WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance effluent monitoring

  1. Environmental regulatory guide for radiological effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is obligated to regulate its own activities so as to provide radiation protection for both workers and the public.'' Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards,'' further requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all Federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all actions necessary for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. This regulatory guide describes the elements of an acceptable effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance program for DOE sites involving radioactive materials. These elements are applicable to all DOE and contractor activities for which the DOE exercises environmental, safety, and health responsibilities, and are intended to be applicable over the broad range of DOE facilities and sites. In situations where the high-priority elements may not provide sufficient coverage of a specific monitoring or surveillance topic, the document provides additional guidance. The high-priority elements are written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed, and the guidance is written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed. The regulatory guide both incorporates and expands on requirements embodied in DOE 5400.5 and DOE 5400.1. 221 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  3. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  4. Management plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, J.M.; Pratt, D.R.

    1991-08-01

    The DOE/RL 89-19, United States Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1989), requires the Hanford Site to prepare an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) by November 9, 1991. The DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (1991), provides additional guidance and requires implementation of the EMP within 36 months of the effective data of the rule. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each US Department of Energy (DOE) site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of hazardous materials to prepare an EMP. This EMP is to identify and discuss two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. At the Hanford Site, the site-wide EMP will consist of the following elements: (1) A conceptual plan addressing effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance; (2) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) site-wide environmental surveillance program; (3) Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) effluent monitoring program consisting of the near-field operations environmental monitoring activities and abstracts of each Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP). This management plan addresses the third of these three elements of the EMP, the FEMPs.

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  6. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  7. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the fast flux test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, J M; Dahl, N R

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in US Department of Energy Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination was performed during calendar year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

  8. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  9. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Surveillance of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from Wastewater Effluents Across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will inform the audience of the purpose and importance of the antibiotic resistant bacteria surveillances that have been conducted to date. And an overview of why the EPA is looking into this problem in wastewater effluents.

  11. Surveillance of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from Wastewater Effluents Across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will inform the audience of the purpose and importance of the antibiotic resistant bacteria surveillances that have been conducted to date. And an overview of why the EPA is looking into this problem in wastewater effluents.

  12. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  13. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations for the 600 Area facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-08-01

    This document determines the need for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans for Westinghouse Hanford Company's 600 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations were prepared in accordance with A Guide For Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (WHC 1991). Five major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 600 Area were evaluated: the Purge Water Storage Facility, 212-N, -P, and -R Facilities, the 616 Facility, and the 213-J K Storage Vaults. Of the five major facilities evaluated in the 600 Area, none will require preparation of a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan.

  14. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farm facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.

    1998-05-18

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

  15. Remote container monitoring and surveillance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Aquila Technologies Group is developing a monitoring and surveillance system to monitor containers of nuclear materials. The system will both visually and physically monitor the containers. The system is based on the combination of Aquila`s Gemini All-Digital Surveillance System and on Aquila`s AssetLAN{trademark} asset tracking technology. This paper discusses the Gemini Digital Surveillance system as well as AssetLAN technology. The Gemini architecture with emphasis on anti-tamper security features is also described. The importance of all-digital surveillance versus other surveillance methods is also discussed. AssetLAN{trademark} technology is described, emphasizing the ability to continually track containers (as assets) by location utilizing touch memory technology. Touch memory technology provides unique container identification, as well as the ability to store and retrieve digital information on the container. This information may relate to container maintenance, inspection schedules, and other information. Finally, this paper describes the combination of the Gemini system with AssetLAN technology, yielding a self contained, container monitoring and area/container surveillance system. Secure container fixture design considerations are discussed. Basic surveillance review functions are also discussed.

  16. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years.

  17. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using specific guidelines. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years.

  18. Epidemiological Concepts Regarding Disease Monitoring and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jette

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of epidemiological concepts regarding disease monitoring and surveillance can be found in textbooks on veterinary epidemiology. This paper gives a review of how the concepts: monitoring, surveillance, and disease control strategies are defined. Monitoring and surveillance systems (MO&SS involve measurements of disease occurrence, and the design of the monitoring determines which types of disease occurrence measures can be applied. However, the knowledge of the performance of diagnostic tests (sensitivity and specificity is essential to estimate the true occurrence of the disease. The terms, disease control programme (DCP or disease eradication programme (DEP, are defined, and the steps of DCP/DEP are described to illustrate that they are a process rather than a static MO&SS.

  19. Surveillance and Monitoring of Dialysis Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalathaksha Kumbar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access is the lifeline of a hemodialysis patient. Currently arteriovenous fistula and graft are considered the permanent options for vascular access. Monitoring and surveillance of vascular access are an integral part of the care of hemodialysis patient. Although different techniques and methods are available for identifying access dysfunction, the scientific evidence for the optimal methodology is lacking. A small number of randomized controlled trials have been performed evaluating different surveillance techniques. We performed a study of the recent literature published in the PUBMED, to review the scientific evidence on different methodologies currently being used for surveillance and monitoring and their impact on the care of the dialysis access. The limited randomized studies especially involving fistulae and small sample size of the published studies with conflicting results highlight the need for a larger multicentered randomized study with hard clinical end points to evaluate the optimal surveillance strategy for both fistula and graft.

  20. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  2. Monitoring and Surveillance of Hemodialysis Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Nischal; Anvari, Evamaria; McLennan, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    Access surveillance using invasive or noninvasive methods with an objective to improve access patency and decrease hospital admissions for access dysfunction in dialysis population has been promoted, but its success to predict incipient thrombosis and subsequent access failure is a controversial topic. Some studies have shown improvement in access outcomes, while others have failed to demonstrate an ideal method to diagnose access problems. Furthermore, the use of endovascular interventions such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty to timely correct access problem might itself be a promoter of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis during balloon angioplasty. There are significant costs and efforts associated with routine dialysis surveillance; therefore, it is necessary to understand whether such programs will help improve access-related problems and guarantee adequate dialysis care. It is generally agreed upon that despite the lack of guaranteed success of surveillance, such strategies have helped improve dialysis management, resulted in decreased costs and hospitalizations, and represented clinically relevant indications of failure prior to planning any radiological or surgical intervention. In this study, the authors review monitoring and surveillance measures in place, and their associated merits and limitations to detect stenosis and prevent incidences of vascular access thrombosis.

  3. Nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring program. 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.A.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.; Meachum, T.R.

    1993-08-01

    A monitoring program for nonradioactive parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents was initiated in October 1985 for facilities operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Program design and implementation are discussed in this report. Design and methodologies for sampling, analysis, and data management are also discussed. Monitoring results for 28 liquid effluent streams from (October 1991 through December 1992) are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1992 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  4. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kotter, D.; Walrath, W.M.; Zamecnik, R.J. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-07-01

    We present a summary of efforts associated with the installation of an integrated system for the surveillance and monitoring of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides in long-term storage. The product of this effort will include a Pu storage requirements document, baseline integrated monitoring and surveillance system (IMSS) prototype and test bed that will be installed in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) nuclear material vault at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), and a Pu tracking database including data analysis capabilities. The prototype will be based on a minimal set of vault and package monitoring requirements as derived from applicable DOE documentation and guidelines, detailed in the requirements document, including DOE-STD-3013-96. The use of standardized requirements will aid individual sites in the selection of sensors that best suit their needs while the prototype IMSS, located at ANL-W, will be used as a test bed to compare and contrast sensor performance against a baseline integrated system (the IMSS), demonstrate system capabilities, evaluate potential technology gaps, and test new hardware and software designs using various storage configurations. With efforts currently underway to repackage and store a substantial quantity of plutonium and plutonium-bearing material within the DOE complex, this is an opportune time to undertake such a project. 4 refs.

  5. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  6. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 3720 Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the Environmental Science Laboratory (3720 Facility) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs'' This FEMP has been prepared for the 3720 Facility primarily because it has a major (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The 3720 Facility provides office and laboratory space for PNNL scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of materials characterization and testing and waste management. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials to conduct these activities. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, and dispersible particulate. The facility is in the process of being vacated for shutdown, but is considered a Major Emission Point as of the date of this document approval.

  7. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  8. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Camilleri, A.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1995-12-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL) during 1994. All low level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.015 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1.5 % of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, and 5 % of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. 27 refs., 22 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. 76 FR 6475 - Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and... responder safety and health by monitoring and conducting surveillance of their health and safety during the... of a response. The proposed system is referred to as the ``Emergency Responder Health Monitoring...

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); De Lorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  11. 40 CFR 401.17 - pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true pH Effluent limitations under... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.17 pH Effluent limitations under continuous monitoring. (a) Where a permittee continuously measures the pH of wastewater pursuant to...

  12. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. PMID:26729130

  13. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Braeken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side.

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVIS, W.E.

    2000-03-08

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee public safety, or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan ensures long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and must be updated, as a minimum, every 3 years.

  15. US national breastfeeding monitoring and surveillance: current status and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Donna J; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2009-05-01

    Eleven federally funded datasets assessing breastfeeding behaviors in the United States (Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Infant Feeding Practices Survey II, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Immunization Survey, National Survey of Children's Health, National Survey of Early Childhood Health, National Survey of Family Growth, Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Survey, and WIC Participant and Program Characteristics) were reviewed to evaluate breastfeeding variables (initiation, duration and exclusivity) and determine whether relevant breastfeeding determinants were collected to evaluate breastfeeding practices from a health disparities perspective. The datasets used inconsistent breastfeeding definitions, limited ethnic descriptors, and varied regarding availability of relevant determinants. Multiple datasets collect breastfeeding data, but a coordinated US breastfeeding monitoring and surveillance system does not exist. Suggestions to improve this system include: standardizing breastfeeding definitions, expanding ethnic/racial descriptors, collecting additional relevant variables, and reducing recall periods.

  16. New containment and surveillance portal monitor data analysis methed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.N.; Pratt, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A new containment and surveillance portal monitor data analysis method has been developed. Current approaches use only the data from a single passage and an average background interval for alarm determination. The new method improves performance by summing the counts from many passages for comparison to the expected count, thus improving the statistical accuracy.

  17. Characteristics of the IAEA correlation monitor material for surveillance programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Kim; Valo, Matti; Rintamaa, Rauno; Toerroenen, Kari; Ahlstrand, Ralf

    1989-08-01

    Correlation monitor material developed to meet the needs of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Association) coordinated research program for optimizing reactor pressure vessel surveillance programs and their analysis is described. The material is intended to serve as a reference within the IAEA for future vessel surveillance programs throughout the world. The results of an extensive evaluation of the material in the as-received condition are presented. The mechanical properties measured at different temperatures include Charpy V notch and instrumented precracked Charpy data. Elastic-plastic fracture toughness is studied. Specimen size and geometry are varied in the tests. Correlations between different fracture properties are evaluated and discussed.

  18. Radiation-Triggered Surveillance for UF6 Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This paper recommends the use of radiation detectors, singly or in sets, to trigger surveillance cameras. Ideally, the cameras will monitor cylinders transiting the process area as well as the process area itself. The general process area will be surveyed to record how many cylinders have been attached and detached to the process between inspections. Rad-triggered cameras can dramatically reduce the quantity of recorded images, because the movement of personnel and equipment not involving UF6 cylinders will not generate a surveillance review file.

  19. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for AP-40 exhauster stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.; Bussell, J.H.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as applied to the AP-40 exhauster stack, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/AP-40 system meets all applicable performance criteria. The contaminant mixing tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the wind tunnel facility, 331-H Building, using a mockup of the actual stack. The particle sample transport tests were conducted by PNNL at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The AP-40 stack is typical of several 10-in. diameter stacks that discharge the filtered ventilation air from tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles. Unrelated to the performance criteria, it was found that the record sample filter holder exhibited symptoms of sample bypass around the particle collection filter. This filter holder should either be modified or replaced with a different type. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Monitoring activities review of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    The 1992 Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) is directed at the Radiological Environment Surveillance Program (RESP) activities at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of Idaho Engineering Laboratory (INEL). MAR panelists studied RESP documents and discussed their concerns with Environmental Monitoring Unit (EMU) staff and other panel members. These concerns were subsequently consolidated into a collection of recommendations with supporting discussions. Recommendations focus on specific monitoring activities, as well as the overall program. The MAR report also contains pertinent comments that should not require further action.

  1. Monitoring risk: post marketing surveillance and signal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard C

    2009-12-01

    The primary goal of postmarketing surveillance is to provide information for risk assessment of a drug. Drugs affecting the central nervous system form a unique group of products for surveillance because they are often misused, abused, and diverted. These medications include opioid analgesics, stimulants, sedative-hypnotics, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants and other drug classes. Their adverse events are difficult to monitor because the perpetrator often attempts to conceal the misuse, abuse and diversion of the product. A postmarketing surveillance system for prescription drugs of abuse in the U.S. should include product specific information that is accurate, immediately available, geographically specific and includes all areas of the country. Most producers of branded opioid analgesic products have created systems that measure abuse from multiple vantage points: criminal justice, treatment professionals, susceptible patient populations and acute health events. In the past, the U.S. government has not established similar requirements for the same products produced by generic manufacturers. However, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 includes generic opioid analgesic products by requiring that all products containing potent opioid drugs perform rigorous surveillance and risk management. While general risk management guidance has been developed by FDA, more specific analyses and guidance are needed to improve surveillance methodology for drugs which are misused, abused, diverted.

  2. Environmental radiological surveillance in perspective: the relative importance of environmental media as a function of effluent pathway and radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, D.H.

    1977-10-01

    Most published guidelines for environmental surveillance emphasize the collection and analysis of specific media (e.g. air, water, milk, direct radiation) without total regard for the potential dose impact of the radionuclides expected in or actually present in the effluent streams from nuclear facilities. To determine the relative importance of medium/nuclide combinations in environmental surveillance, the experience at major ERDA sites and at operating nuclear power plants was reviewed. Typical release rates for nuclide groupings (tritium, noble gases, radioiodine, mixed fission or activation products, and transuranics) in those effluent streams were followed through various environmental pathways. By using this scheme the environmental medium which is most prominent in the critical dose pathway to man was determined. It was also possible to determine points of short-or long-term contaminant accumulation. Following these combination providing the relative importance of sampling specific environmental media with emphasis on the radiation dose to a critical population group. Finally, the results of these environmental pathway studies are presented in tabular form to provide ready reference for environmental surveillance program design or evaluation.

  3. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans release 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-10-11

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

  4. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-09-08

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

  5. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-10-12

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user.

  6. Monitoring human babesiosis emergence through vector surveillance New England, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Liu, Yuchen; Steeves, Tanner K; Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine; Dardick, Kenneth R; Lepore, Timothy; Bent, Stephen J; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Telford, Sam R; Fish, Durland; Krause, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    Human babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan Babesia microti. Its geographic distribution is more limited than that of Lyme disease, despite sharing the same tick vector and reservoir hosts. The geographic range of babesiosis is expanding, but knowledge of its range is incomplete and relies exclusively on reports of human cases. We evaluated the utility of tick-based surveillance for monitoring disease expansion by comparing the ratios of the 2 infections in humans and ticks in areas with varying B. microti endemicity. We found a close association between human disease and tick infection ratios in long-established babesiosis-endemic areas but a lower than expected incidence of human babesiosis on the basis of tick infection rates in new disease-endemic areas. This finding suggests that babesiosis at emerging sites is underreported. Vector-based surveillance can provide an early warning system for the emergence of human babesiosis.

  7. State of work for services provided by the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility for effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-02-01

    This document defines the services the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) shall provide Effluent Monitoring (EM) throughout the calendar year for analysis. The internal memo contained in Appendix A identifies the samples Em plans to submit for analysis in CY-1995. Analysis of effluent (liquid and air discharges) and environmental (air, liquid, animal, and vegetative) samples is required using standard laboratory procedures, in accordance with regulatory and control requirements. This report describes regulatory reporting requirements and WSCF services and data quality objectives.

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K area spent fuel storage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunacek, G.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400. 1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in WHC-EP-0438-1, A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the second revision to the original annual report. Long-range integrity ofthe effluent monitoring systenu shall be ensured with updates of this report whenever a new process or oper&ion introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimwn of every three years.

  9. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.

  10. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.

  11. Development of Compact Surveillance and Monitoring System `COSMOS`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hironobu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    The Compact Surveillance and Monitoring System (COSMOS) was developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a safeguards surveillance system under the JASPAS (Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards) with the collaboration of the Sony Corporation. It was intended as a direct replacement to the Twin Minolta film camera system. The COSMOS system can operate with a self-contained battery, record 30,000 scenes with an 8 mm video cassette tape and operate continuously for three months without human intervention. It can also operate by AC power supply for more than three months, and record 45,000 scenes in an 8 mm video cassette tape. The COSMOS system consists of two units, one is the Recording Unit and the other is the Setup/Review Unit. The Recording Unit consists of a main frame, four modules and a tamperproof housing. The four modules are a small CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera with an auto-iris lens and a specific VTR (Video Tape Recorder), a video frame memory module, a system control module, and a DC or an AC power module. Currently, the COSMOS is the only safeguards video surveillance system without the need of external power supply for three months. In 1992 thirteen COSMOS units were successfully tested for the reliability by both the IAEA and the JAERI. None of mechanical failure was observed. On the one hand, the battery operation tests using four units were successfully carried out with 5 minutes time interval for three months. Three units were also tested in the field and no failure was observed. The COSMOS was accepted as the routine-use device for international safeguards by the IAEA in August 1993. The total of 90 units were purchased by the IAEA from the manufacturer, SONY, and also several units were purchased by the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan for the STA/IAEA joint-use in Japan. (author)

  12. Filaria control and elimination: diagnostic, monitoring and surveillance needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David H

    2009-04-01

    Gold standard diagnosis using blood films or skin snips has dimished relevance as mass drug distribution programmes for control of filaria infections expand. The view of 'diagnosis' and its relevance at the individual level has changed, as it has been recognised that the spectrum of programmatic processes (mapping, mass drug interventions, monitoring and evaluation, and surveillance) require different approaches as different questions are asked at each stage. The feasibility and relevance of skin biopsy or blood film examination is challenged when mass drug distribution seeks to treat all eligibles in communities. The need to expand programmes rapidly by identifying the highest risk communities has seen the development of rapid assessment methods, such as rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO) and rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) for onchocerciasis, immunochromatographic test (ICT)-based mapping for lymphatic filariasis (LF), and Rapid Assessment Procedure for Loiasis (RAPLOA) for Loa, to reduce the risk of serious adverse events and to guide projects in high-risk communities. As programmes reduce the prevalence through mass drug distribution, more sensitive techniques are required to define endpoints, for LF in particular where the programmatic goal is elimination; for onchocerciasis, sensitive surveillance tools are required particularly in those areas where such risks of recrudescence are high. Whilst much progress has been made in the development and deployment of rapid methods, there are still specific needs for antigen detection in onchocerciasis, whilst standardisation of a panel of tools for LF will allow the definition of endpoint parameters so that countries can decide when mass drug administration (MDA) can be stopped and have a sensitive post-MDA surveillance system.

  13. Monitoring quantity and quality of pangasius pond effluent : report of a monitoring program and recommendations for certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der P.G.M.; Poelman, M.; Vo Minh Son,; Duong Nhut Long,; Bosma, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity and quality of pangasius pond effluent was monitored by means of monthly sampling during a study conducted on four striped catfish farms located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The study was undertaken to test the practical implications of the standards and guidelines with regard to catfi

  14. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C. [and others

    1997-01-15

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables.

  15. Syndromic surveillance: STL for modeling, visualizing, and monitoring disease counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abusalah Ahmad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health surveillance is the monitoring of data to detect and quantify unusual health events. Monitoring pre-diagnostic data, such as emergency department (ED patient chief complaints, enables rapid detection of disease outbreaks. There are many sources of variation in such data; statistical methods need to accurately model them as a basis for timely and accurate disease outbreak methods. Methods Our new methods for modeling daily chief complaint counts are based on a seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess (STL and were developed using data from the 76 EDs of the Indiana surveillance program from 2004 to 2008. Square root counts are decomposed into inter-annual, yearly-seasonal, day-of-the-week, and random-error components. Using this decomposition method, we develop a new synoptic-scale (days to weeks outbreak detection method and carry out a simulation study to compare detection performance to four well-known methods for nine outbreak scenarios. Result The components of the STL decomposition reveal insights into the variability of the Indiana ED data. Day-of-the-week components tend to peak Sunday or Monday, fall steadily to a minimum Thursday or Friday, and then rise to the peak. Yearly-seasonal components show seasonal influenza, some with bimodal peaks. Some inter-annual components increase slightly due to increasing patient populations. A new outbreak detection method based on the decomposition modeling performs well with 90 days or more of data. Control limits were set empirically so that all methods had a specificity of 97%. STL had the largest sensitivity in all nine outbreak scenarios. The STL method also exhibited a well-behaved false positive rate when run on the data with no outbreaks injected. Conclusion The STL decomposition method for chief complaint counts leads to a rapid and accurate detection method for disease outbreaks, and requires only 90 days of historical data to be put into

  16. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on bluetongue monitoring and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegeman, Arjan; Bøtner, Anette; Savini, Giovanni

    for the purpose of monitoring and surveillance programmes for bluetongue. A systematic literature review and a review of monitoring and surveillance data from European Union Member States was performed in order to estimate the prevalences observed in the Member States. The prevalences observed in areas that have...... there is no scientific evidence that suggests an optimal size of the relevant geographic unit for BTV monitoring and surveillance, since it depends on many factors, including the goal of the surveillance programmes. Early warning based on passive surveillance will take place irrespective of the size of the geographical...... unit but, when based on active surveillance, it is best targeted at regions considered at risk for introduction, using small geographical units, a high sampling frequency and sample size. For estimating the impact of interventions on the prevalence of infected animals, smaller areas result in more...

  17. Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-09

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Hanford Reservation. Attention is focused on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. All Hanford contractors reviewed potential sources of contamination. A facility effluent monitoring plan was written for each facility with the potential to release significant quantities of hazardous materials, addressing both radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring. The environmental surveillance program assesses onsite and offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health exposures. The program monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife. In addition, independent onsite surveillance is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hanford Site effluent controls in order to comply with applicable environmental standards and regulations.

  18. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  19. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are

  20. 1994 Environmental monitoring drinking water and nonradiological effluent programs annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.D.; Brock, T.A.; Meachum, T.R.

    1995-10-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated monitoring programs for drinking water in 1988 and for nonradiological parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents in 1985. These programs were initiated for the facilities operated by EG&G Idaho for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. On October 1, 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) replaced EG&G Idaho as the prime contractor at the INEL and assumed responsibility for these programs. Section I discusses the general site characteristics, the analytical laboratories, and sampling methodology general to both programs. Section 2, the Drinking Water Program, tracks the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters required by State and Federal regulations. This section describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at 17 LITCO-operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters detected and the regulatory limits exceeded during calendar year 1994. In addition, groundwater quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for LITCO production wells. Section 3 discusses the nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring results for 27 liquid effluent streams. These streams are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1994 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  1. Environmental surveillance data report for the first quarter of 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, P.Y.; Cooper, R.C.; Hamilton, L.V.; Hughes, J.F.; Horwedel, B.M.; Loffman, R.S.; Salmons, M.C.; Stevens, M.M.; Valentine, C.K.; Wolf, D.A.

    1992-12-01

    The Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section within the Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the development and implementation of an environmental program to (1) ensure compliance with all federal, state, and Department of Energy (DOE) reporting requirements to quantitatively demonstrate prevention, control, and abatement ofenvironmental pollution; (2) monitor the adequacy of containment and effluent controls; and (3) assess impacts of releases from ORNL facilities on the environment. Environmental monitoring, as defined by the Regulatory Guide, consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents. Environmental surveillance is the collection and analysis of samples, or direct measurements of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs. Monthly or quarterly summaries are presented in this report for each medium sampled.

  2. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre during 1996. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by thr National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. Details of the environmental sample collection and analytical procedures are given in the appendices. (authors). 29 refs., 26 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y

    1998-11-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) during 1997. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges from HIFAR were estimated utilising the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective dose to the public was estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around the HIFAR research reactor. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 10% of the HIFAR dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/year 24 tabs., 7 figs.; Glossary; Appendices

  4. Environmental monitoring and surveillance on the Oak Ridge Reservation: 1993 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koncinski, W.S. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Environmental monitoring and surveillance are conducted on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its environs throughout the year. Environmental monitoring ensures that (1) the reservation is a safe place to work, (2) activities on the reservation do not adversely affect the neighboring communities, and (3) compliance is made with federal and state regulations. This document is a compilation of the monitoring and surveillance data for calendar year 1993. It is a tool for analysts in the fields of environmental monitoring and environmental restoration. The summary information found in the annual site environmental report was drawn from the contents of summary in this document.

  5. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DB Barnett

    2000-05-17

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  6. Design, calibration, and operation of 220Rn stack effluent monitoring systems at Argonne National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyon, W J; Kretz, N D; Marchetti, F P

    1994-09-01

    A group of stack effluent monitoring systems have been developed to monitor discharges of 220Rn from a hot cell facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The stack monitors use flow-through scintillation cells and are completely microprocessor-based systems. A method for calibrating the stack monitors in the laboratory and in the field is described. A nominal calibration factor for the stack monitoring systems in use is 15.0 cts min-1 per kBq m-3 (0.56 cts min-1 per pCi L-1) +/- 26% at the 95% confidence level. The plate-out fraction of decay products in the stack monitor scintillation cells, without any pre-filtering, was found to be nominally 25% under normal operating conditions. When the sample was pre-filtered upstream of the scintillation cell, the observed cell plate-out fraction ranged from 16-22%, depending on the specific sampling conditions. The instantaneous 220Rn stack concentration can be underestimated or overestimated when the steady state condition established between 220Rn and its decay products in the scintillation cell is disrupted by sudden changes in the monitored 220Rn concentration. For long-term measurements, however, the time-averaged response of the monitor represents the steady state condition and leads to a reasonable estimate of the average 220Rn concentration during the monitoring period.

  7. Real-time Prescription Surveillance and its Application to Monitoring Seasonal Influenza Activity in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Yasushi; Ibuka, Yoko; Kawanohara, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Background Real-time surveillance is fundamental for effective control of disease outbreaks, but the official sentinel surveillance in Japan collects information related to disease activity only weekly and updates it with a 1-week time lag. Objective To report on a prescription surveillance system using electronic records related to prescription drugs that was started in 2008 in Japan, and to evaluate the surveillance system for monitoring influenza activity during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons. Methods We developed an automatic surveillance system using electronic records of prescription drug purchases collected from 5275 pharmacies through the application service provider’s medical claims service. We then applied the system to monitoring influenza activity during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons. The surveillance system collected information related to drugs and patients directly and automatically from the electronic prescription record system, and estimated the number of influenza cases based on the number of prescriptions of anti-influenza virus medication. Then it shared the information related to influenza activity through the Internet with the public on a daily basis. Results During the 2009–2010 influenza season, the number of influenza patients estimated by the prescription surveillance system between the 28th week of 2009 and the 12th week of 2010 was 9,234,289. In the 2010–2011 influenza season, the number of influenza patients between the 36th week of 2010 and the 12th week of 2011 was 7,153,437. The estimated number of influenza cases was highly correlated with that predicted by the official sentinel surveillance (r = .992, P prescription surveillance system produced a good approximation of activity patterns. Conclusions Our prescription surveillance system presents great potential for monitoring influenza activity and for providing early detection of infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:22249906

  8. Removal of bacterial cells, antibiotic resistance genes and integrase genes by on-site hospital wastewater treatment plants: surveillance of treated hospital effluent quality

    KAUST Repository

    Timraz, Kenda

    2016-12-15

    This study aims to evaluate the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants, including total cell counts, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs, e.g. tetO, tetZ, sul1 and sul2) and integrase genes (e.g. intl1 and intl2), by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated on-site of two hospitals (i.e., SH WWTP and IH WWTP). Both SH and IH WWTPs utilize the conventional activated sludge process but differences in the removal efficiencies were observed. Over the 2 week sampling period, IH WWTP outperformed SH WWTP, and achieved an approximate 0.388 to 2.49-log log removal values (LRVs) for total cell counts compared to the 0.010 to 0.162-log removal in SH WWTP. Although ARB were present in the hospital influent, the treatment process of both hospitals effectively removed ARB from most of the effluent samples. In instances where ARB were recovered in the effluent, none of the viable isolates were identified to be opportunistic pathogenic species based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. However, sul1 and intl1 genes remained detectable at up to 105 copies per mL or 8 x 10(-1) copies per 16S rRNA gene in the treated effluent, with an LRV of less than 1.2. When the treated effluent is discharged from hospital WWTPs into the public sewer for further treatment as per requirement in many countries, the detected amount of ARGs and integrase genes in the hospital effluent can become a potential source of horizontal gene dissemination in the municipal WWTP. Proper on-site wastewater treatment and surveillance of the effluent quality for emerging contaminants are therefore highly recommended.

  9. Social media monitoring: Responsive governance in the shadow of surveillance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor); A.R. Edwards (Arthur); D. de Kool (Dennis)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Social media monitoring is gradually becoming a common practice in public organizations in the Netherlands. The main purposes of social media monitoring are strategic control and responsiveness. Social media monitoring poses normative questions in terms of transparency

  10. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-04-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP.

  11. Brookhaven National Laboratory environmental monitoring plan for Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J.R.; Paquette, D.; Lee, R. [and others

    1996-10-01

    As required by DOE Order 5400.1, each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of hazardous materials shall provide a written Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) covering effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, provides specific guidance regarding environmental monitoring activities.

  12. Prioritization methodology for the monitoring of active pharmaceutical ingredients in hospital effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Bonnabry, Pascal; Dayer, Pierre; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2015-09-01

    The important number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) available on the market along with their potential adverse effects in the aquatic ecosystems, lead to the development of prioritization methods, which allow choosing priority molecules to monitor based on a set of selected criteria. Due to the large volumes of API used in hospitals, an increasing attention has been recently paid to their effluents as a source of environmental pollution. Based on the consumption data of a Swiss university hospital, about hundred of API has been prioritized following an OPBT approach (Occurrence, Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity). In addition, an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) allowed prioritizing API based on predicted concentrations and environmental toxicity data found in the literature for 71 compounds. Both prioritization approaches were compared. OPBT prioritization results highlight the high concern of some non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antiviral drugs, whereas antibiotics are revealed by ERA as potentially problematic to the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, according to the predicted risk quotient, only the hospital fraction of ciprofloxacin represents a risk to the aquatic organisms. Some compounds were highlighted as high-priority with both methods: ibuprofen, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ritonavir, gabapentin, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, raltegravir, propofol, etc. Analyzing consumption data and building prioritization lists helped choosing about 15 API to be monitored in hospital wastewaters. The API ranking approach adopted in this study can be easily transposed to any other hospitals, which have the will to look at the contamination of their effluents.

  13. Electrolytic treatment applied to the industrial effluent containing persistent wastes monitored by Bartha respirometric assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Régis

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The effluent of a rubber chemical antioxidant and antiozonant producer industry, with high content of organic material was subjected to electrolytic process. To evaluate the speed of stabilization of the eletroctrolyzed effluents, and to evaluate the biodegradation the respirometric test of Bartha and Pramer was used. The monitoring of the biodegradation of the effluent, after different periods of electrolysis show that the ideal time of electrolysis was 10 and 25 min. It was concluded that the eletrolytic process was viable to diminish the adaptation time of the microorganism to the effluent and consequently increased the biodegradation of effluent.O efluente de uma indústria produtora de antioxidante e antiozonante para borracha, caracterizado por alta concentração de matéria orgânica e aminas aromáticas que são poluentes e tóxicos, foi tratado através do processo eletrolítico de forma a melhorar as condições para a biodegradabilidade de seus resíduos persistentes. A avaliação da velocidade de estabilização dos efluentes eletrolisados e não eletrolisado, em meio líquido, biodegradação, sob a ação de bactérias, foi utilizado o respirômetro de Bartha and Pramer. A aferição da biodegradabilidade dos efluentes, após os diferentes tempos de eletrólise, permitiu determinar o tempo ótimo de exposição à eletrólise. Os tempos de eletrólise que permitiram uma maior degradação da matéria orgânica foram de 10 min e 25 min. Pode-se concluir que o tratamento eletrolítico é um método viável para a diminuição do tempo de adaptação dos microrganismos ao efluente e conseqüentemente acelerar a biodegradação do efluente da indústria química.

