium (CPE) inside the calorimeter elements is studied. The contribution of prompt gamma and neutron is determined. A comparison between this total nuclear heating calculation and the experimental results in a graphite sample will be made. Then parametric studies performed on the influence of the various calorimeter components on the nuclear heating are presented and discussed. The studies of the influence of the nature of materials, the sensor jacket, the source type and the comparison of the results obtained for the two calorimetric cells leads to some proposals for the sensor improvement.

  5. Evaluation of the Transient Hydrologic Source Term for the Cambric Underground Nuclear Test at Frenchman Flat, Nevada test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, S F; Maxwell, R M; Pawloski, G A; Shumaker, D E; Tompson, A B; Zavarin, M

    2006-12-12

    The objective of Phase II HST work is to develop a better understanding of the evolution of the HST for 1,000 years at the CAMBRIC underground nuclear test site in Frenchman Flat at the NTS. This work provides a better understanding of activities as they actually occurred, incorporates improvements based on recent data acquisition, and provides a basis to use the CAMBRIC site for model validation and monitoring activities as required by the UGTA Project. CAMBRIC was the only test in Frenchman Flat detonated under the water table and best represents a fully saturated environment. These simulations are part of a broad Phase II Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) flow and transport modeling effort being conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. HST simulations provide, either directly or indirectly, the source term used in the CAU model to calculate a contaminant boundary. Work described in this report augments Phase I HST calculations at CAMBRIC conducted by Tompson et al. (1999) and Pawloski et al. (2001). Phase II HST calculations have been organized to calculate source terms under two scenarios: (1) A representation of the transient flow and radionuclide release behavior at the CAMBRIC site that is more specific than Tompson et al. (1999). This model reflects the influence of the background hydraulic gradient, residual test heat, pumping experiment, and ditch recharge, and takes into account improved data sources and modeling approaches developed since the previous efforts. Collectively, this approach will be referred to as the transient CAMBRIC source term. This report describes the development of the transient CAMBRIC HST. (2) A generic release model made under steady-state flow conditions, in the absence of any transient effects, at the same site with the same radiologic source term. This model is for use in the development of simpler release models for the other nine underground test sites in the Frenchman Flat

  6. Asymmetric radiation of seismic waves from an atoll: nuclear tests in French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.; Krüger, Frank; Jahnke, Gunnar; Schlittenhardt, Jörg

    1998-01-01

    Seismic records of nuclear tests detonated in the Mururoa Atoll in French Polynesia show large unpredicted arrivals 2.2 and 4.5 seconds (X1 and X2) after the P-wave at the Australian Warramunga Array. These arrivals are not observed at the Canadian Yellowknife Array. X1 and X2 are also absent on Warramunga Array recordings of tests carried out at the Fangataufa Atoll situated 40 km SSE of Mururoa. Array analysis shows that X1 and X2 are produced within the source area. The layered crustal structure of the atoll, significant local inhomogeneities, and focusing effects due to the elongated shape and the steep flanks of the Mururoa Atoll are most likely responsible for X1 and X2. The form of Mururoa (28 × 10 km) and its East-West orientation is due to its location on the Austral Fracture Zone (AFZ). The Fangataufa Atoll on the other hand is almost circular (10 km diameter) and is unaffected by the dynamics along the AFZ. Our observations demonstrate that complicated structures in the source area can significantly alter the wave field at teleseismic distances and produce a large magnitude (mb) bias. A better understanding of the exact cause of these unusual seismic observations will only become possible, if the coordinates of the tests and information on the detailed 3-D structure of the atolls are released.

  7. Characterization of microbial communities in subsurface nuclear blast cavities of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Duane P; Czerwinski, Ken; Russell, Charles E; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2010-07-13

    This US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this program's Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

  8. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Subsurface Nuclear Blast Cavities of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Duane P.; Bruckner, Jim; Fisher, Jen; Czerwinski, Ken; Russell, Charles E.; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2010-09-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Project (ERSP) was designed to test fundamental hypotheses concerning the existence and nature of indigenous microbial populations of Nevada Test Site subsurface nuclear test/detonation cavities. Now called Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR), this program’s Exploratory Research (ER) element, which funded this research, is designed to support high risk, high potential reward projects. Here, five cavities (GASCON, CHANCELLOR, NASH, ALEMAN, and ALMENDRO) and one tunnel (U12N) were sampled using bailers or pumps. Molecular and cultivation-based techniques revealed bacterial signatures at five sites (CHANCELLOR may be lifeless). SSU rRNA gene libraries contained diverse and divergent microbial sequences affiliated with known metal- and sulfur-cycling microorganisms, organic compound degraders, microorganisms from deep mines, and bacteria involved in selenate reduction and arsenite oxidation. Close relatives of Desulforudis audaxviator, a microorganism thought to subsist in the terrestrial deep subsurface on H2 and SO42- produced by radiochemical reactions, was detected in the tunnel waters. NTS-specific media formulations were used to culture and quantify nitrate-, sulfate-, iron-reducing, fermentative, and methanogenic microorganisms. Given that redox manipulations mediated by microorganisms can impact the mobility of DOE contaminants, our results should have implications for management strategies at this and other DOE sites.

