WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance methods applied

  1. A Belief Network Decision Support Method Applied to Aerospace Surveillance and Battle Management Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Staker, R

    2003-01-01

    This report demonstrates the application of a Bayesian Belief Network decision support method for Force Level Systems Engineering to a collection of projects related to Aerospace Surveillance and Battle Management...

  2. Applying GIS and Machine Learning Methods to Twitter Data for Multiscale Surveillance of Influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Allen

    Full Text Available Traditional methods for monitoring influenza are haphazard and lack fine-grained details regarding the spatial and temporal dynamics of outbreaks. Twitter gives researchers and public health officials an opportunity to examine the spread of influenza in real-time and at multiple geographical scales. In this paper, we introduce an improved framework for monitoring influenza outbreaks using the social media platform Twitter. Relying upon techniques from geographic information science (GIS and data mining, Twitter messages were collected, filtered, and analyzed for the thirty most populated cities in the United States during the 2013-2014 flu season. The results of this procedure are compared with national, regional, and local flu outbreak reports, revealing a statistically significant correlation between the two data sources. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a comprehensive data mining process that enhances previous attempts to accurately identify tweets related to influenza. Additionally, geographical information systems allow us to target, filter, and normalize Twitter messages.

  3. A "shotgun" method for tracing the birth locations of sheep from flock tags, applied to scrapie surveillance in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Colin P D; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Chikukwa, Ambrose C

    2010-09-01

    Movement records are often used to identify animal sample provenance by retracing the movements of individuals. Here we present an alternative method, which uses the same identity tags and movement records as are used to retrace movements, but ignores individual movement paths. The first step uses a simple query to identify the most likely birth holding for every identity tag included in a database recording departures from agricultural holdings. The second step rejects a proportion of the birth holding locations to leave a list of birth holding locations that are relatively reliable. The method was used to trace the birth locations of sheep sampled for scrapie in abattoirs, or on farm as fallen stock. Over 82% of the sheep sampled in the fallen stock survey died at the holding of birth. This lack of movement may be an important constraint on scrapie transmission. These static sheep provided relatively reliable birth locations, which were used to define criteria for selecting reliable traces. The criteria rejected 16.8% of fallen stock traces and 11.9% of abattoir survey traces. Two tests provided estimates that selection reduced error in fallen stock traces from 11.3% to 3.2%, and in abattoir survey traces from 8.1% to 1.8%. This method generated 14,591 accepted traces of fallen stock from samples taken during 2002-2005 and 83,136 accepted traces from abattoir samples. The absence or ambiguity of flock tag records at the time of slaughter prevented the tracing of 16-24% of abattoir samples during 2002-2004, although flock tag records improved in 2005. The use of internal scoring to generate and evaluate results from the database query, and the confirmation of results by comparison with other database fields, are analogous to methods used in web search engines. Such methods may have wide application in tracing samples and in adding value to biological datasets. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Methods for surveillance of noise signals from nuclear power plants using auto power spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streich, M.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of methods for noise diagnostics applied in the nuclear power plant 'Bruno Leuschner' for surveillance of primary circuit is given. Considering a special example concept of surveillance of standard deviations is explained. (author)

  5. Quality assurance applied to an environmental surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.; Eldridge, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of a quality assurance program applied to environmental surveillance activities is presented. This includes the philosophy and concepts of quality assurance, along with a detailed assessment of the sources of uncertainty in a monitoring program. The role management must play for a successful program is also discussed, and the quality assurance program implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented

  6. A Novel Surveillance System Applied in Civil Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hua Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional security monitoring of civil airport usually uses a fixed camera to acquire images. There are several problems with performance including difficulties introduced in the information transmission, storage, and analysis of the process. Insect compound eyes offer unique advantages for moving target capture and these have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. This paper contributes to this research by proposing a new surveillance system applied in civil airport. We discuss the finished bionic structure of the system, the development of the bionic control circuit, and introduce the proposed mathematical model of bionic compound eyes for data acquisition and image mosaic. Image matching for large view is also illustrated with different conditions. This mode and algorithm effectively achieve safety surveillance of airport with large field of view and high real-time processing.

  7. Continuous surveillance of transformers using artificial intelligence methods; Surveillance continue des transformateurs: application des methodes d'intelligence artificielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, A.; Germond, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Boss, P.; Lorin, P. [ABB Secheron SA, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The article describes a new method for the continuous surveillance of power transformers based on the application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. An experimental pilot project on a specially equipped, strategically important power transformer is described. Traditional surveillance methods and the use of mathematical models for the prediction of faults are described. The article describes the monitoring equipment used in the pilot project and the AI principles such as self-organising maps that are applied. The results obtained from the pilot project and methods for their graphical representation are discussed.

  8. A Method for Estimating Surveillance Video Georeferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Milosavljević

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of a surveillance camera video with a three-dimensional (3D geographic information system (GIS requires the georeferencing of that video. Since a video consists of separate frames, each frame must be georeferenced. To georeference a video frame, we rely on the information about the camera view at the moment that the frame was captured. A camera view in 3D space is completely determined by the camera position, orientation, and field-of-view. Since the accurate measuring of these parameters can be extremely difficult, in this paper we propose a method for their estimation based on matching video frame coordinates of certain point features with their 3D geographic locations. To obtain these coordinates, we rely on high-resolution orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEM of the area of interest. Once an adequate number of points are matched, Levenberg–Marquardt iterative optimization is applied to find the most suitable video frame georeference, i.e., position and orientation of the camera.

  9. Spent fuel surveillance and monitoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on ''Spent Fuel Surveillance and Monitoring Methods'' (27-30 October 1987) has been organized in accordance with recommendations of the International Standing Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management during its second meeting in 1986. The aim of the meeting was to discuss the above questions with emphasis on current design and operation criteria, safety principles and licensing requirements and procedures in order to prevent: inadvertent criticality, undue radiation exposure, unacceptable release of radioactivity as well as control for loss of storage pool water, crud impact, water chemistry, distribution and behaviour of particulates in cooling water, oxidation of intact and failed fuel rods as a function of temperature and burnup; distribution of radiation and temperature through dry cask wall, monitoring of leakages from pools and gas escapes from dry storage facilities, periodical integrity tests of the containment barriers, responsibilities of organizations for the required operation, structure, staff and subordination, etc. The presentations of the Meeting were divided into two sessions: Spent fuel surveillance programmes and practice in Member States (4 papers); Experimental methods developed in support of spent fuel surveillance programmes (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Applied Bayesian hierarchical methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Congdon, P

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Posterior Inference from Bayes Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling in Relation to Monte Carlo Methods: Obtaining Posterior...

  11. Methods of applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Francis B

    1992-01-01

    This invaluable book offers engineers and physicists working knowledge of a number of mathematical facts and techniques not commonly treated in courses in advanced calculus, but nevertheless extremely useful when applied to typical problems in many different fields. It deals principally with linear algebraic equations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, operations with vectors and matrices, the calculus of variations, and the formulations and theory of linear integral equations. Annotated problems and exercises accompany each chapter.

  12. Biotest method in Rhine river surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, M.

    1994-01-01

    Against the background of the 1986 Sandoz chemical accident the national and international commission for the protection of the Rhine river was prompted to construct, a continuous supra-regional surveillance of the river. Its aim is a biological warning system which encompasses the exising chemical-physical monitoring of the water. The Biotest method was newly developed in a joint plan of eight separate projects. The bio-monitors are continuous or semi-continuous systems which make up for the time delay of chemical analyses. (BWI) [de

  13. Cumulative query method for influenza surveillance using search engine data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Woo; Jo, Min-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, JaeHo; Yu, Maengsoo; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2014-12-16

    Internet search queries have become an important data source in syndromic surveillance system. However, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using Internet search query data in South Korea. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between our cumulative query method and national influenza surveillance data. Our study was based on the local search engine, Daum (approximately 25% market share), and influenza-like illness (ILI) data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A quota sampling survey was conducted with 200 participants to obtain popular queries. We divided the study period into two sets: Set 1 (the 2009/10 epidemiological year for development set 1 and 2010/11 for validation set 1) and Set 2 (2010/11 for development Set 2 and 2011/12 for validation Set 2). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between the Daum data and the ILI data for the development set. We selected the combined queries for which the correlation coefficients were .7 or higher and listed them in descending order. Then, we created a cumulative query method n representing the number of cumulative combined queries in descending order of the correlation coefficient. In validation set 1, 13 cumulative query methods were applied, and 8 had higher correlation coefficients (min=.916, max=.943) than that of the highest single combined query. Further, 11 of 13 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 4 of 13 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. In validation set 2, 8 of 15 cumulative query methods showed higher correlation coefficients (min=.975, max=.987) than that of the highest single combined query. All 15 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 6 of 15 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. Cumulative query method showed relatively higher correlation with national influenza surveillance data than combined queries in the development and validation set.

  14. Methods for molecular surveillance of influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruixue; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2010-01-01

    Molecular-based techniques for detecting influenza viruses have become an integral component of human and animal surveillance programs in the last two decades. The recent pandemic of the swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1) and the continuing circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) further stress the need for rapid and accurate identification and subtyping of influenza viruses for surveillance, outbreak management, diagnosis and treatment. There has been remarkable pr...

  15. Statistical distributions as applied to environmental surveillance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speer, D.R.; Waite, D.A.

    1975-09-01

    Application of normal, log normal, and Weibull distributions to environmental surveillance data was investigated for approximately 300 nuclide-medium-year-location combinations. Corresponding W test calculations were made to determine the probability of a particular data set falling within the distribution of interest. Conclusions are drawn as to the fit of any data group to the various distributions. The significance of fitting statistical distributions to the data is discussed

  16. Evaluation of two surveillance methods for surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical wound infection surveillance is an important facet of hospital infection control processes. There are several surveillance methods for surgical site infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of two different surgical site infection surveillance methods. Methods: In this prospective cross sectional study 3020 undergoing surgey in general surgical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were included. Surveillance methods consisted of review of medical records for postoperative fever and review of nursing daily note for prescription of antibiotics postoperatively and during patient’s discharge. Review of patient’s history and daily records and interview with patient’s surgeon and the head-nurse of the ward considered as a gold standard for surveillance. Results: The postoperative antibiotic consumption especially when considering its duration is a proper method for surgical wound infection surveillance. Accomplishments of a prospective study with postdischarge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that postoperative antibiotic surveillance method specially with consideration of the antibiotic usage duration is a proper method for surgical site infection surveillance in general surgery wards. Accomplishments of a prospective study with post discharge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended.

  17. A surveillance sector review applied to infectious diseases at a country level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easther Sally

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new International Health Regulations (IHR require World Health Organization (WHO member states to assess their core capacity for surveillance. Such reviews also have the potential to identify important surveillance gaps, improve the organisation of disparate surveillance systems and to focus attention on upstream hazards, determinants and interventions. Methods We developed a surveillance sector review method for evaluating all of the surveillance systems and related activities across a sector, in this case those concerned with infectious diseases in New Zealand. The first stage was a systematic description of these surveillance systems using a newly developed framework and classification system. Key informant interviews were conducted to validate the available information on the systems identified. Results We identified 91 surveillance systems and related activities in the 12 coherent categories of infectious diseases examined. The majority (n = 40 or 44% of these were disease surveillance systems. They covered all categories, particularly for more severe outcomes including those resulting in death or hospitalisations. Except for some notifiable diseases and influenza, surveillance of less severe, but important infectious diseases occurring in the community was largely absent. There were 31 systems (34% for surveillance of upstream infectious disease hazards, including risk and protective factors. This area tended to have many potential gaps and lack integration, partly because such systems were operated by a range of different agencies, often outside the health sector. There were fewer surveillance systems for determinants, including population size and characteristics (n = 9, and interventions (n = 11. Conclusions It was possible to create and populate a workable framework for describing all the infectious diseases surveillance systems and related activities in a single developed country and to identify potential

  18. Possibilities of Applying Video Surveillance and other ICT Tools and Services in the Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adis Rahmanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of applying Video surveillance and other ICT tools and services in the production process. The first part of the paper presented the system for controlling video surveillance for and the given opportunity of application of video surveillance for the security of the employees and the assets. In the second part of the paper an analysis of the system for controlling production is given and then a video surveillance of a work excavator. The next part of the paper presents integration of video surveillance and the accompanying tools. At the end of the paper, suggestions were also given for further works in the field of data protection and cryptography in video surveillance use.

  19. Statistical distributions as applied to environmental surveillance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speer, D.R.; Waite, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Application of normal, lognormal, and Weibull distributions to radiological environmental surveillance data was investigated for approximately 300 nuclide-medium-year-location combinations. The fit of data to distributions was compared through probability plotting (special graph paper provides a visual check) and W test calculations. Results show that 25% of the data fit the normal distribution, 50% fit the lognormal, and 90% fit the Weibull.Demonstration of how to plot each distribution shows that normal and lognormal distributions are comparatively easy to use while Weibull distribution is complicated and difficult to use. Although current practice is to use normal distribution statistics, normal fit the least number of data groups considered in this study

  20. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  1. The monocular visual imaging technology model applied in the airport surface surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Huang, Chao

    2013-08-01

    At present, the civil aviation airports use the surface surveillance radar monitoring and positioning systems to monitor the aircrafts, vehicles and the other moving objects. Surface surveillance radars can cover most of the airport scenes, but because of the terminals, covered bridges and other buildings geometry, surface surveillance radar systems inevitably have some small segment blind spots. This paper presents a monocular vision imaging technology model for airport surface surveillance, achieving the perception of scenes of moving objects such as aircrafts, vehicles and personnel location. This new model provides an important complement for airport surface surveillance, which is different from the traditional surface surveillance radar techniques. Such technique not only provides clear objects activities screen for the ATC, but also provides image recognition and positioning of moving targets in this area. Thereby it can improve the work efficiency of the airport operations and avoid the conflict between the aircrafts and vehicles. This paper first introduces the monocular visual imaging technology model applied in the airport surface surveillance and then the monocular vision measurement accuracy analysis of the model. The monocular visual imaging technology model is simple, low cost, and highly efficient. It is an advanced monitoring technique which can make up blind spot area of the surface surveillance radar monitoring and positioning systems.

  2. Applied learning-based color tone mapping for face recognition in video surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Chuu Tian; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present an applied learning-based color tone mapping technique for video surveillance system. This technique can be applied onto both color and grayscale surveillance images. The basic idea is to learn the color or intensity statistics from a training dataset of photorealistic images of the candidates appeared in the surveillance images, and remap the color or intensity of the input image so that the color or intensity statistics match those in the training dataset. It is well known that the difference in commercial surveillance cameras models, and signal processing chipsets used by different manufacturers will cause the color and intensity of the images to differ from one another, thus creating additional challenges for face recognition in video surveillance system. Using Multi-Class Support Vector Machines as the classifier on a publicly available video surveillance camera database, namely SCface database, this approach is validated and compared to the results of using holistic approach on grayscale images. The results show that this technique is suitable to improve the color or intensity quality of video surveillance system for face recognition.

  3. A semi-automated magnetic capture probe based DNA extraction and real-time PCR method applied in the Swedish surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Mats; Hagström, Åsa; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Wahlström, Helene; Ågren, Erik Olof; Miller, Andrea; Holmberg, Anders; Lukacs, Morten; Casulli, Adriano; Deplazes, Peter; Juremalm, Mikael

    2014-12-19

    Following the first finding of Echinococcus multilocularis in Sweden in 2011, 2985 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were analysed by the segmental sedimentation and counting technique. This is a labour intensive method and requires handling of the whole carcass of the fox, resulting in a costly analysis. In an effort to reduce the cost of labour and sample handling, an alternative method has been developed. The method is sensitive and partially automated for detection of E. multilocularis in faecal samples. The method has been used in the Swedish E. multilocularis monitoring program for 2012-2013 on more than 2000 faecal samples. We describe a new semi-automated magnetic capture probe DNA extraction method and real time hydrolysis probe polymerase chain reaction assay (MC-PCR) for the detection of E. multilocularis DNA in faecal samples from red fox. The diagnostic sensitivity was determined by validating the new method against the sedimentation and counting technique in fox samples collected in Switzerland where E. multilocularis is highly endemic. Of 177 foxes analysed by the sedimentation and counting technique, E. multilocularis was detected in 93 animals. Eighty-two (88%, 95% C.I 79.8-93.9) of these were positive in the MC-PCR. In foxes with more than 100 worms, the MC-PCR was positive in 44 out of 46 (95.7%) cases. The two MC-PCR negative samples originated from foxes with only immature E. multilocularis worms. In foxes with 100 worms or less, (n = 47), 38 (80.9%) were positive in the MC-PCR. The diagnostic specificity of the MC-PCR was evaluated using fox scats collected within the Swedish screening. Of 2158 samples analysed, two were positive. This implies that the specificity is at least 99.9% (C.I. = 99.7-100). The MC-PCR proved to have a high sensitivity and a very high specificity. The test is partially automated but also possible to perform manually if desired. The test is well suited for nationwide E. multilocularis surveillance programs where sampling

  4. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  5. Using Inverse Problem Methods with Surveillance Data in Pneumococcal Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Karyn L.; Banks, H. T.; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The design and evaluation of epidemiological control strategies is central to public health policy. While inverse problem methods are routinely used in many applications, this remains an area in which their use is relatively rare, although their potential impact is great. We describe methods particularly relevant to epidemiological modeling at the population level. These methods are then applied to the study of pneumococcal vaccination strategies as a relevant example which poses many challenges common to other infectious diseases. We demonstrate that relevant yet typically unknown parameters may be estimated, and show that a calibrated model may used to assess implemented vaccine policies through the estimation of parameters if vaccine history is recorded along with infection and colonization information. Finally, we show how one might determine an appropriate level of refinement or aggregation in the age-structured model given age-stratified observations. These results illustrate ways in which the collection and analysis of surveillance data can be improved using inverse problem methods. PMID:20209093

  6. Applying surveillance and screening to family psychosocial issues: implications for the medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Arvin; Dworkin, Paul H

    2011-06-01

    Within the medical home, understanding the family and community context in which children live is critical to optimally promoting children's health and development. How to best identify psychosocial issues likely to have an impact on children's development is uncertain. Professional guidelines encourage pediatricians to incorporate family psychosocial screening within the context of primary care, yet few providers routinely screen for these issues. The authors propose applying the core principles of surveillance and screening, as applied to children's development and behavior, to also address family psychosocial issues during health supervision services. Integrating psychosocial surveillance and screening into the medical home requires changes in professional training, provider practice, and public policy. The potential of family psychosocial surveillance and screening to promote children's optimal development justifies such changes.

  7. A risk analysis approach applied to field surveillance in utility meters in legal metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Filho, B. A.; Nonato, N. S.; Carvalho, A. D.

    2018-03-01

    Field surveillance represents the level of control in metrological supervision responsible for checking the conformity of measuring instruments in-service. Utility meters represent the majority of measuring instruments produced by notified bodies due to self-verification in Brazil. They play a major role in the economy once electricity, gas and water are the main inputs to industries in their production processes. Then, to optimize the resources allocated to control these devices, the present study applied a risk analysis in order to identify among the 11 manufacturers notified to self-verification, the instruments that demand field surveillance.

  8. Methods of nutrition surveillance in low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Tuffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1974 a joint FAO/UNICEF/WHO Expert Committee met to develop methods for nutrition surveillance. There has been much interest and activity in this topic since then, however there is a lack of guidance for practitioners and confusion exists around the terminology of nutrition surveillance. In this paper we propose a classification of data collection activities, consider the technical issues for each category, and examine the potential applications and challenges related to information and communication technology. Analysis There are three major approaches used to collect primary data for nutrition surveillance: repeated cross-sectional surveys; community-based sentinel monitoring; and the collection of data in schools. There are three major sources of secondary data for surveillance: from feeding centres, health facilities, and community-based data collection, including mass screening for malnutrition in children. Surveillance systems involving repeated surveys are suitable for monitoring and comparing national trends and for planning and policy development. To plan at a local level, surveys at district level or in programme implementation areas are ideal, but given the usually high cost of primary data collection, data obtained from health systems are more appropriate provided they are interpreted with caution and with contextual information. For early warning, data from health systems and sentinel site assessments may be valuable, if consistent in their methods of collection and any systematic bias is deemed to be steady. For evaluation purposes, surveillance systems can only give plausible evidence of whether a programme is effective. However the implementation of programmes can be monitored as long as data are collected on process indicators such as access to, and use of, services. Surveillance systems also have an important role to provide information that can be used for advocacy and for promoting accountability for

  9. Applied Formal Methods for Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jian

    development time, or second dynamically, i.e. monitoring while an implementation is used during an election, or after the election is over, for forensic analysis. This thesis contains two chapters on this subject: the chapter Analyzing Implementations of Election Technologies describes a technique...... process. The chapter Measuring Voter Lines describes an automated data collection method for measuring voters' waiting time, and discusses statistical models designed to provide an understanding of the voter behavior in polling stations....

  10. Sunglass detection method for automation of video surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikandar, Tasriva; Samsudin, Wan Nur Azhani W.; Hawari Ghazali, Kamarul; Mohd, Izzeldin I.; Fazle Rabbi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Wearing sunglass to hide face from surveillance camera is a common activity in criminal incidences. Therefore, sunglass detection from surveillance video has become a demanding issue in automation of security systems. In this paper we propose an image processing method to detect sunglass from surveillance images. Specifically, a unique feature using facial height and width has been employed to identify the covered region of the face. The presence of covered area by sunglass is evaluated using facial height-width ratio. Threshold value of covered area percentage is used to classify the glass wearing face. Two different types of glasses have been considered i.e. eye glass and sunglass. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed method is able to detect sunglasses in two different illumination conditions such as, room illumination as well as in the presence of sunlight. In addition, due to the multi-level checking in facial region, this method has 100% accuracy of detecting sunglass. However, in an exceptional case where fabric surrounding the face has similar color as skin, the correct detection rate was found 93.33% for eye glass.

  11. Applied Formal Methods for Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jian

    Information technology is changing the way elections are organized. Technology renders the electoral process more efficient, but things could also go wrong: Voting software is complex, it consists of over thousands of lines of code, which makes it error-prone. Technical problems may cause delays...... bounded model-checking and satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) solvers can be used to check these criteria. Voter Experience: Technology profoundly affects the voter experience. These effects need to be measured and the data should be used to make decisions regarding the implementation of the electoral...... at polling stations, or even delay the announcement of the final result. This thesis describes a set of methods to be used, for example, by system developers, administrators, or decision makers to examine election technologies, social choice algorithms and voter experience. Technology: Verifiability refers...

  12. Evaluation 2000 and regulation and method. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance around Cea centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication counts for the year 2000 for the evaluation of liquid and gaseous radioactive effluents releases and the radioactivity levels measured in the vicinity of Cea centers, through the air, water, vegetation and milk surveillance. An analysis of the results from 1996 to 2000 allows to follow their evolution. A second booklet develops the sampling and measurement methods made on effluents in environment. It present besides the regulation applied to effluents monitoring. (N.C.)

  13. Harnessing information from injury narratives in the 'big data' era: understanding and applying machine learning for injury surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallmuur, Kirsten; Marucci-Wellman, Helen R; Taylor, Jennifer A; Lehto, Mark; Corns, Helen L; Smith, Gordon S

    2016-04-01

    Vast amounts of injury narratives are collected daily and are available electronically in real time and have great potential for use in injury surveillance and evaluation. Machine learning algorithms have been developed to assist in identifying cases and classifying mechanisms leading to injury in a much timelier manner than is possible when relying on manual coding of narratives. The aim of this paper is to describe the background, growth, value, challenges and future directions of machine learning as applied to injury surveillance. This paper reviews key aspects of machine learning using injury narratives, providing a case study to demonstrate an application to an established human-machine learning approach. The range of applications and utility of narrative text has increased greatly with advancements in computing techniques over time. Practical and feasible methods exist for semiautomatic classification of injury narratives which are accurate, efficient and meaningful. The human-machine learning approach described in the case study achieved high sensitivity and PPV and reduced the need for human coding to less than a third of cases in one large occupational injury database. The last 20 years have seen a dramatic change in the potential for technological advancements in injury surveillance. Machine learning of 'big injury narrative data' opens up many possibilities for expanded sources of data which can provide more comprehensive, ongoing and timely surveillance to inform future injury prevention policy and practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. A Method for Counting Moving People in Video Surveillance Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available People counting is an important problem in video surveillance applications. This problem has been faced either by trying to detect people in the scene and then counting them or by establishing a mapping between some scene feature and the number of people (avoiding the complex detection problem. This paper presents a novel method, following this second approach, that is based on the use of SURF features and of an ϵ-SVR regressor provide an estimate of this count. The algorithm takes specifically into account problems due to partial occlusions and to perspective. In the experimental evaluation, the proposed method has been compared with the algorithm by Albiol et al., winner of the PETS 2009 contest on people counting, using the same PETS 2009 database. The provided results confirm that the proposed method yields an improved accuracy, while retaining the robustness of Albiol's algorithm.

  15. A Method for Counting Moving People in Video Surveillance Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conte Donatello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available People counting is an important problem in video surveillance applications. This problem has been faced either by trying to detect people in the scene and then counting them or by establishing a mapping between some scene feature and the number of people (avoiding the complex detection problem. This paper presents a novel method, following this second approach, that is based on the use of SURF features and of an -SVR regressor provide an estimate of this count. The algorithm takes specifically into account problems due to partial occlusions and to perspective. In the experimental evaluation, the proposed method has been compared with the algorithm by Albiol et al., winner of the PETS 2009 contest on people counting, using the same PETS 2009 database. The provided results confirm that the proposed method yields an improved accuracy, while retaining the robustness of Albiol's algorithm.

  16. A Method for Counting Moving People in Video Surveillance Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Donatello; Foggia, Pasquale; Percannella, Gennaro; Tufano, Francesco; Vento, Mario

    2010-12-01

    People counting is an important problem in video surveillance applications. This problem has been faced either by trying to detect people in the scene and then counting them or by establishing a mapping between some scene feature and the number of people (avoiding the complex detection problem). This paper presents a novel method, following this second approach, that is based on the use of SURF features and of an [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-SVR regressor provide an estimate of this count. The algorithm takes specifically into account problems due to partial occlusions and to perspective. In the experimental evaluation, the proposed method has been compared with the algorithm by Albiol et al., winner of the PETS 2009 contest on people counting, using the same PETS 2009 database. The provided results confirm that the proposed method yields an improved accuracy, while retaining the robustness of Albiol's algorithm.

  17. Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection Methods for Public Health Response and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Thirunavukkarasu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism outbreak due to consumption of food contaminated with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs is a public health emergency. The threat of bioterrorism through deliberate distribution in food sources and/or aerosolization of BoNTs raises global public health and security concerns due to the potential for high mortality and morbidity. Rapid and reliable detection methods are necessary to support clinical diagnosis and surveillance for identifying the source of contamination, performing epidemiological analysis of the outbreak, preventing and responding to botulism outbreaks. This review considers the applicability of various BoNT detection methods and examines their fitness-for-purpose in safeguarding the public health and security goals.

  18. Microbiological methods for surveillance of carrier status of multiresistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, Jesús; Bou, Germán; Chaves, Fernando; Oliver, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The presence of colonised patients is one of the main routes for the spread of multiresistant bacteria, and its containment is a clinical and public health priority. Surveillance studies are essential for early detection of colonisation by these bacteria. This article discusses the different microbiological methods, both based on culturing and molecular methods, for detection of carriers of multiresistant bacteria. Those species with a high clinical/epidemiological impact or generating therapeutic difficulties are included: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. resistant to glycopeptides, enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC, carbapenemases producing enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The information in this document should be considered as a structure matrix to be tailored to the specific needs of each centre. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of surveillance methods for small incidence rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Woodall, William H.; Reynolds, Marion R.

    2008-05-15

    A number of methods have been proposed to detect an increasing shift in the incidence rate of a rare health event, such as a congenital malformation. Among these are the Sets method, two modifcations of the Sets method, and the CUSUM method based on the Poisson distribution. We consider the situation where data are observed as a sequence of Bernoulli trials and propose the Bernoulli CUSUM chart as a desirable method for the surveillance of rare health events. We compare the performance of the Sets method and its modifcations to the Bernoulli CUSUM chart under a wide variety of circumstances. Chart design parameters were chosen to satisfy a minimax criteria.We used the steady- state average run length to measure chart performance instead of the average run length which was used in nearly all previous comparisons involving the Sets method or its modifcations. Except in a very few instances, we found that the Bernoulli CUSUM chart has better steady-state average run length performance than the Sets method and its modifcations for the extensive number of cases considered.

  20. Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection in hospitalised South African children: Which method performs best?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dramowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2012, the South African (SA National Department of Health mandated surveillance of healthcare-associated infection (HAI, but made no recommendations of appropriate surveillance methods. Methods. Prospective clinical HAI surveillance (the reference method was conducted at Tygerberg Children’s Hospital, Cape Town, from 1 May to 31 October 2015. Performance of three surveillance methods (point prevalence surveys (PPSs, laboratory surveillance and tracking of antimicrobial prescriptions was compared with the reference method using surveillance evaluation guidelines. Factors associated with failure to detect HAI were identified by logistic regression analysis. Results. The reference method detected 417 HAIs among 1 347 paediatric hospitalisations (HAI incidence of 31/1000 patient days; 95% confidence interval (CI 28.2 - 34.2. Surveillance methods had variable sensitivity (S and positive predictive value (PPV: PPS S = 24.9% (95% CI 21 - 29.3, PPV = 100%; laboratory surveillance S = 48.4% (95% CI 43.7 - 53.2, PPV = 55.2% (95% CI 50.1 - 60.2; and antimicrobial prescriptions S = 66.4% (95% CI 61.8 - 70.8%, PPV = 88.5% (95% CI 84.5 - 91.6. Combined laboratory-antimicrobial surveillance achieved superior HAI detection (S = 84.7% (95% CI 80.9 - 87.8%, PPV = 97% (95% CI 94.6 - 98.4%. Factors associated with failure to detect HAI included patient transfer (odds ratio (OR 2.0, single HAI event (OR 2.8, age category 1 - 5 years (OR 2.1 and hospitalisation in a general ward (OR 2.3. Conclusions. Repeated PPSs, laboratory surveillance and/or antimicrobial prescription tracking are feasible HAI surveillance methods for low-resource settings. Combined laboratory-antimicrobial surveillance achieved the best sensitivity and PPV. SA paediatric healthcare facilities should individualise HAI surveillance, selecting a method suited to available resources and practice context.

  1. Isotope correlations for safeguards surveillance and accountancy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Kalimullah.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope correlations corroborated by experiments, coupled with measurement methods for nuclear material in the fuel cycle have the potential as a safeguards surveillance and accountancy system. The US/DOE/OSS Isotope Correlations for Surveillance and Accountancy Methods (ICSAM) program has been structured into three phases: (1) the analytical development of Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT) for actual power reactor fuel cycles; (2) the development of a dedicated portable ICT computer system for in-field implementation, and (3) the experimental program for measurement of U, Pu isotopics in representative spent fuel-rods of the initial 3 or 4 burnup cycles of the Commonwealth Edison Zion -1 and -2 PWR power plants. Since any particular correlation could generate different curves depending upon the type and positioning of the fuel assembly, a 3-D reactor model and 2-group cross section depletion calculation for the first cycle of the ZION-2 was performed with each fuel assembly as a depletion block. It is found that for a given PWR all assemblies with a unique combination of enrichment zone and number of burnable poison rods (BPRs) generate one coincident curve. Some correlations are found to generate a single curve for assemblies of all enrichments and number of BPRs. The 8 axial segments of the 3-D calculation generate one coincident curve for each correlation. For some correlations the curve for the full assembly homogenized over core-height deviates from the curve for the 8 axial segments, and for other correlations coincides with the curve for the segments. The former behavior is primarily based on the transmutation lag between the end segment and the middle segments. The experimental implication is that the isotope correlations exhibiting this behavior can be determined by dissolving a full assembly but not by dissolving only an axial segment, or pellets

  2. REVIEW OF METHODS FOR THE SURVEILLANCE AND ACCESS CONTROL USING THE THERMAL IMAGING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mate Krišto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents methods for human detection for application in the field of national security in the context of state border surveillance. Except in the context of state border security, the presented methods can be applied to monitor other protected object and infrastructure such as ports and airports, power plants, water supply systems, oil pipelines, etc. Presented methods are based on use of thermal imaging systems for the human detection, recognition and identification. In addition to methods for the detection of persons, are presented and methods for face recognition and identification of the person. The use of such systems has special significance in the context of national security in the domain of timely detection of illegal crossing of state border or illegal movement near buildings, which are of special importance for national security such as traffic infrastructure facilities, power plants, military bases, especially in mountain or forests areas. In this context, thermal imaging has significant advantages over the optical camera surveillance systems because thermal imaging is robust to weather conditions and due to such an infrared thermal system can successfully applied in any weather conditions, or the periods of the day. Featured are procedures that has human detection results as well as a brief survey of specific implementation in terms of the use of infrared thermal imagers mounted on autonomous vehicles (AV and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV. In addition to the above in this paper are described techniques and methods of face detection and human identification based on thermal image (thermogram.

  3. [Montessori method applied to dementia - literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Daniela Filipa Soares; Martín, José Ignacio

    2012-06-01

    The Montessori method was initially applied to children, but now it has also been applied to people with dementia. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the research on the effectiveness of this method using Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) with the keywords dementia and Montessori method. We selected lo studies, in which there were significant improvements in participation and constructive engagement, and reduction of negative affects and passive engagement. Nevertheless, systematic reviews about this non-pharmacological intervention in dementia rate this method as weak in terms of effectiveness. This apparent discrepancy can be explained because the Montessori method may have, in fact, a small influence on dimensions such as behavioral problems, or because there is no research about this method with high levels of control, such as the presence of several control groups or a double-blind study.

  4. Isotope correlations for safeguards surveillance and accountancy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Kalimullah.

    1982-01-01

    Isotope correlations corroborated by experiments, coupled with measurement methods for nuclear material in the fuel cycle have the potential as a safeguards surveillance and accountancy system. The ICT allows the verification of: fabricator's uranium and plutonium content specifications, shipper/receiver differences between fabricator output and reactor input, reactor plant inventory changes, reprocessing batch specifications and shipper/receiver differences between reactor output and reprocessing plant input. The investigation indicates that there exist predictable functional relationships (i.e. correlations) between isotopic concentrations over a range of burnup. Several cross-correlations serve to establish the initial fuel assembly-averaged compositions. The selection of the more effective correlations will depend not only on the level of reliability of ICT for verification, but also on the capability, accuracy and difficulty of developing measurement methods. The propagation of measurement errors through the correlations have been examined to identify the sensitivity of the isotope correlations to measurement errors, and to establish criteria for measurement accuracy in the development and selection of measurement methods. 6 figures, 3 tables

  5. Emerging optical methods for surveillance of Barrett's oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Matthew B; Wang, Thomas D

    2015-11-01

    The rapid rise in incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has motivated the need for improved methods for surveillance of Barrett's oesophagus. Early neoplasia is flat in morphology and patchy in distribution and is difficult to detect with conventional white light endoscopy (WLE). Light offers numerous advantages for rapidly visualising the oesophagus, and advanced optical methods are being developed for wide-field and cross-sectional imaging to guide tissue biopsy and stage early neoplasia, respectively. We review key features of these promising methods and address their potential to improve detection of Barrett's neoplasia. The clinical performance of key advanced imaging technologies is reviewed, including (1) wide-field methods, such as high-definition WLE, chromoendoscopy, narrow-band imaging, autofluorescence and trimodal imaging and (2) cross-sectional techniques, such as optical coherence tomography, optical frequency domain imaging and confocal laser endomicroscopy. Some of these instruments are being adapted for molecular imaging to detect specific biological targets that are overexpressed in Barrett's neoplasia. Gene expression profiles are being used to identify early targets that appear before morphological changes can be visualised with white light. These targets are detected in vivo using exogenous probes, such as lectins, peptides, antibodies, affibodies and activatable enzymes that are labelled with fluorescence dyes to produce high contrast images. This emerging approach has potential to provide a 'red flag' to identify regions of premalignant mucosa, outline disease margins and guide therapy based on the underlying molecular mechanisms of cancer progression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils

    consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [http://www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field_models/IGRF_2005_candidates/], which is based...

  7. Applied mathematical methods in nuclear thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, V.H.; Trapp, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Applied mathematical methods are used extensively in modeling of nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulic behavior. This application has required significant extension to the state-of-the-art. The problems encountered in modeling of two-phase fluid transients and the development of associated numerical solution methods are reviewed and quantified using results from a numerical study of an analogous linear system of differential equations. In particular, some possible approaches for formulating a well-posed numerical problem for an ill-posed differential model are investigated and discussed. The need for closer attention to numerical fidelity is indicated

  8. Entropy viscosity method applied to Euler equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchini, M. O.; Ragusa, J. C.; Berry, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    The entropy viscosity method [4] has been successfully applied to hyperbolic systems of equations such as Burgers equation and Euler equations. The method consists in adding dissipative terms to the governing equations, where a viscosity coefficient modulates the amount of dissipation. The entropy viscosity method has been applied to the 1-D Euler equations with variable area using a continuous finite element discretization in the MOOSE framework and our results show that it has the ability to efficiently smooth out oscillations and accurately resolve shocks. Two equations of state are considered: Ideal Gas and Stiffened Gas Equations Of State. Results are provided for a second-order time implicit schemes (BDF2). Some typical Riemann problems are run with the entropy viscosity method to demonstrate some of its features. Then, a 1-D convergent-divergent nozzle is considered with open boundary conditions. The correct steady-state is reached for the liquid and gas phases with a time implicit scheme. The entropy viscosity method correctly behaves in every problem run. For each test problem, results are shown for both equations of state considered here. (authors)

  9. Analytical methods applied to water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of different methods applied to water analysis is given. The discussion is limited to the problems presented by inorganic elements, accessible to nuclear activation analysis methods. The following methods were compared: activation analysis: with gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, fluorimetry, emission spectrometry, colorimetry or spectrophotometry, X-ray fluorescence, mass spectrometry, voltametry, polarography or other electrochemical methods, activation analysis-beta measurements. Drinking-water, irrigation waters, sea waters, industrial wastes and very pure waters are the subjects of the investigations. The comparative evaluation is made on the basis of storage of samples, in situ analysis, treatment and concentration, specificity and interference, monoelement or multielement analysis, analysis time and accuracy. The significance of the neutron analysis is shown. (T.G.)

  10. Performance of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Method Compared to Surveillance for Identifying Inadequately-performing Areas in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S.M.A.; Roy, Nikhil; Streatfield, P. Kim

    2007-01-01

    This paper compared the performance of the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method in identifying inadequately-performing health work-areas with that of using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data and examined the feasibility of applying the method by field-level programme supervisors. The study was carried out in Matlab, the field site of ICDDR,B, where a HDSS has been in place for over 30 years. The LQAS method was applied in 57 work-areas of community health workers i...

  11. Applying intelligent statistical methods on biometric systems

    OpenAIRE

    Betschart, Willie

    2005-01-01

    This master’s thesis work was performed at Optimum Biometric Labs, OBL, located in Karlskrona, Sweden. Optimum Biometric Labs perform independent scenario evaluations to companies who develop biometric devices. The company has a product Optimum preConTM which is surveillance and diagnosis tool for biometric systems. This thesis work’s objective was to develop a conceptual model and implement it as an additional layer above the biometric layer with intelligence about the biometric users. The l...

  12. Evaluation 2000 and regulation and method. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance around Cea centers; Bilan 2000 et reglementation et methode. Controle des rejets et surveillance de l'environnement des centres CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication counts for the year 2000 for the evaluation of liquid and gaseous radioactive effluents releases and the radioactivity levels measured in the vicinity of Cea centers, through the air, water, vegetation and milk surveillance. An analysis of the results from 1996 to 2000 allows to follow their evolution. A second booklet develops the sampling and measurement methods made on effluents in environment. It present besides the regulation applied to effluents monitoring. (N.C.)

  13. Surveillance of a nuclear reactor core by use of a pattern recognition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invernizzi, Michel.

    1982-07-01

    A pattern recognition system is described for the surveillance of a PWR reactor. This report contains four chapters. The first one succinctly deals with statistical pattern recognition principles. In the second chapter we show how a surveillance problem may be treated by pattern recognition and we present methods for surveillances (detection of abnormalities), controls (kind of running recognition) and diagnotics (kind of abnormality recognition). The third chapter shows a surveillance method of a nuclear plant. The signals used are the neutron noise observations made by the ionization chambers inserted in the reactor. Abnormality is defined in opposition with the training set witch is supposed to be an exhaustive summary of normality. In the fourth chapter we propose a scheme for an adaptative recognition and a method based on classes modelisations by hyper-spheres. This method has been tested on simulated training sets in two-dimensional feature spaces. It gives solutions to problems of non-linear separability [fr

  14. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance of Cea centers. Assessment and regulation and method 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The quality of the natural environment around the centers of the Commissariat a l Energie Atomique is an important point of its safety policy. The environmental protection is based on the control of risks coming from research and development activities of its installations. It aims to reduce as low as possible, the impact of its activities on man and his environment. This publication develops the sampling and measurement methods that are made on effluents and in environment, according to the radionuclides characteristics, that are present. It gives also the regulation that applied to the effluents monitoring. The results of radioactive effluents releases (liquid and gaseous) and the surveillance of environment around cea centers is given in the 'Bilan 1999' publication. An analysis of these results on the 1995-1999 period allows to follow their evolution. (N.C.)

  15. Applied Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masujima, Michio

    2005-04-01

    All there is to know about functional analysis, integral equations and calculus of variations in a single volume. This advanced textbook is divided into two parts: The first on integral equations and the second on the calculus of variations. It begins with a short introduction to functional analysis, including a short review of complex analysis, before continuing a systematic discussion of different types of equations, such as Volterra integral equations, singular integral equations of Cauchy type, integral equations of the Fredholm type, with a special emphasis on Wiener-Hopf integral equations and Wiener-Hopf sum equations. After a few remarks on the historical development, the second part starts with an introduction to the calculus of variations and the relationship between integral equations and applications of the calculus of variations. It further covers applications of the calculus of variations developed in the second half of the 20th century in the fields of quantum mechanics, quantum statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. Throughout the book, the author presents over 150 problems and exercises -- many from such branches of physics as quantum mechanics, quantum statistical mechanics, and quantum field theory -- together with outlines of the solutions in each case. Detailed solutions are given, supplementing the materials discussed in the main text, allowing problems to be solved making direct use of the method illustrated. The original references are given for difficult problems. The result is complete coverage of the mathematical tools and techniques used by physicists and applied mathematicians Intended for senior undergraduates and first-year graduates in science and engineering, this is equally useful as a reference and self-study guide.

  16. Early detection of poor adherers to statins: applying individualized surveillance to pay for performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Zimolzak

    Full Text Available Medication nonadherence costs $300 billion annually in the US. Medicare Advantage plans have a financial incentive to increase medication adherence among members because the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS now awards substantive bonus payments to such plans, based in part on population adherence to chronic medications. We sought to build an individualized surveillance model that detects early which beneficiaries will fall below the CMS adherence threshold.This was a retrospective study of over 210,000 beneficiaries initiating statins, in a database of private insurance claims, from 2008-2011. A logistic regression model was constructed to use statin adherence from initiation to day 90 to predict beneficiaries who would not meet the CMS measure of proportion of days covered 0.8 or above, from day 91 to 365. The model controlled for 15 additional characteristics. In a sensitivity analysis, we varied the number of days of adherence data used for prediction.Lower adherence in the first 90 days was the strongest predictor of one-year nonadherence, with an odds ratio of 25.0 (95% confidence interval 23.7-26.5 for poor adherence at one year. The model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80. Sensitivity analysis revealed that predictions of comparable accuracy could be made only 40 days after statin initiation. When members with 30-day supplies for their first statin fill had predictions made at 40 days, and members with 90-day supplies for their first fill had predictions made at 100 days, poor adherence could be predicted with 86% positive predictive value.To preserve their Medicare Star ratings, plan managers should identify or develop effective programs to improve adherence. An individualized surveillance approach can be used to target members who would most benefit, recognizing the tradeoff between improved model performance over time and the advantage of earlier detection.

  17. Development of reconstitution method for surveillance specimens using surface activated joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Terumi; Kaihara, Shoichiro; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sato, Akira [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Onizawa, Kunio; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Masahide

    1996-03-01

    Evaluation of embrittlement of reactor vessel steel due to irradiation requires surveillance tests. However, many surveillance specimens are necessary for nuclear plants life extension. Therefore, a specimen reconstitution technique has become important to provide the many specimens for continued surveillance. A surface activated joining (SAJ) method has been developed to join various materials together at low temperatures with little deformation, and is useful to bond irradiated specimens. To assess the validity of this method, Charpy impact tests were carried out, and the characteristics caused by heating during joining were measured. The test results showed the Charpy impact values were almost the same as base materials, and surface activated joining reduced heat affected zone to less than 2 mm. (author).

  18. Applying scrum methods to ITS projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of new technology generally brings new challenges and new methods to help with deployments. Agile methodologies have been introduced in the information technology industry to potentially speed up development. The Federal Highway Admi...

  19. Applying Fuzzy Possibilistic Methods on Critical Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Choros, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    Providing a flexible environment to process data objects is a desirable goal of machine learning algorithms. In fuzzy and possibilistic methods, the relevance of data objects is evaluated and a membership degree is assigned. However, some critical objects objects have the potential ability to affect...... the performance of the clustering algorithms if they remain in a specific cluster or they are moved into another. In this paper we analyze and compare how critical objects affect the behaviour of fuzzy possibilistic methods in several data sets. The comparison is based on the accuracy and ability of learning...... methods to provide a proper searching space for data objects. The membership functions used by each method when dealing with critical objects is also evaluated. Our results show that relaxing the conditions of participation for data objects in as many partitions as they can, is beneficial....

  20. Quality assurance and applied statistics. Method 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This German-Industry-Standards-paperback contains the International Standards from the Series ISO 9000 (or, as the case may be, the European Standards from the Series EN 29000) concerning quality assurance and including the already completed supplementary guidelines with ISO 9000- and ISO 9004-section numbers, which have been adopted as German Industry Standards and which are observed and applied world-wide to a great extent. It also includes the German-Industry-Standards ISO 10011 parts 1, 2 and 3 concerning the auditing of quality-assurance systems and the German-Industry-Standard ISO 10012 part 1 concerning quality-assurance demands (confirmation system) for measuring devices. The standards also include English and French versions. They are applicable independent of the user's line of industry and thus constitute basic standards. (orig.) [de

  1. Performance of statistical process control methods for regional surgical site infection surveillance: a 10-year multicentre pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Arthur W; Haridy, Salah; Salem, Joseph; Ilieş, Iulian; Ergai, Awatef O; Samareh, Aven; Andrianas, Nicholas; Benneyan, James C; Sexton, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick J

    2017-11-24

    Traditional strategies for surveillance of surgical site infections (SSI) have multiple limitations, including delayed and incomplete outbreak detection. Statistical process control (SPC) methods address these deficiencies by combining longitudinal analysis with graphical presentation of data. We performed a pilot study within a large network of community hospitals to evaluate performance of SPC methods for detecting SSI outbreaks. We applied conventional Shewhart and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) SPC charts to 10 previously investigated SSI outbreaks that occurred from 2003 to 2013. We compared the results of SPC surveillance to the results of traditional SSI surveillance methods. Then, we analysed the performance of modified SPC charts constructed with different outbreak detection rules, EWMA smoothing factors and baseline SSI rate calculations. Conventional Shewhart and EWMA SPC charts both detected 8 of the 10 SSI outbreaks analysed, in each case prior to the date of traditional detection. Among detected outbreaks, conventional Shewhart chart detection occurred a median of 12 months prior to outbreak onset and 22 months prior to traditional detection. Conventional EWMA chart detection occurred a median of 7 months prior to outbreak onset and 14 months prior to traditional detection. Modified Shewhart and EWMA charts additionally detected several outbreaks earlier than conventional SPC charts. Shewhart and SPC charts had low false-positive rates when used to analyse separate control hospital SSI data. Our findings illustrate the potential usefulness and feasibility of real-time SPC surveillance of SSI to rapidly identify outbreaks and improve patient safety. Further study is needed to optimise SPC chart selection and calculation, statistical outbreak detection rules and the process for reacting to signals of potential outbreaks. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  2. Lavine method applied to three body problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourre, Eric.

