WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance network database-usa

  1. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    resistance surveillance, diarrhea etiology and antimicrobial resistance surveillance, sexually transmitted illness surveillance, and capacity building...vomiting, diarrhea , joint pains, general malaise. Of the samples analyzed, only 53.7% had an associated etiology: Malaria (47.0%, EBV (39.7...immunity to the disease. Many adults in those situations are reservoirs, facilitating continuing disease transmission to those without immunity. In Kenya

  2. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  3. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (

  4. Inferring epidemic network topology from surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiang; Liu, Jiming; Cheung, William K; Tong, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of infectious diseases can be affected by many or even hidden factors, making it difficult to accurately predict when and where outbreaks may emerge. One approach at the moment is to develop and deploy surveillance systems in an effort to detect outbreaks as timely as possible. This enables policy makers to modify and implement strategies for the control of the transmission. The accumulated surveillance data including temporal, spatial, clinical, and demographic information, can provide valuable information with which to infer the underlying epidemic networks. Such networks can be quite informative and insightful as they characterize how infectious diseases transmit from one location to another. The aim of this work is to develop a computational model that allows inferences to be made regarding epidemic network topology in heterogeneous populations. We apply our model on the surveillance data from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong. The inferred epidemic network displays significant effect on the propagation of infectious diseases.

  5. Disease Surveillance on Complex Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L Herrera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As infectious disease surveillance systems expand to include digital, crowd-sourced, and social network data, public health agencies are gaining unprecedented access to high-resolution data and have an opportunity to selectively monitor informative individuals. Contact networks, which are the webs of interaction through which diseases spread, determine whether and when individuals become infected, and thus who might serve as early and accurate surveillance sensors. Here, we evaluate three strategies for selecting sensors-sampling the most connected, random, and friends of random individuals-in three complex social networks-a simple scale-free network, an empirical Venezuelan college student network, and an empirical Montreal wireless hotspot usage network. Across five different surveillance goals-early and accurate detection of epidemic emergence and peak, and general situational awareness-we find that the optimal choice of sensors depends on the public health goal, the underlying network and the reproduction number of the disease (R0. For diseases with a low R0, the most connected individuals provide the earliest and most accurate information about both the onset and peak of an outbreak. However, identifying network hubs is often impractical, and they can be misleading if monitored for general situational awareness, if the underlying network has significant community structure, or if R0 is high or unknown. Taking a theoretical approach, we also derive the optimal surveillance system for early outbreak detection but find that real-world identification of such sensors would be nearly impossible. By contrast, the friends-of-random strategy offers a more practical and robust alternative. It can be readily implemented without prior knowledge of the network, and by identifying sensors with higher than average, but not the highest, epidemiological risk, it provides reasonably early and accurate information.

  6. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs 3 (ESNIP 3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Scott M.; Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars Erik

    Objectives: The “European surveillance network for influenza in pigs (ESNIP) 3” continues a surveillance network previously established during concerted actions ESNIP 1 and ESNIP 2. Running from 2010-2013, ESNIP 3 represents the only organised surveillance network for influenza in pigs in Europe...... influenza virus (SIV) experimentally and in the field. Three work packages aim to increase knowledge of the epidemiology and evolution of SIV in European pigs to inform changes in disease trends and variation in contemporary viruses through organised field surveillance programmes. Results: An inventory...... will improve SI diagnosis by updating reagents employed in the recommended techniques to define minimum datasets for standardised epidemiological analyses. These approaches will aid pandemic preparedness and planning for human influenza whilst providing an evidence base for decisions relating to veterinary...

  7. Intelligent network video understanding modern video surveillance systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Offering ready access to the security industry's cutting-edge digital future, Intelligent Network Video provides the first complete reference for all those involved with developing, implementing, and maintaining the latest surveillance systems. Pioneering expert Fredrik Nilsson explains how IP-based video surveillance systems provide better image quality, and a more scalable and flexible system at lower cost. A complete and practical reference for all those in the field, this volume:Describes all components relevant to modern IP video surveillance systemsProvides in-depth information about ima

  8. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in the AFHSC-GEIS network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William G; Pavlin, Julie A; Hospenthal, Duane; Murray, Clinton K; Jerke, Kurt; Hawksworth, Anthony; Metzgar, David; Myers, Todd; Walsh, Douglas; Wu, Max; Ergas, Rosa; Chukwuma, Uzo; Tobias, Steven; Klena, John; Nakhla, Isabelle; Talaat, Maha; Maves, Ryan; Ellis, Michael; Wortmann, Glenn; Blazes, David L; Lindler, Luther

    2011-03-04

    International infectious disease surveillance has been conducted by the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) for many years and has been consolidated within the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) since 1998. This includes activities that monitor the presence of antimicrobial resistance among pathogens. AFHSC-GEIS partners work within DoD military treatment facilities and collaborate with host-nation civilian and military clinics, hospitals and university systems. The goals of these activities are to foster military force health protection and medical diplomacy. Surveillance activities include both community-acquired and health care-associated infections and have promoted the development of surveillance networks, centers of excellence and referral laboratories. Information technology applications have been utilized increasingly to aid in DoD-wide global surveillance for diseases significant to force health protection and global public health. This section documents the accomplishments and activities of the network through AFHSC-GEIS partners in 2009.

  9. Interval algebra: an effective means of scheduling surveillance radar networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, RW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval Algebra provides an effective means to schedule surveillance radar networks, as it is a temporal ordering constraint language. Thus it provides a solution to a part of resource management, which is included in the revised Data Fusion...

  10. Intelligent Surveillance Robot with Obstacle Avoidance Capabilities Using Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharto, Widodo

    2015-01-01

    For specific purpose, vision-based surveillance robot that can be run autonomously and able to acquire images from its dynamic environment is very important, for example, in rescuing disaster victims in Indonesia. In this paper, we propose architecture for intelligent surveillance robot that is able to avoid obstacles using 3 ultrasonic distance sensors based on backpropagation neural network and a camera for face recognition. 2.4 GHz transmitter for transmitting video is used by the operator/user to direct the robot to the desired area. Results show the effectiveness of our method and we evaluate the performance of the system.

  11. Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de la Hoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them.

  12. Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Enrique; Gimenez-Guzman, Jose Manuel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Orden, David

    2015-11-24

    Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them.

  13. Particle swarm optimization based space debris surveillance network scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; Liu, Jing; Cheng, Hao-Wen; Zhang, Yao

    2017-02-01

    The increasing number of space debris has created an orbital debris environment that poses increasing impact risks to existing space systems and human space flights. For the safety of in-orbit spacecrafts, we should optimally schedule surveillance tasks for the existing facilities to allocate resources in a manner that most significantly improves the ability to predict and detect events involving affected spacecrafts. This paper analyzes two criteria that mainly affect the performance of a scheduling scheme and introduces an artificial intelligence algorithm into the scheduling of tasks of the space debris surveillance network. A new scheduling algorithm based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed, which can be implemented in two different ways: individual optimization and joint optimization. Numerical experiments with multiple facilities and objects are conducted based on the proposed algorithm, and simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Critical Infrastructure Surveillance Using SecureWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Niedermeier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a secure wireless sensor network (WSN for the surveillance, monitoring and protection of critical infrastructures was developed. To guarantee the security of the system, the main focus was the implementation of a unique security concept, which includes both security on the communication level, as well as mechanisms that ensure the functional safety during its operation. While there are many theoretical approaches in various subdomains of WSNs—like network structures, communication protocols and security concepts—the construction, implementation and real-life application of these devices is still rare. This work deals with these aforementioned aspects, including all phases from concept-generation to operation of a secure wireless sensor network. While the key focus of this paper lies on the security and safety features of the WSN, the detection, localization and classification capabilities resulting from the interaction of the nodes’ different sensor types are also described.

  15. Google AdWords as a Network of Grey Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Harold M

    2010-01-01

    Google's AdWords processes information about what sorts of content users are browsing for about a quarter of all web site visits. The significance of AdWords' use of this vast amount of personal data lies not in its use for such obviously authoritarian purposes but instead as a network of grey surveillance with Google acting as the hub and the various publishers, advertisers, and users watching (and controlling) each other in distinct ways. Google's model of collective intelligence in its s...

  16. [Influenza sentinel surveillance network improvement in Senegal and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, D; Niang, M; Dia, N; Sarr, F D; Goudiab, D; Senghor, M-L; Kiori, D; Faye, T; Espié, E; Ba, I O; Richard, V

    2015-02-01

    Influenza surveillance in Senegal was initially restricted to the identification of circulating strains. The network has recently been enhanced (i) to include epidemiological data from Dakar and other regions and (ii) to extend virological surveillance to other respiratory viruses. Epidemiological data from the sentinel sites is transmitted daily by mobile phone. The data include those for other febrile syndromes similar to influenza-like illnesses (ILI), corresponding to integrated approach. Also, clinical samples are randomly selected and analyzed for influenza and other respiratory viruses. There were 180,192 declared visits to the 11 sentinel sites between week 11-2012 and week 52-2013; 24% of the visits were for fever syndromes and 25% of the cases of fever syndrome were ILI. Rhinoviruses were the most frequent cause of ILI (19%), before adenoviruses (18%), enteroviruses (18%) and influenza A viruses (13%). Co-circulation and co-infection were frequent and were responsible for ILI peaks. In conclusion, it is clear that the greatest advantage of this system is the ease with which it can be implemented, thanks to the availability of mobile phones and mobile phone networks. We recommend this solution for other African countries, because it performs very well and provides rapid benefits in terms of public health decision-making.

  17. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  18. Space Surveillance Network Scheduling Under Uncertainty: Models and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicka, C.; Garcia, D.; Staid, A.; Watson, J.; Rintoul, M.; Hackebeil, G.; Ntaimo, L.

    2016-09-01

    Advances in space technologies continue to reduce the cost of placing satellites in orbit. With more entities operating space vehicles, the number of orbiting vehicles and debris has reached unprecedented levels and the number continues to grow. Sensor operators responsible for maintaining the space catalog and providing space situational awareness face an increasingly complex and demanding scheduling requirements. Despite these trends, a lack of advanced tools continues to prevent sensor planners and operators from fully utilizing space surveillance resources. One key challenge involves optimally selecting sensors from a network of varying capabilities for missions with differing requirements. Another open challenge, the primary focus of our work, is building robust schedules that effectively plan for uncertainties associated with weather, ad hoc collections, and other target uncertainties. Existing tools and techniques are not amenable to rigorous analysis of schedule optimality and do not adequately address the presented challenges. Building on prior research, we have developed stochastic mixed-integer linear optimization models to address uncertainty due to weather's effect on collection quality. By making use of the open source Pyomo optimization modeling software, we have posed and solved sensor network scheduling models addressing both forms of uncertainty. We present herein models that allow for concurrent scheduling of collections with the same sensor configuration and for proactively scheduling against uncertain ad hoc collections. The suitability of stochastic mixed-integer linear optimization for building sensor network schedules under different run-time constraints will be discussed.

  19. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC, EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP. The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities.

  20. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  1. Wireless Mesh Networks to Support Video Surveillance: Architecture, Protocol, and Implementation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licandro Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current video-surveillance systems typically consist of many video sources distributed over a wide area, transmitting live video streams to a central location for processing and monitoring. The target of this paper is to present an experience of implementation of a large-scale video-surveillance system based on a wireless mesh network infrastructure, discussing architecture, protocol, and implementation issues. More specifically, the paper proposes an architecture for a video-surveillance system, and mainly centers its focus on the routing protocol to be used in the wireless mesh network, evaluating its impact on performance at the receiver side. A wireless mesh network was chosen to support a video-surveillance application in order to reduce the overall system costs and increase scalability and performance. The paper analyzes the performance of the network in order to choose design parameters that will achieve the best trade-off between video encoding quality and the network traffic generated.

  2. Wireless Mesh Networks to Support Video Surveillance: Architecture, Protocol, and Implementation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Licandro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Current video-surveillance systems typically consist of many video sources distributed over a wide area, transmitting live video streams to a central location for processing and monitoring. The target of this paper is to present an experience of implementation of a large-scale video-surveillance system based on a wireless mesh network infrastructure, discussing architecture, protocol, and implementation issues. More specifically, the paper proposes an architecture for a video-surveillance system, and mainly centers its focus on the routing protocol to be used in the wireless mesh network, evaluating its impact on performance at the receiver side. A wireless mesh network was chosen to support a video-surveillance application in order to reduce the overall system costs and increase scalability and performance. The paper analyzes the performance of the network in order to choose design parameters that will achieve the best trade-off between video encoding quality and the network traffic generated.

  3. WHO global rotavirus surveillance network: a strategic review of the first 5 years, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agócs, Mary M; Serhan, Fatima; Yen, Catherine; Mwenda, Jason M; de Oliveira, Lúcia H; Teleb, Nadia; Wasley, Annemarie; Wijesinghe, Pushpa R; Fox, Kimberley; Tate, Jacqueline E; Gentsch, Jon R; Parashar, Umesh D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-07-25

    Since 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) has coordinated the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, a network of sentinel surveillance hospitals and laboratories that report to ministries of health (MoHs) and WHO clinical features and rotavirus testing data for children aged strategic review to assess surveillance network performance, provide recommendations for strengthening the network, and assess the network's utility as a platform for other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance. The strategic review team determined that during 2011 and 2012, a total of 79 sites in 37 countries met reporting and testing inclusion criteria for data analysis. Of the 37 countries with sites meeting inclusion criteria, 13 (35%) had introduced rotavirus vaccine nationwide. All 79 sites included in the analysis were meeting 2008 network objectives of documenting presence of disease and describing disease epidemiology, and all countries were using the rotavirus surveillance data for vaccine introduction decisions, disease burden estimates, and advocacy; countries were in the process of assessing the use of this surveillance platform for other vaccine-preventable diseases. However, the review also indicated that the network would benefit from enhanced management, standardized data formats, linkage of clinical data with laboratory data, and additional resources to support network functions. In November 2013, WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) endorsed the findings and recommendations made by the review team and noted potential opportunities for using the network as a platform for other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance. WHO will work to implement the recommendations to improve the network's functions and to provide higher quality surveillance data for use in decisions related to vaccine introduction and vaccination program sustainability.

  4. Power, surveillance and digital network media in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    With the focus on organizations, this article describes power in relation to mediated surveillance using Luhmann’s systems theory, poststructuralist theory and theory of media sociography. It aims to sketch out the main issues in contemporary surveillance discourse and illustrate the current situ...... and surveillance do digital media provide and how the realization of this potential feeds back into organizations’ power structures.......With the focus on organizations, this article describes power in relation to mediated surveillance using Luhmann’s systems theory, poststructuralist theory and theory of media sociography. It aims to sketch out the main issues in contemporary surveillance discourse and illustrate the current...... situation, as well as discuss surveillance from the perspective of poststructuralist theory in relation to Luhmann’s concepts of trust, risk and especially power. The underlying media sociographical question is which storing-, retrieving-, localisation- and temporal possibilities for communication...

  5. Literacies for Surveillance: Social Network Sites and Background Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jackson Young

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, civilian contractor Aaron Alexis entered the Washington Navy Yard and murdered twelve people before being fatally shot by police. This incident, together with an incident three months earlier involving Edward Snowden, caused the U.S. government to critically examine their background investigation (BI process; because both Snowden and Alexis had supposedly slipped through the cracks of their investigations, there must be some flaw in the BI procedure. The U.S. Committee on Oversight and Reform concluded that rules forbidding “background checkers from looking at the Internet or social media when performing checks” was one of the main factors contributing to defective BIs (Report, 2014. Since the report’s release, the Director of National Intelligence has been debating and trialing whether information from the Internet should be used to form a data double for BIs (Kopp, 2014; Rockwell, 2014. Using this conversation as a discussion catalyst, I argue that due to the nature of the data double, if the United States were to adopt the use of social networking sites (SNSs for security clearance purposes, neglecting to take into account basic principles of SNSs into the process of BIs may lead to misinformation and unfavorable adjudication. Ultimately, being literate about the social practices involved in SNSs and surveillance would benefit not only investigators, but anyone, including academics, looking at individuals in online spaces.

  6. LWT Based Sensor Node Signal Processing in Vehicle Surveillance Distributed Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Daehyun; Hwang, Chansik

    Previous vehicle surveillance researches on distributed sensor network focused on overcoming power limitation and communication bandwidth constraints in sensor node. In spite of this constraints, vehicle surveillance sensor node must have signal compression, feature extraction, target localization, noise cancellation and collaborative signal processing with low computation and communication energy dissipation. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm for light-weight wireless sensor node signal processing based on lifting scheme wavelet analysis feature extraction in distributed sensor network.

  7. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  8. Constitution and monitoring of an epidemiological surveillance network with sentinel general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, P

    1994-08-01

    The Réseau National Télé-informatique de surveillance et d'information sur les Maladies Transmissibles (RNTMT) (French communicable diseases computerised surveillance network) comprises a network of sentinel general practitioners (SGP). These benevolent volunteers are responsible for the weekly epidemiological surveillance. Since its creation, 1,700 SGPs have participated in the RNTMT, representing a total of more than 120,000 connections to the RNTMT telematic service center. The principal motivation of these benevolent SGPs was to 'actively participate in public health', although only a minority of them (17.6%) had any training in this field. Such a system, based on the benevolent and voluntary activity of SGPs, requires a good understanding of SGPs' attitudes towards epidemiological surveillance in general and the tool used, in order to quantitatively and qualitatively follow their participation and to provide regular and useful feedback to the surveillance actors.

  9. EVALUATION & TRENDS OF SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM NETWORK IN UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kr Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of ubiquitous computing, whole scenario of computing has been changed. It affected many inter disciplinary fields. This paper visions the impact of ubiquitous computing on video surveillance system. With increase in population and highly specific security areas, intelligent monitoring is the major requirement of modern world .The paper describes the evolution of surveillance system from analog to multi sensor ubiquitous system. It mentions the demand of context based architectures. It draws the benefit of merging of cloud computing to boost the surveillance system and at the same time reducing cost and maintenance. It analyzes some surveillance system architectures which are made for ubiquitous deployment. It provides major challenges and opportunities for the researchers to make surveillance system highly efficient and make them seamlessly embed in our environments.

  10. Improved Space Surveillance Network (SSN) Scheduling using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottler, D.

    There are close to 20,000 cataloged manmade objects in space, the large majority of which are not active, functioning satellites. These are tracked by phased array and mechanical radars and ground and space-based optical telescopes, collectively known as the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). A better SSN schedule of observations could, using exactly the same legacy sensor resources, improve space catalog accuracy through more complementary tracking, provide better responsiveness to real-time changes, better track small debris in low earth orbit (LEO) through efficient use of applicable sensors, efficiently track deep space (DS) frequent revisit objects, handle increased numbers of objects and new types of sensors, and take advantage of future improved communication and control to globally optimize the SSN schedule. We have developed a scheduling algorithm that takes as input the space catalog and the associated covariance matrices and produces a globally optimized schedule for each sensor site as to what objects to observe and when. This algorithm is able to schedule more observations with the same sensor resources and have those observations be more complementary, in terms of the precision with which each orbit metric is known, to produce a satellite observation schedule that, when executed, minimizes the covariances across the entire space object catalog. If used operationally, the results would be significantly increased accuracy of the space catalog with fewer lost objects with the same set of sensor resources. This approach inherently can also trade-off fewer high priority tasks against more lower-priority tasks, when there is benefit in doing so. Currently the project has completed a prototyping and feasibility study, using open source data on the SSN's sensors, that showed significant reduction in orbit metric covariances. The algorithm techniques and results will be discussed along with future directions for the research.

  11. Predicting costs of alien species surveillance across varying transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Blackburn; Rebecca Epanchin-Niell; Alexandra Thompson; Andrew Liebhold; Jacqueline Beggs

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to detect and eradicate invading populations before they establish are a critical component of national biosecurity programmes. An essential element for maximizing the efficiency of these efforts is the balancing of expenditures on surveillance (e.g. trapping) versus treatment (e.g. eradication). Identifying the optimal allocation of resources towards...

  12. Activity-Based Scene Decomposition for Topology Inference of Video Surveillance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The topology inference is the study of spatial and temporal relationships among cameras within a video surveillance network. We propose a novel approach to understand activities based on the visual coverage of a video surveillance network. In our approach, an optimal camera placement scheme is firstly presented by using a binary integer programming algorithm in order to maximize the surveillance coverage. Then, each camera view is decomposed into regions based on the Histograms of Color Optical Flow (HCOF, according to the spatial-temporal distribution of activity patterns observed in a training set of video sequences. We conduct experiments by using hours of video sequences captured at an office building with seven camera views, all of which are sparse scenes with complex activities. The results of real scene experiment show that the features of histograms of color optic flow offer important contextual information for spatial and temporal topology inference of a camera network.

  13. [Microbiological Surveillance of Measles and Rubella in Spain. Laboratory Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, Juan Emilio; Fernández García, Aurora; de Ory, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratory is a fundamental component on the surveillance of measles and rubella. Cases need to be properly confirmed to ensure an accurate estimation of the incidence. Strains should be genetically characterized to know the transmission pattern of these viruses and frequently, outbreaks and transmission chains can be totally discriminated only after that. Finally, the susceptibility of the population is estimated on the basis of sero-prevalence surveys. Detection of specific IgM response is the base of the laboratory diagnosis of these diseases. It should be completed with genomic detection by RT-PCR to reach an optimal efficiency, especially when sampling is performed early in the course of the disease. Genotyping is performed by genomic sequencing according to reference protocols of the WHO. Laboratory surveillance of measles and rubella in Spain is organized as a net of regional laboratories with different capabilities. The National Center of Microbiology as National Reference Laboratory (NRL), supports regional laboratories ensuring the availability of all required techniques in the whole country and watching for the quality of the results. The NRL is currently working in the implementation of new molecular techniques based on the analysis of genomic hypervariable regions for the strain characterization at sub-genotypic levels and use them in the surveillance.

  14. From planning to practice: building the national network for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahamondes Maria V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving maternal health is one of the Millennium Development Goals for 2015. Recently some progress has been achieved in reducing mortality. On the other hand, in developed regions, maternal death is a relatively rare event compared to the number of cases of morbidity; hence studying maternal morbidity has become more relevant. Electronic surveillance systems may improve research by facilitating complete data reporting and reducing the time required for data collection and analysis. Therefore the purpose of this study was to describe the methods used in elaborating and implementing the National Network for the Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Brazil. Methods The project consisted of a multicenter, cross-sectional study for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity including near-miss, in Brazil. Results Following the development of a conceptual framework, centers were selected for inclusion in the network, consensus meetings were held among the centers, an electronic data collection system was identified, specific software and hardware tools were developed, research material was prepared, and the implementation process was initiated and analyzed. Conclusion The conceptual framework developed for this network was based on the experience acquired in various studies carried out in the area over recent years and encompasses maternal and perinatal health. It is innovative especially in the context of a developing country. The implementation of the project represents the first step towards this planned management. The system online elaborated for this surveillance network may be used in further studies in reproductive and perinatal health.

  15. CLAM - CoLlAborative eMbedded networks for submarine surveillance: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Casari, Paolo; Petrioli, Chiara; Grythe, Knut; Husoy, Thor; Zorzi, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the CLAM project, which aims at developing a collaborative embedded monitoring and control platform for submarine surveillance by combining cutting edge acoustic vector sensor technology and 1D, 2D, 3D sensor arrays, underwater wireless sensor networks protocol des

  16. Energy-aware scheduling of surveillance in wireless multimedia sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Sheng; Ma, Junjie; Sun, Xinyao

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks involve a large number of sensor nodes with limited energy supply, which impacts the behavior of their application. In wireless multimedia sensor networks, sensor nodes are equipped with audio and visual information collection modules. Multimedia contents are ubiquitously retrieved in surveillance applications. To solve the energy problems during target surveillance with wireless multimedia sensor networks, an energy-aware sensor scheduling method is proposed in this paper. Sensor nodes which acquire acoustic signals are deployed randomly in the sensing fields. Target localization is based on the signal energy feature provided by multiple sensor nodes, employing particle swarm optimization (PSO). During the target surveillance procedure, sensor nodes are adaptively grouped in a totally distributed manner. Specially, the target motion information is extracted by a forecasting algorithm, which is based on the hidden Markov model (HMM). The forecasting results are utilized to awaken sensor node in the vicinity of future target position. According to the two properties, signal energy feature and residual energy, the sensor nodes decide whether to participate in target detection separately with a fuzzy control approach. Meanwhile, the local routing scheme of data transmission towards the observer is discussed. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of energy-aware scheduling of surveillance in wireless multimedia sensor network, where significant energy saving is achieved by the sensor awakening approach and data transmission paths are calculated with low computational complexity.

  17. Enhanced Differentiated Surveillance for Static and Random Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qin Zhu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless integrated sensor networks, which include collecting, processing data and communication, are used more and more widely for its low cost and convenient deployment. Nowadays the researches of sensor networks are fairly active. The security is one of the key questions in sensor networks. Intrusion detection is a kind of network security technologies used to detect any behavior that will damage or attempt to damage system confidentiality, integrality or availability, and it can provide the reasonable supplement to intrusion prevention mechanism, and construct a second wall of defense for network and system.  This paper mainly focuses on the energy efficient intrusion detection technology. According to the characteristics of sensor network and the specialty of the invasions in sensor network, this paper presents an intrusion detection model based on statistics anomaly in sensor networks. The algorithm establishes models for the normal state of the nodes, and makes decisions through the deviation degree of observed value. The algorithm is fault-tolerant for non-invasion anomaly when the communication between nodes break down or the accident wrongly create anomaly.

  18. Camera location optimisation for traffic surveillance in urban road networks with multiple user classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Shan; Huang, Hai-Jun; Long, Jiancheng

    2013-12-01

    New sensor technologies (e.g. surveillance cameras, loop detectors) enable the synthesis of disaggregated vehicle information from multiple locations. This article studies the camera location problem for traffic surveillance in urban road networks with multiple user classes. All users are differentiated by their own acceptance degree of camera monitoring and make their route choices in a logit-based stochastic user equilibrium manner. A bi-level programming model is proposed to formulate the problem and solved by the sensitivity analysis based branch and bound method. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the model application and show the effectiveness of the solution method.

  19. Social networking sites in romantic relationships: attachment, uncertainty, and partner surveillance on facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites serve as both a source of information and a source of tension between romantic partners. Previous studies have investigated the use of Facebook for monitoring former and current romantic partners, but why certain individuals engage in this behavior has not been fully explained. College students (N=328) participated in an online survey that examined two potential explanatory variables for interpersonal electronic surveillance (IES) of romantic partners: attachment style and relational uncertainty. Attachment style predicted both uncertainty and IES, with preoccupieds and fearfuls reporting the highest levels. Uncertainty did not predict IES, however. Future directions for research on romantic relationships and online surveillance are explored.

  20. Influenza and respiratory disease surveillance: the US military’s global laboratory‐based network

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Sueker, J.; Blazes, David L.; Matthew C Johns; Patrick J Blair; Paul A Sjoberg; Tjaden, Jeffrey A.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Pavlin, Julie A; Schnabel, David C; Angelia A Eick; Tobias, Steven; Quintana, Miguel; Vest, Kelly G; Burke, Ronald L.; Lindler, Luther E.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jeremy Sueker et al. (2010) Influenza and respiratory disease surveillance: the US military’s global laboratory‐based network. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(3), 155–161. The US Department of Defense influenza surveillance system now spans nearly 500 sites in 75 countries, including active duty US military and dependent populations as well as host‐country civilian and military personnel. This system represents a major part of the US Government’s contribut...

  1. Infectious disease surveillance in animal movement networks: An approach based on the friendship paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaku, Marcos; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique de Hildebrand; Negreiros, Rísia Lopes; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Ferreira, Fernando; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Cipullo, Rafael Ishibashi; Marques, Fernando Silveira; Ossada, Raul

    2015-10-01

    The network of animal movements among livestock premises is an important topological structure for the spread of infectious diseases. The central focus of this study was to analyze strategies for selecting premises based on the friendship paradox ("your friends have more friends than you do") - in which premises that neighbor randomly selected premises are sampled for surveillance or control - to determine whether these strategies are viable alternatives for the surveillance and control of diseases in scenarios with insufficient data on animal movement. To test the effectiveness of these strategies, we performed three sets of simulations. In the first set, we examined the risk of spreading an infectious disease using the cattle movement network of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. All tested strategies based on the friendship paradox have comparable performance to the hub control strategy (controlling premises that sold more animals) and superior performance to random sampling in terms of both reducing the risk of purchasing infected animals and the number of premises that need to be controlled. In the second and third sets of simulations, we observed that the friendship paradox strategies were more sensitive than the random sampling strategy to detect cases and disease, respectively. The survey of the entire animal movement network to identify animal premises with a key role in trade is not always possible, either because the data are insufficient or because informal trade is significant. If surveying the network is not possible, all approaches based on knowledge of the network become useless. As an alternative, knowing that there is a hidden movement network that follows rules inherent to all networks, such as the friendship paradox, can be used to our advantage. Strategies based on the friendship paradox do not assume knowledge of the animal movement network and therefore may be viable alternatives for the surveillance or control of infectious diseases in the

  2. Data mining techniques in sensor networks summarization, interpolation and surveillance

    CERN Document Server

    Appice, Annalisa; Fumarola, Fabio; Malerba, Donato

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks comprise of a number of sensors installed across a spatially distributed network, which gather information and periodically feed a central server with the measured data. The server monitors the data, issues possible alarms and computes fast aggregates. As data analysis requests may concern both present and past data, the server is forced to store the entire stream. But the limited storage capacity of a server may reduce the amount of data stored on the disk. One solution is to compute summaries of the data as it arrives, and to use these summaries to interpolate the real data.

  3. Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

  4. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Gaelle; Larsen, Lars Erik; Duerrwald, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs......, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs......: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence...

  5. A WiMAX Networked UAV Telemetry System for Net-Centric Remote Sensing and Range Surveillance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A WiMAX networked UAV Telemetry System (WNUTS) is designed for net-centric remote sensing and launch range surveillance applications. WNUTS integrates a MIMO powered...

  6. The Caribbean animal health network: new tools for harmonization and reinforcement of animal disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Victor; Trotman, Mark; Thomas, Reginald; Max, Millien; Zamora, Pastor Alfonso; Lepoureau, Maria Teresa Frias; Phanord, Siméon; Quirico, Jocelyn; Douglas, Kirk; Pegram, Rupert; Martinez, Dominique; Petitclerc, Martial; Chouin, Emilie; Marchal, Céline; Chavernac, David; Doyen, David; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Molia, Sophie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Lefrançois, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) is a collaboration of veterinary services, diagnostic laboratories, research institutes, universities, and regional/international organizations to improve animal health in the Caribbean. New tools were used by the network to develop regional animal health activities: (1) A steering committee, a coordination unit, and working groups on specific diseases or activities were established. The working group on avian influenza used a collaborative Web site to develop a regionally harmonized avian influenza surveillance protocol and performance indicators. (2) A specific network was implemented on West Nile virus (WNV) to describe the WNV status of the Caribbean countries, to perform a technology transfer of WNV diagnostics, and to establish a surveillance system. (3) The CaribVET Web site (http://www.caribvet.net) encompasses information on surveillance systems, diagnostic laboratories, conferences, bibliography, and diseases of major concern in the region. It is a participatory Web site allowing registered users to add or edit information, pages, or data. An online notification system of sanitary information was set up for Guadeloupe to improve knowledge on animal diseases and facilitate early alert.

  7. Strengthening systems for communicable disease surveillance: creating a laboratory network in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndihokubwayo Jean B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent emergence of a novel strain of influenza virus with pandemic potential underscores the need for quality surveillance and laboratory services to contribute to the timely detection and confirmation of public health threats. To provide a framework for strengthening disease surveillance and response capacities in African countries, the World Health Organization Regional Headquarters for Africa (AFRO developed Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR aimed at improving national surveillance and laboratory systems. IDSR emphasizes the linkage of information provided by public health laboratories to the selection of relevant, appropriate and effective public health responses to disease outbreaks. Methods We reviewed the development of Rwanda's National Reference Laboratory (NRL to understand essential structures involved in creating a national public health laboratory network. We reviewed documents describing the NRL's organization and record of test results, conducted site visits, and interviewed health staff in the Ministry of Health and in partner agencies. Findings were developed by organizing thematic categories and grouping examples within them. We purposefully sought to identify success factors as well as challenges inherent in developing a national public health laboratory system. Results Among the identified success factors were: a structured governing framework for public health surveillance; political commitment to promote leadership for stronger laboratory capacities in Rwanda; defined roles and responsibilities for each level; coordinated approaches between technical and funding partners; collaboration with external laboratories; and use of performance results in advocacy with national stakeholders. Major challenges involved general infrastructure, human resources, and budgetary constraints. Conclusions Rwanda's experience with collaborative partnerships contributed to creation of a functional

  8. HybVOR: A Voronoi-Based 3D GIS Approach for Camera Surveillance Network Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Reda Yaagoubi; Mabrouk El Yarmani; Abdullah Kamel; Walid Khemiri

    2015-01-01

    As a consequence of increasing safety concerns, camera surveillance has been widely adopted as a way to monitor public spaces. One of the major challenges of camera surveillance is to design an optimal method for camera network placement in order to ensure the greater possible coverage. In addition, this method must consider the landscape of the monitored environment to take into account the existing objects that may influence the deployment of such a network. In this paper, a new Voronoi-bas...

  9. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network-2 Decades of Achievements, 1996-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao, Olga L; Jones, Timothy F; Vugia, Duc J; Griffin, Patricia M

    2015-09-01

    The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) provides a foundation for food safety policy and illness prevention in the United States. FoodNet conducts active, population-based surveillance at 10 US sites for laboratory-confirmed infections of 9 bacterial and parasitic pathogens transmitted commonly through food and for hemolytic uremic syndrome. Through FoodNet, state and federal scientists collaborate to monitor trends in enteric illnesses, identify their sources, and implement special studies. FoodNet's major contributions include establishment of reliable, active population-based surveillance of enteric diseases; development and implementation of epidemiologic studies to determine risk and protective factors for sporadic enteric infections; population and laboratory surveys that describe the features of gastrointestinal illnesses, medical care-seeking behavior, frequency of eating various foods, and laboratory practices; and development of a surveillance and research platform that can be adapted to address emerging issues. The importance of FoodNet's ongoing contributions probably will grow as clinical, laboratory, and informatics technologies continue changing rapidly.

  10. The Italian National Seismic Network and the earthquake and tsunami monitoring and surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto; Margheriti, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Delladio, Alberto; Moretti, Milena; Pintore, Stefano; Amato, Alessandro; Basili, Alberto; Bono, Andrea; Casale, Paolo; Danecek, Peter; Demartin, Martina; Faenza, Licia; Lauciani, Valentino; Mandiello, Alfonso Giovanni; Marchetti, Alessandro; Marcocci, Carlo; Mazza, Salvatore; Mariano Mele, Francesco; Nardi, Anna; Nostro, Concetta; Pignone, Maurizio; Quintiliani, Matteo; Rao, Sandro; Scognamiglio, Laura; Selvaggi, Giulio

    2016-11-01

    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is an Italian research institution, with focus on Earth Sciences. INGV runs the Italian National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN) and other networks at national scale for monitoring earthquakes and tsunami as a part of the National Civil Protection System coordinated by the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC). RSN is composed of about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions; about 110 stations feature also co-located strong motion instruments, and about 180 have GPS receivers and belong to the National GPS network (Rete Integrata Nazionale GPS, RING). The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection, hypocenter and magnitude determination, moment tensors, shake maps and other products of interest for DPC. Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment and surveillance procedures. INGV is one of the primary nodes of ORFEUS (Observatories & Research Facilities for European Seismology) EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for the archiving and distribution of continuous, quality checked seismic data. The strong motion network data are archived and distributed both in EIDA and in event based archives; GPS data, from the RING network are also archived, analyzed and distributed at INGV. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters to the DPC. These are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Italian Seismic Bulletin (Bollettino Sismico Italiano, BSI). The results are published on the web, these are available to both the scientific community and the general public. The INGV surveillance includes a pre-operational tsunami alert service since INGV is one of the Tsunami Service providers of the North

  11. A Fast Method for Embattling Optimization of Ground-Based Radar Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, J.