  14. Evaluation of local media surveillance for improved disease recognition and monitoring in global hotspot regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Schwind

    Full Text Available Digital disease detection tools are technologically sophisticated, but dependent on digital information, which for many areas suffering from high disease burdens is simply not an option. In areas where news is often reported in local media with no digital counterpart, integration of local news information with digital surveillance systems, such as HealthMap (Boston Children's Hospital, is critical. Little research has been published in regards to the specific contribution of local health-related articles to digital surveillance systems. In response, the USAID PREDICT project implemented a local media surveillance (LMS pilot study in partner countries to monitor disease events reported in print media. This research assessed the potential of LMS to enhance digital surveillance reach in five low- and middle-income countries. Over 16 weeks, select surveillance system attributes of LMS, such as simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, timeliness, and stability were evaluated to identify strengths and weaknesses in the surveillance method. Findings revealed that LMS filled gaps in digital surveillance network coverage by contributing valuable localized information on disease events to the global HealthMap database. A total of 87 health events were reported through the LMS pilot in the 16-week monitoring period, including 71 unique reports not found by the HealthMap digital detection tool. Furthermore, HealthMap identified an additional 236 health events outside of LMS. It was also observed that belief in the importance of the project and proper source selection from the participants was crucial to the success of this method. The timely identification of disease outbreaks near points of emergence and the recognition of risk factors associated with disease occurrence continue to be important components of any comprehensive surveillance system for monitoring disease activity across populations. The LMS method, with its minimal resource commitment, could

  15. Effluent monitoring at a bleached kraft mill: directions for best management practices for eliminating effects on fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Pierre H; Kovacs, Tibor G; O'connor, Brian I; Semeniuk, Sharon; Hewitt, L Mark; Maclatchy, Deborah L; McMaster, Mark E; Parrott, Joanne L; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2011-01-01

    A long-term monitoring study was conducted on effluents from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill located in Eastern Canada. The study was designed to gain insights into temporal effluent variability with respect to fish reproduction as it related to production upsets, mill restarts and conditions affecting biological treatment performance. Final effluent quality was monitored between February 2007 and May 2009 using biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, resin and fatty acids, a gas chromatographic profiling index, and the presence of methyl substituted 2-cyclopentenones. Selected effluent samples were evaluated for effects on fish reproduction (egg production) using a shortened version of the adult fathead minnow reproductive test. The events relating to negative effects on fish reproduction were upsets of the pulping liquor recovery system resulting in black liquor losses, operational upsets of the hardwood line resulting in the loss of oxygen delignification filtrates, and conditions that reduced the performance of biological treatment (e.g., mill shutdown and low ambient temperatures). The reductions in egg production observed in fathead minnow were associated with biochemical oxygen demand values > 20 mg/L, GC profiling indices > 1.2 and the presence of methyl-substituted 2-cyclopentenones at concentrations > 100 μg/L. This study demonstrated the importance of both in-plant measures for controlling the loss of organics as well as the optimum operation of biological effluent treatment for eliminating effluent-related effects on fish reproduction (egg production) in the laboratory.

  16. Monitoring of PON System Using Compound Surveillance Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun-Chien Ko; Hsiu-Jung Chuang; Si-Chong Chen; Chih-Yih Wang; Sheng-Fwu Lin

    2015-01-01

    A passive optical network (PON) monitoring system combined light pulse and frequency sweep techniques is proposed and verified in a field test. The light pulse surveys over the all whole network and the frequency sweep are used to investigate any fault in the link. The field test is performed with 4 PONs. Each PON is monitored at 4 ports, one is the splitter port and the other three are arbitrary chosen multiple optical units(ONUs). All the tested PONs are monitored in turns once per hour. Faults at the feeder and branch fiber have been observed in this field test and have been analyzed with the monitoring system.

  17. Coupon Surveillance For Corrosion Monitoring In Nuclear Fuel Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. I.; Murphy, T. R.; Deible, R.

    2012-10-01

    Aluminum and stainless steel coupons were put into a nuclear fuel basin to monitor the effect of water chemistry on the corrosion of fuel cladding. These coupons have been monitored for over ten years. The corrosion and pitting data is being used to model the kinetics and estimate the damage that is occurring to the fuel cladding.

  18. Environmental surveillance data report for the third quarter of 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, P.Y.; Cooper, R.C.; Hamilton, L.V.; Hughes, J.F.; Horwedel, B.M.; Loffman, R.S.; Salmons, M.C.; Stevens, M.M.; Valentine, C.K.

    1993-02-01

    The Environmental Surveillance and Protection Section within the Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the development and implementation of an environmental program to (1) ensure compliance with all federal, state, and Department of Energy (DOE) reporting requirements to quantitatively demonstrate prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution; (2) monitor the adequacy of containment and effluent controls; and (3) assess impacts of releases from ORNL facilities on the environment. Environmental monitoring, as defined by the Regulatory Guide, consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents. Monthly or quarterly summaries are presented in this report for each medium sampled.

  19. Unattended Monitoring of Suspicious Behaviour for Route Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, R.M.; Sandbrink, R.D.J.; Voorthuijsen, G.P. van

    2010-01-01

    A priori information on suspicious behaviour is extremely valuable for countering threats involving improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Suspicious activities along routes during expeditionary operations can be monitored by unattended networks using simple sensing nodes that can gather data for cont

  20. European framework for surveillance and monitoring of habitats: a methodological approach for Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunce, R.G.H.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Gómez-Sanz, V.; García del Barrio, J.M.; Elena-Rosselló, R.

    2006-01-01

    There is a well defined policy requirement for a practical and reproducible procedure for surveillance and monitoring of habitats in Spain that can subsequently be fitted into a European framework. Any such procedure also needs to incorporate records of the Spanish habitat classification. A procedur

  1. Environmental surveillance monitoring in the Alligator Rivers Region. Report No. 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report outlines the activities of the Northern Territory Supervising Authorities (NTSAs) in meeting their responsibilities for environmental management and surveillance of environmental monitoring relating to uranium mining in the Alligator Rivers Region for the six-month period to 30 September 1997. Detailed results of assessments, inspections and check monitoring for Nabarlek and Ranger deposits are presented. The current status of Jabiluka and Koongarra projects is briefly outlined. 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Nectophotometer: an infrared motility monitor used to rapidly identify toxicity in effluents and receiving waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Pinto, Richard W.; Santelli, John

    2007-04-01

    A change in the motility pattern of fish and aquatic invertebrates when initially exposed to a toxin has long been used in tests designed to signal the presence of toxins in effluents and receiving waters. We have discovered that the level of motility change occurring within 2.5 hours of exposure to all concentrations of a test toxicant correlates well with mortality observed after three days exposure to the toxin, but that the first 30 minutes of exposure is a poor predictor of mortality. Defining this 'best to use exposure time' can increase the sensitivity of toxicity monitoring systems to a weak toxin, one that causes a motility change so minor that it may otherwise go unnoticed. Motility is monitored and automatically recorded using a Nectophotometer, an automated bio-monitor with computer interface that senses interruptions of infrared beams when organisms separately exposed to multiple concentrations of a toxin move through the beams. In our tests changes in the motility of Artemia salina within the first 2.5 hours of exposure predict 3 day mortality with an average accuracy of 89%. The Nectophotometer has promise for allowing rapid assessment of the toxicity to invertebrates and fish, and may also be used to assess airborne toxicity if motile insects respond in a similar manner.

  3. Community monitoring for youth violence surveillance: testing a prediction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B; Dymnicki, Allison; Kane, Candice; Quintana, Elena; Cartland, Jenifer; Bromann, Kimberly; Bhatia, Shaun; Wisnieski, Elise

    2014-08-01

    Predictive epidemiology is an embryonic field that involves developing informative signatures for disorder and tracking them using surveillance methods. Through such efforts assistance can be provided to the planning and implementation of preventive interventions. Believing that certain minor crimes indicative of gang activity are informative signatures for the emergence of serious youth violence in communities, in this study we aim to predict outbreaks of violence in neighborhoods from pre-existing levels and changes in reports of minor offenses. We develop a prediction equation that uses publicly available neighborhood-level data on disorderly conduct, vandalism, and weapons violations to predict neighborhoods likely to have increases in serious violent crime. Data for this study were taken from the Chicago Police Department ClearMap reporting system, which provided data on index and non-index crimes for each of the 844 Chicago census tracts. Data were available in three month segments for a single year (fall 2009, winter, spring, and summer 2010). Predicted change in aggravated battery and overall violent crime correlated significantly with actual change. The model was evaluated by comparing alternative models using randomly selected training and test samples, producing favorable results with reference to overfitting, seasonal variation, and spatial autocorrelation. A prediction equation based on winter and spring levels of the predictors had area under the curve ranging from .65 to .71 for aggravated battery, and .58 to .69 for overall violent crime. We discuss future development of such a model and its potential usefulness in violence prevention and community policing.

  4. Unattended monitoring of suspicious behavior for route surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Sandbrink, Rody; van Voorthuijsen, Graeme

    2010-04-01

    A priori information on suspicious behaviour is extremely valuable for countering threats involving improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Suspicious activities along routes during expeditionary operations can be monitored by unattended networks using simple sensing nodes that can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Dedicated software yields the necessary intelligence on these activities by filtering suspicious behaviour from anomalous behaviour (including false alarms). Research has started to equip a commercially available sensor network with data analysis software. It aims at demonstrating the detection of suspicious behaviour along roads, within a required time span. Three phases are distinguished. First phase is the analysis of traffic flux in a simple scenario with three networks lying at three junctions. The second phase investigates the ability to track and classify one object in this scenario, while the third phase aims to track and classify two or more objects. Findings are presented for phase one, flux measurements.A priori information on suspicious behaviour is extremely valuable for countering threats involving improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Suspicious activities along routes during expeditionary operations can be monitored by unattended networks using simple sensing nodes that can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Dedicated software yields the necessary intelligence on these activities by filtering suspicious behaviour from anomalous behaviour (including false alarms). Research has started to equip a commercially available sensor network with data analysis software. It aims at demonstrating the detection of suspicious behaviour along roads, within a required time span. Three phases are distinguished. First phase is the analysis of traffic flux in a simple scenario with three networks lying at three junctions. The second phase investigates the ability to track and classify one object in

  5. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Thomas Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling and monitoring systems at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stack effluent particulate sampling and monitoring systems are being evaluated for compliance with Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company's Interim Criteria for such systems. This evaluation is part of a study by Battelle-Northwest of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. This letter report presents a preliminary evaluation of the mentioned facilities and the indicated improvements needed to meet the Interim Criteria so that conceptual design work for improved systems can be initiated. There is currently underway a detailed study at the two stacks including a series of sampling experiments, the findings of which will not be included in this report. The gaseous effluent sampling system at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks are very dissimilar and will be treated in separate sections of this report. The discussions for each sampling system will include a brief description and a preliminary evaluation of the systems.

  7. Operation Safe Haven: an evaluation of health surveillance and monitoring in an acute setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C; Mein, J; Beers, M; Harvey, B; Vemulpad, S; Chant, K; Dalton, C

    2000-02-17

    From May to June 1999, 3,920 ethnic Albanians from Kosovo arrived in Australia as part of Operation Safe Haven. These people were evacuated from refugee camps in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Initial processing in Australia occurred at East Hills Reception Centre, and accommodation for the duration of stay was provided in eight Haven Centres in five States. The arrival of a large number of refugees in a short time frame is unprecedented in Australia. A health surveillance system was developed and critical health data were collected to assess health status and needs, plan care, monitor for potential outbreaks of communicable diseases, track service use, to meet international reporting requirements and document our response to this crisis. In this article the health surveillance system is evaluated and suggestions are offered for the formulation of specific guidelines necessary for health surveillance in acute settings.

  8. Statement of Work (SOW) for services provided by the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility for the Effluent and Environmental Monitoring Program during calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GLECKLER, B.P.

    1998-10-22

    This document defines the services the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) shall provide the Effluent and Environmental Monitoring Program (EEM) throughout the calendar year for analysis. The purpose of the EEM Program is to monitor liquid and gaseous effluents, and the environment immediately around the facilities which may contain radioactive and hazardous materials. Monitoring data are collected, evaluated, and reported to determine their degree of compliance with applicable federal and state regulations and permits.

  9. Enhanced surveillance strategies for detecting and monitoring chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide wildlife management agencies with the foundation upon which they can build scientifically rigorous and cost-effective surveillance and monitoring programs for chronic wasting disease (CWD) or refine their existing programs. The first chapter provides an overview of potential demographic and spatial risk factors of susceptible wildlife populations that may be exploited for CWD surveillance and monitoring. The information contained in this chapter explores historic as well as recent developments in our understanding of CWD disease dynamics. It also contains many literature references for readers who may desire a more thorough review of the topics or CWD in general. The second chapter examines methods for enhancing efforts to detect CWD on the landscape where it is not presently known to exist and focuses on the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the surveillance program. Specifically, it describes the means of exploiting current knowledge of demographic and spatial risk factors, as described in the first chapter, through a two-stage surveillance scheme that utilizes traditional design-based sampling approaches and novel statistical methods to incorporate information about the attributes of the landscape, environment, populations and individual animals into CWD surveillance activities. By accounting for these attributes, efficiencies can be gained and cost-savings can be realized. The final chapter is unique in relation to the first two chapters. Its focus is on designing programs to monitor CWD once it is discovered within a jurisdiction. Unlike the prior chapters that are more detailed or prescriptive, this chapter by design is considerably more general because providing comprehensive direction for creating monitoring programs for jurisdictions without consideration of their monitoring goals, sociopolitical constraints, or their biological systems, is not possible. Therefore, the authors draw upon their collective

  10. Enhanced surveillance strategies for detecting and monitoring chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide wildlife management agencies with the foundation upon which they can build scientifically rigorous and cost-effective surveillance and monitoring programs for chronic wasting disease (CWD) or refine their existing programs. The first chapter provides an overview of potential demographic and spatial risk factors of susceptible wildlife populations that may be exploited for CWD surveillance and monitoring. The information contained in this chapter explores historic as well as recent developments in our understanding of CWD disease dynamics. It also contains many literature references for readers who may desire a more thorough review of the topics or CWD in general. The second chapter examines methods for enhancing efforts to detect CWD on the landscape where it is not presently known to exist and focuses on the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the surveillance program. Specifically, it describes the means of exploiting current knowledge of demographic and spatial risk factors, as described in the first chapter, through a two-stage surveillance scheme that utilizes traditional design-based sampling approaches and novel statistical methods to incorporate information about the attributes of the landscape, environment, populations and individual animals into CWD surveillance activities. By accounting for these attributes, efficiencies can be gained and cost-savings can be realized. The final chapter is unique in relation to the first two chapters. Its focus is on designing programs to monitor CWD once it is discovered within a jurisdiction. Unlike the prior chapters that are more detailed or prescriptive, this chapter by design is considerably more general because providing comprehensive direction for creating monitoring programs for jurisdictions without consideration of their monitoring goals, sociopolitical constraints, or their biological systems, is not possible. Therefore, the authors draw upon their collective

  11. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Norton, Kaila J.; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduction exposure products (PREPs) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state or national levels in the US has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This paper critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. Absent regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs. PMID:19959680

  12. Recurrence plots and its quantification analysis applied to the monitoring and surveillance in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naranjo, Alberto R.; Otero, Maria Elena M.; Poveda, Aylin G. [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Havana City (Cuba)]. E-mails: rolo@instec.cu; mmontesi@instec.cu; Guerra, Alexeis C. [University of Informatic Sciences, Havana City (Cuba)]. E-mail: alexeis@uci.cu

    2007-07-01

    The application of non-linear dynamic methods in many scientific fields has demonstrated its great potentiality in the early detection of significant dynamic singularities. The introduction of these methods oriented to the surveillance of anomalies and failures of nuclear reactors and their fundamental equipment have been demonstrated in the last years. Specifically, Recurrence Plot and its Quantification Analysis are methods currently used in many scientific fields. The paper focuses its attention on the estimation of the Recurrence Plots and its Quantification Analysis applied to signal samples obtained from different types of reactors: research reactor TRIGA MARK-III, BWR/5 and PHWR. Different behaviors are compared in order to look for a pattern for the characterization of the power instability events in the nuclear reactor. These outputs have a great importance for its application in systems of surveillance and monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants. For its introduction in a real time monitoring system, the authors propose some useful approaches. The results indicate the potentiality of the method for its implementation in a system of surveillance and monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants. All the calculations were performed with two computational tools developed by Marwan: Cross Recurrence Plot Toolbox for Matlab (Version 5.7, Release 22) and Visual Recurrence Analysis (Version 4.8). (author)

  13. Surveillance Monitoring Management for General Care Units: Strategy, Design, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Susan P; Taenzer, Andreas H; Karon, Nancy; Blike, George

    2016-07-01

    The growing number of monitoring devices, combined with suboptimal patient monitoring and alarm management strategies, has increased "alarm fatigue," which have led to serious consequences. Most reported alarm man- agement approaches have focused on the critical care setting. Since 2007 Dartmouth-Hitchcock (Lebanon, New Hamp- shire) has developed a generalizable and effective design, implementation, and performance evaluation approach to alarm systems for continuous monitoring in general care settings (that is, patient surveillance monitoring). In late 2007, a patient surveillance monitoring system was piloted on the basis of a structured design and implementation approach in a 36-bed orthopedics unit. Beginning in early 2009, it was expanded to cover more than 200 inpatient beds in all medicine and surgical units, except for psychiatry and labor and delivery. Improvements in clinical outcomes (reduction of unplanned transfers by 50% and reduction of rescue events by more than 60% in 2008) and approximately two alarms per patient per 12-hour nursing shift in the original pilot unit have been sustained across most D-H general care units in spite of increasing patient acuity and unit occupancy. Sample analysis of pager notifications indicates that more than 85% of all alarm conditions are resolved within 30 seconds and that more than 99% are resolved before escalation is triggered. The D-H surveillance monitoring system employs several important, generalizable features to manage alarms in a general care setting: alarm delays, static thresholds set appropriately for the prevalence of events in this setting, directed alarm annunciation, and policy-driven customization of thresholds to allow clinicians to respond to needs of individual patients. The systematic approach to design, implementation, and performance management has been key to the success of the system.

  14. Development of biological oxygen demand biosensor for monitoring the fermentation industry effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A biosensor was developed for the determination of BOD value of fermentation industry effluent. The developed biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the microbial consortium on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane in close proximity to a DO probe electrode. The microbial consortium was harvested from the fermentation industry effluent. The BOD biosensor was calibrated by using a solution containing the equivalent amount of glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) as a standard sample solution. The response time was optimized by immobilizing different concentrations of cell biomass on CA membrane. Once the response time was optimized, it was used for determination of BOD of fermentation industry effluent. For analysis of fermentation industry effluent, the response time was observed 7 minutes with detection limit 1 mg/L. Good linear range with GGA standard solution was observed, R (2) 0.99 with relative standard deviation (RSD) <%. The observed BOD value by biosensor showed a good comparison with the conventional method for the determination of BOD.

  15. Development of Biological Oxygen Demand Biosensor for Monitoring the Fermentation Industry Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Verma; Ashish Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    A biosensor was developed for the determination of BOD value of fermentation industry effluent. The developed biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the microbial consortium on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane in close proximity to a DO probe electrode. The microbial consortium was harvested from the fermentation industry effluent. The BOD biosensor was calibrated by using a solution containing the equivalent amount of glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) as a standard sample solution. The response t...

  16. Technologies for Real-Time Monitoring and Surveillance of High-Valued Assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Richardson, Dave [ORNL; Stinson, Brad J [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been working on technologies that can provide real-time monitoring and surveillance of high-valued assets. It is hoped through effective system design that some of these technologies can be utilized as the technical equivalent for the "two person rule" (required for many domestic safeguards operations). The major efforts associated with this work to date involve the integration and adaptation of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency-based technologies into basic system elements that can be effectively layered into integrated unobtrusive monitoring systems that are specifically designed to detect unauthorized asset movements. Each system element is designed to provide real-time monitoring and surveillance of both protected assets and the people who have access to them. The goal is to accomplish up-to-the-minute status of monitored assets using site-specific, rules-based algorithms. The overall system concepts focus on early detection (of theft or diversion) at the asset, followed by appropriate alarms or notifications that can be used to initiate appropriate response(s).

  17. Nurse-led hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance clinic provides an effective method of monitoring patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, Saroj; Leembruggen, Nadine; Tuma, Rhoda; Chen, Sook-Ling; Rao, Samarth; Kontorinis, Nick; Cheng, Wendy

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the acceptability and effectiveness of a nurse-led hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance clinic in high-risk patients with cirrhosis/advanced fibrosis. Early detection of HCC is associated with better treatment outcomes and improved survival. International guidelines recommend 6-monthly surveillance of patients at risk of developing HCC. A nurse-led HCC surveillance protocol was established to support patients in adherence to surveillance protocols. The design used was retrospective document analysis. Retrospective analysis of healthcare records of patients referred to the clinic between August 2009 and December 2015. Extracted data included attendance of clinic visits, blood testing, ultrasound or other imaging, and outcomes. Ultrasound was attended within 6 months in 30.3% of cases and within 7 months in 71.2% of cases. The median time between Nurse-Led Clinic appointments, ultrasound scans and blood testing did not exceed 9 months. First year FibroScans were attended by 82.9% (63/76) patients; endoscopy was indicated for 42 and attended by 35 (83.3%) patients. Lesions were identified in 16 patients (21.5%) and HCC diagnosed in two patients. One patient died because of HCC and one to sub-dural haematoma. Nurse-led HCC surveillance was an effective method of monitoring patients with cirrhosis at high risk of developing HCC. Well-defined protocols enable timely identification of patients with HCC or hepatic decompensation so that management strategies can be implemented without delay. The potential benefits identified by this study warrant further, rigorous evaluation.

  18. Using public health surveillance data to monitor the effectiveness of brucellosis control measures in animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUJTIM MERSINAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current brucellosis control program in small ruminants consists in two major components the first is an intervention strategy through modification of host resistance by vaccinating the entire small ruminant’s population using live attenuated Rev-1 strain of B. melitensis. The second is a post vaccination monitoring and surveillance system (MOSS to monitor the efficacy of the mass vaccination. The MOSS is based on sampling vaccinated animals between 20 to 40 days post-vaccination and testing through Rose Bengal Plate Test in order to detect antibody presence and evaluate the vaccination sero-conversion and coverage. Rose Bengal test is recommended for screening of samples to determine flock prevalence and like other serological tests it cannot discriminate between natural infection and vaccination antibodies. The methodology used in the post vaccination MOSS during the mass vaccination campaigns of 2012 and 2013 demonstrated much strength upon which future MOSS should be built. However, the current system has also shown gaps in terms of missed opportunities to analyse information generated from other sources. Trends of disease in accidental hosts like humans have not been integrated within post vaccination MOSS. Given that the infection level cannot be estimated in small ruminants, data generated by public health surveillance system can be able to give an independent overview of the impact of the vaccination campaign. This paper will address in depth this issue by showcasing the value of integrated surveillance data in monitoring the success of brucellosis control measures in small ruminants as a one health approach in practise.

  19. Critical evaluation of monitoring strategy for the multi-residue determination of 90 chiral and achiral micropollutants in effluent wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Bruce; Proctor, Kathryn; Youdan, Jane; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    It is essential to monitor the release of organic micropollutants from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for developing environmental risk assessment and assessing compliance with legislative regulation. In this study the impact of sampling strategy on the quantitative determination of micropollutants in effluent wastewater was investigated. An extended list of 90 chiral and achiral micropollutants representing a broad range of biological and physico-chemical properties were studied simultaneously for the first time. During composite sample collection micropollutants can degrade resulting in the under-estimation of concentration. Cooling collected sub-samples to 4°C stabilised ≥81 of 90 micropollutants to acceptable levels (±20% of the initial concentration) in the studied effluents. However, achieving stability for all micropollutants will require an integrated approach to sample collection (i.e., multi-bottle sampling with more than one stabilisation method applied). Full-scale monitoring of effluent revealed time-paced composites attained similar information to volume-paced composites (influent wastewater requires a sampling mode responsive to flow variation). The option of monitoring effluent using time-paced composite samplers is advantageous as not all WWTPs have flow controlled samplers or suitable sites for deploying portable flow meters. There has been little research to date on the impact of monitoring strategy on the determination of chiral micropollutants at the enantiomeric level. Variability in wastewater flow results in a dynamic hydraulic retention time within the WWTP (and upstream sewerage system). Despite chiral micropollutants being susceptible to stereo-selective degradation, no diurnal variability in their enantiomeric distribution was observed. However, unused medication can be directly disposed into the sewer network creating short-term (e.g., daily) changes to their enantiomeric distribution. As enantio-specific toxicity is observed

  20. 核电厂放射性流出物监测工作探讨%Investigations and Discussions on the Radioactive Effluent Monitoring of Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦; 张艳霞; 陆巍巍; 黄东辉; 袁之伦

    2013-01-01

    简述了放射性流出物监测的重要性,分析了我国核电厂放射性流出物监测中存在问题,探讨了借鉴国际原子能机构安全及相关标准开展我国核电厂放射性流出物监测的管理机制、监测方案、监测报告和质量保证等具体要求与方法,并提出提升技术基础能力、完善法规标准、加强监管力度的建议.%Radioactive effluent monitoring is the most direct mean to identify a significant incident or event in nuclear power plants. This paper analyzes the problems in the radioactive effluent monitoring of national nuclear power plants, and discusses the requirements and methods for the radioactive effluent monitoring of nuclear power plants in IAEA Safety Standards Series, including management mechanism of radioactive effluent, emission limits, sampling/monitoring frequency, analysis methods of radionuclide, monitoring report, and quality assurance, etc. Finally, some suggestions including lifting basic technology ability, perfecting laws and regulations and strengthening supervision are put forward to improve national monitoring works on the radioactive effluent of nuclear power plants.

  1. The Italian National Seismic Network and the earthquake and tsunami monitoring and surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto; Margheriti, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Delladio, Alberto; Moretti, Milena; Pintore, Stefano; Amato, Alessandro; Basili, Alberto; Bono, Andrea; Casale, Paolo; Danecek, Peter; Demartin, Martina; Faenza, Licia; Lauciani, Valentino; Mandiello, Alfonso Giovanni; Marchetti, Alessandro; Marcocci, Carlo; Mazza, Salvatore; Mariano Mele, Francesco; Nardi, Anna; Nostro, Concetta; Pignone, Maurizio; Quintiliani, Matteo; Rao, Sandro; Scognamiglio, Laura; Selvaggi, Giulio

    2016-11-01

    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is an Italian research institution, with focus on Earth Sciences. INGV runs the Italian National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN) and other networks at national scale for monitoring earthquakes and tsunami as a part of the National Civil Protection System coordinated by the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC). RSN is composed of about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions; about 110 stations feature also co-located strong motion instruments, and about 180 have GPS receivers and belong to the National GPS network (Rete Integrata Nazionale GPS, RING). The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection, hypocenter and magnitude determination, moment tensors, shake maps and other products of interest for DPC. Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment and surveillance procedures. INGV is one of the primary nodes of ORFEUS (Observatories & Research Facilities for European Seismology) EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for the archiving and distribution of continuous, quality checked seismic data. The strong motion network data are archived and distributed both in EIDA and in event based archives; GPS data, from the RING network are also archived, analyzed and distributed at INGV. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters to the DPC. These are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Italian Seismic Bulletin (Bollettino Sismico Italiano, BSI). The results are published on the web, these are available to both the scientific community and the general public. The INGV surveillance includes a pre-operational tsunami alert service since INGV is one of the Tsunami Service providers of the North

  2. Surveillance Plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This Surveillance Plan has been developed as part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental monitoring will be conducted in two phases: the baseline monitoring phase and the routine annual monitoring phase. The baseline monitoring phase will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the Waste Area Grouping (WAG), to confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COC), and to gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model The baseline monitoring phase is expected to begin in 1994 and continue for 12--18 months. The routine annual monitoring phase will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COC to determine off-WAG contaminant flux, to identify trends in releases, and to confirm the COC The routine annual monitoring phase will continue for {approximately}4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring phase. This Surveillance Plan presents the technical and quality assurance surveillance activities for the various WAG 6 environmental monitoring and data evaluation plans and implementing procedures.

  3. Advanced monitoring and supervision of biological treatment of complex dairy effluents in a full-scale plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Eugenio F; Omil, Francisco; Garrido, Juan M; Arrojo, Belén; Méndez, Ramón

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a wastewater treatment plant treating effluents from a dairy laboratory was monitored by an advanced system. This plant comprises a 12 m(3) anaerobic filter (AF) reactor and a 28 m(3) sequential batch reactor (SBR) coupled in series and is equipped with the following on-line measurement devices: biogas flow meter, feed and recycling flow meters, temperature sensor, dissolved oxygen analyzer, and redox meter. Other parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), etc. were determined off-line. The plant has been in operation for 634 days, the influent flow rate being 6-8 m(3)/d. COD concentration of the influent ranged between 8 and 12 kg COD/m(3), resulting in COD values in the effluent around 50-200 mg/L. The behavior of the system was studied using the set of measurements collected by the data acquisition program especially developed for this purpose. Monitoring of variables such as anaerobic reactor temperature permitted the detection and prevention of several failures such as temperature shocks in the AF reactor. Besides, off-line measurements such as the alkalinity or the VFA content, together with the on-line measurements, provided immediate information about the state of the plant and the detection of several anomalies, such as organic overloads in the SBR, allowing the implementation of several fast control actions.

  4. Transport infrastructure surveillance and monitoring by electromagnetic sensing: the ISTIMES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Monica; Bavusi, Massimo; Bernini, Romeo; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Bost, Marie; Bourquin, Frédrèric; Cottineau, Louis-Marie; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Della Vecchia, Pietro; Dolce, Mauro; Dumoulin, Jean; Eppelbaum, Lev; Fornaro, Gianfranco; Gustafsson, Mats; Hugenschmidt, Johannes; Kaspersen, Peter; Kim, Hyunwook; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Leggio, Mario; Loperte, Antonio; Mazzetti, Paolo; Moroni, Claudio; Nativi, Stefano; Nordebo, Sven; Pacini, Fabrizio; Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Perrone, Angela; Pignatti, Stefano; Ponzo, Felice Carlo; Rizzo, Enzo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Taillade, Fédrèric

    2010-01-01

    The ISTIMES project, funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call "ICT and Security" of the Seventh Framework Programme, is presented and preliminary research results are discussed. The main objective of the ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. The integration of electromagnetic technologies with new ICT information and telecommunications systems enables remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance and real time data imaging of the critical transport infrastructures. The project exploits different non-invasive imaging technologies based on electromagnetic sensing (optic fiber sensors, Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite platform based, hyperspectral spectroscopy, Infrared thermography, Ground Penetrating Radar-, low-frequency geophysical techniques, Ground based systems for displacement monitoring). In this paper, we show the preliminary results arising from the GPR and infrared thermographic measurements carried out on the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, located in a highly seismic area of the Apennine chain (Southern Italy) and representing one of the test beds of the project.