    1975-09-01

    The methods presently proposed for the three body problem in quantum mechanics, using the Faddeev approach for proving the asymptotic completeness, come up against the presence of new singularities when the potentials considered v(α)(x(α)) for two-particle interactions decay less rapidly than /x(α)/ -2 ; and also when trials are made for solving the problem with a representation space whose dimension for a particle is lower than three. A method is given that allows the mathematical approach to be extended to three body problem, in spite of singularities. Applications are given [fr

  3. Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…

  4. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  5. [The diagnostic methods applied in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowska, Alicja; Kurnatowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The systemic fungal invasions are recognized with increasing frequency and constitute a primary cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis improves prognosis, but remains a problem because there is lack of sensitive tests to aid in the diagnosis of systemic mycoses on the one hand, and on the other the patients only present unspecific signs and symptoms, thus delaying early diagnosis. The diagnosis depends upon a combination of clinical observation and laboratory investigation. The successful laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection depends in major part on the collection of appropriate clinical specimens for investigations and on the selection of appropriate microbiological test procedures. So these problems (collection of specimens, direct techniques, staining methods, cultures on different media and non-culture-based methods) are presented in article.

  6. Monte Carlo method applied to medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.; Goncalves, I.F.; Chaves, A.; Lopes, M.C.; Teixeira, N.; Matos, B.; Goncalves, I.C.; Ramalho, A.; Salgado, J.

    2000-01-01

    The main application of the Monte Carlo method to medical physics is dose calculation. This paper shows some results of two dose calculation studies and two other different applications: optimisation of neutron field for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy and optimization of a filter for a beam tube for several purposes. The time necessary for Monte Carlo calculations - the highest boundary for its intensive utilisation - is being over-passed with faster and cheaper computers. (author)

  7. Proteomics methods applied to malaria: Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta Astroz, Yesid; Segura Latorre, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease that has a high impact on public health in developing countries. The sequencing of the plasmodium falciparum genome and the development of proteomics have enabled a breakthrough in understanding the biology of the parasite. Proteomics have allowed to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the parasite s expression of proteins and has provided information on protein expression under conditions of stress induced by antimalarial. Given the complexity of their life cycle, this takes place in the vertebrate host and mosquito vector. It has proven difficult to characterize the protein expression during each stage throughout the infection process in order to determine the proteome that mediates several metabolic, physiological and energetic processes. Two dimensional electrophoresis, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry have been useful to assess the effects of antimalarial on parasite protein expression and to characterize the proteomic profile of different p. falciparum stages and organelles. The purpose of this review is to present state of the art tools and advances in proteomics applied to the study of malaria, and to present different experimental strategies used to study the parasite's proteome in order to show the advantages and disadvantages of each one.

  8. Optimization of surveillance methods of water radionuclide intake by man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakulo, A.G. (Institut Biofiziki, Moscow (USSR))

    1984-11-01

    A method has been suggested to test and sample prepared food stuffs, when studying and analyzing the intake of radionuclides from aqueous food chains to people. The method is characterized by the following advantages: a possibility to establish to a greater accuracy the amount of consumed products, as compared with inquiry method; a possibility to determine the actual radionuclide contents in prepared food without introduction of correcting coefficients for isotope translocation to the ration during culinary treatment of raw food stuff. Different ways of preparation are known to affect differently the degree of isotope translocaton to the ration. The above-mentioned method under certain conditions seems to be handy while excluding preliminary treatment of samples.

  9. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  10. Versatile Formal Methods Applied to Quantum Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzel, Wayne [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudinger, Kenneth Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Using a novel formal methods approach, we have generated computer-veri ed proofs of major theorems pertinent to the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This was accomplished using our Prove-It software package in Python. While many formal methods tools are available, their practical utility is limited. Translating a problem of interest into these systems and working through the steps of a proof is an art form that requires much expertise. One must surrender to the preferences and restrictions of the tool regarding how mathematical notions are expressed and what deductions are allowed. Automation is a major driver that forces restrictions. Our focus, on the other hand, is to produce a tool that allows users the ability to con rm proofs that are essentially known already. This goal is valuable in itself. We demonstrate the viability of our approach that allows the user great exibility in expressing state- ments and composing derivations. There were no major obstacles in following a textbook proof of the quantum phase estimation algorithm. There were tedious details of algebraic manipulations that we needed to implement (and a few that we did not have time to enter into our system) and some basic components that we needed to rethink, but there were no serious roadblocks. In the process, we made a number of convenient additions to our Prove-It package that will make certain algebraic manipulations easier to perform in the future. In fact, our intent is for our system to build upon itself in this manner.

  11. Development of in-house serological methods for diagnosis and surveillance of chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira Saborío Galo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To develop and evaluate serological methods for chikungunya diagnosis and research in Nicaragua. Methods Two IgM ELISA capture systems (MAC-ELISA for diagnosis of acute chikungunya virus (CHIKV infections, and two Inhibition ELISA Methods (IEM to measure total antibodies against CHIKV were developed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and hyperimmune serum at the National Virology Laboratory of Nicaragua in 2014–2015. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and agreement of the MAC-ELISAs were obtained by comparing the results of 198 samples (116 positive; 82 negative with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s IgM ELISA (Atlanta, Georgia, United States; CDC-MAC-ELISA. For clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques, 260 paired acute and convalescent phase serum samples of suspected chikungunya cases were used. Results All four assays were standardized by determining the optimal concentrations of the different reagents. Processing times were substantially reduced compared to the CDC-MAC-ELISA. For the MAC-ELISA systems, a sensitivity of 96.6% and 97.4%, and a specificity of 98.8% and 91.5% were obtained using mAb and hyperimmune serum, respectively, compared with the CDC method. Clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques versus the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay resulted in a sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 88.8%–95.9%. Conclusion Two MAC-ELISA and two IEM systems were standardized, demonstrating very good quality for chikungunya diagnosis and research demands. This will achieve more efficient epidemiological surveillance in Nicaragua, the first country in Central America to produce its own reagents for serological diagnosis of CHIKV. The methods evaluated here can be applied in other countries and will contribute to sustainable diagnostic systems to combat the disease.

  12. Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.

  13. A niching genetic algorithm applied to a nuclear power plant auxiliary feedwater system surveillance tests policy optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco, W.F.; Lapa, Celso M.F.; Pereira, C.M.N.A.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de

    2006-01-01

    This article extends previous efforts on genetic algorithms (GAs) applied to a nuclear power plant (NPP) auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) surveillance tests policy optimization. We introduce the application of a niching genetic algorithm (NGA) to this problem and compare its performance to previous results. The NGA maintains a populational diversity during the search process, thus promoting a greater exploration of the search space. The optimization problem consists in maximizing the system's average availability for a given period of time, considering realistic features such as: (i) aging effects on standby components during the tests; (ii) revealing failures in the tests implies on corrective maintenance, increasing outage times; (iii) components have distinct test parameters (outage time, aging factors, etc.) and (iv) tests are not necessarily periodic. We find that the NGA performs better than the conventional GA and the island GA due to a greater exploration of the search space

  14. Applying the Socratic Method to Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Ed

    2005-04-01

    We have restructured University Physics I and II in accordance with methods that PER has shown to be effective, including a more interactive discussion- and activity-based curriculum based on the premise that developing understanding requires an interactive process in which students have the opportunity to talk through and think through ideas with both other students and the teacher. Studies have shown that in classes implementing this approach to teaching as compared to classes using a traditional approach, students have significantly higher gains on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). This has been true in UPI. However, UPI FCI results seem to suggest that there is a significant conceptual hole in students' understanding of Newton's Second Law. Two labs in UPI which teach Newton's Second Law will be redesigned replacing more activity with students as a group talking through, thinking through, and answering conceptual questions asked by the TA. The results will be measured by comparing FCI results to those from previous semesters, coupled with interviews. The results will be analyzed, and we will attempt to understand why gains were or were not made.

  15. Scanning probe methods applied to molecular electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlicek, Niko

    2013-08-01

    Scanning probe methods on insulating films offer a rich toolbox to study electronic, structural and spin properties of individual molecules. This work discusses three issues in the field of molecular and organic electronics. An STM head to be operated in high magnetic fields has been designed and built up. The STM head is very compact and rigid relying on a robust coarse approach mechanism. This will facilitate investigations of the spin properties of individual molecules in the future. Combined STM/AFM studies revealed a reversible molecular switch based on two stable configurations of DBTH molecules on ultrathin NaCl films. AFM experiments visualize the molecular structure in both states. Our experiments allowed to unambiguously determine the pathway of the switch. Finally, tunneling into and out of the frontier molecular orbitals of pentacene molecules has been investigated on different insulating films. These experiments show that the local symmetry of initial and final electron wave function are decisive for the ratio between elastic and vibration-assisted tunneling. The results can be generalized to electron transport in organic materials.

  16. Development of in-house serological methods for diagnosis and surveillance of chikungunya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galo, Saira Saborío; González, Karla; Téllez, Yolanda; García, Nadezna; Pérez, Leonel; Gresh, Lionel; Harris, Eva; Balmaseda, Ángel

    2017-08-21

    To develop and evaluate serological methods for chikungunya diagnosis and research in Nicaragua. Two IgM ELISA capture systems (MAC-ELISA) for diagnosis of acute chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections, and two Inhibition ELISA Methods (IEM) to measure total antibodies against CHIKV were developed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and hyperimmune serum at the National Virology Laboratory of Nicaragua in 2014-2015. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and agreement of the MAC-ELISAs were obtained by comparing the results of 198 samples (116 positive; 82 negative) with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's IgM ELISA (Atlanta, Georgia, United States; CDC-MAC-ELISA). For clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques, 260 paired acute and convalescent phase serum samples of suspected chikungunya cases were used. All four assays were standardized by determining the optimal concentrations of the different reagents. Processing times were substantially reduced compared to the CDC-MAC-ELISA. For the MAC-ELISA systems, a sensitivity of 96.6% and 97.4%, and a specificity of 98.8% and 91.5% were obtained using mAb and hyperimmune serum, respectively, compared with the CDC method. Clinical evaluation of the four serological techniques versus the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay resulted in a sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 88.8%-95.9%. Two MAC-ELISA and two IEM systems were standardized, demonstrating very good quality for chikungunya diagnosis and research demands. This will achieve more efficient epidemiological surveillance in Nicaragua, the first country in Central America to produce its own reagents for serological diagnosis of CHIKV. The methods evaluated here can be applied in other countries and will contribute to sustainable diagnostic systems to combat the disease.

  17. Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

  18. An optimal beam alignment method for large-scale distributed space surveillance radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Wang, Dongya; Xia, Shuangzhi

    2018-06-01

    Large-scale distributed space surveillance radar is a very important ground-based equipment to maintain a complete catalogue for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space debris. However, due to the thousands of kilometers distance between each sites of the distributed radar system, how to optimally implement the Transmitting/Receiving (T/R) beams alignment in a great space using the narrow beam, which proposed a special and considerable technical challenge in the space surveillance area. According to the common coordinate transformation model and the radar beam space model, we presented a two dimensional projection algorithm for T/R beam using the direction angles, which could visually describe and assess the beam alignment performance. Subsequently, the optimal mathematical models for the orientation angle of the antenna array, the site location and the T/R beam coverage are constructed, and also the beam alignment parameters are precisely solved. At last, we conducted the optimal beam alignment experiments base on the site parameters of Air Force Space Surveillance System (AFSSS). The simulation results demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of our novel method, which can significantly stimulate the construction for the LEO space debris surveillance equipment.

  19. Performance of the lot quality assurance sampling method compared to surveillance for identifying inadequately-performing areas in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S M A; Roy, Nikhil; Streatfield, P Kim

    2007-03-01

    This paper compared the performance of the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method in identifying inadequately-performing health work-areas with that of using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data and examined the feasibility of applying the method by field-level programme supervisors. The study was carried out in Matlab, the field site of ICDDR,B, where a HDSS has been in place for over 30 years. The LQAS method was applied in 57 work-areas of community health workers in ICDDR,B-served areas in Matlab during July-September 2002. The performance of the LQAS method in identifying work-areas with adequate and inadequate coverage of various health services was compared with those of the HDSS. The health service-coverage indicators included coverage of DPT, measles, BCG vaccination, and contraceptive use. It was observed that the difference in the proportion of work-areas identified to be inadequately performing using the LQAS method with less than 30 respondents, and the HDSS was not statistically significant. The consistency between the LQAS method and the HDSS in identifying work-areas was greater for adequately-performing areas than inadequately-performing areas. It was also observed that the field managers could be trained to apply the LQAS method in monitoring their performance in reaching the target population.

  20. Applying homotopy analysis method for solving differential-difference equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Zou Li; Zhang Hongqing

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, we apply the homotopy analysis method to solving the differential-difference equations. A simple but typical example is applied to illustrate the validity and the great potential of the generalized homotopy analysis method in solving differential-difference equation. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. The results show that the homotopy analysis method is an attractive method in solving the differential-difference equations

  1. Parallel island genetic algorithm applied to a nuclear power plant auxiliary feedwater system surveillance tests policy optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Lapa, Celso M.F.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we focus the application of an Island Genetic Algorithm (IGA), a coarse-grained parallel genetic algorithm (PGA) model, to a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS) surveillance tests policy optimization. Here, the main objective is to outline, by means of comparisons, the advantages of the IGA over the simple (non-parallel) genetic algorithm (GA), which has been successfully applied in the solution of such kind of problem. The goal of the optimization is to maximize the system's average availability for a given period of time, considering realistic features such as: i) aging effects on standby components during the tests; ii) revealing failures in the tests implies on corrective maintenance, increasing outage times; iii) components have distinct test parameters (outage time, aging factors, etc.) and iv) tests are not necessarily periodic. In our experiments, which were made in a cluster comprised by 8 1-GHz personal computers, we could clearly observe gains not only in the computational time, which reduced linearly with the number of computers, but in the optimization outcome

  2. Systematic review of surveillance systems and methods for early detection of exotic, new and re-emerging diseases in animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Vicente-Rubiano, M; Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Rubio-Guerri, C; Melero, M; Martínez-López, B; Martínez-Avilés, M; Hoinville, L; Vergne, T; Comin, A; Schauer, B; Dórea, F; Pfeiffer, D U; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2015-07-01

    In this globalized world, the spread of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases has become one of the most important threats to animal production and public health. This systematic review analyses conventional and novel early detection methods applied to surveillance. In all, 125 scientific documents were considered for this study. Exotic (n = 49) and re-emerging (n = 27) diseases constituted the most frequently represented health threats. In addition, the majority of studies were related to zoonoses (n = 66). The approaches found in the review could be divided in surveillance modalities, both active (n = 23) and passive (n = 5); and tools and methodologies that support surveillance activities (n = 57). Combinations of surveillance modalities and tools (n = 40) were also found. Risk-based approaches were very common (n = 60), especially in the papers describing tools and methodologies (n = 50). The main applications, benefits and limitations of each approach were extracted from the papers. This information will be very useful for informing the development of tools to facilitate the design of cost-effective surveillance strategies. Thus, the current literature review provides key information about the advantages, disadvantages, limitations and potential application of methodologies for the early detection of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases.

  3. Standard Guide for Application of Neutron Transport Methods for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E706 (IID)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 Need for Neutronics Calculations—An accurate calculation of the neutron fluence and fluence rate at several locations is essential for the analysis of integral dosimetry measurements and for predicting irradiation damage exposure parameter values in the pressure vessel. Exposure parameter values may be obtained directly from calculations or indirectly from calculations that are adjusted with dosimetry measurements; Guide E944 and Practice E853 define appropriate computational procedures. 1.2 Methodology—Neutronics calculations for application to reactor vessel surveillance encompass three essential areas: (1) validation of methods by comparison of calculations with dosimetry measurements in a benchmark experiment, (2) determination of the neutron source distribution in the reactor core, and (3) calculation of neutron fluence rate at the surveillance position and in the pressure vessel. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is th...

  4. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship: Use of Administrative and Surveillance Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Marci; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Morgan, Daniel J; Lee, Grace M

    2016-11-01

    Administrative and surveillance data are used frequently in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship (HE&AS) research because of their wide availability and efficiency. However, data quality issues exist, requiring careful consideration and potential validation of data. This methods paper presents key considerations for using administrative and surveillance data in HE&AS, including types of data available and potential use, data limitations, and the importance of validation. After discussing these issues, we review examples of HE&AS research using administrative data with a focus on scenarios when their use may be advantageous. A checklist is provided to help aid study development in HE&AS using administrative data. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-10.

  5. Printing method and printer used for applying this method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    The invention pertains to a method for transferring ink to a receiving material using an inkjet printer having an ink chamber (10) with a nozzle (8) and an electromechanical transducer (16) in cooperative connection with the ink chamber, comprising actuating the transducer to generate a pressure

  6. Studies of neutron methods for process control and criticality surveillance of fissile material processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoltowski, T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of radiochemical processes for fissile material processing and spent fuel handling need new control procedures enabling an improvement of plant throughput. This is strictly related to the implementation of continuous criticality control policy and developing reliable methods for monitoring the reactivity of radiochemical plant operations in presence of the process perturbations. Neutron methods seem to be applicable for fissile material control in some technological facilities. The measurement of epithermal neutron source multiplication with heuristic evaluation of measured data enables surveillance of anomalous reactivity enhancement leading to unsafe states. 80 refs., 47 figs., 33 tabs. (author)

  7. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance of Cea centers. Assessment and regulation and method 1999; Controle des rejets et surveillance de l'environnement des centres CEA. Bilan et reglementation et methode 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The quality of the natural environment around the centers of the Commissariat a l Energie Atomique is an important point of its safety policy. The environmental protection is based on the control of risks coming from research and development activities of its installations. It aims to reduce as low as possible, the impact of its activities on man and his environment. This publication develops the sampling and measurement methods that are made on effluents and in environment, according to the radionuclides characteristics, that are present. It gives also the regulation that applied to the effluents monitoring. The results of radioactive effluents releases (liquid and gaseous) and the surveillance of environment around cea centers is given in the 'Bilan 1999' publication. An analysis of these results on the 1995-1999 period allows to follow their evolution. (N.C.)

  8. A method of determining where to target surveillance efforts in heterogeneous epidemiological systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Mastin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The spread of pathogens into new environments poses a considerable threat to human, animal, and plant health, and by extension, human and animal wellbeing, ecosystem function, and agricultural productivity, worldwide. Early detection through effective surveillance is a key strategy to reduce the risk of their establishment. Whilst it is well established that statistical and economic considerations are of vital importance when planning surveillance efforts, it is also important to consider epidemiological characteristics of the pathogen in question-including heterogeneities within the epidemiological system itself. One of the most pronounced realisations of this heterogeneity is seen in the case of vector-borne pathogens, which spread between 'hosts' and 'vectors'-with each group possessing distinct epidemiological characteristics. As a result, an important question when planning surveillance for emerging vector-borne pathogens is where to place sampling resources in order to detect the pathogen as early as possible. We answer this question by developing a statistical function which describes the probability distributions of the prevalences of infection at first detection in both hosts and vectors. We also show how this method can be adapted in order to maximise the probability of early detection of an emerging pathogen within imposed sample size and/or cost constraints, and demonstrate its application using two simple models of vector-borne citrus pathogens. Under the assumption of a linear cost function, we find that sampling costs are generally minimised when either hosts or vectors, but not both, are sampled.

  9. Ejes de Vigilancia Tecnológica Aplicados en Universidades con Estudios a Distancia (Axes of Technological Surveillance Applied in Distance Learning Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlin J. Izarra Reverol

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de la presente investigación es determinar los ejes de la vigilancia tecnológica aplicados en las Universidades del Municipio Maracaibo que ofrecen estudios a distancia, siguiendo los aportes teóricos de López et al. (2007, Palop y Vicente (1999, Martinet y Ribault (1989, Escorsa y Valls (2005, Fundación COTEC (1999 y Jakobiak (1995. La investigación es descriptiva, con un diseño no experimental transeccional de campo. La población la conforman doce directores y coordinadores (censo poblacional, a quienes se aplicó un cuestionario con preguntas cerradas y opciones de frecuencia, validado y con alta confiabilidad (0.90. Los datos obtenidos fueron interpretados a través del análisis y discusión de información estadística. Los resultados adquiridos indican que se aplican los ejes de vigilancia tecnológica en las universidades seleccionadas, enfatizando los siguientes elementos de estudio: la vigilancia competitiva, la vigilancia comercial, la vigilancia tecnológica propiamente dicha y la vigilancia de los entornos. Abstract The aim of this research is to determine the axes of technological surveillance applied in the universities of Maracaibo Municipality including distance learning, following the theoretical contributions of López et al. (2007, Palop and Vicente (1999, Martinet and Ribault (1989 Escorsa and Valls (2005, COTEC Foundation (1999 and Jakobiak (1995. This research is descriptive, based on a experimental design. The population consisted of twelve directors and coordinators (residents, who answered a questionnaire with closed questions and frequency options. This was validated with high reliability (0.90. The data obtained were interpreted through analysis and discussion of statistical information. The results indicate that the axes of technological surveillance are applied in the selected universities, emphasizing the following elements of study: competitive surveillance, commercial surveillance

  10. Discrimination symbol applying method for sintered nuclear fuel product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Jin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a symbol applying method for applying discrimination information such as an enrichment degree on the end face of a sintered nuclear product. Namely, discrimination symbols of information of powders are applied by a sintering aid to the end face of a molded member formed by molding nuclear fuel powders under pressure. Then, the molded product is sintered. The sintering aid comprises aluminum oxide, a mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide, aluminum hydride or aluminum stearate alone or in admixture. As an applying means of the sintering aid, discrimination symbols of information of powders are drawn by an isostearic acid on the end face of the molded product, and the sintering aid is sprayed thereto, or the sintering aid is applied directly, or the sintering aid is suspended in isostearic acid, and the suspension is applied with a brush. As a result, visible discrimination information can be applied to the sintered member easily. (N.H.)

  11. Building "Applied Linguistic Historiography": Rationale, Scope, and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article I argue for the establishment of "Applied Linguistic Historiography" (ALH), that is, a new domain of enquiry within applied linguistics involving a rigorous, scholarly, and self-reflexive approach to historical research. Considering issues of rationale, scope, and methods in turn, I provide reasons why ALH is needed and…

  12. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  13. Quantitative EEG Applying the Statistical Recognition Pattern Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engedal, Knut; Snaedal, Jon; Hoegh, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the discriminatory power of quantitative EEG (qEEG) applying the statistical pattern recognition (SPR) method to separate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients from elderly individuals without dementia and from other dementia patients. METHODS...

  14. African swine fever in Uganda: qualitative evaluation of three surveillance methods with implications for other resource-poor settings

    OpenAIRE

    Chenais, Erika; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Boqvist, Sofia; Emanuelson, Ulf; Aliro, Tonny; Tejler, Emma; Cocca, Giampaolo; Masembe, Charles; Ståhl, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Animal diseases impact negatively on households and on national economies. In low-income countries, this pertains especially to socio-economic effects on household level. To control animal diseases and mitigate their impact, it is necessary to understand the epidemiology of the disease in its local context. Such understanding, gained through disease surveillance, is often lacking in resource-poor settings. Alternative surveillance methods have been developed to overcome some of the hurdles ob...

  15. African swine fever in Uganda: qualitative evaluation of three surveillance methods with implications for other resource-poor settings

    OpenAIRE

    Erika eChenais; Erika eChenais; Susanna eSternberg-Lewerin; Sofia eBoqvist; Ulf eEmanuelson; Tonny eAliro; Emma eTejler; Giampaolo eCocca; Charles eMasembe; Karl eStåhl; Karl eStåhl

    2015-01-01

    Animal diseases impact negatively on households and on national economies. In low-income countries this pertains especially to socio-economic effects on household level. To control animal diseases and mitigate their impact, it is necessary to understand the epidemiology of the disease in its local context. Such understanding, gained through disease surveillance, is often lacking in resource-poor settings. Alternative surveillance methods have been developed to overcome some of the hurdles obs...

  16. African Swine Fever in Uganda: Qualitative Evaluation of Three Surveillance Methods with Implications for Other Resource-Poor Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenais, Erika; Sternberg-Lewerin, Susanna; Boqvist, Sofia; Emanuelson, Ulf; Aliro, Tonny; Tejler, Emma; Cocca, Giampaolo; Masembe, Charles; Ståhl, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Animal diseases impact negatively on households and on national economies. In low-income countries, this pertains especially to socio-economic effects on household level. To control animal diseases and mitigate their impact, it is necessary to understand the epidemiology of the disease in its local context. Such understanding, gained through disease surveillance, is often lacking in resource-poor settings. Alternative surveillance methods have been developed to overcome some of the hurdles obstructing surveillance. The objective of this study was to evaluate and qualitatively compare three methods for surveillance of acute infectious diseases using African swine fever in northern Uganda as an example. Report-driven outbreak investigations, participatory rural appraisals (PRAs), and a household survey using a smartphone application were evaluated. All three methods had good disease-detecting capacity, and each of them detected many more outbreaks compared to those reported to the World Organization for Animal Health during the same time period. Apparent mortality rates were similar for the three methods although highest for the report-driven outbreak investigations, followed by the PRAs, and then the household survey. The three methods have different characteristics and the method of choice will depend on the surveillance objective. The optimal situation might be achieved by a combination of the methods: outbreak detection via smartphone-based real-time surveillance, outbreak investigation for collection of biological samples, and a PRA for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the specific outbreak. All three methods require initial investments and continuous efforts. The sustainability of the surveillance system should, therefore, be carefully evaluated before making such investments.

  17. African swine fever in Uganda: qualitative evaluation of three surveillance methods with implications for other resource-poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eChenais

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal diseases impact negatively on households and on national economies. In low-income countries this pertains especially to socio-economic effects on household level. To control animal diseases and mitigate their impact, it is necessary to understand the epidemiology of the disease in its local context. Such understanding, gained through disease surveillance, is often lacking in resource-poor settings. Alternative surveillance methods have been developed to overcome some of the hurdles obstructing surveillance. The objective of this study was to evaluate and qualitatively compare three methods for surveillance of acute infectious diseases using African swine fever (ASF in northern Uganda as an example. Report-driven outbreak investigations, participatory rural appraisals (PRA, and a household survey using a smartphone application were evaluated. All three methods had good disease-detecting capacity, each of them detected many more outbreaks compared to those reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE during the same time period. Apparent mortality rates were similar for the three methods although highest for the report-driven outbreak investigations, followed by the PRAs, and then the household survey. The three methods have different characteristics and the method of choice will depend on the surveillance objective. The optimal situation might be achieved by a combination of the methods: outbreak detection via smartphone-based real-time surveillance, outbreak investigation for collection of biological samples, and a PRA for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the specific outbreak. All three methods require initial investments and continuous efforts. The sustainability of the surveillance system should therefore be carefully evaluated before making such investments.

  18. Electronic-projecting Moire method applying CBR-technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, O. N.; Lapteva, U. V.; Andreeva, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Electronic-projecting method based on Moire effect for examining surface topology is suggested. Conditions of forming Moire fringes and their parameters’ dependence on reference parameters of object and virtual grids are analyzed. Control system structure and decision-making subsystem are elaborated. Subsystem execution includes CBR-technology, based on applying case base. The approach related to analysing and forming decision for each separate local area with consequent formation of common topology map is applied.

  19. A Lagrangian meshfree method applied to linear and nonlinear elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wade A

    2017-01-01

    The repeated replacement method (RRM) is a Lagrangian meshfree method which we have previously applied to the Euler equations for compressible fluid flow. In this paper we present new enhancements to RRM, and we apply the enhanced method to both linear and nonlinear elasticity. We compare the results of ten test problems to those of analytic solvers, to demonstrate that RRM can successfully simulate these elastic systems without many of the requirements of traditional numerical methods such as numerical derivatives, equation system solvers, or Riemann solvers. We also show the relationship between error and computational effort for RRM on these systems, and compare RRM to other methods to highlight its strengths and weaknesses. And to further explain the two elastic equations used in the paper, we demonstrate the mathematical procedure used to create Riemann and Sedov-Taylor solvers for them, and detail the numerical techniques needed to embody those solvers in code.

  20. Avian influenza surveillance with FTA cards: field methods, biosafety, and transportation issues solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Robert H S; van Hooft, Pim; Waldenström, Jonas; Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2011-08-02

    Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) infect many mammals, including humans(1). These AIVs are diverse in their natural hosts, harboring almost all possible viral subtypes(2). Human pandemics of flu originally stem from AIVs(3). Many fatal human cases during the H5N1 outbreaks in recent years were reported. Lately, a new AIV related strain swept through the human population, causing the 'swine flu epidemic'(4). Although human trading and transportation activity seems to be responsible for the spread of highly pathogenic strains(5), dispersal can also partly be attributed to wild birds(6, 7). However, the actual reservoir of all AIV strains is wild birds. In reaction to this and in face of severe commercial losses in the poultry industry, large surveillance programs have been implemented globally to collect information on the ecology of AIVs, and to install early warning systems to detect certain highly pathogenic strains(8-12). Traditional virological methods require viruses to be intact and cultivated before analysis. This necessitates strict cold chains with deep freezers and heavy biosafety procedures to be in place during transport. Long-term surveillance is therefore usually restricted to a few field stations close to well equipped laboratories. Remote areas cannot be sampled unless logistically cumbersome procedures are implemented. These problems have been recognised(13, 14) and the use of alternative storage and transport strategies investigated (alcohols or guanidine)(15-17). Recently, Kraus et al.(18) introduced a method to collect, store and transport AIV samples, based on a special filter paper. FTA cards(19) preserve RNA on a dry storage basis(20) and render pathogens inactive upon contact(21). This study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect AIV RNA in reverse-transcription PCR and that the resulting cDNA could be sequenced and virus genes and determined. In the study of Kraus et al.(18) a laboratory isolate of AIV was used, and samples were handled

  1. A target recognition method for maritime surveillance radars based on hybrid ensemble selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xueman; Hu, Shengliang; He, Jingbo

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve the generalisation ability of the maritime surveillance radar, a novel ensemble selection technique, termed Optimisation and Dynamic Selection (ODS), is proposed. During the optimisation phase, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II for multi-objective optimisation is used to find the Pareto front, i.e. a set of ensembles of classifiers representing different tradeoffs between the classification error and diversity. During the dynamic selection phase, the meta-learning method is used to predict whether a candidate ensemble is competent enough to classify a query instance based on three different aspects, namely, feature space, decision space and the extent of consensus. The classification performance and time complexity of ODS are compared against nine other ensemble methods using a self-built full polarimetric high resolution range profile data-set. The experimental results clearly show the effectiveness of ODS. In addition, the influence of the selection of diversity measures is studied concurrently.

  2. Applying the Taguchi method for optimized fabrication of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Nanobiotechnology Research Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Po.Box: 484, ... nanoparticle by applying the Taguchi method with characterization of the ... of BSA/ethanol and organic solvent adding rate. ... Sodium aside and all other chemicals were purchased from.

  3. Informatics Tools and Methods to Enhance U.S. Cancer Surveillance Research, UG3/UH3 | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to advance surveillance science by supporting the development of new and innovative tools and methods for more efficient, detailed, timely, and accurate data collection by cancer registries. Specifically, the FOA seeks applications for projects to develop, adapt, apply, scale-up, and validate tools and methods to improve the collection and integration cancer registry data and to expand the data items collected. Population-based central cancer registries (a partnership must involve at least two different registries).

  4. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.

  5. Magnetic stirring welding method applied to nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kenji; Watando, Masayuki; Morishige, Norio; Enoo, Kazuhide; Yasuda, Yuuji

    2002-01-01

    In construction of a new nuclear power plant, carbon steel and stainless steel are used as base materials for the bottom linear plate of Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) to achieve maintenance-free requirement, securing sufficient strength of structure. However, welding such different metals is difficult by ordinary method. To overcome the difficulty, the automated Magnetic Stirring Welding (MSW) method that can demonstrate good welding performance was studied for practical use, and weldability tests showed the good results. Based on the study, a new welding device for the MSW method was developed to apply it weld joints of different materials, and it practically used in part of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  6. Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Helium Accumulation Fluence Monitors for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E706 (IIIC)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the concept and use of helium accumulation for neutron fluence dosimetry for reactor vessel surveillance. Although this test method is directed toward applications in vessel surveillance, the concepts and techniques are equally applicable to the general field of neutron dosimetry. The various applications of this test method for reactor vessel surveillance are as follows: 1.1.1 Helium accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) capsules, 1.1.2 Unencapsulated, or cadmium or gadolinium covered, radiometric monitors (RM) and HAFM wires for helium analysis, 1.1.3 Charpy test block samples for helium accumulation, and 1.1.4 Reactor vessel (RV) wall samples for helium accumulation. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, S M; Xing, L

    2001-10-01

    Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.

  8. The New Product Watch: Successes and Challenges of Crowdsourcing as a Method of Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Amy L; Biener, Lois

    2016-01-01

    New smokeless tobacco (eg, snus and dissolvable tobacco products) and nontobacco nicotine products (eg, e-cigarettes) have emerged in recent years amid widespread speculation about locations of test marketing, toxic constituents, and consumer targeting. The New Product Watch was a pilot online monitoring system aimed at filling these information gaps by using a form of crowdsourcing: recruiting volunteers to visit local retailers and report their findings. With very little funding, the New Product Watch gathered county-specific data on new product availability in 19 states as well as trend data on product marketing and demand, and completed 2 rounds of product purchases and subsequent toxic constituent analyses. Data were collected over a 2-year period, between 2009 and 2011. Despite the successes, we found that this small-scale, volunteer effort was not a sustainable method for ensuring continuous, systematic surveillance of new product availability, marketing, and toxicity.

  9. Methods of applied mathematics with a software overview

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Jon H

    2016-01-01

    This textbook, now in its second edition, provides students with a firm grasp of the fundamental notions and techniques of applied mathematics as well as the software skills to implement them. The text emphasizes the computational aspects of problem solving as well as the limitations and implicit assumptions inherent in the formal methods. Readers are also given a sense of the wide variety of problems in which the presented techniques are useful. Broadly organized around the theme of applied Fourier analysis, the treatment covers classical applications in partial differential equations and boundary value problems, and a substantial number of topics associated with Laplace, Fourier, and discrete transform theories. Some advanced topics are explored in the final chapters such as short-time Fourier analysis and geometrically based transforms applicable to boundary value problems. The topics covered are useful in a variety of applied fields such as continuum mechanics, mathematical physics, control theory, and si...

  10. Which DTW Method Applied to Marine Univariate Time Series Imputation

    OpenAIRE

    Phan , Thi-Thu-Hong; Caillault , Émilie; Lefebvre , Alain; Bigand , André

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Missing data are ubiquitous in any domains of applied sciences. Processing datasets containing missing values can lead to a loss of efficiency and unreliable results, especially for large missing sub-sequence(s). Therefore, the aim of this paper is to build a framework for filling missing values in univariate time series and to perform a comparison of different similarity metrics used for the imputation task. This allows to suggest the most suitable methods for the imp...

  11. Applying Qualitative Research Methods to Narrative Knowledge Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Brian; Riedl, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We propose a methodology for knowledge engineering for narrative intelligence systems, based on techniques used to elicit themes in qualitative methods research. Our methodology uses coding techniques to identify actions in natural language corpora, and uses these actions to create planning operators and procedural knowledge, such as scripts. In an iterative process, coders create a taxonomy of codes relevant to the corpus, and apply those codes to each element of that corpus. These codes can...

  12. APPLYING SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS ON ANALYSES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrinić, Julijan; Kunić, Marija; Ciganj, Zlatko

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The paper presents results of measuring the content of heavy and other metals in waste samples from the hazardous waste disposal site of Sovjak near Rijeka. The preliminary design elaboration and the choice of the waste disposal sanification technology were preceded by the sampling and physico-chemical analyses of disposed waste, enabling its categorization. The following spectroscopic methods were applied on metal content analysis: Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and plas...

  13. A new method of AHP applied to personal credit evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ming-hui; XIONG Qi; CAO Jing

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new negative judgment matrix that combines the advantages of the reciprocal judgment matrix and the fuzzy complementary judgment matrix, and then puts forth the properties of this new matrix. In view of these properties, this paper derives a clear sequencing formula for the new negative judgment matrix, which improves the sequencing principle of AHP. Finally, this new method is applied to personal credit evaluation to show its advantages of conciseness and swiftness.

  14. Novel biodosimetry methods applied to victims of the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Langlois, R.G.; Lucas, J.; Jensen, R.H.; Bigbee, W.L.; Ramalho, A.T.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two biodosimetric methods under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were applied to five persons accidentally exposed to a 137Cs source in Goiania, Brazil. The methods used were somatic null mutations at the glycophorin A locus detected as missing proteins on the surface of blood erythrocytes and chromosome translocations in blood lymphocytes detected using fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Biodosimetric results obtained approximately 1 y after the accident using these new and largely unvalidated methods are in general agreement with results obtained immediately after the accident using dicentric chromosome aberrations. Additional follow-up of Goiania accident victims will (1) help provide the information needed to validate these new methods for use in biodosimetry and (2) provide independent estimates of dose

  15. Newton-Krylov methods applied to nonequilibrium radiation diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.; Olsen, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors present results of applying a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method to a nonequilibrium radiation diffusion problem. Here, there is no use of operator splitting, and Newton's method is used to convert the nonlinearities within a time step. Since the nonlinear residual is formed, it is used to monitor convergence. It is demonstrated that a simple Picard-based linearization produces a sufficient preconditioning matrix for the Krylov method, thus elevating the need to form or store a Jacobian matrix for Newton's method. They discuss the possibility that the Newton-Krylov approach may allow larger time steps, without loss of accuracy, as compared to an operator split approach where nonlinearities are not converged within a time step

  16. A New Method for Estimating the Coverage of Mass Vaccination Campaigns Against Poliomyelitis From Surveillance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, K M; Cori, A; Durry, E; Wadood, M Z; Bosan, A; Aylward, R B; Grassly, N C

    2015-12-01

    Mass vaccination campaigns with the oral poliovirus vaccine targeting children aged poliomyelitis eradication effort. Monitoring the coverage of these campaigns is essential to allow corrective action, but current approaches are limited by their cross-sectional nature, nonrandom sampling, reporting biases, and accessibility issues. We describe a new Bayesian framework using data augmentation and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate variation in vaccination coverage from children's vaccination histories investigated during surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis. We tested the method using simulated data with at least 200 cases and were able to detect undervaccinated groups if they exceeded 10% of all children and temporal changes in coverage of ±10% with greater than 90% sensitivity. Application of the method to data from Pakistan for 2010-2011 identified undervaccinated groups within the Balochistan/Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa regions, as well as temporal changes in coverage. The sizes of these groups are consistent with the multiple challenges faced by the program in these regions as a result of conflict and insecurity. Application of this new method to routinely collected data can be a useful tool for identifying poorly performing areas and assisting in eradication efforts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  17. GPS surveying method applied to terminal area navigation flight experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, M; Shingu, H; Satsushima, K; Tsuji, T; Ishikawa, K; Miyazawa, Y; Uchida, T [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-03-01

    With an objective of evaluating accuracy of new landing and navigation systems such as microwave landing guidance system and global positioning satellite (GPS) system, flight experiments are being carried out using experimental aircraft. This aircraft mounts a GPS and evaluates its accuracy by comparing the standard orbits spotted by a Kalman filter from the laser tracing data on the aircraft with the navigation results. The GPS outputs position and speed information from an earth-centered-earth-fixed system called the World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS84). However, in order to compare the navigation results with output from a reference orbit sensor or other navigation sensor, it is necessary to structure a high-precision reference coordinates system based on the WGS84. A method that applies the GPS phase interference measurement for this problem was proposed, and used actually in analyzing a flight experiment data. As referred to a case of the method having been applied to evaluating an independent navigation accuracy, the method was verified sufficiently effective and reliable not only in navigation method analysis, but also in the aspect of navigational operations. 12 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Second Generation of HIV Surveillance System: A Pattern for Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nematollahi, M; Khalesi, N; Moghaddasi, H; Askarian, M

    2012-01-01

    Background For the purpose of minimizing the HIV/AIDS epidemic effects, one of the programs is the promotion of scientific methods and setting of the suitable surveillance systems. The present research was conducted to design the HIV/AIDS surveillance system in Iran applying WHO recommendations and the experience of some countries. Methods In 2009, based on the country's requirements, the HIV/AIDS surveillance system was proposed and designed for Iran. The Delphi technique was utilized to fin...

  19. Methods for model selection in applied science and engineering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Richard V., Jr.

    2004-10-01

    Mathematical models are developed and used to study the properties of complex systems and/or modify these systems to satisfy some performance requirements in just about every area of applied science and engineering. A particular reason for developing a model, e.g., performance assessment or design, is referred to as the model use. Our objective is the development of a methodology for selecting a model that is sufficiently accurate for an intended use. Information on the system being modeled is, in general, incomplete, so that there may be two or more models consistent with the available information. The collection of these models is called the class of candidate models. Methods are developed for selecting the optimal member from a class of candidate models for the system. The optimal model depends on the available information, the selected class of candidate models, and the model use. Classical methods for model selection, including the method of maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, as well as a method employing a decision-theoretic approach, are formulated to select the optimal model for numerous applications. There is no requirement that the candidate models be random. Classical methods for model selection ignore model use and require data to be available. Examples are used to show that these methods can be unreliable when data is limited. The decision-theoretic approach to model selection does not have these limitations, and model use is included through an appropriate utility function. This is especially important when modeling high risk systems, where the consequences of using an inappropriate model for the system can be disastrous. The decision-theoretic method for model selection is developed and applied for a series of complex and diverse applications. These include the selection of the: (1) optimal order of the polynomial chaos approximation for non-Gaussian random variables and stationary stochastic processes, (2) optimal pressure load model to be

  20. Analysis of concrete beams using applied element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a displacement based method of structural analysis. Some of its features are similar to that of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, the structure is analysed by dividing it into several elements similar to FEM. But, in AEM, elements are connected by springs instead of nodes as in the case of FEM. In this paper, background to AEM is discussed and necessary equations are derived. For illustrating the application of AEM, it has been used to analyse plain concrete beam of fixed support condition. The analysis is limited to the analysis of 2-dimensional structures. It was found that the number of springs has no much influence on the results. AEM could predict deflection and reactions with reasonable degree of accuracy.

  1. The Lattice Boltzmann Method applied to neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erasmus, B.; Van Heerden, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the applicability of the Lattice Boltzmann Method to neutron transport is investigated. One of the main features of the Lattice Boltzmann method is the simultaneous discretization of the phase space of the problem, whereby particles are restricted to move on a lattice. An iterative solution of the operator form of the neutron transport equation is presented here, with the first collision source as the starting point of the iteration scheme. A full description of the discretization scheme is given, along with the quadrature set used for the angular discretization. An angular refinement scheme is introduced to increase the angular coverage of the problem phase space and to mitigate lattice ray effects. The method is applied to a model problem to investigate its applicability to neutron transport and the results are compared to a reference solution calculated, using MCNP. (authors)

  2. Advanced methods for image registration applied to JET videos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciunescu, Teddy, E-mail: teddy.craciunescu@jet.uk [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy); Gelfusa, Michela [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA – University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Tiseanu, Ion; Zoita, Vasile [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Arnoux, Gilles [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Development of an image registration method for JET IR and fast visible cameras. • Method based on SIFT descriptors and coherent point drift points set registration technique. • Method able to deal with extremely noisy images and very low luminosity images. • Computation time compatible with the inter-shot analysis. - Abstract: The last years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital cameras on JET. They are routinely applied for imaging in the IR and visible spectral regions. One of the main technical difficulties in interpreting the data of camera based diagnostics is the presence of movements of the field of view. Small movements occur due to machine shaking during normal pulses while large ones may arise during disruptions. Some cameras show a correlation of image movement with change of magnetic field strength. For deriving unaltered information from the videos and for allowing correct interpretation an image registration method, based on highly distinctive scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors and on the coherent point drift (CPD) points set registration technique, has been developed. The algorithm incorporates a complex procedure for rejecting outliers. The method has been applied for vibrations correction to videos collected by the JET wide angle infrared camera and for the correction of spurious rotations in the case of the JET fast visible camera (which is equipped with an image intensifier). The method has proved to be able to deal with the images provided by this camera frequently characterized by low contrast and a high level of blurring and noise.

  3. A new method for improving the reliability of fracture toughness surveillance of nuclear pressure vessel by neutron irradiated embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinping; Shi Yaowu

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain more information from neutron irradiated sample specimens and raise the reliability of fracture toughness surveillance test, it has more important significance to repeatedly exploit the broken Charpy-size specimen which had been tested in surveillance test. In this work, on the renewing design and utilization for Charpy-size specimens, 9 data of fracture toughness can be gained from one pre-cracked side-grooved Charpy-size specimen while at the preset usually only 1 to 3 data of fracture toughness can be obtained from one Chharpy-size specimen. Thus, it is found that the new method would obviously improve the reliability of fracture toughness surveillance test and evaluation. Some factors which affect the reasonable design of pre-cracked deep side-groove Charpy-size compound specimen have been discussed

  4. Classification of Specialized Farms Applying Multivariate Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hloušková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of specialized farms applying multivariate statistical methods The paper is aimed at application of advanced multivariate statistical methods when classifying cattle breeding farming enterprises by their economic size. Advantage of the model is its ability to use a few selected indicators compared to the complex methodology of current classification model that requires knowledge of detailed structure of the herd turnover and structure of cultivated crops. Output of the paper is intended to be applied within farm structure research focused on future development of Czech agriculture. As data source, the farming enterprises database for 2014 has been used, from the FADN CZ system. The predictive model proposed exploits knowledge of actual size classes of the farms tested. Outcomes of the linear discriminatory analysis multifactor classification method have supported the chance of filing farming enterprises in the group of Small farms (98 % filed correctly, and the Large and Very Large enterprises (100 % filed correctly. The Medium Size farms have been correctly filed at 58.11 % only. Partial shortages of the process presented have been found when discriminating Medium and Small farms.

  5. Accuracy of Diagnostic Methods and Surveillance Sensitivity for Human Enterovirus, South Korea, 1999–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyejin; Song, Jaehyoung; Ahn, Jeongbae; Kang, Byunghak; Kim, Kisoon; Choi, Wooyoung; Chung, Jae Keun; Kim, Cheon-Hyun; Cho, Kyungsoon; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Kisang; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Min-Ji

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999–2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results increased. A seasonal trend of outbreaks was documented. Genotypes enterovirus 71, echovirus 30, coxsackievirus B5, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B2 were the most common genotypes identified. Accurate test results correlated clinical syndromes to enterovirus genotypes: aseptic meningitis to echovirus 30, enterovirus 6, and coxsackievirus B5; hand, foot and mouth disease to coxsackievirus A16; and hand, foot and mouth disease with neurologic complications to enterovirus 71. There are currently no treatments specific to human EV infections; surveillance of enterovirus infections such as this study provides may assist with evaluating the need to research and develop treatments for infections caused by virulent human EV genotypes. PMID:23876671

  6. Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO 2 that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO 2 samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO 2 samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of the

  7. Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)

  8. Applied systems ecology: models, data, and statistical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L L

    1976-01-01

    In this report, systems ecology is largely equated to mathematical or computer simulation modelling. The need for models in ecology stems from the necessity to have an integrative device for the diversity of ecological data, much of which is observational, rather than experimental, as well as from the present lack of a theoretical structure for ecology. Different objectives in applied studies require specialized methods. The best predictive devices may be regression equations, often non-linear in form, extracted from much more detailed models. A variety of statistical aspects of modelling, including sampling, are discussed. Several aspects of population dynamics and food-chain kinetics are described, and it is suggested that the two presently separated approaches should be combined into a single theoretical framework. It is concluded that future efforts in systems ecology should emphasize actual data and statistical methods, as well as modelling.

  9. Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall using Applied Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a versatile tool for structural analysis. Analysis is done by discretising the structure as in the case of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, elements are connected by a set of normal and shear springs instead of nodes. AEM is extensively used for the analysis of brittle materials. Brick masonry wall can be effectively analyzed in the frame of AEM. The composite nature of masonry wall can be easily modelled using springs. The brick springs and mortar springs are assumed to be connected in series. The brick masonry wall is analyzed and failure load is determined for different loading cases. The results were used to find the best aspect ratio of brick to strengthen brick masonry wall.

  10. Thermally stimulated current method applied to highly irradiated silicon diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Pintilie, I; Pintilie, I; Moll, Michael; Fretwurst, E; Lindström, G

    2002-01-01

    We propose an improved method for the analysis of Thermally Stimulated Currents (TSC) measured on highly irradiated silicon diodes. The proposed TSC formula for the evaluation of a set of TSC spectra obtained with different reverse biases leads not only to the concentration of electron and hole traps visible in the spectra but also gives an estimation for the concentration of defects which not give rise to a peak in the 30-220 K TSC temperature range (very shallow or very deep levels). The method is applied to a diode irradiated with a neutron fluence of phi sub n =1.82x10 sup 1 sup 3 n/cm sup 2.