    A growing number of space activities have created an orbital debris environment that poses increasing impact risks to existing space systems and human space flight. For the safety of in-orbit spacecraft, a lot of observation facilities are needed to catalog space objects, especially in low earth orbit. Surveillance of Low earth orbit objects are mainly rely on ground-based radar, due to the ability limitation of exist radar facilities, a large number of ground-based radar need to build in the next few years in order to meet the current space surveillance demands. How to optimize the embattling of ground-based radar surveillance network is a problem to need to be solved. The traditional method for embattling optimization of ground-based radar surveillance network is mainly through to the detection simulation of all possible stations with cataloged data, and makes a comprehensive comparative analysis of various simulation results with the combinational method, and then selects an optimal result as station layout scheme. This method is time consuming for single simulation and high computational complexity for the combinational analysis, when the number of stations increases, the complexity of optimization problem will be increased exponentially, and cannot be solved with traditional method. There is no better way to solve this problem till now. In this paper, target detection procedure was simplified. Firstly, the space coverage of ground-based radar was simplified, a space coverage projection model of radar facilities in different orbit altitudes was built; then a simplified objects cross the radar coverage model was established according to the characteristics of space objects orbit motion; after two steps simplification, the computational complexity of the target detection was greatly simplified, and simulation results shown the correctness of the simplified results. In addition, the detection areas of ground-based radar network can be easily computed with the

  12. Network analysis of translocated Takahe populations to identify disease surveillance targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Zoë L; VAN Andel, Mary; French, Nigel P; Gartrell, Brett D

    2014-04-01

    network in 2011. Likewise, the wild Murchison Mountains population was consistently the sink of the network. Other nodes, such as the offshore islands and the wildlife hospital, varied in importance over time. Common network descriptors and measures of centrality identified key locations for targeting disease surveillance. The visual representation of movements of animals in a population that this technique provides can aid decision makers when they evaluate translocation proposals or attempt to control a disease outbreak. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. New Method for Real Time Influenza Surveillance in Primary Care: A Wisconsin Research and Education Network (WREN) Supported Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temte, Jonathan L; Barlow, Shari; Schemmel, Amber; Temte, Emily; Hahn, David L; Reisdorf, Erik; Shult, Peter; Tamerius, John

    2017-01-01

    The goal of public health infectious disease surveillance systems is to provide accurate laboratory results in near-real time. When it comes to influenza surveillance, most current systems are encumbered with inherent delays encountered in the real-life chaos of medical practice. To combat this, we implemented and tested near-real-time surveillance using a rapid influenza detection test (RIDT) coupled with immediate, wireless transmission of results to public health entities. A network of 19 primary care clinics across Wisconsin were recruited, including 4 sites already involved in ongoing influenza surveillance and 15 sites that were new to surveillance activities. Each site was provided with a Quidel Sofia Influenza A+B RIDT analyzer attached to a wireless router. Influenza test results, along with patient age, were transmitted immediately to a cloud-based server, automatically compiled, and forwarded to the surveillance team daily. Weekly counts of positive influenza A and B cases were compared with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detections from an independent surveillance system within the state. Following Institutional Review Board (IRB) and institutional approvals, we recruited 19 surveillance sites, installed equipment, and trained staff within 4 months. Of the 1119 cases tested between September 15, 2013 and June 28, 2014, 316 were positive for influenza. The system provided early detection of the influenza outbreak in Wisconsin. The influenza peak between January 12 and 25, 2014, as well as the epidemic curve, closely matched that derived from the established PCR laboratory network (r = 0.927; P surveillance. Results from the initial year strongly support this approach to highly accurate and timely influenza surveillance. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  14. Advancing environmental health surveillance in the US through a national human biomonitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshaw, Megan Weil; Degeberg, Ruhiyyih; Patel, Surili Sutaria; Rhodes, Blaine; King, Ewa; Chaudhuri, Sanwat; Nassif, Julianne

    2016-09-17

    The United States lacks a comprehensive, nationally-coordinated, state-based environmental health surveillance system. This lack of infrastructure leads to: • varying levels of understanding of chemical exposures at the state & local levels • often inefficient public health responses to chemical exposure emergencies (such as those that occurred in the Flint drinking water crisis, the Gold King mine spill, the Elk river spill and the Gulf Coast oil spill) • reduced ability to measure the impact of public health interventions or environmental policies • less efficient use of resources for cleaning up environmental contamination Establishing the National Biomonitoring Network serves as a step toward building a national, state-based environmental health surveillance system. The Network builds upon CDC investments in emergency preparedness and environmental public health tracking, which have created advanced chemical analysis and information sharing capabilities in the state public health systems. The short-term goal of the network is to harmonize approaches to human biomonitoring in the US, thus increasing the comparability of human biomonitoring data across states and communities. The long-term goal is to compile baseline data on exposures at the state level, similar to data found in CDC's National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Barriers to success for this network include: available resources, effective risk communication strategies, data comparability & sharing, and political will. Anticipated benefits include high quality data on which to base public health and environmental decisions, data with which to assess the success of public health interventions, improved risk assessments for chemicals, and new ways to prioritize environmental health research.

  15. Collaborative 3D Target Tracking in Distributed Smart Camera Networks for Wide-Area Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenofon Koutsoukos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the evolution and fusion of wireless sensor network and embedded camera technologies, distributed smart camera networks have emerged as a new class of systems for wide-area surveillance applications. Wireless networks, however, introduce a number of constraints to the system that need to be considered, notably the communication bandwidth constraints. Existing approaches for target tracking using a camera network typically utilize target handover mechanisms between cameras, or combine results from 2D trackers in each camera into 3D target estimation. Such approaches suffer from scale selection, target rotation, and occlusion, drawbacks typically associated with 2D tracking. In this paper, we present an approach for tracking multiple targets directly in 3D space using a network of smart cameras. The approach employs multi-view histograms to characterize targets in 3D space using color and texture as the visual features. The visual features from each camera along with the target models are used in a probabilistic tracker to estimate the target state. We introduce four variations of our base tracker that incur different computational and communication costs on each node and result in different tracking accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed trackers by comparing their performance to a 3D tracker that fuses the results of independent 2D trackers. We also present performance analysis of the base tracker along Quality-of-Service (QoS and Quality-of-Information (QoI metrics, and study QoS vs. QoI trade-offs between the proposed tracker variations. Finally, we demonstrate our tracker in a real-life scenario using a camera network deployed in a building.

  16. Towards One Health Knowledge Networks: A Southern African Centre of Infectious Disease Surveillance case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Beda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic nature of new information and/or knowledge is a big challenge for information systems. Early knowledge management systems focused entirely on technologies for storing, searching and retrieving data; these systems have proved a failure. Juirsica and Mylopoulos1 suggested that in order to build effective technologies for knowledge management, we need to further our understanding of how individuals, groups and organisations use knowledge. As the focus on knowledge management for organisations and consortia alike is moving towards a keen appreciation of how deeply knowledge is embedded in people’s experiences, there is a general realisation that knowledge cannot be stored or captured digitally. This puts more emphasis in creating enabling environments for interactions that stimulate knowledge sharing.Our work aims at developing an un-obtrusive intelligent system that glues together effective contemporary and traditional technologies to aid these interactions and manage the information captured. In addition this system will include tools to aid propagating a repository of scientific information relevant to surveillance of infectious diseases to complement knowledge shared and/or acts as a point of reference.This work is ongoing and based on experiences in developing a knowledge network management system for the Southern African Centre of Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS, A One Health consortium of southern African academic and research institutions involved with infectious diseases of humans and animals in partnership with world-renowned centres of research in industrialised countries.

  17. A semantic autonomous video surveillance system for dense camera networks in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network.

  18. A radar-enabled collaborative sensor network integrating COTS technology for surveillance and tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert; Wang, Lan; Iftekharuddin, Khan; McCracken, Ernest; Khan, Muhammad; Islam, Khandakar; Bhurtel, Sushil R; Demirer, R Murat

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost (radar through a wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios.

  19. Intraclass correlation coefficients in the Brazilian network for surveillance of severe maternal morbidity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Samira M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC of variables concerning personal characteristics, structure, outcome and process in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity study conducted to identify severe maternal morbidity/near miss cases using the World Health Organization criteria. Method It was a cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 27 hospitals providing care for pregnant women in Brazil. Cluster size and the mean size of the primary sampling unit were described. Estimated prevalence rates, ICC, their respective 95% confidence intervals, the design effect and the mean cluster size were presented for each variable. Results Overall, 9,555 cases of severe maternal morbidity (woman admitted with potentially life-threatening conditions, near miss events or death were included in the study. ICC ranged from Conclusions These results may be used to design new cluster trials in maternal and perinatal health and to help calculate sample sizes.

  20. A Radar-Enabled Collaborative Sensor Network Integrating COTS Technology for Surveillance and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Murat Demirer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost ( < $50 US miniature low-power radar through a wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios.

  1. Programme of the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza to improve Influenza Surveillance in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Adam; Brown, Caroline; Hungnes, Olav; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Valette, Martine; Werf, Sylvie van der; Zambon, Maria

    2006-01-01

    All laboratories participating in the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe (CNRL) co-ordinated by the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) should be able to perform a range of influenza diagnostics. This includes direct detection, culture, typing, subtyp

  2. Programme of the community network of reference laboratories for human influenza to improve influenza surveillance in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Brown, C.; Hungnes, O.; Schweiger, B.; Valette, M.; Werf, S. van der; Zambon, M.

    2006-01-01

    All laboratories participating in the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe (CNRL) co-ordinated by the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) should be able to perform a range of influenza diagnostics. This includes direct detection, culture, typing, subtyp

  3. The potential of the European network of congenital anomaly registers (EUROCAT) for drug safety surveillance : a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Willemijn M.; Cornel, Martina C.; Dolk, Helen; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Armstrong, Nicola C.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    Background European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) is a network of population-based congenital anomaly registries in Europe surveying more than I million births per year, or 25% of the births in the European Union. This paper describes the potential of the EUROCAT collaboration for

  4. Interaction between research and diagnosis and surveillance of avian influenza within the Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Vachiéry, N; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gerbier, G; Gongora, V; Shaw, J; Trotman, M

    2010-04-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) because of predominance of the backyard poultry system, important commercial poultry production, migratory birds and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region: (i) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol, (ii) specific web pages for AI surveillance on http://www.caribvet.net, and (iii) a diagnostic network for the Caribbean including AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe and technology transfer. Altogether 303 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested between June 2006 and March 2009 by real time PCR either for importation purposes or following clinical suspicion. Following AI H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI through introduction of infected cocks was designed and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean veterinary services to improve fighting cock movement controls and biosecurity measures. Altogether, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthen surveillance of AI in the Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on AI risk analysis.

  5. A micro-Doppler sonar for acoustic surveillance in sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaonian

    Wireless sensor networks have been employed in a wide variety of applications, despite the limited energy and communication resources at each sensor node. Low power custom VLSI chips implementing passive acoustic sensing algorithms have been successfully integrated into an acoustic surveillance unit and demonstrated for detection and location of sound sources. In this dissertation, I explore active and passive acoustic sensing techniques, signal processing and classification algorithms for detection and classification in a multinodal sensor network environment. I will present the design and characterization of a continuous-wave micro-Doppler sonar to image objects with articulated moving components. As an example application for this system, we use it to image gaits of humans and four-legged animals. I will present the micro-Doppler gait signatures of a walking person, a dog and a horse. I will discuss the resolution and range of this micro-Doppler sonar and use experimental results to support the theoretical analyses. In order to reduce the data rate and make the system amenable to wireless sensor networks, I will present a second micro-Doppler sonar that uses bandpass sampling for data acquisition. Speech recognition algorithms are explored for biometric identifications from one's gait, and I will present and compare the classification performance of the two systems. The acoustic micro-Doppler sonar design and biometric identification results are the first in the field as the previous work used either video camera or microwave technology. I will also review bearing estimation algorithms and present results of applying these algorithms for bearing estimation and tracking of moving vehicles. Another major source of the power consumption at each sensor node is the wireless interface. To address the need of low power communications in a wireless sensor network, I will also discuss the design and implementation of ultra wideband transmitters in a three dimensional

  6. Battlefield Acoustic Sensing, Multimodal Sensing, and Networked Sensing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications by Latasha Solomon, Wesley Wang, and Miriam Häge...Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications by Latasha Solomon Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Wesley Wang...Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  7. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Simon

    Full Text Available Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013 aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%, human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13% and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%, as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus (10.3%. Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  8. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Brown, Ian H; Loeffen, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  9. Italian network for obesity and cardiovascular disease surveillance: A pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri Luigi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Also in Mediterranean countries, which are considered a low risk population for cardiovascular disease (CVD, the increase in body mass index (BMI has become a public health priority. To evaluate the feasibility of a CVD and obesity surveillance network, forty General Practitioners (GPs were engaged to perform a screening to assess obesity, cardiovascular risk, lifestyle habits and medication use. Methods A total of 1,046 women and 1,044 men aged 35–74 years were randomly selected from GPs' lists stratifying by age decade and gender. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed by GPs using standardized methodologies. BMI was computed and categorized in normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Food frequency (per day: fruits and vegetables; per week: meat, cheese, fish, pulses, chocolate, fried food, sweet, wholemeal food, rotisserie food and sugar drink and physical activity (at work and during leisure time were investigated through a questionnaire. CVD risk was assessed using the Italian CUORE Project risk function. Results The percentage of missing values was very low. Prevalence of overweight was 34% in women and 50% in men; prevalence of obesity was 23% in both men and women. Level of physical activity was mostly low or very low. BMI was inversely associated with consumption of pulses, rotisserie food, chocolate, sweets and physical activity during leisure time and directly associated with consumption of meat. Mean value of total cardiovascular risk was 4% in women and 11% in men. One percent of women and 16% of men were at high cardiovascular risk (≥ 20% in 10 years. Normal weight persons were four times more likely to be at low risk than obese persons. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of a surveillance network of GPs in Italy focusing on obesity and other CVD risk factors. It also provided information on lifestyle habits

  10. Growth surveillance in the context of the Primary Public Healthcare Service Network in Brazil: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to identify and analyze the scientific literature on child growth monitoring in the context of the primary public healthcare service network in Brazil, focusing on the main problems detected in studies. Methods: the review was based on searches ofSciELO, Lilacs and PubMed databases to identify articles published between 2006 and 2014. The articles were categorized according to the analytical categories of structure (items needed to carry out primary activities or work processes (set of activities and procedures used in the management of resources. Results: of the 16 articles included in this review, only six dealt with structure and, in these, thetraining of professionals and availability of protocols were the most frequently identified problems. Processes, addressed in 15 articles, highlighted the underutilization of Child Health Handbook to record growth measurements and the adoption of guidelines on the basis of notes taken. Conclusions: the difficulties found demonstrate the everyday circumstances of the public health service which have a detrimental effect on growth surveillance.

  11. Using networks to combine "big data" and traditional surveillance to improve influenza predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael W; Haim, Dotan A; Radin, Jennifer M

    2015-01-29

    Seasonal influenza infects approximately 5-20% of the U.S. population every year, resulting in over 200,000 hospitalizations. The ability to more accurately assess infection levels and predict which regions have higher infection risk in future time periods can instruct targeted prevention and treatment efforts, especially during epidemics. Google Flu Trends (GFT) has generated significant hope that "big data" can be an effective tool for estimating disease burden and spread. The estimates generated by GFT come in real-time--two weeks earlier than traditional surveillance data collected by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, GFT had some infamous errors and is significantly less accurate at tracking laboratory-confirmed cases than syndromic influenza-like illness (ILI) cases. We construct an empirical network using CDC data and combine this with GFT to substantially improve its performance. This improved model predicts infections one week into the future as well as GFT predicts the present and does particularly well in regions that are most likely to facilitate influenza spread and during epidemics.

  12. HybVOR: A Voronoi-Based 3D GIS Approach for Camera Surveillance Network Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Yaagoubi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing safety concerns, camera surveillance has been widely adopted as a way to monitor public spaces. One of the major challenges of camera surveillance is to design an optimal method for camera network placement in order to ensure the greater possible coverage. In addition, this method must consider the landscape of the monitored environment to take into account the existing objects that may influence the deployment of such a network. In this paper, a new Voronoi-based 3D GIS oriented approach named “HybVOR” is proposed for surveillance camera network placement. The “HybVOR” approach aims to achieve a coverage near 100% through three main phases. First, a Voronoi Diagram from buildings’ footprints is generated and cameras are placed on the Voronoi Edges. Second, the level of coverage is assessed by calculating a viewshed based on a raster Digital Surface Model of the region of interest. Finally, the visibility of the main buildings’ entrances is evaluated based on a 3D vector model that contains these features. The effectiveness of the “HybVOR” approach is demonstrated through a case study that corresponds to an area of interest in Jeddah Seaport in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  13. Reducing surgical site infection incidence through a network: results from the French ISO-RAISIN surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astagneau, P; L'Hériteau, F; Daniel, F; Parneix, P; Venier, A-G; Malavaud, S; Jarno, P; Lejeune, B; Savey, A; Metzger, M-H; Bernet, C; Fabry, J; Rabaud, C; Tronel, H; Thiolet, J-M; Coignard, B

    2009-06-01

    Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are a key target for nosocomial infection control programmes. We evaluated the impact of an eight-year national SSI surveillance system named ISO-RAISIN (infection du site opératoire - Réseau Alerte Investigation Surveillance des Infections). Consecutive patients undergoing surgery were enrolled during a three-month period each year and surveyed for 30 days following surgery. A standardised form was completed for each patient including SSI diagnosis according to standard criteria, and several risk factors such as wound class, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, operation duration, elective/emergency surgery, and type of surgery. From 1999 to 2006, 14,845 SSIs were identified in 964,128 patients (overall crude incidence: 1.54%) operated on in 838 participating hospitals. The crude overall SSI incidence decreased from 2.04% to 1.26% (P<0.001; relative reduction: -38%) and the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system (NNIS)-0 adjusted SSI incidence from 1.10% to 0.74% (P<0.001; relative reduction: -33%). The most significant SSI incidence reduction was observed for hernia repair and caesarean section, and to a lesser extent, cholecystectomy, hip prosthesis arthroplasty, and mastectomy. Active surveillance striving for a benchmark throughout a network is an effective strategy to reduce SSI incidence.

  14. Impact of postdischarge surveillance on surgical site infection rates for several surgical procedures: results from the nosocomial surveillance network in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniën, Judith; Wille, Jan C; Snoeren, Ruud L M M; Hof, Susan van den

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the number of surgical site infections (SSIs) registered after hospital discharge with respect to various surgical procedures and to identify the procedures for which postdischarge surveillance (PDS) is most important. DESIGN: Prospective SSI surveillance with voluntary PDS.

  15. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  16. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  17. Romantic Partner Monitoring After Breakups: Attachment, Dependence, Distress, and Post-Dissolution Online Surveillance via Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Tokunaga, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Romantic relationship dissolution can be stressful, and social networking sites make it difficult to separate from a romantic partner online as well as offline. An online survey (N = 431) tested a model synthesizing attachment, investment model variables, and post-dissolution emotional distress as predictors of interpersonal surveillance (i.e., "Facebook stalking") of one's ex-partner on Facebook after a breakup. Results indicated that anxious attachment predicted relational investment but also seeking relationship alternatives; avoidant attachment was negatively related to investment but positively related to seeking alternatives. Investment predicted commitment, whereas seeking alternatives was negatively related to commitment. Commitment predicted emotional distress after the breakup. Distress predicted partner monitoring immediately following the breakup, particularly for those who did not initiate the breakup, as well as current partner monitoring. Given their affordances, social media are discussed as potentially unhealthy enablers for online surveillance after relationship termination.

  18. Evaluating Social Media Networks in Medicines Safety Surveillance: Two Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Coloma (Preciosa); B. Becker (Benedikt); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); E.M. Van Mulligen (Erik M.); J.A. Kors (Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: There is growing interest in whether social media can capture patient-generated information relevant for medicines safety surveillance that cannot be found in traditional sources. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential contribution of mining social m

  19. Evaluation of the surveillance of surgical site infections within the Dutch PREZIES network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniën, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are the most-common healthcare-associated infections among surgical patients and have severe adverse consequences. Surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and feedback of data, and has been accepted worldwide as a primary step

  20. Building up a collaborative network for the surveillance of HIV genetic diversity in Italy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Sanarico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of infection with HIV-1 non-B subtypes in Italy has been reported to raise, due to increased migration flows and travels. HIV-1 variants show different biological and immunological properties that impact on disease progression rate, response to antiretroviral therapy (ART and sensitivity of diagnostic tests with important implications for public health. Therefore, a constant surveillance of the dynamics of HIV variants in Italy should be a high public health priority. Organization of surveillance studies requires building up a platform constituted of a network of clinical centers, laboratories and institutional agencies, able to properly collect samples for the investigation of HIV subtypes heterogeneity and to provide a database with reliable demographic, clinical, immunological and virological data. AIM: We here report our experience in building up such a platform, co-ordinated by the National AIDS Center of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, taking advantage of a pilot study aimed at evaluating HIV subtypes diversity in populations of HIV-infected migrant people in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and thirty four HIV-infected migrants were enrolled in 9 Italian clinical centers located throughout the Italian territory. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs for sample collection were provided by the National AIDS Center to each clinical center. In addition, clinical centers were required to fill up a case report form (crf for each patient, which included demographic, clinical, immunological and virological information. RESULTS: All centers properly collected and stored samples from each enrolled individual. Overall, the required information was correctly provided for more than 90% of the patients. However, some fields of the crf, particularly those including information on the last HIV-negative antibody test and presence of co-infections, were properly filled up in less than 80% of the enrolled migrants. Centers

  1. Projectbeschrijving Surveillance Ziekenhuisinfecties 1996-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Sprenger MJW; Cucic S; Pelt W van; Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan; CIE

    1996-01-01

    In the Project Surveillance Hospital Acquired Infections a surveillance system in a national network of hospitals is being developed and implemented. In the project surveillance of hospital acquired infections is implemented in components: surveillance of surgical wound infections, surveillance of i

  2. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  3. Surveillance of poisoning and drug overdose through hospital discharge coding, poison control center reporting, and the Drug Abuse Warning Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, P D; Jones, M R; Olson, K R

    1993-01-01

    There is no gold standard for determining poisoning incidence. We wished to compare four measures of poisoning incidence: International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision (ICD-9) principal (N-code) and supplemental external cause of injury (E-code) designations, poison control center (PCC) reporting, and detection by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). We studied a case series at two urban hospitals. We assigned ICD-9 N-code and E-code classifications, determining whether these matched with medical records. We ascertained PCC and DAWN system reporting. A total of 724 subjects met entry criteria; 533 were studied (74%). We matched poisoning N-codes for 278 patients (52%), E-code by cause in 306 patients (57%), and E-code by intent in 171 patients (32%). A total of 383 patients (72%) received any poisoning N-code or any E-code. We found that PCC and DAWN reporting occurred for 123 of all patients (23%) and 399 of 487 eligible patients (82%), respectively. In multiple logistic regression, factors of age, hospital admission, suicidal intent, principal poisoning or overdose type, and mixed drug overdose were statistically significant predictors of case match or report varying by surveillance measure. Our findings indicate that common surveillance measures of poisoning and drug overdose may systematically undercount morbidity.

  4. Network analysis of cattle movements in Uruguay: Quantifying heterogeneity for risk-based disease surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Picasso, Catalina; Enns, Eva A; Craft, Meggan E; Alvarez, Julio; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Perez, Andres; Wells, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock between premises is one of the foremost factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases of livestock. In part to address this issue, the origin and destination for all cattle movements in Uruguay are registered by law. This information has great potential to be used in assessing the risk of disease spread in the Uruguayan cattle population. Here, we analyze cattle movements from 2008 to 2013 using network analysis in order to understand the flows of animals in the Uruguayan cattle industry and to identify targets for surveillance and control measures. Cattle movements were represented as seasonal and annual networks in which farms represented nodes and nodes were linked based on the frequency and quantity of cattle moved. At the farm level, the distribution of the number of unique farms each farm is connected to through outgoing and incoming movements, as well as the number of animals moved, was highly right-skewed; the majority of farms had few to no contacts, whereas the 10% most highly connected farms accounted for 72-83% of animals moved annually. This extreme level of heterogeneity in movement patterns indicates that some farms may be disproportionately important for pathogen spread. Different production types exhibited characteristic patterns of farm-level connectivity, with some types, such a dairies, showing consistently higher levels of centrality. In addition, the observed networks were characterized by lower levels of connectivity and higher levels of heterogeneity than random networks of the same size and density, both of which have major implications for disease dynamics and control strategies. This represents the first in-depth analysis of farm-level livestock movements within South America, and highlights the importance of collecting livestock movement data in order to understand the vulnerability of livestock trade networks to invasion by infectious diseases.

  5. The KIzSS network, a sentinel surveillance system for infectious diseases in day care centers: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enserink Remko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Day care-associated infectious diseases are widely recognized as a public health problem but rarely studied. Insights into their dynamics and their association with the day care setting are important for effective decision making in management of infectious disease control. This paper describes the purpose, design and potential of our national multi-center, day care-based sentinel surveillance network for infectious diseases (the KIzSS network. The aim of the KIzSS network is to acquire a long-term insight into the syndromic and microbiological aspects of day care-related infectious diseases and associated disease burden and to model these aspects with day care setting characteristics. Methods/design The KIzSS network applies a prospective cohort design, following day care centers rather than individual children or staff members over time. Data on infectious disease symptoms and related morbidity (children and staff, medical consumption, absenteeism and circulating enteric pathogens (children are collected on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Every two years, a survey is performed to assess the characteristics of participating day care centers. Discussion The KIzSS network offers a unique potential to study infectious disease dynamics in the day care setting over a sustained period of time. The created (biodatabases will help us to assess day care-related disease burden of infectious diseases among attending children and staff and their relation with the day care setting. This will support the much needed development of evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines for infectious disease control in day care centers.

  6. Extending Wireless Broadband Network Architectures with Home Gateways, Localization, and Physical Environment Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelling Kristoffersen, Kåre; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Chen, Jianjun;

    2005-01-01

    Adding content is seen as the next important step in the development and deployment of broadband networks. This paper proposes three different ways of adding content to wireless broadband networks. First, the home gateway is presented as the focal point for delivery of digital services to future...

  7. Performance of data acceptance criteria over 50 months from an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanovas, R., E-mail: ramon.casanovas@urv.cat [Unitat de Fisica Medica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Morant, J.J. [Servei de Proteccio Radiologica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Lopez, M. [Unitat de Fisica Medica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Servei de Proteccio Radiologica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Hernandez-Giron, I. [Unitat de Fisica Medica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Batalla, E. [Servei de Coordinacio d' Activitats Radioactives, Departament d' Economia i Finances, Generalitat de Catalunya, ES-08018 Barcelona (Spain); Salvado, M. [Unitat de Fisica Medica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    The automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network of Catalonia (Spain) comprises two subnetworks; one with 9 aerosol monitors and the other with 8 Geiger monitors together with 2 water monitors located in the Ebre river. Since September 2006, several improvements were implemented in order to get better quality and quantity of data, allowing a more accurate data analysis. However, several causes (natural causes, equipment failure, artificial external causes and incidents in nuclear power plants) may produce radiological measured values mismatched with the own station background, whether spurious without significance or true radiological values. Thus, data analysis for a 50-month period was made and allowed to establish an easily implementable statistical criterion to find those values that require special attention. This criterion proved a very useful tool for creating a properly debugged database and to give a quick response to equipment failures or possible radiological incidents. This paper presents the results obtained from the criterion application, including the figures for the expected, raw and debugged data, percentages of missing data grouped by causes and radiological measurements from the networks. Finally, based on the discussed information, recommendations for the improvement of the network are identified to obtain better radiological information and analysis capabilities. - Highlights: > Causes producing data mismatching with the own stations background are described. > Causes may be natural, equipment failure, external or nuclear plants incidents. > These causes can produce either spurious or true radiological data. > A criterion to find these data was implemented and tested for a 50-month period. > Recommendations for the improvement of the network are identified.

  8. Expansion of syndromic vaccine preventable disease surveillance to include bacterial meningitis and Japanese encephalitis: evaluation of adapting polio and measles laboratory networks in Bangladesh, China and India, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Hyde, Terri B; Johnson, Barbara W; Fischer, Marc; Mayer, Leonard W; Clark, Thomas A; Pallansch, Mark A; Yin, Zundong; Zuo, Shuyan; Hadler, Stephen C; Diorditsa, Serguey; Hasan, A S M Mainul; Bose, Anindya S; Dietz, Vance

    2015-02-25

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis with laboratory confirmation has been a key strategy in the global polio eradication initiative, and the laboratory platform established for polio testing has been expanded in many countries to include surveillance for cases of febrile rash illness to identify measles and rubella cases. Vaccine-preventable disease surveillance is essential to detect outbreaks, define disease burden, guide vaccination strategies and assess immunization impact. Vaccines now exist to prevent Japanese encephalitis (JE) and some etiologies of bacterial meningitis. We evaluated the feasibility of expanding polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks to detect bacterial meningitis and JE, using surveillance for acute meningitis-encephalitis syndrome in Bangladesh and China and acute encephalitis syndrome in India. We developed nine syndromic surveillance performance indicators based on international surveillance guidelines and calculated scores using supervisory visit reports, annual reports, and case-based surveillance data. Scores, variable by country and targeted disease, were highest for the presence of national guidelines, sustainability, training, availability of JE laboratory resources, and effectiveness of using polio-measles networks for JE surveillance. Scores for effectiveness of building on polio-measles networks for bacterial meningitis surveillance and specimen referral were the lowest, because of differences in specimens and techniques. Polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks provided useful infrastructure for establishing syndromic surveillance and building capacity for JE diagnosis, but were less applicable for bacterial meningitis. Laboratory-supported surveillance for vaccine-preventable bacterial diseases will require substantial technical and financial support to enhance local diagnostic capacity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Epidemiological modelling for the assessment of bovine tuberculosis surveillance in the dairy farm network in Emilia-Romagna (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Rossi

    2015-06-01

    Our analysis showed that slaughterhouse inspection is the most effective surveillance component in reducing the time for disease detection, while routine surveillance in reducing the number of multi-farms epidemics. On the other hand, testing exchanged cattle improved the performance of the surveillance system only marginally.

  10. Smart City Surveillance Through Low-Cost Fiber Sensors in Metropolitan Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourmpos, Michail; Argyris, Apostolos; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2014-05-01

    A continuously growing number of municipalities has optical fiber networks supporting communications at their disposal. These fiber installations can also be utilized to convey low data optical signals from a large number of deployed sensing elements, usually positioned in critical infrastructure locations, providing a variety of useful information. Such information can be used in the context of a "smart city" to provide citizens with higher-level services or even to proactively ensure public security and safety. This work demonstrates a fiber sensing network based on low-cost fiber Bragg grating sensors that are able to appropriately oversee diverse monitoring parameters.

  11. 76 FR 25695 - Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Information Network (PHIN... submit written comments to the following address: Public Health Informatics and Technology Program Office... representative from the Public Health Informatics and Technology Program Office to schedule your visit....

  12. Leveraging social networking sites for disease surveillance and public sensing: the case of the 2013 avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Emma Xuxiao; Yang, Yinping; Di Shang, Richard; Simons, Joseph John Pyne; Quek, Boon Kiat; Yin, Xiao Feng; See, Wanhan; Oh, Olivia Seen Huey; Nandar, Khine Sein Tun; Ling, Vivienne Ruo Yun; Chan, Pei Pei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; James, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    We conducted in-depth analysis on the use of a popular Chinese social networking and microblogging site, Sina Weibo, to monitor an avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China and to assess the value of social networking sites in the surveillance of disease outbreaks that occur overseas. Two data sets were employed for our analysis: a line listing of confirmed cases obtained from conventional public health information channels and case information from Weibo posts. Our findings showed that the level of activity on Weibo corresponded with the number of new cases reported. In addition, the reporting of new cases on Weibo was significantly faster than those of conventional reporting sites and non-local news media. A qualitative review of the functions of Weibo also revealed that Weibo enabled timely monitoring of other outbreak-relevant information, provided access to additional crowd-sourced epidemiological information and was leveraged by the local government as an interactive platform for risk communication and monitoring public sentiment on the policy response. Our analysis demonstrated the potential for social networking sites to be used by public health agencies to enhance traditional communicable disease surveillance systems for the global surveillance of overseas public health threats. Social networking sites also can be used by governments for calibration of response policies and measures and for risk communication. PMID:26306219

  13. Leveraging social networking sites for disease surveillance and public sensing: the case of the 2013 avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Emma Xuxiao; Yang, Yinping; Di Shang, Richard; Simons, Joseph John Pyne; Quek, Boon Kiat; Yin, Xiao Feng; See, Wanhan; Oh, Olivia Seen Huey; Nandar, Khine Sein Tun; Ling, Vivienne Ruo Yun; Chan, Pei Pei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; James, Lyn; Tey, Jeannie Su Hui

    2015-01-01

    We conducted in-depth analysis on the use of a popular Chinese social networking and microblogging site, Sina Weibo, to monitor an avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China and to assess the value of social networking sites in the surveillance of disease outbreaks that occur overseas. Two data sets were employed for our analysis: a line listing of confirmed cases obtained from conventional public health information channels and case information from Weibo posts. Our findings showed that the level of activity on Weibo corresponded with the number of new cases reported. In addition, the reporting of new cases on Weibo was significantly faster than those of conventional reporting sites and non-local news media. A qualitative review of the functions of Weibo also revealed that Weibo enabled timely monitoring of other outbreak-relevant information, provided access to additional crowd-sourced epidemiological information and was leveraged by the local government as an interactive platform for risk communication and monitoring public sentiment on the policy response. Our analysis demonstrated the potential for social networking sites to be used by public health agencies to enhance traditional communicable disease surveillance systems for the global surveillance of overseas public health threats. Social networking sites also can be used by governments for calibration of response policies and measures and for risk communication.

  14. Leveraging social networking sites for disease surveillance and public sensing: the case of the 2013 avian influenza A(H7N9 outbreak in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Xuxiao Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted in-depth analysis on the use of a popular Chinese social networking and microblogging site, Sina Weibo, to monitor an avian influenza A(H7N9 outbreak in China and to assess the value of social networking sites in the surveillance of disease outbreaks that occur overseas. Two data sets were employed for our analysis: a line listing of confirmed cases obtained from conventional public health information channels and case information from Weibo posts. Our findings showed that the level of activity on Weibo corresponded with the number of new cases reported. In addition, the reporting of new cases on Weibo was significantly faster than those of conventional reporting sites and non-local news media. A qualitative review of the functions of Weibo also revealed that Weibo enabled timely monitoring of other outbreak-relevant information, provided access to additional crowd-sourced epidemiological information and was leveraged by the local government as an interactive platform for risk communication and monitoring public sentiment on the policy response. Our analysis demonstrated the potential for social networking sites to be used by public health agencies to enhance traditional communicable disease surveillance systems for the global surveillance of overseas public health threats. Social networking sites also can be used by governments for calibration of response policies and measures and for risk communication.

  15. Networking dual-surveillance/dual-pair-tele-paths for critical urban areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsu; Li-Yen

    2008-01-01

    Providing a reliable and efficient communication infrastructure for critical regions is generally a strategy used to enhance regional safety or to sustain regional development. For such purposes, the spider-web network is prototyped as a cellular telecommunication infrastructure for its advantages including being interference-free, possessing fault-tolerance, having security management, and countering radio's multipath effects. Besides, it is used to develop area-based-street-SCADA (supervisory control and ...

  16. Network of marine environmental observation, surveillance and control in the canary islands waters (red acomar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, M. J.; Villagarcía, M. G.; Barrera, C.; Pérez, J.; Cianca, A.; Godoy, J.; Maroto, L.; Cardona, L.; Llinás, O.

    2003-04-01

    On January 2003 it has began the experimental core deployment of a Marine Obsevational network in Gran Canaria Island sorrounding waters, as a first step of a network which will spread to the whole Canarian Archipelago. The network initially consists of 6 buoys, 3 to 5 are expected to be permanently operative whereas the rest will be under maintenance and improvement. In the beginning each buoy has a double mission: on one hand to contribute to the general observation of oceanographic/ meteorologic parameters of general interest; on the other, to provide specific interesting data to a specific user at least. Some users are the aquaculture enterprises that develop their productive activity in cages moored at sea, the water management companies, public institutions in charge of management of environmentally protected areas and organisers of sailing competitions. Each buoy is composed of a common sensors assembly (position: GPS, compass; meteorology: speed and direction of wind, air temperature, relative humidity; oceanography: water temperature, conductivity, pH, oxygen) and a specific sensor set-up (turbidity, chlorophyll, nutrients, hydrocarbons) depending on the each buoy function. Power, control and processing elements are also included in the buoy. The basic observational program consists of a reading cycle of all the parameters each hour, though it is also possible the programming of specific cycles or the request of a needed demand. Data are transmitted via VHF to a proximal point in land which is linked to a specific user, who acts as a local control element. From each point, the data are sent via a mobile or fixed telephone line to the central control, located at the ICCM. Upon arrival, the data undergo several quality and transformation processes in order to be able to publish those parameters of general interest in the project web (http://iccm.rcanaria.es), and those specific for each user according to their particular protocol. Additionally, it is

  17. Commercial Online Social Network Data and Statin Side-Effect Surveillance: A Pilot Observational Study of Aggregate Mentions on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesch, Marco D

    2017-07-26

    Surveillance of the safety of prescribed drugs after marketing approval has been secured remains fraught with complications. Formal ascertainment by providers and reporting to adverse-event registries, formal surveys by manufacturers, and mining of electronic medical records are all well-known approaches with varying degrees of difficulty, cost, and success. Novel approaches may be a useful adjunct, especially approaches that mine or sample internet-based methods such as online social networks. A novel commercial software-as-a-service data-mining product supplied by Sysomos from Datasift/Facebook was used to mine all mentions on Facebook of statins and stain-related side effects in the US in the 1-month period 9 January 2017 through 8 February 2017. A total of 4.3% of all 25,700 mentions of statins also mentioned typical stain-related side effects. Multiple methodological weaknesses stymie interpretation of this percentage, which is however not inconsistent with estimates that 5-20% of patients taking statins will experience typical side effects at some time. Future work on pharmacovigilance may be informed by this novel commercial tool, but the inability to mine the full text of a posting poses serious challenges to content categorization.