  5. Transport Infrastructure Surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing: The ISTIMES Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bost

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The ISTIMES project, funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call “ICT and Security” of the Seventh Framework Programme, is presented and preliminary research results are discussed. The main objective of the ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. The integration of electromagnetic technologies with new ICT information and telecommunications systems enables remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance and real time data imaging of the critical transport infrastructures. The project exploits different non-invasive imaging technologies based on electromagnetic sensing (optic fiber sensors, Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite platform based, hyperspectral spectroscopy, Infrared thermography, Ground Penetrating Radar-, low-frequency geophysical techniques, Ground based systems for displacement monitoring. In this paper, we show the preliminary results arising from the GPR and infrared thermographic measurements carried out on the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, located in a highly seismic area of the Apennine chain (Southern Italy and representing one of the test beds of the project.

  6. Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Helium Accumulation Fluence Monitors for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E706 (IIIC)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the concept and use of helium accumulation for neutron fluence dosimetry for reactor vessel surveillance. Although this test method is directed toward applications in vessel surveillance, the concepts and techniques are equally applicable to the general field of neutron dosimetry. The various applications of this test method for reactor vessel surveillance are as follows: 1.1.1 Helium accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) capsules, 1.1.2 Unencapsulated, or cadmium or gadolinium covered, radiometric monitors (RM) and HAFM wires for helium analysis, 1.1.3 Charpy test block samples for helium accumulation, and 1.1.4 Reactor vessel (RV) wall samples for helium accumulation. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewater: Treatment extent and effluent phenolic compounds monitoring using some uncommon analytical tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chokri Belaid; Moncef Khadraoui; Salma Mseddi; Monem Kallel; Boubaker Elleuch; Jean Francois Fauvarque

    2013-01-01

    Problems related with industrials effluents can be divided in two parts:(1) their toxicity associated to their chemical content which should be removed before discharging the wastewater into the receptor media; (2) and the second part is linked to the difficulties of pollution characterisation and monitoring caused by the complexity of these matrixes.This investigation deals with these two aspects,an electrochemical treatment method of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) under pla ttmized expanded titanium electrodes using a modified Grignard reactor for toxicity removal as well as the exploration of the use of some specific analytical tools to monitor effluent phenolic compounds elimination.The results showed that electrochemical oxidation is able to remove/mitigate the OMW pollution.Indeed,87% of OMW color was removed and all aromatic compounds were disappeared from the solution by anodic oxidation.Moreover,55% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total organic carbon (TOC) were reduced.On the other hand,UV-Visible spectrophotometry,Gaz chromatography/mass spectrometry,cyclic voltammetry and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)showed that the used treatment seems efficaciously to eliminate phenolic compounds from OMW.It was concluded that electrochemical oxidation in a modified Gaignard reactor is a promising process for the destruction of all phenolic compounds present in OMW.Among the monitoring analytical tools applied,cyclic voltammetry and 13C NMR are among the techniques that are introduced for the first time to control the advancement of the OMW treatment and gave a close insight on polyphenols disappearance.

  8. DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND EARLY TESTING OFA DEVICE FOR THE MONITORING OF ZOOTECHNICAL EFFLUENT DISTRIBUTION USING RAINGUN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Mazzetto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present project consisted in the design, development and early testing of a device for the monitoring of the distribution of zootechnical effluents using raingun distribution systems with the aim of defining a system that is reliable and objective that is useful both in farm management and to certify the activities carried out with respect to environmental regulations. The proposed system leads to the integration of the records of the main operating parameters of the distribution process (flow rate, range, quantity of distributed sewage with those regarding operating times and distance covered by the gun-supporting trolley (measured through a GPS receiver. The main strength of said device lies in its autonomy in terms of power supply: the slurry flowing inside the pipe is used to generate, through a dynamo, an amount of electric power that is sufficient to ensure its operation.

  9. De la vigilancia convencional al monitoreo participativo From conventional surveillance to participatory monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Breilh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de transformar el monitoreo de la salud de un instrumento funcional al sistema dominante de poder en una herramienta del poder colectivo, y de negociación del desarrollo de la salud laboral y el bienestar, implica la urgente transformación de la vieja vigilancia epidemiológica en un monitoreo participativo. Debe superarse el sistema convencional de información en salud, que observa fundamentalmente los "factores de enfermedad" y sus efectos mórbidos aislados, invisibilizando los procesos de determinación integrales. Este trabajo analiza el proceso de derrota de los derechos sociales y laborales, lo cual sitúa el desafío planteado en un escenario de profundo retroceso social y asalto a los derechos conquistados por los/as trabajadores/as en años de lucha. Con el propósito de esclarecer dicho argumento, al autor comienza contrastando los modelos de vigilancia clásicos, algunas propuestas transicionales, hasta arribar al monitoreo participativo. La aplicación de la categoría "perfil epidemiológico" permite sistematizar los dominios y dimensiones del monitoreo y establecer los sujetos sociales de esa mirada crítica e intercultural del pueblo sobre su salud, mediante la construcción de una matriz de procesos críticos.There is a need to transform health monitoring from an instrument of a superficial and passive insight of health, into a tool for critical health assessment, advocacy and collective empowerment; conventional health surveillance, in other words, must be converted to active community driven monitoring. Official information systems are usually describing isolated "disease factors" and associated morbidity outcomes, instead of analyzing the generative processes that make part of the complex determination of health. Subordinated societies have undergone a historical process of assault to human social and health rights; national and international economic exploitation and political-cultural domination have

  10. SAR-based sea traffic monitoring: a reliable approach for maritime surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renga, Alfredo; Graziano, Maria D.; D'Errico, M.; Moccia, A.; Cecchini, A.

    2011-11-01

    Maritime surveillance problems are drawing the attention of multiple institutional actors. National and international security agencies are interested in matters like maritime traffic security, maritime pollution control, monitoring migration flows and detection of illegal fishing activities. Satellite imaging is a good way to identify ships but, characterized by large swaths, it is likely that the imaged scenes contain a large number of ships, with the vast majority, hopefully, performing legal activities. Therefore, the imaging system needs a supporting system which identifies legal ships and limits the number of potential alarms to be further monitored by patrol boats or aircrafts. In this framework, spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors, terrestrial AIS and the ongoing satellite AIS systems can represent a great potential synergy for maritime security. Starting from this idea the paper develops different designs for an AIS constellation able to reduce the time lag between SAR image and AIS data acquisition. An analysis of SAR-based ship detection algorithms is also reported and candidate algorithms identified.

  11. Digital surveillance: a novel approach to monitoring the illegal wildlife trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Sonricker Hansen

    Full Text Available A dearth of information obscures the true scale of the global illegal trade in wildlife. Herein, we introduce an automated web crawling surveillance system developed to monitor reports on illegally traded wildlife. A resource for enforcement officials as well as the general public, the freely available website, http://www.healthmap.org/wildlifetrade, provides a customizable visualization of worldwide reports on interceptions of illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. From August 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011, publicly available English language illegal wildlife trade reports from official and unofficial sources were collected and categorized by location and species involved. During this interval, 858 illegal wildlife trade reports were collected from 89 countries. Countries with the highest number of reports included India (n = 146, 15.6%, the United States (n = 143, 15.3%, South Africa (n = 75, 8.0%, China (n = 41, 4.4%, and Vietnam (n = 37, 4.0%. Species reported as traded or poached included elephants (n = 107, 12.5%, rhinoceros (n = 103, 12.0%, tigers (n = 68, 7.9%, leopards (n = 54, 6.3%, and pangolins (n = 45, 5.2%. The use of unofficial data sources, such as online news sites and social networks, to collect information on international wildlife trade augments traditional approaches drawing on official reporting and presents a novel source of intelligence with which to monitor and collect news in support of enforcement against this threat to wildlife conservation worldwide.

  12. Digital surveillance: a novel approach to monitoring the illegal wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonricker Hansen, Amy L; Li, Annie; Joly, Damien; Mekaru, Sumiko; Brownstein, John S

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of information obscures the true scale of the global illegal trade in wildlife. Herein, we introduce an automated web crawling surveillance system developed to monitor reports on illegally traded wildlife. A resource for enforcement officials as well as the general public, the freely available website, http://www.healthmap.org/wildlifetrade, provides a customizable visualization of worldwide reports on interceptions of illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. From August 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011, publicly available English language illegal wildlife trade reports from official and unofficial sources were collected and categorized by location and species involved. During this interval, 858 illegal wildlife trade reports were collected from 89 countries. Countries with the highest number of reports included India (n = 146, 15.6%), the United States (n = 143, 15.3%), South Africa (n = 75, 8.0%), China (n = 41, 4.4%), and Vietnam (n = 37, 4.0%). Species reported as traded or poached included elephants (n = 107, 12.5%), rhinoceros (n = 103, 12.0%), tigers (n = 68, 7.9%), leopards (n = 54, 6.3%), and pangolins (n = 45, 5.2%). The use of unofficial data sources, such as online news sites and social networks, to collect information on international wildlife trade augments traditional approaches drawing on official reporting and presents a novel source of intelligence with which to monitor and collect news in support of enforcement against this threat to wildlife conservation worldwide.

  13. Airborne imaging sensors for environmental monitoring & surveillance in support of oil spills & recovery efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Jones, James; Frystacky, Heather; Coppin, Gaelle; Leavaux, Florian; Neyt, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Collection of pushbroom sensor imagery from a mobile platform requires corrections using inertial measurement units (IMU's) and DGPS in order to create useable imagery for environmental monitoring and surveillance of shorelines in freshwater systems, coastal littoral zones and harbor areas. This paper describes a suite of imaging systems used during collection of hyperspectral imagery in northern Florida panhandle and Gulf of Mexico airborne missions to detect weathered oil in coastal littoral zones. Underlying concepts of pushbroom imagery, the needed corrections for directional changes using DGPS and corrections for platform yaw, pitch, and roll using IMU data is described as well as the development and application of optimal band and spectral regions associated with weathered oil. Pushbroom sensor and frame camera data collected in response to the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster is presented as the scenario documenting environmental monitoring and surveillance techniques using mobile sensing platforms. Data was acquired during the months of February, March, April and May of 2011. The low altitude airborne systems include a temperature stabilized hyperspectral imaging system capable of up to 1024 spectral channels and 1376 spatial across track pixels flown from 3,000 to 4,500 feet altitudes. The hyperspectral imaging system is collocated with a full resolution high definition video recorder for simultaneous HD video imagery, a 12.3 megapixel digital, a mapping camera using 9 inch film types that yields scanned aerial imagery with approximately 22,200 by 22,200 pixel multispectral imagery (~255 megapixel RGB multispectral images in order to conduct for spectral-spatial sharpening of fused multispectral, hyperspectral imagery. Two high spectral (252 channels) and radiometric sensitivity solid state spectrographs are used for collecting upwelling radiance (sub-meter pixels) with downwelling irradiance fiber optic attachment. These sensors are utilized for

  14. Monitoring and Surveillance in the Workplace: Lessons Learnt? – Investigating the International Legal Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verine Etsebeth

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available When considering the legal implications of monitoring and surveillance in the workplace, the question may be asked why companies deploy computer surveillance and monitoring in the first place. Several reasons may be put forward to justify why more than 80% of all major American firms monitor employee e-mails and Internet usage. However, what most companies forget is the fact that the absence or presence of monitoring and surveillance activities in a company holds serious legal consequences for companies. From the discussion in this paper it will become apparent that there is a vast difference in how most countries approach this subject matter. On the one hand America does not afford any employee a reasonable expectation of privacy when it comes to the use of corporate computer resources and systems, while in contrast to this position the United Kingdom goes out of its way to protect each employee’s reasonable expectation of privacy. This paper will not only investigate the different approaches followed by some of the world-leader, but will also investigate the legal consequences embedded in each approach. This paper will ultimately enable the reader to judge for himself/herself which approach his/her country should follow while being fully informed of the legal consequences attached to the chosen approach.

  15. Molecular surveillance as monitoring tool for drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhin, Malti R; Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Bretas, Gustavo

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this translational study was to show the use of molecular surveillance for polymorphisms and copy number as a monitoring tool to track the emergence and dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. A molecular baseline for Suriname was established in 2005, with P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance (pfmdr1) markers and copy number in 40 samples. The baseline results revealed the existence of a uniformly distributed mutated genotype corresponding with the fully mefloquine-sensitive 7G8-like genotype (Y184F, S1034C, N1042D, and D1246Y) and a fixed pfmdr1 N86 haplotype. All samples harbored the pivotal pfcrtK76T mutation, showing that chloroquine reintroduction should not yet be contemplated in Suriname. After 5 years, 40 samples were assessed to trace temporal changes in the status of pfmdr1 polymorphisms and copy number and showed minor genetic alterations in the pfmdr1 gene and no significant changes in copy number, thus providing scientific support for prolongation of the current drug policy in Suriname.

  16. Drinking water quality monitoring and surveillance for safe water supply in Gangtok, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, Gajanan K; Kalita, Morami; Pimpalkar, Sarika N; Labhsetwar, Pawan K

    2011-07-01

    To ascertain the quality of drinking water being supplied, water quality monitoring and surveillance was conducted in Gangtok city at various treatment stages, service reservoirs, distribution network, public standposts, and households. No significant change in raw water quality was observed on day-to-day basis. Residual chlorine was found in the range of nil to 0.2 mg/l in the sump water/finished water. Throughout the year (i.e., during summer, winter, and monsoon seasons), the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were ranged from nil to 7 CFU/100 ml and nil to 3 CFU/100 ml, respectively, in sump water of Selep and VIP complex water treatment plant; however, at consumer end, those were observed as nil to 210 CFU/100 ml and nil to 90 CFU/100 ml, respectively. These variations in bacterial counts among the different service reservoirs and consumer ends may be attributed to the general management practices for maintenance of service reservoirs and the possibility of enroute contamination. Evaluation of the raw water quality indicates that the water is suitable for drinking after conventional treatment followed by disinfection. The finished water quality meets the level of standards described as per Bureau of Indian Standard specifications (BIS:10500 1991) for potability in terms of its physicochemical characteristics.

  17. Monitoring antigenic variations of enterovirus 71: implications for virus surveillance and vaccine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yuan Chia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 causes life-threatening epidemics in Asia and can be phylogenetically classified into three major genogroups (A ∼ C including 11 genotypes (A, B1 ∼ B5, and C1 ∼ C5. Recently, EV71 epidemics occurred cyclically in Taiwan with different genotypes. In recent years, human studies using post-infection sera obtained from children have detected antigenic variations among different EV71 strains. Therefore, surveillance of enterovirus 71 should include phylogenetic and antigenic analysis. Due to limitation of sera available from children with EV71 primary infection, suitable animal models should be developed to generate a panel of antisera for monitoring EV71 antigenic variations. Twelve reference strains representing the 11 EV71 genotypes were grown in rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Infectious EV71 particles were purified and collected to immunize rabbits. The rabbit antisera were then employed to measure neutralizing antibody titers against the 12 reference strains and 5 recent strains. Rabbits immunized with genogroup B and C viruses consistently have a lower neutralizing antibody titers against genogroup A (≧ 8-fold difference and antigenic variations between genogroup B and C viruses can be detected but did not have a clear pattern, which are consistent with previous human studies. Comparison between human and rabbit neutralizing antibody profiles, the results showed that ≧ 8-fold difference in rabbit cross-reactive antibody ratios could be used to screen EV71 isolates for identifying potential antigenic variants. In conclusion, a rabbit model was developed to monitor antigenic variations of EV71, which are critical to select vaccine strains and predict epidemics.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling and monitoring systems at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks. Plutonium finishing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stack effluent particulate sampling and monitoring systems are being evaluated for compliance with Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company`s Interim Criteria for such systems. This evaluation is part of a study by Battelle-Northwest of gaseous effluent sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. This letter report presents a preliminary evaluation of the mentioned facilities and the indicated improvements needed to meet the Interim Criteria so that conceptual design work for improved systems can be initiated. There is currently underway a detailed study at the two stacks including a series of sampling experiments, the findings of which will not be included in this report. The gaseous effluent sampling system at the 291-Z-1 and 296-Z-3 stacks are very dissimilar and will be treated in separate sections of this report. The discussions for each sampling system will include a brief description and a preliminary evaluation of the systems.

  19. Romantic Partner Monitoring After Breakups: Attachment, Dependence, Distress, and Post-Dissolution Online Surveillance via Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Tokunaga, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Romantic relationship dissolution can be stressful, and social networking sites make it difficult to separate from a romantic partner online as well as offline. An online survey (N = 431) tested a model synthesizing attachment, investment model variables, and post-dissolution emotional distress as predictors of interpersonal surveillance (i.e., "Facebook stalking") of one's ex-partner on Facebook after a breakup. Results indicated that anxious attachment predicted relational investment but also seeking relationship alternatives; avoidant attachment was negatively related to investment but positively related to seeking alternatives. Investment predicted commitment, whereas seeking alternatives was negatively related to commitment. Commitment predicted emotional distress after the breakup. Distress predicted partner monitoring immediately following the breakup, particularly for those who did not initiate the breakup, as well as current partner monitoring. Given their affordances, social media are discussed as potentially unhealthy enablers for online surveillance after relationship termination.

  20. Constitution and monitoring of an epidemiological surveillance network with sentinel general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, P

    1994-08-01

    The Réseau National Télé-informatique de surveillance et d'information sur les Maladies Transmissibles (RNTMT) (French communicable diseases computerised surveillance network) comprises a network of sentinel general practitioners (SGP). These benevolent volunteers are responsible for the weekly epidemiological surveillance. Since its creation, 1,700 SGPs have participated in the RNTMT, representing a total of more than 120,000 connections to the RNTMT telematic service center. The principal motivation of these benevolent SGPs was to 'actively participate in public health', although only a minority of them (17.6%) had any training in this field. Such a system, based on the benevolent and voluntary activity of SGPs, requires a good understanding of SGPs' attitudes towards epidemiological surveillance in general and the tool used, in order to quantitatively and qualitatively follow their participation and to provide regular and useful feedback to the surveillance actors.

  1. Real-time monitoring of school absenteeism to enhance disease surveillance: a pilot study of a mobile electronic reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Liulark, Wongwat; Taweeseneepitch, Komchaluch; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Thongprarong, Wiraporn; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap

    2014-05-12

    School absenteeism is a common source of data used in syndromic surveillance, which can eventually be used for early outbreak detection. However, the absenteeism reporting system in most schools, especially in developing countries, relies on a paper-based method that limits its use for disease surveillance or outbreak detection. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic real-time reporting system on school absenteeism for syndromic surveillance. An electronic (Web-based) school absenteeism reporting system was developed to embed it within the normal routine process of absenteeism reporting. This electronic system allowed teachers to update students' attendance status via mobile tablets. The data from all classes and schools were then automatically sent to a centralized database for further analysis and presentation, and for monitoring temporal and spatial patterns of absent students. In addition, the system also had a disease investigation module, which provided a link between absenteeism data from schools and local health centers, to investigate causes of fever among sick students. The electronic school absenteeism reporting system was implemented in 7 primary schools in Bangkok, Thailand, with total participation of approximately 5000 students. During May-October 2012 (first semester), the percentage of absentees varied between 1% and 10%. The peak of school absenteeism (sick leave) was observed between July and September 2012, which coincided with the peak of dengue cases in children aged 6-12 years being reported to the disease surveillance system. The timeliness of a reporting system is a critical function in any surveillance system. Web-based application and mobile technology can potentially enhance the use of school absenteeism data for syndromic surveillance and outbreak detection. This study presents the factors that determine the implementation success of this reporting system.

  2. Surveillance of cattle health in the Netherlands: Monitoring trends and developments using routinely collected cattle census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Brouwer-Middelesch, H; Van Wuijckhuise, L; de Bont-Smolenaars, A J G; Van Schaik, G

    2016-11-01

    Since 2002, a national cattle health surveillance system (CHSS) is in place that consists of several surveillance components. The CHSS combines enhanced passive reporting, diagnostic and post-mortem examinations, random surveys for prevalence estimation of endemic diseases and quarterly data analysis. The aim of the data-analysis component, which is called the Trend Analysis Surveillance Component (TASC), is to monitor trends and developments in cattle health using routine census data. The challenges that were faced during the development of TASC and the merits of this surveillance component are discussed, which might be of help to those who want to develop a monitoring and surveillance system that includes data analysis. When TASC was developed, there were process-oriented challenges and analytical related issues that had to be solved. Process-oriented challenges involved data availability, confidentiality, quality, uniformity and economic value of the data. Analytical issues involved data validation, aggregation and modeling. Eventually, the results had to provide information on cattle health that was intuitive to the stakeholders and that could support decision making. Within TASC, both quarterly analysis on census data and, on demand, additional in-depth analysis are performed. The key monitoring indicators that are analyzed as part of TASC all relate to cattle health and involve parameters such as mortality, fertility, udder health and antimicrobial usage. Population-Averaged Generalized Estimating Equations, with the appropriate distribution (i.e. Gaussian, Poisson, Negative Binomial or Binomial) and link function (independent, log or logit), are used for analysis. Both trends in time and associations between cattle health indicators and potential confounders are monitored, discussed and reported to the stakeholders on a quarterly level. The flexibility of the in-depth analyses provides the possibility to conduct additional analyses when anomalies in trends

  3. Towards the establishment and standardization of a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nel

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish a repeatable, standardized laboratory procedure for monitoring the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and food of animal origin in South Africa, with reagents prepared in-house. The emergence of resistance and the spread of resistant bacteria can be limited by implementing a veterinary antimicrobial drug policy, in which inter alia systematic monitoring and prudent use play essential roles. The bacteria included in this study represented three different categories, namely zoonotic bacteria (Salmonella, indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and veterinary pathogens (Mannheimia haemolytica. Thirty isolates of each species were collected with the aim of standardizing the laboratory methodology for a future national veterinary surveillance and monitoring programme. Susceptibility to ten selected antimicrobial drugs was determined by means of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using the microdilution method. The method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards was used as the standard. Multi-well plates containing varying dilutions of antimicrobial drugs and prepared in-house for MIC determinations, yielded repeatable results. Storage of plates for 2 months at -70 oC did not influence results meaningfully. Within this limited sample of bacteria, MIC results did not indicate meaningful resistance against any of the ten selected antimicrobial drugs. The findings of the study will be used to establish a national veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme in South Africa. To allow for international comparison of data, harmonisation of the surveillance and monitoring programme in accordance with global trends is encouraged. Ideally it should be combined with a programme monitoring the quantities of antimicrobial drugs used. The aim is to contribute to slowing down

  4. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  5. BAQMAP. Air Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Program for Botswana. Mission 1 Report 4-22 November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkestad, T.; Dreiem, R.; Hermansen, O.; Knudsen, S.

    1996-12-31

    This report is concerned with the start of a joint project between the authorities in Botswana and Norway on the development of an air pollution monitoring and surveillance program for Botswana. NILU will provide assistance in the fields of (1) Siting and establishment of an air pollution monitoring network, (2) Laboratory techniques, methods and routines, (3) Quality control and quality assurance procedures, (4) Emission data bases, (5) Statistical data analysis and reporting, (6) Atmospheric dispersion model estimates for air quality planning and assessment analysis. This is the report of the Norwegian team after their first visit to Botswana. 1 ref., 13 figs., 35 tabs.

  6. Citizen surveillance for environmental monitoring: combining the efforts of citizen science and crowdsourcing in a quantitative data framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welvaert, Marijke; Caley, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science and crowdsourcing have been emerging as methods to collect data for surveillance and/or monitoring activities. They could be gathered under the overarching term citizen surveillance. The discipline, however, still struggles to be widely accepted in the scientific community, mainly because these activities are not embedded in a quantitative framework. This results in an ongoing discussion on how to analyze and make useful inference from these data. When considering the data collection process, we illustrate how citizen surveillance can be classified according to the nature of the underlying observation process measured in two dimensions-the degree of observer reporting intention and the control in observer detection effort. By classifying the observation process in these dimensions we distinguish between crowdsourcing, unstructured citizen science and structured citizen science. This classification helps the determine data processing and statistical treatment of these data for making inference. Using our framework, it is apparent that published studies are overwhelmingly associated with structured citizen science, and there are well developed statistical methods for the resulting data. In contrast, methods for making useful inference from purely crowd-sourced data remain under development, with the challenges of accounting for the unknown observation process considerable. Our quantitative framework for citizen surveillance calls for an integration of citizen science and crowdsourcing and provides a way forward to solve the statistical challenges inherent to citizen-sourced data.

  7. Regulating Effluents From India’s Textile Sector: New Commands and Compliance Monitoring for Zero Liquid Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Grönwall

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 large parts of India had experienced failing monsoons for two consecutive years. Textiles production was a natural target in the quest for solutions when re-distribution of water between sectors became imperative, and it seemed likely that the zero liquid discharge (ZLD approach would be mainstreamed nationwide. However, when amended standards for discharge of effluents were enacted it was without strict requirements for reuse of water in-house; the legislator chose to make ZLD applicable only to large units and refrained from making it mandatory. The carrying capacity of the environment in sensitive or otherwise critical areas may henceforth be taken into account by the executive, but the textile sector’s wastewater is not yet regarded the resource that a circular economy calls for. This paper examines the command-side of regulation by shedding light on the applicable law, the reform steps taken in 2014–16 and how judicial interventions influenced these. It also seeks to contribute to the understanding of enforcement control by discussing what role court-established committees are playing in implementation and monitoring of compliance, based on an in-depth case study of Tirupur, India’s ‘knit city’.

  8. A surveillance system for monitoring, public reporting, and improving minority access to cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, William R; Tyree, Seth; Wu, Yang; Meyer, Anne-Marie; DiMartino, Lisa; Zullig, Leah; Godley, Paul A

    2012-08-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has recommended that each person with cancer should have access to clinical trials, which have been associated with improving care quality and disparities. With no effective enrollment monitoring system, patterns of trial enrollment remain unclear. We developed a population-based, statewide system designed to facilitate monitoring of cancer trial enrollment and targeting of future interventions to improve it. Person-level cancer incidence data from the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry (NCCCR), person-level treatment trial accrual data from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and county-level Area Resource Files (ARF) measures for 12 years, 1996-2007, were studied. Deidentified person-level data necessitated county-level analysis. Enrollment rates were estimated as the ratio of trial enrollment to cancer incidence for each race, gender, year, and county combination. Multivariable analysis examined factors associated with trial accrual. Sensitivity analyses examined spurious fluctuations and temporal discordance of incidence and enrollment. The NCI treatment trial enrollment rate was 2.39% for whites and 2.20% for minorities from 1996 to 2007, and 2.88% and 2.47%, respectively, from 2005 to 2007. Numerous counties had no minority enrollment. The 2005-2007 enrollment rates for white and minority females was 4.04% and 3.59%, respectively, and for white and minority males was 1.74% and 1.36%, respectively. Counties with a medical school or NCI Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP)-affiliated practice had higher trial enrollment. We examined NCI trial accrual only - industry-sponsored and investigator-initiated trials were excluded; however, studies comprise the majority of all clinical trial participants. Delays in data availability may hinder the immediacy of population-based analyses. Model stability and consistency suggest that this system is effective for population-based enrollment surveillance. For North Carolina, it

  9. A Post-Marketing Surveillance Study to Evaluate Performance of the EXIMO™ Blood Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandnani, Sonia R; Ramakrishna, C D; Dave, Bhargav A; Kothavade, Pankaj S; Thakkar, Ashok S

    2017-05-01

    The performance of Blood Glucose Monitoring System (BGMS) is critical as the information provided by the system guide the patient or health care professional in making treatment decisions. However, besides evaluating accuracy of the BGMS in laboratory setting, it is equally important that the intended users (healthcare professionals and patients) should be able to achieve blood glucose measurements with similar level of high accuracy. To assess the performance of EXIMO™ (Meril Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd., Vapi, Gujarat, India) BGMS as per International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 section 8 user performance criteria. This was a non-randomized and post-marketing study conducted at a tertiary care centre of India. A total of 1005 patients with diabetes themselves performed fingertip blood glucose measurement using EXIMO™ BGMS. Immediately after capillary blood glucose measurement using the blood glucose monitoring system, venous blood sample from each patient was obtained by a trained technician which was assessed by reference laboratory method- Cobas Integra 400 plus (Roche Instrument Centre, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). All the blood glucose measurements assessed by EXIMO™ were compared with laboratory results. Performance of the system was assessed as per ISO 15197:2013 criteria using Bland-Altman plot, Parkes-Consensus Error Grid (CEG) and Surveillance Error Grid analyses (SEG). A total of 1005 patients participated in the study. Average age of the patients was 44.93±14.65 years. Evaluation of capillary fingertip blood glucose measurements demonstrated that 95.82% measurements fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 section 8 user performance criteria. All the results lie within clinically non-critical zones; Zone A (99.47%; n=1000) and Zone B (0.53%; n=05) of the CEG analysis. As per SEG analysis, majority of the results fell within "no-risk" zone (risk score 0 to 0.5; 90.42%). The result of the study confirmed that intended users are able to obtain accurate

  10. Monitoring data quality in syndromic surveillance: Learnings from a resource limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Venkatarao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is in the process of integrating all disease surveillance systems with the support of a World Bank funded program called the Integrated Disease Surveillance System. In this context the objective of the study was to evaluate the components of the Orissa Multi Disease Surveillance System. Materials and Methods: Multistage sampling was carried out, starting with four districts, followed by sequentially sampling two blocks; and in each block, two sectors and two health sub-centers were selected, all based on the best and worst performances. Two study instruments were developed for data validation, for assessing the components of the surveillance and diagnostic algorithm. The Organizational Ethics Group reviewed and approved the study. Results: In all 178 study subjects participated in the survey. The case definition of suspected meningitis in disease surveillance was found to be difficult, with only 29.94%, who could be correctly identified. Syndromic diagnosis following the diagnostic algorithm was difficult for suspected malaria (28.1%, ′unusual syndrome′ (28.1%, and simple diarrhea (62%. Only 17% could correctly answer questions on follow-up cases, but only 50% prioritized diseases. Our study showed that 54% cross-checked the data before compilation. Many (22% faltered on timeliness even during emergencies. The constraints identified were logistics (56% and telecommunication (41%. The reason for participation in surveillance was job responsibility (34.83%. Conclusions: Most of the deficiencies arose from human errors when carrying out day-to-day processes of surveillance activities, hence, should be improved by retraining. Enhanced laboratory support and electronic transmission would improve data quality and timeliness. Validity of some of the case definitions need to be rechecked. Training Programs should focus on motivating the surveillance personnel.