  11. Hybrid electrokinetic method applied to mix contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, H.; Maria, E. [Dept. of Building Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Several industrials and municipal areas in North America are contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum products. This mix contamination presents a particularly difficult task for remediation when is exposed in clayey soil. The objective of this research was to find a method to cleanup mix contaminated clayey soils. Finally, a multifunctional hybrid electrokinetic method was investigated. Clayey soil was contaminated with lead and nickel (heavy metals) at the level of 1000 ppm and phenanthrene (PAH) of 600 ppm. Electrokinetic surfactant supply system was applied to mobilize, transport and removal of phenanthrene. A chelation agent (EDTA) was also electrokinetically supplied to mobilize heavy metals. The studies were performed on 8 lab scale electrokinetic cells. The mix contaminated clayey soil was subjected to DC total voltage gradient of 0.3 V/cm. Supplied liquids (surfactant and EDTA) were introduced in different periods of time (22 days, 42 days) in order to optimize the most excessive removal of contaminants. The ph, electrical parameters, volume supplied, and volume discharged was monitored continuously during each experiment. At the end of these tests soil and cathalyte were subjected to physico-chemical analysis. The paper discusses results of experiments including the optimal energy use, removal efficiency of phenanthrene, as well, transport and removal of heavy metals. The results of this study can be applied for in-situ hybrid electrokinetic technology to remediate clayey sites contaminated with petroleum product mixed with heavy metals (e.g. manufacture Gas Plant Sites). (orig.)

  12. Influenza surveillance in Europe. Comparing intensity levels calculated using the Moving Epidemic Method.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vega, Tomás

    2015-05-30

    Although influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) surveillance are well established in Europe, the comparability of intensity among countries and seasons remains an unresolved challenge.

  13. Digital dashboard design using multiple data streams for disease surveillance with influenza surveillance as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin K Y; Ip, Dennis K M; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M; Lau, Eric H Y

    2011-10-14

    Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public health actions.

  14. A Multifactorial Analysis of Reconstruction Methods Applied After Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reconstruction methods applied after total gastrectomy in terms of postoperative symptomology and nutrition. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 31 patients who underwent total gastrectomy due to gastric cancer in 2. Clinic of General Surgery, SSK Ankara Training Hospital. 6 different reconstruction methods were used and analyzed in terms of age, sex and postoperative complications. One from esophagus and two biopsy specimens from jejunum were taken through upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from all cases, and late period morphological and microbiological changes were examined. Postoperative weight change, dumping symptoms, reflux esophagitis, solid/liquid dysphagia, early satiety, postprandial pain, diarrhea and anorexia were assessed. Results: Of 31 patients,18 were males and 13 females; the youngest one was 33 years old, while the oldest- 69 years old. It was found that reconstruction without pouch was performed in 22 cases and with pouch in 9 cases. Early satiety, postprandial pain, dumping symptoms, diarrhea and anemia were found most commonly in cases with reconstruction without pouch. The rate of bacterial colonization of the jejunal mucosa was identical in both groups. Reflux esophagitis was most commonly seen in omega esophagojejunostomy (EJ, while the least-in Roux-en-Y, Tooley and Tanner 19 EJ. Conclusion: Reconstruction with pouch performed after total gastrectomy is still a preferable method. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48:126-31

  15. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometric methods for the surveillance monitoring of cyanotoxins in freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogialli, Sara; Bortolini, Claudio; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Di Gregorio, Federica Nigro; Lucentini, Luca; Favaro, Gabriella; Pastore, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive risk management on human exposure to cyanotoxins, whose production is actually unpredictable, is limited by reliable analytical tools for monitoring as many toxic algal metabolites as possible. Two analytical approaches based on a LC-QTOF system for target analysis and suspect screening of cyanotoxins in freshwater were presented. A database with 369 compounds belonging to cyanobacterial metabolites was developed and used for a retrospective data analysis based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). HRMS fragmentation of the suspect cyanotoxin precursor ions was subsequently performed for correctly identifying the specific variants. Alternatively, an automatic tandem HRMS analysis tailored for cyanotoxins was performed in a single chromatographic run, using the developed database as a preferred precursor ions list. Twenty-five extracts of surface and drinking waters contaminated by cyanobacteria were processed. The identification of seven uncommon microcystins (M(O)R, MC-FR, MSer 7 -YR, D-Asp 3 MSer 7 -LR, MSer 7 -LR, dmAdda-LR and dmAdda-YR) and 6 anabaenopeptins (A, B, F, MM850, MM864, oscyllamide Y) was reported. Several isobaric variants, fully separated by chromatography, were pointed out. The developed methods are proposed to be used by environmental and health agencies for strengthening the surveillance monitoring of cyanotoxins in water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  17. Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcucci Maria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Propolis is a bee product, composed mainly of plant resins and beeswax, therefore its chemical composition varies due to the geographic and plant origins of these resins, as well as the species of bee. Brazil is an important supplier of propolis on the world market and, although green colored propolis from the southeast is the most known and studied, several other types of propolis from Apis mellifera and native stingless bees (also called cerumen can be found. Propolis is usually consumed as an extract, so the type of solvent and extractive procedures employed further affect its composition. Methods used for the extraction; analysis the percentage of resins, wax and insoluble material in crude propolis; determination of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and heavy metal contents are reviewed herein. Different chromatographic methods applied to the separation, identification and quantification of Brazilian propolis components and their relative strengths are discussed; as well as direct insertion mass spectrometry fingerprinting. Propolis has been used as a popular remedy for several centuries for a wide array of ailments. Its antimicrobial properties, present in propolis from different origins, have been extensively studied. But, more recently, anti-parasitic, anti-viral/immune stimulating, healing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities of diverse types of Brazilian propolis have been evaluated. The most common methods employed and overviews of their relative results are presented.

  18. Teaching organization theory for healthcare management: three applied learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    Organization theory (OT) provides a way of seeing, describing, analyzing, understanding, and improving organizations based on patterns of organizational design and behavior (Daft 2004). It gives managers models, principles, and methods with which to diagnose and fix organization structure, design, and process problems. Health care organizations (HCOs) face serious problems such as fatal medical errors, harmful treatment delays, misuse of scarce nurses, costly inefficiency, and service failures. Some of health care managers' most critical work involves designing and structuring their organizations so their missions, visions, and goals can be achieved-and in some cases so their organizations can survive. Thus, it is imperative that graduate healthcare management programs develop effective approaches for teaching OT to students who will manage HCOs. Guided by principles of education, three applied teaching/learning activities/assignments were created to teach OT in a graduate healthcare management program. These educationalmethods develop students' competency with OT applied to HCOs. The teaching techniques in this article may be useful to faculty teaching graduate courses in organization theory and related subjects such as leadership, quality, and operation management.

  19. Six Sigma methods applied to cryogenic coolers assembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventre, Jean-Marc; Germain-Lacour, Michel; Martin, Jean-Yves; Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Benschop, Tonny; Griot, René

    2009-05-01

    Six Sigma method have been applied to manufacturing process of a rotary Stirling cooler: RM2. Name of the project is NoVa as main goal of the Six Sigma approach is to reduce variability (No Variability). Project has been based on the DMAIC guideline following five stages: Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control. Objective has been set on the rate of coolers succeeding performance at first attempt with a goal value of 95%. A team has been gathered involving people and skills acting on the RM2 manufacturing line. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) has been applied to test bench and results after R&R gage show that measurement is one of the root cause for variability in RM2 process. Two more root causes have been identified by the team after process mapping analysis: regenerator filling factor and cleaning procedure. Causes for measurement variability have been identified and eradicated as shown by new results from R&R gage. Experimental results show that regenerator filling factor impacts process variability and affects yield. Improved process haven been set after new calibration process for test bench, new filling procedure for regenerator and an additional cleaning stage have been implemented. The objective for 95% coolers succeeding performance test at first attempt has been reached and kept for a significant period. RM2 manufacturing process is now managed according to Statistical Process Control based on control charts. Improvement in process capability have enabled introduction of sample testing procedure before delivery.

  20. Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho, E-mail: kellyfisica@gmail.co, E-mail: fernando.lameiras@pq.cnpq.b, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail: flmigliorini@hotmail.co, E-mail: lucsc@hotmail.co, E-mail: egonn@ufmg.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO{sub 2} that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO{sub 2} samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO{sub 2} samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of

  1. Applying systems ergonomics methods in sport: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Plant, Katherine L; Read, Gemma J M; Mclean, Scott; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M

    2018-04-16

    As sports systems become increasingly more complex, competitive, and technology-centric, there is a greater need for systems ergonomics methods to consider the performance, health, and safety of athletes in context with the wider settings in which they operate. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate studies which have applied a systems ergonomics research approach in the context of sports performance and injury management. Five databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) were searched for the dates 01 January 1990 to 01 August 2017, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers. Reported analyses were underpinned by a recognised systems ergonomics method, and study aims were related to the optimisation of sports performance (e.g. communication, playing style, technique, tactics, or equipment), and/or the management of sports injury (i.e. identification, prevention, or treatment). A total of seven articles were identified. Two articles were focussed on understanding and optimising sports performance, whereas five examined sports injury management. The methods used were the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork, Cognitive Work Analysis (the Work Domain Analysis Abstraction Hierarchy), Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, and the Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Processes method. The individual sport application was distance running, whereas the team sports contexts examined were cycling, football, Australian Football League, and rugby union. The included systems ergonomics applications were highly flexible, covering both amateur and elite sports contexts. The studies were rated as valuable, providing descriptions of injury controls and causation, the factors influencing injury management, the allocation of responsibilities for injury prevention, as well as the factors and their interactions underpinning sports performance. Implications and future

  2. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  3. Influenza surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bednarska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres - national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country.

  4. Flood Hazard Mapping by Applying Fuzzy TOPSIS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K. Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Keum, H.; Kim, B. J.; Kim, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    There are lots of technical methods to integrate various factors for flood hazard mapping. The purpose of this study is to suggest the methodology of integrated flood hazard mapping using MCDM(Multi Criteria Decision Making). MCDM problems involve a set of alternatives that are evaluated on the basis of conflicting and incommensurate criteria. In this study, to apply MCDM to assessing flood risk, maximum flood depth, maximum velocity, and maximum travel time are considered as criterion, and each applied elements are considered as alternatives. The scheme to find the efficient alternative closest to a ideal value is appropriate way to assess flood risk of a lot of element units(alternatives) based on various flood indices. Therefore, TOPSIS which is most commonly used MCDM scheme is adopted to create flood hazard map. The indices for flood hazard mapping(maximum flood depth, maximum velocity, and maximum travel time) have uncertainty concerning simulation results due to various values according to flood scenario and topographical condition. These kind of ambiguity of indices can cause uncertainty of flood hazard map. To consider ambiguity and uncertainty of criterion, fuzzy logic is introduced which is able to handle ambiguous expression. In this paper, we made Flood Hazard Map according to levee breach overflow using the Fuzzy TOPSIS Technique. We confirmed the areas where the highest grade of hazard was recorded through the drawn-up integrated flood hazard map, and then produced flood hazard map can be compared them with those indicated in the existing flood risk maps. Also, we expect that if we can apply the flood hazard map methodology suggested in this paper even to manufacturing the current flood risk maps, we will be able to make a new flood hazard map to even consider the priorities for hazard areas, including more varied and important information than ever before. Keywords : Flood hazard map; levee break analysis; 2D analysis; MCDM; Fuzzy TOPSIS

  5. Applying sociodramatic methods in teaching transition to palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baile, Walter F; Walters, Rebecca

    2013-03-01

    We introduce the technique of sociodrama, describe its key components, and illustrate how this simulation method was applied in a workshop format to address the challenge of discussing transition to palliative care. We describe how warm-up exercises prepared 15 learners who provide direct clinical care to patients with cancer for a dramatic portrayal of this dilemma. We then show how small-group brainstorming led to the creation of a challenging scenario wherein highly optimistic family members of a 20-year-old young man with terminal acute lymphocytic leukemia responded to information about the lack of further anticancer treatment with anger and blame toward the staff. We illustrate how the facilitators, using sociodramatic techniques of doubling and role reversal, helped learners to understand and articulate the hidden feelings of fear and loss behind the family's emotional reactions. By modeling effective communication skills, the facilitators demonstrated how key communication skills, such as empathic responses to anger and blame and using "wish" statements, could transform the conversation from one of conflict to one of problem solving with the family. We also describe how we set up practice dyads to give the learners an opportunity to try out new skills with each other. An evaluation of the workshop and similar workshops we conducted is presented. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Surveillance of compliance with tobacco regulations in Örebro County, Sweden: a mixed methods study after the ban of test purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölin, Lisa; Eriksson, Charli

    2012-02-15

    Tobacco has long been known to be one of the most common reasons for sickness and premature deaths in the world. An important aspect of tobacco use is the youth's access to tobacco, and surveillance visits are one way to make sure how retailers are complying with age limit in the tobacco law. In Örebro County, Sweden, a project to reinforce the tobacco legislation was carried out in 2009-2010. One part of the project was surveillance visits that were done according to three different themes, called thematic surveillance. This study is an evaluation of the results from thematic surveillance and has a mixed methods approach. The quantitative analyses concerns protocols from 217 surveillance visits, where questions were asked about three themes (self-monitoring programs; marketing; labeling of products and pricing). In addition, questionnaires filled out by six tobacco administrators who worked within the project were analyzed qualitatively by content analysis in order to study their perceptions and opinions of the project. This study shows that half of the visited retailers had self-monitoring programs. Lack of self-monitoring programs was significantly more common in smaller stores/kiosks and at restaurants. Further, the tobacco administrators who worked within the project perceived thematic surveillance as a good method for accomplishing better structure in surveillance work, but not as effective as purchase attempts (mystery shopping). Thematic surveillance was perceived as positive and the method was also regarded to be a good way to work with surveillance. However, the method could be developed further for optimal use and better effect at the retailers. It is clear that people who work with tobacco prevention at the local level in Örebro County want to use purchase attempts as a surveillance method, and that they believe that purchase attempts is the best way to make sure if store comply with the tobacco law.

  7. Practical, cost-effective method for real-time surveillance of widely-separated remote sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braley, R.E.; Olson, A.W.; Rufer, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    Effective intrusion protection for uninhabited sites scattered widely throughout a large geographic area can be a difficult and expensive proposition. When the sites are important enough to require continuous surveillance, the problem is even worse. Roving patrols are not effective, and conventional alarms don't provide enough information to allow a meaningful response. Television systems have possibilities but also disadvantages: the usual system is both costly and inflexible. This paper describes our solution to the problem: a cost effective instrusion protection system used to simultaneously protect many sites scattered over many square miles, with realtime surveillance from a central point. The system is based on a state-of-the-art FM CATV concept that is capable of providing surveillance for multiple sites, is modular in design for quick setup, flexible, and easily maintained. A electronic motion detector is incorporated for each site under surveillance, with a visual and audible alarm to alert the observer at the central control console. The observer can then bring the intruded site up on a large-screen monitor for detailed assessment. The system is relatively economical as all equipment is commercially available and all installation is straight-forward and follows usual CATV construction practices

  8. Applying multi-resolution numerical methods to geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, David Rhodri

    Computational models yield inaccurate results if the underlying numerical grid fails to provide the necessary resolution to capture a simulation's important features. For the large-scale problems regularly encountered in geodynamics, inadequate grid resolution is a major concern. The majority of models involve multi-scale dynamics, being characterized by fine-scale upwelling and downwelling activity in a more passive, large-scale background flow. Such configurations, when coupled to the complex geometries involved, present a serious challenge for computational methods. Current techniques are unable to resolve localized features and, hence, such models cannot be solved efficiently. This thesis demonstrates, through a series of papers and closely-coupled appendices, how multi-resolution finite-element methods from the forefront of computational engineering can provide a means to address these issues. The problems examined achieve multi-resolution through one of two methods. In two-dimensions (2-D), automatic, unstructured mesh refinement procedures are utilized. Such methods improve the solution quality of convection dominated problems by adapting the grid automatically around regions of high solution gradient, yielding enhanced resolution of the associated flow features. Thermal and thermo-chemical validation tests illustrate that the technique is robust and highly successful, improving solution accuracy whilst increasing computational efficiency. These points are reinforced when the technique is applied to geophysical simulations of mid-ocean ridge and subduction zone magmatism. To date, successful goal-orientated/error-guided grid adaptation techniques have not been utilized within the field of geodynamics. The work included herein is therefore the first geodynamical application of such methods. In view of the existing three-dimensional (3-D) spherical mantle dynamics codes, which are built upon a quasi-uniform discretization of the sphere and closely coupled

  9. Analytic methods in applied probability in memory of Fridrikh Karpelevich

    CERN Document Server

    Suhov, Yu M

    2002-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to F. I. Karpelevich, an outstanding Russian mathematician who made important contributions to applied probability theory. The book contains original papers focusing on several areas of applied probability and its uses in modern industrial processes, telecommunications, computing, mathematical economics, and finance. It opens with a review of Karpelevich's contributions to applied probability theory and includes a bibliography of his works. Other articles discuss queueing network theory, in particular, in heavy traffic approximation (fluid models). The book is suitable

  10. Reactor calculation in coarse mesh by finite element method applied to matrix response method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1982-01-01

    The finite element method is applied to the solution of the modified formulation of the matrix-response method aiming to do reactor calculations in coarse mesh. Good results are obtained with a short running time. The method is applicable to problems where the heterogeneity is predominant and to problems of evolution in coarse meshes where the burnup is variable in one same coarse mesh, making the cross section vary spatially with the evolution. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Utilizing harmonization and common surveillance methods to consolidate 4 cohorts: the Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health (WATCH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn R. Koller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to health status reports, chronic disease prevalence appears to be rising in western Alaska Native (AN people, and accurate population-based data are needed. Four cohort studies of western AN people were conducted in the Norton Sound and Yukon-Kuskokwim regions, but none have been large enough to allow reliable estimates of rates of chronic diseases and evaluate their risk factors. Objective. In this article, the methods used to combine 4 major cohort studies of rural western AN people are described and the benefits and challenges encountered in combining data and standardizing surveillance methods for these studies are discussed. Design. Tribal permission was obtained for each cohort study and the consolidated study. Data from baseline exams were directly combined or harmonized into new variables. Common surveillance methods were developed and implemented to identify incidence and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD events and type 2 diabetes. Results. A cohort of 4,569 western AN participants (2,116 men and 2,453 women, aged 18–95 years, was established to study CVD and diabetes prevalence. Prospective surveillance data over an average 6.7-year follow-up can now be used to study CVD and diabetes incidence and associated risk factors in a subset of 2,754 western AN participants (1,218 men and 1,536 women who consented to initial surveillance. Conclusions. The combined cohort provides statistical power to examine incidence rates and risk factors for CVD and diabetes and allows for analyses by geographic region. The data can be used to develop intervention programmes in these populations and others.

  12. Using Routinely Collected Hospital Data for Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Issues, Methods and Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Debbie A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International data on child maltreatment are largely derived from child protection agencies, and predominantly report only substantiated cases of child maltreatment. This approach underestimates the incidence of maltreatment and makes inter-jurisdictional comparisons difficult. There has been a growing recognition of the importance of health professionals in identifying, documenting and reporting suspected child maltreatment. This study aimed to describe the issues around case identification using coded morbidity data, outline methods for selecting and grouping relevant codes, and illustrate patterns of maltreatment identified. Methods A comprehensive review of the ICD-10-AM classification system was undertaken, including review of index terms, a free text search of tabular volumes, and a review of coding standards pertaining to child maltreatment coding. Identified codes were further categorised into maltreatment types including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, and neglect. Using these code groupings, one year of Australian hospitalisation data for children under 18 years of age was examined to quantify the proportion of patients identified and to explore the characteristics of cases assigned maltreatment-related codes. Results Less than 0.5% of children hospitalised in Australia between 2005 and 2006 had a maltreatment code assigned, almost 4% of children with a principal diagnosis of a mental and behavioural disorder and over 1% of children with an injury or poisoning as the principal diagnosis had a maltreatment code assigned. The patterns of children assigned with definitive T74 codes varied by sex and age group. For males selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, physical abuse was most commonly coded (62.6% of maltreatment cases while for females selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, sexual abuse was the most commonly assigned form of maltreatment (52.9% of

  13. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  14. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  15. Valuing national effects of digital health investments: an applied method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagens, Simon; Zelmer, Jennifer; Frazer, Cassandra; Gheorghiu, Bobby; Leaver, Chad

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach which has been applied to value national outcomes of investments by federal, provincial and territorial governments, clinicians and healthcare organizations in digital health. Hypotheses are used to develop a model, which is revised and populated based upon the available evidence. Quantitative national estimates and qualitative findings are produced and validated through structured peer review processes. This methodology has applied in four studies since 2008.

  16. POSSIBILITIES OF IMPROVING THE METHODS AND TECHNIQUES USED IN THE SURVEILLANCE OF CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogh Peter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Through their daily activities, credit institutions are subject to various risks which could affect both the bank and the whole banking system, national and transnational. The activity field of the banks, marked by volatility, by the internationalization and liberalization of the financial markets, is in a continuous change. The contagion effect, as it has been proved by the spread of the financial crisis effects, determines the surveillance authorities to pay increased attention to the financial risks and implicitly to the systemic risk. In this study, to start with, there shall be presented some aspects regarding the banking rating systems used by the surveillance authorities and then some ways of improving the models of managing credit risk in banks. In the end, there will be demonstrated that the risk profile of the banking institution has a determining role in the management of the credit portfolio.

  17. Surveillance in a Telemedicine Setting: Application of Epidemiologic Methods at NASA Johnson Space Center Adriana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Ruffaner, Lanie; Wear, Mary; Crucian Brian; Sams, Clarence; Lee, Lesley R.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Space medicine presents unique challenges and opportunities for epidemiologists, such as the use of telemedicine during spaceflight. Medical capabilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are limited due to severe restrictions on power, volume, and mass. Consequently, inflight health information is based heavily on crewmember (CM) self-report of signs and symptoms, rather than formal diagnoses. While CM's are in flight, the primary source of crew health information is verbal communication between physicians and crewmembers. In 2010 NASA implemented the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, an occupational surveillance program for the U.S. Astronaut corps. This has shifted the epidemiological paradigm from tracking diagnoses based on traditional terrestrial clinical practice to one that incorporates symptomatology and may gain a more population-based understanding of early detection of disease process.

  18. Application of advanced irradiation analysis methods to light water reactor pressure vessel test and surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, R.; Dudey, N.; McElroy, W.; Wullaert, R.; Fabry, A.

    1977-01-01

    Inaccurate characterization and inappropriate application of neutron irradiation exposure variables contribute a substantial amount of uncertainty to embrittlement analysis of light water reactor pressure vessels. Damage analysis involves characterization of the irradiation environment (dosimetry), correlation of test and surveillance metallurgical and dosimetry data, and projection of such data to service conditions. Errors in available test and surveillance dosimetry data are estimated to contribute a factor of approximately 2 to the data scatter. Non-physical (empirical) correlation procedures and the need to extrapolate to the vessel may add further error. Substantial reductions in these uncertainties in future programs can be obtained from a more complete application of available damage analysis tools which have been developed for the fast reactor program. An approach to reducing embrittlement analysis errors is described, and specific examples of potential applications are given. The approach is based on damage analysis techniques validated and calibrated in benchmark environments

  19. Dose rate reduction method for NMCA applied BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Aizawa, Motohiro; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Varela, Juan; Caine, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    BRAC (BWR Radiation Assessment and Control) dose rate is used as an indicator of the incorporation of activated corrosion by products into BWR recirculation piping, which is known to be a significant contributor to dose rate received by workers during refueling outages. In order to reduce radiation exposure of the workers during the outage, it is desirable to keep BRAC dose rates as low as possible. After HWC was adopted to reduce IGSCC, a BRAC dose rate increase was observed in many plants. As a countermeasure to these rapid dose rate increases under HWC conditions, Zn injection was widely adopted in United States and Europe resulting in a reduction of BRAC dose rates. However, BRAC dose rates in several plants remain high, prompting the industry to continue to investigate methods to achieve further reductions. In recent years a large portion of the BWR fleet has adopted NMCA (NobleChem TM ) to enhance the hydrogen injection effect to suppress SCC. After NMCA, especially OLNC (On-Line NobleChem TM ), BRAC dose rates were observed to decrease. In some OLNC applied BWR plants this reduction was observed year after year to reach a new reduced equilibrium level. This dose rate reduction trends suggest the potential dose reduction might be obtained by the combination of Pt and Zn injection. So, laboratory experiments and in-plant tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of Pt and Zn on Co-60 deposition behaviour. Firstly, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of noble metal deposition on Co deposition on stainless steel surfaces. Polished type 316 stainless steel coupons were prepared and some of them were OLNC treated in the test loop before the Co deposition test. Water chemistry conditions to simulate HWC were as follows: Dissolved oxygen, hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide were below 5 ppb, 100 ppb and 0 ppb (no addition), respectively. Zn was injected to target a concentration of 5 ppb. The test was conducted up to 1500 hours at 553 K. Test

  20. Development and refinement of new statistical methods for enhanced syndromic surveillance during the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbey, Roger A; Elliot, Alex J; Charlett, Andre; Andrews, Nick; Verlander, Neville Q; Ibbotson, Sue; Smith, Gillian E

    2015-06-01

    Prior to the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games, new statistical methods had to be developed for the enhanced syndromic surveillance during the Games. Different methods were developed depending on whether or not historical data were available. Practical solutions were needed to cope with the required daily reporting and data quality issues. During the Games, nearly 4800 signals were tested on average each day, generating statistical alarms that were assessed to provide information on areas of potential public health concern and reassurance that no major adverse incident had occurred. spjhi;21/2/159/FIG41460458213517577 F1 fig4-1460458213517577. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. The World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance: Methods, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Leanne; Guthold, Regina; Cowan, Melanie; Savin, Stefan; Bhatti, Lubna; Armstrong, Timothy; Bonita, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We sought to outline the framework and methods used by the World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise approach to noncommunicable disease (NCD) surveillance (STEPS), describe the development and current status, and discuss strengths, limitations, and future directions of STEPS surveillance. STEPS is a WHO-developed, standardized but flexible framework for countries to monitor the main NCD risk factors through questionnaire assessment and physical and biochemical measurements. It is coordinated by national authorities of the implementing country. The STEPS surveys are generally household-based and interviewer-administered, with scientifically selected samples of around 5000 participants. To date, 122 countries across all 6 WHO regions have completed data collection for STEPS or STEPS-aligned surveys. STEPS data are being used to inform NCD policies and track risk-factor trends. Future priorities include strengthening these linkages from data to action on NCDs at the country level, and continuing to develop STEPS' capacities to enable a regular and continuous cycle of risk-factor surveillance worldwide.

  2. Using short-message-service notification as a method to improve acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Sankar Datta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High quality acute flaccid paralysis (AFP surveillance is required to maintain polio-free status of a country. Papua New Guinea (PNG is considered as one of the highest risk countries for polio re-importation and circulation in the Western Pacific Region (WPRO of the World Health Organization due to poor healthcare infrastructure and inadequate performance in AFP surveillance. The Government of PNG, in collaboration with WHO, piloted the introduction of short-message-service (SMS to sensitize pediatricians and provincial disease control officers on AFP and to receive notification of possible AFP cases to improve surveillance quality in PNG. Methods Ninety six health care professionals were registered to receive SMS reminders to report any case of acute flaccid paralysis. Fourteen SMS messages were sent to each participant from September 2012 to November 2013. The number of reported AFP cases were compared before and after the introduction of SMS. Results Two hundred fifty three unique responses were received with an overall response rate of 21 %. More than 80 % of responses were reported within 3 days of sending the SMS. The number of reported AFP cases increased from 10 cases per year in 2009–2012 to 25 cases per year during the study period and correlated with provincial participation of the health care professionals. Conclusions Combined with improved sensitization of health care professionals on AFP reporting criteria and sample collection, SMS messaging provides an effective means to increase timely reporting and improve the availability of epidemiologic information on polio surveillance in PNG.

  3. Reliability demonstration of imaging surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.F.; Henderson, J.T.; MacDiarmid, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Security surveillance systems which employ closed circuit television are being deployed with increasing frequency for the protection of property and other valuable assets. A need exists to demonstrate the reliability of such systems before their installation to assure that the deployed systems will operate when needed with only the scheduled amount of maintenance and support costs. An approach to the reliability demonstration of imaging surveillance systems which employ closed circuit television is described. Failure definitions based on industry television standards and imaging alarm assessment criteria for surveillance systems are discussed. Test methods which allow 24 hour a day operation without the need for numerous test scenarios, test personnel and elaborate test facilities are presented. Existing reliability demonstration standards are shown to apply which obviate the need for elaborate statistical tests. The demonstration methods employed are shown to have applications in other types of imaging surveillance systems besides closed circuit television

  4. The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several different methods have been used to sense load currents and extract its ... in order to produce a reference current in shunt active power filters (SAPF), and ... technique compared to other similar methods are found quite satisfactory by ...

  5. Muon radiography method for fundamental and applied research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A. B.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Galkin, V. I.; Goncharova, L. A.; Grachev, V. M.; Vasina, S. G.; Konovalova, N. S.; Malovichko, A. A.; Managadze, A. K.; Okat'eva, N. M.; Polukhina, N. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Shchedrina, T. V.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the basic principles of the muon radiography method, reviews the major muon radiography experiments, and presents the first results in Russia obtained by the authors using this method based on emulsion track detectors.

  6. Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Markiewicz

    2013-01-01

    One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The method was c...

  7. Classical and modular methods applied to Diophantine equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahmen, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Deep methods from the theory of elliptic curves and modular forms have been used to prove Fermat's last theorem and solve other Diophantine equations. These so-called modular methods can often benefit from information obtained by other, classical, methods from number theory; and vice versa. In our

  8. The pseudo-harmonics method applied to depletion calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C. da; Amaral, J.A.C.; Thome, Z.D.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for performing depletion calculations, based on the use of the Pseudo-Harmonics perturbation method, was developed. The fuel burnup was considered as a global perturbation and the multigroup difusion equations were rewriten in such a way as to treat the soluble boron concentration as the eigenvalue. By doing this, the critical boron concentration can be obtained by a perturbation method. A test of the new method was performed for a H 2 O-colled, D 2 O-moderated reactor. Comparison with direct calculation showed that this method is very accurate and efficient. (author) [pt

  9. Methodology implementation in order to evaluate the biological risks in the Centre for Research and Rehabilitation of Hereditary Ataxias of Cuba: a biosecurity surveillance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailín Cobos Valdes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Center for Research and Rehabilitation of Hereditary Ataxias faces biological risks. Nevertheless a Biosafety system was not yet implemented. Objective: To apply the methodology in order to evaluate these risks Materials and Methods: Interview with the researchers of the center and the use of the methodology for evaluating biological risks designed for Cobos, 2009. Results: Fifty-three biological risks were identified and evaluated, 32 as moderated, 18 as tolerable and 3 as trivial. Such classification are crucial to establish its management priorities and represent a way of surveillance in Biosafety field. Conclusion: The results of this research represent an essential factor for the Biosafety documentation development adapted to the Center and according to the legal basis in terms of biological safety in Cuba.

  10. Waste classification and methods applied to specific disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1979-01-01

    An adequate definition of the classes of radioactive wastes is necessary to regulating the disposal of radioactive wastes. A classification system is proposed in which wastes are classified according to characteristics relating to their disposal. Several specific sites are analyzed with the methodology in order to gain insights into the classification of radioactive wastes. Also presented is the analysis of ocean dumping as it applies to waste classification. 5 refs

  11. Potential Misclassification of Urinary Tract-Related Bacteremia Upon Applying the 2015 Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance Definition From the National Healthcare Safety Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Meddings, Jennifer; Fakih, Mohamad G; Saint, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection to include only urine culture bacteria of at least 1 × 10(5) colony-forming units/mL. Our findings suggest that the new surveillance definition may fail to capture clinically meaningful catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

  12. nuclear and atomic methods applied in the determination of some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NAA is a quantitative and qualitative method for the precise determination of a number of major, minor and trace elements in different types of geological, environmental and biological samples. It is based on nuclear reaction between neutron and target nuclei of a sample material. It is a useful method for the simultaneous.

  13. Instructions for applying inverse method for reactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    1988-11-01

    This report is a brief description of the completed method for reactivity measurement. It contains description of the experimental procedure needed instrumentation and computer code IM for determining reactivity. The objective of this instructions manual is to enable experiments and reactivity measurement on any critical system according to the methods adopted at the RB reactor

  14. The spectral volume method as applied to transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClarren, Ryan G.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new spatial discretization for transport problems: the spectral volume method. This method, rst developed by Wang for computational fluid dynamics, divides each computational cell into several sub-cells and enforces particle balance on each of these sub-cells. Also, these sub-cells are used to build a polynomial reconstruction in the cell. The idea of dividing cells into many cells is a generalization of the simple corner balance and other similar schemes. The spectral volume method preserves particle conservation and preserves the asymptotic diffusion limit. We present results from the method on two transport problems in slab geometry using discrete ordinates and second through sixth order spectral volume schemes. The numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and preservation of the diffusion limit of the spectral volume method. Future work will explore possible bene ts of the scheme for high-performance computing and for resolving diffusive boundary layers. (author)

  15. Literature Review of Applying Visual Method to Understand Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new method to understand mathematics, visualization offers a new way of understanding mathematical principles and phenomena via image thinking and geometric explanation. It aims to deepen the understanding of the nature of concepts or phenomena and enhance the cognitive ability of learners. This paper collates and summarizes the application of this visual method in the understanding of mathematics. It also makes a literature review of the existing research, especially with a visual demonstration of Euler’s formula, introduces the application of this method in solving relevant mathematical problems, and points out the differences and similarities between the visualization method and the numerical-graphic combination method, as well as matters needing attention for its application.

  16. Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Markiewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC. The method was created as a result of implementing the project “Measuring performance in the Organization of the future” of 1990, completed by a team under the supervision of David Norton (Kaplan, Norton 2002. The developed method was used first of all to evaluate performance by decomposition of a strategy into four perspectives and identification of measures of achievement. In the middle of 1990s the method was improved by enriching it, first of all, with a strategy map, in which the process of transition of intangible assets into tangible financial effects is reflected (Kaplan, Norton 2001. Strategy map enables illustration of cause and effect relationship between processes in all four perspectives and performance indicators at the level of organization. The purpose of the study being prepared is to present methodical conditions of using strategy maps in the strategy implementation process in organizations of different nature.

  17. Applying a life cycle approach to project management methods

    OpenAIRE

    Biggins, David; Trollsund, F.; Høiby, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Project management is increasingly important to organisations because projects are the method\\ud by which organisations respond to their environment. A key element within project management\\ud is the standards and methods that are used to control and conduct projects, collectively known as\\ud project management methods (PMMs) and exemplified by PRINCE2, the Project Management\\ud Institute’s and the Association for Project Management’s Bodies of Knowledge (PMBOK and\\ud APMBOK. The purpose of t...

  18. Method for curing alkyd resin compositions by applying ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Murata, K.; Maruyama, T.

    1975-01-01

    An alkyd resin composition is prepared by dissolving a polymerizable alkyd resin having from 10 to 50 percent of oil length into a vinyl monomer. The polymerizable alkyd resin is obtained by a half-esterification reaction of an acid anhydride having a polymerizable unsaturated group and an alkyd resin modified with conjugated unsaturated oil having at least one reactive hydroxyl group per one molecule. The alkyd resin composition thus obtained is coated on an article, and ionizing radiation is applied on the article to cure the coated film thereon. (U.S.)

  19. The integral equation method applied to eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddlecombe, C.S.; Collie, C.J.; Simkin, J.; Trowbridge, C.W.

    1976-04-01

    An algorithm for the numerical solution of eddy current problems is described, based on the direct solution of the integral equation for the potentials. In this method only the conducting and iron regions need to be divided into elements, and there are no boundary conditions. Results from two computer programs using this method for iron free problems for various two-dimensional geometries are presented and compared with analytic solutions. (author)

  20. The role of indium-111 antimyosin (Fab) imaging as a noninvasive surveillance method of human heart transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nardo, D.; Scibilia, G.; Macchiarelli, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The identification of rejection after heart transplantation in patients receiving cyclosporine immunosuppressive therapy requires the endomyocardial biopsy, an invasive method associated with a finite morbidity. To evaluate the role of indium-111 antimyosin (Fab) scintigraphy as a noninvasive surveillance method of heart transplant rejection, the Fab fragment of murine monoclonal antimyosin antibodies labeled with indium-111 was administered intravenously in 30 scintigraphic studies to 10 consecutive heart transplant recipients. Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained 72 hours after each scintigraphic study. Nineteen scintigraphic studies had negative findings; no false negative finding was obtained. Eleven antimyosin scintigraphic studies had positive findings, and in these studies endomyocardial biopsy revealed mild rejection in two cases, moderate acute rejection with myocyte necrosis in two cases, myocyte necrosis as a consequence of ischemic injury in six cases, and possibly cytotoxic damage in one case. Antimyosin scintigraphy may represent a reliable screening method for the surveillance of heart transplant patients. In the presence of a negative finding from antimyosin scintigraphy, it may be possible to avoid endomyocardial biopsy. Conversely, in patients who have a positive finding from antimyosin scintigraphy, the endomyocardial biopsy is mandatory to establish the definitive diagnosis by histologic examination of the myocardium

  1. Apply of torque method at rationalization of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandurová Miriam

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to analyse consumption of time for profession - cylinder grinder, by torque method.Method of torque following is used for detection of sorts and size of time slope, on detection of portion of individual sorts of time consumption and cause of time slope. By this way it is possible to find out coefficient of employment and recovery of workers in organizational unit. Advantage of torque survey is low costs on informations acquirement, non-fastidiousness per worker and observer, which is easy trained. It is mentally acceptable method for objects of survey.Finding and detection of reserves in activity of cylinders grinder result of torque was surveys. Loss of time presents till 8% of working time. In 5 - shift service and average occupiying of shift by 4,4 grinder ( from statistic information of service , loss at grinder of cylinders are for whole centre 1,48 worker.According presented information it was recommended to cancel one job place - grinder of cylinders - and reduce state about one grinder. Next job place isn't possible cancel, because grindery of cylinders must to adapt to the grind line by number of polished cylinders in shift and semi - finishing of polished cylinders can not be high for often changes in area of grinding and sortiment changes.By this contribution we confirmed convenience of exploitation of torque method as one of the methods using during the job rationalization.

  2. Thermoluminescence as a dating method applied to the Morocco Neolithic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ousmoi, M.

    1989-09-01

    Thermoluminescence is an absolute dating method which is well adapted to the study of burnt clays and so of the prehistoric ceramics belonging to the Neolithic period. The purpose of this study is to establish a first absolute chronology of the septentrional morocco Neolithic between 3000 and 7000 years before us and some improvements of the TL dating. The first part of the thesis contains some hypothesis about the morocco Neolithic and some problems to solve. Then we study the TL dating method along with new process to ameliorate the quality of the results like the shift of quartz TL peaks or the crushing of samples. The methods which were employed using 24 samples belonging to various civilisations are: the quartz inclusion method and the fine grain technique. For the dosimetry, several methods were used: determination of the K 2 O contents, alpha counting, site dosimetry using TL dosimeters and a scintillation counter. The results which were found bring some interesting answers to the archeologic question and ameliorate the chronologic schema of the Northern morocco Neolithic: development of the old cardial Neolithic in the North, and perhaps in the center of Morocco (the region of Rabat), between 5500 and 7000 before us. Development of the recent middle Neolithic around 4000-5000 before us, with a protocampaniforme (Skhirat), little older than the campaniforme recognized in the south of Spain. Development of the bronze age around 2000-4000 before us [fr

  3. Modal method for crack identification applied to reactor recirculation pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.; Brook, R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have been operating and producing useful electricity for many years. Within the last few years, several plants have found cracks in the reactor coolant pump shaft near the thermal barrier. The modal method and results described herein show the analytical results of using a Modal Analysis test method to determine the presence, size, and location of a shaft crack. The authors have previously demonstrated that the test method can analytically and experimentally identify shaft cracks as small as five percent (5%) of the shaft diameter. Due to small differences in material property distribution, the attempt to identify cracks smaller than 3% of the shaft diameter has been shown to be impractical. The rotor dynamics model includes a detailed motor rotor, external weights and inertias, and realistic total support stiffness. Results of the rotor dynamics model have been verified through a comparison with on-site vibration test data

  4. Boron autoradiography method applied to the study of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugelmeier, R.; Barcelo, G.N.; Boado, J.H.; Fernandez, C.

    1986-01-01

    The boron state, contained in the steel microestructure, is determined. The autoradiography by neutrons is used, permiting to obtain boron distribution images by means of additional information which is difficult to acquire by other methods. The application of the method is described, based on the neutronic irradiation of a polished steel sample, over which a celulose nitrate sheet or other appropriate material is fixed to constitute the detector. The particles generated by the neutron-boron interaction affect the detector sheet, which is subsequently revealed with a chemical treatment and can be observed at the optical microscope. In the case of materials used for the construction of nuclear reactors, special attention must be given to the presence of boron, since owing to the exceptionaly high capacity of neutron absorption, lowest quantities of boron acquire importance. The adaption of the method to metallurgical problems allows the obtainment of a correlation between the boron distribution images and the material's microstructure. (M.E.L.) [es

  5. Nonstandard Finite Difference Method Applied to a Linear Pharmacokinetics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Egbelowo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We extend the nonstandard finite difference method of solution to the study of pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic models. Pharmacokinetic (PK models are commonly used to predict drug concentrations that drive controlled intravenous (I.V. transfers (or infusion and oral transfers while pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PD interaction models are used to provide predictions of drug concentrations affecting the response of these clinical drugs. We structure a nonstandard finite difference (NSFD scheme for the relevant system of equations which models this pharamcokinetic process. We compare the results obtained to standard methods. The scheme is dynamically consistent and reliable in replicating complex dynamic properties of the relevant continuous models for varying step sizes. This study provides assistance in understanding the long-term behavior of the drug in the system, and validation of the efficiency of the nonstandard finite difference scheme as the method of choice.

  6. Applying Nyquist's method for stability determination to solar wind observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kristopher G.; Kasper, Justin C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, Michael L.

    2017-10-01

    The role instabilities play in governing the evolution of solar and astrophysical plasmas is a matter of considerable scientific interest. The large number of sources of free energy accessible to such nearly collisionless plasmas makes general modeling of unstable behavior, accounting for the temperatures, densities, anisotropies, and relative drifts of a large number of populations, analytically difficult. We therefore seek a general method of stability determination that may be automated for future analysis of solar wind observations. This work describes an efficient application of the Nyquist instability method to the Vlasov dispersion relation appropriate for hot, collisionless, magnetized plasmas, including the solar wind. The algorithm recovers the familiar proton temperature anisotropy instabilities, as well as instabilities that had been previously identified using fits extracted from in situ observations in Gary et al. (2016). Future proposed applications of this method are discussed.

  7. Efficient electronic structure methods applied to metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth

    of efficient approaches to density functional theory and the application of these methods to metal nanoparticles. We describe the formalism and implementation of localized atom-centered basis sets within the projector augmented wave method. Basis sets allow for a dramatic increase in performance compared....... The basis set method is used to study the electronic effects for the contiguous range of clusters up to several hundred atoms. The s-electrons hybridize to form electronic shells consistent with the jellium model, leading to electronic magic numbers for clusters with full shells. Large electronic gaps...... and jumps in Fermi level near magic numbers can lead to alkali-like or halogen-like behaviour when main-group atoms adsorb onto gold clusters. A non-self-consistent NewnsAnderson model is used to more closely study the chemisorption of main-group atoms on magic-number Au clusters. The behaviour at magic...

  8. Variance reduction methods applied to deep-penetration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    All deep-penetration Monte Carlo calculations require variance reduction methods. Before beginning with a detailed approach to these methods, several general comments concerning deep-penetration calculations by Monte Carlo, the associated variance reduction, and the similarities and differences of these with regard to non-deep-penetration problems will be addressed. The experienced practitioner of Monte Carlo methods will easily find exceptions to any of these generalities, but it is felt that these comments will aid the novice in understanding some of the basic ideas and nomenclature. Also, from a practical point of view, the discussions and developments presented are oriented toward use of the computer codes which are presented in segments of this Monte Carlo course

  9. Non-perturbative methods applied to multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.

    1982-09-01

    The use of non-perturbative methods in the treatment of atomic ionization is discussed. Particular attention is given to schemes of the type proposed by Keldysh where multiphoton ionization and tunnel auto-ionization occur for high intensity fields. These methods are shown to correspond to a certain type of expansion of the T-matrix in the intra-atomic potential; in this manner a criterium concerning the range of application of these non-perturbative schemes is suggested. A brief comparison between the ionization rate of atoms in the presence of linearly and circularly polarized light is presented. (Author) [pt

  10. On second quantization methods applied to classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos Neto, A.; Vianna, J.D.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of expressing statistical classical results in terms of mathematical entities usually associated to quantum field theoretical treatment of many particle systems (Fock space, commutators, field operators, state vector) is discussed. It is developed a linear response theory using the 'second quantized' Liouville equation introduced by Schonberg. The relationship of this method to that of Prigogine et al. is briefly analyzed. The chain of equations and the spectral representations for the new classical Green's functions are presented. Generalized operators defined on Fock space are discussed. It is shown that the correlation functions can be obtained from Green's functions defined with generalized operators. (Author) [pt

  11. Review of PCMS and heat transfer enhancement methods applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most available PCMs have low thermal conductivity making heat transfer enhancement necessary for power applications. The various methods of heat transfer enhancement in latent heat storage systems were also reviewed systematically. The review showed that three commercially - available PCMs are suitable in the ...

  12. E-LEARNING METHOD APPLIED TO TECHNICAL GRAPHICS SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOANTA Adrian Mihai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some of the author’s endeavors in creating video courses for the students from the Faculty of Engineering in Braila related to subjects involving technical graphics . There are also mentioned the steps taken in completing the method and how to achieve a feedback on the rate of access to these types of courses by the students.

  13. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  14. Probabilist methods applied to electric source problems in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.; Llory, M.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear Safety has frequently been asked to quantify safety margins and evaluate the hazard. In order to do so, the probabilist methods have proved to be the most promising. Without completely replacing determinist safety, they are now commonly used at the reliability or availability stages of systems as well as for determining the likely accidental sequences. In this paper an application linked to the problem of electric sources is described, whilst at the same time indicating the methods used. This is the calculation of the probable loss of all the electric sources of a pressurized water nuclear power station, the evaluation of the reliability of diesels by event trees of failures and the determination of accidental sequences which could be brought about by the 'total electric source loss' initiator and affect the installation or the environment [fr

  15. Theoretical and applied aerodynamics and related numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chattot, J J

    2015-01-01

    This book covers classical and modern aerodynamics, theories and related numerical methods, for senior and first-year graduate engineering students, including: -The classical potential (incompressible) flow theories for low speed aerodynamics of thin airfoils and high and low aspect ratio wings. - The linearized theories for compressible subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics. - The nonlinear transonic small disturbance potential flow theory, including supercritical wing sections, the extended transonic area rule with lift effect, transonic lifting line and swept or oblique wings to minimize wave drag. Unsteady flow is also briefly discussed. Numerical simulations based on relaxation mixed-finite difference methods are presented and explained. - Boundary layer theory for all Mach number regimes and viscous/inviscid interaction procedures used in practical aerodynamics calculations. There are also four chapters covering special topics, including wind turbines and propellers, airplane design, flow analogies and h...