  9. Comparison of two extractable nuclear antigen testing algorithms: ALBIA versus ELISA/line immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandratilleke, Dinusha; Silvestrini, Roger; Culican, Sue; Campbell, David; Byth-Wilson, Karen; Swaminathan, Sanjay; Lin, Ming-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibody testing is often requested in patients with suspected connective tissue diseases. Most laboratories in Australia use a two step process involving a high sensitivity screening assay followed by a high specificity confirmation test. Multiplexing technology with Addressable Laser Bead Immunoassay (e.g., FIDIS) offers simultaneous detection of multiple antibody specificities, allowing a single step screening and confirmation. We compared our current diagnostic laboratory testing algorithm [Organtec ELISA screen / Euroimmun line immunoassay (LIA) confirmation] and the FIDIS Connective Profile. A total of 529 samples (443 consecutive+86 known autoantibody positivity) were run through both algorithms, and 479 samples (90.5%) were concordant. The same autoantibody profile was detected in 100 samples (18.9%) and 379 were concordant negative samples (71.6%). The 50 discordant samples (9.5%) were subdivided into 'likely FIDIS or current method correct' or 'unresolved' based on ancillary data. 'Unresolved' samples (n = 25) were subclassified into 'potentially' versus 'potentially not' clinically significant based on the change to clinical interpretation. Only nine samples (1.7%) were deemed to be 'potentially clinically significant'. Overall, we found that the FIDIS Connective Profile ENA kit is non-inferior to the current ELISA screen/LIA characterisation. Reagent and capital costs may be limiting factors in using the FIDIS, but potential benefits include a single step analysis and simultaneous detection of dsDNA antibodies.

  10. Nuclear heating analysis for an HCPB TBM test case using an integrated mesh translation scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Yuefeng; Pereslavtsev, Pavel; Fischer, Ulrich; Kecskes, Szabolcs [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The design of components such as blanket modules in a fusion device is achieved through an iterative process by performing a series of sequential neutronics, thermal hydraulics (TH) and structural mechanical (SM) calculations. Therefore the appropriate data (typically mesh data) transfer has to be implemented between these different physical disciplines. A mesh translation module has been developed and integrated into the computational platform SALOME, performing the translation of neutronic results to TH/SM boundary conditions. For testing its reliability, accuracy and robustness, a simplified blanket model which was derived from the conceptual engineering design of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB TBM) was employed. In this work, a neutronic model was generated using the McCad software tool. The neutron transport calculations were performed making use of the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP. The nuclear heating results, provided on regular meshes, were processed and tailored into the unstructured mesh of structural components of this TBM test case. The integral heating results were evaluated to verify this translation scheme. (orig.)

  11. Reuse fo a Cold War Surveillance Drone to Flight Test a NASA Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. M.; Smith, Norm

    1999-01-01

    Plans for and early feasibility investigations into the modification of a Lockheed D21B drone to flight test the DRACO Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine are discussed. Modifications include the addition of oxidizer tanks, modern avionics systems, actuators, and a vehicle recovery system. Current study results indicate that the D21B is a suitable candidate for this application and will allow demonstrations of all DRACO engine operating modes at Mach numbers between 0.8 and 4.0. Higher Mach numbers may be achieved with more extensive modification. Possible project risks include low speed stability and control, and recovery techniques.