  11. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  12. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  13. Intermittent auscultation versus continuous fetal monitoring: exploring factors that influence birthing unit nurses' fetal surveillance practice using theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patey, Andrea M; Curran, Janet A; Sprague, Ann E; Francis, Jill J; Driedger, S Michelle; Légaré, France; Lemyre, Louise; Pomey, Marie-Pascale A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-09-25

    Intermittent Auscultation (IA) is the recommended method of fetal surveillance for healthy women in labour. However, the majority of women receive continuous electronic monitoring. We used the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to explore the views of Birthing Unit nurses about using IA as their primary method of fetal surveillance for healthy women in labour. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed a convenience sample of birthing unit nurses throughout Ontario, Canada to elicit their views about fetal surveillance. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were content analysed using the TDF and themes were framed as belief statements. Domains potentially key to changing fetal surveillance behaviour and informing intervention design were identified by noting the frequencies of beliefs, content, and their reported influence on the use of IA. We interviewed 12 birthing unit nurses. Seven of the 12 TDF domains were perceived to be key to changing birthing unit nurses' behaviour The nurses reported that competing tasks, time constraints and the necessity to multitask often limit their ability to perform IA (domains Beliefs about capabilities; Environmental context and resources). Some nurses noted the decision to use IA was something that they consciously thought about with every patient while others stated it their default decision as long as there were no risk factors (Memory, attention and decision processes, Nature of behaviour). They identified positive consequences (e.g. avoid unnecessary interventions, mother-centered care) and negative consequences of using IA (e.g. legal concerns) and reported that the negative consequences can often outweigh positive consequences (Beliefs about consequences). Some reported that hospital policies and varying support from care teams inhibited their use of IA (Social influences), and that support from the entire team and hospital management would likely increase their use (Social

  14. Environmental monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. 52 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. A Radiation-Triggered Surveillance System for UF6 Cylinder Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Myjak, Mitchell J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    This report provides background information and representative scenarios for testing a prototype radiation-triggered surveillance system at an operating facility that handles uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The safeguards objective is to trigger cameras using radiation, or radiation and motion, rather than motion alone, to reduce significantly the number of image files generated by a motion-triggered system. The authors recommend the use of radiation-triggered surveillance at all facilities where cylinder paths are heavily traversed by personnel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has begun using surveillance cameras in the feed and withdrawal areas of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The cameras generate imagery using elapsed time or motion, but this creates problems in areas occupied 24/7 by personnel. Either motion-or-interval-based triggering generates thousands of review files over the course of a month. Since inspectors must review the files to verify operator material-flow-declarations, a plethora of files significantly extends the review process. The primary advantage of radiation-triggered surveillance is the opportunity to obtain full-time cylinder throughput verification versus what presently amounts to part-time verification. Cost savings should be substantial, as the IAEA presently uses frequent unannounced inspections to verify cylinder-throughput declarations. The use of radiation-triggered surveillance allows the IAEA to implement less frequent unannounced inspections for the purpose of flow verification, but its principal advantage is significantly shorter and more effective inspector video reviews.

  16. 1999 Environmental Monitoring Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. V. Street

    2000-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1999 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory management and operating contractor Environmental Monitoring Program. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1999 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the expectation of nitrogen in two disposal pond effluent streams iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal well, and coliform bacteria in drinking water systems at two facilities. Maintenance activities were performed on the two drinking water systems and tested prior to putting back into service. The monitoring and surveillance results demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  17. Therapeutic drug monitoring of piperacillin-tazobactam using spent dialysate effluent in patients receiving continuous venovenous hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael J; Salem, Charbel; Bauer, Seth R; Hofmann, Christina L; Groszek, Joseph; Butler, Robert; Rehm, Susan J; Fissell, William H

    2011-02-01

    Sepsis and multisystem organ failure are common diagnoses affecting nearly three-quarters of a million Americans annually. Infection is the leading cause of death in acute kidney injury, and the majority of critically ill patients who receive continuous dialysis also receive antibiotics. Dialysis equipment and prescriptions have gradually changed over time, raising concern that current drug dosing recommendations in the literature may result in underdosing of antibiotics. Our research group directed its attention toward antibiotic dosing strategies in patients with acute renal failure (ARF), and we sought data confirming that patients receiving continuous dialysis and antibiotics actually were achieving therapeutic plasma drug levels during treatment. In the course of those investigations, we explored "fast-track" strategies to estimate plasma drug concentrations. As most antimicrobial antibiotics are small molecules and should pass freely through modern high-flux hemodialyzer filters, we hypothesized that continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) effluent could be used as the medium for drug concentration measurement by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Here we present the first data demonstrating this approach for piperacillin-tazobactam. Paired blood and dialysate trough-peak-trough samples were drawn from 19 patients receiving piperacillin-tazobactam and continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD). Total, free, and dialysate drug concentrations were measured by HPLC. Dialysate drug levels predicted plasma free drug levels well (r(2) = 0.91 and 0.92 for piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively) in all patients. These data suggest a strategy for therapeutic drug monitoring that minimizes blood loss from phlebotomy and simplifies analytic procedures.

  18. Environmental surveillance monitoring in the Alligator Rivers Region. Report for the six months period ending 30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report outlines the activities of the Northern Territory Supervising Authorities in meeting their responsibilities for environmental management and surveillance, occupational safety, relating to uranium mining and environment protection in the Alligator Rivers Region. Environmental monitoring was carried out at the Nabarlek Mine, which site has now been rehabilitated and revegetated, and at Ranger, the only mine currently operating in the region. Other uranium projects such as Jabiluka and Koongarra have been delayed due to the former Commonwealth Government`s `three mines policy`. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  19. Postmarketing surveillance of adverse drug reactions in general practice. II: Prescription-event monitoring at the University of Southampton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, W H

    1981-04-11

    An independent, non-regulatory drug surveillance research unit has been established at the University of Southampton. Its first task will be to set up a prescription-event monitoring scheme in general practice to enable the pattern of adverse events, as distinct from suspected adverse reactions associated with new drugs to be compared with that of older medicines. Prescriptions for selected drugs will identify patients and a simple questionnaire, designed to be completed in under five minutes, will be used to obtain the required information. Medical opinions about causation need not be given, and the scheme will not interfere with normal prescribing practice.

  20. Manual for habitat and vegetation surveillance and monitoring : temperate, mediterranean and desert biomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunce, R.G.H.; Bogers, M.M.B.; Roche, P.; Walczak, M.; Geijzendorffer, I.R.; Jongman, R.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this Manual is to describe the methodology appropriate for coordinating information on habitats and vegetation in order to obtain statistically robust estimates of their extent and associated changes in biodiversity. Such detailed rules are necessary if surveillance, i.e., r

  1. General Surveillance of the soil ecosystem: An approach to monitoring unexpected adverse effects of GMO's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Bergmans, H.; Bloem, J.; Griffiths, B.; Rutgers, M.

    2012-01-01

    The commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the European Union (EU) necessitates, according to EU legislation, the setting up of a General Surveillance (GS) system that should be able to detect unanticipated effects of GM crops on the environment. Although the applicant is

  2. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  3. A new code for spectrometric analysis for environmental radiological surveillance on monitors focused on gamma radioactivity on aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Blas, Alfredo; Tapia, Carlos; Riego, Albert; Garcia, Roger; Dies, Javier; Diaz, Pedro [Nuclear Engineering Research Group, Departament of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain); Toral, Juan [Raditel Serveis, Tarragona (Spain); Batalla, Enric [Radiological Activities Corrdination Service - SCAR, Generalitat de Catalunya. Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    pGamma is a code developed by the NERG group of the Technical University of Catalonia - Barcelona Tech for the analysis of gamma spectra generated by the Equipment for the Continuous Measurement and Identification of Gamma Radioactivity on Aerosols with Paper Filter developed for our group and Raditel Servies company. Nowadays the code is in the process of adaptation for the monitors of the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network of the Local Government of Catalonia (Generalitat of Catalonia), Spain. The code is a Spectrum Analysis System, it identifies the gamma emitters on the spectrum, determines its Concentration of Activity, generates alarms depending on the Activity of the emitters and generates a report. The Spectrum Analysis System includes a library with emitters of interest, NORM and artificial. The code is being used on the three stations with the aerosol monitor of the Network (Asco and Vandellos, near both Nuclear Power Plants and Barcelona). (authors)

  4. The development of a surveillance system to monitor emergency food relief in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C C; Weber, J; Pelletier, D; Dodds, J M

    1987-10-01

    A representative sample of emergency food relief (EFR) programs was selected on the basis of a census of 1,488 EFR programs in New York State. The census was a two-stage telephone survey. EFR was provided in every county although there was considerable variation in the amount of EFR per county. The soup kitchen and food pantry components of EFR had to be differentiated. The surveillance system was operational one year after the census began.

  5. Clear and present danger? The use of a yeast biosensor to monitor changes in the toxicity of industrial effluents subjected to oxidative colour removal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Patrick O; Knight, Andrew W; Billinton, Nicholas; Cahill, Paul A; Dalrymple, Ian M; Hawkyard, Christopher J; Stratton-Campbell, Duncan; Walmsley, Richard M

    2007-12-01

    Discharges of coloured effluents into surface waters provide conspicuous evidence of the impact of industry on the environment. The textile industry is an obvious candidate for sources of such discharges. Conventional treatment methods appear to alleviate this situation by removing colour, however the affect on toxicity is less obvious. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in effluent toxicity during the course of two alternative wastewater treatment methods, ozonation and electrochemical oxidation, using a novel toxicity biosensor, GreenScreen EM. The biosensor is capable of measuring both general acute toxicity (cytotoxicity), and more specifically genotoxicity, that is damage to a cell's DNA structure, replication or distribution, caused by substances that may be mutagenic and/or carcinogenic. The biosensor utilises a modified strain of the brewers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, incorporating a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to the inducible promoter of the DNA damage responsive RAD54 gene. Upon exposure to a genotoxin, the production of GFP is up-regulated in parallel with RAD54, and the resulting cellular fluorescence provides a measure of genotoxicity. Acute toxicity is simultaneously determined by monitoring relative total growth of the cell culture during incubation. The results presented in this paper show that a reduction in colouration does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in effluent toxicity.

  6. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  7. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  8. Evaluating the polar organic chemical integrative sampler for the monitoring of beta-blockers and hormones in wastewater treatment plant effluents and receiving surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Romain; Miège, Cécile; Bados, Philippe; Schiavone, Séverine; Coquery, Marina

    2012-02-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are known to be a source of surface water contamination by organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals. The objective of the present work was to study the suitability of the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) to monitor beta-blockers and hormones in effluents and surface waters. Four sampling campaigns were carried out in French rivers (the Saône, the Ardières, the Bourbre, and the Seine) between November 2007 and September 2008. Passive samplers were exposed in surface waters, upstream and downstream of WWTP outflows, and in effluents. Exposures lasted for up to 24 d to study the uptake kinetics directly in situ, and repeatability was assessed by exposure of triplicates. A good agreement was found between POCIS and water samples. With the exception of atenolol, beta-blockers showed a linear uptake during at least three weeks, and their sampling rates could be determined in situ. These sampling rates were then used to calculate time-weighted average concentrations of beta-blockers in the Seine River with an overall good accuracy and repeatability. Such calculations could not be performed for hormones because of their variable occurrences and low concentrations in water and POCIS. Polar organic chemical integrative sampler therefore seems to be a suitable tool for monitoring beta-blockers in surface waters impacted by WWTP effluents. Longer exposure durations would be necessary to determine the suitability of POCIS for monitoring hormones. Finally, preliminary assays on the use of several deuterated compounds as performance reference compounds showed promising results for deuterated atenolol. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 52 - Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stream Gas Volumetric Flow Rate 1. Principle and applicability. 1.1Principle. Effluent stream gas... each reference method run was made may be obtained by continuous integration of the measurement system signal over the test interval. Integration may be by use of mechanical integration of electrical units...

  10. Community-based surveillance to monitor trends in unaccompanied and separated children in eastern DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Beth L; Spencer, Craig; Mansourian, Hani; Noble, Eva; Munganga, Gustave B; Stark, Lindsay

    2015-12-01

    Children who are separated from their families and usual caregivers in emergencies face a multitude of risks. The humanitarian community lacks methods to systematically capture changes in the frequency and nature of such separations over time. A mobile phone-based community surveillance system was piloted in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The goal was to identify new cases of unaccompanied and separated children on a weekly basis. Over an 11-week period, community focal points reported 62 cases of separation across 10 communities. The majority of children had been under the care of their parents prior to separation. More than half of the children were unaccompanied, meaning that they were living without an adult relative or customary caregiver. The pilot results suggest that implementing a mobile phone-based surveillance system in a humanitarian setting may be feasible and cost-effective and fills a critical gap in the measurement of separated and unaccompanied children in emergencies. A longer pilot to better understand how the system performs over time is recommended.

  11. Self-monitoring surveillance system for prestressing tendons. Phase I small business innovation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabai, H.

    1995-12-01

    Assured safety and operational reliability of post-tensioned concrete components of nuclear power plants are of great significance to the public, electric utilities, and regulatory agencies. Prestressing tendons provide principal reinforcement for containment and other structures. In this phase of the research effort, the feasibility of developing a passive surveillance system for identification of ruptures in tendon wires was evaluated and verified. The concept offers high potential for greatly increasing effectiveness of presently-utilized periodic tendon condition surveillance programs. A one-tenth scale ring model of the Palo Verde nuclear containment structure was built inside the Structural Laboratory. Dynamic scaling (similitude) relationships were used to relate measured sensor responses recorded during controlled wire breakages to the expected prototype containment tendon response. Strong and recognizable signatures were detected by the accelerometers used. It was concluded that the unbonded prestressing tendons provide an excellent path for transmission of stress waves resulting from wire breaks. Accelerometers placed directly on the bearing plates at the ends of tendons recorded high-intensity waveforms. Accelerometers placed elsewhere on concrete surfaces of the containment model revealed substantial attenuation and reduced intensities of captured waveforms. Locations of wire breaks could be determined accurately through measurement of differences in arrival times of the signal at the sensors. Pattern recognition systems to be utilized in conjunction with the proposed concept will provide a basis for an integrated and automated tool for identification of wire breaks.

  12. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-09-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent site is located in the southeastern portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 27, 2002. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1997). A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report (DOE/NV, 1999), samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 (DOE/NV, 2000) and 2001 (DOE/NV, 2001) revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, data results from 2000 and later were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2002 consisted of the following: (1) Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2). (2) Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay [CEA] and Standard Nutrient Panel [SNP]). (3) Site inspection to evaluate the condition of the fencing and signs. (4) Preparation and submittal of the Post-Closure Monitoring Report.

  13. Outwitting dengue threat and epidemics resurgence in Asia-Pacific countries: strengthening integrated dengue surveillance, monitoring and response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Khater, Emad I M

    2016-05-27

    Dengue is still a substantial vector-borne viral disease threat and burden of public health importance worldwide. This situation is complicated by dengue virus unprecedented resurgence and persistence of varied serotypes in endemic-prone areas, and man-made and natural activities consequences that promote vector emergence, transmission dynamics and spread across the Asia-Pacific region. There is an urgent need to strengthen operational and contextual surveillance-response research in improving early detection of active reservoir detection, novel drug in case management and quality evidence-based response including the deployment of dengue mass vaccination. Moreover, sustained mapping and watching of dengue risk factors or determinants, performance and outcome indicators of control or elimination programs effectiveness in defining minimum effective data towards community knowledge-based decision-making policy and effective response packages is imperative. Moreover, implementation of a robust, integrated dengue early warning surveillance, monitoring and response systems metrics is required for evidence-based, timely and cost-effective contextual mitigation strategies, and innovative interventions.

  14. Application of a new containment and surveillance portal monitor data analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, J.C.; Henry, C.N.; Hastings, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for processing the information available from an ordinary doorway monitor in an earlier report is described. Additional tests of this concept on doorway monitors at facilities of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory have been made. The lessons learned and estimates of the sensitivity of this method for detection of a trickle of special nuclear material through the portal are presented.

  15. BAQMAP Air Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Program for Botswana. Mission 2 Report 27 January - 18 February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkestad, T.

    1997-12-31

    This report is concerned with Mission 2 of a joint project between the authorities in Botswana and Norway on the development of an air pollution monitoring and surveillance program for Botswana. Mission 2 was undertaken as part of the annual meeting on 4 February 1997. Discussions and decision on the air quality program was performed after the annual meeting. Passive samplers for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} were installed in Selebi-Phikwe and Francistown. The samplers measured air pollution from the BCL smelter and traffic, respectively, during the first two weeks of February 1997. The samplers have been analysed and the results are given in this report, which also includes a status report. 13 tabs.

  16. Using Web Search Query Data to Monitor Dengue Epidemics: A New Model for Neglected Tropical Disease Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily H.; Sahai, Vikram; Conrad, Corrie; Brownstein, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Background A variety of obstacles including bureaucracy and lack of resources have interfered with timely detection and reporting of dengue cases in many endemic countries. Surveillance efforts have turned to modern data sources, such as Internet search queries, which have been shown to be effective for monitoring influenza-like illnesses. However, few have evaluated the utility of web search query data for other diseases, especially those of high morbidity and mortality or where a vaccine may not exist. In this study, we aimed to assess whether web search queries are a viable data source for the early detection and monitoring of dengue epidemics. Methodology/Principal Findings Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore were chosen for analysis based on available data and adequate search volume. For each country, a univariate linear model was then built by fitting a time series of the fraction of Google search query volume for specific dengue-related queries from that country against a time series of official dengue case counts for a time-frame within 2003–2010. The specific combination of queries used was chosen to maximize model fit. Spurious spikes in the data were also removed prior to model fitting. The final models, fit using a training subset of the data, were cross-validated against both the overall dataset and a holdout subset of the data. All models were found to fit the data quite well, with validation correlations ranging from 0.82 to 0.99. Conclusions/Significance Web search query data were found to be capable of tracking dengue activity in Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore. Whereas traditional dengue data from official sources are often not available until after some substantial delay, web search query data are available in near real-time. These data represent valuable complement to assist with traditional dengue surveillance. PMID:21647308

  17. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System: Two Decades of Advancing Public Health Through Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Beth E; Tate, Heather; Plumblee, Jodie R; Dessai, Uday; Whichard, Jean M; Thacker, Eileen L; Robertson Hale, Kis; Wilson, Wanda; Friedman, Cindy R; Griffin, Patricia M; McDermott, Patrick F

    2017-08-09

    Drug-resistant bacterial infections pose a serious and growing public health threat globally. In this review, we describe the role of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in providing data that help address the resistance problem and show how such a program can have broad positive impacts on public health. NARMS was formed two decades ago to help assess the consequences to human health arising from the use of antimicrobial drugs in food animal production in the United States. A collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the United States Department of Agriculture, and state and local health departments, NARMS uses an integrated "One Health" approach to monitor antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meat, and food animals. NARMS has adapted to changing needs and threats by expanding surveillance catchment areas, examining new isolate sources, adding bacteria, adjusting sampling schemes, and modifying antimicrobial agents tested. NARMS data are not only essential for ensuring that antimicrobial drugs approved for food animals are used in ways that are safe for human health but they also help address broader food safety priorities. NARMS surveillance, applied research studies, and outbreak isolate testing provide data on the emergence of drug-resistant enteric bacteria; genetic mechanisms underlying resistance; movement of bacterial populations among humans, food, and food animals; and sources and outcomes of resistant and susceptible infections. These data can be used to guide and evaluate the impact of science-based policies, regulatory actions, antimicrobial stewardship initiatives, and other public health efforts aimed at preserving drug effectiveness, improving patient outcomes, and preventing infections. Many improvements have been made to NARMS over time and the program will continue to adapt to address emerging resistance threats, changes in

  18. Using web search query data to monitor dengue epidemics: a new model for neglected tropical disease surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily H Chan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A variety of obstacles including bureaucracy and lack of resources have interfered with timely detection and reporting of dengue cases in many endemic countries. Surveillance efforts have turned to modern data sources, such as Internet search queries, which have been shown to be effective for monitoring influenza-like illnesses. However, few have evaluated the utility of web search query data for other diseases, especially those of high morbidity and mortality or where a vaccine may not exist. In this study, we aimed to assess whether web search queries are a viable data source for the early detection and monitoring of dengue epidemics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore were chosen for analysis based on available data and adequate search volume. For each country, a univariate linear model was then built by fitting a time series of the fraction of Google search query volume for specific dengue-related queries from that country against a time series of official dengue case counts for a time-frame within 2003-2010. The specific combination of queries used was chosen to maximize model fit. Spurious spikes in the data were also removed prior to model fitting. The final models, fit using a training subset of the data, were cross-validated against both the overall dataset and a holdout subset of the data. All models were found to fit the data quite well, with validation correlations ranging from 0.82 to 0.99. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Web search query data were found to be capable of tracking dengue activity in Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore. Whereas traditional dengue data from official sources are often not available until after some substantial delay, web search query data are available in near real-time. These data represent valuable complement to assist with traditional dengue surveillance.

  19. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on bluetongue monitoring and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegeman, Arjan; Bøtner, Anette; Savini, Giovanni;

    been infected for several years were slightly lower than the design prevalence of 2 % currently used for monthly testing of sentinel animals, but much lower than the design prevalences of 20 % and 10 % for annual surveys in populations of unvaccinated and vaccinated ruminants, respectively. Currently......Following a request from the Commission, the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on: 1) the expected prevalence (design prevalence) under different circumstances, and, 2) an updated scientific assessment of the size of the relevant geographical area...... unit but, when based on active surveillance, it is best targeted at regions considered at risk for introduction, using small geographical units, a high sampling frequency and sample size. For estimating the impact of interventions on the prevalence of infected animals, smaller areas result in more...

  20. 1996 LMITCO environmental monitoring program report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1996 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs are included in this report. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1996 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends.

  1. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  2. Surveillance van HIV-infecties in de regio Arnhem. Deel 2: Monitoring van laboratoriumdiagnostiek naar HIV-infecties, april 1989-juni 1991

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lierop GS; Houweling H; Wiessing LG; Katchaki JN

    1992-01-01

    In collaboration with the Regional Public Health Laboratory (RPHL), the Rijnstate Hospital and the Monucipal Health Service, a comprehensive program for surveillance of HIV infections in the Arnhem area is carried out. This program consists of three parts: (1) monitoring of laboratory tests for HIV

  3. Core state preconception health indicators - pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system and behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cheryl L; Zapata, Lauren B; Farr, Sherry L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Morrow, Brian; Ahluwalia, Indu; D'Angelo, Denise V; Barradas, Danielle; Cox, Shanna; Goodman, David; Williams, Letitia; Grigorescu, Violanda; Barfield, Wanda D

    2014-04-25

    Promoting preconception health can potentially improve women's health and pregnancy outcomes. Evidence-based interventions exist to reduce many maternal behaviors and chronic conditions that are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate folic acid intake, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The 2006 national recommendations to improve preconception health included monitoring improvements in preconception health by maximizing public health surveillance (CDC. Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care-United States: a report of the CDC/ATSDR Preconception Care Work Group and the Select Panel on Preconception Care. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-6]). 2009 for 38 indicators; 2008 for one indicator. DESCRIPTION OF SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS: The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected self-reported maternal behaviors, conditions, and experiences that occur shortly before, during, and after pregnancy among women who deliver live-born infants. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing state-based telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the United States that collects state-level data on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and preventive health services. This surveillance summary includes PRAMS data from 29 reporting areas (n = 40,388 respondents) and BRFSS data from 51 reporting areas (n = 62,875 respondents) for nonpregnant women of reproductive age (aged 18-44 years). To establish a comprehensive, nationally recognized set of indicators to be used for monitoring, evaluation, and response, a volunteer group of policy and program leaders and epidemiologists identified 45 core state preconception health indicators, of which 41 rely on PRAMS or BRFSS as data sources. This report includes 39 of the 41 core state preconception health indicators for which

  4. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed.

  5. Use of radiation detectors in remote monitoring for containment and surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, S.A.; Ross, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonino, A. [Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lucero, R.; Hasimoto, Yu [PNC Oarai Engineering Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Radiation detectors have been included in several remote monitoring field trial systems to date. The present study considers detectors at Embalse, Argentina, and Oarai, Japan. At Embalse four gamma detectors have been operating in the instrumentation tubes of spent fuel storage silos for up to three years. Except for minor fluctuations, three of the detectors have operated normally. One of the detectors appears never to have operated correctly. At Oarai two gamma detectors have been monitoring a spent-fuel transfer hatch for over 18 months. These detectors have operated normally throughout the period, although one shows occasional noise spikes.

  6. Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Sharon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) environmental surveillance is to characterize radiological and nonradiological conditions of the off-site environs and estimate public doses related to these conditions, confirm estimations of public dose based on effluent monitoring data, and, where appropriate, provide supplemental data to support compliance monitoring for applicable environmental regulations. This environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is intended to document the rationale, frequency, parameters, and analytical methods for the ORR environmental surveillance program and provides information on ORR site characteristics, environmental pathways, dose assessment methods, and quality management. ORR-wide environmental monitoring activities include a variety of media including air, surface water, vegetation, biota, and wildlife. In addition to these activities, site-specific effluent, groundwater, and best management monitoring programs are conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12), and the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). This is revision 5.

  7. Development and application of the active surveillance of pathogens microarray to monitor bacterial gene flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinds Jason

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human and animal health is constantly under threat by emerging pathogens that have recently acquired genetic determinants that enhance their survival, transmissibility and virulence. We describe the construction and development of an Active Surveillance of Pathogens (ASP oligonucleotide microarray, designed to 'actively survey' the genome of a given bacterial pathogen for virulence-associated genes. Results The microarray consists of 4958 reporters from 151 bacterial species and include genes for the identification of individual bacterial species as well as mobile genetic elements (transposons, plasmid and phage, virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes. The ASP microarray was validated with nineteen bacterial pathogens species, including Francisella tularensis, Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The ASP microarray identified these bacteria, and provided information on potential antibiotic resistance (eg sufamethoxazole resistance and sulfonamide resistance and virulence determinants including genes likely to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer (e.g. an alpha-haemolysin. Conclusion The ASP microarray has potential in the clinic as a diagnostic tool, as a research tool for both known and emerging pathogens, and as an early warning system for pathogenic bacteria that have been recently modified either naturally or deliberately.

  8. A real-time positron monitor for the estimation of stack effluent releases from PET medical cyclotron facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar

    2002-12-01

    Large activities of short-lived positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals are routinely manufactured by modern Medical Cyclotron facilities for positron emission tomography (PET) applications. During radiochemical processing, a substantial fraction of the volatile positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals are released into the atmosphere. An inexpensive, fast response positron detector using a simple positron-annihilation chamber has been developed for real-time assessment of the stack release of positron emitting effluents at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron. The positron detector was calibrated by using a 3.0 ml (1.50 MBq) aliquot of 18FDG and interfaced to an industrial standard datalogger for the real-time acquisition of stack release data.

  9. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  10. Spies, Surveillance and Stakeouts: Monitoring Muslim Moves in British State Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sian, Katy Pal

    2015-01-01

    This article will provide a critique of the PVE initiative and its implementation within the context of primary education following the events of 9/11, the 2001 riots and 7/7. Drawing upon empirical data I will argue that the monitoring of young Muslims and "extremism" is problematic and reinforces the logics of Islamophobia through…

  11. Spies, Surveillance and Stakeouts: Monitoring Muslim Moves in British State Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sian, Katy Pal

    2015-01-01

    This article will provide a critique of the PVE initiative and its implementation within the context of primary education following the events of 9/11, the 2001 riots and 7/7. Drawing upon empirical data I will argue that the monitoring of young Muslims and "extremism" is problematic and reinforces the logics of Islamophobia through…

  12. Degradation and monitoring of acetamiprid, thiabendazole and their transformation products in an agro-food industry effluent during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a raceway pond reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Irene; Sirtori, Carla; Ponce-Robles, Laura; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana

    2015-07-01

    In this study, pesticides acetamiprid and thiabendazole and their transformation products (TPs), seven from each pesticide, were successfully monitored during solar photo-Fenton treatment in a real secondary effluent from an agro-food industry spiked with 100μgL(-1) of each pesticide. To this end, a highly sensitive procedure was developed, based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QqLIT-MS). In addition, finding low-cost and operational technology for the application of AOPs would then facilitate their use on a commercial level. Simple and extensive photoreactors such as raceway pond reactors (RPRs) are therefore proposed as an alternative for the application of solar photo-Fenton. Results showed that high degradation could be achieved in a complex water matrix (>99% TBZ and 91% ACTM in 240min) using a 120-L RPR pilot plant as novel technology. The analyses indicated that after the treatment only three TPs from ACTM were still present in the effluent, while the others had been removed. The study showed that the goal of either just removing the parent compounds, or going one step further and removing all the TPs, can significantly change the treatment time, which would affect process costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uptake calibration of polymer-based passive samplers for monitoring priority and emerging organic non-polar pollutants in WWTP effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Olivares, Maitane; Zatón, Leire; Delgado, Alejandra; Prieto, Ailette; Vallejo, Asier; Paschke, Albrecht; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-05-01

    The uptake calibration of more than 12 non-polar organic contaminants by 3 polymeric materials is shown: bare polydimetilsiloxane (PDMS, stir-bars), polyethersulfone tubes and membranes (PES) and polyoxymethylene membranes (POM), both in their free form and membrane-enclosed sorptive coating (MESCO). The calibration process was carried out exposing the samplers to a continuous flow of contaminated water at 100 ng mL(-1) for up to 28 days, and, consequently, the sampling rates (Rs, mL day(-1)) of several organic microcontaminants were provided for the first time. In situ Rs values were also determined disposing the samplers in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. Finally, these passive samplers were applied to monitor the effluents of two wastewater treatment plants. This application lead to the confirmation of the presence of galaxolide, tonalide and 4-tert-octylphenol at high ng mL(-1) levels, as well as the identification of compounds like some phthalates and alkylphenols at levels below the detection limits for active sampling methods.

  14. Monitoring influenza activity in the United States: a comparison of traditional surveillance systems with Google Flu Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Ortiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Influenza activity data from 2003-04 through 2007-08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance, and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79. The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89. Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003-04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87 or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003-04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior.

  15. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  16. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-03-26

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions.

  17. Security and Hyper-accurate Positioning Monitoring with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightning Ridge Technologies, working in collaboration with The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., extend Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) into a safe,...

  18. Security and Hyper-accurate Positioning Monitoring with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightning Ridge Technologies, LLC, working in collaboration with The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., extend Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) into a...

  19. Temporal dynamics of norovirus determined through monitoring of municipal wastewater by pyrosequencing and virological surveillance of gastroenteritis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Shinobu; Masago, Yoshifumi; Tohma, Kentaro; Souma, Nao; Imagawa, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Akira; Liu, Xiaofang; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Omura, Tatsuo

    2016-04-01

    Norovirus is a leading etiological agent of viral gastroenteritis. Because of relatively mild disease symptoms and frequent asymptomatic infections, information on the ecology of this virus is limited. Our objective was to examine the genetic diversity of norovirus circulating in the human population by means of genotyping the virus in municipal wastewater. We investigated norovirus genogroups I and II (GI and GII) in municipal wastewater in Japan by pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) from November 2012 to March 2013. Virological surveillance for gastroenteritis cases was concurrently conducted in the same area. A total of fourteen distinct genotypes in total (GI.1, 3, 4, 6, 7, GII.2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, and 17), with up to eight genotypes detected per sample, were observed in wastewater using pyrosequencing; only four genotypes (GI.6, GII.4, 5, and 14) were obtained from clinical samples. Seventy-eight percent of norovirus-positive stool samples contained GII.4, but this genotype was not dominant in wastewater. The norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, which appeared and spread during our study period, was detected in both the wastewater and clinical samples. These results suggest that an environmental approach using pyrosequencing yields a more detailed distribution of norovirus genotypes/variants. Thus, wastewater monitoring by pyrosequencing is expected to provide an effective analysis of the distribution of norovirus genotypes causing symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in human populations.

  20. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1989. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1989 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 58 refs., 31 figs., 39 tabs.

  1. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1987. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1987 cover: external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are insignificant and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 113 refs., 33 figs., 120 tabs.

  2. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohen, K.; Stoker, A.; Stone, G. [and others

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1992. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1992 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, laboratory employees, or the environment.