  16. A quantitative method for groundwater surveillance monitoring network design at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    As part of the Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site, mandated by the US Department of Energy, hundreds of groundwater wells are sampled each year, with each sample typically analyzed for a variety of constituents. The groundwater sampling program must satisfy several broad objectives. These objectives include an integrated assessment of the condition of groundwater and the identification and quantification of existing, emerging, or potential groundwater problems. Several quantitative network desip objectives are proposed and a mathematical optimization model is developed from these objectives. The model attempts to find minimum cost network alternatives that maximize the amount of information generated by the network. Information is measured both by the rats of change with respect to time of the contaminant concentration and the uncertainty in contaminant concentration. In an application to tritium monitoring at the Hanford Site, both information measures were derived from historical data using time series analysis

  17. Improving allowed outage time and surveillance test interval requirements: a study of their interactions using probabilistic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.A.; Serradell, V.G.; Samanta, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) define the limits and conditions for operating nuclear plants safely. We selected the Limiting Conditions for Operations (LCO) and Surveillance Requirements (SR), both within TS, as the main items to be evaluated using probabilistic methods. In particular, we focused on the Allowed Outage Time (AOT) and Surveillance Test Interval (STI) requirements in LCO and SR, respectively. Already, significant operating and design experience has accumulated revealing several problems which require modifications in some TS rules. Developments in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) allow the evaluation of effects due to such modifications in AOT and STI from a risk point of view. Thus, some changes have already been adopted in some plants. However, the combined effect of several changes in AOT and STI, i.e. through their interactions, is not addressed. This paper presents a methodology which encompasses, along with the definition of AOT and STI interactions, the quantification of interactions in terms of risk using PSA methods, an approach for evaluating simultaneous AOT and STI modifications, and an assessment of strategies for giving flexibility to plant operation through simultaneous changes on AOT and STI using trade-off-based risk criteria

  18. Applying probabilistic methods for assessments and calculations for accident prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The guidelines for the prevention of accidents require plant design-specific and radioecological calculations to be made in order to show that maximum acceptable expsoure values will not be exceeded in case of an accident. For this purpose, main parameters affecting the accident scenario have to be determined by probabilistic methods. This offers the advantage that parameters can be quantified on the basis of unambigious and realistic criteria, and final results can be defined in terms of conservativity. (DG) [de

  19. Applying flow chemistry: methods, materials, and multistep synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, D Tyler; Seeberger, Peter H

    2013-07-05

    The synthesis of complex molecules requires control over both chemical reactivity and reaction conditions. While reactivity drives the majority of chemical discovery, advances in reaction condition control have accelerated method development/discovery. Recent tools include automated synthesizers and flow reactors. In this Synopsis, we describe how flow reactors have enabled chemical advances in our groups in the areas of single-stage reactions, materials synthesis, and multistep reactions. In each section, we detail the lessons learned and propose future directions.

  20. Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzer, Alan J.; Halford, Carl

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, multiple regression techniques were applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance-derived data to develop parsimonious model(s) for fuel consumption on the Boeing 757 airplane. The present study examined several data mining algorithms, including neural networks, on the fuel consumption problem and compared them to the multiple regression results obtained earlier. Using regression methods, parsimonious models were obtained that explained approximately 85% of the variation in fuel flow. In general data mining methods were more effective in predicting fuel consumption. Classification and Regression Tree methods reported correlation coefficients of .91 to .92, and General Linear Models and Multilayer Perceptron neural networks reported correlation coefficients of about .99. These data mining models show great promise for use in further examining large FOQA databases for operational and safety improvements.

  1. The colour analysis method applied to homogeneous rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halász Amadé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided colour analysis can facilitate cyclostratigraphic studies. Here we report on a case study involving the development of a digital colour analysis method for examination of the Boda Claystone Formation which is the most suitable in Hungary for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Rock type colours are reddish brown or brownish red, or any shade between brown and red. The method presented here could be used to differentiate similar colours and to identify gradual transitions between these; the latter are of great importance in a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the succession. Geophysical well-logging has demonstrated the existence of characteristic cyclic units, as detected by colour and natural gamma. Based on our research, colour, natural gamma and lithology correlate well. For core Ib-4, these features reveal the presence of orderly cycles with thicknesses of roughly 0.64 to 13 metres. Once the core has been scanned, this is a time- and cost-effective method.

  2. Comparison Study of Subspace Identification Methods Applied to Flexible Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghani, M.; Verhaegen, M.; Van Overschee, P.; De Moor, B.

    1998-09-01

    In the past few years, various time domain methods for identifying dynamic models of mechanical structures from modal experimental data have appeared. Much attention has been given recently to so-called subspace methods for identifying state space models. This paper presents a detailed comparison study of these subspace identification methods: the eigensystem realisation algorithm with observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters computed from input/output data (ERA/OM), the robust version of the numerical algorithm for subspace system identification (N4SID), and a refined version of the past outputs scheme of the multiple-output error state space (MOESP) family of algorithms. The comparison is performed by simulating experimental data using the five mode reduced model of the NASA Mini-Mast structure. The general conclusion is that for the case of white noise excitations as well as coloured noise excitations, the N4SID/MOESP algorithms perform equally well but give better results (improved transfer function estimates, improved estimates of the output) compared to the ERA/OM algorithm. The key computational step in the three algorithms is the approximation of the extended observability matrix of the system to be identified, for N4SID/MOESP, or of the observer for the system to be identified, for the ERA/OM. Furthermore, the three algorithms only require the specification of one dimensioning parameter.

  3. Applying Hierarchical Task Analysis Method to Discovery Layer Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Promann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Libraries are implementing discovery layers to offer better user experiences. While usability tests have been helpful in evaluating the success or failure of implementing discovery layers in the library context, the focus has remained on its relative interface benefits over the traditional federated search. The informal site- and context specific usability tests have offered little to test the rigor of the discovery layers against the user goals, motivations and workflow they have been designed to support. This study proposes hierarchical task analysis (HTA as an important complementary evaluation method to usability testing of discovery layers. Relevant literature is reviewed for the discovery layers and the HTA method. As no previous application of HTA to the evaluation of discovery layers was found, this paper presents the application of HTA as an expert based and workflow centered (e.g. retrieving a relevant book or a journal article method to evaluating discovery layers. Purdue University’s Primo by Ex Libris was used to map eleven use cases as HTA charts. Nielsen’s Goal Composition theory was used as an analytical framework to evaluate the goal carts from two perspectives: a users’ physical interactions (i.e. clicks, and b user’s cognitive steps (i.e. decision points for what to do next. A brief comparison of HTA and usability test findings is offered as a way of conclusion.

  4. Evaluation of Slow Release Fertilizer Applying Chemical and Spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdEl-Kader, A.A.; Al-Ashkar, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizer offers a number of advantages in relation to crop production in newly reclaimed soils. Butadiene styrene latex emulsion is one of the promising polymer for different purposes. In this work, laboratory evaluation of butadiene styrene latex emulsion 24/76 polymer loaded with a mixed fertilizer was carried out. Macro nutrients (N, P and K) and micro-nutrients(Zn, Fe, and Cu) were extracted by basic extract from the polymer fertilizer mixtures. Micro-sampling technique was investigated and applied to measure Zn, Fe, and Cu using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in order to overcome the nebulization difficulties due to high salt content samples. The cumulative releases of macro and micro-nutrients have been assessed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the release depends on both nutrients and polymer concentration in the mixture. Macro-nutrients are released more efficient than micro-nutrients of total added. Therefore it can be used for minimizing micro-nutrients hazard in soils

  5. Computational methods and implementation of the 3-D PWR core dynamics SIMTRAN code for online surveillance and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J.M.; Ahnert, C.

    1995-01-01

    New computational methods have been developed in our 3-D PWR core dynamics SIMTRAN code for online surveillance and prediction. They improve the accuracy and efficiency of the coupled neutronic-thermalhydraulic solution and extend its scope to provide, mainly, the calculation of: the fission reaction rates at the incore mini-detectors; the responses at the excore detectors (power range); the temperatures at the thermocouple locations; and the in-vessel distribution of the loop cold-leg inlet coolant conditions in the reflector and core channels, and to the hot-leg outlets per loop. The functional capabilities implemented in the extended SIMTRAN code for online utilization include: online surveillance, incore-excore calibration, evaluation of peak power factors and thermal margins, nominal update and cycle follow, prediction of maneuvers and diagnosis of fast transients and oscillations. The new code has been installed at the Vandellos-II PWR unit in Spain, since the startup of its cycle 7 in mid-June, 1994. The computational implementation has been performed on HP-700 workstations under the HP-UX Unix system, including the machine-man interfaces for online acquisition of measured data and interactive graphical utilization, in C and X11. The agreement of the simulated results with the measured data, during the startup tests and first months of actual operation, is well within the accuracy requirements. The performance and usefulness shown during the testing and demo phase, to be extended along this cycle, has proved that SIMTRAN and the man-machine graphic user interface have the qualities for a fast, accurate, user friendly, reliable, detailed and comprehensive online core surveillance and prediction

  6. The lumped heat capacity method applied to target heating

    OpenAIRE

    Rickards, J.

    2013-01-01

    The temperature of metal samples was measured while they were bombarded by the beam from the a particle accelerator. The evolution of the temperature with time can be explained using the lumped heat capacity method of heat transfer. A strong dependence on the type of mounting was found. Se midió la temperatura de muestras metálicas al ser bombardeadas por el haz de iones del Acelerador Pelletron del Instituto de Física. La evolución de la temperatura con el tiempo se puede explicar usando ...

  7. Modern analytic methods applied to the art and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio C, M. D.; Longoria G, L. C.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of diverse areas as the analytic chemistry, the history of the art and the archaeology has allowed the development of a variety of techniques used in archaeology, in conservation and restoration. These methods have been used to date objects, to determine the origin of the old materials and to reconstruct their use and to identify the degradation processes that affect the integrity of the art works. The objective of this chapter is to offer a general vision on the researches that have been realized in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of cultural goods. A series of researches carried out in collaboration with national investigators and of the foreigner is described shortly, as well as with the great support of degree students and master in archaeology of the National School of Anthropology and History, since one of the goals that have is to diffuse the knowledge of the existence of these techniques among the young archaeologists, so that they have a wider vision of what they could use in an in mediate future and they can check hypothesis with scientific methods. (Author)

  8. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Little, Mike; Huang, Thomas; Jacob, Joseph; Yang, Phil; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based file systems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  9. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.; Little, M. M.; Huang, T.; Jacob, J. C.; Yang, C. P.; Kuo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based filesystems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  10. Artificial Intelligence Methods Applied to Parameter Detection of Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arotaritei, D.; Rotariu, C.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present a novel method to develop an atrial fibrillation (AF) based on statistical descriptors and hybrid neuro-fuzzy and crisp system. The inference of system produce rules of type if-then-else that care extracted to construct a binary decision system: normal of atrial fibrillation. We use TPR (Turning Point Ratio), SE (Shannon Entropy) and RMSSD (Root Mean Square of Successive Differences) along with a new descriptor, Teager- Kaiser energy, in order to improve the accuracy of detection. The descriptors are calculated over a sliding window that produce very large number of vectors (massive dataset) used by classifier. The length of window is a crisp descriptor meanwhile the rest of descriptors are interval-valued type. The parameters of hybrid system are adapted using Genetic Algorithm (GA) algorithm with fitness single objective target: highest values for sensibility and sensitivity. The rules are extracted and they are part of the decision system. The proposed method was tested using the Physionet MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation Database and the experimental results revealed a good accuracy of AF detection in terms of sensitivity and specificity (above 90%).

  11. Frequency domain methods applied to forecasting electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapero, Juan R.; Pedregal, Diego J.

    2009-01-01

    The changes taking place in electricity markets during the last two decades have produced an increased interest in the problem of forecasting, either load demand or prices. Many forecasting methodologies are available in the literature nowadays with mixed conclusions about which method is most convenient. This paper focuses on the modeling of electricity market time series sampled hourly in order to produce short-term (1 to 24 h ahead) forecasts. The main features of the system are that (1) models are of an Unobserved Component class that allow for signal extraction of trend, diurnal, weekly and irregular components; (2) its application is automatic, in the sense that there is no need for human intervention via any sort of identification stage; (3) the models are estimated in the frequency domain; and (4) the robustness of the method makes possible its direct use on both load demand and price time series. The approach is thoroughly tested on the PJM interconnection market and the results improve on classical ARIMA models. (author)

  12. Interesting Developments in Testing Methods Applied to Foundation Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobala, Dariusz; Tkaczyński, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    Both: piling technologies and pile testing methods are a subject of current development. New technologies, providing larger diameters or using in-situ materials, are very demanding in terms of providing proper quality of execution of works. That concerns the material quality and continuity which define the integral strength of pile. On the other side we have the capacity of the ground around the pile and its ability to carry the loads transferred by shaft and pile base. Inhomogeneous nature of soils and a relatively small amount of tested piles imposes very good understanding of small amount of results. In some special cases the capacity test itself form an important cost in the piling contract. This work presents a brief description of selected testing methods and authors remarks based on cooperation with Universities constantly developing new ideas. Paper presents some experience based remarks on integrity testing by means of low energy impact (low strain) and introduces selected (Polish) developments in the field of closed-end pipe piles testing based on bi-directional loading, similar to Osterberg idea, but without sacrificial hydraulic jack. Such test is suitable especially when steel piles are used for temporary support in the rivers, where constructing of conventional testing appliance with anchor piles or kentledge meets technical problems. According to the author’s experience, such tests were not yet used on the building site but they bring a real potential especially, when the displacement control can be provided from the river bank using surveying techniques.

  13. Applying Simulation Method in Formulation of Gluten-Free Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present time priority direction in the development of new food products its developing of technology products for special purposes. These types of products are gluten-free confectionery products, intended for people with celiac disease. Gluten-free products are in demand among consumers, it needs to expand assortment, and improvement of quality indicators. At this article results of studies on the development of pastry products based on amaranth flour does not contain gluten. Study based on method of simulation recipes gluten-free confectionery functional orientation to optimize their chemical composition. The resulting products will allow to diversify and supplement the necessary nutrients diet for people with gluten intolerance, as well as for those who follow a gluten-free diet.

  14. Nuclear method applied in archaeological sites at the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Latini, Rose Mary

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use the nuclear methodology to character pottery discovered inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. The sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen to collect the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. Neutron Activation Analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were used for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all the sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamunu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. (author)

  15. Applying Multi-Criteria Analysis Methods for Fire Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkina Julia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove the application of multi-criteria analysis methods for optimisation of fire risk identification and assessment process. The object of this research is fire risk and risk assessment. The subject of the research is studying the application of analytic hierarchy process for modelling and influence assessment of various fire risk factors. Results of research conducted by the authors can be used by insurance companies to perform the detailed assessment of fire risks on the object and to calculate a risk extra charge to an insurance premium; by the state supervisory institutions to determine the compliance of a condition of object with requirements of regulations; by real state owners and investors to carry out actions for decrease in degree of fire risks and minimisation of possible losses.

  16. Applied statistical methods in agriculture, health and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Lawal, Bayo

    2014-01-01

    This textbook teaches crucial statistical methods to answer research questions using a unique range of statistical software programs, including MINITAB and R. This textbook is developed for undergraduate students in agriculture, nursing, biology and biomedical research. Graduate students will also find it to be a useful way to refresh their statistics skills and to reference software options. The unique combination of examples is approached using MINITAB and R for their individual strengths. Subjects covered include among others data description, probability distributions, experimental design, regression analysis, randomized design and biological assay. Unlike other biostatistics textbooks, this text also includes outliers, influential observations in regression and an introduction to survival analysis. Material is taken from the author's extensive teaching and research in Africa, USA and the UK. Sample problems, references and electronic supplementary material accompany each chapter.

  17. A new deconvolution method applied to ultrasonic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallard, J.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation presents the development of a new method for restoration of ultrasonic signals. Our goal is to remove the perturbations induced by the ultrasonic probe and to help to characterize the defects due to a strong local discontinuity of the acoustic impedance. The point of view adopted consists in taking into account the physical properties in the signal processing to develop an algorithm which gives good results even on experimental data. The received ultrasonic signal is modeled as a convolution between a function that represents the waveform emitted by the transducer and a function that is abusively called the 'defect impulse response'. It is established that, in numerous cases, the ultrasonic signal can be expressed as a sum of weighted, phase-shifted replicas of a reference signal. Deconvolution is an ill-posed problem. A priori information must be taken into account to solve the problem. The a priori information translates the physical properties of the ultrasonic signals. The defect impulse response is modeled as a Double-Bernoulli-Gaussian sequence. Deconvolution becomes the problem of detection of the optimal Bernoulli sequence and estimation of the associated complex amplitudes. Optimal parameters of the sequence are those which maximize a likelihood function. We develop a new estimation procedure based on an optimization process. An adapted initialization procedure and an iterative algorithm enables to quickly process a huge number of data. Many experimental ultrasonic data that reflect usual control configurations have been processed and the results demonstrate the robustness of the method. Our algorithm enables not only to remove the waveform emitted by the transducer but also to estimate the phase. This parameter is useful for defect characterization. At last the algorithm makes easier data interpretation by concentrating information. So automatic characterization should be possible in the future. (author)

  18. Applying Human-Centered Design Methods to Scientific Communication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Jayanty, N. K.; DeGroot, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Knowing your users is a critical part of developing anything to be used or experienced by a human being. User interviews, journey maps, and personas are all techniques commonly employed in human-centered design practices because they have proven effective for informing the design of products and services that meet the needs of users. Many non-designers are unaware of the usefulness of personas and journey maps. Scientists who are interested in developing more effective products and communication can adopt and employ user-centered design approaches to better reach intended audiences. Journey mapping is a qualitative data-collection method that captures the story of a user's experience over time as related to the situation or product that requires development or improvement. Journey maps help define user expectations, where they are coming from, what they want to achieve, what questions they have, their challenges, and the gaps and opportunities that can be addressed by designing for them. A persona is a tool used to describe the goals and behavioral patterns of a subset of potential users or customers. The persona is a qualitative data model that takes the form of a character profile, built upon data about the behaviors and needs of multiple users. Gathering data directly from users avoids the risk of basing models on assumptions, which are often limited by misconceptions or gaps in understanding. Journey maps and user interviews together provide the data necessary to build the composite character that is the persona. Because a persona models the behaviors and needs of the target audience, it can then be used to make informed product design decisions. We share the methods and advantages of developing and using personas and journey maps to create more effective science communication products.

  19. Redefining syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Katz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field’s capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries.

  20. Applying the Maternal Near Miss Approach for the Evaluation of Quality of Obstetric Care: A Worked Example from a Multicenter Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Maerrawi Haddad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess quality of care of women with severe maternal morbidity and to identify associated factors. Method. This is a national multicenter cross-sectional study performing surveillance for severe maternal morbidity, using the World Health Organization criteria. The expected number of maternal deaths was calculated with the maternal severity index (MSI based on the severity of complication, and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR for each center was estimated. Analyses on the adequacy of care were performed. Results. 17 hospitals were classified as providing adequate and 10 as nonadequate care. Besides almost twofold increase in maternal mortality ratio, the main factors associated with nonadequate performance were geographic difficulty in accessing health services (P<0.001, delays related to quality of medical care (P=0.012, absence of blood derivatives (P=0.013, difficulties of communication between health services (P=0.004, and any delay during the whole process (P=0.039. Conclusions. This is an example of how evaluation of the performance of health services is possible, using a benchmarking tool specific to Obstetrics. In this study the MSI was a useful tool for identifying differences in maternal mortality ratios and factors associated with nonadequate performance of care.

  1. Applying the partitioned multiobjective risk method (PMRM) to portfolio selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Santos, Joost; Haimes, Yacov Y

    2004-06-01

    The analysis of risk-return tradeoffs and their practical applications to portfolio analysis paved the way for Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT), which won Harry Markowitz a 1992 Nobel Prize in Economics. A typical approach in measuring a portfolio's expected return is based on the historical returns of the assets included in a portfolio. On the other hand, portfolio risk is usually measured using volatility, which is derived from the historical variance-covariance relationships among the portfolio assets. This article focuses on assessing portfolio risk, with emphasis on extreme risks. To date, volatility is a major measure of risk owing to its simplicity and validity for relatively small asset price fluctuations. Volatility is a justified measure for stable market performance, but it is weak in addressing portfolio risk under aberrant market fluctuations. Extreme market crashes such as that on October 19, 1987 ("Black Monday") and catastrophic events such as the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001 that led to a four-day suspension of trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) are a few examples where measuring risk via volatility can lead to inaccurate predictions. Thus, there is a need for a more robust metric of risk. By invoking the principles of the extreme-risk-analysis method through the partitioned multiobjective risk method (PMRM), this article contributes to the modeling of extreme risks in portfolio performance. A measure of an extreme portfolio risk, denoted by f(4), is defined as the conditional expectation for a lower-tail region of the distribution of the possible portfolio returns. This article presents a multiobjective problem formulation consisting of optimizing expected return and f(4), whose solution is determined using Evolver-a software that implements a genetic algorithm. Under business-as-usual market scenarios, the results of the proposed PMRM portfolio selection model are found to be compatible with those of the volatility-based model

  2. Simplified Methods Applied to Nonlinear Motion of Spar Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslum, Herbjoern Alf

    2000-07-01

    Simplified methods for prediction of motion response of spar platforms are presented. The methods are based on first and second order potential theory. Nonlinear drag loads and the effect of the pumping motion in a moon-pool are also considered. Large amplitude pitch motions coupled to extreme amplitude heave motions may arise when spar platforms are exposed to long period swell. The phenomenon is investigated theoretically and explained as a Mathieu instability. It is caused by nonlinear coupling effects between heave, surge, and pitch. It is shown that for a critical wave period, the envelope of the heave motion makes the pitch motion unstable. For the same wave period, a higher order pitch/heave coupling excites resonant heave response. This mutual interaction largely amplifies both the pitch and the heave response. As a result, the pitch/heave instability revealed in this work is more critical than the previously well known Mathieu's instability in pitch which occurs if the wave period (or the natural heave period) is half the natural pitch period. The Mathieu instability is demonstrated both by numerical simulations with a newly developed calculation tool and in model experiments. In order to learn more about the conditions for this instability to occur and also how it may be controlled, different damping configurations (heave damping disks and pitch/surge damping fins) are evaluated both in model experiments and by numerical simulations. With increased drag damping, larger wave amplitudes and more time are needed to trigger the instability. The pitch/heave instability is a low probability of occurrence phenomenon. Extreme wave periods are needed for the instability to be triggered, about 20 seconds for a typical 200m draft spar. However, it may be important to consider the phenomenon in design since the pitch/heave instability is very critical. It is also seen that when classical spar platforms (constant cylindrical cross section and about 200m draft

  3. Variational methods applied to problems of diffusion and reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Strieder, William

    1973-01-01

    This monograph is an account of some problems involving diffusion or diffusion with simultaneous reaction that can be illuminated by the use of variational principles. It was written during a period that included sabbatical leaves of one of us (W. S. ) at the University of Minnesota and the other (R. A. ) at the University of Cambridge and we are grateful to the Petroleum Research Fund for helping to support the former and the Guggenheim Foundation for making possible the latter. We would also like to thank Stephen Prager for getting us together in the first place and for showing how interesting and useful these methods can be. We have also benefitted from correspondence with Dr. A. M. Arthurs of the University of York and from the counsel of Dr. B. D. Coleman the general editor of this series. Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction and Preliminaries . 1. 1. General Survey 1 1. 2. Phenomenological Descriptions of Diffusion and Reaction 2 1. 3. Correlation Functions for Random Suspensions 4 1. 4. Mean Free ...

  4. Nondestructive methods of analysis applied to oriental swords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edge, David

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Various neutron techniques were employed at the Budapest Nuclear Centre in an attempt to find the most useful method for analysing the high-carbon steels found in Oriental arms and armour, such as those in the Wallace Collection, London. Neutron diffraction was found to be the most useful in terms of identifying such steels and also indicating the presence of hidden patternEn el Centro Nuclear de Budapest se han empleado varias técnicas neutrónicas con el fin de encontrar un método adecuado para analizar las armas y armaduras orientales con un alto contenido en carbono, como algunas de las que se encuentran en la Colección Wallace de Londres. El empleo de la difracción de neutrones resultó ser la técnica más útil de cara a identificar ese tipo de aceros y también para encontrar patrones escondidos.

  5. Perturbation Method of Analysis Applied to Substitution Measurements of Buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Rolf

    1966-11-15

    Calculations with two-group perturbation theory on substitution experiments with homogenized regions show that a condensation of the results into a one-group formula is possible, provided that a transition region is introduced in a proper way. In heterogeneous cores the transition region comes in as a consequence of a new cell concept. By making use of progressive substitutions the properties of the transition region can be regarded as fitting parameters in the evaluation procedure. The thickness of the region is approximately equal to the sum of 1/(1/{tau} + 1/L{sup 2}){sup 1/2} for the test and reference regions. Consequently a region where L{sup 2} >> {tau}, e.g. D{sub 2}O, contributes with {radical}{tau} to the thickness. In cores where {tau} >> L{sup 2} , e.g. H{sub 2}O assemblies, the thickness of the transition region is determined by L. Experiments on rod lattices in D{sub 2}O and on test regions of D{sub 2}O alone (where B{sup 2} = - 1/L{sup 2} ) are analysed. The lattice measurements, where the pitches differed by a factor of {radical}2, gave excellent results, whereas the determination of the diffusion length in D{sub 2}O by this method was not quite successful. Even regions containing only one test element can be used in a meaningful way in the analysis.

  6. Methods for computational disease surveillance in infection prevention and control: Statistical process control versus Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemken, Timothy L; Furmanek, Stephen P; Mattingly, William A; Wright, Marc-Oliver; Persaud, Annuradha K; Guinn, Brian E; Carrico, Ruth M; Arnold, Forest W; Ramirez, Julio A

    2018-02-01

    Although not all health care-associated infections (HAIs) are preventable, reducing HAIs through targeted intervention is key to a successful infection prevention program. To identify areas in need of targeted intervention, robust statistical methods must be used when analyzing surveillance data. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast statistical process control (SPC) charts with Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms. SPC and anomaly/breakout detection (ABD) charts were created for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and central line-associated bloodstream infection data. Both SPC and ABD charts detected similar data points as anomalous/out of control on most charts. The vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ABD chart detected an extra anomalous point that appeared to be higher than the same time period in prior years. Using a small subset of the central line-associated bloodstream infection data, the ABD chart was able to detect anomalies where the SPC chart was not. SPC charts and ABD charts both performed well, although ABD charts appeared to work better in the context of seasonal variation and autocorrelation. Because they account for common statistical issues in HAI data, ABD charts may be useful for practitioners for analysis of HAI surveillance data. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Complexity methods applied to turbulence in plasma astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, L.; Isliker, H.

    2016-09-01

    In this review many of the well known tools for the analysis of Complex systems are used in order to study the global coupling of the turbulent convection zone with the solar atmosphere where the magnetic energy is dissipated explosively. Several well documented observations are not easy to interpret with the use of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or Kinetic numerical codes. Such observations are: (1) The size distribution of the Active Regions (AR) on the solar surface, (2) The fractal and multi fractal characteristics of the observed magnetograms, (3) The Self-Organised characteristics of the explosive magnetic energy release and (4) the very efficient acceleration of particles during the flaring periods in the solar corona. We review briefly the work published the last twenty five years on the above issues and propose solutions by using methods borrowed from the analysis of complex systems. The scenario which emerged is as follows: (a) The fully developed turbulence in the convection zone generates and transports magnetic flux tubes to the solar surface. Using probabilistic percolation models we were able to reproduce the size distribution and the fractal properties of the emerged and randomly moving magnetic flux tubes. (b) Using a Non Linear Force Free (NLFF) magnetic extrapolation numerical code we can explore how the emerged magnetic flux tubes interact nonlinearly and form thin and Unstable Current Sheets (UCS) inside the coronal part of the AR. (c) The fragmentation of the UCS and the redistribution of the magnetic field locally, when the local current exceeds a Critical threshold, is a key process which drives avalanches and forms coherent structures. This local reorganization of the magnetic field enhances the energy dissipation and influences the global evolution of the complex magnetic topology. Using a Cellular Automaton and following the simple rules of Self Organized Criticality (SOC), we were able to reproduce the statistical characteristics of the

  8. Comparison of Molecular Typing Methods Useful for Detecting Clusters of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Isolates through Routine Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Eduardo; Grant, Christopher C. R.; Blakeston, Connie; Pollari, Frank; Marshall, Barbara; Rahn, Kris; MacKinnon, Joanne; Daignault, Danielle; Pillai, Dylan; Ng, Lai-King

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. may be responsible for unreported outbreaks of food-borne disease. The detection of these outbreaks is made more difficult by the fact that appropriate methods for detecting clusters of Campylobacter have not been well defined. We have compared the characteristics of five molecular typing methods on Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates obtained from human and nonhuman sources during sentinel site surveillance during a 3-year period. Comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF) appears to be one of the optimal methods for the detection of clusters of cases, and it could be supplemented by the sequencing of the flaA gene short variable region (flaA SVR sequence typing), with or without subsequent multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Different methods may be optimal for uncovering different aspects of source attribution. Finally, the use of several different molecular typing or analysis methods for comparing individuals within a population reveals much more about that population than a single method. Similarly, comparing several different typing methods reveals a great deal about differences in how the methods group individuals within the population. PMID:22162562

  9. Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Solid State Track Recorder (SSTR) Monitors for Reactor Surveillance, E706(IIIB)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the use of solid-state track recorders (SSTRs) for neutron dosimetry in light-water reactor (LWR) applications. These applications extend from low neutron fluence to high neutron fluence, including high power pressure vessel surveillance and test reactor irradiations as well as low power benchmark field measurement. (1) This test method replaces Method E 418. This test method is more detailed and special attention is given to the use of state-of-the-art manual and automated track counting methods to attain high absolute accuracies. In-situ dosimetry in actual high fluence-high temperature LWR applications is emphasized. 1.2 This test method includes SSTR analysis by both manual and automated methods. To attain a desired accuracy, the track scanning method selected places limits on the allowable track density. Typically good results are obtained in the range of 5 to 800 000 tracks/cm2 and accurate results at higher track densities have been demonstrated for some cases. (2) Trac...

  10. Cameras for Public Health Surveillance: A Methods Protocol for Crowdsourced Annotation of Point-of-Sale Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Tacelosky, Michael; Ivey, Keith C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2014-04-09

    Photographs are an effective way to collect detailed and objective information about the environment, particularly for public health surveillance. However, accurately and reliably annotating (ie, extracting information from) photographs remains difficult, a critical bottleneck inhibiting the use of photographs for systematic surveillance. The advent of distributed human computation (ie, crowdsourcing) platforms represents a veritable breakthrough, making it possible for the first time to accurately, quickly, and repeatedly annotate photos at relatively low cost. This paper describes a methods protocol, using photographs from point-of-sale surveillance studies in the field of tobacco control to demonstrate the development and testing of custom-built tools that can greatly enhance the quality of crowdsourced annotation. Enhancing the quality of crowdsourced photo annotation requires a number of approaches and tools. The crowdsourced photo annotation process is greatly simplified by decomposing the overall process into smaller tasks, which improves accuracy and speed and enables adaptive processing, in which irrelevant data is filtered out and more difficult targets receive increased scrutiny. Additionally, zoom tools enable users to see details within photographs and crop tools highlight where within an image a specific object of interest is found, generating a set of photographs that answer specific questions. Beyond such tools, optimizing the number of raters (ie, crowd size) for accuracy and reliability is an important facet of crowdsourced photo annotation. This can be determined in a systematic manner based on the difficulty of the task and the desired level of accuracy, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Usability tests of the zoom and crop tool suggest that these tools significantly improve annotation accuracy. The tests asked raters to extract data from photographs, not for the purposes of assessing the quality of that data, but rather to

  11. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  12. Further Insight and Additional Inference Methods for Polynomial Regression Applied to the Analysis of Congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti

    2010-01-01

    In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. Although this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the…

  13. [Monitoring medication errors in personalised dispensing using the Sentinel Surveillance System method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cebrián, M; Font-Noguera, I; Doménech-Moral, L; Bosó-Ribelles, V; Romero-Boyero, P; Poveda-Andrés, J L

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of a new quality control strategy based on daily randomised sampling and monitoring a Sentinel Surveillance System (SSS) medication cart, in order to identify medication errors and their origin at different levels of the process. Prospective quality control study with one year follow-up. A SSS medication cart was randomly selected once a week and double-checked before dispensing medication. Medication errors were recorded before it was taken to the relevant hospital ward. Information concerning complaints after receiving medication and 24-hour monitoring were also noted. Type and origin error data were assessed by a Unit Dose Quality Control Group, which proposed relevant improvement measures. Thirty-four SSS carts were assessed, including 5130 medication lines and 9952 dispensed doses, corresponding to 753 patients. Ninety erroneous lines (1.8%) and 142 mistaken doses (1.4%) were identified at the Pharmacy Department. The most frequent error was dose duplication (38%) and its main cause inappropriate management and forgetfulness (69%). Fifty medication complaints (6.6% of patients) were mainly due to new treatment at admission (52%), and 41 (0.8% of all medication lines), did not completely match the prescription (0.6% lines) as recorded by the Pharmacy Department. Thirty-seven (4.9% of patients) medication complaints due to changes at admission and 32 matching errors (0.6% medication lines) were recorded. The main cause also was inappropriate management and forgetfulness (24%). The simultaneous recording of incidences due to complaints and new medication coincided in 33.3%. In addition, 433 (4.3%) of dispensed doses were returned to the Pharmacy Department. After the Unit Dose Quality Control Group conducted their feedback analysis, 64 improvement measures for Pharmacy Department nurses, 37 for pharmacists, and 24 for the hospital ward were introduced. The SSS programme has proven to be useful as a quality control strategy to identify Unit

  14. "Blueprint version 2.0": updating public health surveillance for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Perry F; Hadler, James L; Stanbury, Martha; Rolfs, Robert T; Hopkins, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    Rapid changes to the United States public health system challenge the current strategic approach to surveillance. During 2011, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists convened national experts to reassess public health surveillance in the United States and update surveillance strategies that were published in a 1996 report and endorsed by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. Although surveillance goals, historical influences, and most methods have not changed, surveillance is being transformed by 3 influences: public health information and preparedness as national security issues; new information technologies; and health care reform. Each offers opportunities for surveillance, but each also presents challenges that public health epidemiologists can best meet by rigorously applying surveillance evaluation concepts, engaging in national standardization activities driven by electronic technologies and health care reform, and ensuring an adequately trained epidemiology workforce.

  15. Application of low bitrate image coding to surveillance of electric power facilities. Part 1. Proposal of low bitrate coding for surveillance of electric power facilities and examination of facilities region extraction method; Denryoku setsubi kanshi eno tei rate fugoka hoshiki no tekiyo. 1. Setsubi kanshiyo fugoka hoshiki no teian to setsubi ryoiki chushutsuho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, H.; Ishino, R. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Current status of low bitrate image coding has been investigated, and a low bitrate coding suitable for the surveillance of electric power facilities has been proposed, to extract its problems to be solved. For the conventional image coding, the waveform coding has been used by which the images are processed as signals. While, for the MPEG-4, a coding method with considering the image information has been proposed. For these coding methods, however, image information lacks details primarily, when lowering the bitrate. Accordingly, these methods can not be applied when the details in the images are important, such as in the case of surveillance of facilities. Then, the coding method has been proposed by expanding the partially detailed coding, and by separating constituent images of facilities, such as power cables and steel towers, designated by operators. It is the special feature of this method that the method can easily respond to the low bitrate and the detailed information can be conserved by using the structure extraction coding for the designated partial image which is generally processed by the low bitrate waveform coding. 29 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  17. Sanitary surveillance and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory practices in the field of health surveillance are indispensable. The aim of this study is to show ‒ taking the Brazilian National Surveillance Agency, governing body of sanitary surveillance in Brazil as a reference ‒ that bioethics provides public bodies a series of theoretical tools from the field of applied ethics for the proper exercise and control of these practices. To that end, the work uses two references of bioethics for the development of a comparative and supportive analysis to regulatory activities in the field of health surveillance: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of Unesco and the theory of intervention bioethics. We conclude that organizations and staff working with regulatory activities can take advantage of the principles and frameworks proposed by bioethics, especially those related to the Declaration and the theory of intervention bioethics, the latter being set by the observation and use of the principles of prudence, precaution, protection and prevention.

  18. Application of a new containment and surveillance portal monitor data analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, J.C.; Henry, C.N.; Hastings, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for processing the information available from an ordinary doorway monitor in an earlier report is described. Additional tests of this concept on doorway monitors at facilities of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory have been made. The lessons learned and estimates of the sensitivity of this method for detection of a trickle of special nuclear material through the portal are presented

  19. Surveillance Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to live in a world full of surveillance? In this documentary film, we take a look at everyday life in Denmark and how surveillance technologies and practices influence our norms and social behaviour. Researched and directed by Btihaj Ajana and Anders Albrechtslund....

  20. Overview of molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Sabat, A. J.; Budimir, A.; Nashev, D.; Sa-Leao, R.; van Dijl, J. M.; Laurent, F.; Grundmann, H.; Friedrich, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Typing methods for discriminating different bacterial isolates of the same species are essential epidemiological tools in infection prevention and control. Traditional typing systems based on phenotypes, such as serotype, biotype, phage-type, or antibiogram, have been used for many years. However, more recent methods that examine the relatedness of isolates at a molecular level have revolutionised our ability to differentiate among bacterial types and subtypes. Importantly, the development of...

  1. Molecular methods for the detection of human papillomavirus infection: new insights into their role in diagnostics and epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs comprise more than 180 genotypes. HPV infection is mainly diagnosed by molecular methods. The aim of our study was to review the main molecular methods used to diagnose HPV infection, underscoring their characteristics. Several methods have been developed for molecular diagnosis of Papilloma infection, such as those based on PCR technique. Another commercial non-PCR based diagnostic method is Hybrid Capture test; it is the only commercially available HPV DNA detection test approved by the FDA. Several Authors have suggested that viral load and E6/E7 transcripts could be used as surrogate markers of persistent HPV infection, being more specific predictors of progressive disease than the simple presence of HPV DNA. Validating clinical sensitivity and specificity of each technique and improving the interpretation of the results are essential; consequently, there is a clear need for well characterized international quality control panels to compare the various diagnostic methods. HPV DNA testing could be useful both as a primary screening test, alone or in combination with a Pap smear, for the early detection of cervical cancer precursors, and as triage test to select women with minor cytological abnormalities who will need further follow-up and to predict possible treatment failure in women with diagnosed high-grade intraepithelial lesions who have undergone excisional therapy. In the next future surveillance for HPV infections, based on these molecular methods, could represent an important step for the development of primary and secondary prophylactic interventions, such as new vaccines targeted to genotypes who might replace those previously prevalent.

  2. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, S.

    2010-01-01

    Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaT Scan and Cluster Seer) and a non spatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana) regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the over story and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp.) but were negatively associated with the abundance of hay scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia). In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  3. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the overstory and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp. but were negatively associated with the abundance of hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia. In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  4. A Super-resolution Reconstruction Algorithm for Surveillance Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological developments have resulted in surveillance video becoming a primary method of preserving public security. Many city crimes are observed in surveillance video. The most abundant evidence collected by the police is also acquired through surveillance video sources. Surveillance video footage offers very strong support for solving criminal cases, therefore, creating an effective policy, and applying useful methods to the retrieval of additional evidence is becoming increasingly important. However, surveillance video has had its failings, namely, video footage being captured in low resolution (LR and bad visual quality. In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of surveillance video and describe the manual feature registration – maximum a posteriori – projection onto convex sets to develop a super-resolution reconstruction method, which improves the quality of surveillance video. From this method, we can make optimal use of information contained in the LR video image, but we can also control the image edge clearly as well as the convergence of the algorithm. Finally, we make a suggestion on how to adjust the algorithm adaptability by analyzing the prior information of target image.

  5. Overview of molecular typing methods for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabat, A. J.; Budimir, A.; Nashev, D.; Sa-Leao, R.; van Dijl, J. M.; Laurent, F.; Grundmann, H.; Friedrich, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Typing methods for discriminating different bacterial isolates of the same species are essential epidemiological tools in infection prevention and control. Traditional typing systems based on phenotypes, such as serotype, biotype, phage-type, or antibiogram, have been used for many years. However,

  6. Evaluation of surveillance methods for monitoring house fly abundance and activity on large commercial dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, Alec C; Higginbotham, G E; Periera, L N; Lam, A; Shelton, C R

    2011-06-01

    Relative house fly, Musca domestica L., activity at three large dairies in central California was monitored during the peak fly activity period from June to August 2005 by using spot cards, fly tapes, bait traps, and Alsynite traps. Counts for all monitoring methods were significantly related at two of three dairies; with spot card counts significantly related to fly tape counts recorded the same week, and both spot card counts and fly tape counts significantly related to bait trap counts 1-2 wk later. Mean fly counts differed significantly between dairies, but a significant interaction between dairies sampled and monitoring methods used demonstrates that between-dairy comparisons are unwise. Estimate precision was determined by the coefficient of variability (CV) (or SE/mean). Using a CV = 0.15 as a desired level of estimate precision and assuming an integrate pest management (IPM) action threshold near the peak house fly activity measured by each monitoring method, house fly monitoring at a large dairy would require 12 spot cards placed in midafternoon shaded fly resting sites near cattle or seven bait traps placed in open areas near cattle. Software (FlySpotter; http://ucanr.org/ sites/FlySpotter/download/) using computer vision technology was developed to count fly spots on a scanned image of a spot card to dramatically reduce time invested in monitoring house flies. Counts provided by the FlySpotter software were highly correlated to visual counts. The use of spot cards for monitoring house flies is recommended for dairy IPM programs.

  7. Surveillance of extreme hyperbilirubinaemia in Denmark. A method to identify the newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, J.V.; Petersen, Jes Reinholdt; Ebbesen, F.

    2008-01-01

    birth and the others after having been discharged. The maximum TSB was 485 (450-734) micromol/L (median [range]) and appeared latest amongst those infants admitted from home, but was not different from the maximum TSB of the nondischarged infants. Forty-three infants had symptoms of early-phase acute....... The observed incidence of extreme hyperbilirubinaemia is higher than previously reported in Denmark. This is mainly due to a very sensitive method of identifying the study group Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  8. Methods for Discovery and Surveillance of Pathogens in Hotspots of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Randi Holm

    Viruses are everywhere, and can infect all living things. They are constantly evolving, and new diseases are emerging as a result. Consequently, they have always been of interest to scientists and people in general. Several outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases transmitting from animals...... to virion enrichment compared to samples with no enrichment. We have used these methods to perform pathogen discovery in faecal samples collected from small mammals in Sierra Leone, to describe the presence of pathogenic viruses and bacteria in this area. From these data we were furthermore able to acquire...

  9. High Throughput Screening Method for Systematic Surveillance of Drugs of Abuse by Multisegment Injection-Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, Alicia; Rampersaud, Dianne; Lee, Howard; Kim, Marcus; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2017-11-07

    New technologies are urgently required for reliable drug screening given a worldwide epidemic of prescription drug abuse and its devastating socioeconomic impacts on public health. Primary screening of drugs of abuse (DoA) currently relies on immunoassays that are prone to bias and are not applicable to detect an alarming array of psychoactive stimulants, tranquilizers, and synthetic opioids. These limitations impact patient safety when monitoring for medication compliance, drug substitution, or misuse/abuse and require follow-up confirmatory testing by more specific yet lower throughput instrumental methods. Herein, we introduce a high throughput platform for nontargeted screening of a broad spectrum of DoA and their metabolites based on multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MSI-CE-MS). We demonstrate that MSI-CE-MS enables serial injections of 10 samples within a single run (high resolution MS with full-scan data acquisition. Unambiguous drug identification was achieved by four or more independent parameters, including comigration with a deuterated internal standard or in silico prediction of electromigration behavior together with accurate mass, most likely molecular formula, as well as MS/MS as required for confirmation testing. Acceptable precision was demonstrated for over 50 DoA at 3 concentration levels over 4 days (median coefficient of variance = 13%, n = 117) with minimal ion suppression, isobaric interferences, and sample carry-over (screening cutoff levels in human urine while allowing for systematic surveillance, specimen verification, and retrospective testing of designer drugs that elude conventional drug tests.

  10. A comparison between brand-specific and traditional alcohol surveillance methods to assess underage drinkers' reported alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent alcohol consumption remains common and is associated with many negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, common alcohol surveillance methods often underestimate consumption. Improved alcohol use measures are needed to characterize the landscape of youth drinking. We aimed to compare a standard quantity-frequency measure of youth alcohol consumption to a novel brand-specific measure. We recruited a sample of 1031 respondents across the United States to complete an online survey. Analyses included 833 male and female underage drinkers ages 13-20. Respondents reported on how many of the past 30 days they consumed alcohol, and the number of drinks consumed on an average drinking day. Using our brand-specific measure, respondents identified which brands they consumed, how many days they consumed each brand, and how many drinks per brand they usually had. Youth reported consuming significantly more alcohol (on average, 11 drinks more per month) when responding to the brand-specific versus the standard measure (p brands consumed (p brand preferences and consumption.

  11. Lead line in rodents: an old sign of lead intoxication turned into a new method for environmental surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Fellipe Augusto Tocchini; Ramos, Junia; Kawakita, Erika R Hashimoto; Bilal, Alina S; de Sousa, Frederico B; Swaim, William D; Issa, Joao P Mardegan; Gerlach, Raquel F

    2016-11-01

    The "lead line" was described by Henry Burton in 1840. Rodents are used as sentinels to monitor environmental pollution, but their teeth have not been used to determine lead. To determine whether lead deposits can be observed in the teeth of lead-exposed animals, since the gingival deposits known as "lead line" would likely have a correlate in the calcified tissue to which the gums are opposed during life. Male Wistar rats were exposed to lead in the drinking water (30 mg/L) since birth until 60 days-old. Molars and the incisors of each hemimandible were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on regular and backscattered electrons (BSE) mode. Elements were determined using electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Clean cervical margins were observed on control teeth, as opposed to the findings of extensive deposits on lead-exposed animals, even in hemimandibles that had been exhumed after being buried for 90 days. BSE/EDS indicated that those deposits were an exogenous material compatible with lead sulfite. Presence of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, carbon, lead, and oxygen is presented. Lead-exposed animals presented marked root resorption. The lead deposits characterized here for the first time show that the "lead line" seen in gums has a calcified tissue counterpart, that is detectable post-mortem even in animals exposed to a low dose of lead. This is likely a good method to detect undue lead exposure and will likely have wide application for pollution surveillance using sentinels.

  12. Development of a test of suprathreshold acuity in noise in Brazilian Portuguese: a new method for hearing screening and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaez, Nara; Desgualdo-Pereira, Liliane; Paglialonga, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a speech-in-noise test for hearing screening and surveillance in Brazilian Portuguese based on the evaluation of suprathreshold acuity performances. The SUN test (Speech Understanding in Noise) consists of a list of intervocalic consonants in noise presented in a multiple-choice paradigm by means of a touch screen. The test provides one out of three possible results: "a hearing check is recommended" (red light), "a hearing check would be advisable" (yellow light), and "no hearing difficulties" (green light) (Paglialonga et al., Comput. Biol. Med. 2014). This novel test was developed in a population of 30 normal hearing young adults and 101 adults with varying degrees of hearing impairment and handicap, including normal hearing. The test had 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening and 83% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect disabling hearing impairment. The test outcomes were in line with the degree of self-perceived hearing handicap. The results found here paralleled those reported in the literature for the SUN test and for conventional speech-in-noise measures. This study showed that the proposed test might be a viable method to identify individuals with hearing problems to be referred to further audiological assessment and intervention.

  13. Development of a Test of Suprathreshold Acuity in Noise in Brazilian Portuguese: A New Method for Hearing Screening and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Vaez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a speech-in-noise test for hearing screening and surveillance in Brazilian Portuguese based on the evaluation of suprathreshold acuity performances. The SUN test (Speech Understanding in Noise consists of a list of intervocalic consonants in noise presented in a multiple-choice paradigm by means of a touch screen. The test provides one out of three possible results: “a hearing check is recommended” (red light, “a hearing check would be advisable” (yellow light, and “no hearing difficulties” (green light (Paglialonga et al., Comput. Biol. Med. 2014. This novel test was developed in a population of 30 normal hearing young adults and 101 adults with varying degrees of hearing impairment and handicap, including normal hearing. The test had 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening and 83% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect disabling hearing impairment. The test outcomes were in line with the degree of self-perceived hearing handicap. The results found here paralleled those reported in the literature for the SUN test and for conventional speech-in-noise measures. This study showed that the proposed test might be a viable method to identify individuals with hearing problems to be referred to further audiological assessment and intervention.

  14. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    The notorious intensification and digitalization of surveillance technologies and practices in today’s society has brought about numerous changes. These changes have been widely noticed, described and discussed across many academic disciplines. However, the contexts of entertainment, play...

  15. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING FATIGUE PROPERTIES APPLIED TO STAINLESS STEELS AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Mac Intyer Fonseca Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluate seven estimation methods of fatigue properties applied to stainless steels and aluminum alloys. Experimental strain-life curves are compared to the estimations obtained by each method. After applying seven different estimation methods at 14 material conditions, it was found that fatigue life can be estimated with good accuracy only by the Bäumel-Seeger method for the martensitic stainless steel tempered between 300°C and 500°C. The differences between mechanical behavior during monotonic and cyclic loading are probably the reason for the absence of a reliable method for estimation of fatigue behavior from monotonic properties for a group of materials.