  18. The Effect of Participating in a Surgical Site Infection (SSI) Surveillance Network on the Time Trend of SSI Rates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohamed; Tartari, Ermira; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Pittet, Didier; Harbarth, Stephan

    2017-08-24

    This systematic literature review reveals that participating in a surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance network is associated with short-term reductions in SSI rates: relative risk [RR] for year 2, 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-0.82); year 3 RR, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94); year 4 RR, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-3.

  19. Spectrum sharing between a surveillance radar and secondary Wi-Fi networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessar, Farzad; Roy, Sumit

    2016-06-01

    Co-existence between unlicensed networks that share spectrum spatio-temporally with terrestrial (e.g. Air Traffic Control) and shipborne radars in 3-GHz band is attracting significant interest. Similar to every primary-secondary coexistence scenario, interference from unlicensed devices to a primary receiver must be within acceptable bounds. In this work, we formulate the spectrum sharing problem between a pulsed, search radar (primary) and 802.11 WLAN as the secondary. We compute the protection region for such a search radar for a) a single secondary user (initially) as well as b) a random spatial distribution of multiple secondary users. Furthermore, we also analyze the interference to the WiFi devices from the radar's transmissions to estimate the impact on achievable WLAN throughput as a function of distance to the primary radar.

  20. A nomadic access mechanism for enabling dynamic video surveillance over IEEE 802.15.4 networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Garcia-Haro, Joan

    2010-12-01

    IEEE 802.15.4 networking technology is designed to be the common standard for integrating WSN applications in heterogeneous environments. However, applications considering mobile nodes along with strict temporal requirements, such as those required for video transmission, are an unexplored field for this technology. These applications involve different challenges and issues that the direct employment of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard does not resolve. Therefore, in this paper a cross-layer mechanism consisting of application and medium access arbitration is presented, enabling the efficient connection and operation of mobile nodes together with the transmission of video flows. The proposed mechanism is evaluated via simulation and its feasibility checked by means of a first prototype. The study of power consumption is also taken into account and so are the quality of service parameters and the human quality perception of the received video stream. The results obtained are presented and further discussed.

  1. Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L

    2017-04-21

    Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture(†); if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.

  2. Description and analysis of the poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region, Madagascar: implications for the surveillance and control of Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Duboz, R; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Jourdan, M; Rakotondramaro, T M C; Rakotonjanahary, S N; de Almeida, R Servan; Rakotondravao; Durand, B; Chevalier, V

    2014-07-01

    Madagascar's 36.5-million-head poultry industry holds a foremost place in its economy and the livelihood of its people. Unfortunately, regular Newcastle disease outbreaks associated with high mortality causes high losses for smallholders and threatens their livelihood. Therefore, Madagascar is seeking concrete, achievable and sustainable methods for the surveillance and the control of Newcastle disease. In this paper, we present and analyze the results of a field study conducted in Madagascar between December 2009 and December 2010. The study area was the Lac Alaotra region, a landlocked area in the north-eastern part of the country's center. Poultry trading is suspected of playing a major role in the spread of avian diseases, especially in developing countries characterized by many live-bird markets and middlemen. Therefore, the goals of our study were to: (i) describe and analyze smallholders' poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region using social network analysis; (ii) assess the role of the network in the spread of Newcastle disease; and (iii) propose the implementation of a targeted disease surveillance based on the characteristics of the poultry trading network. We focused our field study on the harvesting of two data sets. The first is a complete description of the poultry trading network in the landlocked area of Lac Alaotra, including a description of the poultry movements between groups of villages. The second set of data measures the occurrence of outbreaks in the same area by combining a participatory approach with an event-based surveillance method. These data were used to determine the attributes of the network, and to statistically assess the association between the position of nodes and the occurrence of outbreaks. By using social network analysis techniques combined with a classification method and a logistic model, we finally identified 3 nodes (set of villages), of the 387 in the initial network, to focus on for surveillance and control

  3. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  4. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  5. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Live bird markets characterization and trading network analysis in Mali: Implications for the surveillance and control of avian influenza and Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molia, Sophie; Boly, Ismaël Ardho; Duboz, Raphaël; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Guitian, Javier; Grosbois, Vladimir; Fournié, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2016-03-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs) play an important role in the transmission of avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in poultry. Our study had two objectives: (1) characterizing LBMs in Mali with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of AI and ND, and (2) identifying which LBMs should be targeted for surveillance and control based on properties of the live poultry trade network. Two surveys were conducted in 2009-2010: a descriptive study in all 96 LBMs of an area encompassing approximately 98% of the Malian poultry population and a network analysis study in Sikasso county, the main poultry supplying county for the capital city Bamako. Regarding LBMs' characteristics, risk factors for the presence of AI and ND viruses (being open every day, more than 2 days before a bird is sold, absence of zoning to segregate poultry-related work flow areas, waste removal or cleaning and disinfecting less frequently than on a daily basis, trash disposal of dead birds and absence of manure processing) were present in 80-100% of the LBMs. Furthermore, LBMs tended to have wide catchment areas because of consumers' preference for village poultry meat, thereby involving a large number of villages in their supply chain. In the poultry trade network from/to Sikasso county, 182 traders were involved and 685 links were recorded among 159 locations. The network had a heterogeneous degree distribution and four hubs were identified based on measures of in-degrees, out-degrees and betweenness: the markets of Medine and Wayerma and the fairs of Farakala and Niena. These results can be used to design biosecurity-improvement interventions and to optimize the prevention, surveillance and control of transmissible poultry diseases in Malian LBMs. Further studies should investigate potential drivers (seasonality, prices) of the poultry trade network and the acceptability of biosecurity and behavior-change recommendations in the Malian socio-cultural context.

  7. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  8. Characteristics of patients patch tested in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network, 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; Giménez-Arnau, Ana

    2015-01-01

    from 63 530 consultations collected by 53 departments from 12 countries participating in the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) ( www.essca-dc.org) between 2009 and 2012. RESULTS: Considerable variation in the prevalence of the MOAHLFA factors between departments was found...

  9. Influenza sentinel surveillance network: a public health-primary care collaborative action to assess influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Nuria; Baricot, Maretva; Martínez, Ana; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Dominguez, Ángela

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of a collaborative action between Public Health services and Primary Care in the context of a case-control study on effectiveness of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures to prevent hospitalization in a pandemic situation. To carry out this research the collaborative action of the primary care physicians members of the Influenza surveillance network was needed, they had to recall clinical information from influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed outpatient cases and negative outpatient controls matching their corresponding hospitalized confirmed case.   A survey questionnaire to assess involvement of Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Primary care physicians' Network of Catalonia (PIDIRAC) regarding the outpatient case and control outreach during the pandemic influenza season was performed. A total of 71,1% of completed surveys were received. Perception of pandemic activity was considered to be similar to seasonal influenza activity in 43.8% or higher but not unbearable in 37.5% of the replies. There was no nuisance reported from patients regarding neither the questions nor the surveyor. Collaborative research between Public Health services and Primary Care physicians enhances Public Health actions and research.

  10. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  11. Analysing trends and forecasting malaria epidemics in Madagascar using a sentinel surveillance network: a web-based application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girond, Florian; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Randriamampionona, Lea; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Brou, Télesphore Yao; Herbreteau, Vincent; Mangeas, Morgan; Zigiumugabe, Sixte; Hedje, Judith; Rogier, Christophe; Piola, Patrice

    2017-02-13

    The use of a malaria early warning system (MEWS) to trigger prompt public health interventions is a key step in adding value to the epidemiological data routinely collected by sentinel surveillance systems. This study describes a system using various epidemic thresholds and a forecasting component with the support of new technologies to improve the performance of a sentinel MEWS. Malaria-related data from 21 sentinel sites collected by Short Message Service are automatically analysed to detect malaria trends and malaria outbreak alerts with automated feedback reports. Roll Back Malaria partners can, through a user-friendly web-based tool, visualize potential outbreaks and generate a forecasting model. The system already demonstrated its ability to detect malaria outbreaks in Madagascar in 2014. This approach aims to maximize the usefulness of a sentinel surveillance system to predict and detect epidemics in limited-resource environments.

  12. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  13. Assessment of a syndromic surveillance system based on morbidity data: results from the Oscour network during a heat wave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Josseran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance systems have been developed in recent years and are now increasingly used by stakeholders to quickly answer questions and make important decisions. It is therefore essential to evaluate the quality and utility of such systems. This study was designed to assess a syndromic surveillance system based on emergency departments' (ED morbidity rates related to the health effects of heat waves. This study uses data collected during the 2006 heat wave in France. METHODS: Data recorded from 15 EDs in the Ile-de-France (Paris and surrounding area from June to August, 2006, were transmitted daily via the Internet to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Items collected included diagnosis (ICD10, outcome, and age. Several aspects of the system have been evaluated (data quality, cost, flexibility, stability, and performance. Periods of heat wave are considered the most suitable time to evaluate the system. RESULTS: Data quality did not vary significantly during the period. Age, gender and outcome were completed in a comprehensive manner. Diagnoses were missing or uninformative for 37.5% of patients. Stability was recorded as being 99.49% for the period overall. The average cost per day over the study period was estimated to be euro287. Diagnoses of hyperthermia, malaise, dehydration, hyponatremia were correlated with increased temperatures. Malaise was most sensitive in younger and elderly adults but also the less specific. However, overall syndrome groups were more sensitive with comparable specificity than individual diagnoses. CONCLUSION: This system satisfactorily detected the health impact of hot days (observed values were higher than expected on more than 90% of days on which a heat alert was issued. Our findings should reassure stakeholders about the reliability of health impact assessments during or following such an event. These evaluations are essential to establish the validity of the results of

  14. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION): Methods of the Surveillance Program, 2011–2012 Through 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompier, Thomas P.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Kerr, Zachary Y.; Hayden, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Context Previous epidemiologic researchers have examined time-loss (TL) injuries in high school student-athletes, but little is known about the frequency of non–time-loss (NTL) injuries in these athletes. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) Surveillance Program and provide descriptive epidemiology of TL and NTL injuries across athletes in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 147 high schools in 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Athletic trainers documented injuries and exposures using commercially available injury-tracking software packages. Standard injury-tracking software was modified by the software vendors to conform to the surveillance needs of this project. The modified software exported a set of common data elements, stripped of personally identifiable information, to a centralized automated verification and validation system before they were included in the centralized research database. Dependent measures were injury and exposure frequencies and injury rates with 95% confidence intervals stratified by sport, sex, and injury type (TL or NTL). Results Over the 3-year period, a total of 2337 team seasons across 27 sports resulted in 47 014 injuries and 5 146 355 athlete-exposures. The NTL injuries accounted for 38 765 (82.45%) and TL injuries for 8249 (17.55%) of the total. Conclusions The NTL injuries accounted for a substantial amount of the total number of injuries sustained by high school student-athletes. This project demonstrates the feasibility of creating large-scale injury surveillance systems using commercially available injury-tracking software. PMID:26067620

  15. The International Haemovigilance Network Database for the Surveillance of Adverse Reactions and Events in Donors and Recipients of Blood Components: technical issues and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, C; Wiersum, J C; Richardson, C; Robillard, P; Jorgensen, J; Renaudier, P; Faber, J-C; Wood, E M

    2016-11-01

    The International Haemovigilance Network's ISTARE is an online database for surveillance of all adverse reactions (ARs) and adverse events (AEs) associated with donation of blood and transfusion of blood components, irrespective of severity or the harm caused. ISTARE aims to unify the collection and sharing of information with a view to harmonizing best practices for haemovigilance systems around the world. Adverse reactionss and adverse events are recorded by blood component, type of reaction, severity and imputability to transfusion, using internationally agreed standard definitions. From 2006 to 2012, 125 national sets of annual aggregated data were received from 25 countries, covering 132.8 million blood components issued. The incidence of all ARs was 77.5 per 100 000 components issued, of which 25% were severe (19.1 per 100 000). Of 349 deaths (0.26 per 100 000), 58% were due to the three ARs related to the respiratory system: transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO, 27%), transfusion-associated acute lung injury (TRALI, 19%) and transfusion-associated dyspnoea (TAD, 12%). Cumulatively, 594 477 donor complications were reported (rate 660 per 100 000), of which 2.9% were severe. ISTARE is a well-established surveillance tool offering important contributions to international efforts to maximize transfusion safety. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. The Spanish national health care-associated infection surveillance network (INCLIMECC): data summary January 1997 through December 2006 adapted to the new National Healthcare Safety Network Procedure-associated module codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristina Díaz-Agero; Rodela, Ana Robustillo; Monge Jodrá, Vincente

    2009-12-01

    In 1997, a national standardized surveillance system (designated INCLIMECC [Indicadores Clínicos de Mejora Continua de la Calidad]) was established in Spain for health care-associated infection (HAI) in surgery patients, based on the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) system. In 2005, in its procedure-associated module, the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) inherited the NNIS program for surveillance of HAI in surgery patients and reorganized all surgical procedures. INCLIMECC actively monitors all patients referred to the surgical ward of each participating hospital. We present a summary of the data collected from January 1997 to December 2006 adapted to the new NHSN procedures. Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are provided by operative procedure and NNIS risk index category. Further quality indicators reported are surgical complications, length of stay, antimicrobial prophylaxis, mortality, readmission because of infection or other complication, and revision surgery. Because the ICD-9-CM surgery procedure code is included in each patient's record, we were able to reorganize our database avoiding the loss of extensive information, as has occurred with other systems.

  17. Patch test results with fragrance markers of the baseline series - analysis of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network 2009-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Duus Johansen, Jeanne; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A;

    2015-01-01

    of patients consecutively patch tested between 2009 and 2012 in 12 European countries with fragrance allergens contained in the baseline series were collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies network and descriptively analysed. Four departments used the TRUE Test(®) system. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to fragrances is common, and impairs quality of life, particularly in young women. OBJECTIVE: To provide current results on the prevalences of sensitization to fragrance allergens used as markers in the baseline series of most European countries. METHODS: Data......: Contact allergy to fragrances is common throughout Europe, with regional variation probably being explained by patch test technique, and differences in exposure and referral patterns. The current basic markers of fragrance sensitivity in the baseline series should be supplemented with additional fragrance...

  18. Development and application of a real-time network surveillance server based on uClinux%基于uClinux的实时网络监控服务器开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春祥

    2015-01-01

    Introduces a developing method of a real-time network multimedia server based on uClinux, the multimedia server can control management and data access to remote data surveillance camera. Applying it to large scale network surveillance system, users can access the distributed network surveillance server cluster system composed of the real-time data, then read and save (or write) them to large capacity storage devices, increasing the number of concurrent users type connection, improve the stability and reliability of network surveillance system.%介绍了一种基于uClinux的实时网络监控服务器开发方法,该服务器能对实时对远程网络终端、监控摄像头等进行控制管理和数据访问。将其应用到大型网络监控系统中,用户可访问由多台服务器组成的分布式网络监控服务器集群,实时读取数据然后将其存写到大容量存储设备中,增加并发式连接的用户数量,提高远程实时网络监控系统稳定性和可靠性。

  19. An UAV Allocation Method for Traffic Surveillance in Sparse Road Network%稀疏路网条件下的无人飞机交通监控部署方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓锋; 常云涛; 王珣

    2012-01-01

    将无人飞机技术应用到稀疏路网的交通监控当中,提出了无人飞机在有无续航里程约束条件下的交通监控部署方法.给出了无人飞机的监控路段和节点的选择方法;在无续航里程约束条件下,将无人飞机的交通监控问题转化为旅行商问题,并运用模拟退火算法予以求解;在有续航里程约束条件下,运用K -means聚类方法,将无人飞机的监控区域划分成若干子监控区,从而将该问题转化为无续航里程约束的无人飞机交通监控部署问题.以新疆库库高速公路和路网为例,对稀疏路网条件下的无人飞机交通监控部署方法进行实证分析和试飞试验.试验结果表明:无人飞机在稀疏路网条件下是一种有效的交通监控设备,可用于我国西部稀疏路网的交通监控.%Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology was introduced into the traffic surveillance in sparse road network and an UAV allocation method for traffic surveillance with/without UAV continuous flight distance constraint was proposed. First, the method of choosing the surveillance road segments and nodes was proposed. Then, UAV traffic surveillance problem without continuous flight distance constraint was formulated as a traveling salesman problem, and the simulated annealing algorithm was introduced to solve this problem. As for UAV traffic surveillance problem with continuous flight distance constraint, K-means clustering algorithm was used to divide the UAV surveillance area into multiple sub-zones to convert this problem into UAV traffic surveillance scenario without continuous flight distance constraint. Finally, taking Korla-Kuqa expressway of Xinjiang and its road network as example, the proposed UAV-based traffic surveillance allocation method for sparse road network was demonstrated and validated by using several field experiments. The experimental results show that UAV is an effective and useful tool for traffic surveillance in sparse

  20. Risk-based surveillance for avian influenza control along poultry market chains in South China: The value of social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vincent; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Marshall, Edith; Jia, Beibei; Fusheng, Guo; FrancoDixon, Mary Ann; DeHaan, Nicoline; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-12-01

    Over the past two decades, the poultry sector in China went through a phase of tremendous growth as well as rapid intensification and concentration. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 was first detected in 1996 in Guangdong province, South China and started spreading throughout Asia in early 2004. Since then, control of the disease in China has relied heavily on wide-scale preventive vaccination combined with movement control, quarantine and stamping out. This strategy has been successful in drastically reducing the number of outbreaks during the past 5years. However, HPAIV H5N1 is still circulating and is regularly isolated in traditional live bird markets (LBMs) where viral infection can persist, which represent a public health hazard for people visiting them. The use of social network analysis in combination with epidemiological surveillance in South China has identified areas where the success of current strategies for HPAI control in the poultry production sector may benefit from better knowledge of poultry trading patterns and the LBM network configuration as well as their capacity for maintaining HPAIV H5N1 infection. We produced a set of LBM network maps and estimated the associated risk of HPAIV H5N1 within LBMs and along poultry market chains, providing new insights into how live poultry trade and infection are intertwined. More specifically, our study provides evidence that several biosecurity factors such as daily cage cleaning, daily cage disinfection or manure processing contribute to a reduction in HPAIV H5N1 presence in LBMs. Of significant importance is that the results of our study also show the association between social network indicators and the presence of HPAIV H5N1 in specific network configurations such as the one represented by the counties of origin of the birds traded in LBMs. This new information could be used to develop more targeted and effective control interventions.

  1. Prevalence and genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus species: A multicentre report of the indian council of medical research antimicrobial resistance surveillance network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sunanda; Sistla, Sujatha; Manoharan, Meerabai; Sugumar, Madhan; Nagasundaram, Niveditha; Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ray, Pallab; Bakthavatchalam, Yamuna Devi; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Kapil, Arti; Walia, Kamini; Ohri, V C

    2017-01-01

    Routine surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an essential component of measures aimed to tackle the growing threat of resistant microbes in public health. This study presents a 1-year multicentre report on AMR in Staphylococcus species as part of Indian Council of Medical Research-AMR surveillance network. Staphylococcus species was routinely collected in the nodal and regional centres of the network and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed against a panel of antimicrobials. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of vancomycin (VAN), daptomycin, tigecycline and linezolid (LNZ) against selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) isolates were determined by E-test and MIC creep, if any, was determined. Resistant genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction for those isolates showing phenotypic resistance. The prevalence of MRSA was found to be range from moderate (21%) to high (45%) among the centres with an overall prevalence of 37.3%. High prevalence of resistance was observed with commonly used antimicrobials such as ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in all the centres. Resistance to LNZ was not encountered except for a single case. Full-blown resistance to VAN in S. aureus was not observed; however, a few VAN-intermediate S. aureus isolates were documented. The most common species of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) identified was Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Resistance among CoNS was relatively higher than S. aureus. Most phenotypically resistant organisms possessed the corresponding resistance genes. There were localised differences in the prevalence of resistance between the centres. The efficacy of the anti-MRSA antimicrobials was very high; however, almost all these antimicrobials showed evidence of creeping MIC.

  2. Secure transfer of surveillance data over Internet using Virtual Private Network technology. Field trial between STUK and IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smartt, H.; Martinez, R.; Caskey, S. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Poellaenen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Jeremica, N.; Ford, G. [Nokia (Finland)

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary concerns of employing remote monitoring technologies for IAEA safeguards applications is the high cost of data transmission. Transmitting data over the Internet has been shown often to be less expensive than other data transmission methods. However, data security of the Internet is often considered to be at a low level. Virtual Private Networks has emerged as a solution to this problem. A field demonstration was implemented to evaluate the use of Virtual Private Networks (via the Internet) as a means for data transmission. Evaluation points included security, reliability and cost. The existing Finnish Remote Environmental Monitoring System, located at the STUK facility in Helsinki, Finland, served as the field demonstration system. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) established a Virtual Private Network between STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) Headquarters in Helsinki, Finland, and IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria. Data from the existing STUK Remote Monitoring System was viewed at the IAEA via this network. The Virtual Private Network link was established in a proper manner, which guarantees the data security. Encryption was verified using a network sniffer. No problems were? encountered during the test. In the test system, fixed costs were higher than in the previous system, which utilized telephone lines. On the other hand transmission and operating costs are very low. Therefore, with low data amounts, the test system is not cost-effective, but if the data amount is tens of Megabytes per day the use of Virtual Private Networks and Internet will be economically justifiable. A cost-benefit analysis should be performed for each site due to significant variables. (orig.)

  3. Development of the Observational Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Rieutort, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Impact of population on the environment, and conversely, is obvious and represents a real challenge for Public Health since 2000. It has been shown an increase in cancer prevalence, respiratory disease or even reproductive disorders, for which multifactorial origins are strongly suspected. In this context, surveillance has become an essential tool to decision making in public health, and surveillance networks of health events are multiplying, giving rise to numerous databases (sometimes consi...

  4. Readiness of the Belgian network of sentinel general practitioners to deliver electronic health record data for surveillance purposes: results of survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanthomme Katrien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to proceed from a paper based registration to a surveillance system that is based on extraction of electronic health records (EHR, knowledge is needed on the number and representativeness of sentinel GPs using a government-certified EHR system and the quality of EHR data for research, expressed in the compliance rate with three criteria: recording of home visits, use of prescription module and diagnostic subject headings. Methods Data were collected by annual postal surveys between 2005 and 2009 among all sentinel GPs. We tested relations between four key GP characteristics (age, gender, language community, practice organisation and use of a certified EHR system by multivariable logistic regression. The relation between EHR software package, GP characteristics and compliance with three quality criteria was equally measured by multivariable logistic regression. Results A response rate of 99% was obtained. Of 221 sentinel GPs, 55% participated in the surveillance without interruption from 2005 onwards, i.e. all five years, and 78% were participants in 2009. Sixteen certified EHR systems were used among 91% of the Dutch and 63% of the French speaking sentinel GPs. The EHR software package was strongly related to the community and only one EHR system was used by a comparable number of sentinel GPs in both communities. Overall, the prescription module was always used and home visits were usually recorded. Uniform subject headings were only sometimes used and the compliance with this quality criterion was almost exclusively related to the EHR software package in use. Conclusions The challenge is to progress towards a sentinel network of GPs delivering care-based data that are (partly extracted from well performing EHR systems and still representative for Belgian general practice.

  5. Brazilian network for the surveillance of maternal potentially life threatening morbidity and maternal near-miss and a multidimensional evaluation of their long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surita Fernanda G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that the study of women who survive life-threatening complications related to pregnancy (maternal near-miss cases may represent a practical alternative to surveillance of maternal morbidity/mortality since the number of cases is higher and the woman herself is able to provide information on the difficulties she faced and the long-term repercussions of the event. These repercussions, which may include sexual dysfunction, postpartum depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, may persist for prolonged periods of time, affecting women's quality of life and resulting in adverse effects to them and their babies. Objective The aims of the present study are to create a nationwide network of scientific cooperation to carry out surveillance and estimate the frequency of maternal near-miss cases, to perform a multicenter investigation into the quality of care for women with severe complications of pregnancy, and to carry out a multidimensional evaluation of these women up to six months. Methods/Design This project has two components: a multicenter, cross-sectional study to be implemented in 27 referral obstetric units in different geographical regions of Brazil, and a concurrent cohort study of multidimensional analysis. Over 12 months, investigators will perform prospective surveillance to identify all maternal complications. The population of the cross-sectional component will consist of all women surviving potentially life-threatening conditions (severe maternal complications or life-threatening conditions (the maternal near miss criteria and maternal deaths according to the new WHO definition and criteria. Data analysis will be performed in case subgroups according to the moment of occurrence and determining cause. Frequencies of near-miss and other severe maternal morbidity and the association between organ dysfunction and maternal death will be estimated. A proportion of cases identified in the cross

  6. Brazilian network for the surveillance of maternal potentially life threatening morbidity and maternal near-miss and a multidimensional evaluation of their long term consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecatti, Jose G; Souza, João P; Parpinelli, Mary A; Haddad, Samira M; Camargo, Rodrigo S; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Silveira, Carla; Zanardi, Dulce T; Costa, Maria L; Pinto e Silva, João L; Passini, Renato; Surita, Fernanda G; Sousa, Maria H; Calderon, Iracema M P; Say, Lale; Pattinson, Robert C

    2009-09-24

    It has been suggested that the study of women who survive life-threatening complications related to pregnancy (maternal near-miss cases) may represent a practical alternative to surveillance of maternal morbidity/mortality since the number of cases is higher and the woman herself is able to provide information on the difficulties she faced and the long-term repercussions of the event. These repercussions, which may include sexual dysfunction, postpartum depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, may persist for prolonged periods of time, affecting women's quality of life and resulting in adverse effects to them and their babies. The aims of the present study are to create a nationwide network of scientific cooperation to carry out surveillance and estimate the frequency of maternal near-miss cases, to perform a multicenter investigation into the quality of care for women with severe complications of pregnancy, and to carry out a multidimensional evaluation of these women up to six months. This project has two components: a multicenter, cross-sectional study to be implemented in 27 referral obstetric units in different geographical regions of Brazil, and a concurrent cohort study of multidimensional analysis. Over 12 months, investigators will perform prospective surveillance to identify all maternal complications. The population of the cross-sectional component will consist of all women surviving potentially life-threatening conditions (severe maternal complications) or life-threatening conditions (the maternal near miss criteria) and maternal deaths according to the new WHO definition and criteria. Data analysis will be performed in case subgroups according to the moment of occurrence and determining cause. Frequencies of near-miss and other severe maternal morbidity and the association between organ dysfunction and maternal death will be estimated. A proportion of cases identified in the cross-sectional study will comprise the cohort of women for the

  7. 视频传感器网络中无盲区监视优化%Coverage Optimization of Occlusion-Free Surveillance for Video Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋一波; 王万良; 陈伟杰; 郑建炜; 姚信威

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of surveillance area of WVSN (wireless video sensor network) with obstacles, which is finding the optimized view-orientations for all video sensors to maximize multimedia coverage. In this paper, the characteristics of direction adjustable sensing model are discussed and the relation between sensors and obstacles is analyzed. Then, a coverage enhancement algorithm PFOFSA (potential field based occlusion-free surveillance algorithm) is proposed, which could effectively minimize the negative effect of occlusion and overlapping in the sensing field. In PFOFSA, three kinds of virtual centroid point are defined for simplifying the structure of effective region, occlusion region and overlapping region. Two kinds of relationship between virtual force and orientation rotation are constructed and made comparison in experiments. Finally, a set of simulation results are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of PFOFSA. According to the experiments, PFOFSA could maximize the coverage of WVSN with obstacles and make higher coverage rate than other algorithms.%针对监控区域存在障碍物的情况,从无线视频传感节点的有向感知特性出发,讨论了视频传感器网络覆盖效果与监控区域之间的相互关系.在此基础上,定义了视频传感器网络的无盲区覆盖模型.基于虚拟势场的工作原理,提出了一种适用于无盲区覆盖模型的覆盖率动态优化算法PFOFSA(potential field based occlusion-free surveillance algorithm).设计了PFOFSA中虚拟力的相互作用方法与监控节点运动规则,通过监控区域、重叠区域和遮挡区域之间的相互作用,逐步消除网络中的感知重叠区和盲区,优化视频无线传感器网络的覆盖率.最后,通过一系列的仿真实验分析了不同监控区域参数对PFOFSA算法的影响,验证了算法的有效性.

  8. Awareness about a Life-Threatening Condition: Ectopic Pregnancy in a Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Alves Rocha Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess occurrence of severe maternal complications associated with ectopic pregnancy (EP. Method. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted, with prospective surveillance of potentially life-threatening conditions (PLTC, maternal near miss (MNM, and maternal death (MD. EP complications, patient sociodemographic/obstetric characteristics, and conditions of severity management were assessed, estimating prevalence ratios with respective 95% CI. Factors independently associated with greater severity were identified using multiple regression analysis. Results. Of the 9.555 severe maternal morbidity patients, 312 women (3.3% had complications after EP: 286 (91.7% PLTC, 25 (8.0% MNM, and 1 (0.3% MD. Severe maternal outcome ratio (SMOR was 0.3/1000 LB among EP cases and 10.8/1000 LB among other causes. Complicated EP patients faced a higher risk of blood transfusion, laparotomy, and lower risk of ICU admission and prolonged hospitalization than women developing complications resulting from other causes. Substandard care was the most common in more severe maternal morbidity and EP cases (22.7% MNM and MD versus 15% PLTC, although not significant. Conclusion. Increased maternal morbidity due to EP raised awareness about the condition and its impact on female reproductive life. No important risk factors for greater severity were identified. Care providers should develop specific guidelines and interventions to prevent severe maternal morbidity.

  9. Surveillance of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  10. Geocoding capacity of birth defects surveillance programs: results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network Geocoding Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; O'Leary, Leslie A; Rickard, Russel S; Mason, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    A Web-based survey focusing on geocoding of birth defects data was developed and administrated to gain an understanding of the capacity of state birth defects programs to geocode maternal residence and to identify barriers to geocoding birth defects data. The survey consisted of 21 questions related to geocoding of maternal residence, type of software used, barriers to geocoding, and data linkage. In August 2007, an e-mail with a Web link to the survey was sent to all state birth defects program contacts in the United States, including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requesting they complete the online survey. By October 2007, 39 (74%) out of 53 birth defects program contacts completed the survey. Although nearly all birth defects programs collect maternal residential data, many are not currently geocoding that data. Results indicated that 97% of the programs that completed the survey reported they collected data on maternal residence, 53% of which reported that the birth defects surveillance data were geocoded to the street address level using maternal residential address at delivery. Twenty six percent of the programs that do not currently geocode the data identified "Software and address reference file are not available" as the most significant barrier to geocoding; another 16% chose "Lack of funding" as the most significant barrier to geocoding. Since geocoding is an important component of spatial analyses used to detect potential clusters of birth defects, leveraging resources to overcome the barriers that prevent programs from geocoding is important.

  11. A global network for the control of snail-borne disease using satellite surveillance and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, J B; Bergquist, N R; Huh, O K; Bavia, M E; Bernardi, M; El Bahy, M M; Fuentes, M V; Kristensen, T K; McCarroll, J C; Yilma, J M; Zhou, X N

    2001-04-27

    At a team residency sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation in Bellagio, Italy, 10-14 April 2000 an organizational plan was conceived to create a global network of collaborating health workers and earth scientists dedicated to the development of computer-based models that can be used for improved control programs for schistosomiasis and other snail-borne diseases of medical and veterinary importance. The models will be assembled using GIS methods, global climate model data, sensor data from earth observing satellites, disease prevalence data, the distribution and abundance of snail hosts, and digital maps of key environmental factors that affect development and propagation of snail-borne disease agents. A work plan was developed for research collaboration and data sharing, recruitment of new contributing researchers, and means of access of other medical scientists and national control program managers to GIS models that may be used for more effective control of snail-borne disease. Agreement was reached on the use of compatible GIS formats, software, methods and data resources, including the definition of a 'minimum medical database' to enable seamless incorporation of results from each regional GIS project into a global model. The collaboration plan calls for linking a 'central resource group' at the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, Louisiana State University and the Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory with regional GIS networks to be initiated in Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Latin America and Southern Asia. An Internet site, www.gnosisGIS.org, (GIS Network On Snail-borne Infections with special reference to Schistosomiasis), has been initiated to allow interaction of team members as a 'virtual research group'. When completed, the site will point users to a toolbox of common resources resident on computers at member organizations, provide assistance on routine use of GIS health maps in selected national disease control

  12. [Strategies for integration of health care practices and sanitary surveillance in the context of the implementation of Rede Cegonha - a Brazilian mother and infant health care network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Roberta Zanelli Sartori; Vilela, Maria Filomena de Gouveia

    2014-11-01

    Mother and infant mortality has been the scope of analysis throughout the history of public health in Brazil and various strategies to tackle the issue have been proposed to date. The Ministry of Health has been working on this and the Rede Cegonha strategy is the most recent policy in this context. Given the principle of comprehensive health care and the structure of the Unified Health System in care networks, it is necessary to ensure the integration of health care practices, among which are the sanitary surveillance actions (SSA). Considering that the integration of health care practices and SSA can contribute to reduce mother and infant mortality rates, this article is a result of qualitative research that analyzed the integration of these actions in four cities in the State of São Paulo/Brazil: Campinas, Indaiatuba, Jaguariúna and Santa Bárbara D'Oeste. The research was conducted through interviews with SSA and maternal health managers, and the data were evaluated using thematic analysis. The results converge with other studies, identifying the isolation of health care practices and SSA. The insertion of SSA in collectively-managed areas appears to be a potential strategy for health planning and implementation of actions in the context under scrutiny.

  13. Healthy or unhealthy migrants? Identifying internal migration effects on mortality in Africa using health and demographic surveillance systems of the INDEPTH network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Carren; Bocquier, Philippe; Béguy, Donatien; Afolabi, Sulaimon; Augusto, Orvalho; Derra, Karim; Herbst, Kobus; Lankoande, Bruno; Odhiambo, Frank; Otiende, Mark; Soura, Abdramane; Wamukoya, Marylene; Zabré, Pascal; White, Michael J; Collinson, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Migration has been hypothesised to be selective on health but this healthy migrant hypothesis has generally been tested at destinations, and for only one type of flow, from deprived to better-off areas. The circulatory nature of migration is rarely accounted for. This study examines the relationship between different types of internal migration and adult mortality in Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) populations in West, East, and Southern Africa, and asks how the processes of selection, adaptation and propagation explain the migration-mortality relationship experienced in these contexts. The paper uses longitudinal data representing approximately 900 000 adults living in nine sub-Saharan African HDSS sites of the INDEPTH Network. Event History Analysis techniques are employed to examine the relationship between all-cause mortality and migration status, over periods ranging from 3 to 14 years for a total of nearly 4.5 million person-years. The study confirms the importance of migration in explaining variation in mortality, and the diversity of the migration-mortality relationship over a range of rural and urban local areas in the three African regions. The results confirm that the pattern of migration-mortality relationship is not exclusively explained by selection but also by propagation and adaptation. Consequences for public health policy are drawn.

  14. Modeling the dynamics of backyard chicken flows in traditional trade networks in Thailand: implications for surveillance and control of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Paul, Mathilde Cécile; Bicout, Dominique Joseph; Tiensin, Thanawat; Triampo, Wannapong; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine

    2014-06-01

    In Southeast Asia, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by epidemics caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) virus. In Thailand, the trade of live backyard chickens is based on the activities of traders buying chickens from villages and supplying urban markets with chicken meat. This study aims to quantify the flows of chickens traded during a 1-year period in a province of Thailand. A compartmental stochastic dynamic model was constructed to illustrate trade flows of live chickens from villages to slaughterhouses. Live poultry movements present important temporal variations with increased activities during the 15 days preceding the Chinese New Year and, to a lesser extent, other festivals (Qingming Festival, Thai New Year, Hungry Ghost Festival, and International New Year). The average distance of poultry movements ranges from 4 to 25 km, defining a spatial scale for the risk of avian influenza that spread through traditional poultry marketing chains. Some characteristics of traditional poultry networks in Thailand, such as overlapping chicken supply zones, may facilitate disease diffusion over longer distances through combined expansion and relocation processes. This information may be of use in tailoring avian influenza and other emerging infectious poultry disease surveillance and control programs provided that the cost-effectiveness of such scenarios is also evaluated in further studies.

  15. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  16. New Network of Automatic Stations integrated in the CSNs Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network; Nueva Red de Estaciones Automaticas integrada en la Red de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental del CSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parages Perez del Yerro, C.; Garcia Cadierno, J. P.; Calvin Cuartero, M.