  3. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1995. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring result to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1995 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  4. Involvement of stakeholders in the water quality monitoring and surveillance system: The case of Mzingwane Catchment, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nare, Lerato; Love, David; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    Stakeholder participation is viewed as critical in the current water sector reforms taking place in the Southern African region. In Zimbabwe, policies and legislation encourage stakeholder participation. A study was undertaken to determine the extent of stakeholder participation in water quality monitoring and surveillance at the operational level, and also to assess indigenous knowledge and practices in water quality monitoring. Two hundred and forty one questionnaires were administered in Mzingwane Catchment, the portion of the Limpopo Basin that falls within Zimbabwe. The focus was on small users in rural communities, whose experiences were captured using a questionnaire and focus group discussions. Extension workers, farmers and NGOs and relevant sector government ministries and departments were also interviewed and a number of workshops held. Results indicate that there is very limited stakeholder participation despite the presence of adequate supportive structures and organisations. For the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA), stakeholders are the paying permit holders to whom feedback is given following analysis of samples. However, the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare generally only releases information to rural communities when it is deemed necessary for their welfare. There are no guidelines on how a dissatisfied member of the public can raise a complaint - although some stakeholders carry such complaints to Catchment Council meetings. With regard to water quality, the study revealed widespread use of indigenous knowledge and practice by communities. Such knowledge is based on smell, taste, colour and odour perceptions. Residents are generally more concerned about the physical parameters than the bacteriological quality of water. They are aware of what causes water pollution and the effects of pollution on human health, crops, animals and aquatic ecology. They have ways of preventing pollution and appropriate interventions to take when a source

  5. ISTIMES Integrated System for Transport Infrastructures Surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenti, M.; Giannini, V.; Averty, R.; Bigagli, L.; Dumoulin, J.

    2012-04-01

    The EC FP7 ISTIMES project has the goal of realizing an ICT-based system exploiting distributed and local sensors for non destructive electromagnetic monitoring in order to make critical transport infrastructures more reliable and safe. Higher situation awareness thanks to real time and detailed information and images of the controlled infrastructure status allows improving decision capabilities for emergency management stakeholders. Web-enabled sensors and a service-oriented approach are used as core of the architecture providing a sys-tem that adopts open standards (e.g. OGC SWE, OGC CSW etc.) and makes efforts to achieve full interoperability with other GMES and European Spatial Data Infrastructure initiatives as well as compliance with INSPIRE. The system exploits an open easily scalable network architecture to accommodate a wide range of sensors integrated with a set of tools for handling, analyzing and processing large data volumes from different organizations with different data models. Situation Awareness tools are also integrated in the system. Definition of sensor observations and services follows a metadata model based on the ISO 19115 Core set of metadata elements and the O&M model of OGC SWE. The ISTIMES infrastructure is based on an e-Infrastructure for geospatial data sharing, with a Data Cata-log that implements the discovery services for sensor data retrieval, acting as a broker through static connections based on standard SOS and WNS interfaces; a Decision Support component which helps decision makers providing support for data fusion and inference and generation of situation indexes; a Presentation component which implements system-users interaction services for information publication and rendering, by means of a WEB Portal using SOA design principles; A security framework using Shibboleth open source middleware based on the Security Assertion Markup Language supporting Single Sign On (SSO). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - The research leading to these

  6. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  7. 1997 LMITCO Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.; Street, L.; Wilhelmsen, R.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1997 environmental surveillance and compliance monitoring activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Site Environmental Surveillance, Drinking Water, Effluent Monitoring, Storm Water Monitoring, Groundwater Monitoring, and Special Request Monitoring Programs and compares 1997 data with program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the surveillance and monitoring activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standard, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends indicating a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. With the exception of one nitrogen sample in the disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond, compliance with permits and applicable regulations was achieved. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that public health and the environment were protected.

  8. An approach to model monitoring and surveillance data of wildlife diseases-exemplified by Classical Swine Fever in wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnke, N; Liebscher, V; Staubach, C; Ziller, M

    2013-11-01

    The analysis of epidemiological field data from monitoring and surveillance systems (MOSSs) in wild animals is of great importance in order to evaluate the performance of such systems. By parameter estimation from MOSS data, conclusions about disease dynamics in the observed population can be drawn. To strengthen the analysis, the implementation of a maximum likelihood estimation is the main aim of our work. The new approach presented here is based on an underlying simple SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for a disease scenario in a wildlife population. The three corresponding classes are assumed to govern the intensities (number of animals in the classes) of non-homogeneous Poisson processes. A sampling rate was defined which describes the process of data collection (for MOSSs). Further, the performance of the diagnostics was implemented in the model by a diagnostic matrix containing misclassification rates. Both descriptions of these MOSS parts were included in the Poisson process approach. For simulation studies, the combined model demonstrates its ability to validly estimate epidemiological parameters, such as the basic reproduction rate R0. These parameters will help the evaluation of existing disease control systems. They will also enable comparison with other simulation models. The model has been tested with data from a Classical Swine Fever (CSF) outbreak in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa L.) from a region of Germany (1999-2002). The results show that the hunting strategy as a sole control tool is insufficient to decrease the threshold for susceptible animals to eradicate the disease, since the estimated R0 confirms an ongoing epidemic of CSF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  10. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-02-14

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  11. Polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS): application for monitoring organic micropollutants in wastewater effluent and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miège, Cécile; Budzinski, Hélène; Jacquet, Romain; Soulier, Coralie; Pelte, Thomas; Coquery, Marina

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of POCIS (Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler) for the evaluation of river water quality downstream of wastewater treatment plants. POCIS proved well adapted to sampling alkylphenols and several pharmaceuticals. Concentration factors and the decrease in limits of quantification, compared to grab water sample analyses, were significant except for hormones, β-blockers and bronchodilators. Promising preliminary results obtained in situ on deuterated atenolol used as a performance reference compound need to be confirmed in-lab. This work confirms that POCIS is a valuable tool for monitoring hydrophilic organic molecules in river and wastewaters.

  12. Surveillance and control of the main industrial effluents to wastewater network in Cordoba city; Vigilancia y control de los principales vertidos industriales a la red de saneamiento de Cordoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvin, R. M.

    2002-07-01

    The municipal effluents laws to the public wastewater networks are the instruments applied to control the industrial wastewater in Spain. They are very necessary because of the higher pollutant capacity associated to all the industrial effluents discarded to the networks. In this way, every industrial effluents can promote the following problems: aggressiveness to network pipelines and treatment equipment, flow obstruction and presence of novice, dangerous and toxic al substances to both human and biological treatment processes used in the municipal wastewater treatment plant. The control of the industrial effluents in the Cordoba city implies an annual average of 700 inspections in industries, 100 inspections in the main pipeline of city and 5.000 laboratory physical and chemical analysis. All the above said makes possible to control the main industries of the city, to established in the law, also the application of the higher pollution taxes when it is demandable. (Author) 19 refs.

  13. Use of syndromic surveillance data to monitor poisonings and drug overdoses in state and local public health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ising, Amy; Proescholdbell, Scott; Harmon, Katherine J; Sachdeva, Nidhi; Marshall, Stephen W; Waller, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of poisoning and drug overdose has risen rapidly in the USA over the last 16 years. To inform local intervention approaches, local health departments (LHDs) in North Carolina (NC) are using a statewide syndromic surveillance system that provides timely, local emergency department (ED) and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) data on medication and drug overdoses. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and use of a variety of case definitions for poisoning and overdose implemented in NC's syndromic surveillance system and the impact of the system on local surveillance initiatives. Thirteen new poisoning and overdose-related case definitions were added to NC's syndromic surveillance system and LHDs were trained on their use for surveillance purposes. Twenty-one LHDs were surveyed on the utility and impact of these new case definitions. Ninety-one per cent of survey respondents (n = 29) agreed or strongly agreed that their ability to access timely ED data was vital to inform community-level overdose prevention work. Providing LHDs with access to local, timely data to identify pockets of need and engage stakeholders facilitates the practice of informed injury prevention and contributes to the reduction of injury incidence in their communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1979. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances was conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1979 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground water, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs.

  15. Surveillance and monitoring of white-tailed deer for chronic wasting disease in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tyler S.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Walter, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects both wild and captive cervid populations. In the past 45 y, CWD has spread from northern Colorado to all bordering states, as well as the midwestern United States (Midwest) and northeastern United States (Northeast), Canada, and South Korea. Because CWD is a relatively new issue for wildlife management agencies in the Northeast, we surveyed a representative (e.g., cervid biologist, wildlife veterinarian) from 14 states to gain a better understanding of state-specific surveillance measures. Between 2002 and 2012, New York (37,093) and Pennsylvania (35,324) tested the greatest number of harvested white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in the Northeast. Additionally, the 14 states surveyed have tested 121,730 harvested deer, or approximately 15,216/y, since CWD was first detected in 2005. The most common tissues used by agencies in the Northeast for testing were retropharyngeal lymph nodes, which have been determined to be the most reliable in detecting CWD in cervids. Understanding CWD surveillance efforts at a regional scale can help to provide guidance for the development of new surveillance plans or the improvement of existing ones. Furthermore, collaborations among state and regional agencies in the Northeast may attempt to identify deficiencies in surveillance by state or subregion.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  17. [Disease monitoring and surveillance systems and the role of public and private animal health agents: the experience of Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, F; Thonnat, J; Hendrikx, P; Domenech, J

    2004-04-01

    The current importance of animal diseases, and their emergence or re-emergence, show that surveillance is crucial for defining suitable control measures. Surveillance systems rely on networks of different people, whose activities include collecting, transmitting, analysing and disseminating disease information. These activities can be distributed among both the public and private sectors. However, nowadays it is essential to clearly define the different roles of the public and private sectors. In Africa, where budget cuts for state Veterinary Services over a number of years have promoted the growth of private veterinary medicine, the tasks of public officials (veterinarians, technicians, etc.) and private sector workers (veterinarians, livestock farmers) must be clearly determined and harmonised. This article presents and comments upon a number of different experiments that various sub-Saharan African countries have conducted in this field.

  18. Defense Health Care: DOD Needs to Clarify Policies Related to Occupational and Environmental Health Surveillance and Monitor Risk Mitigation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    and environmental health surveillance OEHSA Occupational and Environmental Health Site Assessment POEMS Periodic Occupational and...inhalation from burn pits in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Institute of Medicine was unable to determine whether long -term health effects are likely to result...Washington, D.C.: May 1, 2012). 5See Institute of Medicine for the Department of Veterans’ Affairs. Long -Term Health Consequences of Exposure to Burn

  19. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  20. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture.......Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  1. The Integrated System for Public Health Monitoring of West Nile Virus (ISPHM-WNV: a real-time GIS for surveillance and decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebel Germain

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After its first detection in North America in New York in 1999, West Nile virus was detected for the first time in 2002 in the province of Quebec, Canada. This situation forced the Government of Quebec to adopt a public health protection plan against the virus. The plan comprises several fields of intervention including the monitoring of human cases, Corvidae and mosquitoes in order to ensure the early detection of the presence of the virus in a particular area. To help support the monitoring activities, the Integrated System for Public Health Monitoring of West Nile Virus (ISPHM-WNV has been developed. Results The ISPHM-WNV is a real-time geographic information system for public health surveillance of West Nile virus and includes information on Corvidae, mosquitoes, humans, horses, climate, and preventive larvicide interventions. It has been in operation in the province of Quebec, Canada, since May 2003. The ISPHM-WNV facilitates the collection, localization, management and analysis of monitoring data; it also allows for the display of the results of analyses on maps, tables and statistical diagrams. Conclusion The system is very helpful for field workers in all regions of the province, as well as for central authorities. It represents the common authoritative source of data for analysis, exchange and decision-making.

  2. 2002 WIPP Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE | facility to prepare an environmental management plan (EMP). This document is | prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment; applicable sections of Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 834, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' (draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1, which is the driver for the annual Site Environmental Report (SER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP Project is operated by Westinghouse TRU Solutions (WTS) for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of WIPP's effluent and environmental | monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP Project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  3. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1991. Environmental protection group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, J.; Kohen, K.L. [comps.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1991. Routine monitoring for radiation and for radioactive and chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1991 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  4. Environmental monitoring associated with nuclear testing in French Polynesia; La surveillance de l'environnement associee aux essais nucleaires en Polynesie francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R.; Arnould, C.; Bory, P.; Ducousso, R.; Sarbach, J. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2009-07-15

    The realization of the programme of nuclear experiments in French Polynesia was accompanied by the installation by a radiological monitoring device of the environment, either the physical environment or biological, continental or marine, vegetable or animal, in order to make sure of the absence of risk for the populations. This device took all its importance with the tests carried out in the atmosphere between 1966 and 1974. Its implementation required important means in hardware and manpower with the intervention of civil and military or sometimes mixed organizations. The monitoring was naturally done in a very complete way in the zones close to the sites of tests, but also on the whole of the Polynesian territory, in particular the most populated atolls. It also carried, but in a less extended way, on remote zones, like the Andean countries, because of their geographical location. The results obtained by the various involved laboratories were gathered and interpreted in order to ensure information of the persons in charge and the authorities, in particular in Polynesia and through them the population. They were each year transmitted to the scientific committee of the United Nations for the study of the effects of ionizing radiations (UNSCEAR). The surveillance device is thus described, apart from the zones close to the zones of testing, with the presentation of the various implied organizations and the various monitoring programs. (authors)

  5. Protecting the Health of Astronauts: Enhancing Occupational Health Monitoring and Surveillance for Former NASA Astronauts to Understand Long-Term Outcomes of Spaceflight-Related Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Meredith; Lee, Lesley; Wear, Mary; Van Baalen, Mary; Rhodes, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. A better understanding of the individual, population, and mission impacts of astronaut occupational exposures is critical to providing clinical care, targeting occupational surveillance efforts, and planning for future space exploration. The ability to characterize the risk of latent health conditions is a significant component of this understanding. Provision of health screening services to active and former astronauts ensures individual, mission, and community health and safety. Currently, the NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) provides extensive medical monitoring to active astronauts throughout their careers. Upon retirement, astronauts may voluntarily return to the JSC FMC for an annual preventive exam. However, current retiree monitoring includes only selected screening tests, representing an opportunity for augmentation. The potential long-term health effects of spaceflight demand an expanded framework of testing for former astronauts. The need is two-fold: screening tests widely recommended for other aging populations are necessary to rule out conditions resulting from the natural aging process (e.g., colonoscopy, mammography); and expanded monitoring will increase NASA's ability to better characterize conditions resulting from astronaut occupational exposures. To meet this need, NASA has begun an extensive exploration of the overall approach, cost, and policy implications of e an Astronaut Occupational Health program to include expanded medical monitoring of former NASA astronauts. Increasing the breadth of monitoring services will ultimately enrich the existing evidence base of occupational health risks

  6. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  7. 1998 Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. V. Street

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1998 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company Environmental Monitoring Program performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1998 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The INEEL complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the exception of nitrogen samples in a disposal pond effluent stream and iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal pond. Data collected by the Environmental Monitoring Program demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  8. 国家动物源细菌耐药性监测工作的探讨和建议%Discussion and Suggestion on the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Surveillance Program in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾欣; 金凌艳; 蔡金华; 刘雅妮; 王蓓

    2009-01-01

    The foreign profile of antimicrobial resistance monitoring and surveillance program in animal, and the purpose of resistance monitoring and surveillance program were described. A variety of factors to be considered for resistance monitoring and surveillance program were introduced and discussed, including the animal species, food products, Sampling strategies, specimens collecting, bacterial species, antimicrobials, standardized susceptibility testing, quality control, database design and recording, report and analysis of result. Suggestion was pointed out about antimicrobial resistance monitoring and surveillance program in the future.%介绍了国外动物源细菌耐药性监测工作的情况及目标,对我国的动物源细菌耐药性监测工作需考虑的许多因素进行了介绍和讨论,包括动物品种、食品、采样方法、样本的收集、细菌品种、抗菌药物、标准药敏试验法、质控、结果记录和数据库设计、报告和结果分析等,并对今后的动物源细菌耐药性监测工作提出了建议.

  9. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  10. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  11. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    ... river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image...

  12. Nuclear Power Plant environment`s surveillance by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    The main environmental issues affecting the broad acceptability of nuclear power plant are the emission of radioactive materials, the generation of radioactive waste, and the potential for nuclear accidents. All nuclear fission reactors, regardless of design, location, operator or regulator, have the potential to undergo catastrophic accidents involving loss of control of the reactor core, failure of safety systems and subsequent widespread fallout of hazardous fission products. Risk is the mathematical product of probability and consequences, so lowprobability and high-consequence accidents, by definition, have a high risk. NPP environment surveillance is a very important task in frame of risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing data had been applied for dosimeter levels first time for Chernobyl NPP accident in 1986. Just for a normal functioning of a nuclear power plant, multitemporal and multispectral satellite data in complementarily with field data are very useful tools for NPP environment surveillance and risk assessment. Satellite remote sensing is used as an important technology to help environmental research to support research analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental features nearby nuclear facilities. Digital processing techniques applied to several LANDSAT, MODIS and QuickBird data in synergy with in-situ data are used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation and non-radiation effects on the water, near field soil, vegetation and air. As a test case the methodology was applied for for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Cernavoda, Romania. Thermal discharge from nuclear reactors cooling is dissipated as waste heat in Danube-Black -Sea Canal and Danube River. Water temperatures captured in thermal IR imagery are correlated with meteorological parameters. If during the winter thermal plume is localized to an area of a few km of NPP, the temperature difference between the plume and non-plume areas being about 1.5 oC, during summer and fall , is

  13. Remotely piloted LTA vehicle for surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, G. R.; Harris, G. L.; Brown, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of a remotely piloted mini-LTA vehicle for surveillance, monitoring and measurement for civilian and military applications are considered. Applications, operations and economics are discussed.

  14. Evolution of reactor monitoring and protection systems for PWR; Evolution des systemes de surveillance et de protection des REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloin, B. [Electricite de France (EDF/SEPTEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Mourlevat, J.L. [FRAMATOME ANP, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the evolution of the reactor protection systems and of the reactor monitoring systems for PWR since the initial design in the Fessenheim plant to the latest development for the EPR (European pressurized reactor). The features of both systems for the different kinds of PWR operating in France: 900 MWe, 1300 MWe and N4, are reviewed. The expected development of powerful micro-processors for computation, for data analysis and data storage will make possible in a near future the monitoring on a 3-dimensional basis and on a continuous manner, of the nuclear power released in the core. (A.C.)

  15. Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Solid State Track Recorder (SSTR) Monitors for Reactor Surveillance, E706(IIIB)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the use of solid-state track recorders (SSTRs) for neutron dosimetry in light-water reactor (LWR) applications. These applications extend from low neutron fluence to high neutron fluence, including high power pressure vessel surveillance and test reactor irradiations as well as low power benchmark field measurement. (1) This test method replaces Method E 418. This test method is more detailed and special attention is given to the use of state-of-the-art manual and automated track counting methods to attain high absolute accuracies. In-situ dosimetry in actual high fluence-high temperature LWR applications is emphasized. 1.2 This test method includes SSTR analysis by both manual and automated methods. To attain a desired accuracy, the track scanning method selected places limits on the allowable track density. Typically good results are obtained in the range of 5 to 800 000 tracks/cm2 and accurate results at higher track densities have been demonstrated for some cases. (2) Trac...

  16. Fuzzy logic and optical correlation-based face recognition method for patient monitoring application in home video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbouz, Marwa; Alfalou, Ayman; Brosseau, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Home automation is being implemented into more and more domiciles of the elderly and disabled in order to maintain their independence and safety. For that purpose, we propose and validate a surveillance video system, which detects various posture-based events. One of the novel points of this system is to use adapted Vander-Lugt correlator (VLC) and joint-transfer correlator (JTC) techniques to make decisions on the identity of a patient and his three-dimensional (3-D) positions in order to overcome the problem of crowd environment. We propose a fuzzy logic technique to get decisions on the subject's behavior. Our system is focused on the goals of accuracy, convenience, and cost, which in addition does not require any devices attached to the subject. The system permits one to study and model subject responses to behavioral change intervention because several levels of alarm can be incorporated according different situations considered. Our algorithm performs a fast 3-D recovery of the subject's head position by locating eyes within the face image and involves a model-based prediction and optical correlation techniques to guide the tracking procedure. The object detection is based on (hue, saturation, value) color space. The system also involves an adapted fuzzy logic control algorithm to make a decision based on information given to the system. Furthermore, the principles described here are applicable to a very wide range of situations and robust enough to be implementable in ongoing experiments.

  17. Continuous thermal infrared monitoring at Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius (Italy) by automated data processing: an effective surveillance tool of active volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansivero, Fabio; Vilardo, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano Thermal Infrared Imagery Monitoring Network (TIIMNet) is made up of IR acquisition stations designed to continuously acquire IR scenes of diffuse degassing areas in the Neapolitan volcanic district. Every station consists of a RMS (Remote Monitoring Station) which manages the shooting functionalities of the IR camera and the connection to the surveillance Centre of INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano in Naples. The first developed station was equipped with a NEC Thermo Tracer TS7302 IR camera (with 320x240 pixel FPA uncooled microbolometer); a newer one is equipped with a FLIR SC645 IR camera (with 640x480 pixel FPA uncooled microbolometer) and is supported by an in-house developed hardware which manages a fully real-time control of data acquisition and transfer procedures. As a whole, TIIMNet is composed of four permanent stations and three transportable ones. The first permanent NEC Station was installed at Vesuvius on July 2004 and dismissed on May 2007. A new permanent FLIR Station was set up on June 2011 and it acquires IR scenes from the inner SW slope of Vesuvius crater. In the Campi Flegrei caldera (Pozzuoli, Italy) a permanent NEC Station was operative at Solfatara since September 2004 and it acquired scenes of the major fumaroles area located on the SE inner slope at the intersection of two active, SW-NE and NW-SE main faults. A permanent FLIR Station has been installed at Solfatara on June 2013 and takes IR shots of a significant thermal anomaly on the Northern inner slope of the crater. At Pisciarelli locality, on the Solfatara NE outer slope, a transportable NEC Station was set up on October 2006 and dismissed on September 2013. It was abreast of a permanent FLIR Station on March 2013. Both stations stored IR scenes of the outer eastern flank of the Solfatara tuff-cone characterized by heavy water vapor and CO2 emissions close to an active NW-SE fault. IR scenes are acquired every night by the TIIMNet stations and in real time

  18. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  19. Evaluating detection limits of next-generation sequencing for the surveillance and monitoring of international marine pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Xavier; Bott, Nathan J; Smith, Kirsty F; Wood, Susanna A

    2013-01-01

    Most surveillance programmes for marine invasive species (MIS) require considerable taxonomic expertise, are laborious, and are unable to identify species at larval or juvenile stages. Therefore, marine pests may go undetected at the initial stages of incursions when population densities are low. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the benchtop GS Junior™ 454 pyrosequencing system to detect the presence of MIS in complex sample matrices. An initial in-silico evaluation of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and the nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU) genes, found that multiple primer sets (targeting a ca. 400 base pair region) would be required to obtain species level identification within the COI gene. In contrast a single universal primer set was designed to target the V1-V3 region of SSU, allowing simultaneous PCR amplification of a wide taxonomic range of MIS. To evaluate the limits of detection of this method, artificial contrived communities (10 species from 5 taxonomic groups) were created using varying concentrations of known DNA samples and PCR products. Environmental samples (water and sediment) spiked with one or five 160 hr old Asterias amurensis larvae were also examined. Pyrosequencing was able to recover DNA/PCR products of individual species present at greater than 0.64% abundance from all tested contrived communities. Additionally, single A. amurensis larvae were detected from both water and sediment samples despite the co-occurrence of a large array of environmental eukaryotes, indicating an equivalent sensitivity to quantitative PCR. NGS technology has tremendous potential for the early detection of marine invasive species worldwide.

  20. Evaluating detection limits of next-generation sequencing for the surveillance and monitoring of international marine pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Pochon

    Full Text Available Most surveillance programmes for marine invasive species (MIS require considerable taxonomic expertise, are laborious, and are unable to identify species at larval or juvenile stages. Therefore, marine pests may go undetected at the initial stages of incursions when population densities are low. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the benchtop GS Junior™ 454 pyrosequencing system to detect the presence of MIS in complex sample matrices. An initial in-silico evaluation of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and the nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU genes, found that multiple primer sets (targeting a ca. 400 base pair region would be required to obtain species level identification within the COI gene. In contrast a single universal primer set was designed to target the V1-V3 region of SSU, allowing simultaneous PCR amplification of a wide taxonomic range of MIS. To evaluate the limits of detection of this method, artificial contrived communities (10 species from 5 taxonomic groups were created using varying concentrations of known DNA samples and PCR products. Environmental samples (water and sediment spiked with one or five 160 hr old Asterias amurensis larvae were also examined. Pyrosequencing was able to recover DNA/PCR products of individual species present at greater than 0.64% abundance from all tested contrived communities. Additionally, single A. amurensis larvae were detected from both water and sediment samples despite the co-occurrence of a large array of environmental eukaryotes, indicating an equivalent sensitivity to quantitative PCR. NGS technology has tremendous potential for the early detection of marine invasive species worldwide.

  1. Using search query surveillance to monitor tax avoidance and smoking cessation following the United States' 2009 "SCHIP" cigarette tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W; Ribisl, Kurt; Brownstein, John S

    2011-03-16

    Smokers can use the web to continue or quit their habit. Online vendors sell reduced or tax-free cigarettes lowering smoking costs, while health advocates use the web to promote cessation. We examined how smokers' tax avoidance and smoking cessation Internet search queries were motivated by the United States' (US) 2009 State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) federal cigarette excise tax increase and two other state specific tax increases. Google keyword searches among residents in a taxed geography (US or US state) were compared to an untaxed geography (Canada) for two years around each tax increase. Search data were normalized to a relative search volume (RSV) scale, where the highest search proportion was labeled 100 with lesser proportions scaled by how they relatively compared to the highest proportion. Changes in RSV were estimated by comparing means during and after the tax increase to means before the tax increase, across taxed and untaxed geographies. The SCHIP tax was associated with an 11.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 5.7 to 17.9; ptax levels in Canada during the months after the tax. Tax avoidance searches increased 27.9% (95%CI, 15.9 to 39.9; ptax compared to Canada, respectively, suggesting avoidance is the more pronounced and durable response. Trends were similar for state-specific tax increases but suggest strong interactive processes across taxes. When the SCHIP tax followed Florida's tax, versus not, it promoted more cessation and avoidance searches. Efforts to combat tax avoidance and increase cessation may be enhanced by using interventions targeted and tailored to smokers' searches. Search query surveillance is a valuable real-time, free and public method, that may be generalized to other behavioral, biological, informational or psychological outcomes manifested online.

  2. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Nonroutine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  3. Understanding the transformation, speciation, and hazard potential of copper particles in a model septic tank system using zebrafish to monitor the effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sijie; Taylor, Alicia A; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Kinsinger, Nichola M; Ueng, William; Walker, Sharon L; Nel, André E

    2015-02-24

    Although copper-containing nanoparticles are used in commercial products such as fungicides and bactericides, we presently do not understand the environmental impact on other organisms that may be inadvertently exposed. In this study, we used the zebrafish embryo as a screening tool to study the potential impact of two nano Cu-based materials, CuPRO and Kocide, in comparison to nanosized and micron-sized Cu and CuO particles in their pristine form (0-10 ppm) as well as following their transformation in an experimental wastewater treatment system. This was accomplished by construction of a modeled domestic septic tank system from which effluents could be retrieved at different stages following particle introduction (10 ppm). The Cu speciation in the effluent was identified as nondissolvable inorganic Cu(H2PO2)2 and nondiffusible organic Cu by X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT), and Visual MINTEQ software. While the nanoscale materials, including the commercial particles, were clearly more potent (showing 50% hatching interference above 0.5 ppm) than the micron-scale particulates with no effect on hatching up to 10 ppm, the Cu released from the particles in the septic tank underwent transformation into nonbioavailable species that failed to interfere with the function of the zebrafish embryo hatching enzyme. Moreover, we demonstrate that the addition of humic acid, as an organic carbon component, could lead to a dose-dependent decrease in Cu toxicity in our high content zebrafish embryo screening assay. Thus, the use of zebrafish embryo screening, in combination with the effluents obtained from a modeled exposure environment, enables a bioassay approach to follow the change in the speciation and hazard potential of Cu particles instead of difficult-to-perform direct particle tracking.