  12. Space Debris Symposium (A6.) Measurements and Space Surveillance (1.): Measurements of the Small Particle Debris Cloud from the 11 January, 2007 Chinese Anti-satellite Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Mark J.; Stansbery, Eugene; J.-C Liou; Stokely, Christopher; Horstman, Matthew; Whitlock, David

    2008-01-01

    On January 11, 2007, the Chinese military conducted a test of an anti-satellite (ASAT) system, destroying their own Fengyun-1C spacecraft with an interceptor missile. The resulting hypervelocity collision created an unprecedented number of tracked debris - more than 2500 objects. These objects represent only those large enough for the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN) to track - typically objects larger than about 5-10 cm in diameter. There are expected to be even more debris objects at sizes too small to be seen and tracked by the SSN. Because of the altitude of the target satellite (865 x 845 km orbit), many of the debris are expected to have long orbital lifetimes and contribute to the orbital debris environment for decades to come. In the days and weeks following the ASAT test, NASA was able to use Lincoln Laboratory s Haystack radar on several occasions to observe portions of the ASAT debris cloud. Haystack has the capability of detecting objects down to less than one centimeter in diameter, and a large number of centimeter-sized particles corresponding to the ASAT cloud were clearly seen in the data. While Haystack cannot track these objects, the statistical sampling procedures NASA uses can give an accurate statistical picture of the characteristics of the debris from a breakup event. For years computer models based on data from ground hypervelocity collision tests (e.g., the SOCIT test) and orbital collision experiments (e.g., the P-78 and Delta-180 on-orbit collisions) have been used to predict the extent and characteristics of such hypervelocity collision debris clouds, but until now there have not been good ways to verify these models in the centimeter size regime. It is believed that unplanned collisions of objects in space similar to ASAT tests will drive the long-term future evolution of the debris environment in near-Earth space. Therefore, the Chinese ASAT test provides an excellent opportunity to test the models used to predict the future debris

  13. NRC nuclear waste management technical support in the development of nuclear waste form criteria. Task 4. Test development review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyscinski, K.S.; Swyler, K.J.; Klamut, C.J.

    1980-05-01

    This interim report concerns the development of testing procedures to assess the performance of waste packages to be used for high-level waste disposal in geologic repositories. Single component testing of the waste package is determined to be a workable strategy for testing and evaluation in terms of NRC release rate criteria. An initial literature review has identified key tests and those variables which must be included in testing procedures to simulate repository conditions. The range of these conditions remains to be determined precisely. Methods for leach, corrosion, and sorption testing are reviewed and initial recommendations made for preferred procedures. A combination of static and dynamic tests is needed to evaluate waste package component performance. Additional research is necessary in certain areas both to establish reliable testing methods and to define the range of testing variables. Research recommendations are included in the report. Ancillary measurements will be required to ensure that key tests rigorously assess the durability of waste package components under anticipated repository conditions. In particular, radiation effects in the repository environment must be considered and, where necessary, simulated during critical testing. Research is recommended to aid in determining when and how this should be done.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole, a novel anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporin, tested against contemporary pathogens: results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2005-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2008-05-01

    Ceftobiprole is a 1st-in-class anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) extended-spectrum cephalosporin currently in clinical trials for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) and nosocomial pneumonia. This agent is also active against other prominent Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, making it an attractive candidate for broad-spectrum therapy. We evaluated the in vitro potency of ceftobiprole tested against the most commonly occurring bacterial pathogens as part of a global surveillance study for the years 2005 to 2006 (>60 medical centers in North America, Latin America, and Europe). All isolates (40 675) were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole inhibited 100% and >99% of tested S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci at Ceftobiprole was also broadly active against Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic and viridans group streptococci, inhibiting >98% of isolates at ceftobiprole was generally inactive against Enterococcus faecium, the majority of Enterococcus faecalis strains (95.7%) were inhibited at ceftobiprole and ceftazidime), ceftobiprole and cefepime were superior to ceftazidime against Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ceftobiprole was equal in potency to ceftazidime (MIC50, 2 microg/mL) and 2-fold more potent than cefepime. None of these agents inhibited >45% of Acinetobacter spp. at 8 mug/mL. Ceftobiprole is a new anti-MRSA beta-lactam with recognized activity against the most commonly occurring Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, similar to that of extended-spectrum cephems. These characteristics warrant continued evaluation of the agent as empiric therapy for cSSSIs, and in pneumonia, especially in those institutions/regions where MRSA and P. aeruginosa may be prevalent.