    2016-05-01

    In 1992, the Council put into operation a network comprising 25 automatic stations for continuous monitoring of the radiological quality of the air and the detection of anomalous situations. It has now decided to undertake the renewal and modernisation of these installations, incorporating sensors and automatic connection and communication systems based on the best technology currently available. (Author)

  17. Research on the surveillance technology and the comprehensive management network system using the optical fiber about a road management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masahiro; Okuno, Masatomi; Sasaki, Susumu; Yano, Koji

    2005-05-01

    In recent years, IT (Information Technology) has been utilized in various fields of civil engineering. Especially, trials have been made to utilize optical fibers as sensors to measure strain of civil engineering structures, ground deformation, temperature, etc., and they have been installed for measuring in road structures and civil engineering structures including tunnel, river, and cut-slope structures. In order to make such optical monitoring systems of civil engineering structures more general and organic systems, it would be effective to combine them with such comprehensive systems as ITS. We investigate checking systems utilizing GIS technology, etc. that can process and analyze an enormous amount of data in real time and also investigate the construction of general monitoring systems of road facilities which can perform thorough management from monitoring to maintenance utilizing information technology networks.

  18. Rare disease surveillance: An international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, E.J.; Nicoll, A.; Lynn, R.; Marchessault, V.; Hirasing, R.A.; Ridley, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1998 and met formally for the first time in Ottawa, Ontario in June 2000. Objectives: To document the methodology and activities of existing national paediatric surveillance units; the formation of

  19. Rare disease surveillance: An international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, E.J.; Nicoll, A.; Lynn, R.; Marchessault, V.; Hirasing, R.A.; Ridley, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1998 and met formally for the first time in Ottawa, Ontario in June 2000. Objectives: To document the methodology and activities of existing national paediatric surveillance units; the formation of INo

  20. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, Joan; Natividad-Sancho, Angels; Trushakova, Svetlana; Sominina, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Ciblak, Meral A.; Badur, Selim; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.; El Guerche-Séblain, Clotilde; Mira-Iglesias, Ainara; Kisteneva, Lidiya; Stolyarov, Kirill; Yurtcu, Kubra; Feng, Luzhao; López-Labrador, Xavier; Burtseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations. Methods Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Findings 5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2), 362 A(H1N1), 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B). The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33–2.02]), asthma (2.25 [1.67–3.03]), immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23–4.11]), renal disease (2.11 [1.48–3.01]), liver disease (1.94 [1.18–3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58–5.59]), and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48–5.94]). Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48–0.77]). Conclusions Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza

  1. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Puig-Barberà

    Full Text Available The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations.Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression.5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2, 362 A(H1N1, 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B. The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33-2.02], asthma (2.25 [1.67-3.03], immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23-4.11], renal disease (2.11 [1.48-3.01], liver disease (1.94 [1.18-3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58-5.59], and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48-5.94]. Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48-0.77].Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza virus in patients hospitalized with influenza

  2. Potential Misclassification of Urinary Tract-Related Bacteremia Upon Applying the 2015 Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance Definition From the National Healthcare Safety Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Meddings, Jennifer; Fakih, Mohamad G; Saint, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection to include only urine culture bacteria of at least 1 × 10(5) colony-forming units/mL. Our findings suggest that the new surveillance definition may fail to capture clinically meaningful catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

  3. Development and implementation of the quality control panel of RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for avian influenza A (H5N1 surveillance network in mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR have been indispensable methods for influenza surveillance, especially for determination of avian influenza. The movement of testing beyond reference lab introduced the need of quality control, including the implementation of an evaluation system for validating personal training and sample proficiency testing. Methods We developed a panel with lysates of seasonal influenza virus (H1N1, H3N2 and B, serials of diluted H5N1 virus lysates, and in-vitro transcribed H5 hemaglutinin (HA and an artificial gene RNAs for RT-PCR and rRT-PCR quality control assessment. The validations of stability and reproducibility were performed on the panel. Additionally, the panel was implemented to assess the detection capability of Chinese human avian influenza networks. Results The panel has relatively high stability and good reproducibility demonstrated by kappa's tests. In the implementation of panel on Chinese human avian influenza networks, the results suggested that there were a relatively low number of discrepancies for both concise and reproducibility in Chinese avian influenza virus net works. Conclusions A quality control panel of RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for avian influenza A (H5N1 surveillance network was developed. An availably statistical data, which are used to assess the detection capability of networks on avian influenza virus (H5N1, can be obtained relatively easily through implementation of the panel on networks.

  4. The Global Asthma Network rationale and methods for Phase I global surveillance: prevalence, severity, management and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Philippa; Asher, M Innes; Billo, Nils E; Bissell, Karen; Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Ellwood, Eamon M; El-Sony, Asma; García-Marcos, Luis; Mallol, Javier; Marks, Guy B; Pearce, Neil E; Strachan, David P

    2017-01-01

    The Global Asthma Network (GAN), established in 2012, followed the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). ISAAC Phase One involved over 700 000 adolescents and children from 156 centres in 56 countries; it found marked worldwide variation in symptom prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema that was not explained by the current understanding of these diseases; ISAAC Phase Three involved over 1 187 496 adolescents and children (237 centres in 98 countries). It found that asthma symptom prevalence was increasing in many locations especially in low- and middle-income countries where severity was also high, and identified several environmental factors that required further investigation.GAN Phase I, described in this article, builds on the ISAAC findings by collecting further information on asthma, rhinitis and eczema prevalence, severity, diagnoses, asthma emergency room visits, hospital admissions, management and use of asthma essential medicines. The subjects will be the same age groups as ISAAC, and their parents. In this first global monitoring of asthma in children and adults since 2003, further evidence will be obtained to understand asthma, management practices and risk factors, leading to further recognition that asthma is an important non-communicable disease and to reduce its global burden.

  5. AIDS-case surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S; Khodakevich, L; Sengupta, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 in India, the Ministry of Health realized that the diagnostic and reporting network for AIDS cases was inadequate as AIDS cases grew and that the establishment of specialized AIDS units in hospitals was not the best strategy. It decided to integrate AIDS diagnostic and management facilities into primary health services. It would arrange training for 1 physician from each district and peripheral hospital, private hospital, and inpatient service of other medical institutions in AIDS diagnosis and management. These physicians would then train others in the clinical diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The physicians would use the World Health Organization [WHO] case definition of AIDS supported by HIV serological test results. All AIDS cases would be transferred to the Medical College Hospitals of the States and Union Territories (UTs), regional hospitals, and perhaps some private hospitals. Between May 1986 and October 1993, India had 459 AIDS cases reported from 19 States and UTs, especially the States of Tamil Nadul and Maharashtra. This AIDS case surveillance system should motivate political will, describe the underlying and preceding HIV epidemic, and contribute to the understanding of current and future course of the epidemic. Thus, it will guide decision makers to develop sound preventive strategies, to plan health care, and to evaluate interventions. The surveillance system's target population is all outpatients and inpatients at medical institutions. During 1993-1994, 1000 hospitals should make up the network of referral institutions. AIDS case surveillance coordinators (ASCs) at each institution form the basis of the network. The individual case record of each suspected AIDS case will have details on his/her life and medical history. Records of confirmed cases will be sent to State ASCs who will compile them for the National AIDS Control Organisation. After 3-4 year of training and practice in AIDS diagnosis and reporting, AIDS reporting will be

  6. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  7. The Surveillance of Teachers and the Simulation of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Just as surveillance in general has become more sophisticated, penetrative and ubiquitous, so has the surveillance of teachers. Enacted through an assemblage of strategies such as learning walks, parental networks, student voice and management information systems, the surveillance of teachers has proliferated as a means of managing the risks of…

  8. The Surveillance of Teachers and the Simulation of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Just as surveillance in general has become more sophisticated, penetrative and ubiquitous, so has the surveillance of teachers. Enacted through an assemblage of strategies such as learning walks, parental networks, student voice and management information systems, the surveillance of teachers has proliferated as a means of managing the risks of…

  9. Creating a global dialogue on infectious disease surveillance: connecting organizations for regional disease surveillance (CORDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Louise S; Smolinski, Mark S; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers - not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework.

  10. Creating a Global Dialogue on Infectious Disease Surveillance: Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise S. Gresham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers – not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE, and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO. As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework.

  11. Extragenital Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing and Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men—STD Surveillance Network, United States, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Monica E.; Kidd, Sarah; Llata, Eloisa; Stenger, Mark; Braxton, Jim; Asbel, Lenore; Bernstein, Kyle; Gratzer, Beau; Jespersen, Megan; Kerani, Roxanne; Mettenbrink, Christie; Mohamed, Mukhtar; Pathela, Preeti; Schumacher, Christina; Stirland, Ali; Stover, Jeff; Tabidze, Irina; Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Weinstock, Hillard

    2015-01-01

    Background Gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) are the most commonly reported notifiable diseases in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) be screened for urogenital GC/CT, rectal GC/CT, and pharyngeal GC. We describe extragenital GC/CT testing and infections among MSM attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Methods The STD Surveillance Network collects patient data from 42 STD clinics. We assessed the proportion of MSM attending these clinics during July 2011–June 2012 who were tested and positive for extragenital GC/CT at their most recent visit or in the preceding 12 months and the number of extragenital infections that would have remained undetected with urethral screening alone. Results Of 21 994 MSM, 83.9% were tested for urogenital GC, 65.9% for pharyngeal GC, 50.4% for rectal GC, 81.4% for urogenital CT, 31.7% for pharyngeal CT, and 45.9% for rectal CT. Of MSM tested, 11.1% tested positive for urogenital GC, 7.9% for pharyngeal GC, 10.2% for rectal GC, 8.4% for urogenital CT, 2.9% for pharyngeal CT, and 14.1% for rectal CT. More than 70% of extragenital GC infections and 85% of extragenital CT infections were associated with negative urethral tests at the same visit and would not have been detected with urethral screening alone. Conclusions Extragenital GC/CT was common among MSM attending STD clinics, but many MSM were not tested. Most extragenital infections would not have been identified, and likely would have remained untreated, with urethral screening alone. Efforts are needed to facilitate implementation of extragenital GC/CT screening recommendations for MSM. PMID:24647015

  12. Utilizing Novel Non-traditional Sensor Tasking Approaches to Enhance the Space Situational Awareness Picture Maintained by the Space Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, A.; Herz, E.; Center, K.; George, P.; Axelrad, P.; Mutschler, S.; Jones, B.

    2016-09-01

    The Space Surveillance Network (SSN) is tasked with the increasingly difficult mission of detecting, tracking, cataloging and identifying artificial objects orbiting the Earth, including active and inactive satellites, spent rocket bodies, and fragmented debris. Much of the architecture and operations of the SSN are limited and outdated. Efforts are underway to modernize some elements of the systems. Even so, the ability to maintain the best current Space Situational Awareness (SSA) picture and identify emerging events in a timely fashion could be significantly improved by leveraging non-traditional sensor sites. Orbit Logic, the University of Colorado and the University of Texas at Austin are developing an innovative architecture and operations concept to coordinate the tasking and observation information processing of non - traditional assets based on information-theoretic approaches. These confirmed tasking schedules and the resulting data can then be used to "inform" the SSN tasking process. The 'Heimdall Web' system is comprised of core tasking optimization components and accompanying Web interfaces within a secure, split architecture that will for the first time allow non-traditional sensors to support SSA and improve SSN tasking. Heimdall Web application components appropriately score/prioritize space catalog objects based on covariance, priority, observability, expected information gain, and probability of detect - then coordinate an efficient sensor observation schedule for non-SSN sensors contributing to the overall SSA picture maintained by the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). The Heimdall Web Ops concept supports sensor participation levels of "Scheduled", "Tasked" and "Contributing". Scheduled and Tasked sensors are provided optimized observation schedules or object tracking lists from central algorithms, while Contributing sensors review and select from a list of "desired track objects". All sensors are "Web Enabled" for tasking and feedback

  13. Management of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Selected U.S. Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics: Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Network, January 2010-December 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llata, Eloisa; Bernstein, Kyle T; Kerani, Roxanne P; Pathela, Preeti; Schwebke, Jane R; Schumacher, Christina; Stenger, Mark; Weinstock, Hillard S

    2015-08-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains an important source of preventable reproductive morbidity, but no recent studies have singularly focused on US sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in relationship to established guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Of the 83,076 female patients seen in 14 STD clinics participating in the STD Surveillance Network, 1080 (1.3%) were diagnosed as having PID from 2010 to 2011. A random sample of 219 (20%) women were selected, and medical records were reviewed for clinical history, examination findings, treatment, and diagnostic testing. Our primary outcomes were to evaluate how well PID diagnosis and treatment practices in STD clinic settings follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) treatment guidelines and to describe age group-specific rates of laboratory-confirmed Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) in patients clinically diagnosed as having PID in the last 12 months, inclusive of the PID visit. Among the 219 women, 70.3% of the cases met the CDC treatment case definition for PID, 90.4% had testing for CT and GC on the PID visit, and 68.0% were treated with a CDC-recommended outpatient regimen. In the last 12 months, 95.4% were tested for CT or GC, and positivity for either organism was 43.9% in women aged 25 years or younger with PID, compared with 19.4% of women older than 25 years with PID. Compliance with CDC guidelines was documented for many of the women with PID, though not all. Our findings underscore the need for continued efforts to optimize quality of care and adherence to current guidance for PID management given the anticipated expertise of providers in these settings.

  14. Contribution of job-exposure matrices for exposure assessment in occupational safety and health monitoring systems: application from the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, Arnaud; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Paris, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    To detect new hazards ("signals"), occupational health monitoring systems mostly rest on the description of exposures in the jobs held and on reports by medical doctors; these are subject to declarative bias. Our study aims to assess whether job-exposure matrices (JEMs) could be useful tools for signal detection by improving exposure reporting. Using the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network (RNV3P) data from 2001 to 2011, we explored the associations between disease and exposure prevalence for 3 well-known pathology/exposure couples and for one debatable couple. We compared the associations measured when using physicians' reports or applying the JEMs, respectively, for these selected diseases and across non-selected RNV3P population or for cases with musculoskeletal disorders, used as two reference groups; the ratio of exposure prevalences according to the two sources of information were computed for each disease category. Our population contained 58,188 subjects referred with pathologies related to work. Mean age at diagnosis was 45.8 years (95% CI 45.7; 45.9), and 57.2% were men. For experts, exposure ratios increase with knowledge on exposure causality. As expected, JEMs retrieved more exposed cases than experts (exposure ratios between 12 and 194), except for the couple silica/silicosis, but not for the MSD control group (ratio between 0.2 and 0.8). JEMs enhanced the number of exposures possibly linked with some conditions, compared to experts' assessment, relative to the whole database or to a reference group; they are less likely to suffer from declarative bias than reports by occupational health professionals.

  15. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  16. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, , USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  17. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, , USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  18. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  19. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  20. Random effect modelling of patient-related risk factors in orthopaedic procedures: results from the Dutch nosocomial infection surveillance network 'PREZIES'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muilwijk, J.; Walenkamp, G.H.; Voss, A.; Wille, J.C.; Hof, S. van den

    2006-01-01

    In the Dutch surveillance for surgical site infections (SSIs), data from 70277 orthopaedic procedures with 1895 SSIs were collected between 1996 and 2003. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyse the trends in SSIs associated with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; (2) to estimate patient-

  1. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...... pressure, fitness activities, sleep cycles, etc. can be broadcasted, e.g. as tweets on Twitter or status updates on Facebook. Such quantification practices with monitoring technologies become co-producing when individuals constitute themselves as subjects engaging in self-tracking, self-care, and self......, and gamification modulate the enactment of selfhood? How does self-surveillance contribute to corresponding notions of self-optimization and self-cultivation such as “the good life”, “sustainable lifestyle”, “healthy living”, “good learning” and “work productivity”?...

  2. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  3. Evaluation of multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Frisén,Marianne; Andersson, Eva; Schiöler, Linus

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate surveillance is of interest in many areas such as industrial production, bioterrorism detection, spatial surveillance, and financial transaction strategies. Some of the suggested approaches to multivariate surveillance have been multivariate counterparts to the univariate Shewhart, EWMA, and CUSUM methods. Our emphasis is on the special challenges of evaluating multivariate surveillance methods. Some new measures are suggested and the properties of several measures are demonstrat...

  4. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  5. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  6. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  7. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  8. The Evolving Demographic and Health Transition in Four Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from Four Sites in the INDEPTH Network of Longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaga Bawah

    Full Text Available This paper contributes evidence documenting the continued decline in all-cause mortality and changes in the cause of death distribution over time in four developing country populations in Africa and Asia. We present levels and trends in age-specific mortality (all-cause and cause-specific from four demographic surveillance sites: Agincourt (South Africa, Navrongo (Ghana in Africa; Filabavi (Vietnam, Matlab (Bangladesh in Asia. We model mortality using discrete time event history analysis. This study illustrates how data from INDEPTH Network centers can provide a comparative, longitudinal examination of mortality patterns and the epidemiological transition. Health care systems need to be reconfigured to deal simultaneously with continuing challenges of communicable disease and increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases that require long-term care. In populations with endemic HIV, long-term care of HIV patients on ART will add to the chronic care needs of the community.

  9. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  10. PREZIES: PREventie van ZIEkenhuisinfecties door Surveillance. Deelcomponent lijnsepsis, pilot 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma E; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Batenburg LA; Geubbels ELPE; Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Kwaliteitsinstituut voor de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of the surveillance component catheter associated (CA) sepsis within the PREZIES-network of Dutch hospitals. The ultimate goal is the introduction of standardised surveillance of CA sepsis in hospitals and the generation of reference figures for individual hosp

  11. PREZIES: PREventie van ZIEkenhuisinfecties door Surveillance. Deelcomponent lijnsepsis, pilot 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma E; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Batenburg LA; Geubbels ELPE; Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Kwaliteitsinstituut voor de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of the surveillance component catheter associated (CA) sepsis within the PREZIES-network of Dutch hospitals. The ultimate goal is the introduction of standardised surveillance of CA sepsis in hospitals and the generation of reference figures for individual hosp

  12. Algebraic analysis of social networks for bio-surveillance: the cases of SARS-Beijing-2003 and AH1N1 influenza-México-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic analysis of social networks exhibited by SARS-Beijing-2003 and AH1N1 flu-México-2009 was realized. The main tools were the Tutte polynomials and Maple package Graph-Theory. The topological structures like graphs and networks were represented by invariant polynomials. The evolution of a given social network was represented like an evolution of the algebraic complexity of the corresponding Tutte polynomial. The reduction of a given social network was described like an involution of the algebraic complexity of the associated Tutte polynomial. The outbreaks of SARS and AH1N1 Flu were considered like represented by a reduction of previously existing contact networks via the control measures executed by health authorities. From Tutte polynomials were derived numerical indicators about efficiency of control measures.

  13. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface.

  14. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  15. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  16. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Alan P

    2015-01-01

    .... Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation...

  18. Beyond counting cases: Public health impacts of national Paediatric Surveillance Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grenier, D.; Elliott, E.J.; Zurynski, Y.; Rodrigues Pereira, R.; Preece, M.; Lynn, R.; Kries, R. von; Zimmermann, H.; Dickson, N.P.; Virella, D.

    2007-01-01

    Paediatric Surveillance Units (PSUs) have been established in 14 countries and facilitate national, prospective, active surveillance for a range of conditions, with monthly reporting by child health specialists. The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1

  19. Surveillance and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is as much about surveillance as about persuasive technologies (PTs). With regard to PTs it raises the question about the ethical limits of persuasion. It will be argued that even some forms of self-imposed persuasive soft surveillance technologies may be considered unethical. Therefore,

  20. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  1. 基于克隆选择原理的网络安全监测研究%Research on Network Security Surveillance Based on Clonal Selection Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁; 刘才铭

    2012-01-01

    为了有效监测计算机网络面临的安全威胁,借鉴计算机免疫学中的克隆选择原理,研究一种动态的网络安全监测方法,模拟真实计算机网络环境下的抗原、自体和检测器等克隆选择原理中的关键要素,用数学方法描述检测器的动态演化过程,建立网络安全威胁监测的基本方法,实现了网络安全威胁的告警、网络安全风险评估和网络安全威胁的取证等网络安全监测流程.%In order to survey the security threats in the computer networks, a surveying method for network security based on clonal selection principle in computer immunology is proposed in this paper. Antigen, self-cell, detector, and etc in clonal selection principle are simulated in the real environment of computer networks. Dynamical evolution process of detector is described with math methods. Basic surveying method for network security threat is established. The flows of security threat alarm, security risk assessment and security threat forensics are realized.

  2. Genetic data from avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses generated by the European network of excellence (EPIZONE) between 2006 and 2011—Review and recommendations for surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dundon, William G.; Heidari, Alireza; Fusaro, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Since 2006, the members of the molecular epidemiological working group of the European “EPIZONE” network of excellence have been generating sequence data on avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses from both European and African sources in an attempt to more fully understand the circulation...

  3. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Summary Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Chancroid Selected STDs Appendix Appendix Interpreting STD Surveillance Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors ...

  4. Network-ball Machine as the Carrier of Heat Transfer Station Video Surveillance System%以网络球机为载体的换热站视频监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 史胜军

    2014-01-01

    随着科技的快速发展和供热行业的迅速进步,无人值守换热站已逐渐进入人们的视野;随着热网集中控制系统的日渐普及,热网的安全防盗、安全运行也成为人们关注的问题。为了使换热站监控系统更加完善、更加合理、更加先进、更加安全,设计了以网络球机为载体的换热站视频监控系统。该系统以网络球机为主要视频设备,采用VPN有线宽带网络将视频数据传至热力公司监控中心,通过网络视频录像机 NVR 录像,实现对换热站现场的监控,使热网的集中监控系统更加完善、更加安全可靠。%With the rapid advancement of technology and the rapid development of the industry of heating, heat transfer station unattended gradually coming into view;centralized control system with heating network growing popularity, heating network security, security, security operation has become people concerned about the problem. To make the heat transfer station monitoring system more perfect, more rational, more advanced, more secure, web-ball machine is designed as a carrier of heat transfer station video surveillance system. The system is web-ball machine as the primary video device, wired broadband network using VPN data is transmitted to the heating company video monitoring center through a network video recorder NVR recording, to achieve the heat transfer station site monitoring, thermal network centralized monitoring system more perfect, more secure and reliable.

  5. 基于卷积神经网络的监控视频人数统计算法%A surveillance video crowd counting algorithm based on convolutional neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海军; 王文中; 翟素兰; 罗斌

    2016-01-01

    Crow d counting in surveillance video is one of the important modern security tasks with high research significance and application value .It has made great progress in recent years ,but still has not solved the problems about accuracy of crow d counting in surveillance video and time consuming of high resolution images .Therefore ,the crowd counting algo‐rithm by incorporating convolutional neural network and ridge regression was proposed in this paper .We could get the crowd density map from regression of the centers of heads through convolutional neural network ,then used ridge regression model to analyze the crowd density map to got the number of people in current frame .The proposed algorithm had been tested on several videos and compared with several classical algorithms .The experimental performance validated the effectiveness of the proposed method .%监控视频中人数统计是现代安防的重要任务之一,具有较高的研究意义和应用价值。虽然近年来取得较大的进展,但仍无法很好地解决监控场景人数统计精度、高清图像耗时问题。为此,作者提出一种基于卷积神经网络与岭回归联合的人数统计方法。通过卷积神经网络回归图像中人头中心点获得人群密度分布特征图,然后使用岭回归模型分析人群密度分布特征图得到该帧图像对应的人数。作者提出的算法通过在多组视频图像上进行了测试,并与经典算法做了比较。实验结果验证了作者方法的有效性。

  6. Safety of new DAAs for chronic HCV infection in a real life experience: role of a surveillance network based on clinician and hospital pharmacist

    OpenAIRE

    Nappi, A.; Perrella, A; Bellopede, P.; Lanza, A.; Izzi, A.; Spatarella, M.; Sbreglia, C

    2017-01-01

    Background Direct Antiviral Agents (DAAs) for HCV therapy represents a step ahead in the cure of chronic hepatitis C. Notwithstanding the promising results in several clinical trials, few data are available on adverse effects in real life settings. Methods We have evaluated 170 patients with persistent infection and on those eligible to treatment we have followed up them through a network managed by clinician and hospital pharmacist. Results According to our data we have found that 41% (32 ou...

  7. [Importance of epidemiologic surveillance in contact dermatitis: Spanish surveillance system on contact allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gavín, J; Armario-Hita, J C; Fernández-Redondo, V; Fernández-Vozmediano, J M; Sánchez-Pérez, J; Silvestre, J F; Uter, W; Giménez-Arnau, A M

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of contact dermatitis means that this common medical problem has considerable personal, societal, and economic impact. Clinical and epidemiologic research is needed if we are to shed light on the real situation of contact dermatitis in Spain. In this article we will look at epidemiologic research from a practical point of view and analyze the role of the dermatologist in planning and designing studies. The advantages of multicenter studies are discussed, along with the roles of national and international surveillance networks. We present the Spanish Surveillance System on Contact Allergies, which serves as a bridge between Spanish dermatologists and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies. The present and future aims of the Spanish network are described.

  8. [Flaccid paralysis surveillance in the Latium Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, A M; Santi, A L; Ciapetti, C; Fiore, L; Novello, F; Vellucci, L; De Stefano, F; Fara, G M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of World Health Organization is to reach the global eradication of poliomyelitis during the first decade of the third millennium. To achieve the certification of the eradication of the disease the main strategy is the Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance. In Italy the active AFP surveillance was performed at national level since 1997. In the Latium region the active surveillance was performed since January 1997 by the laboratory of virology of Institute of Hygiene G Sanarelli which established a regional hospital network. During the years of survey 7 cases were found in 1997 (0.87/100,000), 4 in 1998 (0.5/100,000), 2 in 1999 (0.25/100,000) and 2 in 2000. No wild polioviruses were detected.

  9. Surveillance, Snowden, and Big Data: Capacities, consequences, critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lyon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Snowden revelations about National Security Agency surveillance, starting in 2013, along with the ambiguous complicity of internet companies and the international controversies that followed provide a perfect segue into contemporary conundrums of surveillance and Big Data. Attention has shifted from late C20th information technologies and networks to a C21st focus on data, currently crystallized in “Big Data.” Big Data intensifies certain surveillance trends associated with information technology and networks, and is thus implicated in fresh but fluid configurations. This is considered in three main ways: One, the capacities of Big Data (including metadata intensify surveillance by expanding interconnected datasets and analytical tools. Existing dynamics of influence, risk-management, and control increase their speed and scope through new techniques, especially predictive analytics. Two, while Big Data appears to be about size, qualitative change in surveillance practices is also perceptible, accenting consequences. Important trends persist – the control motif, faith in technology, public-private synergies, and user-involvement – but the future-orientation increasingly severs surveillance from history and memory and the quest for pattern-discovery is used to justify unprecedented access to data. Three, the ethical turn becomes more urgent as a mode of critique. Modernity's predilection for certain definitions of privacy betrays the subjects of surveillance who, so far from conforming to the abstract, disembodied image of both computing and legal practices, are engaged and embodied users-in-relation whose activities both fuel and foreclose surveillance.

  10. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  11. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  12. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  13. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  14. Early diagnosis and monitoring of mucormycosis by detection of circulating DNA in serum: retrospective analysis of 44 cases collected through the French Surveillance Network of Invasive Fungal Infections (RESSIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, L; Herbrecht, R; Grenouillet, F; Morio, F; Alanio, A; Letscher-Bru, V; Cassaing, S; Chouaki, T; Kauffmann-Lacroix, C; Poirier, P; Toubas, D; Augereau, O; Rocchi, S; Garcia-Hermoso, D; Bretagne, S

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of a set of three Mucorales quantitative PCR assays in a retrospective multicentre study. Mucormycosis cases were recorded thanks to the French prospective surveillance programme (RESSIF network). The day of sampling of the first histological or mycological positive specimen was defined as day 0 (D0). Detection of circulating DNA was performed on frozen serum samples collected from D-30 to D30, using quantitative PCR assays targeting Rhizomucor, Lichtheimia, Mucor/Rhizopus. Forty-four patients diagnosed with probable (n = 19) or proven (n = 25) mucormycosis were included. Thirty-six of the 44 patients (81%) had at least one PCR-positive serum. The first PCR-positive sample was observed 9 days (range 0-28 days) before diagnosis was made using mycological criteria and at least 2 days (range 0-24 days) before imaging. The identifications provided with the quantitative PCR assays were all concordant with culture and/or PCR-based identification of the causal species. Survival rate at D84 was significantly higher for patients with an initially positive PCR that became negative after treatment initiation than for patients whose PCR remained positive (48% and 4%, respectively; p mucormycosis diagnosis when other mycological arguments were present but could also anticipate this diagnosis. Quantification of DNA loads may also be a useful adjunct to treatment monitoring.

  15. Patch test results of the European baseline series among patients with occupational contact dermatitis across Europe - analyses of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy network, 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Maria; Jolanki, Riitta; Larese Filon, Francesca; Wilkinson, Mark; Kręcisz, Beata; Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; John, Swen M; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases in Europe. In order to develop effective preventive measures, detailed and up-to-date data on the incidence, main causes and professions at risk of occupational contact dermatitis are needed. To describe the pattern of patch test reactivity to allergens in the European baseline series of patients with occupational contact dermatitis in different occupations. We analysed data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy (ESSCA) network from 2002 to 2010, from 11 European countries. Allergens in the European baseline series associated with an at least doubled risk of occupational contact dermatitis include: thiuram rubber chemical accelerators, epoxy resin, and the antimicrobials methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, and formaldehyde. The highest risk of occupational contact dermatitis was found in occupations classified as 'other personal services workers', which includes hairdressers, nursing and other healthcare professionals, precision workers in metal and related materials, and blacksmiths, tool-makers and related trades workers. In the planning and implementation of measures aimed at preventing occupational contact dermatitis, the focus should be on the identified high-risk occupational groups and the most common occupational allergies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Global influenza surveillance with Laplacian multidimensional scaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-chuan ZHOU; Fang TANG; Qin LI; Sheng-dong HU; Guo-jun LI; Yun-jian JIA; Xin-ke LI; Yu-jie FENG

    2016-01-01

    The Global Influenza Surveillance Network is crucial for monitoring epidemic risk in participating countries. However, at present, the network has notable gaps in the developing world, principally in Africa and Asia where laboratory capabilities are limited. Moreover, for the last few years, various influenza viruses have been continuously emerging in the resource-limited countries, making these surveillance gaps a more imminent challenge. We present a spatial-transmission model to estimate epidemic risks in the countries where only partial or even no surveillance data are available. Motivated by the observation that countries in the same influenza transmission zone divided by the World Health Organization had similar transmission patterns, we propose to estimate the influenza epidemic risk of an unmonitored country by incorporating the surveillance data reported by countries of the same transmission zone. Experiments show that the risk estimates are highly correlated with the actual influenza morbidity trends for African and Asian countries. The proposed method may provide the much-needed capability to detect, assess, and notify potential influenza epidemics to the developing world.

  17. Systematic Review and Classification on Video Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Falah Chamasemani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various conferences and journals have published articles related to Video Surveillance Systems, indicating researchers’ attention. The goal of this review is to examine the latest works were published in journals, propose a new classification framework of video surveillance systems and investigate each aspect of this classification framework. This paper provides a comprehensive and systematic literature review of video surveillance systems from 2010-2011, extracted from six online digital libraries using article’s title and keyword. The proposed classification framework is expanded on the basis of architecture of video surveillance systems, which is composed of six layers: Concept and Foundation Layer, Network Infrastructure Layer, Processing Layer, Communication Layer, Application Layer, and User Interaction Layer. This review shows, although many publication and research focus on real-time aspect of the challenge, only few researches have investigated the deployment of extracted and retrieved information for forensic video surveillance.

  18. Dissection of immune gene networks in primary melanoma tumors critical for antitumor surveillance of patients with stage II-III resectable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivendran, Shanthi; Chang, Rui; Pham, Lisa; Phelps, Robert G; Harcharik, Sara T; Hall, Lawrence D; Bernardo, Sebastian G; Moskalenko, Marina M; Sivendran, Meera; Fu, Yichun; de Moll, Ellen H; Pan, Michael; Moon, Jee Young; Arora, Sonali; Cohain, Ariella; DiFeo, Analisa; Ferringer, Tammie C; Tismenetsky, Mikhail; Tsui, Cindy L; Friedlander, Philip A; Parides, Michael K; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; Lebwohl, Mark G; Wolchok, Jedd D; Bhardwaj, Nina; Burakoff, Steven J; Oh, William K; Palucka, Karolina; Merad, Miriam; Schadt, Eric E; Saenger, Yvonne M

    2014-08-01

    Patients with resected stage II-III cutaneous melanomas remain at high risk for metastasis and death. Biomarker development has been limited by the challenge of isolating high-quality RNA for transcriptome-wide profiling from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor specimens. Using NanoString technology, RNA from 40 stage II-III FFPE primary melanomas was analyzed and a 53-immune-gene panel predictive of non-progression (area under the curve (AUC)=0.920) was defined. The signature predicted disease-specific survival (DSS P<0.001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS P<0.001). CD2, the most differentially expressed gene in the training set, also predicted non-progression (P<0.001). Using publicly available microarray data from 46 primary human melanomas (GSE15605), a coexpression module enriched for the 53-gene panel was then identified using unbiased methods. A Bayesian network of signaling pathways based on this data identified driver genes. Finally, the proposed 53-gene panel was confirmed in an independent test population of 48 patients (AUC=0.787). The gene signature was an independent predictor of non-progression (P<0.001), RFS (P<0.001), and DSS (P=0.024) in the test population. The identified driver genes are potential therapeutic targets, and the 53-gene panel should be tested for clinical application using a larger data set annotated on the basis of prospectively gathered data.

  19. Dissection of Immune Gene Networks in Primary Melanoma Tumors Critical for Antitumor Surveillance of Patients with Stage II–III Resectable Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivendran, Shanthi; Chang, Rui; Pham, Lisa; Phelps, Robert G.; Harcharik, Sara T.; Hall, Lawrence D.; Bernardo, Sebastian G.; Moskalenko, Marina M.; Sivendran, Meera; Fu, Yichun; de Moll, Ellen H.; Pan, Michael; Moon, Jee Young; Arora, Sonali; Cohain, Ariella; DiFeo, Analisa; Ferringer, Tammie C.; Tismenetsky, Mikhail; Tsui, Cindy L.; Friedlander, Philip A.; Parides, Michael K.; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; Lebwohl, Mark G.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Bhardwaj, Nina; Burakoff, Steven J.; Oh, William K.; Palucka, Karolina; Merad, Miriam; Schadt, Eric E.; Saenger, Yvonne M.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with resected stage II–III cutaneous melanomas remain at high risk for metastasis and death. Biomarker development has been limited by the challenge of isolating high-quality RNA for transcriptome-wide profiling from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor specimens. Using NanoString technology, RNA from 40 stage II–III FFPE primary melanomas was analyzed and a 53-immune-gene panel predictive of non-progression (area under the curve (AUC)=0.920) was defined. The signature predicted disease-specific survival (DSS P<0.001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS P<0.001). CD2, the most differentially expressed gene in the training set, also predicted non-progression (P<0.001). Using publicly available microarray data from 46 primary human melanomas (GSE15605), a coexpression module enriched for the 53-gene panel was then identified using unbiased methods. A Bayesian network of signaling pathways based on this data identified driver genes. Finally, the proposed 53-gene panel was confirmed in an independent test population of 48 patients (AUC=0.787). The gene signature was an independent predictor of non-progression (P<0.001), RFS (P<0.001), and DSS (P=0.024) in the test population. The identified driver genes are potential therapeutic targets, and the 53-gene panel should be tested for clinical application using a larger data set annotated on the basis of prospectively gathered data. PMID:24522433

  20. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  1. Intelligent nuclear material surveillance system for DUPIC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Ha, J. H.; Go, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) is the facility to fabricate CANDU-type fuel from spent PWR fuel material without any separation of fissile elements and fission products. Unattended continuous surveillance systems for safeguards of nuclear facility result in large amounts of image and radiation data, which require much time and effort to inspect. Therefore, it is necessary to develop system that automatically pinpoints and diagnoses the anomalies from data. In this regards, this paper presents a novel concept of the continuous surveillance system that integrates visual image and radiation data by the use of neural networks. This surveillance system is operating for safeguards of the DFDF in KAERI.

  2. Nuclear material surveillance system for DUPIC fuel development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Ha, J. H.; Go, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Unattended continuous surveillance systems for safeguards of nuclear facility result in large amounts of image and radiation data, which require much time and effort to inspect. Therefore, it is necessary to develop system that automatically pinpoints and diagnoses the anomalies from data. In this regards, this paper presents a novel concept of the continuous surveillance system that integrates visual image and radiation data by the use of neural networks based on self-organized feature mapping. This surveillance system is stably operating for safeguards of the DUPIC (DFDF) in KAERI.

  3. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of evolution of public health surveillance from historical perspective: from Hippocrates, Black Death and quarantine, recording of vital events for the first time, first field investigation, legislations that were developed over time and modern concepts in public health surveillance. Eradication of small pox is an important achievement in public health surveillance but the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and Influenza pandemics suggest still there is a room for improvement. Recently new global disease surveillance networks like FluNet and DengueNet were developed as internet sites for monitoring influenza and dengue information. In spite of these developments, global public health surveillance still remains unevenly distributed. There is a need for increased international cooperation to address the global needs of public health surveillance.