  4. Monitoring the fate and behavior of TiO2 nanoparticles: Simulated in a WWTP with industrial dye-stuff effluent according to OECD 303A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlalela, Lwazi C; Ngila, Jane C; Dlamini, Langelihle N

    2017-04-03

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in several consumer products has led to them finding their way into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Some of these NPs have photocatalytic properties, thus providing a possible solution to textile industries to photodegrade dyes from their wastewater. Thus, the interaction of NPs with industrial dye effluents is inevitable. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD) guideline for testing of chemical 303A was employed to study the fate and behaviour of TiO2 NPs in industrial dye-stuff effluent. This was due to the unavailability of NPs' fate and behaviour test protocols. The effect of TiO2 NPs on the treatment process was ascertained by measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5). Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to study the fate and behavior of TiO2 NPs. Acclimatization of bacteria to target pollutants was a crucial factor for the treatment efficiency of activated sludge in a simulated wastewater treatment plant (SWTP). The acclimatization of the activated sludge to the synthetic industrial dye-stuff effluent was successfully achieved. Effect of TiO2 NPs on the treatment process efficiency was then investigated. Addition of TiO2 NPs had no effect on the treatment process as chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal remained >80%. Measured total plate count (TPC) affirmed that the addition of TiO2 NPs had no effect on the treatment process. The removal of total nitrogen (TN) was not efficient as the treatment system was required to have an oxic and anoxic stage for efficient TN removal. Results from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) confirmed that the anatase phase of the added TiO2 NPs remained unchanged even after exposure to the treatment plant. Removal of the NPs from the influent was facilitated by biosorption of the NPs on the activated sludge. Nanoparticles received by wastewater treatment plants will therefore reach the

  5. Impact assessment of malaria vector control using routine surveillance data in Zambia: implications for monitoring and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS, with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia. The impact of these interventions on malaria morbidity and mortality has not previously been formally assessed at the population level in Zambia. Methods The impact of IRS (15 urban districts and LLINs (15 rural districts implementation on severe malaria cases, deaths and case fatality rates in children below the age of five years were compared. Zambian national Health Management Information System data from 2007 to 2008 were retrospectively analysed to assess the epidemiological impact of the two interventions using odds ratios to compare the pre-scaling up year 2007 with the scaling-up year 2008. Results Overall there were marked reductions in morbidity and mortality, with cases, deaths and case fatality rates (CFR of severe malaria decreasing by 31%, 63% and 62%, respectively between 2007 and 2008. In urban districts with IRS introduction there was a significant reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.31-0.43, P = 0.015, while the reduction in mortality in rural districts with LLINs implementation was not significant (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P = 0.666. A similar pattern was observed for case fatality rates with a significant reduction in urban districts implementing IRS (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.33-0.36, P = 0.005, but not in rural districts implementing LLINs (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00, P = 0.913. No substantial difference was detected in overall reduction of malaria cases between districts implementing IRS and LLINs (P = 0.933. Conclusion Routine surveillance data proved valuable for determining the temporal effects of malaria control with two strategies, IRS and LLINs on severe malaria disease in different types of Zambian districts. However, this analysis did not take into account the effect

  6. Using search query surveillance to monitor tax avoidance and smoking cessation following the United States' 2009 "SCHIP" cigarette tax increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Ayers

    Full Text Available Smokers can use the web to continue or quit their habit. Online vendors sell reduced or tax-free cigarettes lowering smoking costs, while health advocates use the web to promote cessation. We examined how smokers' tax avoidance and smoking cessation Internet search queries were motivated by the United States' (US 2009 State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP federal cigarette excise tax increase and two other state specific tax increases. Google keyword searches among residents in a taxed geography (US or US state were compared to an untaxed geography (Canada for two years around each tax increase. Search data were normalized to a relative search volume (RSV scale, where the highest search proportion was labeled 100 with lesser proportions scaled by how they relatively compared to the highest proportion. Changes in RSV were estimated by comparing means during and after the tax increase to means before the tax increase, across taxed and untaxed geographies. The SCHIP tax was associated with an 11.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 5.7 to 17.9; p<.001 immediate increase in cessation searches; however, searches quickly abated and approximated differences from pre-tax levels in Canada during the months after the tax. Tax avoidance searches increased 27.9% (95%CI, 15.9 to 39.9; p<.001 and 5.3% (95%CI, 3.6 to 7.1; p<.001 during and in the months after the tax compared to Canada, respectively, suggesting avoidance is the more pronounced and durable response. Trends were similar for state-specific tax increases but suggest strong interactive processes across taxes. When the SCHIP tax followed Florida's tax, versus not, it promoted more cessation and avoidance searches. Efforts to combat tax avoidance and increase cessation may be enhanced by using interventions targeted and tailored to smokers' searches. Search query surveillance is a valuable real-time, free and public method, that may be generalized to other behavioral, biological

  7. Establishing and implementing Demographic Surveillance System as a tool for monitoring health interventions in Korogwe District, northastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamugisha, Mathias L; Mmbando, Bruno P; Francis, Filbert; Ishengoma, Deus S; Challe, Daniel P; Lemnge, Martha M

    2011-10-01

    In the Korogwe demographic surveillance system (DSS) site in north-eastern Tanzania, information on vital events such as births, deaths and migration has been collected since its establishment in 2005. The aim was to obthin demographic and epidemiological indices to be used in the evaluation of health related interventions which have been undertaken in the area. Period covered is up to December 2010. Baseline survey was conducted in 14 villages of Korogwe district in October 2005 and DSS was launched in January 2006 years. Demographic, social economic status, immunisation coverage and birth history data was collected during the follow-up and each household was visited every 4 months. Estimates of mortality levels were derived from deaths that were collected during household visits. Birth history data were used to estimate the lifetime and period fertility of women aged 15-49 years. Estimates of crude migration and age specific migration rates were derived from the number of people moving in or out of the DSS site and the person-years lived. The population at baseline survey was 25,264 individuals in 5,853 households. The percentage of deaths was higher among adult aged 15-60 years compared to other age groups. The probability of dying among males (376/1000) aged 15-60 years was higher than females (339/1000) in the same age group. The lifetime and period fertility estimates were 5.6 and 5.1 children per woman respectively. Women aged 30-34 years are expected to have 3-4 children at the end of their childbearing age. Migration were higher at the youngest ages, lower rates at the 10-14 years age groups, a peak at the 20-24 ages, and a gradual decline up to the oldest ages. Majority of households in rural areas 51.8% were 1 in low socioeconomic status compared to 40.3% in urban areas which were in high socio-economic status. About 74% and 55.5% of the children received BCG and measles vaccination, respectively. In conclusion, Korogwe DSS has provided useful data which

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  10. Evaluation of the US Army Institute of Public Health Destination Monitoring Program, a food safety surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp-Santos, Kamala; Havas, Karyn; Vest, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The Destination Monitoring Program, operated by the US Army Public Health Command (APHC), is one component that supports the APHC Veterinary Service's mission to ensure safety and quality of food procured for the Department of Defense (DoD). This program relies on retail product testing to ensure compliance of production facilities and distributors that supply food to the DoD. This program was assessed to determine the validity and timeliness by specifically evaluating whether sample size of items collected was adequate, if food samples collected were representative of risk, and whether the program returns results in a timely manner. Data was collected from the US Army Veterinary Services Lotus Notes database, including all food samples collected and submitted from APHC Region-North for the purposes of destination monitoring from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. For most food items, only one sample was submitted for testing. The ability to correctly identify a contaminated food lot may be limited by reliance on test results from only one sample, as the level of confidence in a negative test result is low. The food groups most frequently sampled by APHC correlated with the commodities that were implicated in foodborne illness in the United States. Food items to be submitted were equally distributed among districts and branches, but sections within large branches submitted relatively few food samples compared to sections within smaller branches and districts. Finally, laboratory results were not available for about half the food items prior to their respective expiration dates.

  11. Coupling limit equilibrium analyses and real-time monitoring to refine a landslide surveillance system in Calabria (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. R. Iovine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available On 28 January 2009, a large debris slide was triggered by prolonged rainfalls at the southern suburbs of San Benedetto Ullano (Northern Calabria. The slope movement affected fractured and weathered migmatitic gneiss and biotitic schist, and included a pre-existing landslide. A detailed geomorphologic field survey, carried out during the whole phase of mobilization, allowed to recognize the evolution of the phenomenon. A set of datum points was located along the borders of the landslide and frequent hand-made measurements of surface displacements were performed. Since 11 February, a basic real-time monitoring system of meteoric parameters and of surface displacements, measured by means of high-precision extensometers, was also implemented.

    Based on the data gained through the monitoring system, and on field surveying, a basic support system for emergency management could be defined since the first phases of activation of the phenomenon. The evolution of the landslide was monitored during the following months: as a consequence, evidence of retrogressive distribution could be recognized, with initial activation in the middle sector of the slope, where new temporary springs were observed. During early May, the activity reduced to displacements of a few millimetres per month and the geo-hydrological crisis seemed to be concluded.

    Afterwards, the geological scheme of the slope was refined based on the data collected through a set of explorative boreholes, equipped with inclinometers and piezometers: according to the stratigraphic and inclinometric data, the depth of the mobilized body resulted in varying between 15 and 35 m along a longitudinal section. A parametric limit equilibrium analysis was carried out to explore the stability conditions of the slope affected by the landslide as well as to quantify the role of the water table in destabilizing the slope. The interpretation of the process based on field observations was confirmed

  12. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the monitoring and surveillance of antibodies to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus based on a recombinant membrane protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing-Hui; Zuo, Yu-Zhu; Shen, Xiao-Qiang; Gu, Wen-Yuan; Di, Jing-Mei

    2015-12-01

    The recent dramatic increase in reported cases of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in pig farms is a potential threat to the global swine industry. Therefore, the accurate diagnosis, serological monitoring, and surveillance of specific antibodies in pigs resulting from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection or vaccination would be essential in helping to control the spread of PED. We developed and validated an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the recombinant membrane (M) protein of PEDV. To detect PEDV antibodies in eight herds, 382 serum samples were collected from sows that had been immunized with a PED vaccine, and screened using the developed ELISA in parallel with a serum neutralization (SN) assay. Of the tested samples, 276 were positive for the presence of PEDV antibodies according to both assays, while 98 were negative. An excellent agreement between the ELISA and the SN assay was observed (kappa=0.947; 95% confidence interval=0.910-0.984; McNemar's test, P=0.727). No cross-reaction was detected for the developed ELISA with other coronaviruses or other common pig pathogens. The developed ELISA could be used for serological evaluation and indirect diagnosis of PED infection.

  13. Salt Intakes, Knowledge, and Behavior in Samoa: Monitoring Salt-Consumption Patterns Through the World Health Organization's Surveillance of Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors (STEPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Su'a, Sarah Asi Faletoese; Ieremia, Merina; Bompoint, Severine; Johnson, Claire; Faeamani, Gavin; Vaiaso, Miraneta; Snowdon, Wendy; Land, Mary-Anne; Trieu, Kathy; Viali, Satu; Moodie, Marj; Bell, Colin; Neal, Bruce; Woodward, Mark

    2016-09-01

    This project measured population salt intake in Samoa by integrating urinary sodium analysis into the World Health Organization's (WHO's) STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable disease risk factors (STEPS). A subsample of the Samoan Ministry of Health's 2013 STEPS Survey collected 24-hour and spot urine samples and completed questions on salt-related behaviors. Complete urine samples were available for 293 participants. Overall, weighted mean population 24-hour urine excretion of salt was 7.09 g (standard error 0.19) to 7.63 g (standard error 0.27) for men and 6.39 g (standard error 0.14) for women (P=.0014). Salt intake increased with body mass index (P=.0004), and people who added salt at the table had 1.5 g higher salt intakes than those who did not add salt (P=.0422). A total of 70% of the population had urinary excretion values above the 5 g/d cutoff recommended by the WHO. A reduction of 30% (2 g) would reduce average population salt intake to 5 g/d, in line with WHO recommendations. While challenging, integration of salt monitoring into STEPS provides clear logistical and cost benefits and the lessons communicated here can help inform future programs.

  14. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1994. Data were collected to assess external penetrating radiation, airborne emissions, liquid effluents, radioactivity of environmental materials and food stuffs, and environmental compliance.

  15. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  16. Aerosol and fallout monitoring in France from 1959 to 2014: 55 years of improvement of the surveillance, from the sampling to the measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vismes Ott, A.; Masson, O. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As a support for the public authorities the French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) is in charge of the environment surveillance in France. The OPERA-Air (Observatoire Permanent de la Radioactivite) sampling network is part of this monitoring activity and includes, in addition to 40 low flow (10 to 80 m{sup 3}.h{sup -1}) samplers, 8 high and very high flow (namely 300 and 700 m{sup 3}.h{sup -1}) aerosol samplers. This network also comprises rain and cloud water samplers in order to observe and study the atmospheric fallout in a general way. This paper will focus on these last kinds of samples and the aerosol filters taken by the high flow and very high flow samplers and measured at trace levels in the laboratory of environmental radioactivity measurement by low level gamma ray spectrometry. The developments made during the last decades both in the sampling process and in the measurement techniques will be described. The improvement on the air samplers with higher flow, larger surface or thinner filters for a smaller counting geometry went in concert with the metrology improvements, with new measurement equipments such as low background detectors, well-type detectors or anti cosmic set up. All these implementations were and are still made in order to deal with the decreasing anthropogenic radioactivity levels in the environment, especially in its atmospheric part, and to keep the OPERA-Air network meeting its dual purpose of surveillance as well as research. The improvements in sampling and measuring will be presented as well as some results obtained thanks to them: - Determination of {sup 137}Cs at trace level in fog/clouds waters in order to study the rainout scavenging mechanism and to improve our capability in modeling radionuclide deposition. - Determination over France of trace elements at a few μBq.m{sup -3} during the Fukushima Daiichi accident such as {sup 129m}Te-{sup 129}Te, {sup 132}Te-{sup 132}I, {sup 136}Cs and {sup 140}La

  17. Integrated Sentinel Surveillance Linking Genetic, Antigenic, and Epidemiologic Monitoring of Influenza Vaccine-Virus Relatedness and Effectiveness During the 2013-2014 Influenza Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, Danuta M; Chambers, Catharine; Sabaiduc, Suzana; De Serres, Gaston; Winter, Anne-Luise; Dickinson, James A; Gubbay, Jonathan; Fonseca, Kevin; Charest, Hugues; Krajden, Mel; Petric, Martin; Mahmud, Salaheddin M; Van Caeseele, Paul; Bastien, Nathalie; Eshaghi, Alireza; Li, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Canada's Sentinel Physician Surveillance Network links genetic, antigenic, and vaccine effectiveness (VE) measures in an integrated platform of influenza monitoring, described here for the 2013-2014 influenza season of resurgent A(H1N1)pdm09 and late-season type B activity. VE was estimated as [1 - odds ratio] × 100% and compared vaccination status between individuals who tested positive (cases) and those who tested negative (controls) for influenza virus. Vaccine-virus relatedness was assessed by genomic sequence analysis and hemagglutination inhibition assays. Analyses included 1037 controls (of whom 33% were vaccinated) and 663 cases (of whom 14% were vaccinated). A total of 415 cases tested positive for A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, 15 tested positive for A(H3N2) virus, 191 tested positive for B/Yamagata-lineage virus, 6 tested positive for B/Victoria-lineage virus, and 36 tested positive for viruses of unknown subtype or lineage. A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses belonged to clade 6B, distinguished by a K163Q substitution, but remained antigenically similar to the A/California/07/2009-like vaccine strain, with an adjusted VE of 71% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58%-80%). Most B/Yamagata-lineage viruses (83%) clustered phylogenetically with the prior (ie, 2012-2013) season's B/Wisconsin/01/2010-like clade 3 vaccine strain, while only 17% clustered with the current (ie, 2013-2014) season's B/Massachusetts/02/2012-like clade 2 vaccine strain. The adjusted VE for B/Yamagata-lineage virus was 73% (95% CI, 57%-84%), with a lower VE obtained after partial calendar-time adjustment for clade-mismatched B/Wisconsin/01/2010-like virus (VE, 63%; 95% CI, 41%-77%), compared with that for clade-matched B/Massachusetts/02/2012-like virus (VE, 88%; 95% CI, 48%-97%). No A(H3N2) viruses clustered with the A/Texas/50/2012-like clade 3C.1 vaccine strain, and more than half were antigenically mismatched, but sparse data did not support VE estimation. VE corresponded with antigenically conserved A(H1N1

  18. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  19. Development of a decision support system for crop disease monitoring, surveillance and prediction in Bomet county, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, O. M.

    2015-12-01

    The study proposes to use Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing techniques to spatially model Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease in maize growing areas in Kenya. Results from this work will be used for prediction, monitoring and to guide intervention on MLN. This will minimize maize yield losses resulting from MLN infestation and thus safeguard the livelihoods of maize farmers in Kenya. MLN was first reported in Kenya in September 2011 in Bomet county. It then subsequently spread to other parts in Kenya. Maize crops are susceptible to MLN at all growth stages. Once infected the only option left for the farmers is to burn their maize plantations. Infection rate and damage is very high affecting yields and sometimes causing complete loss of maize yield.The modelling exercise will cover the period prior to and after the incidence of MLN. Specifically, the analysis will integrate spatio-temporal information on maize phenology and field surveys with the intention of delineating the extent of MLN infestation and the degree of damage as a result of MLN. Additionally, the task will identify potential predisposing factors leading to MLN resurgence and spread and to predict potential areas where MLN is likely to spread and to estimate the potential impact of MLN on the farm holders. The area of study for this task will be Bomet County. Historical and current environmental and spatial indicators including temperature, rainfall, soil moisture, vegetation health and crop cover will be fed into a model in order to determine the main factors that aide the occurrence and the spread of MLN. Multi-spectral image processing will be used to produce indices to study maize crop health whilst image classification techniques will be used to identify crop cover clusters by differentiating the variations in spectral signatures in the area of study and hence distinguish infected, unaffected maize crops and other crop cover classes. Variables from these indicators will then be

  20. Contribution of job-exposure matrices for exposure assessment in occupational safety and health monitoring systems: application from the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, Arnaud; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Paris, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    To detect new hazards ("signals"), occupational health monitoring systems mostly rest on the description of exposures in the jobs held and on reports by medical doctors; these are subject to declarative bias. Our study aims to assess whether job-exposure matrices (JEMs) could be useful tools for signal detection by improving exposure reporting. Using the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network (RNV3P) data from 2001 to 2011, we explored the associations between disease and exposure prevalence for 3 well-known pathology/exposure couples and for one debatable couple. We compared the associations measured when using physicians' reports or applying the JEMs, respectively, for these selected diseases and across non-selected RNV3P population or for cases with musculoskeletal disorders, used as two reference groups; the ratio of exposure prevalences according to the two sources of information were computed for each disease category. Our population contained 58,188 subjects referred with pathologies related to work. Mean age at diagnosis was 45.8 years (95% CI 45.7; 45.9), and 57.2% were men. For experts, exposure ratios increase with knowledge on exposure causality. As expected, JEMs retrieved more exposed cases than experts (exposure ratios between 12 and 194), except for the couple silica/silicosis, but not for the MSD control group (ratio between 0.2 and 0.8). JEMs enhanced the number of exposures possibly linked with some conditions, compared to experts' assessment, relative to the whole database or to a reference group; they are less likely to suffer from declarative bias than reports by occupational health professionals.

  1. Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1, Section 1000 Addendum: Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1994-10-01

    This document -- the Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (SRS EM Plan) -- has been prepared according to guidance contained in the DOE 5400 Series orders, in 10 CFR 834, and in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and environmental Surveillance [DOE, 1991]. The SRS EM Plan`s purpose is to define the criteria, regulations, and guideline requirements with which SRS will comply. These criteria and requirements are applicable to environmental monitoring activities performed in support of the SRS Environmental Monitoring Program (SRS EM Program), WSRC-3Q1-2, Volume 1, Section 1100. They are not applicable to monitoring activities utilized exclusively for process monitoring/control. The environmental monitoring program requirements documented in the SRS EM Plan incorporate all applicable should requirements of DOE/EH-0173T and expand upon them to include nonradiological environmental monitoring program requirements.

  2. EPO N技术在智能变电站状态监测和视频监控系统中的应用%Application of EPON Technology in Smart Substation Condition Monitoring and Video Surveillance Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨臻; 赵燕茹

    2014-01-01

    Ethernet passive optical network (EPON)is a new technology for optical fiber accessing network,which has characteristics of low cost,high bandwidth,little electromagnetic interference,strong scalability,strong compatibility and so on.The condition monitoring and video surveillance system in smart substation have a feature of large data,but low real-time requirements.The condition monitoring and video surveillance system in substation are constructed with using EPON can effectively solve the problem of exports' bandwidth allocation without using switches,and also can save the network construction investment and life-cycle maintenance costs, which is effective new network scheme for the condition monitoring and video surveillance system in smart substation.This paper analyzed the feasibility of the application of EPON technology in monitoring and video surveillance system in smart substation,and designed the construction scheme of EPON network for 220 kV smart substation,which can provide a new scheme for the data transmission in monitoring and video surveillance system in smart substation.%以太无源光网络(ethernet passive optical network,EPON)是一种新型的光纤接入网络技术,它具有低成本、高带宽、电磁干扰小、扩展性强、兼容性强等特点。在智能变电站中状态监测和视频监控系统数据量较大、实时性要求较低。采用EPON技术构建站内状态监测与视频监控系统,能够有效地解决出口带宽分配问题,且无需使用交换机,大大节省网络建设投资与全寿命周期维护成本,是智能变电站状态监测和视频监控系统有效的新型组网方案。分析了智能变电站状态监测和视频监控系统应用EPON技术的可行性,并提出220 kV智能变电站EPON网络构建方案,为智能变电站状态监测和视频监控系统的数据传输提供了一种新型方案。

  3. Dominant object detection for autonomous vision-based surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, H.

    2010-01-01

    The deployment of visual surveillance and monitoring systems has reached massive proportions. Consequently, a need to automate the processes involved in retrieving useful information from surveillance videos, such as detecting and counting objects, and interpreting their individual and joint behavio

  4. Challenges of implementing an Integrated Disease Surveillance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of implementing an Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response strategy using the current Health Management Information System in Tanzania. ... During that time, the country had 5 separate surveillance systems to monitor ...

  5. Dominant object detection for autonomous vision-based surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, H.

    2010-01-01

    The deployment of visual surveillance and monitoring systems has reached massive proportions. Consequently, a need to automate the processes involved in retrieving useful information from surveillance videos, such as detecting and counting objects, and interpreting their individual and joint behavio

  6. Surveillance of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  7. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Bowen, B M; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Larson, J M; Laycak, D; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M J; Rueppel, D; Williams, R A; Wilson, K; Woods, N

    2005-11-23

    The purpose of the environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with DOE operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from DOE activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of the DOE activity. In addition, the EMP addresses the analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of radionuclide samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until recently, environmental monitoring at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was required by DOE Order 5400.1, which was canceled in January 2003. LLNL is in the process of adopting the ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, which contains requirements to perform and document environmental monitoring. The ISO 14001 standard is not as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, which expressly required an EMP. LLNL will continue to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that the work is conducted appropriately. The environmental monitoring addressed by the plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, and effluent and surveillance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of the compliance with the

  8. French experience in transient data collection and fatigue monitoring of PWR`s nuclear steam supply system; Experience francaise sur la comptabilisation des transitoires et la surveillance en fatigue des chaudieres REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaton, M.; Morilhat, P.; Savoldelli, D.; Genette, P.

    1995-10-01

    Electricite de France (EDF), the french national electricity company, is operating 54 standardized pressurizer water reactors. This about 500 reactor-years experience in nuclear stations operation and maintenance area has allowed EDF to develop its own strategy for monitoring of age-related degradations of NPP systems and components relevant for plant safety and reliability. After more than fifteen years of experience in regulatory transient data collection and seven years of successful fatigue monitoring prototypes experimentation, EDF decided to design a new system called SYSFAC (acronym for SYsteme de Surveillance en FAtigue de la Chaudiere) devoted to transient logging and thermal fatigue monitoring of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The system is fully automatic and directly connected to the on-site data acquisition network without any complementary instrumentation. A functional transient detection module and a mechanical transient detection module are in charge of the general transient data collection. A fatigue monitoring module is aimed towards a precise surveillance of five specific zones particularly sensible to thermal fatigue. After the first step of preliminary studies, the industrial phase of the SYSFAC project is currently going on, with hardware and software tests and implementation. The first SYSFAC system will be delivered to the pilot power plant by the beginning of 1996. The extension to all EDF`s nuclear 900 MW is planned after one more year of feedback experience. (authors). 12 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  10. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  11. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  12. Treatment of industrial effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahey, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    The textbook is designed for students of water resources technology and as a guide for water quality engineers and those concerned with industrial effluents. The authors come from water authorities, industry and the academic world. Among the subjects considered are microbes and effluent treatments; legal aspects of pollution; analytical techniques; bio-oxidation; physical treatment; biological and ecological aspects of waste treatment; biological treatment of coke-oven liquors; water tracing.

  13. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluit, A. C.; van der Bruggen, J. T.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies...... to the various reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as hospitalised patients, nursing homes, the community, animals and food. Two studies that could serve as examples of tailored programmes are the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), which collects resistance data during...... of antibiotic resistance....

  14. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  15. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  16. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Campbell, C G; Grayson, A R; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R; Jones, H E

    2012-03-02

    , which require the publication of an annual report that characterizes the site's environmental management performance. To summarize, the general regulatory drivers for this environmental monitoring plan are ISO 14001, DOE Order 458.1, and DOE Order 231.1. The environmental monitoring addressed by this plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, effluent and surveillance monitoring, and permit and regulatory compliance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). LLNL coordinates its ground water surveillance monitoring program with the CERCLA monitoring program to gain sampling efficiencies.

  17. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P E; Biermann, A; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Gouveia, F J; Grayson, A; Harrach, R J; Hoppes, W G; Jones, H; Mathews, S; Merrigan, J R; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M; Rueppel, D; Sanchez, L; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, B; Williams, R

    2006-01-10

    Environmental monitoring personnel from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) prepared this ''Environmental Monitoring Plan'' (EMP) to meet the requirements in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' (DOE 1991) and applicable portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 (see WSS B93 and B94 in Appendix B). ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' is followed as a best management practice; under Work Smart Standards, LLNL complies with portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 as shown in Appendix B. This document is a revision of the May 1999 EMP (Tate et al. 1999) and is current as of March 1, 2002. LLNL is one of the nation's premier applied-science national security laboratories. Its primary mission is to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable, and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. LLNL's programs in advanced technologies, energy, environment, biosciences, and basic science apply LLNL's unique capabilities and enhance the competencies needed for this national security mission. LLNL's mission also involves working with industrial and academic partners to increase national competitiveness and improve science education. LLNL's mission is dynamic and has changed over the years to meet new national needs. In keeping with the Laboratory's mission, the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) have top priority. LLNL's policy is to perform work in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees and the public, preserves the quality of the environment, and prevents property damage. The environment, safety, and health are to be priority considerations in the planning and execution of all work activities at the Laboratory (LLNL 2001

  18. The use of weather surveillance radar and high-resolution three dimensional weather data to monitor a spruce budworm mass exodus flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Boulanger; Frédéric Fabry; Alamelu Kilambi; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Brian R. Sturtevant; Rémi. Saint-Amant

    2017-01-01

    The likely spread of the current spruce budworm (SBW; Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem.]) outbreak fromhigh to low density areas brings to the forefront a pressing need to understand its dispersal dynamics and to document mass exodus flights in relation to weather patterns. In this study, we used the weather surveillance radar of Val d'Irène in...

  19. Altered Reproduction in Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Industrial Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeogun A. Olubukola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Reproductive success is a key factor in determining species survival and the unregulated discharge of industrial effluents into rivers and streams in a developing country like Nigeria, can impair reproductive ability in non-target organisms like fish. Fish, generally accumulate contaminants from their environment in their tissues and these can be transmitted through the yolk lipids to the eggs. Approach: Prespawning Clarias gariepinus female brooders were exposed to composite effluent mixtures from a food and beverage industry (discharged into Ona river for a period of thirty days to determine its effect on growth and fertility/reproductive success (viability of eggs and survival of the F1 generation fries. Physico-chemical parameters of effluent samples and exposure concentrations were analyzed and effluent sample was further analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn. Results: Exposure to the effluents caused decreased weight (-7.33% and egg production (198 eggs in the highest exposure concentration. Significant decreases (p1 generation fries (68.68, 46.42 and 22.33% with increasing effluent concentration was also observed in the order 0.00%> 4.40%> 6.60% and there were no viable eggs and fingerlings in the highest exposure concentration(13.20%. Effluent sample and exposure concentrations had acidic pH and low DO values while effluent sample contained Fe and Pb in concentrations above the specified standard by the National Environment Standards and Regulation Agency (NESREA for food and beverage industry effluent discharged into surface waters. Conclusion: The toxic nature of these effluents on the reproductive success of C. gariepinus (a commercially important freshwater fish in Nigeria is of great concern to sustainable fisheries if stringent measures to monitor effluent quality discharge into this river are not implemented.

  20. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  1. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  2. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  3. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  4. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  5. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...... pressure, fitness activities, sleep cycles, etc. can be broadcasted, e.g. as tweets on Twitter or status updates on Facebook. Such quantification practices with monitoring technologies become co-producing when individuals constitute themselves as subjects engaging in self-tracking, self-care, and self......, and gamification modulate the enactment of selfhood? How does self-surveillance contribute to corresponding notions of self-optimization and self-cultivation such as “the good life”, “sustainable lifestyle”, “healthy living”, “good learning” and “work productivity”?...

  6. Participatory Online Surveillance as a Supplementary Tool to Sentinel Doctors for Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Antonino; Rizzo, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of seasonal influenza yearly epidemics remains one of the main activity of national syndromic surveillance systems. The development of internet-based surveillance tools has brought an innovative approach to seasonal influenza surveillance by directly involving self-selected volunteers among the general population reporting their health status on a weekly basis throughout the flu season. In this paper, we explore how Influweb, an internet-based monitoring system for influenza surveillance, deployed in Italy since 2008 has performed during three years from 2012 to 2015 in comparison with data collected during the same period by the Italian sentinel doctors surveillance system. PMID:28076411

  7. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  8. HECO annually conducts and reports results of a biological monitoring program for waters receiving effluent from the Kahe Generating Station, O'ahu, Hawai'i from 1992 to 1997 (NODC Accession 9900021)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since January 1, 1986, HECO has used adjusted intake water temperatures as the reference against which temperature elevations of the thermal effluent are measured....

  9. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  10. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  11. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  12. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  13. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  14. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Verbruggen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings.

  15. Monitoramento do desempenho da gestão da vigilância em saúde: instrumento e estratégias de uso Monitoring of performance of health surveillance management: tools and strategies of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Ângela Pessoa Cesse

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se um instrumento para monitorar o desempenho da Vigilância em Saúde no âmbito estadual e estratégias para ampliar seu uso. Advoga-se o emprego de metodologias participativas em todas as etapas do monitoramento, desde a elaboração do instrumento até a análise e interpretação dos indicadores, como forma de envolver os interessados e (coresponsabilizá-los nas decisões tomadas, aumentando sua utilização. O instrumento de monitoramento foi construído após o delineamento do modelo lógico da gestão da vigilância em saúde e os indicadores representativos de cada componente da gestão passaram por processo de validação. Além de subsidiar a tomada de decisão, o monitoramento é entendido enquanto prática reflexiva capaz de promover o aprendizado pessoal e institucional, melhoria contínua dos processos de gestão, maior transparência e responsabilização.A tool is proposed to monitor the performance of Health Surveillance at state level and strategies for broadening its use. The use of participatory methodologies in all stages of monitoring is recommended, from designing the tool to the analysis and interpretation of indicators. This can be a way of involving stakeholders and improving their joint responsibilities in decision-making, thus increasing the use of the monitoring tool. The monitoring instrument was built after the design of the logical model of the management of health surveillance and indicators of each component of management were submitted to a validation process. Monitoring is understood as a reflexive practice that promotes personal and institutional learning, continuous enhancement of management processes, greater transparency and accountability, besides its operational use for decision making.

  16. Changes in drug use patterns reported on the web after the introduction of ADF OxyContin: findings from the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System Web Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K; Haynes, Colleen; Besharat, Andrea; Green, Jody L

    2017-09-01

    This qualitative study summarizes information that individuals shared online about use of OxyContin following the August 2010 introduction of the abuse deterrent formulation (ADF). The primary objective was to study online posts that endorsed continued use of OxyContin or a switch from OxyContin to another formulation of oxycodone or another substance altogether following the introduction of the ADF. A secondary objective was to determine whether posts revealed that the ADF led to cessation of OxyContin use. Data were collected with the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance System Web Monitoring Program, an online surveillance system that collects and organizes posts about prescription drugs from social media websites, blogs, and forums from 3Q2009 to 4Q2014 using a commercially available web platform. Posts were categorized by whether they conveyed a switch to drugs other than reformulated OxyContin or a continuation of reformulated OxyContin abuse. "Switch posts" primarily discussed switching to immediate-release opioids. "Continue abusing" posts identified tampering strategies for alternate routes of administration, oral use, and continued use although post authors were generally unhappy with the experience. No reference to OxyContin cessation as a function of the introduction of the ADF was found; however, discontinued use was discussed. Web Monitoring data are useful for capturing cross sections of Internet conversation reflecting reactions to new drug formulations. These data support the notion that users will gravitate to non-ADFs generally, and to immediate-release non-ADF opioid formulations, specifically, as long as these options remain on the market. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Monitoreo de emisiones de material particulado de chimeneas de generadores de vapor de la industria azucarera en Tucumán, R. Argentina Monitoring of effluent particulate matter emitted by sugarcane factory stacks in Tucumán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Golato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante las moliendas en los años 2008, 2009, 2010 y 2011, se realizaron mediciones de las concentraciones de material particulado total (MPT en las emisiones de chimeneas de calderas de la industria azucarera, en Tucumán, R. Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue monitorear la evolución de la concentración y emisión de MPT y observar la influencia de los sistemas de filtrado instalados en las chimeneas de las mencionadas unidades. Se ilustran los datos de las emisiones de MPT obtenidas en los años indicados, con valores promedio por caldera de 58,5 kg/h, 33,6 kg/h, 47,6 kg/h y 33,9 kg/h, respectivamente. Asimismo, este estudio muestra un seguimiento minucioso de un grupo de calderas bagaceras, para determinar la evolución de las emisiones en función de las variables de operación características de esas calderas. Los resultados demostraron la influencia del mantenimiento y de la correcta operación de los equipos de filtrado en la calidad de los gases que fluyen por las chimeneas. Se estudió la influencia de los índices característicos de diseño de los lavadores de gases en la concentración de partículas. Se observó que se ha logrado un menor impacto ambiental a lo largo del tiempo analizado.Total particulate matter (TPM concentrations were measured in stack fumes from sugar factory steam generating boilers in Tucumán in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The objective of this work was to monitor the evolution of TPM concentrations and emissions and observe the efficiency of filtration systems used in sugarcane factory stacks. Average values of 58.5 kg/h, 33.6 kg/h, 47.6 kg/h and 33.9 kg/h were obtained in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. Bagasse boilers were also meticulously surveyed to obtain data of the evolution of emissions in relation to specific operation variables of the boilers. Data concerning the quality of effluent gasses from the stacks demonstrated the influence of maintaining and correctly using filtration

  18. Gestión del riesgo de asma por haba de soja: monitorización y vigilancia Risk management of soybean-related asthma: monitoring and surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan R. Villalbí

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Las emisiones de alérgeno durante la descarga de haba de soja en el puerto de Barcelona han sido causa de asma epidémica. Este trabajo describe las acciones de vigilancia y control de los servicios de salud pública. Métodos: Los datos se extraen del dispositivo de control durante el periodo de 1999 a 2009, detallando el sistema de vigilancia de emisiones y concentraciones ambientales de alérgeno (para las que se han fijado empíricamente niveles guía, y de salud. Resultados: De los 95 estudios de emisión, cuatro superaron los valores de alarma, con probables causas en los filtros. Las concentraciones ambientales medias son bajas, pero superaron el nivel de alarma 13 días; se relacionan con meteorología adversa e incidencias en las instalaciones. No se detectaron efectos en los pacientes del panel de vigilancia, ni días de asma epidémica. Conclusiones: El sistema detecta incidencias y ha mostrado su utilidad para preservar la salud pública.Objectives: Allergen emissions during soybean unloading operations in the Barcelona harbor have caused asthma epidemics. The present article aimed to describe the surveillance and control measures carried out by the public health services. Methods: Data were extracted from control systems from 1999 to 2009, with description of the surveillance schemes for allergen emissions, environmental concentrations (with defined reference levels and for health. Results: Of 95 studies of plant emission, four were above the reference levels, and filters were found to be the most likely cause. Mean environmental concentrations were low but were above the reference levels on 13 days; these levels were related to adverse meteorological conditions and incidents in the plants. No health effects were detected in the panel of patients nor epidemic asthma days. Conclusions: The system detects incidents and has shown its usefulness in protecting public health.