  15. Nuclear Test Depth Determination with Synthetic Modelling: Global Analysis from PNEs to DPRK-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkov, Mikhail; Stachnik, Joshua; Baker, Ben; Epiphansky, Alexey; Bobrov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    Seismic event depth determination is critical for the event screening process at the International Data Center, CTBTO. A thorough determination of the event depth can be conducted mostly through additional special analysis because the IDC's Event Definition Criteria is based, in particular, on depth estimation uncertainties. This causes a large number of events in the Reviewed Event Bulletin to have depth constrained to the surface making the depth screening criterion not applicable. Further it may result in a heavier workload to manually distinguish between subsurface and deeper crustal events. Since the shape of the first few seconds of signal of very shallow events is very sensitive to the depth phases, cross correlation between observed and theoretic seismograms can provide a basis for the event depth estimation, and so an expansion to the screening process. We applied this approach mostly to events at teleseismic and partially regional distances. The approach was found efficient for the seismic event screening process, with certain caveats related mostly to poorly defined source and receiver crustal models which can shift the depth estimate. An adjustable teleseismic attenuation model (t*) for synthetics was used since this characteristic is not known for most of the rays we studied. We studied a wide set of historical records of nuclear explosions, including so called Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) with presumably known depths, and recent DPRK nuclear tests. The teleseismic synthetic approach is based on the stationary phase approximation with hudson96 program, and the regional modelling was done with the generalized ray technique by Vlastislav Cerveny modified to account for the complex source topography. The software prototype is designed to be used for the Expert Technical Analysis at the IDC. With this, the design effectively reuses the NDC-in-a-Box code and can be comfortably utilized by the NDC users. The package uses Geotool as a front-end for data

  16. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 This test method covers the determination of uranium and the oxygen to uranium atomic ratio in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powder and pellets. 1.4 This test method covers the determination of chlorine and fluorine in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide. With a 1 to 10-g sample, concentrations of 5 to 200 g/g of chlorine and 1 to 200 μg/g of fluorine are determined without interference. 1.5 This test method covers the determination of moisture in uranium dioxide samples. Detection limits are as low as 10 μg. 1.6 This test method covers the determination of nitride nitrogen in uranium dioxide in the range from 10 to 250 μg. 1.7 This test method covers the spectrographic analysis of nuclear-grade UO2 for the 26 elements in the ranges indicated in Table 2. 1.8 For simultaneous determination of trace ele...

  17. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  18. Results from NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] Series 2 bare fuel dissolution tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-09-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Two bare spent fuel specimens plus the empty cladding hulls were tested in NNWSI J-13 well water in unsealed fused silica vessels under ambient hot cell air conditions (25{degree}C) in the currently reported tests. One of the specimens was prepared from a rod irradiated in the H. B. Robinson Unit 2 reactor and the other from a rod irradiated in the Turkey Point Unit 3 reactor. Results indicate that most radionuclides of interest fall into three groups for release modeling. The first group principally includes the actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm), all of which reached solubility-limited concentrations that were orders of magnitude below those necessary to meet the NRC 10 CFR 60.113 release limits for any realistic water flux predicted for the Yucca Mountain repository site. The second group is nuclides of soluble elements such as Cs, Tc, and I, for which release rates do not appear to be solubility-limited and may depend on the dissolution rate of fuel. In later test cycles, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 129}I were continuously released at rates between about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of inventory per year. The third group is radionuclides that may be transported in the vapor phase, of which {sup 14}C is of primary concern. Detailed test results are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 15 figs., 21 tabs.

  19. Observations in the statistical analysis of NBG-18 nuclear graphite strength tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindley, Michael P.; Mitchell, Mark N.; Blaine, Deborah C.; Groenwold, Albert A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the selection of a statistical distribution chosen to represent the experimental material strength of NBG-18 nuclear graphite. Three large sets of samples were tested during the material characterisation of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor and Core Structure Ceramics materials. These sets of samples are tensile strength, flexural strength and compressive strength (CS) measurements. A relevant statistical fit is determined and the goodness of fit is also evaluated for each data set. The data sets are also normalised for ease of comparison, and combined into one representative data set. The validity of this approach is demonstrated. A second failure mode distribution is found on the CS test data. Identifying this failure mode supports the similar observations made in the past. The success of fitting the Weibull distribution through the normalised data sets allows us to improve the basis for the estimates of the variability. This could also imply that the variability on the graphite strength for the different strength measures is based on the same flaw distribution and thus a property of the material.

  20. First on-line test of the LINAC superbuncher at Nuclear Science Centre

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ghosh; R Mehta; P N Prakash; A Mandal; G K Chaudhari; S S K Sonti; D S Mathuria; K K Mistry; A Rai; S Rao; P Barua; A Pandey; B K Sahu; A Sarkar; G Joshi; S K Datta; R K Bhowmik; A Roy

    2002-11-01

    An on-line test of the LINAC superbuncher at Nuclear Science Centre has been successfully performed. DC O7+ beam of nominal energy 92 MeV was accelerated through the superbuncher resonator, operating at a field of 4.54 MV/m. The total energy gain of the beam was measured to be 4.5 MeV. For the pulsed beam test a phase locked bunched beam of O7+ of nominal energy 92 MeV, FWHM 1.3 ns from the pre-tandem multiharmonic buncher was injected into the superbuncher. By properly adjusting the phase and amplitude of the resonator, the best FWHM of the bunched beam was measured to be 185 ps near the entrance of the first LINAC module. Fully depleted cooled surface barrier detector was used for measuring the time width. In a separate experiment the intrinsic time resolution of the same detector was measured to be 134 ps. Consequently the intrinsic time width of the bunched beam, after correcting for the detector resolution, would be 127 ps. Details of the experiment and results are presented.