  16. Applying the Mixed Methods Instrument Development and Construct Validation Process: the Transformative Experience Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Stewart, Victoria C.; Pugh, Kevin J.

    2018-01-01

    Onwuegbuzie and colleagues proposed the Instrument Development and Construct Validation (IDCV) process as a mixed methods framework for creating and validating measures. Examples applying IDCV are lacking. We provide an illustrative case integrating the Rasch model and cognitive interviews applied to the development of the Transformative…

  17. An Aural Learning Project: Assimilating Jazz Education Methods for Traditional Applied Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamso, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    The Aural Learning Project (ALP) was developed to incorporate jazz method components into the author's classical practice and her applied woodwind lesson curriculum. The primary objective was to place a more focused pedagogical emphasis on listening and hearing than is traditionally used in the classical applied curriculum. The components of the…

  18. Complementary variational principle method applied to thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, A K; Gupta, S C [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-12-14

    The complementary variational principles method (CVP) is applied to the thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field. The results of computations show that the CVP derived results are very useful.

  19. A Survey of Colonoscopic Surveillance After Polypectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Several guidelines have been proposed for surveillance colonoscopy after polypectomy. However, some discrepancies still exist between the guidelines and clinical practice. This study was conducted to identify Korean doctors' recommendations for the colonoscopic surveillance interval after polypectomy. Methods A survey of the attendees at the symposium of the 64th Annual Congress of the Korean Surgical Society was conducted. When the prepared clinical scenarios were given, attendees answered using a wireless radio-frequency audience response system. All responders' results were automatically counted immediately. Frequencies of different answers to each question were calculated, and our results were compared with those of previous surveys performed using the same questionnaire in the United States or Japan. Results The number of responder varied from 38 to 41. About 50% of valid responders selected 'follow-up in 3 years' for low-risk lesions, such as a 6-mm hyperplastic polyp, a 6-mm tubular adenoma, or two 6-mm tubular adenomas. Responders most-commonly selected 'follow-up in 1 year' for high-risk lesions, such as a 12-mm tubular adenoma with high grade dysplasia or a 12-mm tubulovillous adenoma. The majority of Korean doctors recommend postpolypectomy colonoscopic surveillance more frequently than American physicians did. Conclusion A discrepancy between the guidelines and clinical practice for the surveillance after polypectomy still exists in Korea. A surveillance program that can be easily and widely applied in clinical practice needs to be established. PMID:24851219

  20. Wielandt method applied to the diffusion equations discretized by finite element nodal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugica R, A.; Valle G, E. del

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays the numerical methods of solution to the diffusion equation by means of algorithms and computer programs result so extensive due to the great number of routines and calculations that should carry out, this rebounds directly in the execution times of this programs, being obtained results in relatively long times. This work shows the application of an acceleration method of the convergence of the classic method of those powers that it reduces notably the number of necessary iterations for to obtain reliable results, what means that the compute times they see reduced in great measure. This method is known in the literature like Wielandt method and it has incorporated to a computer program that is based on the discretization of the neutron diffusion equations in plate geometry and stationary state by polynomial nodal methods. In this work the neutron diffusion equations are described for several energy groups and their discretization by means of those called physical nodal methods, being illustrated in particular the quadratic case. It is described a model problem widely described in the literature which is solved for the physical nodal grade schemes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in three different ways: to) with the classic method of the powers, b) method of the powers with the Wielandt acceleration and c) method of the powers with the Wielandt modified acceleration. The results for the model problem as well as for two additional problems known as benchmark problems are reported. Such acceleration method can also be implemented to problems of different geometry to the proposal in this work, besides being possible to extend their application to problems in 2 or 3 dimensions. (Author)

  1. What is the method in applying formal methods to PLC applications?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Engel, S.; Wupper, Hanno; Kowalewski, S.; Zaytoon, J.

    2000-01-01

    The question we investigate is how to obtain PLC applications with confidence in their proper functioning. Especially, we are interested in the contribution that formal methods can provide for their development. Our maxim is that the place of a particular formal method in the total picture of system

  2. Formal methods applied to industrial complex systems implementation of the B method

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    This book presents real-world examples of formal techniques in an industrial context. It covers formal methods such as SCADE and/or the B Method, in various fields such as railways, aeronautics, and the automotive industry. The purpose of this book is to present a summary of experience on the use of "formal methods" (based on formal techniques such as proof, abstract interpretation and model-checking) in industrial examples of complex systems, based on the experience of people currently involved in the creation and assessment of safety critical system software. The involvement of people from

  3. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  4. A new clamp method for firing bricks | Obeng | Journal of Applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new clamp method for firing bricks. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... To overcome this operational deficiencies, a new method of firing bricks that uses brick clamp technique that incorporates a clamp wall of 60 cm thickness, a six tier approach of sealing the top of the clamp (by combination of green bricks) ...

  5. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  6. Determination methods for plutonium as applied in the field of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The papers presented report on Pu-determination methods, which are routinely applied in process control, and also on new developments which could supercede current methods either because they are more accurate or because they are simpler and faster. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Water Permeability of Pervious Concrete Is Dependent on the Applied Pressure and Testing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Falling head method (FHM and constant head method (CHM are, respectively, used to test the water permeability of permeable concrete, using different water heads on the testing samples. The results indicate the apparent permeability of pervious concrete decreasing with the applied water head. The results also demonstrate the permeability measured from the FHM is lower than that from the CHM. The fundamental difference between the CHM and FHM is examined from the theory of fluid flowing through porous media. The testing results suggest that the water permeability of permeable concrete should be reported with the applied pressure and the associated testing method.

  8. Accurate simulation of MPPT methods performance when applied to commercial photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Javier; Pindado, Santiago; Sanz-Andrés, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers' datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature) and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.

  9. Accurate Simulation of MPPT Methods Performance When Applied to Commercial Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cubas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers’ datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.

  10. Risk-based analysis methods applied to nuclear power plant technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Minton, L.A.; Gaertner, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    A computer-aided methodology and practical applications of risk-based evaluation of technical specifications are described. The methodology, developed for use by the utility industry, is a part of the overall process of improving nuclear power plant technical specifications. The SOCRATES computer program uses the results of a probabilistic risk assessment or a system-level risk analysis to calculate changes in risk due to changes in the surveillance test interval and/or the allowed outage time stated in the technical specification. The computer program can accommodate various testing strategies (such as staggered or simultaneous testing) to allow modeling of component testing as it is carried out at the plant. The methods and computer program are an integral part of a larger decision process aimed at determining benefits from technical specification changes. These benefits can include cost savings to the utilities by reducing forced shutdowns and decreasing labor requirements for test and maintenance activities, with no adverse impacts on risk. The methodology and the SOCRATES computer program have been used extensively toe valuate several actual technical specifications in case studies demonstrating the methods. Summaries of these applications demonstrate the types of results achieved and the usefulness of the risk-based evaluation in improving the technical specifications

  11. Formal and informal surveillance systems: how to build links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Desvaux

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI surveillance in Vietnam, interviews were carried out with poultry farmers and local animal health operators in two municipalities of the Red River delta with a view to documenting the circulation of health information concerning poultry (content of the information; method, scope and speed of circulation; actors involved; actions triggered as a result of the information received; economic and social incentives for disseminating or withholding information. The main results show that (i active informal surveillance networks exist, (ii the alert levels vary and the measures applied by the poultry farmers are myriad and often far-removed from the official recommendations, and (iii the municipal veterinarian is at the interface between the formal and the informal surveillance systems. The conclusions emphasize the need for the authorities to separate distinctly surveillance and control activities, and to regionalize control strategies, taking into account epidemiological specificities and social dynamics at local level.

  12. Diamond difference method with hybrid angular quadrature applied to neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, Jose H.; Barros, Ricardo C.; Alves Filho, Hermes

    2005-01-01

    In this work we presents the results for the calculations of the disadvantage factor in thermal nuclear reactor physics. We use the one-group discrete ordinates (S N ) equations to mathematically model the flux distributions in slab lattices. We apply the diamond difference method with source iteration iterative scheme to numerically solve the discretized systems equations. We used special interface conditions to describe the method with hybrid angular quadrature. We show numerical results to illustrate the accuracy of the hybrid method. (author)

  13. Proposal and Evaluation of Management Method for College Mechatronics Education Applying the Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yoshinobu; Eguchi, Yuya; Mizukawa, Makoto

    In this research, we proposed and evaluated a management method of college mechatronics education. We applied the project management to college mechatronics education. We practiced our management method to the seminar “Microcomputer Seminar” for 3rd grade students who belong to Department of Electrical Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology. We succeeded in management of Microcomputer Seminar in 2006. We obtained the good evaluation for our management method by means of questionnaire.

  14. Perspective for applying traditional and inovative teaching and learning methods to nurses continuing education

    OpenAIRE

    Bendinskaitė, Irmina

    2015-01-01

    Bendinskaitė I. Perspective for applying traditional and innovative teaching and learning methods to nurse’s continuing education, magister thesis / supervisor Assoc. Prof. O. Riklikienė; Departament of Nursing and Care, Faculty of Nursing, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. – Kaunas, 2015, – p. 92 The purpose of this study was to investigate traditional and innovative teaching and learning methods perspective to nurse’s continuing education. Material and methods. In a period fro...

  15. Cluster detection methods applied to the Upper Cape Cod cancer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozonoff David

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of statistical methods have been suggested to assess the degree and/or the location of spatial clustering of disease cases. However, there is relatively little in the literature devoted to comparison and critique of different methods. Most of the available comparative studies rely on simulated data rather than real data sets. Methods We have chosen three methods currently used for examining spatial disease patterns: the M-statistic of Bonetti and Pagano; the Generalized Additive Model (GAM method as applied by Webster; and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. We apply these statistics to analyze breast cancer data from the Upper Cape Cancer Incidence Study using three different latency assumptions. Results The three different latency assumptions produced three different spatial patterns of cases and controls. For 20 year latency, all three methods generally concur. However, for 15 year latency and no latency assumptions, the methods produce different results when testing for global clustering. Conclusion The comparative analyses of real data sets by different statistical methods provides insight into directions for further research. We suggest a research program designed around examining real data sets to guide focused investigation of relevant features using simulated data, for the purpose of understanding how to interpret statistical methods applied to epidemiological data with a spatial component.

  16. Apparatus and method for applying an end plug to a fuel rod tube end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieben, S.L.; Wylie, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus is described for applying an end plug to a hollow end of a nuclear fuel rod tube, comprising: support means mounted for reciprocal movement between remote and adjacent positions relative to a nuclear fuel rod tube end to which an end plug is to be applied; guide means supported on the support means for movement; and drive means coupled to the support means and being actuatable for movement between retracted and extended positions for reciprocally moving the support means between its respective remote and adjacent positions. A method for applying an end plug to a hollow end of a nuclear fuel rod tube is also described

  17. Method of levelized discounted costs applied in economic evaluation of nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Liu Jingquan; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    The main methods of economic evaluation of bid which are in common use are introduced. The characteristics of levelized discounted cost method and its application are presented. The method of levelized discounted cost is applied to the cost calculation of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor economic evaluation. The results indicate that the method of levelized discounted costs is simple, feasible and which is considered most suitable for the economic evaluation of various case. The method is suggested which is used in the national economic evaluation

  18. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  19. Local regression type methods applied to the study of geophysics and high frequency financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, M. C.; Basu, K.

    2014-09-01

    In this work we applied locally weighted scatterplot smoothing techniques (Lowess/Loess) to Geophysical and high frequency financial data. We first analyze and apply this technique to the California earthquake geological data. A spatial analysis was performed to show that the estimation of the earthquake magnitude at a fixed location is very accurate up to the relative error of 0.01%. We also applied the same method to a high frequency data set arising in the financial sector and obtained similar satisfactory results. The application of this approach to the two different data sets demonstrates that the overall method is accurate and efficient, and the Lowess approach is much more desirable than the Loess method. The previous works studied the time series analysis; in this paper our local regression models perform a spatial analysis for the geophysics data providing different information. For the high frequency data, our models estimate the curve of best fit where data are dependent on time.

  20. Method to detect substances in a body and device to apply the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, H.

    1978-01-01

    The method and the measuring disposition serve to localize pellets doped with Gd 2 O 3 , lying between UO 2 pellets within a reactor fuel rod. The fuel rod is penetrating a homogeneous magnetic field generated between two pole shoes. The magnetic stray field caused by the doping substances is then measured by means of Hall probes (e.g. InAs) for quantitative discrimination from UO 2 . The position of the Gd 2 O 3 -doped pellets is determined by moving the fuel rod through the magnetic field in a direction perpendicular to the homogeneous field. The measuring signal is caused by the different susceptibility of Gd 2 O 3 with respect to UO 2 . (DG) [de

  1. On infectious intestinal disease surveillance using social media content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Bin; Lampos, Vasileios; Gorton, Russell

    2016-01-01

    by traditional health surveillance methods. We employ a deep learning approach for creating a topical vocabulary, and then apply a regularised linear (Elastic Net) as well as a nonlinear (Gaussian Process) regression function for inference. We show that like previous text regression tasks, the nonlinear approach...

  2. Criticality analysis of thermal reactors for two energy groups applying Monte Carlo and neutron Albedo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, Andre Miguel Barge Pontes Torres

    2005-01-01

    The Albedo method applied to criticality calculations to nuclear reactors is characterized by following the neutron currents, allowing to make detailed analyses of the physics phenomena about interactions of the neutrons with the core-reflector set, by the determination of the probabilities of reflection, absorption, and transmission. Then, allowing to make detailed appreciations of the variation of the effective neutron multiplication factor, keff. In the present work, motivated for excellent results presented in dissertations applied to thermal reactors and shieldings, was described the methodology to Albedo method for the analysis criticality of thermal reactors by using two energy groups admitting variable core coefficients to each re-entrant current. By using the Monte Carlo KENO IV code was analyzed relation between the total fraction of neutrons absorbed in the core reactor and the fraction of neutrons that never have stayed into the reflector but were absorbed into the core. As parameters of comparison and analysis of the results obtained by the Albedo method were used one dimensional deterministic code ANISN (ANIsotropic SN transport code) and Diffusion method. The keff results determined by the Albedo method, to the type of analyzed reactor, showed excellent agreement. Thus were obtained relative errors of keff values smaller than 0,78% between the Albedo method and code ANISN. In relation to the Diffusion method were obtained errors smaller than 0,35%, showing the effectiveness of the Albedo method applied to criticality analysis. The easiness of application, simplicity and clarity of the Albedo method constitute a valuable instrument to neutronic calculations applied to nonmultiplying and multiplying media. (author)

  3. Applying electric field to charged and polar particles between metallic plates: extension of the Ewald method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira

    2013-09-28

    We develop an efficient Ewald method of molecular dynamics simulation for calculating the electrostatic interactions among charged and polar particles between parallel metallic plates, where we may apply an electric field with an arbitrary size. We use the fact that the potential from the surface charges is equivalent to the sum of those from image charges and dipoles located outside the cell. We present simulation results on boundary effects of charged and polar fluids, formation of ionic crystals, and formation of dipole chains, where the applied field and the image interaction are crucial. For polar fluids, we find a large deviation of the classical Lorentz-field relation between the local field and the applied field due to pair correlations along the applied field. As general aspects, we clarify the difference between the potential-fixed and the charge-fixed boundary conditions and examine the relationship between the discrete particle description and the continuum electrostatics.

  4. Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleo-ontological cephalopod research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.

    2014-05-01

    Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum/maximum size of objects that can be studied, the degree of post-processing needed and availability. The main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells. In particular we present a method for precise buoyancy calculation. Therefore, cephalopod shells were scanned together with different reference bodies, an approach developed in medical sciences. It is necessary to know the volume of the reference bodies, which should have similar absorption properties like the object of interest. Exact volumes can be obtained from surface scanning. Depending on the dimensions of the study object different computed tomography techniques were applied.

  5. Developing and Applying Control Charts to Detect Change Water Chemistry Parameters Measured in the Athabasca River Near the Oil Sands: A Tool for Surveillance Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciszewski, Tim J; Hazewinkel, Rod R; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Kilgour, Bruce W

    2018-05-10

    Control charting is a simple technique to identify change and is well-suited for use in water quality programs. Control charts accounting for co-variation associated with discharge and time were used to explore example and representative variables routinely measured in the Athabasca River near the oil sands area for indications of change, including 5 major ions (chloride, sodium, sulphate, calcium, magnesium), 5 total metals (aluminum, iron, thallium, molybdenum, vanadium) and total suspended solids (TSS). Regression equations developed from reference data (1988-2009) were used to predict observations and calculate residuals from later test observations (2010-2016). Evidence of change was sought in the deviation of residual errors from the test period compared to the patterns expected and defined from probability distributions of the reference residuals using the Odds Ratio. In most cases, the patterns in test residuals were not statistically different from those expected from the reference period, especially when data was examined annually. However, some differences were apparent and more differences were apparent as data accumulated and was analysed over time. In sum, the analyses suggest higher concentrations than predicted in most major ions, but the source of the changes is uncertain. In contrast, most metals were lower than expected and may be related to changing deposition patterns of materials or weathering of minerals during construction activities of the 2000's which influence the reference data used. The analyses also suggest alternative approaches may be necessary to understand change in some variables. Despite this, the results support the use of control charts to detect changes in water chemistry parameters and the value of the tool in surveillance phases of long-term and adaptive monitoring programs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Health surveillance under adverse ergonomics conditions--validity of a screening method adapted for the occupational health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Dirk; Gustafsson, Ewa; Rolander, Bo; Arvidsson, Inger; Nordander, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    A new health surveillance protocol for work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders has been validated by comparing the results with a reference protocol. The studied protocol, Health Surveillance in Adverse Ergonomics Conditions (HECO), is a new version of the reference protocol modified for application in the Occupational Health Service (OHS). The HECO protocol contains both a screening part and a diagnosing part. Sixty-three employees were examined. The screening in HECO did not miss any diagnosis found when using the reference protocol, but in comparison to the reference protocol considerable time savings could be achieved. Fair to good agreement between the protocols was obtained for one or more diagnoses in neck/shoulders (86%, k = 0.62) and elbow/hands (84%, k = 0.49). Therefore, the results obtained using the HECO protocol can be compared with a reference material collected with the reference protocol, and thus provide information of the magnitude of disorders in an examined work group. Practitioner Summary: The HECO protocol is a relatively simple physical examination protocol for identification of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities. The protocol is a reliable and cost-effective tool for the OHS to use for occupational health surveillance in order to detect workplaces at high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders.

  7. Health surveillance under adverse ergonomics conditions – validity of a screening method adapted for the occupational health service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Dirk; Gustafsson, Ewa; Rolander, Bo; Arvidsson, Inger; Nordander, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    A new health surveillance protocol for work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders has been validated by comparing the results with a reference protocol. The studied protocol, Health Surveillance in Adverse Ergonomics Conditions (HECO), is a new version of the reference protocol modified for application in the Occupational Health Service (OHS). The HECO protocol contains both a screening part and a diagnosing part. Sixty-three employees were examined. The screening in HECO did not miss any diagnosis found when using the reference protocol, but in comparison to the reference protocol considerable time savings could be achieved. Fair to good agreement between the protocols was obtained for one or more diagnoses in neck/shoulders (86%, k = 0.62) and elbow/hands (84%, k = 0.49). Therefore, the results obtained using the HECO protocol can be compared with a reference material collected with the reference protocol, and thus provide information of the magnitude of disorders in an examined work group. Practitioner Summary: The HECO protocol is a relatively simple physical examination protocol for identification of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities. The protocol is a reliable and cost-effective tool for the OHS to use for occupational health surveillance in order to detect workplaces at high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:25761380

  8. Applying terminological methods and description logic for creating and implementing and ontology on inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2009-01-01

    By applying formal terminological methods to model an ontology within the domain of enzyme inhibition, we aim to clarify concepts and to obtain consistency. Additionally, we propose a procedure for implementing this ontology in OWL with the aim of obtaining a strict structure which can form...

  9. Method of applying single higher order polynomial basis function over multiple domains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been devised where one set of higher order polynomial-based basis functions can be applied over several wire segments, thus permitting to decouple the number of unknowns from the number of segments, and so from the geometrical...

  10. Applied probabilistic methods in the field of reactor safety in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    Some aspects of applied reliability and risk analysis methods in nuclear safety and the present role of both in Germany, are discussed. First, some comments on the status and applications of reliability analysis are given. Second, some conclusions that can be drawn from previous work on the German Risk Study are summarized. (orig.)

  11. 21 CFR 111.320 - What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination? 111.320 Section 111.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...

  12. Splendor and misery of the distorted wave method applied to heavy ions transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The success and failure of the Distorted Wave Method (DWM) applied to heavy ion transfer reactions are illustrated by few examples: one and multi-nucleon transfer reactions induced by 15 N and 18 O on 28 Si target nucleus performed on the vicinity of Coulomb barrier respectively at 44 and 56 MeV incident energy

  13. A nodal method applied to a diffusion problem with generalized coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laazizi, A.; Guessous, N.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we consider second order neutrons diffusion problem with coefficients in L ∞ (Ω). Nodal method of the lowest order is applied to approximate the problem's solution. The approximation uses special basis functions in which the coefficients appear. The rate of convergence obtained is O(h 2 ) in L 2 (Ω), with a free rectangular triangulation. (authors)

  14. Trends in Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: China and the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihong, Gao; Lichun, Li; Jun, Lu

    2001-01-01

    Examines and compares current trends in applied linguistics (AL) research methods in China and the West. Reviews AL articles in four Chinese journals, from 1978-1997, and four English journals from 1985 to 1997. Articles are categorized and subcategorized. Results show that in China, AL research is heading from non-empirical toward empirical, with…

  15. Critical path method applied to research project planning: Fire Economics Evaluation System (FEES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl B. Anderson; R. Stanton Hales

    1986-01-01

    The critical path method (CPM) of network analysis (a) depicts precedence among the many activities in a project by a network diagram; (b) identifies critical activities by calculating their starting, finishing, and float times; and (c) displays possible schedules by constructing time charts. CPM was applied to the development of the Forest Service's Fire...

  16. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990's. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

  17. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  18. Health surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Code includes a number of requirements for the health surveillance of employees associated with the mining and milling of radioactive ores. This guideline is particularly directed at determining the level of fitness of employees and prospective employees, detecting any symptom which might contraindicate exposure to the environment encountered in mine/mill situations, examination of any employee who may have been exposed to radiation in excess of defined limits and the accumulation and provision of data on the health of employees

  19. A new effective Monte Carlo Midway coupling method in MCNP applied to a well logging problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serov, I.V.; John, T.M.; Hoogenboom, J.E

    1998-12-01

    The background of the Midway forward-adjoint coupling method including the black absorber technique for efficient Monte Carlo determination of radiation detector responses is described. The method is implemented in the general purpose MCNP Monte Carlo code. The utilization of the method is fairly straightforward and does not require any substantial extra expertise. The method was applied to a standard neutron well logging porosity tool problem. The results exhibit reliability and high efficiency of the Midway method. For the studied problem the efficiency gain is considerably higher than for a normal forward calculation, which is already strongly optimized by weight-windows. No additional effort is required to adjust the Midway model if the position of the detector or the porosity of the formation is changed. Additionally, the Midway method can be used with other variance reduction techniques if extra gain in efficiency is desired.

  20. Determination of activity of I-125 applying sum-peak methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbelo Penna, Y.; Hernandez Rivero, A.T.; Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Serra Aguila, R.; Moreno Leon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of activity of I-125 in radioactive solutions, applying sum-peak methods, by using an n-type HPGe detector of extended range is described. Two procedures were used for obtaining I-125 specific activity in solutions: a) an absolute method, which is independent of nuclear parameters and detector efficiency, and b) an option which consider constant the efficiency in the region of interest and involves calculations using nuclear parameters. The measurement geometries studied are specifically solid point sources. The relative deviations between specific activities, obtained by these different procedures are not higher than 1 %. Moreover, the activity of the radioactive solution was obtained by measuring it in NIST ampoule using a CAPINTEC CRC 35R dose calibrator. The consistency of obtained results, confirm the feasibility of applying direct methods of measurement for I-125 activity determinations, which allow us to achieve lower uncertainties in comparison with the relative methods of measurement. The establishment of these methods is aimed to be applied for the calibration of equipment and radionuclide dose calibrators used currently in clinical RIA/IRMA assays and Nuclear medicine practice respectively. (Author)

  1. An applied study using systems engineering methods to prioritize green systems options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sonya M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macdonald, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    For many years, there have been questions about the effectiveness of applying different green solutions. If you're building a home and wish to use green technologies, where do you start? While all technologies sound promising, which will perform the best over time? All this has to be considered within the cost and schedule of the project. The amount of information available on the topic can be overwhelming. We seek to examine if Systems Engineering methods can be used to help people choose and prioritize technologies that fit within their project and budget. Several methods are used to gain perspective into how to select the green technologies, such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Kepner-Tregoe. In our study, subjects applied these methods to analyze cost, schedule, and trade-offs. Results will document whether the experimental approach is applicable to defining system priorities for green technologies.

  2. Economic consequences assessment for scenarios and actual accidents do the same methods apply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for estimating the economic consequences of major technological accidents, and their corresponding computer codes, are briefly presented with emphasis on the basic choices. When applied to hypothetic scenarios, those methods give results that are of interest for risk managers with a decision aiding perspective. Simultaneously the various costs, and the procedures for their estimation are reviewed for some actual accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl,..). These costs are used in a perspective of litigation and compensation. The comparison of the methods used and cost estimates obtained for scenarios and actual accidents shows the points of convergence and discrepancies that are discussed

  3. Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleontological cephalopod research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.

    2013-11-01

    Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum-maximum size of objects that can be studied, of the degree of post-processing needed and availability. Main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells in order to improve our understanding of diversity and disparity, functional morphology and biology of extinct and extant cephalopods.

  4. Covariance methodology applied to 35S disintegration rate measurements by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, M.F.; Nascimento, T.S.; Yamazaki, I.M.; Dias, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN) at IPEN is carrying out measurements in a LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counting system), applying the CIEMAT/NIST method. In this context 35 S is an important radionuclide for medical applications and it is difficult to be standardized by other primary methods due to low beta ray energy. The CIEMAT/NIST is a standard technique used by most metrology laboratories in order to improve accuracy and speed up beta emitter standardization. The focus of the present work was to apply the covariance methodology for determining the overall uncertainty in the 35 S disintegration rate. All partial uncertainties involved in the measurements were considered, taking into account all possible correlations between each pair of them. - Highlights: ► 35 S disintegration rate measured in Liquid Scintillator system using CIEMAT/NIST method. ► Covariance methodology applied to the overall uncertainty in the 35 S disintegration rate. ► Monte Carlo simulation was applied to determine 35 S activity in the 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence system

  5. Health surveillance - myth and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles, health benefit and cost-effectiveness of health surveillance in the occupational setting, which apply to exposure to ionising radiations in the same manner as to other hazards in the workplace. It highlights the techniques for undertaking health surveillance, discusses their relative advantages and disadvantages and illustrates these in relation to specific hazards. The responsibilities of the medical staff and of the worker are also discussed. (author)

  6. Power System Oscillation Modes Identifications: Guidelines for Applying TLS-ESPRIT Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Gopal R.; Soman, Shreevardhan

    2013-05-01

    Fast measurements of power system quantities available through wide-area measurement systems enables direct observations for power system electromechanical oscillations. But the raw observations data need to be processed to obtain the quantitative measures required to make any inference regarding the power system state. A detailed discussion is presented for the theory behind the general problem of oscillatory mode indentification. This paper presents some results on oscillation mode identification applied to a wide-area frequency measurements system. Guidelines for selection of parametes for obtaining most reliable results from the applied method are provided. Finally, some results on real measurements are presented with our inference on them.

  7. Multigrid method applied to the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alchalabi, R.M. [BOC Group, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Turinsky, P.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The work presented in this paper is concerned with the development of an efficient MG algorithm for the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem. The application is specifically applied to the multigroup neutron diffusion equation which is discretized by utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). The underlying relaxation method is the Power Method, also known as the (Outer-Inner Method). The inner iterations are completed using Multi-color Line SOR, and the outer iterations are accelerated using Chebyshev Semi-iterative Method. Furthermore, the MG algorithm utilizes the consistent homogenization concept to construct the restriction operator, and a form function as a prolongation operator. The MG algorithm was integrated into the reactor neutronic analysis code NESTLE, and numerical results were obtained from solving production type benchmark problems.

  8. Least Square NUFFT Methods Applied to 2D and 3D Radially Encoded MR Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiayu; Liu, Qing H.; Gewalt, Sally L.; Cofer, Gary; Johnson, G. Allan

    2009-01-01

    Radially encoded MR imaging (MRI) has gained increasing attention in applications such as hyperpolarized gas imaging, contrast-enhanced MR angiography, and dynamic imaging, due to its motion insensitivity and improved artifact properties. However, since the technique collects k-space samples nonuniformly, multidimensional (especially 3D) radially sampled MRI image reconstruction is challenging. The balance between reconstruction accuracy and speed becomes critical when a large data set is processed. Kaiser-Bessel gridding reconstruction has been widely used for non-Cartesian reconstruction. The objective of this work is to provide an alternative reconstruction option in high dimensions with on-the-fly kernels calculation. The work develops general multi-dimensional least square nonuniform fast Fourier transform (LS-NUFFT) algorithms and incorporates them into a k-space simulation and image reconstruction framework. The method is then applied to reconstruct the radially encoded k-space, although the method addresses general nonuniformity and is applicable to any non-Cartesian patterns. Performance assessments are made by comparing the LS-NUFFT based method with the conventional Kaiser-Bessel gridding method for 2D and 3D radially encoded computer simulated phantoms and physically scanned phantoms. The results show that the LS-NUFFT reconstruction method has better accuracy-speed efficiency than the Kaiser-Bessel gridding method when the kernel weights are calculated on the fly. The accuracy of the LS-NUFFT method depends on the choice of scaling factor, and it is found that for a particular conventional kernel function, using its corresponding deapodization function as scaling factor and utilizing it into the LS-NUFFT framework has the potential to improve accuracy. When a cosine scaling factor is used, in particular, the LS-NUFFT method is faster than Kaiser-Bessel gridding method because of a quasi closed-form solution. The method is successfully applied to 2D and

  9. Applying Mathematical Optimization Methods to an ACT-R Instance-Based Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Nadia; Engelhart, Michael; Kirches, Christian; Körkel, Stefan; Holt, Daniel V

    2016-01-01

    Computational models of cognition provide an interface to connect advanced mathematical tools and methods to empirically supported theories of behavior in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this article, we consider a computational model of instance-based learning, implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We propose an approach for obtaining mathematical reformulations of such cognitive models that improve their computational tractability. For the well-established Sugar Factory dynamic decision making task, we conduct a simulation study to analyze central model parameters. We show how mathematical optimization techniques can be applied to efficiently identify optimal parameter values with respect to different optimization goals. Beyond these methodological contributions, our analysis reveals the sensitivity of this particular task with respect to initial settings and yields new insights into how average human performance deviates from potential optimal performance. We conclude by discussing possible extensions of our approach as well as future steps towards applying more powerful derivative-based optimization methods.

  10. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Gitzinger, C.; Jaunet, P.; Eberbach, F.; Clavel, B.; Hemidy, P.Y.; Perrier, G.; Kiper, Ch.; Peres, J.M.; Josset, M.; Calvez, M.; Leclerc, M.; Leclerc, E.; Aubert, C.; Levelut, M.N.; Debayle, Ch.; Mayer, St.; Renaud, Ph.; Leprieur, F.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Monfort, M.; Baron, Y.; Target, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  11. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  12. Applied ecosystem analysis - a primer; the ecosystem diagnosis and treatment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestelle, L.C.; Mobrand, L.E.; Lichatowich, J.A.; Vogel, T.S.

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual

  13. An Ultrasonic Guided Wave Method to Estimate Applied Biaxial Loads (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    VALIDATION A fatigue test was performed with an array of six surface-bonded PZT transducers on a 6061 aluminum plate as shown in Figure 4. The specimen...direct paths of propagation are oriented at different angles. This method is applied to experimental sparse array data recorded during a fatigue test...and the additional complication of the resulting fatigue cracks interfering with some of the direct arrivals is addressed via proper selection of

  14. Accuracy of the Adomian decomposition method applied to the Lorenz system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, I.; Noorani, M.S.M.; Ahmad, R.; Bakar, S.A.; Ismail, E.S.; Zakaria, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is applied to the famous Lorenz system. The ADM yields an analytical solution in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series with easily computable terms. Comparisons between the decomposition solutions and the fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4) numerical solutions are made for various time steps. In particular we look at the accuracy of the ADM as the Lorenz system changes from a non-chaotic system to a chaotic one

  15. Applying the Delphi method to assess impacts of forest management on biodiversity and habitat preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna; Strange, Niels; Löf, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    This study applied a structured expert elicitation technique, the Delphi method, to identify the impacts of five forest management alternatives and several forest characteristics on the preservation of biodiversity and habitats in the boreal zone of the Nordic countries. The panel of experts...... as a valuable addition to on-going empirical and modeling efforts. The findings could assist forest managers in developing forest management strategies that generate benefits from timber production while taking into account the trade-offs with biodiversity goals....

  16. Modified Method of Simplest Equation Applied to the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitanov Nikolay K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an extension of the methodology of the modified method of simplest equation to the case of use of two simplest equations. The extended methodology is applied for obtaining exact solutions of model nonlinear partial differential equations for deep water waves: the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the methodology works also for other equations of the nonlinear Schrödinger kind.

  17. Modified Method of Simplest Equation Applied to the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.; Dimitrova, Zlatinka I.

    2018-03-01

    We consider an extension of the methodology of the modified method of simplest equation to the case of use of two simplest equations. The extended methodology is applied for obtaining exact solutions of model nonlinear partial differential equations for deep water waves: the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the methodology works also for other equations of the nonlinear Schrödinger kind.

  18. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - - a Primer : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual.

  19. The LTSN method used in transport equation, applied in nuclear engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tulio de

    2002-01-01

    The LTS N method solves analytically the S N equations, applying the Laplace transform in the spatial variable. This methodology is used in determination of scalar flux for neutrons and photons, absorbed dose rate, buildup factors and power for a heterogeneous planar slab. This procedure leads to the solution of a transcendental equations for effective multiplication, critical thickness and the atomic density. In this work numerical results are reported, considering multigroup problem in heterogeneous slab. (author)

  20. Example of Occupational Surveillance in a Telemedicine Setting: Application of Epidemiologic Methods at NASA Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Ruffaner, Lanie M.; Wear, Mary L.; Crucian, Brian; Sams, Clarence; Lee, Lesley R.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, NASA implemented Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, a formal occupational surveillance program for the U.S. astronaut corps. Because of the nature of the space environment, space medicine presents unique challenges and opportunities for epidemiologists. One such example is the use of telemedicine while crewmembers are in flight, where the primary source of information about crew health is verbal communication between physicians and their crewmembers. Due to restricted medical capabilities, the available health information is primarily crewmember report of signs and symptoms, rather than diagnoses. As epidemiologists at NASA, Johnson Space Center, we have shifted our paradigm from tracking diagnoses based on traditional terrestrial clinical practice to one in which we also incorporate reported symptomology as potential antecedents of disease. In this presentation we describe how characterization of reported signs and symptoms can be used to establish incidence rates for inflight immunologic events. We describe interdisciplinary data sources of information that are used in combination with medical information to analyze the data. We also delineate criteria for symptom classification inclusion. Finally, we present incidence tables and graphs to illustrate the final outcomes. Using signs and symptoms reported via telemedicine, the epidemiologists provide summary evidence regarding incidence of potential inflight medical conditions. These results inform our NASA physicians and scientists, and support evaluation of the occupational health risks associated with spaceflight.

  1. Web-based infectious disease surveillance systems and public health perspectives: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance. This study explores the burgeoning field of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems by examining their current status, importance, and potential challenges. Methods A systematic review framework was applied to the search, screening, and analysis of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to extensively review the English literature published between 2000 and 2015. Eleven surveillance systems were chosen for evaluation according to their high frequency of application. Relevant terms, including newly coined terms, development and classification of the surveillance systems, and various characteristics associated with the systems were studied. Results Based on a detailed and informative review of the 11 web-based infectious disease surveillance systems, it was evident that these systems exhibited clear strengths, as compared to traditional surveillance systems, but with some limitations yet to be overcome. The major strengths of the newly emerging surveillance systems are that they are intuitive, adaptable, low-cost, and operated in real-time, all of which are necessary features of an effective public health tool. The most apparent potential challenges of the web-based systems are those of inaccurate interpretation and prediction of health status, and privacy issues, based on an individual’s internet activity. Conclusion Despite being in a nascent stage with further modification

  2. Machine Learning Method Applied in Readout System of Superheated Droplet Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Sullivan, Clair Julia; d'Errico, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Direct readability is one advantage of superheated droplet detectors in neutron dosimetry. Utilizing such a distinct characteristic, an imaging readout system analyzes image of the detector for neutron dose readout. To improve the accuracy and precision of algorithms in the imaging readout system, machine learning algorithms were developed. Deep learning neural network and support vector machine algorithms are applied and compared with generally used Hough transform and curvature analysis methods. The machine learning methods showed a much higher accuracy and better precision in recognizing circular gas bubbles.

  3. Translation Methods Applied in Translating Quotations in “the Secret” by Rhonda

    OpenAIRE

    FEBRIANTI, VICKY

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Translation Methods, The Secret, Quotations.Translation helps human to get information written in any language evenwhen it is written in foreign languages. Therefore translation happens in printed media. Books have been popular printed media. The Secret written by Rhonda Byrne is a popular self-help book which has been translated into 50 languages including Indonesian (“The Secret”, n.d., para.5-6).This study is meant to find out the translation methods applied in The Secret. The wr...

  4. Development of a tracking method for augmented reality applied to nuclear plant maintenance work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Maeshima, Masayuki; Nakai, Toshinori; Bian, Zhiqiang; Ishii, Hirotake; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a plant maintenance support method is described, which employs the state-of-the-art information technology, Augmented Reality (AR), in order to improve efficiency of NPP maintenance work and to prevent from human error. Although AR has a great possibility to support various works in real world, it is difficult to apply it to actual work support because the tracking method is the bottleneck for the practical use. In this study, a bar code marker tracking method is proposed to apply AR system for a maintenance work support in NPP field. The proposed method calculates the users position and orientation in real time by two long markers, which are captured by the user-mounted camera. The markers can be easily pasted on the pipes in plant field, and they can be easily recognized in long distance in order to reduce the number of pasted markers in the work field. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory and plant field to evaluate the proposed method. The results show that (1) fast and stable tracking can be realized, (2) position error in camera view is less than 1%, which is almost perfect under the limitation of camera resolution, and (3) it is relatively difficult to catch two markers in one camera view especially in short distance

  5. Applying the response matrix method for solving coupled neutron diffusion and transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibiya, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    The numerical determination of the flux and power distribution in the design of large power reactors is quite a time-consuming procedure if the space under consideration is to be subdivided into very fine weshes. Many computing methods applied in reactor physics (such as the finite-difference method) require considerable computing time. In this thesis it is shown that the response matrix method can be successfully used as an alternative approach to solving the two-dimension diffusion equation. Furthermore it is shown that sufficient accuracy of the method is achieved by assuming a linear space dependence of the neutron currents on the boundaries of the geometries defined for the given space. (orig.) [de

  6. Method to integrate clinical guidelines into the electronic health record (EHR) by applying the archetypes approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Diego; Moro, Claudia Maria Cabral; Cicogna, Paulo Eduardo; Carvalho, Deborah Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Clinical guidelines are documents that assist healthcare professionals, facilitating and standardizing diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas. Computerized guidelines as decision support systems (DSS) attempt to increase the performance of tasks and facilitate the use of guidelines. Most DSS are not integrated into the electronic health record (EHR), ordering some degree of rework especially related to data collection. This study's objective was to present a method for integrating clinical guidelines into the EHR. The study developed first a way to identify data and rules contained in the guidelines, and then incorporate rules into an archetype-based EHR. The proposed method tested was anemia treatment in the Chronic Kidney Disease Guideline. The phases of the method are: data and rules identification; archetypes elaboration; rules definition and inclusion in inference engine; and DSS-EHR integration and validation. The main feature of the proposed method is that it is generic and can be applied toany type of guideline.

  7. Lessons learned applying CASE methods/tools to Ada software development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Maurice H.; Randall, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from introducing CASE methods/tools into organizations and applying them to actual Ada software development projects. This paper will be useful to any organization planning to introduce a software engineering environment (SEE) or evolving an existing one. It contains management level lessons learned, as well as lessons learned in using specific SEE tools/methods. The experiences presented are from Alpha Test projects established under the STARS (Software Technology for Adaptable and Reliable Systems) project. They reflect the front end efforts by those projects to understand the tools/methods, initial experiences in their introduction and use, and later experiences in the use of specific tools/methods and the introduction of new ones.

  8. Applying some methods to process the data coming from the nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanov, M.K.; Abdinov, O.B.; Belashev, B.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The methods of a posterior increasing the resolution of the spectral lines are offered to process the data coming from the nuclear reactions. The methods have applied to process the data coming from the nuclear reactions at high energies. They give possibilities to get more detail information on a structure of the spectra of particles emitted in the nuclear reactions. The nuclear reactions are main source of the information on the structure and physics of the atomic nuclei. Usually the spectrums of the fragments of the reactions are complex ones. Apparently it is not simple to extract the necessary for investigation information. In the talk we discuss the methods of a posterior increasing the resolution of the spectral lines. The methods could be useful to process the complex data coming from the nuclear reactions. We consider the Fourier transformation method and maximum entropy one. The complex structures were identified by the method. One can see that at lest two selected points are indicated by the method. Recent we presented a talk where we shown that the results of the analyzing the structure of the pseudorapidity spectra of charged relativistic particles with ≥ 0.7 measured in Au+Em and Pb+Em at AGS and SPS energies using the Fourier transformation method and maximum entropy one. The dependences of these spectra on the number of fast target protons were studied. These distribution shown visually some plateau and shoulder that was at least three selected points on the distributions. The plateaus become wider in PbEm reactions. The existing of plateau is necessary for the parton models. The maximum entropy method could confirm the existing of the plateau and the shoulder on the distributions. The figure shows the results of applying the maximum entropy method. One can see that the method indicates several clean selected points. Some of them same with observed visually ones. We would like to note that the Fourier transformation method could not

  9. Intestinal colic in newborn babies: incidence and methods of proceeding applied by parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal colic is one of the more frequent complaints that a general practitioner and paediatrician deal with in their work. 10-40% of babies formula fed and 10-20% breast fed are stricken by this complaint. A colic attack appears suddenly and very quickly causes energetic, squeaky cry or even scream. Colic attacks last for a few minutes and appear every 2-3 hours usually in the evenings. Specialist literature provides numerous definitions of intestinal colic. The concept was introduced for the first time to paediatric textbooks over 250 years ago. One of the most accurate definitions describe colic as recurring attacks of intensive cry and anxiety lasting for more than 3 hours a day, 3 days a week within 3 weeks. Care of a baby suffering from an intestinal colic causes numerous problems and anxiety among parents, therefore knowledge of effective methods to combat this complaint is a challenge for contemporary neonatology and paediatrics. The aim of the study is to estimate the incidence of intestinal colic in newborn babies formula and breast fed as well as to assess methods of proceeding applied by parents and analyze their effectiveness. Material and methods: The research involved 100 newborn babies breast fed and 100 formula fed, and their parents. The research method applied in the study was a diagnostic survey conducted by use of a questionnaire method. Results: Among examined newborn babies that were breast fed, 43% have experienced intestinal colic, while among those formula fed 30% have suffered from it. The study involved 44% new born female babies and 56% male babies. 52% of mothers were 30-34 years old, 30% 35-59 years old, and 17% 25-59 years old. When it comes to families, the most numerous was a group in good financial situation (60%. The second numerous group was that in average financial situation (40%. All the respondents claimed that they had the knowledge on intestinal colic and the main source of knowledge

  10. Should methods of correction for multiple comparisons be applied in pharmacovigilance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Scotti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In pharmacovigilance, spontaneous reporting databases are devoted to the early detection of adverse event ‘signals’ of marketed drugs. A common limitation of these systems is the wide number of concurrently investigated associations, implying a high probability of generating positive signals simply by chance. However it is not clear if the application of methods aimed to adjust for the multiple testing problems are needed when at least some of the drug-outcome relationship under study are known. To this aim we applied a robust estimation method for the FDR (rFDR particularly suitable in the pharmacovigilance context. Methods. We exploited the data available for the SAFEGUARD project to apply the rFDR estimation methods to detect potential false positive signals of adverse reactions attributable to the use of non-insulin blood glucose lowering drugs. Specifically, the number of signals generated from the conventional disproportionality measures and after the application of the rFDR adjustment method was compared. Results. Among the 311 evaluable pairs (i.e., drug-event pairs with at least one adverse event report, 106 (34% signals were considered as significant from the conventional analysis. Among them 1 resulted in false positive signals according to rFDR method. Conclusions. The results of this study seem to suggest that when a restricted number of drug-outcome pairs is considered and warnings about some of them are known, multiple comparisons methods for recognizing false positive signals are not so useful as suggested by theoretical considerations.

  11. Solution of the neutron point kinetics equations with temperature feedback effects applying the polynomial approach method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumelero, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.tumelero@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana, E-mail: claudiopeteren@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gleniogoncalves@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luana-lazzari@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (DME/UFPEL), Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Matematica

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)

  12. Power secant method applied to natural frequency extraction of Timoshenko beam structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.N. Dias

    Full Text Available This work deals with an improved plane frame formulation whose exact dynamic stiffness matrix (DSM presents, uniquely, null determinant for the natural frequencies. In comparison with the classical DSM, the formulation herein presented has some major advantages: local mode shapes are preserved in the formulation so that, for any positive frequency, the DSM will never be ill-conditioned; in the absence of poles, it is possible to employ the secant method in order to have a more computationally efficient eigenvalue extraction procedure. Applying the procedure to the more general case of Timoshenko beams, we introduce a new technique, named "power deflation", that makes the secant method suitable for the transcendental nonlinear eigenvalue problems based on the improved DSM. In order to avoid overflow occurrences that can hinder the secant method iterations, limiting frequencies are formulated, with scaling also applied to the eigenvalue problem. Comparisons with results available in the literature demonstrate the strength of the proposed method. Computational efficiency is compared with solutions obtained both by FEM and by the Wittrick-Williams algorithm.

  13. Solution of the neutron point kinetics equations with temperature feedback effects applying the polynomial approach method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumelero, Fernanda; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)

  14. A methodological framework applied to the choice of the best method in replacement of nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianna Filho, Alfredo Marques

    2009-01-01

    The economic equipment replacement problem is a central question in Nuclear Engineering. On the one hand, new equipment are more attractive given their best performance, better reliability, lower maintenance cost etc. New equipment, however, require a higher initial investment. On the other hand, old equipment represent the other way around, with lower performance, lower reliability and specially higher maintenance costs, but in contrast having lower financial and insurance costs. The weighting of all these costs can be made with deterministic and probabilistic methods applied to the study of equipment replacement. Two types of distinct problems will be examined, substitution imposed by the wearing and substitution imposed by the failures. In order to solve the problem of nuclear system substitution imposed by wearing, deterministic methods are discussed. In order to solve the problem of nuclear system substitution imposed by failures, probabilistic methods are discussed. The aim of this paper is to present a methodological framework to the choice of the most useful method applied in the problem of nuclear system substitution.(author)

  15. Faraday rotation of Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) signals as a method of ionospheric characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushley, A. C.; Kabin, K.; Noel, J. M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Radio waves propagating through plasma in the Earth's ambient magnetic field experience Faraday rotation; the plane of the electric field of a linearly polarized wave changes as a function of the distance travelled through a plasma. Linearly polarized radio waves at 1090 MHz frequency are emitted by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) devices which are installed on most commercial aircraft. These radio waves can be detected by satellites in low earth orbits, and the change of the polarization angle caused by propagation through the terrestrial ionosphere can be measured. In this work we discuss how these measurements can be used to characterize the ionospheric conditions. In the present study, we compute the amount of Faraday rotation from a prescribed total electron content value and two of the profile parameters of the NeQuick model.

  16. Faraday Rotation of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Signals as a Method of Ionospheric Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushley, A. C.; Kabin, K.; Noël, J.-M.