  19. Water-Level Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Newcomer; J.P. McDonald; M.A. Chamness

    1999-09-30

    This document presents the water-level monitoring plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Water-level monitoring of the groundwater system beneath the Hanford Site is performed to fulfill the requirements of various state and federal regulations, orders, and agreements. The primary objective of this monitoring is to determine groundwater flow rates and directions. To meet this and other objectives, water-levels are measured annually in monitoring wells completed within the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and in the lower basalt-confined aquifers for surveillance monitoring. At regulated waste units, water levels are taken monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, depending on the hydrogeologic conditions and regulatory status of a given site. The techniques used to collect water-level data are described in this document along with the factors that affect the quality of the data and the strategies employed by the project to minimize error in the measurement and interpretation of water levels. Well networks are presented for monitoring the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and the lower basalt-confined aquifers, all at a regional scale (surveillance monitoring), as well as the local-scale well networks for each of the regulated waste units studied by this project (regulated-unit monitoring). The criteria used to select wells for water-table monitoring are discussed. It is observed that poor well coverage for surveillance water-table monitoring exists south and west of the 200-West Area, south of the 100-F Area, and east of B Pond and the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This poor coverage results from a lack of wells suitable for water-table monitoring, and causes uncertainty in representation of the regional water-table in these areas. These deficiencies are regional in scale and apply to regions outside

  20. Mobile means for the monitoring of atmospheric contamination in a reactor building; Moyens mobiles de surveillance de la contamination atmospherique en BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.; Lestang, M. [EDF/DPN/GPRE/IRP, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    2009-07-01

    After having evoked the context and challenges of contamination monitoring when exploiting nuclear reactors, the authors discuss the representativeness of the atmospheric contamination measurement as it depends on the different physicochemical forms of radionuclides present in the circuits. They indicate the different gaseous or aerosol radioactive elements which are monitored within EDF installations. They discuss the incorporation of monitoring means at the installation design level, briefly present the use of beacons inside and outside the reactor building. They describe how monitoring is organized on the basis of alert threshold adjustments: an investigation threshold and an evacuation threshold. They discuss the beacon (or sensor) selection and indicate recommendations for their implementation for optimization purposes. They indicate where these beacons are installed and evoke the experimentation of networked mobile beacons with data remote transmission

  1. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2002-01-16

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The document contains the CY 2002 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  2. Vitellogenin induction and reduced fecundity in zebrafish exposed to effluents from the City of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teta, Charles; Naik, Yogeshkumar S

    2017-01-01

    Industrial and municipal effluents regularly pollute water bodies and cause various toxic effects to aquatic life. Because of the diverse nature of industrial processes and domestic products, urban effluents are often tainted with various anthropogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals that may interfere with the reproductive physiology of aquatic fauna. In this study, we tested effluents from the City of Bulawayo for the presence of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effects on fish gonads and fecundity. Effluents were collected from two sewage treatment plants (STPs), which receive largest volume of industrial effluents from the City, and from a textile factory. Male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to effluents and analyzed for vitellogenin induction, gonad alterations, and fertility. Male zebrafish exposed to effluent from Thorngrove STP had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) vitellogenin compared to control. Textile effluent caused adverse gonad alterations such as oocyte atresia (females) and increased proportion of spermatogonia (males) which could lead to reduced fertility. Textile effluent (5% v/v) and Thorngrove effluent also caused a decline in fertilization success of breeding groups of zebrafish. The results of this study show the potential effects of effluent pollution and the occurrence of EDCs in developing countries. This underscores the need to effectively prevent pollution of environmental water bodies from industrial and municipal sewage treatment plant effluents. We recommend a follow-up study to monitor the effects of the effluents on feral fish in effluent polluted downstream dams of Bulawayo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-10

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan`s purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

  4. Evaluation of multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Frisén,Marianne; Andersson, Eva; Schiöler, Linus

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate surveillance is of interest in many areas such as industrial production, bioterrorism detection, spatial surveillance, and financial transaction strategies. Some of the suggested approaches to multivariate surveillance have been multivariate counterparts to the univariate Shewhart, EWMA, and CUSUM methods. Our emphasis is on the special challenges of evaluating multivariate surveillance methods. Some new measures are suggested and the properties of several measures are demonstrat...

  5. Total on-line monitoring system of Tokyo gas transmission pipelines; Systeme global de controle et de surveillance des canalisations de transport du gaz developpe par Tokyo gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    As Tokyo Gas transmission pipeline is located in residential areas of Metropolitan Tokyo, more precise and advanced maintenance and inspection methods become necessary. A more efficient maintenance and inspection management system is being sought in line with the extension of gas transmission pipelines. Research and development is underway for various types of maintenance /monitoring systems that predict or detect pipeline damage or failure. Some systems have already been put to practical use. Tokyo Gas has developed a total online monitoring system featuring upgraded performance and centralized data processing. This system carries out 24-hour monitoring for damage and failure, and sends warnings to operators at the Pipeline Regional Network Office. This paper introduces the functions of the system, as well as the functions which are currently in the R and D stage. (author)

  6. The FAO/NASA/NLR Artemis system - An integrated concept for environmental monitoring by satellite in support of food/feed security and desert locust surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielkema, J. U.; Howard, J. A.; Tucker, C. J.; Van Ingen Schenau, H. A.

    1987-01-01

    The African real time environmental monitoring using imaging satellites (Artemis) system, which should monitor precipitation and vegetation conditions on a continental scale, is presented. The hardware and software characteristics of the system are illustrated and the Artemis databases are outlined. Plans for the system include the use of hourly digital Meteosat data and daily NOAA/AVHRR data to study environmental conditions. Planned mapping activities include monthly rainfall anomaly maps, normalized difference vegetation index maps for ten day and monthly periods with a spatial resolution of 7.6 km, ten day crop/rangeland moisture availability maps, and desert locust potential breeding activity factor maps for a plague prevention program.

  7. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    resistance surveillance, diarrhea etiology and antimicrobial resistance surveillance, sexually transmitted illness surveillance, and capacity building...vomiting, diarrhea , joint pains, general malaise. Of the samples analyzed, only 53.7% had an associated etiology: Malaria (47.0%, EBV (39.7...immunity to the disease. Many adults in those situations are reservoirs, facilitating continuing disease transmission to those without immunity. In Kenya

  8. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  9. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  10. Antimicrobial resistance monitoring in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and strategic use of funds from the Global Fund to set up a systematic Moroccan gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hançali, Amina; Ndowa, Francis; Bellaji, Bahija; Bennani, Aziza; Kettani, Amina; Charof, Reda; El Aouad, Rajae

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections and update the treatment in the national guidelines for the syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections in Morocco. 171 men complaining of urethral discharge were recruited from basic health services during 2009. Urethral swab samples were collected and N gonorrhoeae identification was performed by culture. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Etest method and the antimicrobial agents tested were ciprofloxacin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, ceftriaxone and cefixime. A total of 72 isolates were examined. Significant resistance to tetracycline (92.8%) and ciprofloxacin (86.8%), which was used as first-line treatment in gonococcal infections, was noted. No resistance to spectinomycin, ceftriaxone or cefixime was detected in all the isolates. Following these results the Ministry of Health of Morocco replaced ciprofloxacin and introduced ceftriaxone 250 mg as a single dose in the treatment of gonococcal infections. Using funds from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund), a surveillance programme was set up for antimicrobial resistance testing in N gonorrhoeae.

  11. δ18O and δD variations in some volcanic lakes on the Cameroon Volcanic Line (West-Africa: generating isotopic baseline data for volcano monitoring and surveillance in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Issa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on geo-anthropological and geochemical studies, catastrophes similar to the unprecedented gas explosions in the mid-1980s from the Cameroonian killer lakes Nyos and Monoun, might occur in any of the 37 other lakes located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL. Because people could suffer loss and desolation from predictable catastrophes in the future, monitoring/surveillance policies must be established. Due to their location, crater lakes integrate the geochemical processes that develop in the Earth’s crust due to magmatic activities. Therefore, monitoring the surface manifestations of those deep seated and/or hydrothermal processes might reveal increases/decreases in magmatic activities. The anomalous changes in a volcanic lake induced by mixing with exogenous fluids that have a specific δ18O and δD compositional fingerprint (magmatic, metamorphic, etc. could be utilized to predict volcanic hazards. If the steady state of a lake environment and the external and intrinsic parameters that control its hydrodynamics are clearly identified and reasonably understood, the anomalous evolutionary processes that compromise its stability can be identified. This study attempts to collect the δ18O and δD data from 17 Cameroonian lakes to help establish a volcano-related monitoring/surveillance network. This work identifies the processes that control the isotopic composition of the lakes and assesses the intra-/inter- and spatial δ18O/δD variations. Almost all of the lakes contain meteoric water. These lakes are mostly isotopically stratified; epilimnia is generally more positive than the hypolimnia. However, although the rainfall is gradually depleted in heavy isotopes when moving from the South to the North due to the latitude effect, the lakes become more enriched (0.6‰/100 km due to evaporation. The evaluated impact of several parameters on the isotopic variation suggests that the hydrological setting may play an important, albeit not

  12. Monitoring radioactivity in the environment: context, objectives, challenges and prospects; La surveillance de la radioactivite de l'environnement: cadre, objectifs, enjeux et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, J.; Jaunet, P. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, Dir. de l' Environnement et des Situations d' Urgence 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    The aims of environmental radioactivity monitoring are multiples: protection of human health and environment, knowledge of the radiological status of the environment, early detection of radiological events, public information. This monitoring is ensured by several stakeholders (licensees, IRSN, ASN, state and local authorities, associations...) and in all environment compartments (air, water, soil, fauna and flora...). Within a European regulatory context, the Nuclear Transparency and Security Act 2006-686 of 13 June 2006 (TSN Act) reinforces the importance attached to consideration of safety, radiation protection and the environment. Other developments in the scope of environmental radioactivity must be noted: new stakeholders, lower background radiation, deployment of the French National Network of Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring (RNM), evolution of the ICPR thoughts to take better account of environmental protection, post-accident management doctrine, new concerns about environmental behaviour of some radionuclides. In order to maintain a quality policy in the field of environmental radioactivity measurements and to ensure the transparency of information, ASN will make sure that the strategy of environmental radioactivity monitoring will take into account these concerns. (author)

  13. Surveillance of the chikungunya vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy): organizational and technical aspects of a large scale monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Marco; Albieri, Alessandro; Angelini, Paola; Baldacchini, Flavia; Venturelli, Claudio; Zeo, Silvia Mascali; Bellini, Romeo

    2011-06-01

    The chikungunya virus outbreak that occurred in 2007 in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) prompted the development of a large scale monitoring system of the population density of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894), comparable at the provincial and municipal levels. In 2007, egg density data presented an aggregated distribution (VMR >1) and Taylor's power law was applied to calculate the minimum number of ovitraps needed to obtain the prefixed precision levels: D=0.2 in the areas where the chikungunya epidemic occurred and D=0.3 in all the other urban areas >600 ha. The estimated minimum ovitrap number was then used to set up a monitoring network at the regional scale in season 2008 (May-October). In 242 municipalities 2,741 ovitraps were activated and the 2008 sampled data showed a similar aggregated distribution as in 2007. The adequacy of the monitoring design was evaluated by recalculating the Taylor's coefficients and the minimum ovitrap number for each urban area >600 ha using the 2008 egg density data. The comparison between the two estimates showed that the minimum ovitrap number calculated in 2007 was underestimated by 2.7% in weeks 22-41 but was overestimated by 29.4% if referring to the period of highest population density (weeks 27-37). The low cost of the proposed monitoring system, based on the use of fortnightly checked ovitraps, could make it economically sustainable even in a non-epidemic season. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  14. The Use of Kitchen Effluent as Alternative Nutrient Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The recovery of oil based drilling muds was monitored for a period of 12 weeks upon inoculation ... set-ups which received additional hydrocarbon utilizers (4.15 X 104 + 0.12 cfu/ml) as ... of addition of kitchen effluent to enhance.

  15. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  16. Using Search Query Surveillance to Monitor Tax Avoidance and Smoking Cessation following the United States' 2009 “SCHIP” Cigarette Tax Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W.; Ribisl, Kurt; Brownstein, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Smokers can use the web to continue or quit their habit. Online vendors sell reduced or tax-free cigarettes lowering smoking costs, while health advocates use the web to promote cessation. We examined how smokers' tax avoidance and smoking cessation Internet search queries were motivated by the United States' (US) 2009 State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) federal cigarette excise tax increase and two other state specific tax increases. Google keyword searches among residents in a taxed geography (US or US state) were compared to an untaxed geography (Canada) for two years around each tax increase. Search data were normalized to a relative search volume (RSV) scale, where the highest search proportion was labeled 100 with lesser proportions scaled by how they relatively compared to the highest proportion. Changes in RSV were estimated by comparing means during and after the tax increase to means before the tax increase, across taxed and untaxed geographies. The SCHIP tax was associated with an 11.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 5.7 to 17.9; ptax levels in Canada during the months after the tax. Tax avoidance searches increased 27.9% (95%CI, 15.9 to 39.9; ptax compared to Canada, respectively, suggesting avoidance is the more pronounced and durable response. Trends were similar for state-specific tax increases but suggest strong interactive processes across taxes. When the SCHIP tax followed Florida's tax, versus not, it promoted more cessation and avoidance searches. Efforts to combat tax avoidance and increase cessation may be enhanced by using interventions targeted and tailored to smokers' searches. Search query surveillance is a valuable real-time, free and public method, that may be generalized to other behavioral, biological, informational or psychological outcomes manifested online. PMID:21436883

  17. Health information system model for monitoring treatment and surveillance for leprosy patients in indonesia (case study in Pekalongan District, Central Java, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmani, Enny; Kurniadi, Arif; Hsu, Chien Yeh

    2013-01-01

    After India and Brazil, Indonesia has the third highest incidence/prevalence of leprosy in the world. Every year thousands of new cases and case with grade-2 disability are reported and, while the recovery rate lingers only 80-90 %. Therefore, more than 10 % of leprosy patients drop out of treatment and can be a source of new infections in the community. Our research was aimed at determining apparent difficulties in the leprosy control program as well as how a health information system (HIS) could assist the Indonesian leprosy control program. We used qualitative method with deep interview and observation of document. One of the difficulties which the Indonesian leprosy control program faces is discontinuity of patient's data due to rotating staff as well as the treatment monitoring and queries patients which should be monitored after treatment has ceased. Technology implementation is feasible through short message service (sms) reminders and web base applications. The leprosy control program urgently needs to implement continuous monitoring and recording of patients because of the particular characteristics of this contagious disease.

  18. Monitoring of fumarole discharge and CO2 soil degassing in the Azores: contribution to volcanic surveillance and public health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Faria

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid geochemistry monitoring in the Azores involves the regular sampling and analysis of gas discharges from fumaroles and measurements of CO2 diffuse soil gas emissions. Main degassing areas under monitoring are associated with hydrothermal systems of active central volcanoes in S. Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa islands. Fumarole discharge analysis since 1991 show that apart from steam these gas emissions are CO2 dominated with H2S, H2, CH4 and N2 in minor amounts. Mapping of CO2 diffuse soil emissions in S. Miguel Island lead to the conclusion that some inhabited areas are located within hazard-zones. At Furnas village, inside Furnas volcano caldera, about 62% of the 896 houses are within the CO2 anomaly, 5% being in areas of moderate to high risk. At Ribeira Seca, on the north flank of Fogo volcano, few family houses were evacuated when CO2 concentrations in the air reached 8 mol%. To assess and analyse the CO2 soil flux emissions, continuous monitoring stations were installed in S. Miguel (2, Terceira and Graciosa islands. The statistical analysis of the data showed that some meteorological parameters influence the CO2 flux. The average of CO2 flux in S. Miguel stations ranges from 250 g/m2/d at Furnas volcano to 530 g/m2/d at Fogo volcano. At Terceira Island it is about 330 g/m2/d and at Graciosa 4400 g/m2/d.

  19. Surveillance system for DUPIC fuel development facility (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. D.; Park, C. S.; Cha, H. R.; Hong, J. S.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    DUPIC Surveillance System is developed to process image data and radiation data together to diagnose intelligently the transportation status of the nuclear material, which makes it possible that usual DUPIC process be carried out without interruption under the surveillance. We developed the neutron monitor for surveillance and the system which takes and processes radiation data and image data, where the system is under the test operation after installed at DFDF (Dupic Fuel Development Facility)

  20. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. Modernization of existing VVER-1000 surveillance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V.; Erak, D.; Makhotin, D. [NRC ' Kurchatov Inst.' , 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    According to generally accepted world practice, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material behavior during operation is carried out using tests of surveillance specimens. The main objective of the surveillance program consists in insurance of safe RPV operation during the design lifetime and lifetime-extension period. At present, the approaches of pressure vessels residual life validation based on the test results of their surveillance specimens have been developed and introduced in Russia and are under consideration in other countries where vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactors- (VVER-) 1000 are in operation. In this case, it is necessary to ensure leading irradiation of surveillance specimens (as compared to the pressure vessel wall) and to provide uniformly irradiated specimen groups for mechanical testing. Standard surveillance program of VVER-1000 has several significant shortcomings and does not meet these requirements. Taking into account program of lifetime extension of VVER-1000 operating in Russia, it is necessary to carry out upgrading of the VVER-1000 surveillance program. This paper studies the conditions of a surveillance specimen's irradiation and upgrading of existing sets to provide monitoring and prognosis of RPV material properties for extension of the reactor's lifetime up to 60 years or more. (authors)

  2. Textile effluent biodegradation potentials of textile effluent-adapted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... for water and the dwindling supply has made the treatment and reuse of industrial ... They also diminish the water quality. ... wastewater and drains (textile effluent adapted bacteria) and isolates from a ...

  3. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  4. Hygrometric measurement for on-line monitoring of PWR vessel head penetrations; Detection de fuites de traversees de couvercles de cuve par surveillance hygrometrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain, J.L.; Loisy, F.; Apolzan, S.

    1994-06-01

    In September 1991, a small leak was found on one of the reactor`s upper vessel head penetrations. After inspection, other non-throughwall cracks were localized in the lower part of the vessel head adapter in questions. The same type of crack was later found inside some adapters on other French PWR units. After repairs, the safety authorities granted approval to continue unit operation, with the specific provision that a system for ongoing monitoring of the penetrations be set up. Two types of system were selected to detect leaks through any potential cracks: the first is based on nitrogen-13 detection and the second on steam detection. Both systems call for sampling the air in a confined space above the vessel head. The number and distribution of sampling taps in the circuit, and the balancing of their respective flow rates, are factors in proper monitoring of all vessel head penetrations. Gas-injection holes are also installed in the confined space. These holes are used during the sampling system qualification tests to simulate leaks in various positions and calculate the effective performance of the sampling system. Leaks are simulated using a helium-base gas tracer and measuring tracer concentrations in the sampling system. The system for measuring steam levels in air samples uses chilled-mirror hygrometers. A microcomputer takes regular readings, drives the various automatic functions of the measurement system and automatically analyses the readings so as to monitor operations and trigger an alarm at the first sign of a leak. This system has now been installed for a year and a half on three French PWR units and is functioning satisfactorily. (authors). 5 figs.

  5. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  6. The Integrated System for Public Health Monitoring of West Nile Virus (ISPHM-WNV): a real-time GIS for surveillance and decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Lebel Germain; Gosselin Pierre; Rivest Sonia; Douville-Fradet Monique

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background After its first detection in North America in New York in 1999, West Nile virus was detected for the first time in 2002 in the province of Quebec, Canada. This situation forced the Government of Quebec to adopt a public health protection plan against the virus. The plan comprises several fields of intervention including the monitoring of human cases, Corvidae and mosquitoes in order to ensure the early detection of the presence of the virus in a particular area. To help su...

  7. International Society for Disease Surveillance Conference 2011: Building the Future of Public Health Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    supplement, Complete

    2011-01-01

    The International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) celebrates its 10th annual meeting with the arrival of the 2011 ISDS Annual Conference, ‘Building the Future of Public Health Surveillance’. This milestone in the Society’s history is punctuated not only by the achievements of the disease surveillance community but also by the promise of what lies ahead. The Annual Conference brings together a community of researchers and practitioners focused on monitoring, understanding and improving...

  8. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, P.A.; Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.

    1983-06-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site since 1944 have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents, which have reached the unconfined ground water, contain low levels of radioactive and chemical substances. The movement of these constituents in the unconfined ground water is monitored as part of the Ground-Water Surveillance Program. During 1982, 324 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Tritium are the primary ones used to monitor the movement of the ground water. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium and nitrate plumes. The tritium plume continues to show increasing concentrations near the Columbia River. While it is mapped as having reached the Columbia River, its contribution to the river has not been distinguished from other sources at this time. The general plume configuration is much the same as in 1978, 1979, 1980, and 1981. The size of the nitrate plume appears stable. Concentrations of nitrate in the vicinity of the 100-H Area continue to be high as a result of past leaks from an evaporation facility.

  9. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  10. Surveillance of Hemodialysis Vascular Access with Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    -functioning vascular access with as few complications as possible and preferred vascular access is an AVF. Dysfunction due to stenosis is a common complication, and regular monitoring of volume flow is recommended to preserve AVF patency. UDT is considered the gold standard for volume flow surveillance, but VFI has...... be used for surveillance of volume flow....

  11. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  12. Permanent monitoring of containment integrity: the sexten system; La surveillance continue de l`etancheite des enceintes de confinement: le systeme sexten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain, J.L.; Janneteau, E.

    1993-12-31

    Reactor containment integrity is of prime importance to the safety of PWR units. It is checked by means of tests performed at high pressure during the containment building pressure tests. These periodical tests are supplemented in France by permanent monitoring using the SEXTEN system. First feasibility tests for this system were carried out in 1980. The encouraging results obtained led to the development of a prototype, followed by an industrial system which has since been installed in all French PWR units. This system measures the containment leak rate, with corrections for the compressed air intakes used by the air-operated valves. Leaktightness is expressed in terms of the leak rate for a 60 mbar overpressure. If the leak rate exceeds a fixed limit value, leak detection operations are initiated, using SEXTEN. A new version of the system, known as SEXTEN 2 is being developed. (authors). 2 figs.

  13. Radioactivity monitoring in French Polynesia and others countries and territories year 1999; Surveillance de la radioactivite en Polynesie francaise et autres pays et territoires annee 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    This report presents the results of measures made in 1999 to provide the radioactivity monitoring in environment and food chains in french Polynesia. It does not concern the Fangataufa and Mururoa sites. The only radionuclides detected in the air, land and sea sampling of the French Polynesia are long life elements (Sr 90 included). The results of measurements are often under the detection limit, and when they are significant they stay very low. The efficient year dose coming from radioactivity for the Tahiti island is inferior or equal to 4 micro sievert for 1999. The annual radiation doses estimated in relation with exposure to artificial radionuclides are for the adults between 2 and 6 micro sievert and for children between 2 and five micro sievert. (N.C.)

  14. Radioactivity monitoring in French Polynesia and other countries and territories year 1998; Surveillance de la radioactivite en Polynesie francaise et autres pays et territoires annee 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of measures made in 1998 to provide the radioactivity monitoring in environment and food chains in french Polynesia. It does not concern the Fangataufa and Mururoa sites. The only radionuclides detected in the air, land and sea sampling of the French Polynesia are long life elements (Sr 90 included). The results of measurements are often under the detection limit, and when they are significant they stay very low. The efficient year dose coming from radioactivity for the Tahiti island is inferior or equal to 4 micro sievert for 1998. The annual radiation doses estimated in relation with exposure to artificial radionuclides are for the adults between 2 and 6 micro sievert and for children between 2 and five micro sievert. (N.C.)

  15. Surveillance-based Mechanisms in MUVEs (MultiUser Virtual Environments used for Monitoring, Data Gathering and Evaluation of Knowledge Transfer in VirtuReality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Štogr

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiuser virtual environments (MUVEs generate a large amount of data but most of them are not accessible even to users who triggered them. What’s more, most datasets are not even stored for further use; they have only temporary character and very short "halftime of decay" limited f.e. to onesecondlong screen display. Such a huge loss of data makes evaluation of knowledge transfer in MUVEs almost impossible. There is a need to both improve monitoring capabilities of MUVEs to be able to make completion assessment and use MUVEs that enable simulation (reexperience using complete datasets gathered from environment itself. Future research in the field of simulation methodology is suggested.

  16. [Recommendations for the surveillance of Aedes aegypti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika, continue to rise in annual incidence and geographic expansion. A key limitation for achieving control of A. aegypti has been the lack of effective tools for monitoring its population, and thus determine what control measures actually work. Surveillance of A. aegypti has been based mainly on immature indexes, but they bear little relation to the number of mosquito females, which are the ones capable of transmitting the viruses. The recent development of sampling techniques for adults of this vector species promises to facilitate surveillance and control activities. In this review, we present the various monitoring techniques for this mosquito, along with a discussion of their usefulness, and recommendations for improved entomological surveillance.

  17. Early diagnosis and monitoring of mucormycosis by detection of circulating DNA in serum: retrospective analysis of 44 cases collected through the French Surveillance Network of Invasive Fungal Infections (RESSIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, L; Herbrecht, R; Grenouillet, F; Morio, F; Alanio, A; Letscher-Bru, V; Cassaing, S; Chouaki, T; Kauffmann-Lacroix, C; Poirier, P; Toubas, D; Augereau, O; Rocchi, S; Garcia-Hermoso, D; Bretagne, S

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of a set of three Mucorales quantitative PCR assays in a retrospective multicentre study. Mucormycosis cases were recorded thanks to the French prospective surveillance programme (RESSIF network). The day of sampling of the first histological or mycological positive specimen was defined as day 0 (D0). Detection of circulating DNA was performed on frozen serum samples collected from D-30 to D30, using quantitative PCR assays targeting Rhizomucor, Lichtheimia, Mucor/Rhizopus. Forty-four patients diagnosed with probable (n = 19) or proven (n = 25) mucormycosis were included. Thirty-six of the 44 patients (81%) had at least one PCR-positive serum. The first PCR-positive sample was observed 9 days (range 0-28 days) before diagnosis was made using mycological criteria and at least 2 days (range 0-24 days) before imaging. The identifications provided with the quantitative PCR assays were all concordant with culture and/or PCR-based identification of the causal species. Survival rate at D84 was significantly higher for patients with an initially positive PCR that became negative after treatment initiation than for patients whose PCR remained positive (48% and 4%, respectively; p mucormycosis diagnosis when other mycological arguments were present but could also anticipate this diagnosis. Quantification of DNA loads may also be a useful adjunct to treatment monitoring.

  18. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  19. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  20. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Alan P

    2015-01-01

    .... Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation...

  2. Microbial community structure of a freshwater system receiving wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladilek, Matthew D; Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M; Collard, David A; Johnson, Daniel B; Canam, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Despite our dependency on treatment facilities to condition wastewater for eventual release to the environment, our knowledge regarding the effects of treated water on the local watershed is extremely limited. Responses of lotic systems to the treated wastewater effluent have been traditionally investigated by examining the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and community structure; however, these studies do not address the microbial diversity of the water systems. In the present study, planktonic and benthic bacterial community structure were examined at 14 sites (from 60 m upstream to 12,100 m downstream) and at two time points along an aquatic system receiving treated effluent from the Charleston Wastewater Treatment Plant (Charleston, IL). Total bacterial DNA was isolated and 16S rRNA sequences were analyzed using a metagenomics platform. The community structure in planktonic bacterial communities was significantly correlated with dissolved oxygen concentration. Benthic bacterial communities were not correlated with water quality but did have a significant geographic structuring. A local restructuring effect was observed in both planktonic and benthic communities near the treated wastewater effluent, which was characterized by an increase in abundance of sphingobacteria. Sites further downstream from the wastewater facility appeared to be less influenced by the effluent. Overall, the present study demonstrated the utility of targeted high-throughput sequencing as a tool to assess the effects of treated wastewater effluent on a receiving water system, and highlighted the potential for this technology to be used for routine monitoring by wastewater facilities.

  3. Tannery Effluent Treatment by Yeast Species Isolates from Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The quest for an effective alternative means for effluent treatment is a major concern of the modern-day scientist. Fungi have been attracting a growing interest for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii were isolated from spoiled watermelon and inoculated into different concentrations of effluent. The inoculants were incubated for 21-days to monitor the performance of the isolates by measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrates, conductivity, phosphates, sulphates and turbidity. The results showed that Saccharomycescerevisiae had the highest percentage decrease of 98.1%, 83.0%, 60.7%, 60.5%, and 54.2% for turbidity, sulphates, BOD, phosphates and COD, respectively, of the tannery effluent. Torulasporadelbrueckii showed the highest percentage decrease of 92.9%, 90.6%, and 61.9% for sulphates, COD, and phosphates, respectively, while the syndicate showed the highest percentage reduction of 87.4% and 70.2% for nitrate and total dissolve solid (TDS, respectively. The least percentage decrease was displayed by syndicate organisms at 51.2%, 48.1% and 40.3% for BOD, COD and conductivity, respectively. The study revealed that Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii could be used in the biological treatment of tannery-effluent. Hence, it was concluded that the use of these organisms could contribute to minimizing the adverse environmental risks and health-hazards associated with the disposal of untreated tannery-effluents.