  4. Striking Similarities in the Presentation and Duration of Illness of Influenza A and B in the Community: A Study Based on Sentinel Surveillance Networks in France and Turkey, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jean Marie; Silva, Maria Laura; Caini, Saverio; Ciblak, Meral; Mosnier, Anne; Daviaud, Isabelle; Matias, Gonçalo; Badur, Selim; Valette, Martine; Enouf, Vincent; Paget, John; Fleming, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Influenza B represents a high proportion of influenza cases in some seasons (even over 50%). The Influenza B study in General Practice (IBGP) is a multicenter study providing information about the clinical, demographic and socio-economic characteristics of patients affected by lab-confirmed influenza A or B. Influenza B patients and age-matched influenza A patients were recruited within the sentinel surveillance networks of France and Turkey in 2010-11 and 2011-12 seasons. Data were collected for each patient at the swab test day, after 9±2 days and, if not recovered, after 28±5 days. It was related to patient's characteristics, symptoms at presentation, vaccination status, prescriptions of antibiotics and antivirals, duration of illness, follow-up consultations in general practice or emergency room. We performed descriptive analyses and developed a multiple regression model to investigate the effect of patients and disease characteristics on the duration of illness. Overall, 774 influenza cases were included in the study: 419 influenza B cases (209 in France and 210 in Turkey) and 355 influenza A cases (205 in France and 150 in Turkey). There were no differences between influenza A and B patients in terms of clinical presentation and number of consultations with a practitioner; however, the use of antivirals was higher among influenza B patients in both countries. The average (median) reported duration of illness in the age groups 0-14 years, 15-64 years and 65+ years was 7.4 (6), 8.7 (8) and 10.5 (9) days in France, and 6.3 (6), 8.2 (7) and 9.2 (6) days in Turkey; it increased with age but did not differ by virus type; increased duration of illness was associated with antibiotics prescription. In conclusion, our findings show that influenza B infection appears not to be milder disease than influenza A infection.

  5. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  6. European recommendations for antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, G; Hryniewicz, W; Jarlier, V; Kahlmeter, G; Mittermayer, H; Stratchounski, L; Baquero, F

    2004-04-01

    The problem of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe has been debated extensively in many excellent documents issued by national committees that often assume the value of national guidelines. However, a comprehensive document addressing the whole matter from a European perspective, as well as reviewing its present status and drafting future perspectives, has been lacking. The present recommendations have been produced by the ESCMID Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ESGARS) through a consensus process involving all members of the Study Group. The recommendations focus on the detection of bacterial resistance and its reporting to clinicians, public health officers and a wider-and ever-increasing-audience. The leading concept is that the basis for resistance monitoring is microbiological diagnostics. The prerequisites for resistance monitoring are findings of adequate quality and quantity, which have been recorded properly and evaluated correctly. Different types of surveillance studies should fulfil different requirements with regard to data collection and reporting, the expected use of data, and the prerequisites for networking such activities. To generate relevant indicators, bacterial resistance data should be reported using adequate denominators and stratification. Reporting of antimicrobial resistance data is necessary for selection of empirical therapy at the local level, for assessing the scale of the resistance problem at the local, national or international levels, for monitoring changes in resistance rates, and for detecting the emergence and spread of new resistances types. Any type of surveillance study should conclude, where appropriate, with a proposal for intervention based on the data obtained.

  7. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  8. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  9. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  10. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  11. Incorporación de la metodología geoestadística a la vigilancia de la gripe en una red centinela Incorporation of geostatistical methodology for influenza surveillance in a sentinel network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Abellán

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Valorar la descripción geoestadística realizada de los datos de gripe recogidos a través de la Red Centinela Sanitaria de la Comunidad Valenciana (RCSCV mediante la utilización del método kriging con la finalidad de evaluar la posibilidad de su incorporación a la vigilancia rutinaria Método: Se han utilizado los datos de vigilancia de gripe de la RCSCV en tres temporadas gripales (1997-1998, 1998-1999 y 1999-2000, construyéndose una matriz de datos de incidencia de gripe geocodificada. La distribución geográfica fue estudiada mediante la técnica geoestadística kriging, que permite estimar la incidencia de la enfermedad en cualquier punto del territorio, a partir de la incidencia observada en unos pocos puntos estratégicamente distribuidos. Se elaboraron mapas de curvas de isoincidencia de gripe para cada semana. La valoración de la técnica se realizó mediante validación cruzada. Resultados: En la mayoría de las semanas, los valores tanto de la desviación estándar (DE reducida, como de la media reducida estuvieron cercanos a los valores considerados óptimos (0 o 1, respectivamente, y sólo en la última temporada se obtuvieron valores de la DE reducida alejados de los considerados como de buen ajuste en 12 de las 20 semanas. La estimación de tasas en todas las temporadas demostró una coherencia en su distribución espacial. También se observó coherencia en la evolución temporal. Conclusiones: En la mayoría de las situaciones los resultados pueden considerarse aceptables, no requiere recursos informáticos extraordinarios ni un empleo de tiempo excesivo, y necesita tan sólo una adaptación anual. Su facilidad de uso lo hace apto para su utilización como una técnica de rutina, pese a que puede mejorarse la precisión de las estimaciones, incrementando la complejidad del modelo.Objectives: To evaluate geostatistical description of influenza data from the Valencian Sentinel Network (VSN in Spain using the

  12. Desafios para a rede nacional de laboratórios de vigilância sanitária: o caso dos medicamentos manipulados Challenges to the national network of sanitary surveillance laboratories: the case of manipulated drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia Pessoa da Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir da pesquisa "Situação dos medicamentos manipulados (MMs nos laboratórios de vigilância sanitária (LVS", produto do convênio Ensp/Anvisa, apresentam-se e problematizam-se elementos que possam contribuir para a reflexão sobre a estruturação da Rede Nacional de LVS no enfrentamento de demandas analíticas, usando os MMs como organizadores da discussão. Identificaram-se os laboratórios públicos (LP que avaliaram MMs no período de 2000 a 2005, perscrutaram-se seus analistas e as amostras e escolheram-se três laboratórios para visita. Analisou-se o processamento da amostra desde sua entrada até a emissão do laudo. O estudo das amostras de MMs possibilitou identificar: os requerentes e a documentação da amostra; os LVS executores e como recebem, processam e respondem à demanda das solicitações de análises. Os requerentes são o Judiciário (20% e a Visa (74%. Demandas infundadas somam 25%. Sete LVS analisaram MMs. 45% das amostras passaram antes por 15 LP; RH insuficiente para a complexidade analítica das denúncias; pouca cultura institucional em lidar com amostras de MMs e da Visa; 31% das amostras sem conclusão. 40% dos laudos satisfatórios e 23% dos insatisfatórios não realizaram ensaios adequados à resposta dos motivos da demanda. Os LVS precisam avaliar seu processo de trabalho.From the research on the "Status of Pharmacy Formulated Medicines (PFM in health surveillance laboratories (HSL" as result of an agreement between Ensp and Anvisa, we present and question issues that may contribute for reflections about the National Network of HSL organization in confronting analytical demands, having PFMs as discussion organizers. The Public Laboratories (PL that evaluated PFMs from 2000 to 2005 were identified; its analysts and samples were scanned, and three laboratories were selected to be visited. Sample processing was analyzed from its entry till the final report's issuance. Samples study allowed identifying

  13. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-05

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  14. A Framework For An Event Driven Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan Kieran

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an event driven surveillance system that uses multiple cameras. The purpose of this system is to enable thorough exploration of surveillance events. The system uses a client-server web architecture as this provides scalability for further development of the system infrastructure. The system is designed to be accessed by surveillance operators who can review and comment on events generated by our event detection processing modules. We do not just focus on event detection, but are working towards the optimization of event detection. A multiple camera network system that tracks a moving object (or person and decides if this is an event of interest is also examined. Dynamic switching of the cameras is implemented to aid in human monitoring of the network. The camera displayed in the main view should be the camera with the most interesting activity occurring. Unusual activity is defined as activity occurring that is not of the norm. Normal activity is considered to be everyday repeated activity. Further thought will be given to the extension of this system into a distributed system that would effectively create an event web system. Our contributions are to the development of automated real-time switching of camera views to aid camera operators in the effort of effective video surveillance, and also the detection of events of interest within a surveillance environment, with appropriate alerts and storage of these events. To the best of our knowledge this system provides a novel approach to the technological surveillance paradigm.

  15. Guidance for UMTRA project surveillance and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-01-01

    The Guidance for UMTRA Project Surveillance and Maintenance describes the procedures that will be used to verify that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal sites continue to function as designed. The approach of this guidance document is to identify surveillance requirements and maintenance procedures that will be used to comply with NRC license requirements. This document addresses five primary activities: Definition and characterization of final site conditions. Site inspections; Ground-water monitoring; Aerial photography; and Custodial maintenance and contingency repair. Final site conditions will be defined and characterized prior to the completion of remedial actions at a site. As-built drawings will be compiled, a final topographic survey will be performed, a vicinity map will be prepared, and ground and aerial photographs will be taken. Survey monuments, site markers, and signs will be established as will a network of monitoring wells.

  16. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. PMID:26729130

  17. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Braeken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side.

  18. Continuous Graph Partitioning for Camera Network Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    robot teams. IEEE Transactions on Robotics , 26(1):32–47, 2010. [15] S. M. LaValle. Planning Algorithms. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Available at... Transactions on Robotics , 28(3):592–606, 2012. [21] M. Spindler, F. Pasqualetti, and F. Bullo. Distributed multi-camera synchronization for smart-intruder...F. Pasqualetti, A. Franchi, and F. Bullo. On cooperative patrolling: Optimal trajectories, complexity analysis and approximation algorithms. IEEE

  19. Airborne Ubiquitous Surveillance and Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    tactical side, where the UAVs takeoff location is covered and/or unknown. The K2 antenna system as it is currently engineered by Sierra Nevada Corporation does...that the K2 system as it is today is limited to the support from the Sierra Nevada Corporation should be pressure enough to strive for independence

  20. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  1. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  2. Presence of animal feeding operations and community socioeconomic factors impact salmonellosis incidence rates: An ecological analysis using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kristi S; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Malayil, Leena; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of foodborne illness. Risk factors for salmonellosis include the consumption of contaminated chicken, eggs, pork and beef. Agricultural, environmental and socioeconomic factors also have been associated with rates of Salmonella infection. However, to our knowledge, these factors have not been modeled together at the community-level to improve our understanding of whether rates of salmonellosis are variable across communities defined by differing factors. To address this knowledge gap, we obtained data on culture-confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport and S. Javiana cases (2004-2010; n=14,297) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), and socioeconomic, environmental and agricultural data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regressions. Multiple community-level factors were associated with salmonellosis rates; however, our findings varied by state. For example, in Georgia (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.01; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.005-1.015) Maryland (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.003-1.015) and Tennessee (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.002-1.012), zip codes characterized by greater rurality had higher rates of S. Newport infections. The presence of broiler chicken operations, dairy operations and cattle operations in a zip code also was associated with significantly higher rates of infection with at least one serotype in states that are leading producers of these animal products. For instance, in Georgia and Tennessee, rates of S. Enteritidis infection were 48% (IRR=1.48; 95% CI=1.12-1.95) and 46% (IRR=1.46; 95% CI=1.17-1.81) higher in zip codes with broiler chicken operations compared to those without these operations. In Maryland, New Mexico and Tennessee, higher poverty levels in zip codes were associated with

  3. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  4. History of trichinellosis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancou J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of trichinellosis, which existed in ancient times as testified by the discovery of parasite larvae on an Egyptian mummy, unfolded in several stages: discovery of encapsulated larvae (in the 1820s, identification and scientific description of these larvae (Paget Owen, 1835, followed by experimental infestations of animals (dogs, pigs, rabbits, mice or of humans as from 1850.The main occurrences of trichinellosis were followed with particular attention in Europe (Germany, Denmark, France, etc. and in the United States of America at the end of the XIXth century. They affected numerous domestic animal species (pigs, horses, etc. or wildlife and humans. Germany paid the heaviest toll with regard to the disease in humans, between 1860 and 1880, with several thousands of patients and more than 500 deaths.Different trichinellosis surveillance systems were set up in the relevant countries in the 1860s. In humans, this surveillance was carried out on affected living patients by a biopsy of the biceps muscles and subsequently by an analysis of eosinophilia (1895. In animals, surveillance was for a long time solely based on postmortem examination of the muscles of the affected animals. This method was used for the first time in 863 in Germany, and from the 1 890s, on several hundreds of thousands of pigs in Europe or in the United States of America.

  5. PREZIES: PREventie van ZIEkenhuisinfecties door Surveillance. Component Lage luchtweginfecties bij beademing, pilot 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi TII van der; Hof S van den; Wille JC; CBO; CIE

    2005-01-01

    Surveillance of ventilator-associated pneumonia according to the protocol developed by PREZIES, the national network for the surveillance of nosocomial infections, is particularly suitable for large hospitals. This is the conclusion drawn from the three-month pilot on 'Ventilator-associated lower

  6. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity; Journees organisees par la Section Environnement de la SFRP, surveillance de la radioactivite de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Th.; Gitzinger, C.; Jaunet, P.; Eberbach, F.; Clavel, B.; Hemidy, P.Y.; Perrier, G.; Kiper, Ch.; Peres, J.M.; Josset, M.; Calvez, M.; Leclerc, M.; Leclerc, E.; Aubert, C.; Levelut, M.N.; Debayle, Ch.; Mayer, St.; Renaud, Ph.; Leprieur, F.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Monfort, M.; Baron, Y.; Target, A

    2008-07-01

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  7. Sharing, caring, and surveilling: an actor-partner interdependence model examination of Facebook relational maintenance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Bree

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Relational maintenance is connected to high quality friendships. Friendship maintenance behaviors may occur online via social networking sites. This study utilized an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine how Facebook maintenance and surveillance affect friendship quality. Bryant and Marmo's (2012) Facebook maintenance scale was evaluated, revealing two factors: sharing and caring. Facebook surveillance was also measured. For friendship satisfaction and liking, significant positive actor and partner effects emerged for caring; significant negative actor, partner, and interaction effects emerged for sharing; and significant positive actor effects emerged for surveillance. For friendship closeness, significant positive actor effects emerged for caring and surveillance.

  8. Tracing You: How transparent surveillance reveals a desire for visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Grosser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tracing You is an artwork that presents a website's best attempt to see the world from its visitors’ viewpoints. By cross referencing visitor IP addresses with available online data sources, the work traces each visitor back through the network to its possible origin. The end of that trace is the closest available image that potentially shows the visitor’s physical environment. Sometimes what this image shows is eerily accurate; other times it is wildly dislocated. This computational surveillance system thus makes transparent the potential visibility of one’s present location on the Earth, while also giving each site visitor the ability to watch other visitor “traces” in real time. By making its surveillance capacity and intention overt, Tracing You provokes questions about the architecture of networks and how that architecture affects our own visibility both within and outside of the network. Further, reactions to the work reveal attitudes towards surveillance post-Snowden, including, in some cases, an angry desire for more visibility than Tracing You currently provides. This commentary describes how the artwork functions, presents and discusses visitor reactions, and briefly theorizes origins for these reactions within the contexts of surveillance, sousveillance, and transparency in the age of ubiquitous online social networks.

  9. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  10. Security Event Recognition for Visual Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, M. Ying; Rosenhahn, B.

    2017-05-01

    With rapidly increasing deployment of surveillance cameras, the reliable methods for automatically analyzing the surveillance video and recognizing special events are demanded by different practical applications. This paper proposes a novel effective framework for security event analysis in surveillance videos. First, convolutional neural network (CNN) framework is used to detect objects of interest in the given videos. Second, the owners of the objects are recognized and monitored in real-time as well. If anyone moves any object, this person will be verified whether he/she is its owner. If not, this event will be further analyzed and distinguished between two different scenes: moving the object away or stealing it. To validate the proposed approach, a new video dataset consisting of various scenarios is constructed for more complex tasks. For comparison purpose, the experiments are also carried out on the benchmark databases related to the task on abandoned luggage detection. The experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and effective in recognizing complex security events.

  11. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  12. Connectivity Maintenance Based on Multiple Relay UAVs Selection Scheme in Cooperative Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of remote command and situation awareness, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs cooperative surveillance with a ground station via multihop communications is presented in this paper. Considering limited communication capacities, a reliable UAV-to-UAV communication relay chain is dynamically established for connectivity maintenance and real-time surveillance information transmission. Firstly, a multiple UAVs cooperative surveillance framework is constructed with history detection information and surveillance payoff estimation. Secondly, four attributes are proposed to characterize differences among UAV alternatives in communication network containing a ground station, and a novel multiple relay UAVs selection scheme based on fuzzy optimum selection is developed to achieve tradeoff between surveillance mission and connectivity maintenance. Furthermore, satisfied with collision avoidance, limited communication and UAV kinematic constraints, the optimal UAV motion plan is obtained by decentralized receding horizon control, which is solved by particle swarm optimization with elite mechanism. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods in multi UAVs cooperative surveillance.

  13. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Yeung, Karen; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  14. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  15. Intelligent route surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, R.M.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.; Voorthuijsen, G.P. van

    2009-01-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent

  16. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  17. Secure surveillance videotapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pepper, S. [International Safeguards Project Office, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system`s tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal.

  18. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  19. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  20. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This lecture discusses stockpile stewardship efforts and the role surveillance plays in the process. Performance of the RTGs is described, and the question of the absence of anticipated He is addressed.

  1. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    ... river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image...

  2. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8 -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  3. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7 -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  4. Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Widowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of disease in Indonesia is limited. Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. Methods In January - December 2006, a prospective, hospital-based surveillance was carried out in children aged less than five years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples were examined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed to be positive by EIA. Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of the specimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%. Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present with dehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94% vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03. Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of pediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This finding warrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease, such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:22-7].

  5. Laboratory network based surveillance of drug resistance of Salmonella enteritidis in Shanghai, 2006-2012%2006-2012年上海市基于网络实验室的肠炎沙门菌耐药监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪佳琳; 许浩; 胡雪明; 钟海明; 张静; 金汇明; 肖文佳; 许学斌; 冉陆

    2013-01-01

    Objective The establishment of a laboratory network surveillance system and analyze the antibiotic resistance characteristics of Salmonella enteritidis,and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control measures development.Methods A total of 184 foodborne and environmental strains and 1146 diarrhea strains of Salmonella enteritidis were isolated in 8 public health laboratories and 24 clinical laboratories from 2006 to 2012,their drug resistance to 16 antibiotics were detected by using disk diffusion method (K-B method) and the drug resistance database was established with WHONET software.Results The detection rate of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry meat was highest (155/184).The laboratory confirmed cases were mainly distributed in people aged 18-59 years and < 5 years.More cases occurred in children aged 1-4 years than those aged < 1 years,and the cases in people aged > 60 years increased gradually.The resistant rate of all Salmonella enteritidis strains to nalidixic acid was over 90%.The multidrug-resistant strains (to ampicillin,chloramphenicol,streptomycin,sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline) were isolated from chicken meat samples and 1 foodborne sample (in 2009),while foodborne strains and diarrhea strains resistant to cefepime were detected in 2011 and 2008 respectively.The resistant rates of diarrhea strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were higher than those of foodbome strains.The strains resistant to the third generation cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin in lower age group accounted for approximately 2/3 and 1/2 of the total.Conclusion Community acquired and foodborne infections of Salmonella enteritidis were detected in Changning district.The multidrug resistant strains detected in Changning were probably highly pathogenic.It is important to improve laboratory's routine detection capacity,reduce the elderly and children's unnecessary antibiotic exposure for the mitigation of disease burden caused by Salmonella

  6. Syndromic surveillance: A local perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The promise of syndromic surveillance extends beyond early warning for bioterrorist attacks. Even if bioterrorism is first detected by an astute clinician, syndromic surveillance can help delineate the size, location, and tempo of the epidemic or provide reassurance that a large outbreak is not occurring when a single case or a small, localized cluster of an unusual illness is detected. More broadly, however, as public health and medicine proceed in our information age, the use of existing el...

  7. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  8. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  9. Trends in sexually transmitted infections in the Netherlands, combining surveillance data from general practices and sexually transmitted infection centers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, I.V.F. van den; Verheij, R.A.; Dijk, C. van; Koedijk, F.D.H.; Sande, M.A.B. van der; Bergen, J.E.A.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) care in the Netherlands is primarily provided by general practitioners (GPs) and specialized STI centers. STI surveillance is based on data from STI centers, which show increasing numbers of clients. Data from a GP morbidity surveillance network were

  10. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwyer, Dominic E; Nielsen, Henrik Ib

    2011-01-01

    The novel pandemic influenza A (H1H1) 2009 virus spread rapidly around the world in 2009. The paucity of prospective international epidemiologic data on predictors of clinical outcomes with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection stimulated the INSIGHT network, an international network of community ...

  11. Efficient large-scale graph data optimization for intelligent video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Quanhong; Zhang, Shujun; Wang, Yanbo; Sun, Chen; Wang, Zepeng; Zhang, Luming

    2017-08-01

    Society is rapidly accepting the use of a wide variety of cameras Location and applications: site traffic monitoring, parking Lot surveillance, car and smart space. These ones here the camera provides data every day in an analysis Effective way. Recent advances in sensor technology Manufacturing, communications and computing are stimulating.The development of new applications that can change the traditional Vision system incorporating universal smart camera network. This Analysis of visual cues in multi camera networks makes wide Applications ranging from smart home and office automation to large area surveillance and traffic surveillance. In addition, dense Camera networks, most of which have large overlapping areas of cameras. In the view of good research, we focus on sparse camera networks. One Sparse camera network using large area surveillance. As few cameras as possible, most cameras do not overlap Each other’s field of vision. This task is challenging Lack of knowledge of topology Network, the specific changes in appearance and movement Track different opinions of the target, as well as difficulties Understanding complex events in a network. In this review in this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of recent studies Results to solve the problem of topology learning, Object appearance modeling and global activity understanding sparse camera network. In addition, some of the current open Research issues are discussed.

  12. GPRS Video Streaming Surveillance System GVSS

    CERN Document Server

    Pushpavathi, T P; Kumar, N R Shashi

    2010-01-01

    Future security measures will create comfortable living environments that are embedded with a wide range of intelligent functionalities including home computing, entertainment, health care and security. These place stringent requirements on the home networking architecture which integrates various existing technologies for monitoring and control for future high security needs. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a gvss gprs Video Streaming Surveillance System system, which integrates various existing technologies for providing security for smart home environments. This system provides security for office, home and other buildings where high security is required.This allows the mobile user to track the activities from a particular location. The system will send snapshots of the video and stores them in different formats. It is also possible to display the time with the image when it was captured in the gprs enabled mobiles. This system is implemented using J2me Technology

  13. Epidemiological surveillance using information technologies in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabe, Xabier Basogain; León, Virgilio Cane; Galvan, Pedro; de Cabral, Margarita Brizuela; Basogain, Miguel Angel Olabe; Gomez-Solaetxe, Miguel A; Larrabe, Juan L

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the early work on a project in Paraguay for epidemiological surveillance using information technologies. This project is a response of our university to a governmental request to establish links of cooperation and development between academic public sectors of Spain and Paraguay. The overall project objective is the promotion ofa healthy citizenry through the application of information and communication technologies to the monitoring of populations vulnerable to febrile syndromes (FS). The goal of this project is to create the infrastructure that will allow the population of the country to easily communicate with health centers and provide information on cases of FS. The telephone network will be the main physical support for this communication. The project was formally initiated in January 2009 with the implementation of the prototype system. During the first half of 2010, the pilot project will be implemented in Asunción, Paraguay.

  14. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  15. Monitoring influenza activity in the United States: a comparison of traditional surveillance systems with Google Flu Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Ortiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Influenza activity data from 2003-04 through 2007-08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance, and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79. The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89. Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003-04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87 or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003-04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior.

  16. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  17. Syndromic surveillance for influenza in the emergency department-A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Hiller

    Full Text Available The science of surveillance is rapidly evolving due to changes in public health information and preparedness as national security issues, new information technologies and health reform. As the Emergency Department has become a much more utilized venue for acute care, it has also become a more attractive data source for disease surveillance. In recent years, influenza surveillance from the Emergency Department has increased in scope and breadth and has resulted in innovative and increasingly accepted methods of surveillance for influenza and influenza-like-illness (ILI. We undertook a systematic review of published Emergency Department-based influenza and ILI syndromic surveillance systems. A PubMed search using the keywords "syndromic", "surveillance", "influenza" and "emergency" was performed. Manuscripts were included in the analysis if they described (1 data from an Emergency Department (2 surveillance of influenza or ILI and (3 syndromic or clinical data. Meeting abstracts were excluded. The references of included manuscripts were examined for additional studies. A total of 38 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria, describing 24 discrete syndromic surveillance systems. Emergency Department-based influenza syndromic surveillance has been described worldwide. A wide variety of clinical data was used for surveillance, including chief complaint/presentation, preliminary or discharge diagnosis, free text analysis of the entire medical record, Google flu trends, calls to teletriage and help lines, ambulance dispatch calls, case reports of H1N1 in the media, markers of ED crowding, admission and Left Without Being Seen rates. Syndromes used to capture influenza rates were nearly always related to ILI (i.e. fever +/- a respiratory or constitutional complaint, however, other syndromes used for surveillance included fever alone, "respiratory complaint" and seizure. Two very large surveillance networks, the North American DiSTRIBuTE network and the

  18. Automated surveillance of healthcare-associated infections: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sips, Meander E; Bonten, Marc J M; van Mourik, Maaike S M

    2017-08-01

    This review describes recent advances in the field of automated surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), with a focus on data sources and the development of semiautomated or fully automated algorithms. The availability of high-quality data in electronic health records and a well-designed information technology (IT) infrastructure to access these data are indispensable for successful implementation of automated HAI surveillance. Previous studies have demonstrated that reliance on stand-alone administrative data is generally unsuited as sole case-finding strategy. Recent attempts to combine multiple administrative and clinical data sources in algorithms yielded more reliable results. Current surveillance practices are mostly limited to single healthcare facilities, but future linkage of multiple databases in a network may allow interfacility surveillance. Although prior surveillance algorithms were often straightforward decision trees based on structured data, recent studies have used a wide variety of techniques for case-finding, including logistic regression and various machine learning methods. In the future, natural language processing may enable the use of unstructured narrative data. Developments in healthcare IT are rapidly changing the landscape of HAI surveillance. The electronic availability and incorporation of routine care data in surveillance algorithms enhances the reliability, efficiency and standardization of surveillance practices.

  19. A Surveillance Model for Human Avian Influenza with a Comprehensive Surveillance System for Local-Priority Communicable Diseases in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Shigeki; Muhadir, Andi; Santoso, Hari; Tanaka, Kohtaroh; Anwar, Muhammad; Sulistyo, Erwan Tri; Hachiya, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    The government of Indonesia and the Japan International Cooperation Agency launched a three-year project (2008–2011) to strengthen the surveillance of human avian influenza cases through a comprehensive surveillance system of local-priority communicable diseases in South Sulawesi Province. Based on findings from preliminary and baseline surveys, the project developed a technical protocol for surveillance and response activities in local settings, consistent with national guidelines. District surveillance officers (DSOs) and rapid-response-team members underwent training to improve surveillance and response skills. A network-based early warning and response system for weekly reports and a short message service (SMS) gateway for outbreak reports, both encompassing more than 20 probable outbreak diseases, were introduced to support existing paper-based systems. Two further strategies were implemented to optimize project outputs: a simulation exercise and a DSO-centered model. As a result, the timeliness of weekly reports improved from 33% in 2009 to 82% in 2011. In 2011, 65 outbreaks were reported using the SMS, with 64 subsequent paper-based reports. All suspected human avian influenza outbreaks up to September 2011 were reported in the stipulated format. A crosscutting approach using human avian influenza as the core disease for coordinating surveillance activities improved the overall surveillance system for communicable diseases. PMID:23532690

  20. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... by analyzing a location-based system for airport passengers developed for a Copenhagen Airport, and the dimensions are used to explain user reactions to different services offered by the system....... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach...

  1. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  2. National Public Health Surveillance in China:Implications for Public Health in China and the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGGONG-HUAN; DONNAF·STROUP

    1997-01-01

    Study Objective:Throughout the world,political developments have brought new demands to communities to prevent and intervene in the incidence of infectious and noninfectious conditions.Historically,these developments have required new and more effective public health surveillance ac-tivities.This report describes public health surveillance practice in the People's Republic of China,making comparisons with selected aspects of surveillance in the United States with respect to collec-tion,analysis,dissemination,and use of data.Main results:In both the People's Republc of China and the United States.political change has affected health,and multiple surveillance system are used in public health practice.Surveillance of acute infectious diseases based on the reporting of legally notifiable diseases and the use of vital records for surveillance have the longest established history in both countries.In both countries,da-ta from the surveillance systems have been used to affect public health policy.Conclusions:in comparing surveillance practices in these countries,we find similarities in con-ditions reported and in the dissemination of the data.At the same time,legal,social,cultural,and economic differences between the nations have affected the practice of surveillance in analysis and evaluation.We make explicit recommendations for improement and evaluation of systems in both countries,including sentinel surveillance system and data quality measures in China and computer networking and data analysis in the United States.

  3. RAISIN - a national programme for early warning, investigation and surveillance of healthcare-associated infection in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desenclos, Jean-Claude

    2009-11-19

    Surveillance is a key component of the French plan for prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) and has progressively evolved in the past decades. We describe the development and current organisation of surveillance of HAI in France and summarise key achievements and results. Surveillance of HAI is under the auspice of the national institute for public health surveillance through a central coordinating structure, the Reseau d alerte, d investigation et de surveillance des infections nosocomiales (RAISIN), which consists of five regional coordinating structures, two national advisory committees of the Ministry of Health and public health agencies. Surveillance includes the performance of national prevalence surveys every five years (latest in 2006), specific surveillance networks to follow trends and characterise HAI that are national priority, and mandatory reporting of HAI that meet specific criteria for alert purposes. RAISIN prioritises activities, defines technical specifications of surveillance systems, coordinates their implementation, and supports response to alerts, emergences or outbreaks of HAI. We demonstrate that the French surveillance program of HAI has become comprehensive and contributes to evaluating the impact of control and prevention of HAI. Data from RAISIN indicate a general decrease in the risk of HAI in acute care in France. They show a decrease in HAI during recent years, particularly of those related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for which a drop of 38% was documented between 2001 and 2006. RAISIN is also integrated into European surveillance of HAI coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Control.

  4. Surveillance and control of the main industrial effluents to wastewater network in Cordoba city; Vigilancia y control de los principales vertidos industriales a la red de saneamiento de Cordoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvin, R. M.

    2002-07-01

    The municipal effluents laws to the public wastewater networks are the instruments applied to control the industrial wastewater in Spain. They are very necessary because of the higher pollutant capacity associated to all the industrial effluents discarded to the networks. In this way, every industrial effluents can promote the following problems: aggressiveness to network pipelines and treatment equipment, flow obstruction and presence of novice, dangerous and toxic al substances to both human and biological treatment processes used in the municipal wastewater treatment plant. The control of the industrial effluents in the Cordoba city implies an annual average of 700 inspections in industries, 100 inspections in the main pipeline of city and 5.000 laboratory physical and chemical analysis. All the above said makes possible to control the main industries of the city, to established in the law, also the application of the higher pollution taxes when it is demandable. (Author) 19 refs.

  5. Calibration and study of the measurement capabilities of real-time gamma spectrometry equipment, developed for the renewal of the network of automatic stations for environmental radiological surveillance of the Generalitat de Catalunya; Calibracion y estudio de las capacidades de medida de loes equipos de espectrometria gamma en tiempo real desarrollados para la renovacion de la Red de Estaciones Automaticas de vigencia radiologica ambiental de la generalitat de Catalunya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanovas, R.; Prieto, E.; Salvado, M.

    2013-07-01

    The renewal of the automatic environmental radiation surveillance network of the Gereralitat of Catalunya has been carried out through the development and implementation of gamma-spectrometry-based equipment. The monitors use scintillation cristals, either NaI(Tl) or LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and currently, there are 3 types of equipment: water radioactivity monitors, aerosols on a particulate filter monitors and direct measurement monitors. In this paper, we expose the basic features of its operation, the details of their calibration and the minimum detectable activity concentrations for some isotopes.

  6. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  7. Inappropriate colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, R A

    2011-11-15

    Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.

  8. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  9. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT PUBLIC HEALTH FROM ONLINE CROWD SURVEILLANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shawndra; Merchant, Raina; Ungar, Lyle

    2013-09-10

    The Internet has forever changed the way people access information and make decisions about their healthcare needs. Patients now share information about their health at unprecedented rates on social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook and on medical discussion boards. In addition to explicitly shared information about health conditions through posts, patients reveal data on their inner fears and desires about health when searching for health-related keywords on search engines. Data are also generated by the use of mobile phone applications that track users' health behaviors (e.g., eating and exercise habits) as well as give medical advice. The data generated through these applications are mined and repackaged by surveillance systems developed by academics, companies, and governments alike to provide insight to patients and healthcare providers for medical decisions. Until recently, most Internet research in public health has been surveillance focused or monitoring health behaviors. Only recently have researchers used and interacted with the crowd to ask questions and collect health-related data. In the future, we expect to move from this surveillance focus to the "ideal" of Internet-based patient-level interventions where healthcare providers help patients change their health behaviors. In this article, we highlight the results of our prior research on crowd surveillance and make suggestions for the future.

  10. One Health surveillance - More than a buzz word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärk, Katharina D C; Arroyo Kuribreña, Montserrat; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Vokaty, Sandra; Ward, Michael P; Wieland, Barbara; Lindberg, Ann

    2015-06-01

    One Health surveillance describes the systematic collection, validation, analysis, interpretation of data and dissemination of information collected on humans, animals and the environment to inform decisions for more effective, evidence- and system-based health interventions. During the second International Conference on Animal Health Surveillance (ICAHS) in Havana, Cuba, a panel discussion was organised to discuss the relevance of One Health in the context of surveillance. A number of success stories were presented which generally focused on the obvious interfaces between human and veterinary medicine such as zoonoses and food safety. Activities aimed at strengthening inter-sectoral networking through technical collaboration, conferences, workshops and consultations have resulted in recommendations to advance the One Health concept. There are also several One Health educational programmes offered as Masters programmes. Continuing challenges to One Health surveillance were identified at both technical as well as organisational level. It was acknowledged that the public health sector and the environmental sector could be engaged more in One Health activities. Legal issues, hurdles to data sharing, unclear responsibilities and structural barriers between ministries prevent integrated action. Policy makers in the health sector often perceive One Health as a veterinary-driven initiative that is not particularly relevant to their priority problems. Whilst some funding schemes allow for the employment of scientists and technicians for research projects, the development of a sustainable One Health workforce has yet to be broadly demonstrated. Funding opportunities do not explicitly promote the development of One Health surveillance systems. In addition, organisational, legal and administrative barriers may prevent operational implementation. Strategies and communication across sectors need to be aligned. Whilst at the technical or local level the formal separation can be

  11. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture.......Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  12. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Raaijmakers, S.A.; Halma, A.H.R.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  13. Video Surveillance using Distance Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Laplante, Phillip A.

    2006-01-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors.

  14. Video surveillance with speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, Carmen J.; Brase, James M.

    2007-07-17

    A surveillance system looks through the atmosphere along a horizontal or slant path. Turbulence along the path causes blurring. The blurring is corrected by speckle processing short exposure images recorded with a camera. The exposures are short enough to effectively freeze the atmospheric turbulence. Speckle processing is used to recover a better quality image of the scene.

  15. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Raaijmakers, S.A.; Halma, A.H.R.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  16. Video surveillance using distance maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; van den Broek, Egon; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Laplante, Phillip A,

    2006-01-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors.

  17. Video Surveillance: Privacy Issues and Legal Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    . There is a need to balance the usage of video surveillance against its negative impact on privacy. This chapter aims to highlight the privacy issues in video surveillance and provides a model to help identify the privacy requirements in a video surveillance system. The authors make a step in the direction...

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  19. Living Dead Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Thacker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores, through a series of condensed modules, the ways in which contagion operates in both biological and informational networks.Through an examination of the fields of information security and medical surveillance, computer viruses and mathematical epidemiology, and pathogenic information and informed pathogens, this essay asks how the political relation between 'control' and 'emergence' is formed in networks in which the distinction between information and biology breaks down.

  20. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwyer, Dominic E; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The novel pandemic influenza A (H1H1) 2009 virus spread rapidly around the world in 2009. The paucity of prospective international epidemiologic data on predictors of clinical outcomes with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection stimulated the INSIGHT network, an international network of community...... and hospital-based investigators, to commence two worldwide clinical observational studies to describe pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus activity. The purpose of these two studies was to estimate the percent of adult patients with illness due to laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection......, with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These 'in progress' INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks....