    2017-10-01

    Radio waves propagating through plasma in the Earth's ambient magnetic field experience Faraday rotation; the plane of the electric field of a linearly polarized wave changes as a function of the distance travelled through a plasma. Linearly polarized radio waves at 1090 MHz frequency are emitted by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) devices that are installed on most commercial aircraft. These radio waves can be detected by satellites in low Earth orbits, and the change of the polarization angle caused by propagation through the terrestrial ionosphere can be measured. In this manuscript we discuss how these measurements can be used to characterize the ionospheric conditions. In the present study, we compute the amount of Faraday rotation from a prescribed total electron content value and two of the profile parameters of the NeQuick ionospheric model.

  17. Solution and study of nodal neutron transport equation applying the LTSN-DiagExp method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; Pazos, Ruben Panta; Vilhena, Marco Tullio de; Barros, Ricardo Carvalho de

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report advances about the three-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of neutron transport equation for Cartesian geometry. We use the combined collocation method of the angular variables and nodal approach for the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the iterated transverse integration of the S N equations. This procedure leads to the set of one-dimensional averages angular fluxes in each spatial variable. The resulting system of equations is solved with the LTS N method, first applying the Laplace transform to the set of the nodal S N equations and then obtained the solution by symbolic computation. We include the LTS N method by diagonalization to solve the nodal neutron transport equation and then we outline the convergence of these nodal-LTS N approximations with the help of a norm associated to the quadrature formula used to approximate the integral term of the neutron transport equation. (author)

  18. Artificial intelligence methods applied for quantitative analysis of natural radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Basic description of artificial neural networks. ► Natural gamma ray sources and problem of detections. ► Application of neural network for peak detection and activity determination. - Abstract: Artificial neural network (ANN) represents one of artificial intelligence methods in the field of modeling and uncertainty in different applications. The objective of the proposed work was focused to apply ANN to identify isotopes and to predict uncertainties of their activities of some natural radioactive sources. The method was tested for analyzing gamma-ray spectra emitted from natural radionuclides in soil samples detected by a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe (high purity germanium). The principle of the suggested method is described, including, relevant input parameters definition, input data scaling and networks training. It is clear that there is satisfactory agreement between obtained and predicted results using neural network.

  19. Scalable Methods for Eulerian-Lagrangian Simulation Applied to Compressible Multiphase Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, David; Hackl, Jason; Balachandar, S.

    2017-11-01

    Multiphase flows can be found in countless areas of physics and engineering. Many of these flows can be classified as dispersed two-phase flows, meaning that there are solid particles dispersed in a continuous fluid phase. A common technique for simulating such flow is the Eulerian-Lagrangian method. While useful, this method can suffer from scaling issues on larger problem sizes that are typical of many realistic geometries. Here we present scalable techniques for Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations and apply it to the simulation of a particle bed subjected to expansion waves in a shock tube. The results show that the methods presented here are viable for simulation of larger problems on modern supercomputers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  20. Relativistic convergent close-coupling method applied to electron scattering from mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostock, Christopher J.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor

    2010-01-01

    We report on the extension of the recently formulated relativistic convergent close-coupling (RCCC) method to accommodate two-electron and quasi-two-electron targets. We apply the theory to electron scattering from mercury and obtain differential and integrated cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering. We compared with previous nonrelativistic convergent close-coupling (CCC) calculations and for a number of transitions obtained significantly better agreement with the experiment. The RCCC method is able to resolve structure in the integrated cross sections for the energy regime in the vicinity of the excitation thresholds for the (6s6p) 3 P 0,1,2 states. These cross sections are associated with the formation of negative ion (Hg - ) resonances that could not be resolved with the nonrelativistic CCC method. The RCCC results are compared with the experiment and other relativistic theories.

  1. A reflective lens: applying critical systems thinking and visual methods to ecohealth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Deborah; Wyborn, Carina

    2010-12-01

    Critical systems methodology has been advocated as an effective and ethical way to engage with the uncertainty and conflicting values common to ecohealth problems. We use two contrasting case studies, coral reef management in the Philippines and national park management in Australia, to illustrate the value of critical systems approaches in exploring how people respond to environmental threats to their physical and spiritual well-being. In both cases, we used visual methods--participatory modeling and rich picturing, respectively. The critical systems methodology, with its emphasis on reflection, guided an appraisal of the research process. A discussion of these two case studies suggests that visual methods can be usefully applied within a critical systems framework to offer new insights into ecohealth issues across a diverse range of socio-political contexts. With this article, we hope to open up a conversation with other practitioners to expand the use of visual methods in integrated research.

  2. Numerical consideration for multiscale statistical process control method applied to nuclear material accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Hori, Masato; Asou, Ryoji; Usuda, Shigekazu

    2006-01-01

    The multiscale statistical process control (MSSPC) method is applied to clarify the elements of material unaccounted for (MUF) in large scale reprocessing plants using numerical calculations. Continuous wavelet functions are used to decompose the process data, which simulate batch operation superimposed by various types of disturbance, and the disturbance components included in the data are divided into time and frequency spaces. The diagnosis of MSSPC is applied to distinguish abnormal events from the process data and shows how to detect abrupt and protracted diversions using principle component analysis. Quantitative performance of MSSPC for the time series data is shown with average run lengths given by Monte-Carlo simulation to compare to the non-detection probability β. Recent discussion about bias corrections in material balances is introduced and another approach is presented to evaluate MUF without assuming the measurement error model. (author)

  3. The reduction method of statistic scale applied to study of climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal Suarez, Nestor Ricardo; Molina Lizcano, Alicia; Martinez Collantes, Jorge; Pabon Jose Daniel

    2000-01-01

    In climate change studies the global circulation models of the atmosphere (GCMAs) enable one to simulate the global climate, with the field variables being represented on a grid points 300 km apart. One particular interest concerns the simulation of possible changes in rainfall and surface air temperature due to an assumed increase of greenhouse gases. However, the models yield the climatic projections on grid points that in most cases do not correspond to the sites of major interest. To achieve local estimates of the climatological variables, methods like the one known as statistical down scaling are applied. In this article we show a case in point by applying canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to the Guajira Region in the northeast of Colombia

  4. Parallel Implicit Runge-Kutta Methods Applied to Coupled Orbit/Attitude Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Noble; Russell, Ryan P.

    2017-12-01

    A variable-step Gauss-Legendre implicit Runge-Kutta (GLIRK) propagator is applied to coupled orbit/attitude propagation. Concepts previously shown to improve efficiency in 3DOF propagation are modified and extended to the 6DOF problem, including the use of variable-fidelity dynamics models. The impact of computing the stage dynamics of a single step in parallel is examined using up to 23 threads and 22 associated GLIRK stages; one thread is reserved for an extra dynamics function evaluation used in the estimation of the local truncation error. Efficiency is found to peak for typical examples when using approximately 8 to 12 stages for both serial and parallel implementations. Accuracy and efficiency compare favorably to explicit Runge-Kutta and linear-multistep solvers for representative scenarios. However, linear-multistep methods are found to be more efficient for some applications, particularly in a serial computing environment, or when parallelism can be applied across multiple trajectories.

  5. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF APPLYING EVOLVED METHODS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied.

  6. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF APPLYING EVOLVED METHODS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied

  7. The Fractional Step Method Applied to Simulations of Natural Convective Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; Heinrich, Juan C.; Saxon, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes research done to apply the Fractional Step Method to finite-element simulations of natural convective flows in pure liquids, permeable media, and in a directionally solidified metal alloy casting. The Fractional Step Method has been applied commonly to high Reynold's number flow simulations, but is less common for low Reynold's number flows, such as natural convection in liquids and in permeable media. The Fractional Step Method offers increased speed and reduced memory requirements by allowing non-coupled solution of the pressure and the velocity components. The Fractional Step Method has particular benefits for predicting flows in a directionally solidified alloy, since other methods presently employed are not very efficient. Previously, the most suitable method for predicting flows in a directionally solidified binary alloy was the penalty method. The penalty method requires direct matrix solvers, due to the penalty term. The Fractional Step Method allows iterative solution of the finite element stiffness matrices, thereby allowing more efficient solution of the matrices. The Fractional Step Method also lends itself to parallel processing, since the velocity component stiffness matrices can be built and solved independently of each other. The finite-element simulations of a directionally solidified casting are used to predict macrosegregation in directionally solidified castings. In particular, the finite-element simulations predict the existence of 'channels' within the processing mushy zone and subsequently 'freckles' within the fully processed solid, which are known to result from macrosegregation, or what is often referred to as thermo-solutal convection. These freckles cause material property non-uniformities in directionally solidified castings; therefore many of these castings are scrapped. The phenomenon of natural convection in an alloy under-going directional solidification, or thermo-solutal convection, will be explained. The

  8. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia

    2016-01-01

    Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203

  9. Resonating group method as applied to the spectroscopy of α-transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, V. B.; Semjonov, V. M.; Gridnev, K. A.; Hefter, E. F.

    1983-10-01

    In the conventional approach to α-transfer reactions the finite- and/or zero-range distorted-wave Born approximation is used in liaison with a macroscopic description of the captured α particle in the residual nucleus. Here the specific example of 16O(6Li,d)20Ne reactions at different projectile energies is taken to present a microscopic resonating group method analysis of the α particle in the final nucleus (for the reaction part the simple zero-range distorted-wave Born approximation is employed). In the discussion of suitable nucleon-nucleon interactions, force number one of the effective interactions presented by Volkov is shown to be most appropriate for the system considered. Application of the continuous analog of Newton's method to the evaluation of the resonating group method equations yields an increased accuracy with respect to traditional methods. The resonating group method description induces only minor changes in the structures of the angular distributions, but it does serve its purpose in yielding reliable and consistent spectroscopic information. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 16O(6Li,d)20Ne; E=20 to 32 MeV; calculated B(E2); reduced widths, dσdΩ extracted α-spectroscopic factors. ZRDWBA with microscope RGM description of residual α particle in 20Ne; application of continuous analog of Newton's method; tested and applied Volkov force No. 1; direct mechanism.

  10. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailing Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration.

  11. The Inverse System Method Applied to the Derivation of Power System Non—linear Control Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DonghaiLI; XuezhiJIANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    The differential geometric method has been applied to a series of power system non-linear control problems effectively.However a set of differential equations must be solved for obtaining the required diffeomorphic transformation.Therefore the derivation of control laws is very complicated.In fact because of the specificity of power system models the required diffeomorphic transformation may be obtained directly,so it is unnecessary to solve a set of differential equations.In addition inverse system method is equivalent to differential geometric method in reality and not limited to affine nonlinear systems,Its physical meaning is able to be viewed directly and its deduction needs only algebraic operation and derivation,so control laws can be obtained easily and the application to engineering is very convenient.Authors of this paper take steam valving control of power system as a typical case to be studied.It is demonstrated that the control law deduced by inverse system method is just the same as one by differential geometric method.The conclusion will simplify the control law derivations of steam valving,excitation,converter and static var compensator by differential geometric method and may be suited to similar control problems in other areas.

  12. Comparison of Heuristic Methods Applied for Optimal Operation of Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Borhani Dariane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water resources optimization problems are usually complex and hard to solve using the ordinary optimization methods, or they are at least  not economically efficient. A great number of studies have been conducted in quest of suitable methods capable of handling such problems. In recent years, some new heuristic methods such as genetic and ant algorithms have been introduced in systems engineering. Preliminary applications of these methods in water resources problems have shown that some of them are powerful tools, capable of solving complex problems. In this paper, the application of such heuristic methods as Genetic Algorithm (GA and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO have been studied for optimizing reservoir operation. The Dez Dam reservoir inIranwas chosen for a case study. The methods were applied and compared using short-term (one year and long-term models. Comparison of the results showed that GA outperforms both DP and ACO in finding true global optimum solutions and operating rules.

  13. Boundary element methods applied to two-dimensional neutron diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi

    1985-01-01

    The Boundary element method (BEM) has been applied to two-dimensional neutron diffusion problems. The boundary integral equation and its discretized form have been derived. Some numerical techniques have been developed, which can be applied to critical and fixed-source problems including multi-region ones. Two types of test programs have been developed according to whether the 'zero-determinant search' or the 'source iteration' technique is adopted for criticality search. Both programs require only the fluxes and currents on boundaries as the unknown variables. The former allows a reduction in computing time and memory in comparison with the finite element method (FEM). The latter is not always efficient in terms of computing time due to the domain integral related to the inhomogeneous source term; however, this domain integral can be replaced by the equivalent boundary integral for a region with a non-multiplying medium or with a uniform source, resulting in a significant reduction in computing time. The BEM, as well as the FEM, is well suited for solving irregular geometrical problems for which the finite difference method (FDM) is unsuited. The BEM also solves problems with infinite domains, which cannot be solved by the ordinary FEM and FDM. Some simple test calculations are made to compare the BEM with the FEM and FDM, and discussions are made concerning the relative merits of the BEM and problems requiring future solution. (author)

  14. Methodical basis of training of cadets for the military applied heptathlon competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Anatskyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to develop methodical bases of training of cadets for the military applied heptathlon competitions. Material and methods: Cadets of 2-3 courses at the age of 19-20 years (n=20 participated in researches. Cadets were selected by the best results of exercises performing included into the program of military applied heptathlon competitions (100 m run, 50 m freestyle swimming, Kalashnikov rifle shooting, pull-up, obstacle course, grenade throwing, 3000 m run. Preparation took place on the basis of training center. All trainings were organized and carried out according to the methodical basics: in a week preparation microcycle five days cadets had two trainings a day (on Saturday was one training, on Sunday they had rest. The selected exercises with individual loads were performed, Results : Sport scores demonstrated top results in the performance of 100 m run, 3000 m run and pull-up. The indices of performing exercise "obstacle course" were much lower than expected. Rather low results were demonstrated in swimming and shooting. Conclusions . Results of researches indicate the necessity of quality improvement: cadets’ weapons proficiency; physical readiness to perform the exercises requiring complex demonstration of all physical qualities.

  15. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  16. Nutrient Runoff Losses from Liquid Dairy Manure Applied with Low-Disturbance Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, William; Sherman, Jessica; Cavadini, Jason

    2016-09-01

    Manure applied to cropland is a source of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in surface runoff and can contribute to impairment of surface waters. Tillage immediately after application incorporates manure into the soil, which may reduce nutrient loss in runoff as well as N loss via NH volatilization. However, tillage also incorporates crop residue, which reduces surface cover and may increase erosion potential. We applied liquid dairy manure in a silage corn ( L.)-cereal rye ( L.) cover crop system in late October using methods designed to incorporate manure with minimal soil and residue disturbance. These include strip-till injection and tine aerator-band manure application, which were compared with standard broadcast application, either incorporated with a disk or left on the surface. Runoff was generated with a portable rainfall simulator (42 mm h for 30 min) three separate times: (i) 2 to 5 d after the October manure application, (ii) in early spring, and (iii) after tillage and planting. In the postmanure application runoff, the highest losses of total P and dissolved reactive P were from surface-applied manure. Dissolved P loss was reduced 98% by strip-till injection; this result was not statistically different from the no-manure control. Reductions from the aerator band method and disk incorporation were 53 and 80%, respectively. Total P losses followed a similar pattern, with 87% reduction from injected manure. Runoff losses of N had generally similar patterns to those of P. Losses of P and N were, in most cases, lower in the spring rain simulations with fewer significant treatment effects. Overall, results show that low-disturbance manure application methods can significantly reduce nutrient runoff losses compared with surface application while maintaining residue cover better than incorporation by tillage. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Electrochemical noise measurements techniques and the reversing dc potential drop method applied to stress corrosion essays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Omar Fernandes; Andrade, Arnaldo Paes de; MattarNeto, Miguel; Aoki, Idalina Vieira

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to collect information and to discuss the electrochemical noise measurements and the reversing dc potential drop method, applied to stress corrosion essays that can be used to evaluate the nucleation and the increase of stress corrosion cracking in Alloy 600 and/or Alloy 182 specimens from Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. Therefore we will pretend to establish a standard procedure to essays to be realized on the new autoclave equipment on the Laboratorio de Eletroquimica e Corrosao do Departamento de Engenharia Quimica da Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo - Electrochemical and Corrosion Laboratory of the Chemical Engineering Department of Polytechnical School of Sao Paulo University, Brazil. (author)

  18. Making Design Decisions Visible: Applying the Case-Based Method in Designing Online Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Luo,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The instructional intervention in this design case is a self-directed online tutorial that applies the case-based method to teach educators how to design and conduct entrepreneurship programs for elementary school students. In this article, the authors describe the major decisions made in each phase of the design and development process, explicate the rationales behind them, and demonstrate their effect on the production of the tutorial. Based on such analysis, the guidelines for designing case-based online instruction are summarized for the design case.

  19. A semiempirical method of applying the dechanneling correction in the extraction of disorder distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.S.; Thompson, D.A.; Poehlman, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    The application of single, plural or multiple scattering theories to the determination of defect dechanneling in channeling-backscattering disorder measurements is re-examined. A semiempirical modification to the method is described that results in making the extracted disorder and disorder distribution relatively insensitive to the scattering model employed. The various models and modifications have been applied to the 1 to 2 MeV He + channeling-backscatter data obtained from 20 to 80 keV H + to Ne + bombarded Si, GaP and GaAs at 50 K and 300 K. (author)

  20. Zoltàn Dörnyei, Research Methods in Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Françoise Narcy-Combes

    2012-01-01

    Research Methods in Applied Linguistics est un ouvrage pratique et accessible qui s’adresse en priorité au chercheur débutant et au doctorant en linguistique appliquée et en didactique des langues pour lesquels il représente un accompagnement fort utile. Son style clair et son organisation sans surprise en font une lecture facile et agréable et rendent les différents concepts aisément compréhensibles pour tous. Il présente un bilan de la méthodologie de la recherche en linguistique appliquée,...

  1. Cork-resin ablative insulation for complex surfaces and method for applying the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. M.; Sharpe, M. H.; Simpson, W. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method of applying cork-resin ablative insulation material to complex curved surfaces is disclosed. The material is prepared by mixing finely divided cork with a B-stage curable thermosetting resin, forming the resulting mixture into a block, B-stage curing the resin-containing block, and slicing the block into sheets. The B-stage cured sheet is shaped to conform to the surface being insulated, and further curing is then performed. Curing of the resins only to B-stage before shaping enables application of sheet material to complex curved surfaces and avoids limitations and disadvantages presented in handling of fully cured sheet material.

  2. Perturbative methods applied for sensitive coefficients calculations in thermal-hydraulic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, F.R. de

    1993-01-01

    The differential formalism and the Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) are applied to sensitivity analysis of thermal-hydraulics problems related to pressurized water reactor cores. The equations describing the thermal-hydraulic behavior of these reactors cores, used in COBRA-IV-I code, are conveniently written. The importance function related to the response of interest and the sensitivity coefficient of this response with respect to various selected parameters are obtained by using Differential and Generalized Perturbation Theory. The comparison among the results obtained with the application of these perturbative methods and those obtained directly with the model developed in COBRA-IV-I code shows a very good agreement. (author)

  3. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a participatory disease surveillance method for highly pathogenic avian influenza in household chicken flocks in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, M; Priyono, W B; Kim, L M; Brum, E

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a disease surveillance method for diagnosis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in household chicken flocks used by participatory disease surveillance (PDS) teams in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. The Government of Indonesia, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, has implemented a PDS method for the detection of HPAI outbreaks in poultry since 2006. The PDS method in Indonesia utilizes both a clinical case definition (CD) and the result of a commercial rapid antigen test kit Yogyakarta 55611, to diagnose HPAI outbreaks, primarily in backyard chicken flocks. The following diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were obtained relative to real-time reverse transcription-PCR as the gold standard diagnostic test: 1) 89% sensitivity (CI95: 75%-97%) and 96% specificity (CI95: 89%-99%) for the PDS CD alone; 2) 86% sensitivity (CI95: 71%-95%) and 99% specificity (CI95: 94%-100%) for the rapid antigen test alone; and 3) 84% sensitivity (CI95: 68%-94%) and 100% specificity (CI95: 96%-100%) for the PDS CD result combined with the rapid antigen test result. Based on these results, HPAI outbreaks in extensively raised household chickens can be diagnosed with sufficient sensitivity and specificity using the PDS method as implemented in Indonesia. Subject to further field evaluation, data from this study suggest that the diagnostic sensitivity of the PDS method may be improved by expanding the PDS CD to include more possible clinical presentations of HPAI and by increasing the number of rapid antigen tests to three different birds with HPAI-compatible signs of same flock.

  4. Geometric methods for estimating representative sidewalk widths applied to Vienna's streetscape surfaces database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Tadej; Graser, Anita; Leth, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Space, and in particular public space for movement and leisure, is a valuable and scarce resource, especially in today's growing urban centres. The distribution and absolute amount of urban space—especially the provision of sufficient pedestrian areas, such as sidewalks—is considered crucial for shaping living and mobility options as well as transport choices. Ubiquitous urban data collection and today's IT capabilities offer new possibilities for providing a relation-preserving overview and for keeping track of infrastructure changes. This paper presents three novel methods for estimating representative sidewalk widths and applies them to the official Viennese streetscape surface database. The first two methods use individual pedestrian area polygons and their geometrical representations of minimum circumscribing and maximum inscribing circles to derive a representative width of these individual surfaces. The third method utilizes aggregated pedestrian areas within the buffered street axis and results in a representative width for the corresponding road axis segment. Results are displayed as city-wide means in a 500 by 500 m grid and spatial autocorrelation based on Moran's I is studied. We also compare the results between methods as well as to previous research, existing databases and guideline requirements on sidewalk widths. Finally, we discuss possible applications of these methods for monitoring and regression analysis and suggest future methodological improvements for increased accuracy.

  5. MAIA - Method for Architecture of Information Applied: methodological construct of information processing in complex contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Moura Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paper to presentation the MAIA Method for Architecture of Information Applied evolution, its structure, results obtained and three practical applications.Objective: Proposal of a methodological constructo for treatment of complex information, distinguishing information spaces and revealing inherent configurations of those spaces. Metodology: The argument is elaborated from theoretical research of analitical hallmark, using distinction as a way to express concepts. Phenomenology is used as a philosophical position, which considers the correlation between Subject↔Object. The research also considers the notion of interpretation as an integrating element for concepts definition. With these postulates, the steps to transform the information spaces are formulated. Results: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Conclusions: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Besides that, the article presents not only possible applications as a cientific method, but also as configuration tool in information spaces, as well as generator of ontologies. At last, but not least, presents a brief summary of the analysis made by researchers who have already evaluated the method considering the three aspects mentioned.

  6. A Review of Auditing Methods Applied to the Content of Controlled Biomedical Terminologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinxin; Fan, Jung-Wei; Baorto, David M.; Weng, Chunhua; Cimino, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Although controlled biomedical terminologies have been with us for centuries, it is only in the last couple of decades that close attention has been paid to the quality of these terminologies. The result of this attention has been the development of auditing methods that apply formal methods to assessing whether terminologies are complete and accurate. We have performed an extensive literature review to identify published descriptions of these methods and have created a framework for characterizing them. The framework considers manual, systematic and heuristic methods that use knowledge (within or external to the terminology) to measure quality factors of different aspects of the terminology content (terms, semantic classification, and semantic relationships). The quality factors examined included concept orientation, consistency, non-redundancy, soundness and comprehensive coverage. We reviewed 130 studies that were retrieved based on keyword search on publications in PubMed, and present our assessment of how they fit into our framework. We also identify which terminologies have been audited with the methods and provide examples to illustrate each part of the framework. PMID:19285571

  7. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  8. Complex Method Mixed with PSO Applying to Optimization Design of Bridge Crane Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineer design, basic complex method has not enough global search ability for the nonlinear optimization problem, so it mixed with particle swarm optimization (PSO has been presented in the paper,that is the optimal particle evaluated from fitness function of particle swarm displacement complex vertex in order to realize optimal principle of the largest complex central distance.This method is applied to optimization design problems of box girder of bridge crane with constraint conditions.At first a mathematical model of the girder optimization has been set up,in which box girder cross section area of bridge crane is taken as the objective function, and its four sizes parameters as design variables, girder mechanics performance, manufacturing process, border sizes and so on requirements as constraint conditions. Then complex method mixed with PSO is used to solve optimization design problem of cane box girder from constrained optimization studying approach, and its optimal results have achieved the goal of lightweight design and reducing the crane manufacturing cost . The method is reliable, practical and efficient by the practical engineer calculation and comparative analysis with basic complex method.

  9. Efficient alpha particle detection by CR-39 applying 50 Hz-HV electrochemical etching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Soltani, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha particles can be detected by CR-39 by applying either chemical etching (CE), electrochemical etching (ECE), or combined pre-etching and ECE usually through a multi-step HF-HV ECE process at temperatures much higher than room temperature. By applying pre-etching, characteristics responses of fast-neutron-induced recoil tracks in CR-39 by HF-HV ECE versus KOH normality (N) have shown two high-sensitivity peaks around 5–6 and 15–16 N and a large-diameter peak with a minimum sensitivity around 10–11 N at 25°C. On the other hand, 50 Hz-HV ECE method recently advanced in our laboratory detects alpha particles with high efficiency and broad registration energy range with small ECE tracks in polycarbonate (PC) detectors. By taking advantage of the CR-39 sensitivity to alpha particles, efficacy of 50 Hz-HV ECE method and CR-39 exotic responses under different KOH normalities, detection characteristics of 0.8 MeV alpha particle tracks were studied in 500 μm CR-39 for different fluences, ECE duration and KOH normality. Alpha registration efficiency increased as ECE duration increased to 90 ± 2% after 6–8 h beyond which plateaus are reached. Alpha track density versus fluence is linear up to 10 6  tracks cm −2 . The efficiency and mean track diameter versus alpha fluence up to 10 6  alphas cm −2 decrease as the fluence increases. Background track density and minimum detection limit are linear functions of ECE duration and increase as normality increases. The CR-39 processed for the first time in this study by 50 Hz-HV ECE method proved to provide a simple, efficient and practical alpha detection method at room temperature. - Highlights: • Alpha particles of 0.8 MeV were detected in CR-39 by 50 Hz-HV ECE method. • Efficiency/track diameter was studied vs fluence and time for 3 KOH normality. • Background track density and minimum detection limit vs duration were studied. • A new simple, efficient and low-cost alpha detection method

  10. A METHOD FOR PREPARING A SUBSTRATE BY APPLYING A SAMPLE TO BE ANALYSED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for preparing a substrate (105a) comprising a sample reception area (110) and a sensing area (111). The method comprises the steps of: 1) applying a sample on the sample reception area; 2) rotating the substrate around a predetermined axis; 3) during rotation......, at least part of the liquid travels from the sample reception area to the sensing area due to capillary forces acting between the liquid and the substrate; and 4) removing the wave of particles and liquid formed at one end of the substrate. The sensing area is closer to the predetermined axis than...... the sample reception area. The sample comprises a liquid part and particles suspended therein....

  11. Simplified inelastic analysis methods applied to fast breeder reactor core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-El-Ata, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper starts with a review of some currently available simplified inelastic analysis methods used in elevated temperature design for evaluating plastic and thermal creep strains. The primary purpose of the paper is to investigate how these simplified methods may be applied to fast breeder reactor core design where neutron irradiation effects are significant. One of the problems discussed is irradiation-induced creep and its effect on shakedown, ratcheting, and plastic cycling. Another problem is the development of swelling-induced stress which is an additional loading mechanism and must be taken into account. In this respect an expression for swelling-induced stress in the presence of irradiation creep is derived and a model for simplifying the stress analysis under these conditions is proposed. As an example, the effects of irradiation creep and swelling induced stress on the analysis of a thin walled tube under constant internal pressure and intermittent heat fluxes, simulating a fuel pin, is presented

  12. Analytical Plug-In Method for Kernel Density Estimator Applied to Genetic Neutrality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troudi, Molka; Alimi, Adel M.; Saoudi, Samir

    2008-12-01

    The plug-in method enables optimization of the bandwidth of the kernel density estimator in order to estimate probability density functions (pdfs). Here, a faster procedure than that of the common plug-in method is proposed. The mean integrated square error (MISE) depends directly upon [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] which is linked to the second-order derivative of the pdf. As we intend to introduce an analytical approximation of [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], the pdf is estimated only once, at the end of iterations. These two kinds of algorithm are tested on different random variables having distributions known for their difficult estimation. Finally, they are applied to genetic data in order to provide a better characterisation in the mean of neutrality of Tunisian Berber populations.

  13. Analytical Plug-In Method for Kernel Density Estimator Applied to Genetic Neutrality Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Saoudi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The plug-in method enables optimization of the bandwidth of the kernel density estimator in order to estimate probability density functions (pdfs. Here, a faster procedure than that of the common plug-in method is proposed. The mean integrated square error (MISE depends directly upon J(f which is linked to the second-order derivative of the pdf. As we intend to introduce an analytical approximation of J(f, the pdf is estimated only once, at the end of iterations. These two kinds of algorithm are tested on different random variables having distributions known for their difficult estimation. Finally, they are applied to genetic data in order to provide a better characterisation in the mean of neutrality of Tunisian Berber populations.

  14. Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirlian, M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: marc.missirlian@cea.fr; Traxler, H. [PLANSEE SE, Technology Center, A-6600 Reutte (Austria); Boscary, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Schedler, B.; Schuler, P. [PLANSEE SE, Technology Center, A-6600 Reutte (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    The non-destructive examination (NDE) method is one of the key issues in developing highly loaded plasma-facing components (PFCs) for a next generation fusion devices such as W7-X and ITER. The most critical step is certainly the fabrication and the examination of the bond between the armour and the heat sink. Two inspection systems based on the infrared thermography methods, namely, the transient thermography (SATIR-CEA) and the pulsed thermography (ARGUS-PLANSEE), are being developed and have been applied to the pre-series of target elements of the W7-X divertor. Results obtained from qualification experiences performed on target elements with artificial calibrated defects allowed to demonstrate the capability of the two techniques and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application.

  15. Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Traxler, H.; Boscary, J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J.; Schedler, B.; Schuler, P.

    2007-01-01

    The non-destructive examination (NDE) method is one of the key issues in developing highly loaded plasma-facing components (PFCs) for a next generation fusion devices such as W7-X and ITER. The most critical step is certainly the fabrication and the examination of the bond between the armour and the heat sink. Two inspection systems based on the infrared thermography methods, namely, the transient thermography (SATIR-CEA) and the pulsed thermography (ARGUS-PLANSEE), are being developed and have been applied to the pre-series of target elements of the W7-X divertor. Results obtained from qualification experiences performed on target elements with artificial calibrated defects allowed to demonstrate the capability of the two techniques and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application

  16. The fundamental parameter method applied to X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantenburg, F. J.; Beier, T.; Hennrich, F.; Mommsen, H.

    1992-05-01

    Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis applying the fundamental parameter method is usually restricted to monochromatic excitation sources. It is shown here, that such analyses can be performed as well with a white synchrotron radiation spectrum. To determine absolute elemental concentration values it is necessary to know the spectral distribution of this spectrum. A newly designed and tested experimental setup, which uses the synchrotron radiation emitted from electrons in a bending magnet of ELSA (electron stretcher accelerator of the university of Bonn) is presented. The determination of the exciting spectrum, described by the given electron beam parameters, is limited due to uncertainties in the vertical electron beam size and divergence. We describe a method which allows us to determine the relative and absolute spectral distributions needed for accurate analysis. First test measurements of different alloys and standards of known composition demonstrate that it is possible to determine exact concentration values in bulk and trace element analysis.

  17. Super-convergence of Discontinuous Galerkin Method Applied to the Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Harold L.

    2009-01-01

    The practical benefits of the hyper-accuracy properties of the discontinuous Galerkin method are examined. In particular, we demonstrate that some flow attributes exhibit super-convergence even in the absence of any post-processing technique. Theoretical analysis suggest that flow features that are dominated by global propagation speeds and decay or growth rates should be super-convergent. Several discrete forms of the discontinuous Galerkin method are applied to the simulation of unsteady viscous flow over a two-dimensional cylinder. Convergence of the period of the naturally occurring oscillation is examined and shown to converge at 2p+1, where p is the polynomial degree of the discontinuous Galerkin basis. Comparisons are made between the different discretizations and with theoretical analysis.

  18. Data Analytics of Mobile Serious Games: Applying Bayesian Data Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Lukosch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional teaching methods in the field of resuscitation training show some limitations, while teaching the right actions in critical situations could increase the number of people saved after a cardiac arrest. For our study, we developed a mobile game to support the transfer of theoretical knowledge on resuscitation.  The game has been tested at three schools of further education. A number of data has been collected from 171 players. To analyze this large data set from different sources and quality, different types of data modeling and analyses had to be applied. This approach showed its usefulness in analyzing the large set of data from different sources. It revealed some interesting findings, such as that female players outperformed the male ones, and that the game fostering informal, self-directed is equally efficient as the traditional formal learning method.

  19. An input feature selection method applied to fuzzy neural networks for signal esitmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Sim, Young Rok

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the performance of a fuzzy neural networks strongly depends on the input features selected for its training. In its applications to sensor signal estimation, there are a large number of input variables related with an output. As the number of input variables increases, the training time of fuzzy neural networks required increases exponentially. Thus, it is essential to reduce the number of inputs to a fuzzy neural networks and to select the optimum number of mutually independent inputs that are able to clearly define the input-output mapping. In this work, principal component analysis (PAC), genetic algorithms (GA) and probability theory are combined to select new important input features. A proposed feature selection method is applied to the signal estimation of the steam generator water level, the hot-leg flowrate, the pressurizer water level and the pressurizer pressure sensors in pressurized water reactors and compared with other input feature selection methods

  20. Performance comparison of two efficient genomic selection methods (gsbay & MixP) applied in aquacultural organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hailin; Li, Hengde; Wang, Shi; Wang, Yangfan; Bao, Zhenmin

    2017-02-01

    Genomic selection is more and more popular in animal and plant breeding industries all around the world, as it can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. The objective of this study was to bring the advantages of genomic selection to scallop breeding. Two different genomic selection tools MixP and gsbay were applied on genomic evaluation of simulated data and Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) field data. The data were compared with genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) method which has been applied widely. Our results showed that both MixP and gsbay could accurately estimate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker effects, and thereby could be applied for the analysis of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV). In simulated data from different scenarios, the accuracy of GEBV acquired was ranged from 0.20 to 0.78 by MixP; it was ranged from 0.21 to 0.67 by gsbay; and it was ranged from 0.21 to 0.61 by GBLUP. Estimations made by MixP and gsbay were expected to be more reliable than those estimated by GBLUP. Predictions made by gsbay were more robust, while with MixP the computation is much faster, especially in dealing with large-scale data. These results suggested that both algorithms implemented by MixP and gsbay are feasible to carry out genomic selection in scallop breeding, and more genotype data will be necessary to produce genomic estimated breeding values with a higher accuracy for the industry.

  1. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  2. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Erin O.; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A. Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts’ selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal “blacklist” that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on

  3. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin O Sills

    Full Text Available Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012. This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and

  4. Applying Mathematical Optimization Methods to an ACT-R Instance-Based Learning Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Said

    Full Text Available Computational models of cognition provide an interface to connect advanced mathematical tools and methods to empirically supported theories of behavior in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this article, we consider a computational model of instance-based learning, implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We propose an approach for obtaining mathematical reformulations of such cognitive models that improve their computational tractability. For the well-established Sugar Factory dynamic decision making task, we conduct a simulation study to analyze central model parameters. We show how mathematical optimization techniques can be applied to efficiently identify optimal parameter values with respect to different optimization goals. Beyond these methodological contributions, our analysis reveals the sensitivity of this particular task with respect to initial settings and yields new insights into how average human performance deviates from potential optimal performance. We conclude by discussing possible extensions of our approach as well as future steps towards applying more powerful derivative-based optimization methods.

  5. Labile soil phosphorus as influenced by methods of applying radioactive phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaratnam, V.V.; Andersen, A.J.; Thomsen, J.D.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1980-03-01

    The influence of different methods of applying radioactive phosphorus on the E- and L-values was studied in four foil types using barley, buckwheat, and rye grass for the L-value determination. The four soils differed greatly in their E- and L-values. The experiment was carried out both with and without carrier-P. The presence of carrier-P had no influence on the E-values, while carrier-P in some cases gave a lower L-value. Both E- and L-values dependent on the method of application. When the 32 P was applied on a small soil or sand sample and dried before mixing with the total amount of soil, the E-values were higher than at direct application most likely because of a stronger fixation to the soil/sand particles. This was not the case for the L-values that are based on a much longer equilibrium time. On the contrary, the direct application of the 32 p-solution to the whole amount of soil gave higher L-values of a non-homogeneous distribution of the 32 p in the soil. (author)

  6. Analysis of coupled neutron-gamma radiations, applied to shieldings in multigroup albedo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunley, Leonardo Souza

    2002-01-01

    The principal mathematical tools frequently available for calculations in Nuclear Engineering, including coupled neutron-gamma radiations shielding problems, involve the full Transport Theory or the Monte Carlo techniques. The Multigroup Albedo Method applied to shieldings is characterized by following the radiations through distinct layers of materials, allowing the determination of the neutron and gamma fractions reflected from, transmitted through and absorbed in the irradiated media when a neutronic stream hits the first layer of material, independently of flux calculations. Then, the method is a complementary tool of great didactic value due to its clarity and simplicity in solving neutron and/or gamma shielding problems. The outstanding results achieved in previous works motivated the elaboration and the development of this study that is presented in this dissertation. The radiation balance resulting from the incidence of a neutronic stream into a shielding composed by 'm' non-multiplying slab layers for neutrons was determined by the Albedo method, considering 'n' energy groups for neutrons and 'g' energy groups for gammas. It was taken into account there is no upscattering of neutrons and gammas. However, it was considered that neutrons from any energy groups are able to produce gammas of all energy groups. The ANISN code, for an angular quadrature order S 2 , was used as a standard for comparison of the results obtained by the Albedo method. So, it was necessary to choose an identical system configuration, both for ANISN and Albedo methods. This configuration was six neutron energy groups and eight gamma energy groups, using three slab layers (iron aluminum - manganese). The excellent results expressed in comparative tables show great agreement between the values determined by the deterministic code adopted as standard and, the values determined by the computational program created using the Albedo method and the algorithm developed for coupled neutron

  7. In silico toxicology: comprehensive benchmarking of multi-label classification methods applied to chemical toxicity data

    KAUST Repository

    Raies, Arwa B.

    2017-12-05

    One goal of toxicity testing, among others, is identifying harmful effects of chemicals. Given the high demand for toxicity tests, it is necessary to conduct these tests for multiple toxicity endpoints for the same compound. Current computational toxicology methods aim at developing models mainly to predict a single toxicity endpoint. When chemicals cause several toxicity effects, one model is generated to predict toxicity for each endpoint, which can be labor and computationally intensive when the number of toxicity endpoints is large. Additionally, this approach does not take into consideration possible correlation between the endpoints. Therefore, there has been a recent shift in computational toxicity studies toward generating predictive models able to predict several toxicity endpoints by utilizing correlations between these endpoints. Applying such correlations jointly with compounds\\' features may improve model\\'s performance and reduce the number of required models. This can be achieved through multi-label classification methods. These methods have not undergone comprehensive benchmarking in the domain of predictive toxicology. Therefore, we performed extensive benchmarking and analysis of over 19,000 multi-label classification models generated using combinations of the state-of-the-art methods. The methods have been evaluated from different perspectives using various metrics to assess their effectiveness. We were able to illustrate variability in the performance of the methods under several conditions. This review will help researchers to select the most suitable method for the problem at hand and provide a baseline for evaluating new approaches. Based on this analysis, we provided recommendations for potential future directions in this area.

  8. In silico toxicology: comprehensive benchmarking of multi-label classification methods applied to chemical toxicity data

    KAUST Repository

    Raies, Arwa B.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    One goal of toxicity testing, among others, is identifying harmful effects of chemicals. Given the high demand for toxicity tests, it is necessary to conduct these tests for multiple toxicity endpoints for the same compound. Current computational toxicology methods aim at developing models mainly to predict a single toxicity endpoint. When chemicals cause several toxicity effects, one model is generated to predict toxicity for each endpoint, which can be labor and computationally intensive when the number of toxicity endpoints is large. Additionally, this approach does not take into consideration possible correlation between the endpoints. Therefore, there has been a recent shift in computational toxicity studies toward generating predictive models able to predict several toxicity endpoints by utilizing correlations between these endpoints. Applying such correlations jointly with compounds' features may improve model's performance and reduce the number of required models. This can be achieved through multi-label classification methods. These methods have not undergone comprehensive benchmarking in the domain of predictive toxicology. Therefore, we performed extensive benchmarking and analysis of over 19,000 multi-label classification models generated using combinations of the state-of-the-art methods. The methods have been evaluated from different perspectives using various metrics to assess their effectiveness. We were able to illustrate variability in the performance of the methods under several conditions. This review will help researchers to select the most suitable method for the problem at hand and provide a baseline for evaluating new approaches. Based on this analysis, we provided recommendations for potential future directions in this area.

  9. Fuzzy logic and optical correlation-based face recognition method for patient monitoring application in home video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbouz, Marwa; Alfalou, Ayman; Brosseau, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Home automation is being implemented into more and more domiciles of the elderly and disabled in order to maintain their independence and safety. For that purpose, we propose and validate a surveillance video system, which detects various posture-based events. One of the novel points of this system is to use adapted Vander-Lugt correlator (VLC) and joint-transfer correlator (JTC) techniques to make decisions on the identity of a patient and his three-dimensional (3-D) positions in order to overcome the problem of crowd environment. We propose a fuzzy logic technique to get decisions on the subject's behavior. Our system is focused on the goals of accuracy, convenience, and cost, which in addition does not require any devices attached to the subject. The system permits one to study and model subject responses to behavioral change intervention because several levels of alarm can be incorporated according different situations considered. Our algorithm performs a fast 3-D recovery of the subject's head position by locating eyes within the face image and involves a model-based prediction and optical correlation techniques to guide the tracking procedure. The object detection is based on (hue, saturation, value) color space. The system also involves an adapted fuzzy logic control algorithm to make a decision based on information given to the system. Furthermore, the principles described here are applicable to a very wide range of situations and robust enough to be implementable in ongoing experiments.

  10. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari......This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach......, the model is established by first considering the social function of privacy in everyday life, which in turn lets us determine which different domains will be considered as private, and finally identify the different types of privacy invasion. This underlying model (function – domain – invasion) then serves...

  11. Study on Feasibility of Applying Function Approximation Moment Method to Achieve Reliability-Based Design Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Jae Sung; Kwak, Byung Man

    2011-01-01

    Robust optimization or reliability-based design optimization are some of the methodologies that are employed to take into account the uncertainties of a system at the design stage. For applying such methodologies to solve industrial problems, accurate and efficient methods for estimating statistical moments and failure probability are required, and further, the results of sensitivity analysis, which is needed for searching direction during the optimization process, should also be accurate. The aim of this study is to employ the function approximation moment method into the sensitivity analysis formulation, which is expressed as an integral form, to verify the accuracy of the sensitivity results, and to solve a typical problem of reliability-based design optimization. These results are compared with those of other moment methods, and the feasibility of the function approximation moment method is verified. The sensitivity analysis formula with integral form is the efficient formulation for evaluating sensitivity because any additional function calculation is not needed provided the failure probability or statistical moments are calculated

  12. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  13. An IMU-to-Body Alignment Method Applied to Human Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Susana Vargas-Valencia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel calibration procedure as a simple, yet powerful, method to place and align inertial sensors with body segments. The calibration can be easily replicated without the need of any additional tools. The proposed method is validated in three different applications: a computer mathematical simulation; a simplified joint composed of two semi-spheres interconnected by a universal goniometer; and a real gait test with five able-bodied subjects. Simulation results demonstrate that, after the calibration method is applied, the joint angles are correctly measured independently of previous sensor placement on the joint, thus validating the proposed procedure. In the cases of a simplified joint and a real gait test with human volunteers, the method also performs correctly, although secondary plane errors appear when compared with the simulation results. We believe that such errors are caused by limitations of the current inertial measurement unit (IMU technology and fusion algorithms. In conclusion, the presented calibration procedure is an interesting option to solve the alignment problem when using IMUs for gait analysis.

  14. The Cn method applied to problems with an anisotropic diffusion law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, P.M.

    A 2-dimensional Cn calculation has been applied to homogeneous media subjected to the Rayleigh impact law. Results obtained with collision probabilities and Chandrasekhar calculations are compared to those from Cn method. Introducing in the expression of the transport equation, an expansion truncated on a polynomial basis for the outgoing angular flux (or possibly entrance flux) gives two Cn systems of algebraic linear equations for the expansion coefficients. The matrix elements of these equations are the moments of the Green function in infinite medium. The search for the Green function is effected through the Fourier transformation of the integrodifferential equation and its moments are derived from their Fourier transforms through a numerical integration in the complex plane. The method has been used for calculating the albedo in semi-infinite media, the extrapolation length of the Milne problem, and the albedo and transmission factor of a slab (a concise study of convergence is presented). A system of integro-differential equations bearing on the moments of the angular flux inside the medium has been derived, for the collision probability method. It is numerically solved with approximately the bulk flux by step functions. The albedo in semi-infinite medium has also been computed through the semi-analytical Chandrasekhar method. In the latter, the outgoing flux is expressed as a function of the entrance flux by means of a integral whose kernel is numerically derived [fr

  15. A statistical method for testing epidemiological results, as applied to the Hanford worker population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    Some recent reports of Mancuso, Stewart and Kneale claim findings of radiation-produced cancer in the Hanford worker population. These claims are based on statistical computations that use small differences in accumulated exposures between groups dying of cancer and groups dying of other causes; actual mortality and longevity were not reported. This paper presents a statistical method for evaluation of actual mortality and longevity longitudinally over time, as applied in a primary analysis of the mortality experience of the Hanford worker population. Although available, this method was not utilized in the Mancuso-Stewart-Kneale paper. The author's preliminary longitudinal analysis shows that the gross mortality experience of persons employed at Hanford during 1943-70 interval did not differ significantly from that of certain controls, when both employees and controls were selected from families with two or more offspring and comparison were matched by age, sex, race and year of entry into employment. This result is consistent with findings reported by Sanders (Health Phys. vol.35, 521-538, 1978). The method utilizes an approximate chi-square (1 D.F.) statistic for testing population subgroup comparisons, as well as the cumulation of chi-squares (1 D.F.) for testing the overall result of a particular type of comparison. The method is available for computer testing of the Hanford mortality data, and could also be adapted to morbidity or other population studies. (author)

  16. Unattended video surveillance systems for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of unattended video surveillance systems places some unique requirements on the systems and their hardware. The systems have the traditional requirements of video imaging, video storage, and video playback but also have some special requirements such as tamper safing. The technology available to meet these requirements and how it is being applied to unattended video surveillance systems are discussed in this paper

  17. Applying Novel Time-Frequency Moments Singular Value Decomposition Method and Artificial Neural Networks for Ballistocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koivistoinen Teemu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As we know, singular value decomposition (SVD is designed for computing singular values (SVs of a matrix. Then, if it is used for finding SVs of an -by-1 or 1-by- array with elements representing samples of a signal, it will return only one singular value that is not enough to express the whole signal. To overcome this problem, we designed a new kind of the feature extraction method which we call ''time-frequency moments singular value decomposition (TFM-SVD.'' In this new method, we use statistical features of time series as well as frequency series (Fourier transform of the signal. This information is then extracted into a certain matrix with a fixed structure and the SVs of that matrix are sought. This transform can be used as a preprocessing stage in pattern clustering methods. The results in using it indicate that the performance of a combined system including this transform and classifiers is comparable with the performance of using other feature extraction methods such as wavelet transforms. To evaluate TFM-SVD, we applied this new method and artificial neural networks (ANNs for ballistocardiogram (BCG data clustering to look for probable heart disease of six test subjects. BCG from the test subjects was recorded using a chair-like ballistocardiograph, developed in our project. This kind of device combined with automated recording and analysis would be suitable for use in many places, such as home, office, and so forth. The results show that the method has high performance and it is almost insensitive to BCG waveform latency or nonlinear disturbance.