  1. Immunohistochemical localization of spermatid nuclear transition protein 2 in the testes of rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, P J; Kistler, W S

    1993-03-01

    Transition protein 2 (TP2) of the rat was isolated by differential precipitation with trichloroacetic acid, chromatography over Bio-Rex 70, and preparative gel electrophoresis. A polyclonal rabbit antiserum was raised that did not cross-react with unrelated acid-soluble proteins from liver or testes. The antiserum was used to identify TP2-related proteins obtained from testes of mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, and boars by Western blotting. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to localize TP2 in paraffin-embedded testis sections from mice and rats. In both species, TP2 was first detected in spermatids that had essentially completed the morphological change from a round to an elongate nucleus and that were undergoing chromosomal condensation (spermatids of step 13 in rat and step 12 in mouse). TP2 was retained in spermatid nuclei until early step 16 in the rat and step 14 in the mouse. Serial sections of rat testis exposed separately to antisera to TP1 and TP2 showed that the great majority of labeled tubules were reactive to both antisera. However, in occasional tubules, TP1 reactivity was retained in relatively late spermatids that were negative for TP2. Thus both TP1 and TP2 appear in the nucleus essentially simultaneously, in association with the beginning of chromatin condensation and at a point well after much of the nuclear shaping has occurred.

  2. Testing CVC and CKM Unitarity via Sup erallowed Nuclear Beta Decay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. C. Hardy; I. S. Towner

    2016-01-01

    Superallowed nuclear beta decay between 0+ analog states is a sensitive probe of the weak interaction, with the established strength–or Ft value–of each such transition being a direct measure of the vector coupling constant, GV. Each transition’s Ft value depends on the half-life of the parent nucleus as well as on the Q-value and branching ratio for the transition of interest. It also depends on small (∼1%) transition-dependent theoretical corrections, of which the most sensitive accounts for isospin symmetry breaking. We have recently published a new survey of world superallowed-decay data, which establishes the Ft values of 14 separate superallowed transitions to a precision of order 0.1% or better. The results from this very robust data set yield the value of Vud , the up-down quark mixing element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix, and lead to the most demanding test available of CKM unitarity. The survey results and their outcome are described, as is the current direction of experiments that focus on testing the validity of the isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections.

  3. Tritium analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and nationwide surveillance of radionuclides in some environmental samples(meat and drinking water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    12 kind of environmental samples such as soil, underground water, seawater, etc. around the Nuclear Power Plants(NPP) and surface seawater around the Korea peninsula were sampled, For the samples of rain, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, grain of rice and milk sampled around NPP, and surface seawater and rain sampled all around country, tritium concentration was measured, The tritium concentration in the tap water and the gamma activity in the domestic and imported beef that were sampled at ward in the large city in Korea(Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Taejun, Inchun, Kwangju) were analyzed for the meat and drinking waters. As the results of analyzing, tritium concentration in rain and tap water were very low all around country, but a little higher around the NPP than general surrounding. At the Wolsung NPP, tritium concentration was descend according to distance from the stack. Tritium activity of surface seawater around the Korea peninsula was also, very low. The measured radioactive elements in the beef is the same as the radioactive elements on the earth surface.

  4. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer.

  5. Standard test methods for chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide powders to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Carbon by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion Selective Electrode C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Loss of Weight on Ignition 7-13 Sulfur by CombustionIodometric Titration Impurity Elements by a Spark-Source Mass Spectrographic C761 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, Spectrochemical,Nuclear, and Radiochemical Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride C1287 Test Method for Determination of Impurities In Uranium Dioxide By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Gadolinium Content in Gadolinium Oxid...

  6. Vertical distribution and estimated doses from artificial radionuclides in soil samples around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Tsuchiya, Rimi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kazlovsky, Alexander; Urazalin, Marat; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    For the current on-site evaluation of the environmental contamination and contributory external exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) and the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples from each area were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Four artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co) were detected in surface soil around CNPP, whereas seven artificial radionuclides ((241)Am, (57)Co, (137)Cs, (95)Zr, (95)Nb, (58)Co, and (60)Co) w