  1. Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahra, Monica M; Enriquez, Rodney P

    2014-12-31

    In 2013, there were 143 laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) analysed by the Australian National Neisseria Network (NNN). This was the lowest number of laboratory confirmed IMD cases referred to the NNN since the inception of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme in 1994. Probable and laboratory confirmed IMD is notifiable in Australia. There were 149 IMD cases notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 2013. Meningococcal serogrouping was determined for 139/143 laboratory confirmed IMD cases; 74.8% (104 cases) were serogroup B infections; 5.8% (8 cases) were serogroup C infections; 8.6% (12 cases) were serogroup W135; and 10.8% (15 cases) were serogroup Y. Primary and secondary disease peaks were observed, respectively, in those aged 4 years or less, and in adolescents (15-19 years). Serogroup B cases predominated in all jurisdictions and age groups, except for those aged 65 years or over where serogroup Y predominated. The overall proportion and number of IMD caused by serogroup B decreased from previous years. The number of cases of IMD caused by serogroup C was low, and has been proportionally stable over recent years. The number of IMD cases caused by W135 and Y serogroups was similar to previous years but the proportion has increased with the overall reduction in numbers of IMD cases. Molecular typing was performed on 92 of the 93 IMD isolates, and 23 of the 50 cases confirmed by nucleic acid amplification testing. In 2013, the most common porA genotype circulating in Australia was P1.7-2,4. All IMD isolates tested were susceptible to ceftriaxone; ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin was observed in 78.5% of isolates.

  2. Mechanism Analysis of Air Surveillance Radar Network System Dense False Target Jamming%对空情报雷达网密集假目标干扰机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵源; 熊英; 唐斌

    2015-01-01

    针对雷达网欺骗干扰问题,首先讨论了雷达网数据关联处理方法薄弱环节,给出了可以欺骗雷达网的假目标应该满足的条件,然后分析对空情报雷达网密集假目标干扰的产生机理和作用机理,为产生高逼真的假目标,将空间分布转化为非线性最优化问题. 当进行多干扰机协同干扰时,将干扰机功率资源在空间的分配问题转化为非线性规划问题. 仿真研究了对网络化雷达的假目标欺骗干扰效果以及影响干扰效果的因素,该结果可为对空情报雷达网电子对抗提供理论指导.%The weakness of data processing algorithms for radar network is discussed,requirements of false targets for combating the victim radar network is given. Then the mechanism of dense false target jamming against radar network is analyzed. The false target distribution is transformed into a nonlinear optimization in order to generate the false target acting like a real target. For multiple jammers scenario,power resource allocation is turned into a nonlinear programming. The effectiveness of jamming is simulated and the influ-ence factors are studied. This research will provide a theoretical guidance for the radar network electronic countermeasure( ECM) .

  3. Distributed Video Surveillance Systems Intelligence Community Research Based on 3G Network%基于3G网络的智慧社区分布式视频监控系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤荻

    2014-01-01

    用户在家中安装一台嵌入式多媒体中心即可随时随地使用PC客户端或智能手机App查看所属社区的公共视频监控资源和用户自家私有的视频资源。设计实时监控视频分析处理软件,检测家中的弱势群体是否出现危险的情况,将3G智能手机与互联网结合应用,当危险发生时软件将在第一时间做出智能判断并对危险情景进行截图,然后通过互联网将截图以及报警信息发送给相关监护人用户,为用户的迅速判断以及合理决定提供可视化的数据支撑。%The user in the center of the home to install a embedded multimedia can be anywhere at any time using the PC client,or a smart phone app to view the community's public video surveillance and user's own private video resources. Real-time monitoring of video analysis software, check whether the disadvantaged groups of the home has the dangerous situation,combines 3G smart phones and the internet application,when danger happening software will make intelligent judgment and to a dangerous situation in the first time to capture,then the screenshot via the internet and send alarm information to the related guardian users, for users to quickly determine if provide the data visualization and reasonable decision support.

  4. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: Current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Matthew R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts.

  5. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Nisha N; Maves, Ryan C; Sebeny, Peter; Kasper, Matthew R; Riddle, Mark S; Wu, Max; Lee, James E; Schnabel, David; Bowden, Robert; Oaks, Edwin V; Ocaña, Victor; Acosta, Luis; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Lanata, Claudio; Ochoa, Theresa; Aguayo, Nicolás; Bernal, Maruja; Meza, Rina; Canal, Enrique; Gregory, Michael; Cepeda, David; Listiyaningsih, Erlin; Putnam, Shannon D; Young, Sylvia; Mansour, Adel; Nakhla, Isabelle; Moustafa, Manal; Hassan, Khaled; Klena, John; Bruton, Jody; Shaheen, Hind; Farid, Sami; Fouad, Salwa; El-Mohamady, Hanan; Styles, Timothy; Shiau, L C D R Danny; Espinosa, Benjamin; McMullen, Kellie; Reed, Eva; Neil, Donald; Searles, Doug; Nevin, Remington; Von Thun, Annette; Sessions, Cecili

    2011-03-04

    The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC) is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts.

  6. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  7. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  8. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  9. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  10. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  11. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  12. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  13. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  14. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  15. Qualitative insights into how men with low-risk prostate cancer choosing active surveillance negotiate stress and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Emily M; Li, Hsin H; Lyons, Kathleen D; Morley, Christopher P; Formica, Margaret K; Perrapato, Scott D; Irwin, Brian H; Seigne, John D; Hyams, Elias S; Mosher, Terry; Hegel, Mark T; Stewart, Telisa M

    2017-05-08

    Active surveillance is a management strategy for men diagnosed with early-stage, low-risk prostate cancer in which their cancer is monitored and treatment is delayed. This study investigated the primary coping mechanisms for men following the active surveillance treatment plan, with a specific focus on how these men interact with their social network as they negotiate the stress and uncertainty of their diagnosis and treatment approach. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews at two academic institutions located in the northeastern US. Participants include 15 men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer following active surveillance. The decision to follow active surveillance reflects the desire to avoid potentially life-altering side effects associated with active treatment options. Men on active surveillance cope with their prostate cancer diagnosis by both maintaining a sense of control over their daily lives, as well as relying on the support provided them by their social networks and the medical community. Social networks support men on active surveillance by encouraging lifestyle changes and serving as a resource to discuss and ease cancer-related stress. Support systems for men with low-risk prostate cancer do not always interface directly with the medical community. Spousal and social support play important roles in helping men understand and accept their prostate cancer diagnosis and chosen care plan. It may be beneficial to highlight the role of social support in interventions targeting the psychosocial health of men on active surveillance.

  16. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  17. Efficient Approach for Face Detection in Video Surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红; 石峰

    2003-01-01

    Security access control systems and automatic video surveillance systems are becoming increasingly important recently,and detecting human faces is one of the indispensable processes.In this paper,an approach is presented to detect faces in video surveillance.Firstly,both the skin-color and motion components are applied to extract skin-like regions.The skin-color segmentation algorithm is based on the BPNN (back-error-propagation neural network) and the motion component is obtained with frame difference algorithm.Secondly,the image is clustered into separated face candidates by using the region growing technique.Finally,the face candidates are further verified by the rule-based algorithm.Experiment results demonstrate that both the accuracy and processing speed are very promising and the approach can be applied for the practical use.

  18. Privacy Sensitive Surveillance for Assisted Living - A Smart Camera Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Sven; Straßer, Wolfgang

    An elderly woman wanders about aimlessly in a home for assisted living. Suddenly, she collapses on the floor of a lonesome hallway. Usually it can take over two hours until a night nurse passes this spot on her next inspection round. But in this case she is already on site after two minutes, ready to help. She has received an alert message on her beeper: "Inhabitant fallen in hallway 2b". The source: the SmartSurv distributed network of smart cameras for automated and privacy respecting video analysis.Welcome to the future of smart surveillance Although this scenario is not yet daily practice, it shall make clear how such systems will impact the safety of the elderly without the privacy intrusion of traditional video surveillance systems.

  19. Application of MPEG/ITV surveillance system to plant surveillance and control field; MPEG 2 ITV kanshi system no plant kanshi seigyo bun`ya eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, W.; Mitera, T. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-23

    Meidensha, Inc. has realized ITV surveillance function by employing the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) system as one of the utilization modes of wide area network and by transmitting surveillance and control data, as well as image and voice data. The system has the following features: because this ITV surveillance system has adopted MPEG2 for compression and expansion of image information, high definition image surveillance is possible; because image information is digitized and compressed, both of the data system and voice system can be accommodated in the same network; and because of adoption of environment resistant and high reliability industrial personal computer for the platform of this device, continuous operation is possible for an extended period of time. The ITV surveillance device transmits commands selected on the operation panel to an ITV control server, monitors responses from the ITV control server, and at the same time, decodes the MPEG2 image information from the ITV control server to display the images on the monitor. (NEDO)

  20. Enhanced surveillance for the Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States, Apia, Samoa, September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saketa, Salanieta; Durand, Alexis; Vaai-Nielsen, Saine; Leong-Lui, Tile Ah; Naseri, Take; Matalima, Ailuai; Amosa, Filipina; Mercier, Alize; Lepers, Christelle; Lal, Vjesh; Wojcik, Richard; Lewis, Sheri; Roth, Adam; Souares, Yvan; Merilles, Onofre Edwin; Hoy, Damian

    2017-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa’s weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics. Daily situation reports were produced and were disseminated through PacNet (the e-mail alert and communication tool of the Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network) together with daily prioritized line lists of syndrome activity to facilitate rapid response and investigation by the Samoan EpiNet team. Standard operating procedures for surveillance and response were introduced, together with a sustainability plan, including a monitoring and evaluation framework, to facilitate the transition of the mass gathering surveillance improvements to routine surveillance. The enhanced surveillance performed well, providing vital disease early warning and health security assurance. A total of 2386 encounters and 708 syndrome cases were reported. Influenza-like illness was the most frequently seen syndrome (17%). No new infectious disease outbreaks were recorded. The experience emphasized: (1) the need for a long lead time to pilot the surveillance enhancements and to maximize their sustainability; (2) the importance of good communication between key stakeholders; and (3) having sufficient staff dedicated to both surveillance and response. PMID:28409055

  1. Enhanced surveillance for the Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States, Apia, Samoa, September 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa’s weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics. Daily situation reports were produced and were disseminated through PacNet (the email alert and communication tool of the Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network together with daily prioritized line lists of syndrome activity to facilitate rapid response and investigation by the Samoan EpiNet team. Standard operating procedures for surveillance and response were introduced, together with a sustainability plan, including a monitoring and evaluation framework, to facilitate the transition of the mass gathering surveillance improvements to routine surveillance. The enhanced surveillance performed well, providing vital disease early warning and health security assurance. A total of 2386 encounters and 708 syndrome cases were reported. Influenza-like illness was the most frequently seen syndrome (17%. No new infectious disease outbreaks were recorded. The experience emphasized: (1 the need for a long lead time to pilot the surveillance enhancements and to maximize their sustainability; (2 the importance of good communication between key stakeholders; and (3 having sufficient staff dedicated to both surveillance and response.

  2. The Sharper Image for Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    A technique adapted by Livermore scientists to take the twinkle out of stars is now being used to improve the resolution of long-range surveillance systems trained on earthbound objects. The speckle-imaging technique involves taking tens to hundreds of pictures with short-exposure times and reconstructing a single, sharp image using image-processing software. The technique drew the interest of Livermore engineer Carmen Carrano. She developed a prototype remote-surveillance system that can produce a detailed image of a face from a couple of kilometers away. The system also helps identify vehicles tens of kilometers away and improves the viewing of large structures more than 60 kilometers away.

  3. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  4. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  5. Network anomaly detection a machine learning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid rise in the ubiquity and sophistication of Internet technology and the accompanying growth in the number of network attacks, network intrusion detection has become increasingly important. Anomaly-based network intrusion detection refers to finding exceptional or nonconforming patterns in network traffic data compared to normal behavior. Finding these anomalies has extensive applications in areas such as cyber security, credit card and insurance fraud detection, and military surveillance for enemy activities. Network Anomaly Detection: A Machine Learning Perspective presents mach

  6. Attaching Hollywood to a Surveillant Assemblage: Normalizing Discourses of Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy K Lippert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines video surveillance images in Hollywood film. It moves beyond previous accounts of video surveillance in relation to film by theoretically situating the use of these surveillance images in a broader “surveillant assemblage”. To this end, scenes from a sample of thirty-five (35 films of several genres are examined to discern dominant discourses and how they lend themselves to normalization of video surveillance. Four discourses are discovered and elaborated by providing examples from Hollywood films. While the films provide video surveillance with a positive associative association it is not without nuance and limitations. Thus, it is found that some forms of resistance to video surveillance are shown while its deterrent effect is not. It is ultimately argued that Hollywood film is becoming attached to a video surveillant assemblage discursively through these normalizing discourses as well as structurally to the extent actual video surveillance technology to produce the images is used.

  7. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  8. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  9. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  10. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the number of international tourist arrivals worldwide was projected to reach a new high of 1 billion arrivals, a 48% increase from 674 million arrivals in 2000. International travel also is increasing among U.S. residents. In 2009, U.S. residents made approximately 61 million trips outside the country, a 5% increase from 1999. Travel-related morbidity can occur during or after travel. Worldwide, 8% of travelers from industrialized to developing countries report becoming ill enough to seek health care during or after travel. Travelers have contributed to the global spread of infectious diseases, including novel and emerging pathogens. Therefore, surveillance of travel-related morbidity is an essential component of global public health surveillance and will be of greater importance as international travel increases worldwide. September 1997-December 2011. GeoSentinel is a clinic-based global surveillance system that tracks infectious diseases and other adverse health outcomes in returned travelers, foreign visitors, and immigrants. GeoSentinel comprises 54 travel/tropical medicine clinics worldwide that electronically submit demographic, travel, and clinical diagnosis data for all patients evaluated for an illness or other health condition that is presumed to be related to international travel. Clinical information is collected by physicians with expertise or experience in travel/tropical medicine. Data collected at all sites are entered electronically into a database, which is housed at and maintained by CDC. The GeoSentinel network membership program comprises 235 additional clinics in 40 countries on six continents. Although these network members do not report surveillance data systematically, they can report unusual or concerning diagnoses in travelers and might be asked to perform enhanced surveillance in response to specific health events or concerns. During September 1997-December 2011, data were collected on 141,789 patients with confirmed or

  11. Silhouettes of War: Technologies of U.S. Soldiering and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Behm

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper forwards a theory of silhouetting in relation to technological augmenta-tion in U.S. Military uniforms and suggests that the increasing utilization of metamaterials, nanotechnology, and surveillance technologies operates under a rhetoric of invisibility that complicates the technologies' visible destruction. Methodologically, the paper attends to three general technological developments in the evolution of the U.S. Army uniform: the design of the new Army Combat Uniform (ACU; the technological advances in the uniform, including embedded wearables, biometric identification devices, and 3D combat enhancement systems; and the bio-networking, GPS, and digital communication arrays that physically link digital uniforms to a larger geopolitical network of U.S. military strategy and surveillance. Throughout, the work traces the aforementioned theory of silhouet-ting in relation to select sociopolitical consequences of linking digitally enhanced soldiers into a transnational grid of surveillance.

  12. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  13. Dynvect's overview of the Culicoides surveillance systems in the EU and distribution maps of key species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balenghien, T.; Bødker, Rene; Kiel, E.

    One of the aims of the DynVect project was to set up a network of European entomologists working on Culicoides, the vectors of bluetongue virus, to create a platform for discussion, data sharing and data analysis. The first task consisted in describing the surveillance systems in place in each...

  14. Genomic Epidemiology: Whole-Genome-Sequencing–Powered Surveillance and Outbreak Investigation of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiangyu; den Bakker, Henk C.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2016-01-01

    As we are approaching the twentieth anniversary of PulseNet, a network of public health and regulatory laboratories that has changed the landscape of foodborne illness surveillance through molecular subtyping, public health microbiology is undergoing another transformation brought about by so-cal...

  15. Platforms for Persistent Communications, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Membership Study Manager Ms. Anorme Anim – ASB Communications (Comms) Team Dr. Allen Adler Dr. Pete Swan BG(Ret) Bob Wynn Ms. Madhu Beriwal Surveillance...Pete Swan BG(Ret) Bob Wynn Dr. Madhu Beriwal Surveillance & Reconnaissance (SR) Team Dr. Darrell Collier Mr. Herb Gallagher Mr. Gary Glaser Mr. Steve...ASB Communications (Comms) Team Dr. Allen Adler Dr. Pete Swan BG(Ret) Bob Wynn Ms. Madhu Beriwal Surveillance & Reconnaissance (SR) Team Dr

  16. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluit, A. C.; van der Bruggen, J. T.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies...... to the various reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as hospitalised patients, nursing homes, the community, animals and food. Two studies that could serve as examples of tailored programmes are the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), which collects resistance data during...... of antibiotic resistance....

  17. Video surveillance for sensor platforms algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Al Najjar, Mayssaa; Bayoumi, Magdy

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces resource aware image decomposition, registration, fusion, object detection and tracking algorithms along with their applications in security, monitoring and integration in 3rd Generation Surveillance Systems.  All algorithms are evaluated through experimental and simulation results and a parallel and pipelined efficient architecture for implementing the algorithms is described. • Describes a new type of image processing algorithms that are suited for low power and low memory platforms such as wireless sensor networks or mobile devices; • Uses simulation and experimental results to evaluate algorithms presented; • Includes hardware architecture for critical components in the algorithms described.

  18. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  19. Remotely piloted LTA vehicle for surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, G. R.; Harris, G. L.; Brown, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of a remotely piloted mini-LTA vehicle for surveillance, monitoring and measurement for civilian and military applications are considered. Applications, operations and economics are discussed.

  20. Legionnaires’ disease Surveillance in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Ricci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the report presented, data on legionellosis diagnosed in the year 2003 in Italy and notified to the National Surveillance System are analysed. Overall, 617 cases were notified, of which 517 were confirmed and 46 were presumptive.

    The characteristics of the patients are very similar to those reported in the previous years in terms of male/female ratio, age–specific distribution, occupation, etc. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was responsible for approximately 90% of the cases.

  1. Limits on surveillance: frictions, fragilities and failures in the operation of camera surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2004-01-01

    Public video surveillance tends to be discussed in either utopian or dystopian terms: proponents maintain that camera surveillance is the perfect tool in the fight against crime, while critics argue that the use of security cameras is central to the development of a panoptic, Orwellian surveillance

  2. Limits on surveillance: frictions, fragilities and failures in the operation of camera surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, Lynsey

    2004-01-01

    Public video surveillance tends to be discussed in either utopian or dystopian terms: proponents maintain that camera surveillance is the perfect tool in the fight against crime, while critics argue that the use of security cameras is central to the development of a panoptic, Orwellian surveillance

  3. Appropriating Video Surveillance for Art and Environmental Awareness: Experiences from ARTiVIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Mónica; Ângelo, Pedro; Correia, Nuno; Nisi, Valentina

    2016-02-22

    Arts, Real-Time Video and Interactivity for Sustainability (ARTiVIS) is an ongoing collaborative research project investigating how real-time video, DIY surveillance technologies and sensor data can be used as a tool for environmental awareness, activism and artistic explorations. The project consists of a series of digital contexts for aesthetic contemplation of nature and civic engagement, aiming to foster awareness and empowerment of local populations through DIY surveillance. At the core of the ARTIVIS efforts are a series of interactive installations (namely B-Wind!, Hug@tree and Play with Fire), that make use of surveillance technologies and real-time video as raw material to promote environmental awareness through the emotion generated by real-time connections with nature. Throughout the project development, the surveillance concept has been shifting from the use of surveillance technology in a centralized platform, to the idea of veillance with distributed peer-to-peer networks that can be used for science and environmental monitoring. In this paper we present the history of the ARTiVIS project, related and inspiring work, describe ongoing research work and explore the present and future challenges of appropriating surveillance technology for artistic, educational and civic engagement purposes.

  4. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  5. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waissmann William

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  6. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Waissmann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  7. Exotic mosquito threats require strategic surveillance and response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cameron E; Doggett, Stephen L

    2016-12-14

    Mosquito-borne diseases caused by endemic pathogens such as Ross River, Barmah Forest and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses are an annual concern in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. More than a dozen mosquito species have been implicated in the transmission of these pathogens, with each mosquito occupying a specialised ecological niche that influences their habitat associations, host feeding preferences and the environmental drivers of their abundance. The NSW Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Monitoring Program provides an early warning system for potential outbreaks of mosquito-borne disease by tracking annual activity of these mosquitoes and their associated pathogens. Although the program will effectively track changes in local mosquito populations that may increase with a changing climate, urbanisation and wetland rehabilitation, it will be less effective with current surveillance methodologies at detecting or monitoring changes in exotic mosquito threats, where different surveillance strategies need to be used. Exotic container-inhabiting mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus pose a threat to NSW because they are nuisance-biting pests and vectors of pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. International movement of humans and their belongings have spread these mosquitoes to many regions of the world. In recent years, these two mosquitoes have been detected by the Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources at local airports and seaports. To target the detection of these exotic mosquitoes, new trapping technologies and networks of surveillance locations are required. Additionally, incursions of these mosquitoes into urban areas of the state will require strategic responses to minimise substantial public health and economic burdens to local communities.

  8. The Embedded Network Video Surveillance System Based on V4L%基于V4L的WEB型嵌入式视频监控体系设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昱; 邵浩然

    2013-01-01

    According to the need of video monitoring system at present, through the research of the current video monitoring system plan, the paper proposed the embedded Linux video monitoring system based on the WEB structure. The system transfers the video information out through V4L programming based video acquisition methods, with tha aid of embedded Linux network function, and in the form of WEB server. This system takes UP- TECHPXA270- S teaching and scientific research platform as a hardware development platform, with USB Webcam camera as a video acquisition tool, selects the embedded Linux operation system as software development platform, carries out the software compression of video image through the KaiYuan software library--Libjpeg, in the client-side, we can cross the platform to visit embedded video transmission server in the way of browser. System testing results show that the proposed system is practical and effective.%针对目前对视频监控系统的需求,本文通过对目前主流视频监控系统方案的研究,提出了基于WEB架构的嵌入式Linux视频监控系统。该系统通过基于V4L编程的视频采集方式,借助嵌入式Linux的网络功能,以WEB服务器的形式将视频图像信息传输出去。该系统以UP-TECHPXA270-S教学科研平台作为硬件开发平台,以USB WebCam摄像头作为视频获取工具,选择嵌入式Linux操作系统为软件开发平台,通过开源软件库libjpeg对视频图像进行软件压缩,在客户端可跨平台以浏览器的方式访问嵌入式视频传输服务器。系统测试结果表明,本文提出的系统切实有效。

  9. Evaluation of local media surveillance for improved disease recognition and monitoring in global hotspot regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Schwind

    Full Text Available Digital disease detection tools are technologically sophisticated, but dependent on digital information, which for many areas suffering from high disease burdens is simply not an option. In areas where news is often reported in local media with no digital counterpart, integration of local news information with digital surveillance systems, such as HealthMap (Boston Children's Hospital, is critical. Little research has been published in regards to the specific contribution of local health-related articles to digital surveillance systems. In response, the USAID PREDICT project implemented a local media surveillance (LMS pilot study in partner countries to monitor disease events reported in print media. This research assessed the potential of LMS to enhance digital surveillance reach in five low- and middle-income countries. Over 16 weeks, select surveillance system attributes of LMS, such as simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, timeliness, and stability were evaluated to identify strengths and weaknesses in the surveillance method. Findings revealed that LMS filled gaps in digital surveillance network coverage by contributing valuable localized information on disease events to the global HealthMap database. A total of 87 health events were reported through the LMS pilot in the 16-week monitoring period, including 71 unique reports not found by the HealthMap digital detection tool. Furthermore, HealthMap identified an additional 236 health events outside of LMS. It was also observed that belief in the importance of the project and proper source selection from the participants was crucial to the success of this method. The timely identification of disease outbreaks near points of emergence and the recognition of risk factors associated with disease occurrence continue to be important components of any comprehensive surveillance system for monitoring disease activity across populations. The LMS method, with its minimal resource commitment, could

  10. 40 CFR 52.2030 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2030 Section 52.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2030 Source surveillance...

  11. Unattended video surveillance systems for international safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of unattended video surveillance systems places some unique requirements on the systems and their hardware. The systems have the traditional requirements of video imaging, video storage, and video playback but also have some special requirements such as tamper safing. The technology available to meet these requirements and how it is being applied to unattended video surveillance systems are discussed in this paper.

  12. Video Surveillance: All Eyes Turn to IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2011-01-01

    Many university officials recognize the need to upgrade their older analog video surveillance systems. In a 2010 survey by "Campus Safety" magazine, half of university respondents expressed dissatisfaction with the quality and coverage of their current video surveillance systems. Among the limitations of analog closed-circuit television…

  13. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  14. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  15. The utility of information collected by occupational disease surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, A; Carder, M; Hussey, L; Agius, R M

    2015-11-01

    The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is an integrated system of surveillance schemes collecting work-related ill-health (WRIH) data since 1989. In addition to providing information about disease incidence, trends in incidence and the identification of new hazards, THOR also operates an ad hoc data enquiry service enabling interested parties to request information about cases of WRIH reported to THOR. To examine requests for information made to a network of surveillance schemes for WRIH in the UK. Analysis via SPSS of data requests received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. A total of 631 requests were received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. Requests were predominantly submitted by participating THOR physicians (34%) and the main THOR funder-the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) (31%). The majority (67%) of requests were for information about work-related respiratory or skin disease with relatively few requests for other diagnoses, such as musculoskeletal or mental ill-health. Requests frequently related to a specific industry and/or occupation (42%) and/or a specific causal agent (58%). Data collected by occupational disease surveillance systems such as THOR are an extremely useful source of information, the use of which extends beyond informing government on disease incidence and trends in incidence. The data collected provide a framework that can assist a wide range of enquirers with clinical diagnoses, identification of suspected causative agents/exposures and to highlight growing risks in particular industrial and occupational sectors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [General practice and surveillance: the example of influenza in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J M; Mosnier, A; Valette, M; Bensoussan, J L; Van Der Werf, S

    2005-05-01

    Data registration by the GROG national network (Regional Group for the Surveillance of Influenza) since 1984 has helped to identify methodological problems. The choice of sentinels and the selection of indicators depend on the analysis of actual influenza consequences. Various sentinels may be concerned: health insurance companies, private companies, schools, physicians, pharmacists. Health care organization modifies the validity of indicators. In France, for instance, home visits were an excellent indicator for early warning before 1995 but this indicator is no longer as efficient as before. The virological detection of Influenza depends on the organization of transportation (samples, results). The predictive value of cases definitions depends on the incidence of infection. The level of choice between specificity and sensibility modifies the perception of outbreaks. Sentinel participation rate influences the sample representativity. The farther this rate is from 100%, the more result validity decreases (in the same way that patients lost to follow-up compromise the validity of results in clinical trials). The publication of results can modify health expenses and behaviors. The GROG network stresses the important role that general practitioners play in health surveillance; it also raises questions in the field of mathematics, statistics, professional organization, training, education, and politics.

  17. A Probabilistic Approach for Real-Time Volcano Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavo, F.; Cannata, A.; Cassisi, C.; Di Grazia, G.; Maronno, P.; Montalto, P.; Prestifilippo, M.; Privitera, E.; Gambino, S.; Coltelli, M.

    2016-12-01

    Continuous evaluation of the state of potentially dangerous volcanos plays a key role for civil protection purposes. Presently, real-time surveillance of most volcanoes worldwide is essentially delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology, who interpret data coming from different kind of monitoring networks. Unfavorably, the coupling of highly non-linear and complex volcanic dynamic processes leads to measurable effects that can show a large variety of different behaviors. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms, thus making the fast volcano state assessment sometimes impracticable for the personnel on duty at the control rooms. With the aim of aiding the personnel on duty in volcano surveillance, we present a probabilistic graphical model to estimate automatically the ongoing volcano state from all the available different kind of measurements. The model consists of a Bayesian network able to represent a set of variables and their conditional dependencies via a directed acyclic graph. The model variables are both the measurements and the possible states of the volcano through the time. The model output is an estimation of the probability distribution of the feasible volcano states. We tested the model on the Mt. Etna (Italy) case study by considering a long record of multivariate data from 2011 to 2015 and cross-validated it. Results indicate that the proposed model is effective and of great power for decision making purposes.

  18. Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast Verification and Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) is an emerging Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) technology that will vastly expand the state...

  19. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B.; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases...... hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. CONCLUSION: The studied obstetric complications are rare...

  20. Symbolic power, robotting, and surveilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider...... primary and secondary. They establish the grammatical format of a mechanical and a formal world view. Such views become imposed on the domains addressed by means of mathematics and formal languages. Through such impositions symbolic power of mathematics becomes exercised. The idea that mathematics...... describes as it prioritises is discussed with reference to robotting and surveillance. In general, the symbolic power of mathematics and formal languages is summarised through the observations: that mathematics treats parts and properties as autonomous, that it dismembers what it addresses and destroys...

  1. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health

  2. Fixed SMRF Sensor Network Application Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Rossum, W.L. van; Smits, F.M.A.; Theije, P.A.M. de; Monni, S.; Huizing, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Advantages of scalable multifunction RF (SMRF) sensors and networked operation of sensors are well-known. Some advantages are surveillance persistence, multipath resistance, and interference resistance. The particular benefits of applying multifunction RF sensors in a network still need to be studie

  3. Fixed SMRF Sensor Network Application Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Rossum, W.L. van; Smits, F.M.A.; Theije, P.A.M. de; Monni, S.; Huizing, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Advantages of scalable multifunction RF (SMRF) sensors and networked operation of sensors are well-known. Some advantages are surveillance persistence, multipath resistance, and interference resistance. The particular benefits of applying multifunction RF sensors in a network still need to be studie

  4. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for GI cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Meester, Reinier G S; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2016-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. To reduce the burden of GI diseases, surveillance is recommended for some diseases, including for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, Barrett's oesophagus, precancerous gastric lesions, colorectal adenoma, and pancreatic neoplasms. This review aims to provide an overview of the evidence on cost-effectiveness of surveillance of individuals with GI conditions predisposing them to cancer, specifically focussing on the aforementioned conditions. We searched the literature and reviewed 21 studies. Despite heterogeneity of studies in terms of settings, study populations, surveillance strategies and outcomes, most reviewed studies suggested at least some surveillance of patients with these GI conditions to be cost-effective. For some high-risk conditions frequent surveillance with 3-month intervals was warranted, while for other conditions, surveillance may only be cost-effective every 10 years. Further studies based on more robust effectiveness evidence are needed to inform and optimise surveillance programmes for GI cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Remote container monitoring and surveillance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Aquila Technologies Group is developing a monitoring and surveillance system to monitor containers of nuclear materials. The system will both visually and physically monitor the containers. The system is based on the combination of Aquila`s Gemini All-Digital Surveillance System and on Aquila`s AssetLAN{trademark} asset tracking technology. This paper discusses the Gemini Digital Surveillance system as well as AssetLAN technology. The Gemini architecture with emphasis on anti-tamper security features is also described. The importance of all-digital surveillance versus other surveillance methods is also discussed. AssetLAN{trademark} technology is described, emphasizing the ability to continually track containers (as assets) by location utilizing touch memory technology. Touch memory technology provides unique container identification, as well as the ability to store and retrieve digital information on the container. This information may relate to container maintenance, inspection schedules, and other information. Finally, this paper describes the combination of the Gemini system with AssetLAN technology, yielding a self contained, container monitoring and area/container surveillance system. Secure container fixture design considerations are discussed. Basic surveillance review functions are also discussed.

  6. Modernization of existing VVER-1000 surveillance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V.; Erak, D.; Makhotin, D. [NRC ' Kurchatov Inst.' , 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    According to generally accepted world practice, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material behavior during operation is carried out using tests of surveillance specimens. The main objective of the surveillance program consists in insurance of safe RPV operation during the design lifetime and lifetime-extension period. At present, the approaches of pressure vessels residual life validation based on the test results of their surveillance specimens have been developed and introduced in Russia and are under consideration in other countries where vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactors- (VVER-) 1000 are in operation. In this case, it is necessary to ensure leading irradiation of surveillance specimens (as compared to the pressure vessel wall) and to provide uniformly irradiated specimen groups for mechanical testing. Standard surveillance program of VVER-1000 has several significant shortcomings and does not meet these requirements. Taking into account program of lifetime extension of VVER-1000 operating in Russia, it is necessary to carry out upgrading of the VVER-1000 surveillance program. This paper studies the conditions of a surveillance specimen's irradiation and upgrading of existing sets to provide monitoring and prognosis of RPV material properties for extension of the reactor's lifetime up to 60 years or more. (authors)

  7. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  8. Unsupervised clustering of wildlife necropsy data for syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artois Marc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of wildlife disease surveillance is increasing, because wild animals are playing a growing role as sources of emerging infectious disease events in humans. Syndromic surveillance methods have been developed as a complement to traditional health data analyses, to allow the early detection of unusual health events. Early detection of these events in wildlife could help to protect the health of domestic animals or humans. This paper aims to define syndromes that could be used for the syndromic surveillance of wildlife health data. Wildlife disease monitoring in France, from 1986 onward, has allowed numerous diagnostic data to be collected from wild animals found dead. The authors wanted to identify distinct pathological profiles from these historical data by a global analysis of the registered necropsy descriptions, and discuss how these profiles can be used to define syndromes. In view of the multiplicity and heterogeneity of the available information, the authors suggest constructing syndromic classes by a multivariate statistical analysis and classification procedure grouping cases that share similar pathological characteristics. Results A three-step procedure was applied: first, a multiple correspondence analysis was performed on necropsy data to reduce them to their principal components. Then hierarchical ascendant clustering was used to partition the data. Finally the k-means algorithm was applied to strengthen the partitioning. Nine clusters were identified: three were species- and disease-specific, three were suggestive of specific pathological conditions but not species-specific, two covered a broader pathological condition and one was miscellaneous. The clusters reflected the most distinct and most frequent disease entities on which the surveillance network focused. They could be used to define distinct syndromes characterised by specific post-mortem findings. Conclusions The chosen statistical

  9. No Place Like Home? Surveillance and What Home Means in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, W Ben; Sixsmith, Andrew; Beringer, Robert

    2016-03-01

    New surveillance technologies like those included in ambient assisted living - such as body-worn and passive environmental sensors, smart interfaces, and communications networks - are being developed to improve the security and safety of "at risk" older people, but ethical questions have been raised about the extent to which they compromise the rights and privacy of the people being monitored. The qualitative study we conducted was designed to help us understand the ways these novel surveillance technologies would influence individuals' everyday experiences of home. Participants felt new forms of surveillance would influence their sense of security, autonomy, and self-confidence, and would alter perceptions of home. The findings emphasize the need to improve our understanding of how ambient assisted living will affect the lives of those being monitored.

  10. OASIS: an assessment tool of epidemiological surveillance systems in animal health and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, P; Gay, E; Chazel, M; Moutou, F; Danan, C; Richomme, C; Boue, F; Souillard, R; Gauchard, F; Dufour, B

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized tool for the assessment of surveillance systems on zoonoses and animal diseases. We reviewed three existing methods and combined them to develop a semi-quantitative assessment tool associating their strengths and providing a standardized way to display multilevel results. We developed a set of 78 assessment criteria divided into ten sections, representing the functional parts of a surveillance system. Each criterion was given a score according to the prescription of a scoring guide. Three graphical assessment outputs were generated using a specific combination of the scores. Output 1 is a general overview through a series of pie charts synthesizing the scores of each section. Output 2 is a histogram representing the quality of eight critical control points. Output 3 is a radar chart representing the level reached by ten system attributes. This tool was applied on five surveillance networks.

  11. Application of IR microbolometers in border surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakfield, David K.; Norton, Peter; Plemons, Dan; Rodriguez, Christian; Sustare, Dennis

    2007-04-01

    BAE Systems led a collaborative study with New Mexico State University to investigate a series of ground based persistent surveillance solutions for potential use along the Southwest border of the United States. This study considered a wide range of system options for mobile and fixed site applications. This paper summarizes the findings of the study including the central role of the imaging subsystems in mobile ground based surveillance solutions and the suitability of uncooled IR Microbolometers within this subsystem. The paper also provides a discussion of the benefits of real time decision support applications when fielding a persistent surveillance solution.

  12. The surveillance of the electricity wholesale market and emission trading market; Die Ueberwachung von Stromgrosshandelsmarkt und Emissionshandelsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedemann, Volker [Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Forschungszentrum Energiewirtschaft/Energierecht (fee); Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Wirtschafts- und Wettbewerbsrecht; Konar, Selma [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The Regulation on Wholesale Market Integrity and Transparency (REMIT) and the German Law on the Establishment of a Market Transparency Office for Wholesale Trade in Electricity and Gas (MTS-G) have fundamentally changed the surveillance of electricity wholesale trade in Germany. From now on the Federal Network Agency and the Federal Cartel Office will be jointly responsible for monitoring the electricity wholesale trade for suspicious market phenomena and abusive behaviour. The REMIT specifies that the electricity trade must be surveilled ''with due consideration to interactions'' with the emission trade system. However, occurrences observed in recent years have shown that the emission trading system is in need of reform. This has also been recognised and has prompted extensive corrective action by the regulatory authorities of the European Union. These changes have yet to be transposed into the national surveillance regimes. The present article explains why the new role accorded to the Federal Network Agency under the REMIT fails to eliminate the structural shortcomings of the old surveillance system. At least the decision to put the collection and evaluation of data exclusively in the hands of the market transparency office and the cooperation this will prompt between the supervisory authorities responsible will make the task of surveilling the energy wholesale trading market a lot easier for the authorities. The energy transition and its exigencies will yet lead to further changes in the market and its surveillance regime.

  13. 2004 through 2010 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that continuously monitors drug-related visits to hospital...