  18. Applying Novel Time-Frequency Moments Singular Value Decomposition Method and Artificial Neural Networks for Ballistocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpo Värri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As we know, singular value decomposition (SVD is designed for computing singular values (SVs of a matrix. Then, if it is used for finding SVs of an m-by-1 or 1-by-m array with elements representing samples of a signal, it will return only one singular value that is not enough to express the whole signal. To overcome this problem, we designed a new kind of the feature extraction method which we call ‘‘time-frequency moments singular value decomposition (TFM-SVD.’’ In this new method, we use statistical features of time series as well as frequency series (Fourier transform of the signal. This information is then extracted into a certain matrix with a fixed structure and the SVs of that matrix are sought. This transform can be used as a preprocessing stage in pattern clustering methods. The results in using it indicate that the performance of a combined system including this transform and classifiers is comparable with the performance of using other feature extraction methods such as wavelet transforms. To evaluate TFM-SVD, we applied this new method and artificial neural networks (ANNs for ballistocardiogram (BCG data clustering to look for probable heart disease of six test subjects. BCG from the test subjects was recorded using a chair-like ballistocardiograph, developed in our project. This kind of device combined with automated recording and analysis would be suitable for use in many places, such as home, office, and so forth. The results show that the method has high performance and it is almost insensitive to BCG waveform latency or nonlinear disturbance.

  19. Applying Novel Time-Frequency Moments Singular Value Decomposition Method and Artificial Neural Networks for Ballistocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbardeh, Alireza; Junnila, Sakari; Koivuluoma, Mikko; Koivistoinen, Teemu; Värri, Alpo

    2006-12-01

    As we know, singular value decomposition (SVD) is designed for computing singular values (SVs) of a matrix. Then, if it is used for finding SVs of an [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-by-1 or 1-by- [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] array with elements representing samples of a signal, it will return only one singular value that is not enough to express the whole signal. To overcome this problem, we designed a new kind of the feature extraction method which we call ''time-frequency moments singular value decomposition (TFM-SVD).'' In this new method, we use statistical features of time series as well as frequency series (Fourier transform of the signal). This information is then extracted into a certain matrix with a fixed structure and the SVs of that matrix are sought. This transform can be used as a preprocessing stage in pattern clustering methods. The results in using it indicate that the performance of a combined system including this transform and classifiers is comparable with the performance of using other feature extraction methods such as wavelet transforms. To evaluate TFM-SVD, we applied this new method and artificial neural networks (ANNs) for ballistocardiogram (BCG) data clustering to look for probable heart disease of six test subjects. BCG from the test subjects was recorded using a chair-like ballistocardiograph, developed in our project. This kind of device combined with automated recording and analysis would be suitable for use in many places, such as home, office, and so forth. The results show that the method has high performance and it is almost insensitive to BCG waveform latency or nonlinear disturbance.

  20. Applying of whole-tree harvesting method; Kokopuujuontomenetelmaen soveltaminen aines- ja energiapuun hankintaan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesisenaho, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Liukkonen, S [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this project is to apply whole-tree harvesting method to Finnish timber harvesting conditions in order to lower the harvesting costs of energy wood and timber in spruce-dominant final cuttings. In Finnish conditions timber harvesting is normally based on the log-length method. Because of small landings and the high level of thinning cuttings, whole-tree skidding methods cannot be utilised extensively. The share of stands which could be harvested with whole-tree skidding method showed up to be about 10 % of the total harvesting amount of 50 mill. m{sup 3}. The corresponding harvesting potential of energy wood is 0,25 Mtoe. The aim of the structural measurements made in this project was to get information about the effect of different hauling methods into the structural response of the tractor, and thus reveal the possible special requirements that the new whole-tree skidding places forest tractor design. Altogether 7 strain gauge based sensors were mounted into the rear frame structures and drive shafts of the forest tractor. Five strain gauges measured local strains in some critical details and two sensors measured the torque moments of the front and rear bogie drive shafts. Also the revolution speed of the rear drive shaft was recorded. Signal time histories, maximum peaks, Time at Level distributions and Rainflow distributions were gathered in different hauling modes. From these, maximum values, average stress levels and fatigue life estimates were calculated for each mode, and a comparison of the different methods from the structural point of view was performed

  1. Brucellosis Prevention Program: Applying “Child to Family Health Education” Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Allahverdipour

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pupils have efficient potential to increase community awareness and promoting community health through participating in the health education programs. Child to family health education program is one of the communicative strategies that was applied in this field trial study. Because of high prevalence of Brucellosis in Hamadan province, Iran, the aim of this study was promoting families’ knowledge and preventive behaviors about Brucellosis in the rural areas by using child to family health education method.Materials & Methods: In this nonequivalent control group design study three rural schools were chosen (one as intervention and two others as control. At first knowledge and behavior of families about Brucellosis were determined using a designed questionnaire. Then the families were educated through “child to family” procedure. At this stage the students gained information. Then they were instructed to teach their parents what they had learned. After 3 months following the last session of education, the level of knowledge and behavior changes of the families about Brucellosis were determined and analyzed by paired t-test.Results: The results showed significant improvement in the knowledge of the mothers. The knowledge of the mothers about the signs of Brucellosis disease in human increased from 1.81 to 3.79 ( t:-21.64 , sig:0.000 , and also the knowledge on the signs of Brucellosis in animals increased from 1.48 to 2.82 ( t:-10.60 , sig:0.000. Conclusion: Child to family health education program is one of the effective and available methods, which would be useful and effective in most communities, and also Students potential would be effective for applying in the health promotion programs.

  2. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  3. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  4. Evaluation of cleaning methods applied in home environments after renovation and remodeling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiin, L.-M.; Lu, S.-E.; Sannoh, Sulaiman; Lim, B.S.; Rhoads, G.G.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a cleaning trial in 40 northern New Jersey homes where home renovation and remodeling (R and R) activities were undertaken. Two cleaning protocols were used in the study: a specific method recommended by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), in the 1995 'Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing', using a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered vacuum cleaner and a tri-sodium phosphate solution (TSP); and an alternative method using a household vacuum cleaner and a household detergent. Eligible homes were built before the 1970s with potential lead-based paint and had recent R and R activities without thorough cleaning. The two cleaning protocols were randomly assigned to the participants' homes and followed the HUD-recommended three-step procedure: vacuuming, wet washing, and repeat vacuuming. Wipe sampling was conducted on floor surfaces or windowsills before and after cleaning to evaluate the efficacy. All floor and windowsill data indicated that both methods (TSP/HEPA and non-TSP/non-HEPA) were effective in reducing lead loading on the surfaces (P<0.001). When cleaning was applied to surfaces with initial lead loading above the clearance standards, the reductions were even greater, above 95% for either cleaning method. The mixed-effect model analysis showed no significant difference between the two methods. Baseline lead loading was found to be associated with lead loading reduction significantly on floors (P<0.001) and marginally on windowsills (P=0.077). Such relations were different between the two cleaning methods significantly on floors (P<0.001) and marginally on windowsills (P=0.066), with the TSP/HEPA method being favored for higher baseline levels and the non-TSP/non-HEPA method for lower baseline levels. For the 10 homes with lead abatement, almost all post-cleaning lead loadings were below the standards using either cleaning method. Based on our results, we recommend that

  5. Method for pulse to pulse dose reproducibility applied to electron linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ighigeanu, D.; Martin, D.; Oproiu, C.; Cirstea, E.; Craciun, G.

    2002-01-01

    An original method for obtaining programmed beam single shots and pulse trains with programmed pulse number, pulse repetition frequency, pulse duration and pulse dose is presented. It is particularly useful for automatic control of absorbed dose rate level, irradiation process control as well as in pulse radiolysis studies, single pulse dose measurement or for research experiments where pulse-to-pulse dose reproducibility is required. This method is applied to the electron linear accelerators, ALIN-10 of 6.23 MeV and 82 W and ALID-7, of 5.5 MeV and 670 W, built in NILPRP. In order to implement this method, the accelerator triggering system (ATS) consists of two branches: the gun branch and the magnetron branch. ATS, which synchronizes all the system units, delivers trigger pulses at a programmed repetition rate (up to 250 pulses/s) to the gun (80 kV, 10 A and 4 ms) and magnetron (45 kV, 100 A, and 4 ms).The accelerated electron beam existence is determined by the electron gun and magnetron pulses overlapping. The method consists in controlling the overlapping of pulses in order to deliver the beam in the desired sequence. This control is implemented by a discrete pulse position modulation of gun and/or magnetron pulses. The instabilities of the gun and magnetron transient regimes are avoided by operating the accelerator with no accelerated beam for a certain time. At the operator 'beam start' command, the ATS controls electron gun and magnetron pulses overlapping and the linac beam is generated. The pulse-to-pulse absorbed dose variation is thus considerably reduced. Programmed absorbed dose, irradiation time, beam pulse number or other external events may interrupt the coincidence between the gun and magnetron pulses. Slow absorbed dose variation is compensated by the control of the pulse duration and repetition frequency. Two methods are reported in the electron linear accelerators' development for obtaining the pulse to pulse dose reproducibility: the method

  6. Who is Surveilling Whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns the particular form of counter-surveillance termed “sousveillance”, which aims to turn surveillance at the institutions responsible for surveillance. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives “mediatization” and “aerial surveillance,” the article studies WikiLeaks’ publication...

  7. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  8. Postgraduate Education in Quality Improvement Methods: Initial Results of the Fellows' Applied Quality Training (FAQT) Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, David E; Burkart, Thomas A; Choi, Calvin Y; McKillop, Matthew S; Beyth, Rebecca J; Dahm, Phillipp

    2016-06-01

    Training in quality improvement (QI) is a pillar of the next accreditation system of the Accreditation Committee on Graduate Medical Education and a growing expectation of physicians for maintenance of certification. Despite this, many postgraduate medical trainees are not receiving training in QI methods. We created the Fellows Applied Quality Training (FAQT) curriculum for cardiology fellows using both didactic and applied components with the goal of increasing confidence to participate in future QI projects. Fellows completed didactic training from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Open School and then designed and completed a project to improve quality of care or patient safety. Self-assessments were completed by the fellows before, during, and after the first year of the curriculum. The primary outcome for our curriculum was the median score reported by the fellows regarding their self-confidence to complete QI activities. Self-assessments were completed by 23 fellows. The majority of fellows (15 of 23, 65.2%) reported no prior formal QI training. Median score on baseline self-assessment was 3.0 (range, 1.85-4), which was significantly increased to 3.27 (range, 2.23-4; P = 0.004) on the final assessment. The distribution of scores reported by the fellows indicates that 30% were slightly confident at conducting QI activities on their own, which was reduced to 5% after completing the FAQT curriculum. An interim assessment was conducted after the fellows completed didactic training only; median scores were not different from the baseline (mean, 3.0; P = 0.51). After completion of the FAQT, cardiology fellows reported higher self-confidence to complete QI activities. The increase in self-confidence seemed to be limited to the applied component of the curriculum, with no significant change after the didactic component.

  9. Applying system engineering methods to site characterization research for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear research and engineering projects can benefit from the use of system engineering methods. This paper is brief overview illustrating how system engineering methods could be applied in structuring a site characterization effort for a candidate nuclear waste repository. System engineering is simply an orderly process that has been widely used to transform a recognized need into a fully defined system. Such a system may be physical or abstract, natural or man-made, hardware or procedural, as is appropriate to the system's need or objective. It is a way of mentally visualizing all the constituent elements and their relationships necessary to fulfill a need, and doing so compliant with all constraining requirements attendant to that need. Such a system approach provides completeness, order, clarity, and direction. Admittedly, system engineering can be burdensome and inappropriate for those project objectives having simple and familiar solutions that are easily held and controlled mentally. However, some type of documented and structured approach is needed for those objectives that dictate extensive, unique, or complex programs, and/or creation of state-of-the-art machines and facilities. System engineering methods have been used extensively and successfully in these cases. The scientific methods has served well in ordering countless technical undertakings that address a specific question. Similarly, conventional construction and engineering job methods will continue to be quite adequate to organize routine building projects. Nuclear waste repository site characterization projects involve multiple complex research questions and regulatory requirements that interface with each other and with advanced engineering and subsurface construction techniques. There is little doubt that system engineering is an appropriate orchestrating process to structure such diverse elements into a cohesive, well defied project

  10. A Precise Method for Cloth Configuration Parsing Applied to Single-Arm Flattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the contribution that visual perception affords to a robotic manipulation task in which a crumpled garment is flattened by eliminating visually detected wrinkles. In order to explore and validate visually guided clothing manipulation in a repeatable and controlled environment, we have developed a hand-eye interactive virtual robot manipulation system that incorporates a clothing simulator to close the effector-garment-visual sensing interaction loop. We present the technical details and compare the performance of two different methods for detecting, representing and interpreting wrinkles within clothing surfaces captured in high-resolution depth maps. The first method we present relies upon a clustering-based method for localizing and parametrizing wrinkles, while the second method adopts a more advanced geometry-based approach in which shape-topology analysis underpins the identification of the cloth configuration (i.e., maps wrinkles. Having interpreted the state of the cloth configuration by means of either of these methods, a heuristic-based flattening strategy is then executed to infer the appropriate forces, their directions and gripper contact locations that must be applied to the cloth in order to flatten the perceived wrinkles. A greedy approach, which attempts to flatten the largest detected wrinkle for each perception-iteration cycle, has been successfully adopted in this work. We present the results of our heuristic-based flattening methodology which relies upon clustering-based and geometry-based features respectively. Our experiments indicate that geometry-based features have the potential to provide a greater degree of clothing configuration understanding and, as a consequence, improve flattening performance. The results of experiments using a real robot (as opposed to simulated robot also confirm our proposition that a more effective visual perception system can advance the performance of cloth

  11. Specific algorithm method of scoring the Clock Drawing Test applied in cognitively normal elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Chaves Mendes-Santos

    Full Text Available The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is an inexpensive, fast and easily administered measure of cognitive function, especially in the elderly. This instrument is a popular clinical tool widely used in screening for cognitive disorders and dementia. The CDT can be applied in different ways and scoring procedures also vary. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the performance of elderly on the CDT and evaluate inter-rater reliability of the CDT scored by using a specific algorithm method adapted from Sunderland et al. (1989. METHODS: We analyzed the CDT of 100 cognitively normal elderly aged 60 years or older. The CDT ("free-drawn" and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were administered to all participants. Six independent examiners scored the CDT of 30 participants to evaluate inter-rater reliability. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A score of 5 on the proposed algorithm ("Numbers in reverse order or concentrated", equivalent to 5 points on the original Sunderland scale, was the most frequent (53.5%. The CDT specific algorithm method used had high inter-rater reliability (p<0.01, and mean score ranged from 5.06 to 5.96. The high frequency of an overall score of 5 points may suggest the need to create more nuanced evaluation criteria, which are sensitive to differences in levels of impairment in visuoconstructive and executive abilities during aging.

  12. An acceleration technique for the Gauss-Seidel method applied to symmetric linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cajigas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A preconditioning technique to improve the convergence of the Gauss-Seidel method applied to symmetric linear systems while preserving symmetry is proposed. The preconditioner is of the form I + K and can be applied an arbitrary number of times. It is shown that under certain conditions the application of the preconditioner a finite number of steps reduces the matrix to a diagonal. A series of numerical experiments using matrices from spatial discretizations of partial differential equations demonstrates that both versions of the preconditioner, point and block version, exhibit lower iteration counts than its non-symmetric version. Resumen. Se propone una técnica de precondicionamiento para mejorar la convergencia del método Gauss-Seidel aplicado a sistemas lineales simétricos pero preservando simetría. El precondicionador es de la forma I + K y puede ser aplicado un número arbitrario de veces. Se demuestra que bajo ciertas condiciones la aplicación del precondicionador un número finito de pasos reduce la matriz del sistema precondicionado a una diagonal. Una serie de experimentos con matrices que provienen de la discretización de ecuaciones en derivadas parciales muestra que ambas versiones del precondicionador, por punto y por bloque, muestran un menor número de iteraciones en comparación con la versión que no preserva simetría.

  13. A method of applying two-pump system in automatic transmissions for energy conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency, modern automatic transmissions tend to apply electric oil pump in their hydraulic system. The electric oil pump can support the mechanical oil pump for cooling, lubrication, and maintaining the line pressure at low engine speeds. In addition, the start–stop function can be realized by means of the electric oil pump; thus, the fuel consumption can be further reduced. This article proposes a method of applying two-pump system (one electric oil pump and one mechanical oil pump in automatic transmissions based on the forward driving simulation. A mathematical model for calculating the transmission power loss is developed. The power loss transfers to heat which requires oil flow for cooling and lubrication. A leakage model is developed to calculate the leakage of the hydraulic system. In order to satisfy the flow requirement, a flow-based control strategy for the electric oil pump is developed. Simulation results of different driving cycles show that there is a best combination of the size of electric oil pump and the size of mechanical oil pump with respect to the optimal energy conservation. Besides, the two-pump system can also satisfy the requirement of the start–stop function. This research is extremely valuable for the forward design of a two-pump system in automatic transmissions with respect to energy conservation and start–stop function.

  14. IAEA-ASSET's root cause analysis method applied to sodium leakage incident at Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi

    1997-08-01

    The present study applied the ASSET (Analysis and Screening of Safety Events Team) methodology (This method identifies occurrences such as component failures and operator errors, identifies their respective direct/root causes and determines corrective actions.) to the analysis of the sodium leakage incident at Monju, based on the published reports by mainly the Science and Technology Agency, aiming at systematic identification of direct/root causes and corrective actions, and discussed the effectiveness and problems of the ASSET methodology. The results revealed the following seven occurrences and showed the direct/root causes and contributing factors for the individual occurrences: failure of thermometer well tube, delayed reactor manual trip, inadequate continuous monitoring of leakage, misjudgment of leak rate, non-required operator action (turbine trip), retarded emergency sodium drainage, and retarded securing of ventilation system. Most of the occurrences stemmed from deficiencies in emergency operating procedures (EOPs), which were mainly caused by defects in the EOP preparation process and operator training programs. The corrective actions already proposed in the published reports were reviewed, identifying issues to be further studied. Possible corrective actions were discussed for these issues. The present study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the ASSET methodology and pointed out some problems, for example, in delineating causal relations among occurrences, for applying it to the detail and systematic analysis of event direct/root causes and determination of concrete measures. (J.P.N.)

  15. The Application of Intensive Longitudinal Methods to Investigate Change: Stimulating the Field of Applied Family Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Katharine T

    2016-03-01

    The use of intensive longitudinal methods (ILM)-rapid in situ assessment at micro timescales-can be overlaid on RCTs and other study designs in applied family research. Particularly, when done as part of a multiple timescale design-in bursts over macro timescales-ILM can advance the study of the mechanisms and effects of family interventions and processes of family change. ILM confers measurement benefits in accurately assessing momentary and variable experiences and captures fine-grained dynamic pictures of time-ordered processes. Thus, ILM allows opportunities to investigate new research questions about intervention effects on within-subject (i.e., within-person, within-family) variability (i.e., dynamic constructs) and about the time-ordered change process that interventions induce in families and family members beginning with the first intervention session. This paper discusses the need and rationale for applying ILM to family intervention evaluation, new research questions that can be addressed with ILM, example research using ILM in the related fields of basic family research and the evaluation of individual-based interventions. Finally, the paper touches on practical challenges and considerations associated with ILM and points readers to resources for the application of ILM.

  16. IAEA-ASSET`s root cause analysis method applied to sodium leakage incident at Monju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-08-01

    The present study applied the ASSET (Analysis and Screening of Safety Events Team) methodology (This method identifies occurrences such as component failures and operator errors, identifies their respective direct/root causes and determines corrective actions.) to the analysis of the sodium leakage incident at Monju, based on the published reports by mainly the Science and Technology Agency, aiming at systematic identification of direct/root causes and corrective actions, and discussed the effectiveness and problems of the ASSET methodology. The results revealed the following seven occurrences and showed the direct/root causes and contributing factors for the individual occurrences: failure of thermometer well tube, delayed reactor manual trip, inadequate continuous monitoring of leakage, misjudgment of leak rate, non-required operator action (turbine trip), retarded emergency sodium drainage, and retarded securing of ventilation system. Most of the occurrences stemmed from deficiencies in emergency operating procedures (EOPs), which were mainly caused by defects in the EOP preparation process and operator training programs. The corrective actions already proposed in the published reports were reviewed, identifying issues to be further studied. Possible corrective actions were discussed for these issues. The present study also demonstrated the effectiveness of the ASSET methodology and pointed out some problems, for example, in delineating causal relations among occurrences, for applying it to the detail and systematic analysis of event direct/root causes and determination of concrete measures. (J.P.N.)

  17. Hazard surveillance for workplace magnetic fields. 1: Walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient field magnitude; 2: Field characteristics from waveform measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methner, M.M.; Bowman, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    Recent epidemiologic research has suggested that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) may be associated with leukemia, brain cancer, spontaneous abortions, and Alzheimer`s disease. A walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient ELF-MF levels was developed for use in conducting occupational hazard surveillance. This survey was designed to determine the range of MF levels at different industrial facilities so they could be categorized by MF levels and identified for possible subsequent personal exposure assessments. Industries were selected based on their annual electric power consumption in accordance with the hypothesis that large power consumers would have higher ambient MFs when compared with lower power consumers. Sixty-two facilities within thirteen 2-digit Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) were selected based on their willingness to participate. A traditional industrial hygiene walkaround survey was conducted to identify MF sources, with a special emphasis on work stations.

  18. [Influence of Sex and Age on Contrast Sensitivity Subject to the Applied Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, Sabine; Bergmann, Lisa; Blaschke, Saskia; Böckelmann, Irina

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to detect gender and age differences in both photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity with different methods in relation to German driver's license regulations (Fahrerlaubnisverordnung; FeV). We examined 134 healthy volunteers (53 men, 81 women) with an age between 18 and 76 years, that had been divided into two groups (AG I Mars charts under standardized illumination were applied for photopic contrast sensitivity. We could not find any gender differences. When evaluating age, there were no differences between the two groups for the Mars charts nor in the Rodatest. In all other tests, the younger volunteers achieved significantly better results. For contrast vision, there exists age-adapted cut-off-values. Concerning the driving safety of traffic participants, sufficient photopic and mesopic contrast vision should be focused on, independent of age. Therefore, there is a need to reconsider the age-adapted cut-off-values. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Study of different ultrasonic focusing methods applied to non destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Amrani, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the study of different ultrasonic focusing techniques applied to Nondestructive Testing (mechanical focusing and electronic focusing) and compares their capabilities. We have developed a model to predict the ultrasonic field radiated into a solid by water-coupled transducers. The model is based upon the Rayleigh integral formulation, modified to take account the refraction at the liquid-solid interface. The model has been validated by numerous experiments in various configurations. Running this model and the associated software, we have developed new methods to optimize focused transducers and studied the characteristics of the beam generated by transducers using various focusing techniques. (author). 120 refs., 95 figs., 4 appends

  20. Numerical method of applying shadow theory to all regions of multilayered dielectric gratings in conical mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hideaki; Asai, Masamitsu; Matsumoto, Keiji; Yamakita, Jiro

    2016-11-01

    Nakayama's shadow theory first discussed the diffraction by a perfectly conducting grating in a planar mounting. In the theory, a new formulation by use of a scattering factor was proposed. This paper focuses on the middle regions of a multilayered dielectric grating placed in conical mounting. Applying the shadow theory to the matrix eigenvalues method, we compose new transformation and improved propagation matrices of the shadow theory for conical mounting. Using these matrices and scattering factors, being the basic quantity of diffraction amplitudes, we formulate a new description of three-dimensional scattering fields which is available even for cases where the eigenvalues are degenerate in any region. Some numerical examples are given for cases where the eigenvalues are degenerate in the middle regions.

  1. Applying RP-FDM Technology to Produce Prototype Castings Using the Investment Casting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macků

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the production of prototype castings, which is mapped out starting from the drawing documentation up to theproduction of the casting itself. The FDM method was applied for the production of the 3D pattern. Its main objective was to find out whatdimensional changes happened during individual production stages, starting from the 3D pattern printing through a silicon mouldproduction, wax patterns casting, making shells, melting out wax from shells and drying, up to the production of the final casting itself.Five measurements of determined dimensions were made during the production, which were processed and evaluated mathematically.A determination of shrinkage and a proposal of measures to maintain the dimensional stability of the final casting so as to meetrequirements specified by a customer were the results.

  2. Simulation by the method of inverse cumulative distribution function applied in optimising of foundry plant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses application of computer simulation based on the method of inverse cumulative distribution function. The simulationrefers to an elementary static case, which can also be solved by physical experiment, consisting mainly in observations of foundryproduction in a selected foundry plant. For the simulation and forecasting of foundry production quality in selected cast iron grade, arandom number generator of Excel calculation sheet was chosen. Very wide potentials of this type of simulation when applied to theevaluation of foundry production quality were demonstrated, using a number generator of even distribution for generation of a variable ofan arbitrary distribution, especially of a preset empirical distribution, without any need of adjusting to this variable the smooth theoreticaldistributions.

  3. Comparison of gradient methods for gain tuning of a PD controller applied on a quadrotor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Wilkerson, Stephen A.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Many mechanical and electrical systems have utilized the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control strategy. The concept of PID control is a classical approach but it is easy to implement and yields a very good tracking performance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently experiencing a significant growth in popularity. Due to the advantages of PID controllers, UAVs are implementing PID controllers for improved stability and performance. An important consideration for the system is the selection of PID gain values in order to achieve a safe flight and successful mission. There are a number of different algorithms that can be used for real-time tuning of gains. This paper presents two algorithms for gain tuning, and are based on the method of steepest descent and Newton's minimization of an objective function. This paper compares the results of applying these two gain tuning algorithms in conjunction with a PD controller on a quadrotor system.

  4. Adding randomness controlling parameters in GRASP method applied in school timetabling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santos Pereira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of randomness controlling parameters (RCP in first stage GRASP method applied in graph coloring problem, specifically school timetabling problems in a public high school. The algorithm (with the inclusion of RCP was based on critical variables identified through focus groups, whose weights can be adjusted by the user in order to meet the institutional needs. The results of the computational experiment, with 11-year-old data (66 observations processed at the same high school show that the inclusion of RCP leads to significantly lowering the distance between initial solutions and local minima. The acceptance and the use of the solutions found allow us to conclude that the modified GRASP, as has been constructed, can make a positive contribution to this timetabling problem of the school in question.

  5. Applied methods and techniques for mechatronic systems modelling, identification and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Quanmin; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Yongji; Zhao, Dongya

    2014-01-01

    Applied Methods and Techniques for Mechatronic Systems brings together the relevant studies in mechatronic systems with the latest research from interdisciplinary theoretical studies, computational algorithm development and exemplary applications. Readers can easily tailor the techniques in this book to accommodate their ad hoc applications. The clear structure of each paper, background - motivation - quantitative development (equations) - case studies/illustration/tutorial (curve, table, etc.) is also helpful. It is mainly aimed at graduate students, professors and academic researchers in related fields, but it will also be helpful to engineers and scientists from industry. Lei Liu is a lecturer at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), China; Quanmin Zhu is a professor at University of the West of England, UK; Lei Cheng is an associate professor at Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China; Yongji Wang is a professor at HUST; Dongya Zhao is an associate professor at China University o...

  6. Applied methods for mitigation of damage by stress corrosion in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez C, R.; Diaz S, A.; Gachuz M, M.; Arganis J, C.

    1998-01-01

    The Boiling Water nuclear Reactors (BWR) have presented stress corrosion problems, mainly in components and pipes of the primary system, provoking negative impacts in the performance of energy generator plants, as well as the increasing in the radiation exposure to personnel involucred. This problem has caused development of research programs, which are guided to find solution alternatives for the phenomena control. Among results of greater relevance the control for the reactor water chemistry stands out particularly in the impurities concentration and oxidation of radiolysis products; as well as the supervision in the materials selection and the stresses levels reduction. The present work presents the methods which can be applied to diminish the problems of stress corrosion in BWR reactors. (Author)

  7. An implict LU scheme for the Euler equations applied to arbitrary cascades. [new method of factoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratynski, E. K.; Caughey, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    An implicit scheme for solving the Euler equations is derived and demonstrated. The alternating-direction implicit (ADI) technique is modified, using two implicit-operator factors corresponding to lower-block-diagonal (L) or upper-block-diagonal (U) algebraic systems which can be easily inverted. The resulting LU scheme is implemented in finite-volume mode and applied to 2D subsonic and transonic cascade flows with differing degrees of geometric complexity. The results are presented graphically and found to be in good agreement with those of other numerical and analytical approaches. The LU method is also 2.0-3.4 times faster than ADI, suggesting its value in calculating 3D problems.

  8. Structural characterization of complex systems by applying a combination of scattering and spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, G.

    1999-01-01

    Lyotropic mesophases possess lattice dimensions of the order of magnitude of the length of their molecules. Consequently, the first Bragg reflections of such systems appear at small scattering angles (small angle scattering). A combination of scattering and NMR methods was applied to study structural properties of POPC/C 12 E n mixtures. Generally, the ranges of existence of the liquid crystalline lamellar phase, the dimension of the unit-cell of the lamellae and important structural parameters of the lipid and surfactant molecules in the mixed bilayers were determined. With that the POPC/C 12 E 4 bilayer represents one of the best structurally characterized mixed model membranes. It is a good starting system for studying the interrelation with other e.g. dynamic or thermodynamic properties. (K.A.)

  9. Applying RP-FDM Technology to Produce Prototype Castings Using the Investment Casting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macků M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the production of prototype castings, which is mapped out starting from the drawing documentation up to the production of the casting itself. The FDM method was applied for the production of the 3D pattern. Its main objective was to find out what dimensional changes happened during individual production stages, starting from the 3D pattern printing through a silicon mould production, wax patterns casting, making shells, melting out wax from shells and drying, up to the production of the final casting itself. Five measurements of determined dimensions were made during the production, which were processed and evaluated mathematically. A determination of shrinkage and a proposal of measures to maintain the dimensional stability of the final casting so as to meet requirements specified by a customer were the results.

  10. Particle generation methods applied in large-scale experiments on aerosol behaviour and source term studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiderska-Kowalczyk, M.; Gomez, F.J.; Martin, M.

    1997-01-01

    In aerosol research aerosols of known size, shape, and density are highly desirable because most aerosols properties depend strongly on particle size. However, such constant and reproducible generation of those aerosol particles whose size and concentration can be easily controlled, can be achieved only in laboratory-scale tests. In large scale experiments, different generation methods for various elements and compounds have been applied. This work presents, in a brief from, a review of applications of these methods used in large scale experiments on aerosol behaviour and source term. Description of generation method and generated aerosol transport conditions is followed by properties of obtained aerosol, aerosol instrumentation used, and the scheme of aerosol generation system-wherever it was available. An information concerning aerosol generation particular purposes and reference number(s) is given at the end of a particular case. These methods reviewed are: evaporation-condensation, using a furnace heating and using a plasma torch; atomization of liquid, using compressed air nebulizers, ultrasonic nebulizers and atomization of liquid suspension; and dispersion of powders. Among the projects included in this worked are: ACE, LACE, GE Experiments, EPRI Experiments, LACE-Spain. UKAEA Experiments, BNWL Experiments, ORNL Experiments, MARVIKEN, SPARTA and DEMONA. The aim chemical compounds studied are: Ba, Cs, CsOH, CsI, Ni, Cr, NaI, TeO 2 , UO 2 Al 2 O 3 , Al 2 SiO 5 , B 2 O 3 , Cd, CdO, Fe 2 O 3 , MnO, SiO 2 , AgO, SnO 2 , Te, U 3 O 8 , BaO, CsCl, CsNO 3 , Urania, RuO 2 , TiO 2 , Al(OH) 3 , BaSO 4 , Eu 2 O 3 and Sn. (Author)

  11. Non-Invasive Seismic Methods for Earthquake Site Classification Applied to Ontario Bridge Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson Darko, A.; Molnar, S.; Sadrekarimi, A.

    2017-12-01

    How a site responds to earthquake shaking and its corresponding damage is largely influenced by the underlying ground conditions through which it propagates. The effects of site conditions on propagating seismic waves can be predicted from measurements of the shear wave velocity (Vs) of the soil layer(s) and the impedance ratio between bedrock and soil. Currently the seismic design of new buildings and bridges (2015 Canadian building and bridge codes) requires determination of the time-averaged shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 metres (Vs30) of a given site. In this study, two in situ Vs profiling methods; Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and Ambient Vibration Array (AVA) methods are used to determine Vs30 at chosen bridge sites in Ontario, Canada. Both active-source (MASW) and passive-source (AVA) surface wave methods are used at each bridge site to obtain Rayleigh-wave phase velocities over a wide frequency bandwidth. The dispersion curve is jointly inverted with each site's amplification function (microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio) to obtain shear-wave velocity profile(s). We apply our non-invasive testing at three major infrastructure projects, e.g., five bridge sites along the Rt. Hon. Herb Gray Parkway in Windsor, Ontario. Our non-invasive testing is co-located with previous invasive testing, including Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test and downhole Vs data. Correlations between SPT blowcount and Vs are developed for the different soil types sampled at our Ontario bridge sites. A robust earthquake site classification procedure (reliable Vs30 estimates) for bridge sites across Ontario is evaluated from available combinations of invasive and non-invasive site characterization methods.

  12. Infrared thermography inspection methods applied to the target elements of W7-X Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Durocher, A.; Schlosser, J.; Farjon, J.-L.; Vignal, N.; Traxler, H.; Schedler, B.; Boscary, J.

    2006-01-01

    As heat exhaust capability and lifetime of plasma-facing component (PFC) during in-situ operation are linked to the manufacturing quality, a set of non-destructive testing must be operated during R-and-D and manufacturing phases. Within this framework, advanced non-destructive examination (NDE) methods are one of the key issues to achieve a high level of quality and reliability of joining techniques in the production of high heat flux components but also to develop and built successfully PFCs for a next generation of fusion devices. In this frame, two NDE infrared thermographic approaches, which have been recently applied to the qualification of CFC target elements of the W7-X divertor during the first series production will be discussed in this paper. The first one, developed by CEA (SATIR facility) and used with successfully to the control of the mass-produced actively cooled PFCs on Tore Supra, is based on the transient thermography where the testing protocol consists in inducing a thermal transient within the heat sink structure by an alternative hot/cold water flow. The second one, recently developed by PLANSEE (ARGUS facility), is based on the pulsed thermography where the component is heated externally by a single powerful flash of light. Results obtained on qualification experiences performed during the first series production of W7-X divertor components representing about thirty mock-ups with artificial and manufacturing defects, demonstrated the capabilities of these two methods and raised the efficiency of inspection to a level which is appropriate for industrial application. This comparative study, associated to a cross-checking analysis between the high heat flux performance tests and these inspection methods by infrared thermography, showed a good reproducibility and allowed to set a detectable limit specific at each method. Finally, the detectability of relevant defects showed excellent coincidence with thermal images obtained from high heat flux

  13. Assessment of Atmospheric Correction Methods for Sentinel-2 MSI Images Applied to Amazon Floodplain Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Souza Martins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite data provide the only viable means for extensive monitoring of remote and large freshwater systems, such as the Amazon floodplain lakes. However, an accurate atmospheric correction is required to retrieve water constituents based on surface water reflectance ( R W . In this paper, we assessed three atmospheric correction methods (Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV, ACOLITE and Sen2Cor applied to an image acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI on-board of the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-2A platform using concurrent in-situ measurements over four Amazon floodplain lakes in Brazil. In addition, we evaluated the correction of forest adjacency effects based on the linear spectral unmixing model, and performed a temporal evaluation of atmospheric constituents from Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC products. The validation of MAIAC aerosol optical depth (AOD indicated satisfactory retrievals over the Amazon region, with a correlation coefficient (R of ~0.7 and 0.85 for Terra and Aqua products, respectively. The seasonal distribution of the cloud cover and AOD revealed a contrast between the first and second half of the year in the study area. Furthermore, simulation of top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectance showed a critical contribution of atmospheric effects (>50% to all spectral bands, especially the deep blue (92%–96% and blue (84%–92% bands. The atmospheric correction results of the visible bands illustrate the limitation of the methods over dark lakes ( R W < 1%, and better match of the R W shape compared with in-situ measurements over turbid lakes, although the accuracy varied depending on the spectral bands and methods. Particularly above 705 nm, R W was highly affected by Amazon forest adjacency, and the proposed adjacency effect correction minimized the spectral distortions in R W (RMSE < 0.006. Finally, an extensive validation of the methods is required for

  14. Simulation methods to estimate design power: an overview for applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Hogan, Daniel R; Colford, John M; Hubbard, Alan E

    2011-06-20

    Estimating the required sample size and statistical power for a study is an integral part of study design. For standard designs, power equations provide an efficient solution to the problem, but they are unavailable for many complex study designs that arise in practice. For such complex study designs, computer simulation is a useful alternative for estimating study power. Although this approach is well known among statisticians, in our experience many epidemiologists and social scientists are unfamiliar with the technique. This article aims to address this knowledge gap. We review an approach to estimate study power for individual- or cluster-randomized designs using computer simulation. This flexible approach arises naturally from the model used to derive conventional power equations, but extends those methods to accommodate arbitrarily complex designs. The method is universally applicable to a broad range of designs and outcomes, and we present the material in a way that is approachable for quantitative, applied researchers. We illustrate the method using two examples (one simple, one complex) based on sanitation and nutritional interventions to improve child growth. We first show how simulation reproduces conventional power estimates for simple randomized designs over a broad range of sample scenarios to familiarize the reader with the approach. We then demonstrate how to extend the simulation approach to more complex designs. Finally, we discuss extensions to the examples in the article, and provide computer code to efficiently run the example simulations in both R and Stata. Simulation methods offer a flexible option to estimate statistical power for standard and non-traditional study designs and parameters of interest. The approach we have described is universally applicable for evaluating study designs used in epidemiologic and social science research.

  15. History of trichinellosis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancou J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of trichinellosis, which existed in ancient times as testified by the discovery of parasite larvae on an Egyptian mummy, unfolded in several stages: discovery of encapsulated larvae (in the 1820s, identification and scientific description of these larvae (Paget Owen, 1835, followed by experimental infestations of animals (dogs, pigs, rabbits, mice or of humans as from 1850.The main occurrences of trichinellosis were followed with particular attention in Europe (Germany, Denmark, France, etc. and in the United States of America at the end of the XIXth century. They affected numerous domestic animal species (pigs, horses, etc. or wildlife and humans. Germany paid the heaviest toll with regard to the disease in humans, between 1860 and 1880, with several thousands of patients and more than 500 deaths.Different trichinellosis surveillance systems were set up in the relevant countries in the 1860s. In humans, this surveillance was carried out on affected living patients by a biopsy of the biceps muscles and subsequently by an analysis of eosinophilia (1895. In animals, surveillance was for a long time solely based on postmortem examination of the muscles of the affected animals. This method was used for the first time in 863 in Germany, and from the 1 890s, on several hundreds of thousands of pigs in Europe or in the United States of America.

  16. Multivariat least-squares methods applied to the quantitative spectral analysis of multicomponent samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.; Easterling, R.G.; Vopicka, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In an extension of earlier work, weighted multivariate least-squares methods of quantitative FT-IR analysis have been developed. A linear least-squares approximation to nonlinearities in the Beer-Lambert law is made by allowing the reference spectra to be a set of known mixtures, The incorporation of nonzero intercepts in the relation between absorbance and concentration further improves the approximation of nonlinearities while simultaneously accounting for nonzero spectra baselines. Pathlength variations are also accommodated in the analysis, and under certain conditions, unknown sample pathlengths can be determined. All spectral data are used to improve the precision and accuracy of the estimated concentrations. During the calibration phase of the analysis, pure component spectra are estimated from the standard mixture spectra. These can be compared with the measured pure component spectra to determine which vibrations experience nonlinear behavior. In the predictive phase of the analysis, the calculated spectra are used in our previous least-squares analysis to estimate sample component concentrations. These methods were applied to the analysis of the IR spectra of binary mixtures of esters. Even with severely overlapping spectral bands and nonlinearities in the Beer-Lambert law, the average relative error in the estimated concentration was <1%

  17. Design and fabrication of facial prostheses for cancer patient applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Tengku Noor Daimah Tengku; Jamayet, Nafij; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad; Luddin, Norhayati; Abdullah, Johari Yap; Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Yahya, Suzana

    2016-12-01

    Facial defects are either congenital or caused by trauma or cancer where most of them affect the person appearance. The emotional pressure and low self-esteem are problems commonly related to patient with facial defect. To overcome this problem, silicone prosthesis was designed to cover the defect part. This study describes the techniques in designing and fabrication for facial prosthesis applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM). The steps of fabricating the facial prosthesis were based on a patient case. The patient was diagnosed for Gorlin Gotz syndrome and came to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) for prosthesis. The 3D image of the patient was reconstructed from CT data using MIMICS software. Based on the 3D image, the intercanthal and zygomatic measurements of the patient were compared with available data in the database to find the suitable nose shape. The normal nose shape for the patient was retrieved from the nasal digital library. Mirror imaging technique was used to mirror the facial part. The final design of facial prosthesis including eye, nose and cheek was superimposed to see the result virtually. After the final design was confirmed, the mould design was created. The mould of nasal prosthesis was printed using Objet 3D printer. Silicone casting was done using the 3D print mould. The final prosthesis produced from the computer aided method was acceptable to be used for facial rehabilitation to provide better quality of life.

  18. Applying the Weighted Horizontal Magnetic Gradient Method to a Simulated Flaring Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsós, M. B.; Chatterjee, P.; Erdélyi, R.

    2018-04-01

    Here, we test the weighted horizontal magnetic gradient (WG M ) as a flare precursor, introduced by Korsós et al., by applying it to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of solar-like flares. The preflare evolution of the WG M and the behavior of the distance parameter between the area-weighted barycenters of opposite-polarity sunspots at various heights is investigated in the simulated δ-type sunspot. Four flares emanated from this sunspot. We found the optimum heights above the photosphere where the flare precursors of the WG M method are identifiable prior to each flare. These optimum heights agree reasonably well with the heights of the occurrence of flares identified from the analysis of their thermal and ohmic heating signatures in the simulation. We also estimated the expected time of the flare onsets from the duration of the approaching–receding motion of the barycenters of opposite polarities before each single flare. The estimated onset time and the actual time of occurrence of each flare are in good agreement at the corresponding optimum heights. This numerical experiment further supports the use of flare precursors based on the WG M method.

  19. Study on safety of crystallization method applied to dissolver solution in fast breeder reactor reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Fujine, Yukio; Asakura, Toshihide; Murazaki, Minoru; Koyama, Tomozo; Sakakibara, Tetsuro; Shibata, Atsuhiro

    1999-03-01

    The crystallization method is proposed to apply for recovery of uranium from dissolution liquid, enabling to reduce handling materials in later stages of reprocessing used fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuels. This report studies possible safety problems accompanied by the proposed method. Crystallization process was first defined in the whole reprocessing process, and the quantity and the kind of treated fuel were specified. Possible problems, such as criticality, shielding, fire/explosion, and confinement, were then investigated; and the events that might induce accidental incidents were discussed. Criticality, above all the incidents, was further studied by considering exampled criticality control of the crystallization process. For crystallization equipment, in particular, evaluation models were set up in normal and accidental operation conditions. Related data were selected out from the nuclear criticality safety handbooks. The theoretical densities of plutonium nitrates, which give basic and important information, were estimated in this report based on the crystal structure data. The criticality limit of crystallization equipment was calculated based on the above information. (author)

  20. Method of moments as applied to arbitrarily shaped bounded nonlinear scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caorsi, Salvatore; Massa, Andrea; Pastorino, Matteo

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of applying the moment method to determine the electromagnetic field distributions inside three-dimensional bounded nonlinear dielectric objects of arbitrary shapes. The moment method has usually been employed to solve linear scattering problems. We start with an integral equation formulation, and derive a nonlinear system of algebraic equations that allows us to obtain an approximate solution for the harmonic vector components of the electric field. Preliminary results of some numerical simulations are reported. Dans cet article nous explorons la possibilité d'appliquer la méthode des moments pour déterminer la distribution du champ électromagnétique dans des objets tridimensionnels diélectriques, non-linéaires, limités et de formes arbitraires. La méthode des moments a été communément employée pour les problèmes de diffusion linéaire. Nous commençons par une formulation basée sur l'équation intégrale et nous dérivons un système non-linéaire d'équations algébriques qui nous permet d'obtenir une solution approximative pour les composantes harmoniques du vecteur du champ électrique. Les résultats préliminaires de quelques simulations numériques sont présentés.

  1. [An experimental assessment of methods for applying intestinal sutures in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadudinov, M G

    1992-04-01

    The results of various methods used in applying intestinal sutures in obturation were studied. Three series of experiments were conducted on 30 dogs--resection of the intestine after obstruction with the formation of anastomoses by means of double-row suture (Albert--Shmiden--Lambert) in the first series (10 dogs), by a single-row suture after V. M. Mateshchuk [correction of Mateshuku] in the second series, and bu a single-row stretching suture suggested by the author in the third series. The postoperative complications and the parameters of physical airtightness of the intestinal anastomosis were studied in dynamics in the experimental animals. The results of the study: incompetence of the anastomosis sutures in the first series 6, in the second 4, and in the third series one. Adhesions occurred in all animals of the first and second series and in 2 of the third series. Six dogs of the first series died, 4 of the second, and one of the third. Study of the dynamics of the results showed a direct connection of the complications with the parameters of the physical airtightness of the anastomosis, and the last-named with the method of the intestinal suture. Relatively better results were noted in formation of the anastomosis by means of our suggested stretshing continuous suture passed through the serous, muscular, and submucous coats of the intestine.

  2. Chemometric methods and near-infrared spectroscopy applied to bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    data analysis (i) successfully determine the concentrations of moisture, protein, and starch in the feedstock material as well as glucose, ethanol, glycerol, lactic acid, acetic acid in the processed bioethanol broths; (ii) and allow quantifying a complex biofuel's property such as the heating value. At the third stage, this thesis focuses on new chemometric methods that improve mathematical analysis of multivariate data such as NIR spectra. The newly developed method 'repeated double cross validation' (rdCV) separates optimization of regression models from tests of model performance; furthermore, rdCV estimates the variability of the model performance based on a large number of prediction errors from test samples. The rdCV procedure has been applied to both the classical PLS regression and the robust 'partial robust M' regression method, which can handle erroneous data. The peculiar and relatively unknown 'random projection' method is tested for its potential of dimensionality reduction of data from chemometrics and chemoinformatics. The main findings are: (i) rdCV fosters a realistic assessment of model performance, (ii) robust regression has outstanding performance for data containing outliers and thus is strongly recommendable, and (iii) random projection is a useful niche application for high-dimensional data combined with possible restrictions in data storage and computing time. The three chemometric methods described are available as functions for the free software R. (author) [de

  3. Applying a weighted random forests method to extract karst sinkholes from LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Pierskalla, William P.

    2016-02-01

    Detailed mapping of sinkholes provides critical information for mitigating sinkhole hazards and understanding groundwater and surface water interactions in karst terrains. LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measures the earth's surface in high-resolution and high-density and has shown great potentials to drastically improve locating and delineating sinkholes. However, processing LiDAR data to extract sinkholes requires separating sinkholes from other depressions, which can be laborious because of the sheer number of the depressions commonly generated from LiDAR data. In this study, we applied the random forests, a machine learning method, to automatically separate sinkholes from other depressions in a karst region in central Kentucky. The sinkhole-extraction random forest was grown on a training dataset built from an area where LiDAR-derived depressions were manually classified through a visual inspection and field verification process. Based on the geometry of depressions, as well as natural and human factors related to sinkholes, 11 parameters were selected as predictive variables to form the dataset. Because the training dataset was imbalanced with the majority of depressions being non-sinkholes, a weighted random forests method was used to improve the accuracy of predicting sinkholes. The weighted random forest achieved an average accuracy of 89.95% for the training dataset, demonstrating that the random forest can be an effective sinkhole classifier. Testing of the random forest in another area, however, resulted in moderate success with an average accuracy rate of 73.96%. This study suggests that an automatic sinkhole extraction procedure like the random forest classifier can significantly reduce time and labor costs and makes its more tractable to map sinkholes using LiDAR data for large areas. However, the random forests method cannot totally replace manual procedures, such as visual inspection and field verification.

  4. A new sub-equation method applied to obtain exact travelling wave solutions of some complex nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqun

    2009-01-01

    By using a new coupled Riccati equations, a direct algebraic method, which was applied to obtain exact travelling wave solutions of some complex nonlinear equations, is improved. And the exact travelling wave solutions of the complex KdV equation, Boussinesq equation and Klein-Gordon equation are investigated using the improved method. The method presented in this paper can also be applied to construct exact travelling wave solutions for other nonlinear complex equations.

  5. A mixed methods evaluation of team-based learning for applied pathophysiology in undergraduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branney, Jonathan; Priego-Hernández, Jacqueline

    2018-02-01

    It is important for nurses to have a thorough understanding of the biosciences such as pathophysiology that underpin nursing care. These courses include content that can be difficult to learn. Team-based learning is emerging as a strategy for enhancing learning in nurse education due to the promotion of individual learning as well as learning in teams. In this study we sought to evaluate the use of team-based learning in the teaching of applied pathophysiology to undergraduate student nurses. A mixed methods observational study. In a year two, undergraduate nursing applied pathophysiology module circulatory shock was taught using Team-based Learning while all remaining topics were taught using traditional lectures. After the Team-based Learning intervention the students were invited to complete the Team-based Learning Student Assessment Instrument, which measures accountability, preference and satisfaction with Team-based Learning. Students were also invited to focus group discussions to gain a more thorough understanding of their experience with Team-based Learning. Exam scores for answers to questions based on Team-based Learning-taught material were compared with those from lecture-taught material. Of the 197 students enrolled on the module, 167 (85% response rate) returned the instrument, the results from which indicated a favourable experience with Team-based Learning. Most students reported higher accountability (93%) and satisfaction (92%) with Team-based Learning. Lectures that promoted active learning were viewed as an important feature of the university experience which may explain the 76% exhibiting a preference for Team-based Learning. Most students wanted to make a meaningful contribution so as not to let down their team and they saw a clear relevance between the Team-based Learning activities and their own experiences of teamwork in clinical practice. Exam scores on the question related to Team-based Learning-taught material were comparable to those

  6. Method developments approaches in supercritical fluid chromatography applied to the analysis of cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesellier, E; Mith, D; Dubrulle, I

    2015-12-04

    necessary, two-step gradient elution. The developed methods were then applied to real cosmetic samples to assess the method specificity, with regards to matrix interferences, and calibration curves were plotted to evaluate quantification. Besides, depending on the matrix and on the studied compounds, the importance of the detector type, UV or ELSD (evaporative light-scattering detection), and of the particle size of the stationary phase is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diapo, applying advanced AI methods to diagnosis of PWR reactor coolant pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcheron, M.; Ricard, B.

    1993-01-01

    Electricite de France has decided to increase the capabilities of its monitoring and diagnostic architecture with the development of an AI system for reactor coolant pump diagnostic support. This development is carried out with the cooperation of the equipment constructor Jeumont Schneider Industries. This diagnostic system will eventually be included in an integrated surveillance architecture. We present the architecture of the system and the basics of the knowledge model used. Main data for diagnosis are provided by sensor data issued by the pump monitoring system. Diagnostic reasoning is based on the cooperation of two main activities : a heuristic search among typical symptomatic situations that leads to the formulation of hypotheses and a ''deep'' causal analysis that consists in backtracking from identified situations up to initial faults or causes. This approach is well fitted to field expert reasoning, and provides powerful diagnostic capabilities that help to overcome conventional limitations of expert systems entirely based on heuristic knowledge. (authors). 9 figs., 11 refs

  8. Ideology, Critique and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Herzogenrath-Amelung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 revelations concerning global surveillance programmes demonstrate in unprecedented clarity the need for Critical Theory of information and communication technologies (ICTs to address the mechanisms and implications of increasingly global, ubiquitous surveillance. This is all the more urgent because of the dominance of the “surveillance ideology” (the promise of security through surveillance that supports the political economy of surveillance. This paper asks which theoretical arguments and concepts can be useful for philosophically grounding a critique of this surveillance ideology. It begins by examining how the surveillance ideology works through language and introduces the concept of the ‘ideological packaging’ of ICTs to show how rhetoric surrounding the implementation of surveillance technologies reinforces the surveillance ideology. It then raises the problem of how ideology-critique can work if it relies on language itself and argues that Martin Heidegger’s philosophy can make a useful contribution to existing critical approaches to language.

  9. Performance Evaluations for Super-Resolution Mosaicing on UAS Surveillance Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Camargo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS have been widely applied for reconnaissance and surveillance by exploiting information collected from the digital imaging payload. The super-resolution (SR mosaicing of low-resolution (LR UAS surveillance video frames has become a critical requirement for UAS video processing and is important for further effective image understanding. In this paper we develop a novel super-resolution framework, which does not require the construction of sparse matrices. The proposed method implements image operations in the spatial domain and applies an iterated back-projection to construct super-resolution mosaics from the overlapping UAS surveillance video frames. The Steepest Descent method, the Conjugate Gradient method and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm are used to numerically solve the nonlinear optimization problem for estimating a super-resolution mosaic. A quantitative performance comparison in terms of computation time and visual quality of the super-resolution mosaics through the three numerical techniques is presented.

  10. Non-parametric order statistics method applied to uncertainty propagation in fuel rod calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimescu, V.E.; Heins, L.

    2001-01-01

    method, which is computationally efficient, is presented for the evaluation of the global statement. It is proved that, r, the expected fraction of fuel rods exceeding a certain limit is equal to the (1-r)-quantile of the overall distribution of all possible values from all fuel rods. In this way, the problem is reduced to that of estimating a certain quantile of the overall distribution, and the same techniques used for a single rod distribution can be applied again. A simplified test case was devised to verify and validate the methodology. The fuel code was replaced by a transfer function dependent on two input parameters. The function was chosen so that analytic results could be obtained for the distribution of the output. This offers a direct validation for the statistical procedure. Also, a sensitivity study has been performed to analyze the effect on the final outcome of the sampling procedure, simple Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube Sampling. Also, the effect on the accuracy and bias of the statistical results due to the size of the sample was studied and the conclusion was reached that the results of the statistical methodology are typically conservative. In the end, an example of applying these statistical techniques to a PWR reload is presented together with the improvements and new insights the statistical methodology brings to fuel rod design calculations. (author)

  11. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  12. New methods applied to the analysis and treatment of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Order, S.E.; Rosenshein, N.B.; Klein, J.L.; Lichter, A.S.; Ettinger, D.S.; Dillon, M.B.; Leibel, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of rigorous staging methods, appreciation of new knowledge concerning ovarian cancer dissemination, and administration of new treatment techniques have been applied to ovarian cancer. The method of staging consists of peritoneal cytology, total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingo oophorectomy (TAH-BSO), omentectomy, nodal biopsy, diaphragmatic inspection and is coupled with maximal surgical resection. An additional examination being evaluated for usefulness in future staging is intraperitoneal /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scans. Nineteen patients have entered the pilot studies. Sixteen patients (5 Stage 2, 10 Stage 3 micrometastatic, and 1 Stage 4) have been treated with colloidal 32 P, i.p. followed 2 weeks later by split abdominal irradiation (200 rad fractions pelvis-2 hr rest-150 rad upper abdomen) to a total abdominal dose of 3000 rad with a pelvic cone down to 4000 rad. Five of these patients received Phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM) (7 mg/m 2 ) maintenance therapy. The 3 year actuarial survival was 78% and the 3 year disease free actuarial survival 68%. Seven patients were treated with intraperitoneal tumor antisera and 4/7 remain in complete remission as of this writing. The specificity of the antiserum has been demonstrated by immunoelectrophoresis in 4/4 patients, and by live cell fluorescence in 1 patient. Rabbit IgG levels revealed significant increasing titers in 4/6 patients following i.p. antiovarian antiserum. Radiolabeled IgG derived from the antiserum demonstrated tumor localization and correlation with conventional radiograhy and computerized axial tomograhy (CAT) scans in 2 patients studied to date. Biomarker analysis reveals that free secretory protein 6/6, apha globulin 5/6, and CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) 3/6 were elevated in the 6 patients studied. Two patients whose disease progressed demonstrated elevated levels of all three biomarkers

  13. The Global Survey Method Applied to Ground-level Cosmic Ray Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A.; Eroshenko, E.; Yanke, V.; Oleneva, V.; Abunin, A.; Abunina, M.; Papaioannou, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.

    2018-04-01

    The global survey method (GSM) technique unites simultaneous ground-level observations of cosmic rays in different locations and allows us to obtain the main characteristics of cosmic-ray variations outside of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of Earth. This technique has been developed and applied in numerous studies over many years by the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN). We here describe the IZMIRAN version of the GSM in detail. With this technique, the hourly data of the world-wide neutron-monitor network from July 1957 until December 2016 were processed, and further processing is enabled upon the receipt of new data. The result is a database of homogeneous and continuous hourly characteristics of the density variations (an isotropic part of the intensity) and the 3D vector of the cosmic-ray anisotropy. It includes all of the effects that could be identified in galactic cosmic-ray variations that were caused by large-scale disturbances of the interplanetary medium in more than 50 years. These results in turn became the basis for a database on Forbush effects and interplanetary disturbances. This database allows correlating various space-environment parameters (the characteristics of the Sun, the solar wind, et cetera) with cosmic-ray parameters and studying their interrelations. We also present features of the coupling coefficients for different neutron monitors that enable us to make a connection from ground-level measurements to primary cosmic-ray variations outside the atmosphere and the magnetosphere. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current version of the GSM as well as further possible developments and improvements. The method developed allows us to minimize the problems of the neutron-monitor network, which are typical for experimental physics, and to considerably enhance its advantages.

  14. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestiani, D.D.; Santoso, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Particle samples in the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preferred, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment. (author)

  15. Stochastic Methods Applied to Power System Operations with Renewable Energy: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), Austin, TX (United States); Botterud, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Renewable energy resources have been rapidly integrated into power systems in many parts of the world, contributing to a cleaner and more sustainable supply of electricity. Wind and solar resources also introduce new challenges for system operations and planning in terms of economics and reliability because of their variability and uncertainty. Operational strategies based on stochastic optimization have been developed recently to address these challenges. In general terms, these stochastic strategies either embed uncertainties into the scheduling formulations (e.g., the unit commitment [UC] problem) in probabilistic forms or develop more appropriate operating reserve strategies to take advantage of advanced forecasting techniques. Other approaches to address uncertainty are also proposed, where operational feasibility is ensured within an uncertainty set of forecasting intervals. In this report, a comprehensive review is conducted to present the state of the art through Spring 2015 in the area of stochastic methods applied to power system operations with high penetration of renewable energy. Chapters 1 and 2 give a brief introduction and overview of power system and electricity market operations, as well as the impact of renewable energy and how this impact is typically considered in modeling tools. Chapter 3 reviews relevant literature on operating reserves and specifically probabilistic methods to estimate the need for system reserve requirements. Chapter 4 looks at stochastic programming formulations of the UC and economic dispatch (ED) problems, highlighting benefits reported in the literature as well as recent industry developments. Chapter 5 briefly introduces alternative formulations of UC under uncertainty, such as robust, chance-constrained, and interval programming. Finally, in Chapter 6, we conclude with the main observations from our review and important directions for future work.

  16. Holographic method coupled with an optoelectronic interface applied in the ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.; Sporea, D.; Niculescu, V.I.R.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a holographic method applied in the ionizing radiation dosimetry. It is possible to use two types of holographic interferometry like as double exposure holographic interferometry, or fast real time holographic interferometry. In this paper the applications of holographic interferometry to ionizing radiation dosimetry are presented. The determination of the accurate value of dose delivered by an ionizing radiation source (released energy per mass unit) is a complex problem which imposes different solutions depending on experimental parameters and it is solved with a double exposure holographic interferometric method associated with an optoelectronic interface and Z80 microprocessor. The method can determine the absorbed integral dose as well as the three-dimensional distribution of dose in given volume. The paper presents some results obtained in radiation dosimetry. Original mathematical relations for integral absorbed dose in irreversible radiolyzing liquids where derived. Irradiation effects can be estimated from the holographic fringes displacement and density. To measure these parameters, the obtained holographic interferograms were picked-up by a closed TV circuit system in such a way that a selected TV line explores the picture along the direction of interest using a special designed interface, a Z80 and our microprocessor system captures data along the selected TV line. When the integral dose is to be measured the microprocessor computes it from the information contained in the fringes distribution, according to the proposed formulae. Integral absorbed dose and spatial dose distribution can be estimated with an accuracy better than 4%. Some advantages of this method are outlined comparatively with conventional method in radiation dosimetry. The paper presents an original holographic set-up with an electronic interface, assisted by a Z80 microprocessor and used for nondestructive testing of transparent objects at the laser wave length

  17. A nuclear-medical method applied for determining the choledochus diameter after cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.

    1980-01-01

    54 patients (46 of them females, 8 males) who underwent cholecystectomy at least 4 years ago, were followed up roentgenologically by infusion cholangiography and nuclear-medicinally by quantitative hepatobiliary functional scintiscanning (HBFS). The ROI method applied for HBFS permits to record time/activity curves above the liver parenchyma (A) and the porta of the liver (B). By substracting curve A of curve B with the scale in which A is incorporated in B, a curve B' results, indicating the flow volume through the porta of the liver. The quotient Q=maximum pulse A to B/maximum pulse B to B indicates the portion of the liver parenchyma in the porta curve. The quotient represents a measure for the total volume of the large bile ducts included in the region of the porta of the liver. The quantity 1-Q/Q was put in relation with the roentgenologically determined common bile duct diameters. It resulted that both quantities correlated well, with a correlation coefficient of r=-0.860. Thus, the choledochus diameter can be determined in a primarily functional examination with a precision of 2 mm, a degree which permits the detection of clinically relevant discharge malfunctions. It was not possible to detect peristalsis-dependent phenomena with a dosage of 4-5 mCi 99 mTc-diethyl-IDA, an irradiation dose which was sufficient for answering the clinical questions and could be justified for the patients. (orig.) [de

  18. A new method of identifying target groups for pronatalist policy applied to Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengni Chen

    Full Text Available A country's total fertility rate (TFR depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques. The aim of this study is to instead look at the structure of the population to identify which subgroups most influence TFR. Specifically, we build a stochastic model relating TFR to the fertility rates of various subgroups and calculate elasticity of TFR with respect to each rate. For each subgroup, the ratio of its elasticity to its group size is used to evaluate the subgroup's potential cost effectiveness as a pronatalist target. In addition, we measure the historical stability of group fertility rates, which measures propensity to change. Groups with a high effectiveness ratio and also high propensity to change are natural policy targets. We applied this new method to Australian data on fertility rates broken down by parity, age and marital status. The results show that targeting parity 3+ is more cost-effective than lower parities. This study contributes to the literature on pronatalist policies by investigating the targeting of policies, and generates important implications for formulating cost-effective policies.

  19. Multicriterial Hierarchy Methods Applied in Consumption Demand Analysis. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Bob

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic information for computing the quantitative statistical indicators, that characterize the demand of industrial products and services are collected by the national statistics organizations, through a series of statistical surveys (most of them periodical and partial. The source for data we used in the present paper is an statistical investigation organized by the National Institute of Statistics, "Family budgets survey" that allows to collect information regarding the households composition, income, expenditure, consumption and other aspects of population living standard. In 2005, in Romania, a person spent monthly in average 391,2 RON, meaning about 115,1 Euros for purchasing the consumed food products and beverage, as well as non-foods products, services, investments and other taxes. 23% of this sum was spent for purchasing the consumed food products and beverages, 21.6% of the total sum was spent for purchasing non-food goods and 18,1%  for payment of different services. There is a discrepancy between the different development regions in Romania, regarding total households expenditure composition. For this reason, in the present paper we applied statistical methods for ranking the various development regions in Romania, using the share of householdsí expenditure on categories of products and services as ranking criteria.

  20. Bending stress modeling of dismountable furniture joints applied with a use of finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Šimek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented work focuses on bending moment stress modeling of dismountable furniture joints with a use of Finite Element Method. The joints are created from Minifix and Rondorfix cams combined with non-glued wooden dowels. Laminated particleboard 18 mm of thickness is used as a connected material. The connectors were chosen such as the most applied kind in furniture industry for the case furniture. All gained results were reciprocally compared to each other and also in comparison to experimental testing by the mean of stiffness. The non-linear numerical model of chosen joints was successfully created using the software Ansys Workbench. The detailed analysis of stress distribution in the joint was achieved with non-linear numerical simulation. A relationship between numerical si­mu­la­tion and experimental testing was showed by comparison stiffness tangents. A numerical simulation of RTA joint loads also demonstrated the important role of non-glued dowels in the tested joints. The low strength of particleboard in the tension parallel to surface (internal bond is the most likely the cause of the joint failure. Results are applicable for strength designing of furniture with the aid of Computer Aided Engineering.

  1. Commissioning methods applied to the Hunterston 'B' AGR operator training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacking, D.

    1985-01-01

    The Hunterston 'B' full scope AGR Simulator, built for the South of Scotland Electricity Board by Marconi Instruments, encompasses all systems under direct and indirect control of the Hunterston central control room operators. The resulting breadth and depth of simulation together with the specification for the real time implementation of a large number of highly interactive detailed plant models leads to the classic problem of identifying acceptance and acceptability criteria. For example, whilst the ultimate criterion for acceptability must clearly be that within the context of the training requirement the simulator should be indistinguishable from the actual plant, far more measurable (i.e. less subjective) statements are required if a formal contractual acceptance condition is to be achieved. Within the framework, individual models and processes can have radically different acceptance requirements which therefore reflect on the commissioning approach applied. This paper discusses the application of a combination of quality assurance methods, design code results, plant data, theoretical analysis and operator 'feel' in the commissioning of the Hunterston 'B' AGR Operator Training Simulator. (author)

  2. Life Expectancies Applied to Specific Statuses: a History of the Indicators and the Methods of Calculation {Population, 3, 1998)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Brouard; J.-M. Robine; E. Cambois

    1999-01-01

    Cambois (Emmanuelle), Robin? (Jean-Marie), Brouard (Nicolas).- Life Expectancies Applied to Specific Statuses: A History of the Indicators and the Methods of Calculation Indicators of life expectancy applied to specific statuses, such as the state of health or professional status, were introduced at the end of the 1930s and are currently the object of renewed interest. Because they relate mortality to different domains (health, professional activity) applied life expectancies reflect simultan...

  3. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  4. A Study of the Efficiency of Spatial Indexing Methods Applied to Large Astronomical Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Tom; Berriman, G. Bruce; Good, John; Shiao, Bernie

    2018-01-01

    Spatial indexing of astronomical databases generally uses quadrature methods, which partition the sky into cells used to create an index (usually a B-tree) written as database column. We report the results of a study to compare the performance of two common indexing methods, HTM and HEALPix, on Solaris and Windows database servers installed with a PostgreSQL database, and a Windows Server installed with MS SQL Server. The indexing was applied to the 2MASS All-Sky Catalog and to the Hubble Source catalog. On each server, the study compared indexing performance by submitting 1 million queries at each index level with random sky positions and random cone search radius, which was computed on a logarithmic scale between 1 arcsec and 1 degree, and measuring the time to complete the query and write the output. These simulated queries, intended to model realistic use patterns, were run in a uniform way on many combinations of indexing method and indexing level. The query times in all simulations are strongly I/O-bound and are linear with number of records returned for large numbers of sources. There are, however, considerable differences between simulations, which reveal that hardware I/O throughput is a more important factor in managing the performance of a DBMS than the choice of indexing scheme. The choice of index itself is relatively unimportant: for comparable index levels, the performance is consistent within the scatter of the timings. At small index levels (large cells; e.g. level 4; cell size 3.7 deg), there is large scatter in the timings because of wide variations in the number of sources found in the cells. At larger index levels, performance improves and scatter decreases, but the improvement at level 8 (14 min) and higher is masked to some extent in the timing scatter caused by the range of query sizes. At very high levels (20; 0.0004 arsec), the granularity of the cells becomes so high that a large number of extraneous empty cells begin to degrade

  5. The prevalence and impact of overuse injuries in five Norwegian sports: Application of a new surveillance method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarsen, B.; Bahr, R.; Heymans, M.W.; Engedahl, M.; Midtsundstad, G.; Rosenlund, L.; Thorsen, G.; Myklebust, G.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the true extent and severity of overuse injuries in sport, largely because of methodological challenges involved in recording them. This study assessed the prevalence of overuse injuries among Norwegian athletes from five sports using a newly developed method designed

  6. Pertussis incidence rates in Novi Sad (Serbia before and during improved surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. The Global Pertussis Initiative (GPI proposed clinical case definitions for pertussis diagnosis in three different age cohorts in order to improve surveillance of pertussis especially in older children, adolescents, and adults. The main goal of this research was to compare the burden of pertussis in the city of Novi Sad before and after the introduction of improved surveillance using the GPI clinical case definitions of pertussis. Methods. Baseline data on pertussis were obtained from routine (non-sentinel reporting before improved surveillance was introduced. From September 16, 2012, clinical case definitions proposed by GPI were applied within improved (sentinel and hospital surveillance, while surveillance clinical case definitions were not introduced within non-sentinel. To confirm the suspected diagnosis, sampling of nasopharyngeal swab and/or blood was obtained from all cases. The choice of laboratory method (PCR or ELISA depended on the duration of coughing and the age of the patients. Data were statistically processed by SPSS Statistics, version 22. Results. During the 12-year period before the introduction of improved surveillance, only two clinical pertussis cases were registered. In contrast, during the two-year period of improved surveillance, a total of 14 (season 2012/13 and 146 (season 2013/2014 confirmed pertussis cases were reported. Significant differences were determined in distribution of pertussis according to the type of surveillance and the level of health care. Conclusion. Introduction of clinical case definitions proposed by GPI improved the quality of surveillance and enabled an insight in the distribution of pertussis in all age groups and at all levels of health care.

  7. Analysis of flow boiling heat transfer in narrow annular gaps applying the design of experiments method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunar Boye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The axial heat transfer coefficient during flow boiling of n-hexane was measured using infrared thermography to determine the axial wall temperature in three geometrically similar annular gaps with different widths (s = 1.5 mm, s = 1 mm, s = 0.5 mm. During the design and evaluation process, the methods of statistical experimental design were applied. The following factors/parameters were varied: the heat flux q · = 30 − 190 kW / m 2 , the mass flux m · = 30 − 700 kg / m 2 s , the vapor quality x · = 0 . 2 − 0 . 7 , and the subcooled inlet temperature T U = 20 − 60 K . The test sections with gap widths of s = 1.5 mm and s = 1 mm had very similar heat transfer characteristics. The heat transfer coefficient increases significantly in the range of subcooled boiling, and after reaching a maximum at the transition to the saturated flow boiling, it drops almost monotonically with increasing vapor quality. With a gap width of 0.5 mm, however, the heat transfer coefficient in the range of saturated flow boiling first has a downward trend and then increases at higher vapor qualities. For each test section, two correlations between the heat transfer coefficient and the operating parameters have been created. The comparison also shows a clear trend of an increasing heat transfer coefficient with increasing heat flux for test sections s = 1.5 mm and s = 1.0 mm, but with increasing vapor quality, this trend is reversed for test section 0.5 mm.

  8. A new method of identifying target groups for pronatalist policy applied to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengni; Lloyd, Chris J.

    2018-01-01

    A country’s total fertility rate (TFR) depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques. The aim of this study is to instead look at the structure of the population to identify which subgroups most influence TFR. Specifically, we build a stochastic model relating TFR to the fertility rates of various subgroups and calculate elasticity of TFR with respect to each rate. For each subgroup, the ratio of its elasticity to its group size is used to evaluate the subgroup’s potential cost effectiveness as a pronatalist target. In addition, we measure the historical stability of group fertility rates, which measures propensity to change. Groups with a high effectiveness ratio and also high propensity to change are natural policy targets. We applied this new method to Australian data on fertility rates broken down by parity, age and marital status. The results show that targeting parity 3+ is more cost-effective than lower parities. This study contributes to the literature on pronatalist policies by investigating the targeting of policies, and generates important implications for formulating cost-effective policies. PMID:29425220

  9. An implementation of the diagnosis method DYANA, applied to a combined heat-power device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Neut, F.

    1993-10-01

    The development and implementation of the monitor-and-diagnosis method DYANA is presented. This implementation is applied to and tested on a combined heat and power generating device (CHP). The steps that have been taken in realizing this implementation are evaluated into detail . In chapter two the theory behind DYANA is recapitulated. Attention is paid to the basic theory of diagnoses, and the steps of the path from this theory to the algorithm DYANA are revealed. These steps include the hierarchical approach, and explain the following features of DYANA: a) the use of best-first dynamic model zooming based on heuristics with respect to parsimony of the number of components within the diagnoses, b) the use of consistency of fault models with observations to focus on the most likely diagnoses, and c) the use of online diagnosis: the current set of diagnoses is incrementally updated after a new observation of the system is made. In chapter three the relevant aspects of the system to be diagnosed, the CHP, are dealt with in detail. An explanation is given of the broad working of the CHP, its hierarchical structure and mathematical representation are given, CHP observation is commented, and some possible forms of fault models are stated. In chapter four the pseudocode of the implementation, developed for DYANA, is presented. The pseudocode consists of two parts: the monitoring process (using numerical simulation), and the diagnostic process. The differences between the pseudocode and the actual implementation are mentioned. The CHP will then be monitored and diagnosed with this algorithm and results of this test are given in chapter five. An actual implementation of DYANA can be found in a separately supplied appendix, the Programme Appendix. The implementation of the monitoring process is meant only for this example of the CHP. The code for the diagnostic process can be easily adjusted for diagnosing other devices, such as electronic circuits. The language is Pascal.

  10. Proposal of inspection method of radiation protection applied to nuclear medicine establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Leopoldino da Cruz Gouveia

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to implement a method of an impartial and efficient inspection, due to a correct and secure dose of ionizing radiation in the field of Nuclear Medicine. The Radiological Protection Model was tested in 113 Nuclear Medicine Services all over the country, according to a biannual analysis frequency (1996, 1998, 2000 and 2002). The data sheet comprised general information about the structure of the NMS and a technical approach. In the analytical process, a methodology of inputting different importance levels to each of the 82 features was adopted, based on the risk factors stated in the CNEN NE's and in the IAEA recommendations, as well. From this point of view, as a feature does not fit one of the rules above, it will correspond to a radioprotection fault and be imparted a grade. The sum of those grades, classified the NMS in one of the three different ranges, as follows: - operating without restriction - 100 points and below- operating with restriction - between 100 and 300 points - temporary shutdown - above and equal to 300 points. The allowance of the second group to carry on operating should be attached to a defined and restricted period of time (six to twelve months), supposed large enough to the NMS solving the problems being new evaluation proceeded then. The NMS's classified in the third group are supposed to go back into operation only when fit all the pending radioprotection requirements. Until the next regular evaluation, meanwhile a multiplication factor 2 n was applied to the recalcitrant NMS s where n is the number of unwilling occurrences. The previous establishment of those items of radioprotection, with its respective grade, excluded subjective and personal values in the judgement and technical evaluation of the institutions. (author)

  11. Estimation Methods for Infinite-Dimensional Systems Applied to the Hemodynamic Response in the Brain

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2018-05-01

    Infinite-Dimensional Systems (IDSs) which have been made possible by recent advances in mathematical and computational tools can be used to model complex real phenomena. However, due to physical, economic, or stringent non-invasive constraints on real systems, the underlying characteristics for mathematical models in general (and IDSs in particular) are often missing or subject to uncertainty. Therefore, developing efficient estimation techniques to extract missing pieces of information from available measurements is essential. The human brain is an example of IDSs with severe constraints on information collection from controlled experiments and invasive sensors. Investigating the intriguing modeling potential of the brain is, in fact, the main motivation for this work. Here, we will characterize the hemodynamic behavior of the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging data. In this regard, we propose efficient estimation methods for two classes of IDSs, namely Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) and Fractional Differential Equations (FDEs). This work is divided into two parts. The first part addresses the joint estimation problem of the state, parameters, and input for a coupled second-order hyperbolic PDE and an infinite-dimensional ordinary differential equation using sampled-in-space measurements. Two estimation techniques are proposed: a Kalman-based algorithm that relies on a reduced finite-dimensional model of the IDS, and an infinite-dimensional adaptive estimator whose convergence proof is based on the Lyapunov approach. We study and discuss the identifiability of the unknown variables for both cases. The second part contributes to the development of estimation methods for FDEs where major challenges arise in estimating fractional differentiation orders and non-smooth pointwise inputs. First, we propose a fractional high-order sliding mode observer to jointly estimate the pseudo-state and input of commensurate FDEs. Second, we propose a

  12. Effective surveillance for homeland security balancing technology and social issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flammini, Francesco; Franceschetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Effective Surveillance for Homeland Security: Balancing Technology and Social Issues provides a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the surveillance and protection of citizens and critical infrastructures against natural and deliberate threats. Focusing on current technological challenges involving multi-disciplinary problem analysis and systems engineering approaches, it provides an overview of the most relevant aspects of surveillance systems in the framework of homeland security. Addressing both advanced surveillance technologies and the related socio-ethical issues, the book consists of 21 chapters written by international experts from the various sectors of homeland security. Part I, Surveillance and Society, focuses on the societal dimension of surveillance-stressing the importance of societal acceptability as a precondition to any surveillance system. Part II, Physical and Cyber Surveillance, presents advanced technologies for surveillance. It considers developing technologie...

  13. Ambient Surveillance by Probabilistic-Possibilistic Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittermann, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    2013-01-01

    A method for quantifying ambient surveillance is presented, which is based on probabilistic-possibilistic perception. The human surveillance of a scene through observing camera sensed images on a monitor is modeled in three steps. First immersion of the observer is simulated by modeling perception

  14. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  15. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  16. A comparison of four sampling methods among men having sex with men in China: implications for HIV/STD surveillance and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Song, Yan; Jiang, Shuling; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    Sample representativeness remains one of the challenges in effective HIV/STD surveillance and prevention targeting MSM worldwide. Although convenience samples are widely used in studies of MSM, previous studies suggested that these samples might not be representative of the broader MSM population. This issue becomes even more critical in many developing countries where needed resources for conducting probability sampling are limited. We examined variations in HIV and Syphilis infections and sociodemographic and behavioral factors among 307 young migrant MSM recruited using four different convenience sampling methods (peer outreach, informal social network, Internet, and venue-based) in Beijing, China in 2009. The participants completed a self-administered survey and provided blood specimens for HIV/STD testing. Among the four MSM samples using different recruitment methods, rates of HIV infections were 5.1%, 5.8%, 7.8%, and 3.4%; rates of Syphilis infection were 21.8%, 36.2%, 11.8%, and 13.8%; rates of inconsistent condom use were 57%, 52%, 58%, and 38%. Significant differences were found in various sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., age, migration history, education, income, places of employment) and risk behaviors (e.g., age at first sex, number of sex partners, involvement in commercial sex, and substance use) among samples recruited by different sampling methods. The results confirmed the challenges of obtaining representative MSM samples and underscored the importance of using multiple sampling methods to reach MSM from diverse backgrounds and in different social segments and to improve the representativeness of the MSM samples when the use of probability sampling approach is not feasible. PMID:21711162

  17. Higher Order, Hybrid BEM/FEM Methods Applied to Antenna Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, P. W.; Wilton, D. R.; Dobbins, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    In this presentation, the authors address topics relevant to higher order modeling using hybrid BEM/FEM formulations. The first of these is the limitation on convergence rates imposed by geometric modeling errors in the analysis of scattering by a dielectric sphere. The second topic is the application of an Incomplete LU Threshold (ILUT) preconditioner to solve the linear system resulting from the BEM/FEM formulation. The final tOpic is the application of the higher order BEM/FEM formulation to antenna modeling problems. The authors have previously presented work on the benefits of higher order modeling. To achieve these benefits, special attention is required in the integration of singular and near-singular terms arising in the surface integral equation. Several methods for handling these terms have been presented. It is also well known that achieving he high rates of convergence afforded by higher order bases may als'o require the employment of higher order geometry models. A number of publications have described the use of quadratic elements to model curved surfaces. The authors have shown in an EFIE formulation, applied to scattering by a PEC .sphere, that quadratic order elements may be insufficient to prevent the domination of modeling errors. In fact, on a PEC sphere with radius r = 0.58 Lambda(sub 0), a quartic order geometry representation was required to obtain a convergence benefi.t from quadratic bases when compared to the convergence rate achieved with linear bases. Initial trials indicate that, for a dielectric sphere of the same radius, - requirements on the geometry model are not as severe as for the PEC sphere. The authors will present convergence results for higher order bases as a function of the geometry model order in the hybrid BEM/FEM formulation applied to dielectric spheres. It is well known that the system matrix resulting from the hybrid BEM/FEM formulation is ill -conditioned. For many real applications, a good preconditioner is required

  18. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  19. Four Methods for Completing the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory Building Research in HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe four methods for completing the conceptual development phase of theory building research for single or multiparadigm research. The four methods selected for this review are (1) Weick's method of "theorizing as disciplined imagination" (1989); (2) Whetten's method of "modeling as theorizing" (2002); (3)…

  20. Establishing seasonal and alert influenza thresholds in Cambodia using the WHO method: implications for effective utilization of influenza surveillance in the tropics and subtropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Sovann; Arashiro, Takeshi; Ieng, Vanra; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Parry, Amy; Horwood, Paul; Heng, Seng; Hamid, Sarah; Vandemaele, Katelijn; Chin, Savuth; Sar, Borann; Arima, Yuzo

    2017-01-01

    To establish seasonal and alert thresholds and transmission intensity categories for influenza to provide timely triggers for preventive measures or upscaling control measures in Cambodia. Using Cambodia's influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance data from 2009 to 2015, three parameters were assessed to monitor influenza activity: the proportion of ILI patients among all outpatients, proportion of ILI samples positive for influenza and the product of the two. With these parameters, four threshold levels (seasonal, moderate, high and alert) were established and transmission intensity was categorized based on a World Health Organization alignment method. Parameters were compared against their respective thresholds. Distinct seasonality was observed using the two parameters that incorporated laboratory data. Thresholds established using the composite parameter, combining syndromic and laboratory data, had the least number of false alarms in declaring season onset and were most useful in monitoring intensity. Unlike in temperate regions, the syndromic parameter was less useful in monitoring influenza activity or for setting thresholds. Influenza thresholds based on appropriate parameters have the potential to provide timely triggers for public health measures in a tropical country where monitoring and assessing influenza activity has been challenging. Based on these findings, the Ministry of Health plans to raise general awareness regarding influenza among the medical community and the general public. Our findings have important implications for countries in the tropics/subtropics and in resource-limited settings, and categorized transmission intensity can be used to assess severity of potential pandemic influenza as well as seasonal influenza.

  1. Choosing the correct empirical antibiotic for urinary tract infection in pediatric: Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli by E-Test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Iraj; Solgi, Abbas; Amanati, Ali; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef

    2014-12-01

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are of the most common bacterial diseases worldwide. We investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from pediatric patients with community acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) to find a clinical guidance for choosing a right empirical antibiotic in these patients. In this cross sectional study, 100 urine specimens which were positive for E. coli had been investigated for antibiotics susceptibility pattern. The susceptibility to Co-trimoxazol (25μg), Amikacin (30μg), Ceftriaxone (30μg), Nalidixic Acid (30μg), Cefixime (5μg), and Nitrofurantoin (300μg) tested with Disk diffusion agar and MIC determined with the E-test. Mean age of patients was 38 Months. Girls had greater proportion than boys (74 versus 26%). In Disk diffusion method, 26% of the isolates were susceptible to cotrimoxazole. Susceptibility to amikacin, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and cefixime was 94%, 66%, 97%, 62% and 52%, respectively. By E-Test method and according to CLSI criteria susceptibility for co-trimoxazol, amikacin, ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid was 37%, 97%, 67% and 50%, respectively. The highest percentage of agreement between Disk diffusion and E-Test method was found for amikacin (96%) and the lowest percentage for co-trimoxazole (89%). Treatment failure, prolonged or repeated hospitalization, increased costs of care, and increased mortality are some consequence of bacterial resistance in UTIs. Misuse of antibiotics in each geographic location directly affects antibiotic resistance pattern. In the treatment of UTI, proper selection of antimicrobial agents should be relevant to the bacterial susceptibility testing surveillance. According to our results, amikacin as an injectable drug and nitrofurantoin as an oral agent could be used as a drug of choice in our region for children with UTIs.

  2. Acoustical monitoring of diesel engines in reverberant environment; Methodes de surveillance acoustique des diesels en milieu reverberant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mein, M.

    1995-10-01

    The feed-back knowledge of emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants shows that some malfunctions, mainly affecting fuel-injection or distribution system of the engine can be heard and detected by experienced maintenance agents. This study consists in the feasibility,v of acoustical monitoring of those diesel engines, taking into account the reverberant environment of the machine. The operating cycle of the diesel is composed of transient events (injection, combustion, valve closure...) which generate highly non stationary acoustical signals. The detection of a malfunction appearing on such transients requires the use of adapted signal processing techniques. Visual analysis of the phenomena is first proceeded using time-frequency and time-scale representations. The second step will be parametric modeling of acoustical signatures for the extraction of characteristic parameters, in order to characterize the fault and to use an automatic classification system. The lest part of the study will concern the evaluation of the robustness of the detection methods in regard to acoustical reverberation. (author). 10 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Non-regularized inversion method from light scattering applied to ferrofluid magnetization curves for magnetic size distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijssel, Jos van; Kuipers, Bonny W.M.; Erné, Ben H.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical inversion method known from the analysis of light scattering by colloidal dispersions is now applied to magnetization curves of ferrofluids. The distribution of magnetic particle sizes or dipole moments is determined without assuming that the distribution is unimodal or of a particular shape. The inversion method enforces positive number densities via a non-negative least squares procedure. It is tested successfully on experimental and simulated data for ferrofluid samples with known multimodal size distributions. The created computer program MINORIM is made available on the web. - Highlights: • A method from light scattering is applied to analyze ferrofluid magnetization curves. • A magnetic size distribution is obtained without prior assumption of its shape. • The method is tested successfully on ferrofluids with a known size distribution. • The practical limits of the method are explored with simulated data including noise. • This method is implemented in the program MINORIM, freely available online

  4. A global method for calculating plant CSR ecological strategies applied across biomes world-wide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierce, S.; Negreiros, D.; Cerabolini, B.E.L.; Kattge, J.; Díaz, S.; Kleyer, M.; Shipley, B.; Wright, S.J.; Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Onipchenko, V.G.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Frenette-Dussault, C.; Weiher, E.; Pinho, B.X.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Grime, J.P.; Thompson, K.; Hunt, R.; Wilson, P.J.; Buffa, G.; Nyakunga, O.C.; Reich, P.B.; Caccianiga, M.; Mangili, F.; Ceriani, R.M.; Luzzaro, A.; Brusa, G.; Siefert, A.; Barbosa, N.P.U.; Chapin III, F.S.; Cornwell, W.K.; Fang, Jingyun; Wilson Fernandez, G.; Garnier, E.; Le Stradic, S.; Peñuelas, J.; Melo, F.P.L.; Slaviero, A.; Tabarrelli, M.; Tampucci, D.

    2017-01-01

    Competitor, stress-tolerator, ruderal (CSR) theory is a prominent plant functional strategy scheme previously applied to local floras. Globally, the wide geographic and phylogenetic coverage of available values of leaf area (LA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA)

  5. Benthic microalgal production in the Arctic: Applied methods and status of the current database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Woelfel, Jana; Karsten, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    The current database on benthic microalgal production in Arctic waters comprises 10 peer-reviewed and three unpublished studies. Here, we compile and discuss these datasets, along with the applied measurement approaches used. The latter is essential for robust comparative analysis and to clarify ...

  6. Applying Item Response Theory Methods to Examine the Impact of Different Response Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D.

    2011-01-01

    In aptitude and achievement tests, different response formats are usually used. A fundamental distinction must be made between the class of multiple-choice formats and the constructed response formats. Previous studies have examined the impact of different response formats applying traditional statistical approaches, but these influences can also…

  7. How to apply the optimal estimation method to your lidar measurements for improved retrievals of temperature and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, R. J.; Haefele, A.; Jalali, A.; Gamage, S.; Farhani, G.

    2018-04-01

    The optimal estimation method (OEM) has a long history of use in passive remote sensing, but has only recently been applied to active instruments like lidar. The OEM's advantage over traditional techniques includes obtaining a full systematic and random uncertainty budget plus the ability to work with the raw measurements without first applying instrument corrections. In our meeting presentation we will show you how to use the OEM for temperature and composition retrievals for Rayleigh-scatter, Ramanscatter and DIAL lidars.

  8. Applying Item Response Theory methods to design a learning progression-based science assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1) how to use items in different formats to classify students into levels on the learning progression, (2) how to design a test to give good information about students' progress through the learning progression of a particular construct and (3) what characteristics of test items support their use for assessing students' levels. Data used for this study were collected from 1500 elementary and secondary school students during 2009--2010. The written assessment was developed in several formats such as the Constructed Response (CR) items, Ordered Multiple Choice (OMC) and Multiple True or False (MTF) items. The followings are the main findings from this study. The OMC, MTF and CR items might measure different components of the construct. A single construct explained most of the variance in students' performances. However, additional dimensions in terms of item format can explain certain amount of the variance in student performance. So additional dimensions need to be considered when we want to capture the differences in students' performances on different types of items targeting the understanding of the same underlying progression. Items in each item format need to be improved in certain ways to classify students more accurately into the learning progression levels. This study establishes some general steps that can be followed to design other learning progression-based tests as well. For example, first, the boundaries between levels on the IRT scale can be defined by using the means of the item thresholds across a set of good items. Second, items in multiple formats can be selected to achieve the information criterion at all

  9. Evaluation of Two Fitting Methods Applied for Thin-Layer Drying of Cape Gooseberry Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Karacabey

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drying data of cape gooseberry was used to compare two fitting methods: namely 2-step and 1-step methods. Literature data was also used to confirm the results. To demonstrate the applicability of these methods, two primary models (Page, Two-term-exponential were selected. Linear equation was used as secondary model. As well-known from the previous modelling studies on drying, 2-step method required at least two regressions: One is primary model and one is secondary (if you have only one environmental condition such as temperature. On the other hand, one regression was enough for 1-step method. Although previous studies on kinetic modelling of drying of foods were based on 2-step method, this study indicated that 1-step method may also be a good alternative with some advantages such as drawing an informative figure and reducing time of calculations.

  10. Linear, Transfinite and Weighted Method for Interpolation from Grid Lines Applied to OCT Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Anne-Sofie Wessel; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2018-01-01

    of a square grid, but are unknown inside each square. To view these values as an image, intensities need to be interpolated at regularly spaced pixel positions. In this paper we evaluate three methods for interpolation from grid lines: linear, transfinite and weighted. The linear method does not preserve...... and the stability of the linear method further away. An important parameter influencing the performance of the interpolation methods is the upsampling rate. We perform an extensive evaluation of the three interpolation methods across a range of upsampling rates. Our statistical analysis shows significant difference...... in the performance of the three methods. We find that the transfinite interpolation works well for small upsampling rates and the proposed weighted interpolation method performs very well for all upsampling rates typically used in practice. On the basis of these findings we propose an approach for combining two OCT...

  11. Geochronology and geochemistry by nuclear tracks method: some utilization examples in geologic applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Soliani Junior, E.

    1988-01-01

    This article discuss some applications of the 'nuclear tracks method' in geochronology, geochemistry and geophysic. In geochronology, after rapid presentation of the dating principles by 'Fission Track' and the kinds of geological events mensurable by this method, is showed some application in metallogeny and in petroleum geolocy. In geochemistry the 'fission tracks' method utilizations are related with mining prospecting and uranium prospecting. In geophysics an important application is the earthquake prevision, through the Ra 222 emanations continous control. (author) [pt

  12. Purists need not apply: the case for pragmatism in mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczak, Kristine L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this column is to describe several different ways of conducting mixed method research. The paradigms that underpin both qualitative and quantitative research are also considered along with a cursory review of classical pragmatism as it relates conducting mixed methods studies. Finally, the idea of loosely coupled systems as a means to support mixed methods studies is proposed along with several caveats to researchers who desire to use this new way of obtaining knowledge. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The development of a curved beam element model applied to finite elements method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento Filho, A.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for the evaluation of the stiffness matrix for a thick curved beam element is developed, by means of the minimum potential energy principle, applied to finite elements. The displacement field is prescribed through polynomial expansions, and the interpolation model is determined by comparison of results obtained by the use of a sample of different expansions. As a limiting case of the curved beam, three cases of straight beams, with different dimensional ratios are analised, employing the approach proposed. Finally, an interpolation model is proposed and applied to a curved beam with great curvature. Desplacements and internal stresses are determined and the results are compared with those found in the literature. (Author) [pt

  14. Irradiation temperature measurements in the surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pav, T.; Krhounek, V.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of the diamond monitor method for the determination of the irradiation temperature in the surveillance programme of WWER-440 reactors is discussed. One of the difficulties with the practical application of the method is that the measured values of irradiation temperature are unlikely high. Using a thermodynamical model of the processes in the annealing of the irradiated diamond crystals, it was shown that experimental difficulties came from the principles of the method used. An analysis was performed of the thermal field inside the capsule of the surveillance chain in operational conditions, using the finite element method. The diamond monitor method was suggested to be eliminated from the surveillance programme and the use was proposed of the value of 273+-3 degC (as the most likely value) for the irradiation temperature of surveillance samples in WWER-440 reactors. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 6 figs., 4 refs

  15. Applying formal method to design of nuclear power plant embedded protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Kim, Il Gon; Sung, Chang Hoon; Choi, Jin Young; Lee, Na Young

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power embedded protection systems is a typical safety-critical system, which detects its failure and shutdowns its operation of nuclear reactor. These systems are very dangerous so that it absolutely requires safety and reliability. Therefore nuclear power embedded protection system should fulfill verification and validation completely from the design stage. To develop embedded system, various V and V method have been provided and especially its design using Formal Method is studied in other advanced country. In this paper, we introduce design method of nuclear power embedded protection systems using various Formal-Method in various respect following nuclear power plant software development guideline

  16. Researching and applying the MRSS method in fuel assembly mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiwei; Zhou Yunqing; Liu Jiazheng; Tong Xing; Zheng Yixiong

    2014-01-01

    Tolerance analysis is an important part in mechanical design of fuel assemblies. With introduction of the MRSS method and the process capability, the relation between the two was discussed. The conditions of the MRSS method were limited by calculating the protrusion of the Outer Strap Spring of the Grid. The results show that the MRSS method shall be preferred used in linear tolerance analysis in fuel assemblies with numbers of dimensions by controlling process capability and considering sensitivities and modified factor. The results can be approbated both by designers and manufacturers with the MRSS method used. (authors)

  17. Reliability analysis of reactor systems by applying probability method; Analiza pouzdanosti reaktorskih sistema primenom metoda verovatnoce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milivojevic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1974-12-15

    Probability method was chosen for analysing the reactor system reliability is considered realistic since it is based on verified experimental data. In fact this is a statistical method. The probability method developed takes into account the probability distribution of permitted levels of relevant parameters and their particular influence on the reliability of the system as a whole. The proposed method is rather general, and was used for problem of thermal safety analysis of reactor system. This analysis enables to analyze basic properties of the system under different operation conditions, expressed in form of probability they show the reliability of the system on the whole as well as reliability of each component.

  18. An Analysis of Methods Section of Research Reports in Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Marcuzzo

    2011-01-01

    This work aims at identifying analytical categories and research procedures adopted in the analysis of research article in Applied Linguistics/EAP in order to propose a systematization of the research procedures in Genre Analysis. For that purpose, 12 research reports and interviews with four authors were analyzed. The analysis showed that the studies are concentrated on the investigation of the macrostructure or on the microstructure of research articles in different fields. Studies about th...

  19. Methods of the professional-applied physical preparation of students of higher educational establishments of economic type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliar E.I.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Is considered the directions of professionally-applied physical preparation of students with the prevailing use of facilities of football. Are presented the methods of professionally-applied physical preparation of students. It is indicated that application of method of the circular training is rendered by an assistance development of discipline, honesty, honesty, rational use of time. Underline, that in teaching it is necessary to provide a short cut to mastering of the planned knowledge, abilities and skills, improvement of physical qualities.

  20. Statistical methods applied to gamma-ray spectroscopy algorithms in nuclear security missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Deborah K; Robinson, Sean M; Runkle, Robert C

    2012-10-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is a critical research and development priority to a range of nuclear security missions, specifically the interdiction of special nuclear material involving the detection and identification of gamma-ray sources. We categorize existing methods by the statistical methods on which they rely and identify methods that have yet to be considered. Current methods estimate the effect of counting uncertainty but in many cases do not address larger sources of decision uncertainty, which may be significantly more complex. Thus, significantly improving algorithm performance may require greater coupling between the problem physics that drives data acquisition and statistical methods that analyze such data. Untapped statistical methods, such as Bayes Modeling Averaging and hierarchical and empirical Bayes methods, could reduce decision uncertainty by rigorously and comprehensively incorporating all sources of uncertainty. Application of such methods should further meet the needs of nuclear security missions by improving upon the existing numerical infrastructure for which these analyses have not been conducted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.