  14. Surveillance studies about "rear-window ethics"%Surveillance studies about"rear-window ethics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷婷

    2016-01-01

    It can be said that people now live in a surveillance society. Some forms of surveillance have always existed as people watch over each other for mutual care, for moral caution and to discover information under the table. Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window is a typical fi lm for surveillance studies.What is happening on the screen is merely a projection of our own anxieties, our own existence, and our self-ambiguity as portrayed by the characters in this wonderful film.

  15. Crypto and empire: the contradictions of counter-surveillance advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürses, S.; Kundnani, A.; Van Hoboken, J.

    2016-01-01

    Since Edward Snowden’s revelations of US and UK surveillance programs, privacy advocates, progressive security engineers, and policy makers have been seeking to win majority support for countering surveillance. The problem is framed as the replacement of targeted surveillance with mass surveillance

  16. 48 CFR 37.604 - Quality assurance surveillance plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans are in Subpart 46.4. The Government may either prepare the quality assurance surveillance plan or require the offerors to submit a proposed quality assurance surveillance plan for the Government's...

  17. Surveillance and Datenschutz in Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikic, Sabine; Lehmann-Grube, Fritz; Sablatnig, Jan

    Virtual environments are becoming more and more accepted, and part of the everyday online experience for many users. This offers new potential for both surveillance and data mining. Some of the techniques used are discussed in this paper.

  18. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  19. Donning and doffing PPE for HPAI surveillance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions describing the proper donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) surveillance. This protocol...

  20. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  1. Surveillance and Monitoring of Dialysis Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalathaksha Kumbar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access is the lifeline of a hemodialysis patient. Currently arteriovenous fistula and graft are considered the permanent options for vascular access. Monitoring and surveillance of vascular access are an integral part of the care of hemodialysis patient. Although different techniques and methods are available for identifying access dysfunction, the scientific evidence for the optimal methodology is lacking. A small number of randomized controlled trials have been performed evaluating different surveillance techniques. We performed a study of the recent literature published in the PUBMED, to review the scientific evidence on different methodologies currently being used for surveillance and monitoring and their impact on the care of the dialysis access. The limited randomized studies especially involving fistulae and small sample size of the published studies with conflicting results highlight the need for a larger multicentered randomized study with hard clinical end points to evaluate the optimal surveillance strategy for both fistula and graft.

  2. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  3. Future Airportal Surveillance and Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in airport surface surveillance and other sensor, automation, and data sharing technologies now allow the consideration of a significant change in...

  4. Moving object detection for video surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalirajan, K; Sudha, M

    2015-01-01

    .... In this paper, a novel approach of object detection for video surveillance is presented. The proposed algorithm consists of various steps including video compression, object detection, and object localization...

  5. Disease Surveillance at Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Deer populations have been reduced under the new Habitat Management Plan (HMP). Surveillance of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and other common ungulate diseases...

  6. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  7. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-12-21

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

  8. Enhanced surveillance program FY1998 accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, J

    1998-10-01

    This report highlights the accomplishments of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP), the highest-priority research and development effort in stockpile management today. This is volume one of eleven, the unclassified summary of selected program highlights. These highlights fall into the following focus areas: pits, high explosives, organics, dynamics, diagnostics, systems, secondaries, materials-aging models, non-nuclear components, and routine surveillance testing system upgrades. Principal investigators from around the DOE complex contributed to this report.

  9. Workplace surveillance, privacy protection, and efficiency wages

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Patrick W.

    2005-01-01

    Consider an employer who wants her employee to work hard. As is well known from the efficiency wage literature, the employer must pay the (wealth-constrained) employee a positive rent to provide incentives for exerting unobservable effort. Alternatively, the employer could make effort observable by costly workplace surveillance. It is argued that a privacy protection law preventing surveillance may increase the total surplus. While such a law reduces the employer?s profit, this loss can be ov...

  10. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Pei; Ning Li; Yunchang Guo; Xiumei Liu; Lin Yan; Ying Li; Shuran Yang; Jing Hu; Jianghui Zhu; Dajin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the na...

  11. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2002-01-16

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The document contains the CY 2002 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  12. Customer Surveillance: Consumer Attitudes and Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Plangger, Kirk Anton

    2015-01-01

    Due to technological advances, customer surveillance (i.e., the collection, capture, use, or storage of customers’ personal data) is becoming less expensive and more covert. Brands use these personal data that contain needs, preferences, characteristics, behavior, attitudes, or other customer attributes (i.e., market intelligence) to develop more competitive products and services. Customer surveillance also can put stress on customer relationships with brands, thus brands must conduct custome...

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance in the AFHSC-GEIS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Marine officer candidates. Additionally, they performed resistance and virulence factor gene analysis for Klebsiella pneumonia and developed and...isolates of Streptococcus pyo- genes from U.S. military basic trainees [24]. Group A S. pyogenes (GAS) infections are common in young adults and may present...ease and glomerulonephritis. Acute GAS infections remain susceptible to penicillin but resistance to macro- lide antibiotics has been noted in recent

  14. Simulation of a World-Wide Seismic Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-31

    APPROACHES DESIGN PARAMETERS BY FACILITY AND ELEMENT SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS ELEMENTS DETECTION TRUTH TABLE TIMING ERROR DIAGNOSTIC SUMMARY OF THE RSE ...storage element ( RSE ), and the data collection processor (DCP). The simulator functions as follows; • Earth model imputs are converted to...detection bulletins by the SDP • Detection bulletins from the SDP are written on the RSE and stored for pickup by the communications processor • Incoming

  15. Expatriates ill after travel: Results from the Geosentinel Surveillance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Poh-Lian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expatriates are a distinct population at unique risk for health problems related to their travel exposure. Methods We analyzed GeoSentinel data comparing ill returned expatriates with other travelers for demographics, travel characteristics, and proportionate morbidity (PM for travel-related illness. Results Our study included 2,883 expatriates and 11,910 non-expatriates who visited GeoSentinel clinics ill after travel. Expatriates were more likely to be male, do volunteer work, be long-stay travelers (>6 months, and have sought pre-travel advice. Compared to non-expatriates, expatriates returning from Africa had higher proportionate morbidity (PM for malaria, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and hepatitis E; expatriates from the Asia-Pacific region had higher PM for strongyloidiasis, depression, and anxiety; expatriates returning from Latin America had higher PM for mononucleosis and ingestion-related infections (giardiasis, brucellosis. Expatriates returning from all three regions had higher PM for latent TB, amebiasis, and gastrointestinal infections (other than acute diarrhea compared to non-expatriates. When the data were stratified by travel reason, business expatriates had higher PM for febrile systemic illness (malaria and dengue and vaccine-preventable infections (hepatitis A, and volunteer expatriates had higher PM for parasitic infections. Expatriates overall had higher adjusted odds ratios for latent TB and lower odds ratios for acute diarrhea and dermatologic illness. Conclusions Ill returned expatriates differ from other travelers in travel characteristics and proportionate morbidity for specific diseases, based on the region of exposure and travel reason. They are more likely to present with more serious illness.

  16. Managing Space Situational Awareness Using the Space Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    Spencer and Patrick S. Williams Department of Aerospace Engineering The Pennsylvania State University 229 Hammond Bldg...Department of Aerospace Engineering  The  Pennsylvania   State  University  229 Hammond Bldg.                         University Park, PA 16802...information between the state before and after a particular observation occurs, was derived by Hershey et al. [66] for Gaussian posterior and prior

  17. Interval algebra - an effective means of scheduling surveillance radar networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, RW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available constraints. The target selection function S(k) is then simply: S(k) =    1 if k ∈ K, 0 otherwise (2) Given an arbitrary reference line and radar positioner rotation, C(m,n, r) returns constraints as follows: C(m,n, r) =    θr (m) ≺ θr (n) if m < n... straight arrows. Thus the minimum time that will pass is the angular difference between the two targets divided by the maximum scan rate. This value will be largest for the radar which has the greatest angular difference to rotate. During this time, all...

  18. Long-Endurance Maritime Surveillance with Ocean Glider Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    time. However, the unique ensemble of deterministic calculations does not represent a deterministic forecast . Instead, it is an estimation of the...inside a sealed pressure hull, are mechanically shifted to control vehicle pitch and roll attitude. The external bladder, within the flooded science bay...path (from Brekhovskikh, L. M., and Yu. P. Lysanov, 2003: Fundamentals of Ocean Acoustics. Springer, 280 pp.). 14 Once an ensemble of acoustic ray

  19. Multi-Platform Sensor Surveillance Network for Range Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prioria (Gainesville, FL) and its partners Aerial Products (Deland, FL) and Meridian Systems LLC (Titusville, FL) propose to develop a revolutionary new type of...

  20. Thermodynamics of Large-Scale Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-06

    cost-effective sensor networks for monitoring and surveillance, peer-to-peer networks between handheld devices in a social setup, among others. A...communication gains (up to a constant factor) are feasible even with unsynchronized relay nodes. III. IN-NETWORK COMPUTATION In many networks, such as sensor ...existing WiFi networks in large public area 3 (or even at home), such a problem is attempted to solve by means of the medium access protocol like the

  1. Liberal luxury: Decentering Snowden, surveillance and privilege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piro Rexhepi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the continued potency of veillance theories to traverse beyond the taxonomies of surveillance inside liberal democracies. It provides a commentary on the ability of sousveillance to destabilise and disrupt suer/violence by shifting its focus from the centre to the periphery, where Big Data surveillance is tantamount to sur/violence. In these peripheral political spaces, surveillance is not framed by concerns over privacy, democracy and civil society; rather, it is a matter of life and death, a technique of both biopolitical and thanatopolitical power. I argue that the universalist, and universalizing, debates over surveillance cannot be mapped through the anxieties of privileged middle classes as they would neither transcend nor make possible alternative ways of tackling the intersection of surveillance and violence so long as they are couched in the liberal concerns for democracy. I call this phenomenon “liberal luxury,” whereby debates over surveillance have over-emphasised liberal proclivities at the expense of disengaging those peripheral populations most severely affected by sur/violence.

  2. Moving Human Path Tracking Based on Video Surveillance in 3d Indoor Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zlatanova, Sisi; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yeting; Liu, Liu

    2016-06-01

    Video surveillance systems are increasingly used for a variety of 3D indoor applications. We can analyse human behaviour, discover and avoid crowded areas, monitor human traffic and so forth. In this paper we concentrate on use of surveillance cameras to track and reconstruct the path a person has followed. For the purpose we integrated video surveillance data with a 3D indoor model of the building and develop a single human moving path tracking method. We process the surveillance videos to detected single human moving traces; then we match the depth information of 3D scenes to the constructed 3D indoor network model and define the human traces in the 3D indoor space. Finally, the single human traces extracted from multiple cameras are connected with the help of the connectivity provided by the 3D network model. Using this approach, we can reconstruct the entire walking path. The provided experiments with a single person have verified the effectiveness and robustness of the method.

  3. An intelligent surveillance platform for large metropolitan areas with dense sensor deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jorge; Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Alonso-López, Jesus A; Smilansky, Zeev

    2013-06-07

    This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform's control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.). The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage.

  4. An Intelligent Surveillance Platform for Large Metropolitan Areas with Dense Sensor Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A. Alonso-López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent surveillance platform based on the usage of large numbers of inexpensive sensors designed and developed inside the European Eureka Celtic project HuSIMS. With the aim of maximizing the number of deployable units while keeping monetary and resource/bandwidth costs at a minimum, the surveillance platform is based on the usage of inexpensive visual sensors which apply efficient motion detection and tracking algorithms to transform the video signal in a set of motion parameters. In order to automate the analysis of the myriad of data streams generated by the visual sensors, the platform’s control center includes an alarm detection engine which comprises three components applying three different Artificial Intelligence strategies in parallel. These strategies are generic, domain-independent approaches which are able to operate in several domains (traffic surveillance, vandalism prevention, perimeter security, etc.. The architecture is completed with a versatile communication network which facilitates data collection from the visual sensors and alarm and video stream distribution towards the emergency teams. The resulting surveillance system is extremely suitable for its deployment in metropolitan areas, smart cities, and large facilities, mainly because cheap visual sensors and autonomous alarm detection facilitate dense sensor network deployments for wide and detailed coverage.

  5. A focused ethnographic study of Alberta cattle veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sawford

    Full Text Available The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.

  6. A focused ethnographic study of Alberta cattle veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.

  7. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Alberta Cattle Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and Perceptions of Surveillance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance. PMID:23741397

  8. Harbour surveillance with cameras calibrated with AIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, F. A. N.; Castaldo, F.; Marino, G.

    The inexpensive availability of surveillance cameras, easily connected in network configurations, suggests the deployment of this additional sensor modality in port surveillance. Vessels appearing within cameras fields of view can be recognized and localized providing to fusion centers information that can be added to data coming from Radar, Lidar, AIS, etc. Camera systems, that are used as localizers however, must be properly calibrated in changing scenarios where often there is limited choice on the position on which they are deployed. Automatic Identification System (AIS) data, that includes position, course and vessel's identity, freely available through inexpensive receivers, for some of the vessels appearing within the field of view, provide the opportunity to achieve proper camera calibration to be used for the localization of vessels not equipped with AIS transponders. In this paper we assume a pinhole model for camera geometry and propose perspective matrices computation using AIS positional data. Images obtained from calibrated cameras are then matched and pixel association is utilized for other vessel's localization. We report preliminary experimental results of calibration and localization using two cameras deployed on the Gulf of Naples coastline. The two cameras overlook a section of the harbour and record short video sequences that are synchronized offline with AIS positional information of easily-identified passenger ships. Other small vessels, not equipped with AIS transponders, are localized using camera matrices and pixel matching. Localization accuracy is experimentally evaluated as a function of target distance from the sensors.

  9. A smart system for surveillance of animal welfare during transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresenbet, G; Wikner, I; Van de Water, G; Freson, L; Geers, R

    2003-12-01

    New welfare regulations will impose surveillance systems so that information on the quality of transport conditions is available. Moreover a route description is useful for optimisation of transport logistics, but also in relation to estimating of sanitary risk and food safety, including traceability of individual animals. Therefore a transport surveillance system has been developed which is integrating the following information: individual identification of animals, (un)loading place and time, air quality (temperature, relative humidity, emissions), vibration and behaviour of the animals. These data are collected by telemetry and GPS, and are transmitted to a dispatch centre by GSM. Hence, information is available on-line and on disk, so that the driver can be informed and corrected at the spot. Dynamic route optimization of cattle collection from farms and logistical activities of abattoirs are considered in relation to animal welfare. Another instrumentation package that comprises sensors of heart rate and vibration on the animal has been integrated. These sensors can be mounted on animals and the data is transferred to a database through a wireless network. Comprehensive field measurement has been made to evaluate the system and found that the package performs well. Hence, advice will be generated for vehicle manufacturers, hauliers, farmers, slaughterhouses and retailers.

  10. Clinical Sentinel Surveillance of Equine West Nile Fever, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegerman, C; Alba-Casals, A; García-Bocanegra, I; Dal Pozzo, F; van Galen, G

    2016-04-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral zoonotic infection caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. According to a comparative study, the passive surveillance of horses by equine veterinarians appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the European context of WNF. Clinical data issued from a passive epidemiosurveillance network from September 2010 to December 2011 on horses in Spain were statistically compared and used to develop a predictive diagnostic decision tree, both with the aim to improve the early clinical detection of WNF in horses. Although clinical signs were variable in horses affected by WNF, four clinical signs and the month of occurrence were identified as useful indicators to distinguish between WNF-related and WNF-unrelated cases. The signs that pointed out a presumptive diagnosis of WNF in horses were cranial nerves deficits, limb paralysis, photophobia and nasal discharge. Clinical examination of horses with neurological signs that are not vaccinated against WNV could provide important clues for the early clinical detection of WNF and therefore serve as an alert for possible human viral infections. The study of the clinical pattern of WNF in horses is of importance to enhance awareness and better understanding and to optimize surveillance designs for clinical detection of WNF in horses in advance of epidemic activity affecting humans.

  11. The issue of mental health in occupational health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique da Costa Leão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of mental health in the Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT context. It seeks to present theoretical aspects and institutional policies contributing to the incorporation of mental health dimensions into the VISAT process, in view of the pressing need to attend to this demand that is becoming increasingly important in the occupational health area, especially within the scope of the National Comprehensive Occupational Healthcare Network (RENAST. Some theoretical approaches and practical experiences in mental health and work are systematically presented and discussed in this essay. A survey is also conducted of potential strategies to integrate mental health into VISAT actions. It is our view that the origins of illnesses and ensuing harm are closely linked to the elements involved in work organization and management. Consequently, surveillance practices should include and identify generating components of these negative aspects. The diversity of illnesses caused by work processes and conditions calls for major investment to ascertain and change the situations that give rise to such illnesses.

  12. Adaptive Probabilistic Tracking Embedded in Smart Cameras for Distributed Surveillance in a 3D Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Fleck

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Tracking applications based on distributed and embedded sensor networks are emerging today, both in the fields of surveillance and industrial vision. Traditional centralized approaches have several drawbacks, due to limited communication bandwidth, computational requirements, and thus limited spatial camera resolution and frame rate. In this article, we present network-enabled smart cameras for probabilistic tracking. They are capable of tracking objects adaptively in real time and offer a very bandwidthconservative approach, as the whole computation is performed embedded in each smart camera and only the tracking results are transmitted, which are on a higher level of abstraction. Based on this, we present a distributed surveillance system. The smart cameras' tracking results are embedded in an integrated 3D environment as live textures and can be viewed from arbitrary perspectives. Also a georeferenced live visualization embedded in Google Earth is presented.

  13. Use of unstructured event-based reports for global infectious disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Mikaela; Blench, Michael; Tolentino, Herman; Freifeld, Clark C; Mandl, Kenneth D; Mawudeku, Abla; Eysenbach, Gunther; Brownstein, John S

    2009-05-01

    Free or low-cost sources of unstructured information, such as Internet news and online discussion sites, provide detailed local and near real-time data on disease outbreaks, even in countries that lack traditional public health surveillance. To improve public health surveillance and, ultimately, interventions, we examined 3 primary systems that process event-based outbreak information: Global Public Health Intelligence Network, HealthMap, and EpiSPIDER. Despite similarities among them, these systems are highly complementary because they monitor different data types, rely on varying levels of automation and human analysis, and distribute distinct information. Future development should focus on linking these systems more closely to public health practitioners in the field and establishing collaborative networks for alert verification and dissemination. Such development would further establish event-based monitoring as an invaluable public health resource that provides critical context and an alternative to traditional indicator-based outbreak reporting.

  14. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  15. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  16. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  17. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  18. Organization of surveillance in GI practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senore, Carlo; Bellisario, Cristina; Hassan, Cesare

    2016-12-01

    Several reports documented an inefficient utilisation of available resources, as well as a suboptimal compliance with surveillance recommendations. Although, evidence suggests that organisational issues can influence the quality of care delivered, surveillance protocols are usually based on non-organized approaches. We conducted a literature search (publication date: 01/2000-06/2016) on PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for guidelines, or consensus statements, for surveys of practice, reporting information about patients, or providers attitudes and behaviours, for intervention studies to enhance compliance with guidelines. Related articles were also scrutinised. Based on the clinical relevance and burden on endoscopy services this review was focused on surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus, IBD and post-polypectomy surveillance of colonic adenomas. Existing guidelines are generally recognising structure and process requirements influencing delivery of surveillance interventions, while less attention had been devoted to transitions and interfaces in the care process. Available evidence from practice surveys is suggesting the need to design organizational strategies aimed to enable patients to attend and providers to deliver timely and appropriate care. Well designed studies assessing the effectiveness of specific interventions in this setting are however lacking. Indirect evidence from screening settings would suggest that the implementation of automated standardized recall systems, utilisation of clinical registries, removing financial barriers, could improve appropriateness of use and compliance with recommendations. Lack of sound evidence regarding utility and methodology of surveillance can contribute to explain the observed variability in providers and patients attitudes and in compliance with the recommended surveillance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  19. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  20. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  1. Improving global influenza surveillance: trends of A(H5N1 virus in Africa and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escorcia Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1 viruses are an important health problem in many Asian and African countries. The current increase in human cases demonstrates that influenza A(H5N1 is still a significant global pandemic threat. Many health organizations have recognized the need for new strategies to improve influenza global surveillance. Specifically, the World Health Organization through the global technical consultation for influenza surveillance have called for a detailed picture of the current limitations, especially at the nation level, to evaluate, standardize and strength reporting systems. The main goal of our study is to demonstrate the value of genetic surveillance as part of a strategic surveillance plan. As a proof of concept, we evaluated the current situation of influenza A(H5N1 in Asian and Africa. Results Our analysis revealed a power-law distribution in the number of sequences of A(H5N1 viruses analyzed and/or reported to influenza surveillance networks. The majority of the Asian and African countries at great risk of A(H5N1 infections have very few (approximately three orders of magnitude sequenced A(H5N1 viruses (e.g. hemagglutinin genes. This suggests that countries under pandemic alert for avian influenza A(H5N1 have very limited participation (e.g. data generation, genetic analysis and data share in avian influenza A(H5N1 surveillance. More important, this study demonstrates the usefulness of influenza genetic surveillance to detect emerging pandemic threat viruses. Conclusions Our study reveals that some countries suffering from human cases of avian influenza have limited participation (e.g. genetic surveillance or data share with global surveillance networks. Also, we demonstrate that the implementation of genetic surveillance programs could increase and strengthen worldwide epidemic and pandemic preparedness. We hope that this work promotes new discussions between policy makers and health

  2. Surveillance of acute respiratory infections in general practices - The Netherlands, winters 1998/1999 and 1999/2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandhof WE van den; Bartelds AIM; Wilbrink B; Verweij C; Bijlsma K; Nat H van der; Boswijk H; Pronk JDD; Dorigo-Zetsma JW; Heijnen MLA; NIVEL; CIE; LIS

    2001-01-01

    To provide insight into the virological aetiology of influenza-like illnesses and other acute respiratory infections, nose/throat swabs were taken by 30-35 general practitioners of the sentinel surveillance network of The Netherlands Institute of Health Services Research from a random selection of p

  3. Infectious disease surveillance in the 21st century: an integrated web-based surveillance and case management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppy, Scott; Haney, Gillian; Cocoros, Noelle; Cranston, Kevin; DeMaria, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The Massachusetts Virtual Epidemiologic Network (MAVEN) was deployed in 2006 by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bureau of Infectious Disease to serve as an integrated, Web-based disease surveillance and case management system. MAVEN replaced program-specific, siloed databases, which were inaccessible to local public health and unable to integrate electronic reporting. Disease events are automatically created without human intervention when a case or laboratory report is received and triaged in real time to state and local public health personnel. Events move through workflows for initial notification, case investigation, and case management. Initial development was completed within 12 months and recent state regulations mandate the use of MAVEN by all 351 jurisdictions. More than 300 local boards of health are using MAVEN, there are approximately one million events, and 70 laboratories report electronically. MAVEN has demonstrated responsiveness and flexibility to emerging diseases while also streamlining routine surveillance processes and improving timeliness of notifications and data completeness, although the long-term resource requirements are significant.

  4. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C. [and others

    1997-01-15

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables.

  5. SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan Update for 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 441.1-­1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE 2008), requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.”This 2017 update reflects changes to the surveillance plan resulting from surveillance findings as documented in Reeves et al. 2016. These findings include observations of corrosion in SAVY and Hagan containers and the indication (in one SAVY container) of possible filter membrane thermal degradation. This surveillance plan update documents the rationale for selecting surveillance containers, specifies the containers for 2017 surveillance, and identifies a minimum set of containers for 2018 surveillance. This update contains important changes to the previous surveillance plans.

  6. Effective surveillance for homeland security balancing technology and social issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flammini, Francesco; Franceschetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Effective Surveillance for Homeland Security: Balancing Technology and Social Issues provides a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the surveillance and protection of citizens and critical infrastructures against natural and deliberate threats. Focusing on current technological challenges involving multi-disciplinary problem analysis and systems engineering approaches, it provides an overview of the most relevant aspects of surveillance systems in the framework of homeland security. Addressing both advanced surveillance technologies and the related socio-ethical issues, the book consists of 21 chapters written by international experts from the various sectors of homeland security. Part I, Surveillance and Society, focuses on the societal dimension of surveillance-stressing the importance of societal acceptability as a precondition to any surveillance system. Part II, Physical and Cyber Surveillance, presents advanced technologies for surveillance. It considers developing technologie...

  7. Surveillance issues in inflammatory bowel disease: ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, D; Onken, J

    2001-02-01

    This review article on the surveillance of patients with ulcerative colitis provides an overview of the criteria for evaluating screening and surveillance programs and applies the criteria to the available evidence to determine the effectiveness of the surveillance of patients with ulcerative colitis. We examine the clinical outcomes associated with surveillance, the additional clinical time required to confirm the diagnosis of dysplasia and cancer, compliance with surveillance and follow-up, and the effectiveness of the individual components of a surveillance program, including colonoscopy and pathologist's interpretation. The disability associated with colectomy is considered, as are the cost and acceptability of surveillance programs. Patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis are at risk for developing colorectal cancer. Recommended surveillance colonoscopy should be supported. New endoscopic and histopathologic techniques to improve the identification of high-risk patients may enhance the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surveillance practices.

  8. Veterinary surveillance laboratories: developing the training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Staci L; McCline, Katasha T; Hanfelt, Margery M

    2010-01-01

    The increased need and demand for onsite, frequent, rapid, and portable food and bottled water testing for indicators of microbiological and chemical agents led to the deployment of 2 laboratory veterinary equipment sets. A Surveillance Food Laboratory Program (SFLP) was developed to allow Veterinary Corps commanders to establish targeted testing programs to enhance food safety and wholesomeness, along with faster responses to food defense, suspected foodborne illness, and food/water risk assessment missions. To support the deployment of the veterinary equipment sets and the SFLP, 2 new functional courses were developed by the Department of Veterinary Science. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Technician Course teaches essential technical skills that include sample processing, assay methodologies, results review, and interpretation of results produced by these laboratories. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Manager Course, developed for designated managers of the laboratories and laboratory programs, teaches the skills critical to ensuring proper surveillance laboratory oversight, testing, evaluation of results, risk communication, and response to presumptive positive results produced by the laboratories. Together, the courses allowed for the successful deployment of the unique veterinary equipment sets, resulting in development of fully operational surveillance laboratories in support of food protection missions in every major theater of operations.

  9. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Surveillance and Resilience in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Raab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is often used as a tool in resilience strategies towards the threat posed by terrorist attacks and other serious crime. “Resilience” is a contested term with varying and ambiguous meaning in governmental, business and social discourses, and it is not clear how it relates to other terms that characterise processes or states of being. Resilience is often assumed to have positive connotations, but critics view it with great suspicion, regarding it as a neo-liberal governmental strategy. However, we argue that surveillance, introduced in the name of greater security, may itself erode social freedoms and public goods such as privacy, paradoxically requiring societal resilience, whether precautionary or in mitigation of the harms it causes to the public goods of free societies. This article develops new models and extends existing ones to describe resilience processes unfolding over time and in anticipation of, or in reaction to, adversities of different kinds and severity, and explores resilience both on the plane of abstract analysis and in the context of societal responses to mass surveillance. The article thus focuses upon surveillance as a special field for conceptual analysis and modelling of situations, and for evaluating contemporary developments in “surveillance societies”.

  11. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Ewing, Alexander; Mandel, Michele G; Simmons, Katharine B; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2016-11-25

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2013. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2013, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 664,435 abortions were reported to CDC for 2013. Of these abortions, 98.2% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2004-2013. Among these 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2013 was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2012 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 5%. From 2004 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 20%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. In 2013, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2004-2013). In 2013 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2013, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 25.9% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.8 and 18.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.8%, 9.2%, and 3.6% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.8, 7.0, and 2

  12. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-11-27

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2012. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2012, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2003-2012. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 699,202 abortions were reported to CDC for 2012. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2003-2012. Among these same 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2012 was 13.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 210 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2011 to 2012, the total number and ratio of reported abortions decreased 4% and the abortion rate decreased 5%. From 2003 to 2012, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 17%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, and reached their lowest level in 2012 for the entire period of analysis (2003-2012). In 2012 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2012, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.8% and 25.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 23.3 and 18.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.4%, 9.1%, and 3.7% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of

  13. Market surveillance for the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. We define market surveillance as the collection of information about variables which will allow inferences about the attractiveness of a company's present and future offerings. The attractiveness, in turn, will depend on the value customers perceive in a product relative...... to competing products and relative to its price. Such information on determinants of value perception and costs can be used in the strategy formulation of the company. 2. We define a market surveillance system as a set of methods/instruments to regularly select, collect, and process data about a market and its...... actors, with the aim of detecting changes in those long-term trends, which are expected to influence the attractiveness of a company's present an future offerings. 3. Different types of market surveillance systems can be distinguished based on the actors it covers (distributors/end users...

  14. A comprehensive review on intelligent surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Warsono Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent surveillance system (ISS has received growing attention due to the increasing demand on security and safety. ISS is able to automatically analyze image, video, audio or other type of surveillance data without or with limited human intervention. The recent developments in sensor devices, computer vision, and machine learning have an important role in enabling such intelligent system. This paper aims to provide general overview of intelligent surveillance system and discuss some possible sensor modalities and their fusion scenarios such as visible camera (CCTV, infrared camera, thermal camera and radar. This paper also discusses main processing steps in ISS: background-foreground segmentation, object detection and classification, tracking, and behavioral analysis.

  15. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  16. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  17. Epidemiological Concepts Regarding Disease Monitoring and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jette

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of epidemiological concepts regarding disease monitoring and surveillance can be found in textbooks on veterinary epidemiology. This paper gives a review of how the concepts: monitoring, surveillance, and disease control strategies are defined. Monitoring and surveillance systems (MO&SS involve measurements of disease occurrence, and the design of the monitoring determines which types of disease occurrence measures can be applied. However, the knowledge of the performance of diagnostic tests (sensitivity and specificity is essential to estimate the true occurrence of the disease. The terms, disease control programme (DCP or disease eradication programme (DEP, are defined, and the steps of DCP/DEP are described to illustrate that they are a process rather than a static MO&SS.

  18. Enhancing Disease Surveillance Event Communication Among Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Nathaniel R; Loschen, Wayne A; Jorgensen, Joel; Suereth, Joshua; Coberly, Jacqueline S; Holtry, Rekha S; Sikes, Marvin L; Babin, Steven M; Lewis, Sheryl L Happel

    2009-01-01

    Automated disease surveillance systems are becoming widely used by the public health community. However, communication among non-collocated and widely dispersed users still needs improvement. A web-based software tool for enhancing user communications was completely integrated into an existing automated disease surveillance system and was tested during two simulated exercises and operational use involving multiple jurisdictions. Evaluation of this tool was conducted by user meetings, anonymous surveys, and web logs. Public health officials found this tool to be useful, and the tool has been modified further to incorporate features suggested by user responses. Features of the automated disease surveillance system, such as alerts and time series plots, can be specifically referenced by user comments. The user may also indicate the alert response being considered by adding a color indicator to their comment. The web-based event communication tool described in this article provides a common ground for collaboration and communication among public health officials at different locations.

  19. [Recommendations for the surveillance of Aedes aegypti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika, continue to rise in annual incidence and geographic expansion. A key limitation for achieving control of A. aegypti has been the lack of effective tools for monitoring its population, and thus determine what control measures actually work. Surveillance of A. aegypti has been based mainly on immature indexes, but they bear little relation to the number of mosquito females, which are the ones capable of transmitting the viruses. The recent development of sampling techniques for adults of this vector species promises to facilitate surveillance and control activities. In this review, we present the various monitoring techniques for this mosquito, along with a discussion of their usefulness, and recommendations for improved entomological surveillance.

  20. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  1. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  2. Statistical analyses in disease surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Andres G; Larasati, Ria Purwita; Sedyaningsih, Endang R; Bounlu, Khanthong; Araujo-Castillo, Roger V; Munayco-Escate, Cesar V; Soto, Giselle; Mundaca, C Cecilia; Blazes, David L

    2008-11-14

    The performance of disease surveillance systems is evaluated and monitored using a diverse set of statistical analyses throughout each stage of surveillance implementation. An overview of their main elements is presented, with a specific emphasis on syndromic surveillance directed to outbreak detection in resource-limited settings. Statistical analyses are proposed for three implementation stages: planning, early implementation, and consolidation. Data sources and collection procedures are described for each analysis.During the planning and pilot stages, we propose to estimate the average data collection, data entry and data distribution time. This information can be collected by surveillance systems themselves or through specially designed surveys. During the initial implementation stage, epidemiologists should study the completeness and timeliness of the reporting, and describe thoroughly the population surveyed and the epidemiology of the health events recorded. Additional data collection processes or external data streams are often necessary to assess reporting completeness and other indicators. Once data collection processes are operating in a timely and stable manner, analyses of surveillance data should expand to establish baseline rates and detect aberrations. External investigations can be used to evaluate whether abnormally increased case frequency corresponds to a true outbreak, and thereby establish the sensitivity and specificity of aberration detection algorithms.Statistical methods for disease surveillance have focused mainly on the performance of outbreak detection algorithms without sufficient attention to the data quality and representativeness, two factors that are especially important in developing countries. It is important to assess data quality at each state of implementation using a diverse mix of data sources and analytical methods. Careful, close monitoring of selected indicators is needed to evaluate whether systems are reaching their

  3. Disease surveillance using a hidden Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Graeme

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine surveillance of disease notification data can enable the early detection of localised disease outbreaks. Although hidden Markov models (HMMs have been recognised as an appropriate method to model disease surveillance data, they have been rarely applied in public health practice. We aimed to develop and evaluate a simple flexible HMM for disease surveillance which is suitable for use with sparse small area count data and requires little baseline data. Methods A Bayesian HMM was designed to monitor routinely collected notifiable disease data that are aggregated by residential postcode. Semi-synthetic data were used to evaluate the algorithm and compare outbreak detection performance with the established Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS algorithms and a negative binomial cusum. Results Algorithm performance varied according to the desired false alarm rate for surveillance. At false alarm rates around 0.05, the cusum-based algorithms provided the best overall outbreak detection performance, having similar sensitivity to the HMMs and a shorter average time to detection. At false alarm rates around 0.01, the HMM algorithms provided the best overall outbreak detection performance, having higher sensitivity than the cusum-based Methods and a generally shorter time to detection for larger outbreaks. Overall, the 14-day HMM had a significantly greater area under the receiver operator characteristic curve than the EARS C3 and 7-day negative binomial cusum algorithms. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the HMM provides an effective method for the surveillance of sparse small area notifiable disease data at low false alarm rates. Further investigations are required to evaluation algorithm performance across other diseases and surveillance contexts.

  4. Smart Telerobotic Surveillance System via Internet with Reduced Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashesh Vasalya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work provides an imperial solution to the problems faced by man while enduring hazardous tasks like handling and disposal of nuclear wastes, monitoring nuclear power plants, mining operations etc .which have to be aborted if expertise group running it is unavailable or on a run. This paper presents a distributed platform that allows the special group of user to control a gadget (possibly a robot through internet as a medium. An advanced version of this technology is capable of transmitting graphic images and other surrounding information as required, via internet back to the user to facilitate the effective monitoring of the existent situation using appropriate software tools. The project uses the SRV-1 Mobile Surveillance Robot which is a fully integrated system standard designed and other related technology for surveillance purposes. It is driven via web browser using JAVA based control applications with live video feeds. Specialised user group will be given separate account from where they can control and monitor the system even when they are not present at the site. End user will be connected to the gadget (robot through a central server which acts as a single channel for both sending and receiving information. But the subject of remote control over the internet has some possible anomalies namely network freezing, delay between host and recipient, congested network and many others. This system enables asynchronous object passing so that network bandwidth is used effectively and such parameters as the network condition and server states have less effect on the system. To resolve this issue, a fuzzy logic controller is used to control the robot’s motion along a predefined path with the necessary manipulation of the normal course. The robot was first modelled in Matlab Simulink and the fuzzy logic rules were optimized for the best results possible. In accordance with the fuzzy rules developed the fuzzy interference system generates the

  5. Design of a Miniature Autonomous Surveillance Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chang-e; HUANG Qiang; HUANG Yuan-can

    2009-01-01

    The small size of miniature robots poses great challenges for the mechanical and deetrieal design and the implementation of autonomous capabilities.In this paper,the mechanical and electrical design for a twowheeled cylindrical miniature autonomous robot ("BMS-1",BIT MicroScout-1) is presented and some autonomous capabilities are implemented by multiple sensors and some arithmetic models.Several experimental results show that BMS-1 is useful for surveillance in confined spaces and suitable for large-scale surveillance due to some autonomous capabilities.

  6. Intelligent video surveillance systems and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2009-01-01

    From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated

  7. Event-driven surveillance possibilities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    The Web has become a rich source of personal information in the last few years. People twitter, blog, and chat online. Current feelings, experiences or latest news are posted. For instance, first hints to disease outbreaks, customer preferences, or political changes could be identified with this data. Surveillance or early warning systems enable such detection of changes and support humans in getting information on changing situations. However, the variety of data that could be considered for surveillance is immense, ranging from sensor-measured values to collected counts and information extra

  8. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  9. Syndromic surveillance: A necessary public health tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Of late much has been said about emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. The focus has been on continuous public health surveillance for early detection of outbreaks and potential threats. Preparedness is the way forward and relevant institutions and organizations need to make the necessary investments early. Familiarity, good coordination, active participation and a change of mindset amongst personnel is crucial to make the system work. We also share a general approach to using electronic Emergency Department data for syndromic surveillance.

  10. Crisis Management Using Multiple Camera Surveillance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rothkrantz , L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    During recent disasters such as tsunami, flooding, hurricanes, nuclear disaster, earthquake people have to leave their living areas for their own safety. But it proves that some people are not informed about the evacuation, or are not willing or able to leave or don’t know how to leave the hazardous areas. The topic of the paper is how to adapt current video surveillance systems along highway and streets to semi-automatic surveillance systems. When a suspicious event is detected a human opera...

  11. Learning from state surveillance of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longjohn, Matt; Sheon, Amy R; Card-Higginson, Paula; Nader, Philip R; Mason, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Data on childhood obesity collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention helped reveal the nation's epidemic of overweight and obese children. But more information is needed. Collecting body mass index (BMI)-the widely accepted measurement of childhood weight status-at the state and local levels can be instrumental in identifying and tracking obesity trends, designing interventions to help overweight children, and guiding broader policy solutions. Approximately thirty states have enacted or proposed BMI surveillance laws and regulations. Arkansas stands out as the state with the highest-quality surveillance data. Innovative strategies being pursued in a number of other states should be explored for broader dissemination.

  12. Reaction kinetic analysis of reactor surveillance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiie, T.; Kinomura, A.; Nagai, Y.

    2017-02-01

    In the reactor pressure vessel surveillance data of a European-type pressurized water reactor (low-Cu steel), it was found that the concentration of matrix defects was very high, and a large number of precipitates existed. In this study, defect structure evolution obtained from surveillance data was simulated by reaction kinetic analysis using 15 rate equations. The saturation of precipitation and the growth of loops were simulated, but it was not possible to explain the increase in DBTT on the basis of the defect structures. The sub-grain boundary segregation of solutes was discussed for the origin of the DBTT increase.

  13. Industrial espionage and technical surveillance counter measurers

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif

    2016-01-01

    This book examines technical aspects of industrial espionage and its impact in modern companies, organizations, and individuals while emphasizing the importance of intellectual property in the information era. The authors discuss the problem itself and then provide statistics and real world cases. The main contribution provides a detailed discussion of the actual equipment, tools and techniques concerning technical surveillance in the framework of espionage. Moreover, they present the best practices and methods of detection (technical surveillance counter measures) as well as means of intellectual property protection.

  14. Active surveillance for clinically localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Brasso, Klaus; Klotz, Laurence H

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as an observational strategy to delay or avoid curative treatment without compromising long-term cancer-specific survival. The 10 studies included in this review, published between 2008 and 2013, generally agreed upon patients selection for the AS stra......Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as an observational strategy to delay or avoid curative treatment without compromising long-term cancer-specific survival. The 10 studies included in this review, published between 2008 and 2013, generally agreed upon patients selection...

  15. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.

  16. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Tante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR, Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED. Methods: A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results: Two of 11 (18% surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45% surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91% rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7% considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27% surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6% surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion: In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other.

  17. Dominant object detection for autonomous vision-based surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, H.

    2010-01-01

    The deployment of visual surveillance and monitoring systems has reached massive proportions. Consequently, a need to automate the processes involved in retrieving useful information from surveillance videos, such as detecting and counting objects, and interpreting their individual and joint behavio

  18. Challenges of implementing an Integrated Disease Surveillance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of implementing an Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response strategy using the current Health Management Information System in Tanzania. ... During that time, the country had 5 separate surveillance systems to monitor ...

  19. Surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the potential for improvements in surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection and paratuberculosis in dairy herds was investigated, leading to a reduction in surveillance costs whilst continuing to meet specific quality targets. In particular, differen

  20. Dominant object detection for autonomous vision-based surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, H.

    2010-01-01

    The deployment of visual surveillance and monitoring systems has reached massive proportions. Consequently, a need to automate the processes involved in retrieving useful information from surveillance videos, such as detecting and counting objects, and interpreting their individual and joint behavio

  1. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Health Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced ... HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the ...

  2. Intensity of human prion disease surveillance predicts observed disease incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Klug (Genevieve); H. Wand (Handan); M. Simpson (Marion); A. Boyd (Alison); M. Law (Matthew); C. Masters (Colin); R. Mateǰ (Radoslav); R. Howley (Rachel); M. Farrell (Michael); M. Breithaupt; I. Zerr (Inga); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); J. Mackenzie; R.G. Will (Robert); J-P. Brandel (Jean-Philippe); A. Alperovitch (Annick); H. Budka (Herbert); G.G. Kovacs (Gabor); G.H. Jansen (Gerard); M. Coulthard (Michael); S.J. Collins (Steven)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Prospective national screening and surveillance programmes serve a range of public health functions. Objectively determining their adequacy and impact on disease may be problematic for rare disorders. We undertook to assess whether objective measures of disease surveillance

  3. Battlespace surveillance using netted wireless random noise radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surender, Shrawan C.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2005-05-01

    Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) technology is currently being investigated to enhance the military"s effectiveness in the battlespace by providing the warfighter the necessary information to take proper decisions and win wars. One of the main battlespace requirements is surveillance, especially in today"s guerilla warfare theaters, such as the littoral and urban zones. NCW requires warfighters to be networked, self-organizing, spectrally undetectable, and having precise information about hostile targets in their vicinity. Towards this end, we are developing the concept of Netted Wireless Random Noise Radars, which is presented in this paper. The low probability-of-detection (LPD) and low probability-of-intercept (LPI) properties of random noise radars are well-known. Such radar sensors form a self-organizing network-centric architecture, using a deterministically fragmented spectrum to avoid spectral fratricide. The central concept is to use notch filtering to fragment parts of the band-limited non-coherent random noise waveform spectrum, and use these intermediate bandwidths for network communication (target tracking and track fusion) among the wireless sensors. For target detection and ranging, these sensors transmit random noise waveforms combined with continuous signals carrying digital data. As seen by the hostile target, the transmitted waveform appears random and noise-like. However, for the friendly sensors of this system, the noise-like signal contains camouflaged information. The advantages being envisioned with such a system are lower probability of detection due to noise-like transmissions, mobility to sensors due to the self-organizing capability, spectral efficiency due to fragmentation of spectrum, and better immunity to coherent interference due to the use of non-coherent signal waveforms.

  4. The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP): Clinical, Diagnostic, and Epidemiological Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kalckreuth, Vera; Konings, Frank; Aaby, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ali, Mohammad; Aseffa, Abraham; Baker, Stephen; Breiman, Robert F; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Clemens, John D; Crump, John A; Cruz Espinoza, Ligia Maria; Deerin, Jessica Fung; Gasmelseed, Nagla; Sow, Amy Gassama; Im, Justin; Keddy, Karen H; Cosmas, Leonard; May, Jürgen; Meyer, Christian G; Mintz, Eric D; Montgomery, Joel M; Olack, Beatrice; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Warren, Michelle R; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    New immunization programs are dependent on data from surveillance networks and disease burden estimates to prioritize target areas and risk groups. Data regarding invasive Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are currently limited, thus hindering the implementation of preventive measures. The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) was established by the International Vaccine Institute to obtain comparable incidence data on typhoid fever and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa through standardized surveillance in multiple countries. Standardized procedures were developed and deployed across sites for study site selection, patient enrolment, laboratory procedures, quality control and quality assurance, assessment of healthcare utilization and incidence calculations. Passive surveillance for bloodstream infections among febrile patients was initiated at thirteen sentinel sites in ten countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania). Each TSAP site conducted case detection using these standardized methods to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria from the bloodstream of febrile patients. Healthcare utilization surveys were conducted to adjust population denominators in incidence calculations for differing healthcare utilization patterns and improve comparability of incidence rates across sites. By providing standardized data on the incidence of typhoid fever and iNTS disease in sub-Saharan Africa, TSAP will provide vital input for targeted typhoid fever prevention programs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Akilimali, Laurent; Anne, Jean-Claude; Bidjada, Pawou; Bompangue, Didier; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dengo-Baloi, Liliana; Dosso, Mireille; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Inguane, Dorteia; Kagirita, Atek; Kacou-N'Douba, Adele; Keita, Sakoba; Kere Banla, Abiba; Kouame, Yao Jean-Pierre; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Langa, Jose Paulo; Makumbi, Issa; Miwanda, Berthe; Malimbo, Muggaga; Mutombo, Guy; Mutombo, Annie; NGuetta, Emilienne Niamke; Saliou, Mamadou; Sarr, Veronique; Senga, Raphael Kakongo; Sory, Fode; Sema, Cynthia; Tante, Ouyi Valentin; Gessner, Bradford D; Mengel, Martin A

    2016-05-01

    Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org). During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  6. Development of the Hospital Nurse Surveillance Capacity Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Kutney-Lee, Ann; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2009-01-01

    Better patient outcomes are often achieved through effective surveillance, a primary function of nurses. The purpose of this paper is to define, operationalize, measure, and evaluate the nurse surveillance capacity of hospitals. Nurse surveillance capacity is defined as the organizational features that enhance or weaken nurse surveillance. It includes a set of registered nurse (staffing, education, expertise, experience) and nurse practice environment characteristics. Empirical referents were...

  7. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems...... and models for interpreting surveillance data as part of ongoing control or eradication programmes. Two Danish examples are outlined. The first illustrates how models were used in documenting country freedom from disease (trichinellosis) and the second demonstrates how models were of assistance in predicting...

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma: risk groups, surveillance and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, S

    2016-01-01

    The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has changed in the past few decades. Although the majority of HCC cases develops in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, HCC has become an increasing problem in Western countries such as the Netherlands. Surveillance for HCC is controversial because of limit

  9. Collaborative Point Paper on Border Surveillance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Surveillance Systems/Products/Technology (Continu Enviro m/Product Name nment (A,L,M,T)/Syste ICx Technologies Cerberus - Cerberus provides a fully...allows pilots to see through darkness, smoke , haze, and adverse weather. The system incorporates a state-of-the-art MWIR InSb focal plane array with

  10. Protecting personal data in camera surveillance practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores in which ways privacy (in particular, data protection principles) comes to the fore in the day-to-day operation of a public video surveillance system. Starting from current European legal perspectives on data protection, and building on an empirical case study, the meanings and m

  11. Paediatric surveillance of pertussis in 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melker HE de; Neppelenbroek SN; Schellekens JFP; Suijkerbuijk AWM; Conyn- van Spaendonck MAE; CIE; LIS

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight into the severity of pertussis in hospitalised cases. Methods: In 1998, hospitalisation data were collected through paediatric surveillance. Results: From 115 hospitalisation admissions collected, 55% of the patients were younger than 3 months of age and not vaccinated; 12

  12. Projectbeschrijving Surveillance Ziekenhuisinfecties 1996-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg JMJ; de Boer AS; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Sprenger MJW; Cucic S; van Pelt W; CIE

    1996-01-01

    Uit de literatuur is bekend dat ziekenhuisinfecties, infecties die ontstaan tijdens het verblijf van de patient in het ziekenhuis, optreden bij 5 tot 10% van de patientenpopulatie in Nederlandse ziekenhuizen. Ter onderbouwing van preventie en bestrijding van ziekenhuisinfecties dient surveillance u

  13. Ergonomische toetsing van 4 surveillance auto's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.; Grassère, S.H.H.

    2010-01-01

    In het kader van een Europese aanbesteding voor surveillance voertuigen zijn vier kandidaat voertuigen getoetst op hun ergonomische kwaliteit. Deze kandidaat voertuigen waren de VW: • Golf; • Touran; • Passat; • Transporter. Eénentwintig proefpersonen werden bemeten in de vier voertuigen aan de hand

  14. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones...

  15. Current Western Reactions to Mass Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The chapter investigates social mobilisation going beyond our traditional understandings of social movement in a German context. Since the summer of 2013, an extensive system of surveillance came to the attention of the general public. It was learned that the American NSA, the British GCHQ and ot...

  16. Monitoring and Surveillance of Hemodialysis Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Nischal; Anvari, Evamaria; McLennan, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    Access surveillance using invasive or noninvasive methods with an objective to improve access patency and decrease hospital admissions for access dysfunction in dialysis population has been promoted, but its success to predict incipient thrombosis and subsequent access failure is a controversial topic. Some studies have shown improvement in access outcomes, while others have failed to demonstrate an ideal method to diagnose access problems. Furthermore, the use of endovascular interventions such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty to timely correct access problem might itself be a promoter of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis during balloon angioplasty. There are significant costs and efforts associated with routine dialysis surveillance; therefore, it is necessary to understand whether such programs will help improve access-related problems and guarantee adequate dialysis care. It is generally agreed upon that despite the lack of guaranteed success of surveillance, such strategies have helped improve dialysis management, resulted in decreased costs and hospitalizations, and represented clinically relevant indications of failure prior to planning any radiological or surgical intervention. In this study, the authors review monitoring and surveillance measures in place, and their associated merits and limitations to detect stenosis and prevent incidences of vascular access thrombosis.

  17. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben;

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...

  18. Enhanced surveillance of maternal mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Larissa J; Lloyd, Linda E; Selwyn, Beatrice J

    2012-12-01

    Maternal mortality is often used to measure health and well-being for women. Improved surveillance efforts can improve maternal mortality estimates and inform the development of strategies to address the needs of maternal and child health populations. The purpose of this study was to provide better estimates of maternal mortality in Texas by using enhanced surveillance methods. Results from our analyses of fetal death and live birth records in Texas from 2000 through 2006 were then linked to pregnancy-related death records and death records of women of childbearing age (15-44 years) in Texas from 2001 through 2006. Enhanced surveillance identified almost 3.5 times as many deaths that might be associated with pregnancy than do current methods and confirmed a persistent race/ethnicity trend in maternal mortality. The leading cause of these 2001-2006 pregnancy-associated deaths was accidents. Enhanced surveillance allows the identification of additional deaths possibly associated with pregnancy and provides a stable foundation to investigate trends further and to review maternal mortality cases systematically.

  19. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  20. Toward the effective surveillance of hypospadias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, H; Vrijheid, M; Scott, JES; Addor, MC; Botting, B; de Vigan, C; de Walle, H; Garne, E; Loane, M; Pierini, A; Garcia-Minaur, S; Physick, N; Tenconi, R; Wiesel, A; Calzolari, E; Stone, D

    2004-01-01

    Concern about apparent increases in the prevalence of hypospadias-a congenital male reproductive-tract abnormality-in the 1960s to 1980s and the possible connection to increasing exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals have underlined the importance of effective surveillance of hypospadias preva

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma: risk groups, surveillance and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, S

    2016-01-01

    The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has changed in the past few decades. Although the majority of HCC cases develops in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, HCC has become an increasing problem in Western countries such as the Netherlands. Surveillance for HCC is controversial because of

  2. Inverse Perspective Transformation for Video Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Bouman, Charles A.; Miller, Eric L.; Pollak, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    In this research, we are considering the use of the inverse perspective transformation in video surveillance applications that observe (and possible influence) scenes consisting of moving and stationary objects; e.g., people on a parking area. In previous research, objects were detected on video str

  3. Surveillance and Conformity in Competitive Youth Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Underpinned by a Foucauldian analysis of sporting practices, this paper identifies the disciplinary mechanism of surveillance at work in competitive youth swimming. It highlights the ways in which swimmers and their coaches are subject to and apply this mechanism to produce embodied conformity to normative behaviour and obedient, docile bodies.…

  4. Detection of Cast Shadows in Surveillance Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren G.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarne Dissing; Stage, Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    Cast shadows from moving objects reduce the general ability of robust classification and tracking of these objects, in outdoor surveillance applications. A method for segmentation of cast shadows is proposed, combining statistical features with a new similarity feature, derived from a physics...

  5. Collaborative Point Paper on Border Surveillance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    conditions. Closed circuit television (CCTV), infrared image cameras, surveillance UAVs, long range radar and laser radar ( LIDAR ) are often deployed... Photodetector ) long-wave infrared focal plane array, the Star Q provides long-range imaging capabilities from altitudes and standoff ranges

  6. Surveillance in stage I testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Rørth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Treatment results on 695 stage I testicular cancer patients followed with surveillance are described. Seminoma (SGCT) was present in 394 patients and nonseminoma (NSGCT) in 301 patients. Relapses were detected in 155 patients (22%), in 69 patients with SGCT (17%) and 86 with NSGCT (29...

  7. Protecting personal data in camera surveillance practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores in which ways privacy (in particular, data protection principles) comes to the fore in the day-to-day operation of a public video surveillance system. Starting from current European legal perspectives on data protection, and building on an empirical case study, the meanings and

  8. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  9. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  10. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Verbruggen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings.

  11. Detection, Deterrence, Docility: Techniques of Control by Surveillance Cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balamir, S.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the growing omnipresence of surveillance cameras, not much is known by the general public about their background. While many disciplines have scrutinised the techniques and effects of surveillance, the object itself remains somewhat of a mystery. A design typology of surveillance cameras

  12. State-level Zoonotic Disease Surveillance in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Scotch, Matthew; Rabinowitz, Peter; Brandt, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, yet recent commissions have highlighted deficiencies in their surveillance. We conducted a survey to understand the needs of state agencies for zoonotic disease surveillance. The findings will hopefully support the development of biomedical informatics applications that can link animal and human data for surveillance.

  13. Fusion of Radar and EO-sensors for Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, L.J.H.M.; Theil, A.

    2000-01-01

    Fusion of radar and EO-sensors for the purpose of surveillance is investigated. All sensors are considered to be co-located with respect to the distance of the area under surveillance. More specifically, the applicability for such multi-sensor systems is examined for surveillance in littoral

  14. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems and mod...

  15. Counselees' Expressed Level of Understanding of the Risk Estimate and Surveillance Recommendation are Not Associated with Breast Cancer Surveillance Adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, Akke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Dijkstra, Henrietta; Wieffer, Ivette; Witkamp, Arjen; Ausems, Margreet G E M

    We studied counselees' expressed understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation in the final consultation for breast cancer genetic counseling in relation with their risk perception, worry and cancer surveillance adherence 1 year post-counseling. Consecutive counselees were

  16. Counselees' Expressed Level of Understanding of the Risk Estimate and Surveillance Recommendation are Not Associated with Breast Cancer Surveillance Adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Dulmen, S. van; Dijkstra, H.; Wieffer, I.; Witkamp, A.; Ausems, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    We studied counselees' expressed understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation in the final consultation for breast cancer genetic counseling in relation with their risk perception, worry and cancer surveillance adherence 1 year post-counseling. Consecutive counselees were

  17. Counselees’ expressed level of understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation are not associated with breast cancer surveillance adherence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Dulmen, S. van; Dijkstra, H.; Wieffer, I.; Witkamp, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    We studied counselees’ expressed understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation in the final consultation for breast cancer genetic counseling in relation with their risk perception, worry and cancer surveillance adherence 1 year post-counseling. Consecutive counselees were

  18. Whole record surveillance is superior to chief complaint surveillance for predicting influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Gail; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind; Froehling, David Arthur; Trusko, Brett; Elkin, Peter

    2008-11-06

    Matched records of positive and negative influenza cases were parsed with a Natural Language Processor, the Multi-threaded Clinical Vocabulary Server (MCVS). Output was coded into SNOMED-CT reference terminology and compared to the SNOMED case definition of influenza. Odds ratios for each element of the influenza case definition by each section of the record were used to generate ROC curves. C-statistics showed that whole record surveillance was superior to chief complaint surveillance for predicting influenza.

  19. International Society for Disease Surveillance Conference 2011: Building the Future of Public Health Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    supplement, Complete

    2011-01-01

    The International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) celebrates its 10th annual meeting with the arrival of the 2011 ISDS Annual Conference, ‘Building the Future of Public Health Surveillance’. This milestone in the Society’s history is punctuated not only by the achievements of the disease surveillance community but also by the promise of what lies ahead. The Annual Conference brings together a community of researchers and practitioners focused on monitoring, understanding and improving...

  20. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  1. World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance White Paper on Surveillance and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Campostrini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is not a research paper on risk factor surveillance. It is an effort by a key group of researchers and practitioners of risk factor surveillance to define the current state of the art and to identify the key issues involved in the current practice of behavioral risk factor surveillance. Those of us who are the principal authors have worked and carried out research in this area for some three decades. As a result of a series of global meetings beginning in 1999 and continuing every two years since then, a collective working group of the International Union of Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE was formed under the name World Alliance of Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS. Under this banner the organization sought to write a comprehensive statement on the importance of surveillance to health promotion and public health. This paper, which has been revised and reviewed by established peers in the field, is the result. It provides the reader with a clear summary of the major issues that need to be considered by any and all seeking to carry out behavioral risk factor surveillance.

  2. Parallel Computational Intelligence-Based Multi-Camera Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Orts-Escolano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a multi-camera surveillance system based on the use of self-organizing neural networks to represent events on video. The system processes several tasks in parallel using GPUs (graphic processor units. It addresses multiple vision tasks at various levels, such as segmentation, representation or characterization, analysis and monitoring of the movement. These features allow the construction of a robust representation of the environment and interpret the behavior of mobile agents in the scene. It is also necessary to integrate the vision module into a global system that operates in a complex environment by receiving images from multiple acquisition devices at video frequency. Offering relevant information to higher level systems, monitoring and making decisions in real time, it must accomplish a set of requirements, such as: time constraints, high availability, robustness, high processing speed and re-configurability. We have built a system able to represent and analyze the motion in video acquired by a multi-camera network and to process multi-source data in parallel on a multi-GPU architecture.

  3. Air Pollution Determination Using a Surveillance Internet Protocol Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow Jeng, C. J.; Hwee San, Hslim; Matjafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, Abdul, K.

    Air pollution has long been a problem in the industrial nations of the West It has now become an increasing source of environmental degradation in the developing nations of east Asia Malaysia government has built a network to monitor air pollution But the cost of these networks is high and limits the knowledge of pollutant concentration to specific points of the cities A methodology based on a surveillance internet protocol IP camera for the determination air pollution concentrations was presented in this study The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of using IP camera data for estimating real time particulate matter of size less than 10 micron PM10 in the campus of USM The proposed PM10 retrieval algorithm derived from the atmospheric optical properties was employed in the present study In situ data sets of PM10 measurements and sun radiation measurements at the ground surface were collected simultaneously with the IP camera images using a DustTrak meter and a handheld spectroradiometer respectively The digital images were separated into three bands namely red green and blue bands for multispectral algorithm calibration The digital number DN of the IP camera images were converted into radiance and reflectance values After that the reflectance recorded by the digital camera was subtracted by the reflectance of the known surface and we obtained the reflectance caused by the atmospheric components The atmospheric reflectance values were used for regression analysis Regression technique was employed to determine suitable

  4. Cooperative Home Video Surveillance System Based on Cyber-security P2P Streaming Techniques in Heterogeneous Networks%基于P2P串流技术的异构网络家庭联合监视系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    先柯桦

    2012-01-01

    In a traditional home video surveillance system, the house master can' t handle it when an emergent event occurs far away from home. A method using Web 2.0 based on cooperative home video surveillance system is proposed in this paper. In this system, the master's relatives, friends and neighbours are involved in a surveillance group, and monitoring images can be delivered to group members as alarm signals are issued. Finally, the system stability and efficiency of data encryption are proved to be well in experimerts.%为解决家庭监视系统中,房主离开时所产生的事故隐患,采用Web 2.0方法和P2P网络串流技术,同时将房主的好友和邻居等加入监视群体,设计了具备监视视频加密功能的安全联防网络系统,只需其中任何一位成员发出警示信息,就可立即将监视画面传给其他监视群体成员.最后,通过实验来验证所设计系统的稳定性和视频加密效能.

  5. Observability transition in real networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Radicchi, Filippo

    2016-09-01

    We consider the observability model in networks with arbitrary topologies. We introduce a system of coupled nonlinear equations, valid under the locally treelike ansatz, to describe the size of the largest observable cluster as a function of the fraction of directly observable nodes present in the network. We perform a systematic analysis on 95 real-world graphs and compare our theoretical predictions with numerical simulations of the observability model. Our method provides almost perfect predictions in the majority of the cases, even for networks with very large values of the clustering coefficient. Potential applications of our theory include the development of efficient and scalable algorithms for real-time surveillance of social networks, and monitoring of technological networks.

  6. Observability transition in real networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    We consider the observability model in networks with arbitrary topologies. We introduce a system of coupled nonlinear equations, valid under the locally tree-like ansatz, to describe the size of the largest observable cluster as a function of the fraction of directly observable nodes present in the network. We perform a systematic analysis on 95 real-world graphs and compare our theoretical predictions with numerical simulations of the observability model. Our method provides almost perfect predictions in the majority of the cases, even for networks with very large values of the clustering coefficient. Potential applications of our theory include the development of efficient and scalable algorithms for real-time surveillance of social networks, and monitoring of technological networks.

  7. Web-Based Surveillance Systems for Human, Animal, and Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoff, Lawrence C; Li, Annie

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases, caused by novel pathogens or the spread of existing ones to new populations and regions, represents a continuous threat to humans and other species. The early detection of emerging human, animal, and plant diseases is critical to preventing the spread of infection and protecting the health of our species and environment. Today, more than 75% of emerging infectious diseases are estimated to be zoonotic and capable of crossing species barriers and diminishing food supplies. Traditionally, surveillance of diseases has relied on a hierarchy of health professionals that can be costly to build and maintain, leading to a delay or interruption in reporting. However, Internet-based surveillance systems bring another dimension to epidemiology by utilizing technology to collect, organize, and disseminate information in a more timely manner. Partially and fully automated systems allow for earlier detection of disease outbreaks by searching for information from both formal sources (e.g., World Health Organization and government ministry reports) and informal sources (e.g., blogs, online media sources, and social networks). Web-based applications display disparate information online or disperse it through e-mail to subscribers or the general public. Web-based early warning systems, such as ProMED-mail, the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), and Health Map, have been able to recognize emerging infectious diseases earlier than traditional surveillance systems. These systems, which are continuing to evolve, are now widely utilized by individuals, humanitarian organizations, and government health ministries.

  8. Systematic review of surveillance by social media platforms for illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Donna M; Borsari, Brian; Levine, Maureen J; Dooley, Beau

    2017-03-14

    The use of social media (SM) as a surveillance tool of global illicit drug use is limited. To address this limitation, a systematic review of literature focused on the ability of SM to better recognize illicit drug use trends was addressed. A search was conducted in databases: PubMed, CINAHL via Ebsco, PsychINFO via Ebsco, Medline via Ebsco, ERIC, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, ABI/INFORM Complete and Communication and Mass Media Complete. Included studies were original research published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2005 and June 2015 that primarily focused on collecting data from SM platforms to track trends in illicit drug use. Excluded were studies focused on purchasing prescription drugs from illicit online pharmacies. Selected studies used a range of SM tools/applications, including message boards, Twitter and blog/forums/platform discussions. Limitations included relevance, a lack of standardized surveillance systems and a lack of efficient algorithms to isolate relevant items. Illicit drug use is a worldwide problem, and the rise of global social networking sites has led to the evolution of a readily accessible surveillance tool. Systematic approaches need to be developed to efficiently extract and analyze illicit drug content from social networks to supplement effective prevention programs.

  9. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Sampath K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]. Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  10. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Lalit; Krishnan, Sampath K

    2010-12-03

    India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]). Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT) network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  11. [Antimicrobial resistance surveillance: from the bottle plunged into the ocean to a critical evaluation of the methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codiţă, Irina; Serban, Roxana; Canton, Amalia; Pistol, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    According to the resolution adopted by the Member States in the "Microbial threat" Conference, Copenhaga, 1988. antimicrobial resistance surveillance is one of the four pillars of the control strategy of this increasingly serious public health problem, coming together with the antimicrobial consumption surveillance, intersectoral actions and antibiotics prudent use promotion. Seventeen years ago, O'Brien and col. were describing the current degree of the antimicrobial resistance surveillance as follow: "There are no reliable data in this area--simply fragments of information and anecdotes that we use to draw an overall picture" (Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 1992, 15.53S-60S). Ten years later, Morris and Masterton were showing that there were reports underlying the big volume of activity delivered in the field of antimicrobial resistance surveillance during that time, but there were no major changes in respect of the data quality (JAC,. 2002, 49, 7-10). According to the WHO definition, surveillance, as continuous and systematic process of data collection, data analysis and data reporting, is reaching it's scope only if it is able to provide information valuable for action. Though it is by excellence a type of surveillance based on the microbiology laboratory activity, antimicrobial resistance surveillance is not coming to be useful according to the WHO and EUCAST (European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) acception without using the epidemiology methods in order to make possible the adoption of a clear strategy, starting from the definition of the type of information that we want to obtain. Pending on the scope and taking into account the preexisting premises for setting up a surveillance network, we need to select the appropriate surveillance methods, in respect of data and strains collection and storage, data reporting, appropriate denominators (population categories. admission days, patient days etc.), data stratifying etc

  12. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  13. Clustering Algorithms for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks - A Brief Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.MeenaKowshalya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are emerging in vari ous fields like disaster management, battle field surveillance and border security surveillance. A la rge number of sensors in these applications are unattended and work autonomously. Clustering is a k ey technique to improve the network lifetime, reduc e the energy consumption and increase the scalability of the sensor network. In this paper, we study the impact of heterogeneity of the nodes to the perform ance of WSN. This paper surveys the different clust ering algorithm for heterogeneous WSN .

  14. Enabling analytical and Modeling Tools for Enhanced Disease Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn K. Manley

    2003-04-01

    Early detection, identification, and warning are essential to minimize casualties from a biological attack. For covert attacks, sick people are likely to provide the first indication of an attack. An enhanced medical surveillance system that synthesizes distributed health indicator information and rapidly analyzes the information can dramatically increase the number of lives saved. Current surveillance methods to detect both biological attacks and natural outbreaks are hindered by factors such as distributed ownership of information, incompatible data storage and analysis programs, and patient privacy concerns. Moreover, because data are not widely shared, few data mining algorithms have been tested on and applied to diverse health indicator data. This project addressed both integration of multiple data sources and development and integration of analytical tools for rapid detection of disease outbreaks. As a first prototype, we developed an application to query and display distributed patient records. This application incorporated need-to-know access control and incorporated data from standard commercial databases. We developed and tested two different algorithms for outbreak recognition. The first is a pattern recognition technique that searches for space-time data clusters that may signal a disease outbreak. The second is a genetic algorithm to design and train neural networks (GANN) that we applied toward disease forecasting. We tested these algorithms against influenza, respiratory illness, and Dengue Fever data. Through this LDRD in combination with other internal funding, we delivered a distributed simulation capability to synthesize disparate information and models for earlier recognition and improved decision-making in the event of a biological attack. The architecture incorporates user feedback and control so that a user's decision inputs can impact the scenario outcome as well as integrated security and role-based access-control for communicating

  15. Mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J; Randall, Lori A; Fleskes, Joseph P; Barrow, Wylie C; Bogart, Tianna; Kluver, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The current network of weather surveillance radars within the United States readily detects flying birds and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. Radar reflectivity measures serve as an index to bird density and have been used to quantitatively map landbird distributions during migratory stopover by sampling birds aloft at the onset of nocturnal migratory flights. Our objective was to further develop and validate a similar approach for mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar observations at the onset of evening flights. We evaluated data from the Sacramento, CA radar (KDAX) during winters 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. We determined an optimal sampling time by evaluating the accuracy and precision of radar observations at different times during the onset of evening flight relative to observed diurnal distributions of radio-marked birds on the ground. The mean time of evening flight initiation occurred 23 min after sunset with the strongest correlations between reflectivity and waterfowl density on the ground occurring almost immediately after flight initiation. Radar measures became more spatially homogeneous as evening flight progressed because birds dispersed from their departure locations. Radars effectively detected birds to a mean maximum range of 83 km during the first 20 min of evening flight. Using a sun elevation angle of -5° (28 min after sunset) as our optimal sampling time, we validated our approach using KDAX data and additional data from the Beale Air Force Base, CA (KBBX) radar during winter 1998-1999. Bias-adjusted radar reflectivity of waterfowl aloft was positively related to the observed diurnal density of radio-marked waterfowl locations on the ground. Thus, weather radars provide accurate measures of relative wintering waterfowl density that can be used to comprehensively map their distributions over large spatial extents.

  16. Mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Randall, Lori A.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Bogart, Tianna; Kluver, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The current network of weather surveillance radars within the United States readily detects flying birds and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. Radar reflectivity measures serve as an index to bird density and have been used to quantitatively map landbird distributions during migratory stopover by sampling birds aloft at the onset of nocturnal migratory flights. Our objective was to further develop and validate a similar approach for mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar observations at the onset of evening flights. We evaluated data from the Sacramento, CA radar (KDAX) during winters 1998–1999 and 1999–2000. We determined an optimal sampling time by evaluating the accuracy and precision of radar observations at different times during the onset of evening flight relative to observed diurnal distributions of radio-marked birds on the ground. The mean time of evening flight initiation occurred 23 min after sunset with the strongest correlations between reflectivity and waterfowl density on the ground occurring almost immediately after flight initiation. Radar measures became more spatially homogeneous as evening flight progressed because birds dispersed from their departure locations. Radars effectively detected birds to a mean maximum range of 83 km during the first 20 min of evening flight. Using a sun elevation angle of -5° (28 min after sunset) as our optimal sampling time, we validated our approach using KDAX data and additional data from the Beale Air Force Base, CA (KBBX) radar during winter 1998–1999. Bias-adjusted radar reflectivity of waterfowl aloft was positively related to the observed diurnal density of radio-marked waterfowl locations on the ground. Thus, weather radars provide accurate measures of relative wintering waterfowl density that can be used to comprehensively map their distributions over large spatial extents.

  17. Multihospital surveillance of pneumonia burden among children aged Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naheed, Aliya; Saha, Samir K; Breiman, Robert F; Khatun, Fatema; Brooks, W Abdullah; El Arifeen, Shams; Sack, David; Luby, Stephen P

    2009-03-01

    Pneumonia contributes substantially to childhood mortality in Bangladesh. We conducted a study to characterize the disease severity and risk factors for mortality among children hospitalized for pneumonia in Bangladesh. We analyzed data on hospitalization, patient characteristics, and mortality collected by a multicenter hospital-based surveillance of pneumonia in Bangladesh. From May 2004 through April 2007, 4155 children aged 2-59 months who met a pneumonia case definition adopted by GAVI's Pneumococcal Vaccines Accelerated Development and Introduction Plan-sponsored surveillance networks were enrolled after blood culture specimens were obtained. The mean duration (+/-SD) from illness onset to hospital admission was 6+/- days; 1842 children (44%) received antimicrobial treatment before hospitalization, and an additional 924 (22%) received antimicrobial treatment after admission to the hospital. Bacteria were isolated from 161 (4%) of the 4155 specimens, including 10 (6%) Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and 5 (3%) Haemophilus influenzae type b isolates. The case-fatality rate for pneumonia in the hospital was 4% (150 deaths), and the children who died did so after a median of 2 days of hospitalization (range, 0-24 days). Infancy was highly associated with death due to pneumonia (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-3.2), as were very severe pneumonia (OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 5.6-11.2), a blood culture positive for bacteria (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0-5.8), severe malnutrition (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.9-7.4), and delayed admission (mean [+/-SD] duration from illness onset to admission, 6+/-6 days, compared with 5+/-4 days for survivors; PBangladesh is high. However, the isolation rate of bacteria is low, possibly because of the high (68%) background use of antibiotics. Multiple risk factors associated with pneumonia case fatality suggest multiple strategies, including vaccines, to reduce pneumonia-related and overall child mortality in Bangladesh.

  18. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  19. Current Management Strategy for Active Surveillance in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jamil S; Javier-Desloges, Juan; Tatzel, Stephanie; Bhagat, Ansh; Nguyen, Kevin A; Hwang, Kevin; Kim, Sarah; Sprenkle, Preston C

    2017-02-01

    Active surveillance has been increasingly utilized as a strategy for the management of favorable-risk, localized prostate cancer. In this review, we describe contemporary management strategies of active surveillance, with a focus on traditional stratification schemes, new prognostic tools, and patient outcomes. Patient selection, follow-up strategy, and indication for delayed intervention for active surveillance remain centered around PSA, digital rectal exam, and biopsy findings. Novel tools which include imaging, biomarkers, and genetic assays have been investigated as potential prognostic adjuncts; however, their role in active surveillance remains institutionally dependent. Although 30-50% of patients on active surveillance ultimately undergo delayed treatment, the vast majority will remain free of metastasis with a low risk of dying from prostate cancer. The optimal method for patient selection into active surveillance is unknown; however, cancer-specific mortality rates remain excellent. New prognostication tools are promising, and long-term prospective, randomized data regarding their use in active surveillance will be beneficial.

  20. Ultra-wideband radar sensors and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Jr., Richard R; Nekoogar, Faranak; Haugen, Peter C

    2013-08-06

    Ultra wideband radar motion sensors strategically placed in an area of interest communicate with a wireless ad hoc network to provide remote area surveillance. Swept range impulse radar and a heart and respiration monitor combined with the motion sensor further improves discrimination.