  4. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): Middle School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  5. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  6. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): Middle School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  7. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule, January 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2001-01-08

    This document contains the CY 2001 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  8. MO-F-16A-06: Implementation of a Radiation Exposure Monitoring System for Surveillance of Multi-Modality Radiation Dose Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, B; Kanal, K; Dickinson, R; Zamora, D [University Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We have implemented a commercially available Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) to enhance the processes of radiation dose data collection, analysis and alerting developed over the past decade at our sites of practice. REMS allows for consolidation of multiple radiation dose information sources and quicker alerting than previously developed processes. Methods: Thirty-nine x-ray producing imaging modalities were interfaced with the REMS: thirteen computed tomography scanners, sixteen angiography/interventional systems, nine digital radiography systems and one mammography system. A number of methodologies were used to provide dose data to the REMS: Modality Performed Procedure Step (MPPS) messages, DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports (RDSR), and DICOM header information. Once interfaced, the dosimetry information from each device underwent validation (first 15–20 exams) before release for viewing by end-users: physicians, medical physicists, technologists and administrators. Results: Before REMS, our diagnostic physics group pulled dosimetry data from seven disparate databases throughout the radiology, radiation oncology, cardiology, electrophysiology, anesthesiology/pain management and vascular surgery departments at two major medical centers and four associated outpatient clinics. With the REMS implementation, we now have one authoritative source of dose information for alerting, longitudinal analysis, dashboard/graphics generation and benchmarking. REMS provides immediate automatic dose alerts utilizing thresholds calculated through daily statistical analysis. This has streamlined our Closing the Loop process for estimated skin exposures in excess of our institutional specific substantial radiation dose level which relied on technologist notification of the diagnostic physics group and daily report from the radiology information system (RIS). REMS also automatically calculates the CT size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) as well as provides

  9. Kalman Filter Based Tracking in an Video Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    SULIMAN, C.; CRUCERU, C.; Moldoveanu, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have developed a Matlab/Simulink based model for monitoring a contact in a video surveillance sequence. For the segmentation process and corect identification of a contact in a surveillance video, we have used the Horn-Schunk optical flow algorithm. The position and the behavior of the correctly detected contact were monitored with the help of the traditional Kalman filter. After that we have compared the results obtained from the optical flow method with the ones obtaine...

  10. Surveillance for occupational respiratory diseases in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Vinicius C; Pinheiro, Germania A

    2015-06-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa.

  11. Market-Based Approach to Mobile Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elmogy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The active surveillance of public and private sites is increasingly becoming a very important and critical issue. It is, therefore, imperative to develop mobile surveillance systems to protect these sites. Modern surveillance systems encompass spatially distributed mobile and static sensors in order to provide effective monitoring of persistent and transient objects and events in a given area of interest (AOI. The realization of the potential of mobile surveillance requires the solution of different challenging problems such as task allocation, mobile sensor deployment, multisensor management, cooperative object detection and tracking, decentralized data fusion, and interoperability and accessibility of system nodes. This paper proposes a market-based approach that can be used to handle different problems of mobile surveillance systems. Task allocation and cooperative target tracking are studied using the proposed approach as two challenging problems of mobile surveillance systems. These challenges are addressed individually and collectively.

  12. Surveillance and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is as much about surveillance as about persuasive technologies (PTs). With regard to PTs it raises the question about the ethical limits of persuasion. It will be argued that even some forms of self-imposed persuasive soft surveillance technologies may be considered unethical. Therefore,

  13. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K

    2010-01-27

    ensuring that this work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, and DOE Order 231.1 Change 2, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, which require the publication of an annual report that characterizes the site's environmental management performance. To summarize, the general regulatory drivers for this environmental monitoring plan are ISO 14001, DOE Order 450.1A, DOE Order 5400.5, and DOE Order 231.1. The environmental monitoring addressed by this plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, effluent and surveillance monitoring, and permit and regulatory compliance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). LLNL coordinates its ground water surveillance monitoring program with the CERCLA monitoring program to gain sampling efficiencies. (See LLNL [1992] and LLNL [2008] for information about LLNL's CERCLA activities).

  14. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 430.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink Subcategory § 430.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  16. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents; Methanisation des effluents industriels liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A. [Societe Naskeo Environnement, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France)

    2007-09-15

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  17. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Summary Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Chancroid Selected STDs Appendix Appendix Interpreting STD Surveillance Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors ...

  18. Ovulation but not milt production is inhibited in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to a reproductively inhibitory pulp mill effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Waye, Andrew; Lado, Wudu E; Martel, Pierre H; Arnason, John T.; Vance L Trudeau

    2014-01-01

    Background A 5-day fathead minnow (FHM) spawning assay is used by industry to monitor pulp mill effluent quality, with some mill effluents capable of completely inhibiting spawning. The purpose of this report is to characterize the effect of an inhibitory effluent on egg and milt production in FHM. Methods Eight tanks were treated with an inhibitory effluent while eight were kept with clean water. Each tank contained two males and four females as per the 5-day FHM spawning assay used by indus...

  19. European recommendations for antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, G; Hryniewicz, W; Jarlier, V; Kahlmeter, G; Mittermayer, H; Stratchounski, L; Baquero, F

    2004-04-01

    The problem of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe has been debated extensively in many excellent documents issued by national committees that often assume the value of national guidelines. However, a comprehensive document addressing the whole matter from a European perspective, as well as reviewing its present status and drafting future perspectives, has been lacking. The present recommendations have been produced by the ESCMID Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ESGARS) through a consensus process involving all members of the Study Group. The recommendations focus on the detection of bacterial resistance and its reporting to clinicians, public health officers and a wider-and ever-increasing-audience. The leading concept is that the basis for resistance monitoring is microbiological diagnostics. The prerequisites for resistance monitoring are findings of adequate quality and quantity, which have been recorded properly and evaluated correctly. Different types of surveillance studies should fulfil different requirements with regard to data collection and reporting, the expected use of data, and the prerequisites for networking such activities. To generate relevant indicators, bacterial resistance data should be reported using adequate denominators and stratification. Reporting of antimicrobial resistance data is necessary for selection of empirical therapy at the local level, for assessing the scale of the resistance problem at the local, national or international levels, for monitoring changes in resistance rates, and for detecting the emergence and spread of new resistances types. Any type of surveillance study should conclude, where appropriate, with a proposal for intervention based on the data obtained.

  20. Ground-water surveillance at the Hanford Site for CY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, L.S.; Rieger, J.T.; Cline, C.S.; Jensen, E.J.; Liikala, T.L.; Oster, K.R.

    1984-07-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site have resulted in the discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and other waste waters to the ground. These effluents contain low level of radioactive and chemical substances. During 1983, 328 monitoring wells were sampled at various times for radioactive and chemical constituents. Three of these constituents, specifically tritium, nitrate, and gross beta activity, were selected for detailed discussion in this report because they are more readily transported in the ground water than some of the other constituents. Transport of these constituents in the ground water has resulted in the formation of plumes that can be mapped by contouring the analytical data obtained from the monitoring wells. This report describes recent changes in the configuration of the tritium, nitrate and gross beta plumes. Changes or trends in contaminant levels in wells located within both the main plumes (originating from the 200 Areas) and the smaller plumes are discussed in this report. Two potential pathways for radionuclide transport from the ground water to the environmental are discussed in this report, and the radiological impacts are examined. In addition to describing the present status of the ground water beneath the Hanford Site, this report contains the results of studies conducted in support of the ground-water surveillance effort during CY 1983. 21 references, 26 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsam, G.

    operating in stations at Yarragadee, Western Australia and Mt Stromlo, Australian Capital Territory. Recently, however, Australia has also agreed to host a node of AFRL's Extended HANDS telescope network in Learmonth, Western Australia, and discussions are underway with researchers in Australian academia about also participating in this research program. In the RF regime, however, DSTO has substantial HF and microwave radar programs, elements of which could be readily adapted to surveillance of space. Proposals have already been developed internally within both programs for various forms of space surveillance systems including both broad area surveillance and imaging along with some very initial technology concept demonstrator systems. Recently proposals have also been floated to substantially increase Australia's civilian space surveillance programs including the Ionospheric Prediction Service's longstanding program to monitor the ionosphere and space weather, meteor radars and other systems. Finally Australia's bid to host the international Square Kilometre Array radio telescope has already generated concrete commitments to establish several very substantial RF arrays in Western Australia that may also provide instruments of unprecedented sensitivity and resolution for surveillance of space. The paper will survey these technology development programs and associated progress on integrating them into some sort of national program for space situational awareness.

  2. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  3. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  4. Special filter samples of Hanford process effluent gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.

    1957-01-22

    This document contains information on special filter samples of Hanford Process Effluent Gases. The filters are identified by code numbers only. Included in this paper are tables explaining the sample code numbers, sampling locations, and process conditions during sampling. Also included, is a copy of the monthly and quarterly average results for Regional Monitoring's routine stack program for the fourth quarter of 1956.

  5. Impact of system management on vegetative treatment system effluent concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Daniel S; Burns, Robert T; Moody, Lara B; Helmers, Matthew J; Bond, Brad; Khanijo, Ishadeep; Pederson, Carl

    2013-08-15

    Beef feedlots of all sizes are looking for more cost-effective solutions for managing feedlot runoff. Vegetative treatment systems are one potential option, but require performance evaluation for use on concentrated animal feeding operations. The performance of six vegetative treatment systems on open beef feedlots throughout Iowa was monitored from 2006 through 2009. These feedlots had interim, National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permits that allowed the use of vegetative treatment systems to control and treat runoff from the open feedlots. This manuscript focuses on making within site comparisons, i.e., from year-to-year and component-to-component within a site, to evaluate how management changes and system modifications altered performance. The effectiveness, in terms of effluent concentration reductions, of each system was evaluated; nutrient concentration reductions typically ranged from 60 to 99% during treatment in the vegetative components of the vegetative treatment systems. Monitoring results showed a consistent improvement in system performance during the four years of study. Much of this improvement can be attributed to improved management techniques and system modifications that addressed key performance issues. Specifically, active control of the solid settling basin outlet improved solids retention and allowed the producers to match effluent application rates to the infiltration rate of the vegetative treatment area, reducing the occurrence of effluent release. Additional improvements resulted from system maturation, increased operator experience, and the addition of earthen flow spreaders within the vegetative treatment area to slow flow and provide increased effluent storage within the treatment area, and switching to active management of settling basin effluent release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 海南省2006~2010年国家疟疾监测点监测结果分析%Analysis of malaria surveillance in monitoring sites of Hainan Province from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡锡敏; 曾文; 王善青; 王光泽; 蒙锋; 李雨春

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence of malaria and assess effect of malaria control and prevention in Hainan province. Methods Based on geographic distribution and the condition of malaria infections, Nanning Farm of Wanning City, Heping Town of Qiongzhong County,Qingsong Township of Baisha County, Lezhong Farm of Ledong County, Ji-angbian Township of Dongfang city were selected as malaria monitoring sites. Blood examination of feverish cases was conducted and IFA test of primary school pupils was carried out. In addition, individual malaria cases and the transmission vectors were also surveyed. Results From 2006 to 2010,there were 362,310,211,95 and 19 malaria cases were reported, respectively in five malaria monitoring sites. Blood examination rates of febrile patients were 18.24%,19.72%,12.83%,11.80% and 15.32%, respectively . Parasite positive rates of feverish cases in five malaria monitoring sites from 2006 to 2010.were 3.07%, 2.31%,1.43% , 0.41% and 0.01%,respectively, There were 1745 malaria cases investigated in five malaria monitoring sites. There were 1137 malaria cases were diagnosed by township hospital, accounting for 65.16% of the total cases and 581 cases were diagnosed by village doctors accounting for 33.30% of the total cases. Conclusion It was necessary to intensify the surveillance of malaria and enhance the capability of township doctors in diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases.%目的 了解海南省疟疾的流行现状及其影响因素,掌握疟疾流行规律和趋势;为评价防治效果和制订疟疾防治对策提供科学依据.方法 根据地理分布和疟疾发病情况,选择万宁市南宁农场、琼中县和平镇、白沙县青松乡、乐东县乐中农场、东方市江边乡作为监测点,开展发热病人血检、小学生间接荧光抗体(IFA)检测、疟疾病例流行病学调查、媒介按蚊密度调查、媒介按蚊抗性监测等相关影响因素.结果 2006~ 2010年监测

  7. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  8. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  10. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  11. Statistical analyses in disease surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Andres G; Larasati, Ria Purwita; Sedyaningsih, Endang R; Bounlu, Khanthong; Araujo-Castillo, Roger V; Munayco-Escate, Cesar V; Soto, Giselle; Mundaca, C Cecilia; Blazes, David L

    2008-11-14

    The performance of disease surveillance systems is evaluated and monitored using a diverse set of statistical analyses throughout each stage of surveillance implementation. An overview of their main elements is presented, with a specific emphasis on syndromic surveillance directed to outbreak detection in resource-limited settings. Statistical analyses are proposed for three implementation stages: planning, early implementation, and consolidation. Data sources and collection procedures are described for each analysis.During the planning and pilot stages, we propose to estimate the average data collection, data entry and data distribution time. This information can be collected by surveillance systems themselves or through specially designed surveys. During the initial implementation stage, epidemiologists should study the completeness and timeliness of the reporting, and describe thoroughly the population surveyed and the epidemiology of the health events recorded. Additional data collection processes or external data streams are often necessary to assess reporting completeness and other indicators. Once data collection processes are operating in a timely and stable manner, analyses of surveillance data should expand to establish baseline rates and detect aberrations. External investigations can be used to evaluate whether abnormally increased case frequency corresponds to a true outbreak, and thereby establish the sensitivity and specificity of aberration detection algorithms.Statistical methods for disease surveillance have focused mainly on the performance of outbreak detection algorithms without sufficient attention to the data quality and representativeness, two factors that are especially important in developing countries. It is important to assess data quality at each state of implementation using a diverse mix of data sources and analytical methods. Careful, close monitoring of selected indicators is needed to evaluate whether systems are reaching their

  12. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  13. 40 CFR 439.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fermentation Products § 439.12 Effluent limitations attainable... in paragraph (e) of this section must be demonstrated at in-plant monitoring points pursuant to...

  14. Airborne Ubiquitous Surveillance and Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    tactical side, where the UAVs takeoff location is covered and/or unknown. The K2 antenna system as it is currently engineered by Sierra Nevada Corporation does...that the K2 system as it is today is limited to the support from the Sierra Nevada Corporation should be pressure enough to strive for independence

  15. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. General surveillance of genetically modified crops : possibilities of GIS and remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, G.J.; Danes, M.H.G.I.

    2010-01-01

    According EU legislation a General Surveillance is necessary to monitor for unanticipated adverse effects of genetically modified organisms on the environment. In this report a prototype of a monitoring system for such a Surveillance is introduced on the basis of time series analysis of satellite im

  17. Surveillance of fetal arrhythmias in the outpatient setting: current limitations and call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of fetal arrhythmias in the outpatient setting remains limited by lack of monitoring modalities. Despite technological advances made in the field of obstetrics, existing devices are not currently suitable to monitor fetal arrhythmias. In this report, the author describes the current and developing fetal heart rate monitoring technologies including the recent introduction of hand-held Doppler monitors for outpatient surveillance of fetal arrhythmias.

  18. EVALUATION & TRENDS OF SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM NETWORK IN UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kr Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of ubiquitous computing, whole scenario of computing has been changed. It affected many inter disciplinary fields. This paper visions the impact of ubiquitous computing on video surveillance system. With increase in population and highly specific security areas, intelligent monitoring is the major requirement of modern world .The paper describes the evolution of surveillance system from analog to multi sensor ubiquitous system. It mentions the demand of context based architectures. It draws the benefit of merging of cloud computing to boost the surveillance system and at the same time reducing cost and maintenance. It analyzes some surveillance system architectures which are made for ubiquitous deployment. It provides major challenges and opportunities for the researchers to make surveillance system highly efficient and make them seamlessly embed in our environments.

  19. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Patel, Dhara; Nasci, Roger S; Petersen, Lyle R; Hughes, James M; Bradley, Kristy; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya).

  20. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhara; Nasci, Roger S.; Petersen, Lyle R.; Hughes, James M.; Bradley, Kristy; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya). PMID:26079471

  1. Textile effluent induced genotoxic effects and oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, S O; Bassey, B O; Alimba, C G; Ajani, E K

    2012-09-01

    Human and ecological disorder experienced in industrial settlements as a result of improper disposal of chemicals such as textile effluent calls for careful surveillance on the state of the environment. This study investigated the toxicity of textile effluent discharge using biochemical and cytogenetic responses to ascertain the acute and sub lethal effects on Clarias gariepinus. The 96 h LC50 of C. gariepinus exposed to the textile effluent was 8.203 ml L(-1). Fourteen day exposures to 1, 2, 4 and 6 ml L(-1) doses were conducted and several toxicological endpoints were evaluated. Sub lethal genotoxicity and biochemical study was also carried out for fourteen days. The genotoxicity studies utilized micronucleus test while the biochemical studies quantified serum anti-oxidant status Total Protein (TP), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) of the exposed fish. Toxicity factor indicates that the 96 h LC50 was significantly more toxic than the 24 h LC50 (p 0.05). The results obtained from this study showed that textile effluent increase cytogenetic damage and altered anti-oxidant status in C. gariepinus. Chemicals in the effluent can be bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the aquatic organism hence affecting man.

  2. Guidance for UMTRA project surveillance and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-01-01

    The Guidance for UMTRA Project Surveillance and Maintenance describes the procedures that will be used to verify that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal sites continue to function as designed. The approach of this guidance document is to identify surveillance requirements and maintenance procedures that will be used to comply with NRC license requirements. This document addresses five primary activities: Definition and characterization of final site conditions. Site inspections; Ground-water monitoring; Aerial photography; and Custodial maintenance and contingency repair. Final site conditions will be defined and characterized prior to the completion of remedial actions at a site. As-built drawings will be compiled, a final topographic survey will be performed, a vicinity map will be prepared, and ground and aerial photographs will be taken. Survey monuments, site markers, and signs will be established as will a network of monitoring wells.

  3. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  4. Dynamics of steroid estrogen daily concentrations in hospital effluent and connected waste water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avberšek, Miha; Sömen, Jernej; Heath, Ester

    2011-08-01

    Hospital effluent and connected waste water treatment plant (WWTP) influent and effluent were sampled daily to determine the levels and inter-day variations of three naturally occurring steroid estrogens: estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, and synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol. After solid phase extraction, interferences were removed with a silica gel clean-up step and the samples analysed using gas chromatography with mass selective detection (GC-MSD). The determined inter-day concentrations in hospital effluent were between 8.6 to 31.3 ng L(-1) for estrone, hospital effluent, WWTP influent and WWTP effluent, respectively. Interestingly, the estrone: 17β-estradiol:estriol ratio in the hospital effluent (1:0.1:9.4) is comparable to that found in the urine of pregnant women (1:0.3:20) indicating the most likely source of steroid estrogens. In WWTP influent the ratio was similar to that found in the non-pregnant population. Our result recognise estriol as being one of the most important steroid estrogens, accounting for up to 92% of the total EEQ present in hospital samples and 37% and 46% in WWTP influent and effluent samples, respectively. The study reveals how concentrations of steroid estrogens vary on a daily basis and concludes that careful sampling strategies must be adopted when making a risk assessment. In addition, the low potency steroid estrogens that contribute towards overall estrogenicity of the sample, e.g. estriol, should be incorporated into environmental monitoring programs.

  5. [Influence of the substrate composition in extensive green roof on the effluent quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Lin; Li, Tian; Gu, Jun-Qing

    2014-11-01

    By monitoring the effluent quality from different green roof assemblies during several artificial rain events, the main pollutant characteristics and the influence of substrate composition in extensive green roof on the effluent quality were studied. Results showed that the main pollutants in the effluent were N, P and COD; with the increase of cumulative rain, the concentrations of pollutants in the effluent decreased, which had obvious leaching effect; The average concentrations of heavy metals in the early effluent from all assemblies reached drinking water standard, including the assemblies using crushed bricks; When garden soil and compost were used as organic matter, the assemblies had serious leaching of nutrient substance. After the accumulated rainfall reached 150 mm, the TN, TP and COD concentrations of effluent were 2.93, 0.73 and 78 mg x L(-1), respectively, which exceeded the Surface water V class limit. By means of application of the Water Treatment Residual, the leaching of TP from green planting soil was decreased by about 60%. The inorganic compound soil had better effluent quality, however we also need to judge whether the substrate could be applied in extensive green roof or not, by analyzing its ability of water quantity reduction and the plant growth situation.

  6. Impact of industrial effluent on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in silty clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Hossain, Mohammad; Rahman, Golum Kibria Muhammad Mustafizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Molla, Abul Hossain; Mostafizur Rahman, Mohammad; Khabir Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Degradation of soil and water from discharge of untreated industrial effluent is alarming in Bangladesh. Therefore, buildup of heavy metals in soil from contaminated effluent, their entry into the food chain and effects on rice yield were quantified in a pot experiment. The treatments were comprised of 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% industrial effluents applied as irrigation water. Effluents, initial soil, different parts of rice plants and post-harvest pot soil were analyzed for various elements, including heavy metals. Application of elevated levels of effluent contributed to increased heavy metals in pot soils and rice roots due to translocation effects, which were transferred to rice straw and grain. The results indicated that heavy metal toxicity may develop in soil because of contaminated effluent application. Heavy metals are not biodegradable, rather they accumulate in soils, and transfer of these metals from effluent to soil and plant cells was found to reduce the growth and development of rice plants and thereby contributed to lower yield. Moreover, a higher concentration of effluent caused heavy metal toxicity as well as reduction of growth and yield of rice, and in the long run a more aggravated situation may threaten human lives, which emphasizes the obligatory adoption of effluent treatment before its release to the environment, and regular monitoring by government agencies needs to be ensured.

  7. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  8. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  9. The assessment of the Fessenheim local commission for information and monitoring; 1. l'expertise de la Commission locale d'information et de surveillance de Fessenheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habig, M. [CLIS de Fessenheim, Conseil general du Haut-Rhin, 68 (France)

    2009-07-15

    The first local commission of surveillance was created at Fessenheim in 1977. four years later, a local commission of information was created. The T.S.N. act in March 2008 gave the format, the organisation and the functioning of local commission of information (C.L.I.). several studies were realised at the initiative of this C.L.I.S. ( they conserved the S for surveillance). These different initiatives enlightened the fundamental contribution of independent experts who arose questions that allowed to the operator himself to progress in the risk control. (N.C.)

  10. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  11. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at BNL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  12. Master schedule for CY-1980 Hanford Environmental Surveillance Routine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Houston, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.

    1979-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is presented. The enviromental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Data are reported on the following topics: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurement; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites;

  13. Toxicity Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Using Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Movahedian, B Bina, GH Asghari

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity evaluation is an important parameter in wastewater quality monitoring as it provides the complete response of test organisms to all compounds in wastewater. The water flea Daphnia magna straus is the most commonly used zooplankton in toxicological tests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of effluents from different units of Isfahan Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP. The samples were taken from four different physical and biological units. The acute toxicity tests were determined using Daphnia magna. The immobility of Daphnia was determined after 48h. Toxicity results showed that 48h-LC50 and ATU values for raw wastewater were 30% (v/v and 3.33, respectively. It was also found that LC50 values after 48 h for preliminary, primary, and secondary effluents were 32%, 52% and 85% (v/v, respectively. The ATU values for these effluents were 3.1, 1.9, and 1.8, correspondingly. The efficiency levels of preliminary, primary, and secondary units for removal of toxicity were found as 6%, 38.9% and 8%, in that order. Overall, the present investigation indicated that toxicity removal by up to 50% might be achieved in IWPT. Based on the obtained results and regarding the improvement of water quality standards, coupled with public expectations in Iran, it is necessary to consider more stringent water quality policies for regular monitoring and toxicity assessment.

  14. Bioterrorism Preparedness Through Public Health and Medical Bio-Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    viral hemorrhagic fevers (Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa ); aflatoxin; and botulinum and shigella toxins comprise some of the most dangerous bio- agents... outbreaks could occur simultaneously in multiple locations, which is less likely in a natural epidemic. 5 Contagions can spread throughout the...surveillance to detect attacks. Surveillance to detect, collect, analyze, and interpret reports of bio-events and trained staffs to monitor disease outbreaks

  15. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. Effect of dependency in systems for multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Systems for multivariate on-line surveillance (e.g. outbreak detection), are investigated. Optimal systems for statistical surveillance are based on likelihood ratios. Three systems are compared; based on each marginal density, based on the joint density and based on the Hotelling?s T2. The effect of dependency between the monitored processes is investigated, and the effect of correlation between the change times. When the first change occurs immediately, the three methods...

  1. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. Effect of dependency in systems for multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Systems for multivariate on-line surveillance (e.g. outbreak detection), are investigated. Optimal systems for statistical surveillance are based on likelihood ratios. Three systems are compared; based on each marginal density, based on the joint density and based on the Hotelling?s T2. The effect of dependency between the monitored processes is investigated, and the effect of correlation between the change times. When the first change occurs immediately, the three methods...

  3. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. Disease surveillance using a hidden Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Graeme

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine surveillance of disease notification data can enable the early detection of localised disease outbreaks. Although hidden Markov models (HMMs have been recognised as an appropriate method to model disease surveillance data, they have been rarely applied in public health practice. We aimed to develop and evaluate a simple flexible HMM for disease surveillance which is suitable for use with sparse small area count data and requires little baseline data. Methods A Bayesian HMM was designed to monitor routinely collected notifiable disease data that are aggregated by residential postcode. Semi-synthetic data were used to evaluate the algorithm and compare outbreak detection performance with the established Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS algorithms and a negative binomial cusum. Results Algorithm performance varied according to the desired false alarm rate for surveillance. At false alarm rates around 0.05, the cusum-based algorithms provided the best overall outbreak detection performance, having similar sensitivity to the HMMs and a shorter average time to detection. At false alarm rates around 0.01, the HMM algorithms provided the best overall outbreak detection performance, having higher sensitivity than the cusum-based Methods and a generally shorter time to detection for larger outbreaks. Overall, the 14-day HMM had a significantly greater area under the receiver operator characteristic curve than the EARS C3 and 7-day negative binomial cusum algorithms. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the HMM provides an effective method for the surveillance of sparse small area notifiable disease data at low false alarm rates. Further investigations are required to evaluation algorithm performance across other diseases and surveillance contexts.

  10. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of evolution of public health surveillance from historical perspective: from Hippocrates, Black Death and quarantine, recording of vital events for the first time, first field investigation, legislations that were developed over time and modern concepts in public health surveillance. Eradication of small pox is an important achievement in public health surveillance but the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and Influenza pandemics suggest still there is a room for improvement. Recently new global disease surveillance networks like FluNet and DengueNet were developed as internet sites for monitoring influenza and dengue information. In spite of these developments, global public health surveillance still remains unevenly distributed. There is a need for increased international cooperation to address the global needs of public health surveillance.

  11. Ecofriendly degradation, decolorization and detoxification of textile effluent by a developed bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phugare, Swapnil S; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Surwase, Shripad N; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2011-07-01

    Present study illustrates the effectual decolorization and degradation of the textile effluent using a developed bacterial consortium SDS, consisted of bacterial species Providencia sp. SDS and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa strain BCH, originally isolated from dye contaminated soil. The intensive metabolic activity of the consortium SDS led to complete decolorization of textile effluent within 20 h at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. Significant induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, azoreductase and DCIP reductase were observed during decolorization, which indicates their involvement in decolorization and degradation process. The decolorization and biodegradation was monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, HPLC and HPTLC analysis. Toxicological analysis of effluent before and after treatment was performed using classical Allium cepa test. Investigations of various toxicological parameters viz, oxidative stress response, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and phytotoxicity, collectively concludes that, the toxicity of effluent reduces significantly after treatment with consortium SDS.

  12. EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING OF THE RADIATION SITUATION MONITORING, DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MEASURES TO MINIMIZE RISKS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE OF THE MAGADAN REGION POPULATION RELATED TO THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN MAGADAN REGION AND FEDERAL HEALTH ORGANIZATION "CENTER OF HYGIENE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY IN MAGADAN REGION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rubtsova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of activities of the Administration of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Magadan region and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Magadan region" in the context of monitoring of the radiation situation in the Magadan region from 12.03.2011 in connection with the Fukushima accident in Japan. The authors present the data on radiological laboratory studies, the analysis of performed organizational activities, the results of co-operation with the state and other regulatory authorities.

  13. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  14. Environmental surveillance status and assessment of the marking of ground waters and waterways around nuclear sites and radioactive waste old warehousing sites. Report for the High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety; Etat de la surveillance environnementale et bilan du marquage des nappes phreatiques et des cours d'eau autour des sites nucleaires et des entreposages anciens de dechets radioactifs. Rapport pour le Haut comite pour la transparence et l'information sur la securite nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    After a recall of the general objectives of environment radioactivity surveillance (notions about origin and behaviour of radioactive species in the environment, role of surveillance), this report describes the environment surveillance organisation and the investigations performed by the IRSN. It presents an overview of the current knowledge of the radiological status around the various French nuclear sites (radioactive effluent rejections, nuclear waste old warehousing sites, surface waters and soils, ground waters). It recalls and describes how surveillance results are published by the different involved parties. Each site is more precisely presented in appendix with its geological context, its surveillance equipment and results.

  15. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  16. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  17. Opinion on the radio-ecological monitoring of waters around nuclear installations and on the management of old nuclear waste warehousing sites: 18 recommendations to improve information, transparency and dialogue with involved parties; Avis sur le suivi radioecologique des eaux autour des installations nucleaires et sur la gestion des anciens sites d'entreposage de dechets radioactifs. 18 recommandations pour ameliorer l'information, la transparence et la concertation avec les parties prenantes..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    After a presentation of the different actors (agencies, institutions, companies) involved in the activities of the various French nuclear installations (base nuclear installations and those concerning the national defence), this report describes the radio-ecological monitoring performed around these nuclear sites: water surveillance on these sites and within their environment, regulatory requirements on effluents and surveillance, information provided by operators and by institutional organisations, assessment of the radio-ecological status of nuclear sites and of potential environmental and health impacts. It describes regulatory obligation in terms of public information, information and communication actions, and gives an assessment of the High committee about public information quality. It discusses ways to improve this quality for a higher transparency, to reinforce the role of local information commissions (CLI), and improve site monitoring. All these aspects are grouped in 18 recommendations.

  18. Global influenza surveillance with Laplacian multidimensional scaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-chuan ZHOU; Fang TANG; Qin LI; Sheng-dong HU; Guo-jun LI; Yun-jian JIA; Xin-ke LI; Yu-jie FENG

    2016-01-01

    The Global Influenza Surveillance Network is crucial for monitoring epidemic risk in participating countries. However, at present, the network has notable gaps in the developing world, principally in Africa and Asia where laboratory capabilities are limited. Moreover, for the last few years, various influenza viruses have been continuously emerging in the resource-limited countries, making these surveillance gaps a more imminent challenge. We present a spatial-transmission model to estimate epidemic risks in the countries where only partial or even no surveillance data are available. Motivated by the observation that countries in the same influenza transmission zone divided by the World Health Organization had similar transmission patterns, we propose to estimate the influenza epidemic risk of an unmonitored country by incorporating the surveillance data reported by countries of the same transmission zone. Experiments show that the risk estimates are highly correlated with the actual influenza morbidity trends for African and Asian countries. The proposed method may provide the much-needed capability to detect, assess, and notify potential influenza epidemics to the developing world.

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  20. Consumer-oriented monitoring and environmental reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den S.W.K.; Mol, A.P.J.; Spaargaren, G.

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring of environmental flows is usually considered an important first step in realising environmental reform of production and consumption. When citizen-consumers are involved, monitoring is frequently associated with surveillance and social control by the powerful (governmental and

  1. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  2. Surveillance of influenza in Iceland during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsdottir, G; Gudnason, T; Ólafsson, Ö; Baldvinsdottir, G E; Atladottir, A; Löve, A; Danon, L; Briem, H

    2010-12-09

    In a pandemic setting, surveillance is essential to monitor the spread of the disease and assess its impact. Appropriate mitigation and healthcare preparedness strategies depend on fast and accurate epidemic surveillance data. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, rapid improvements in influenza surveillance were made in Iceland. Here, we describe the improvements made in influenza surveillance during the pandemic , which could also be of great value in outbreaks caused by other pathogens. Following the raised level of pandemic influenza alert in April 2009, influenza surveillance was intensified. A comprehensive automatic surveillance system for influenza-like illness was developed, surveillance of influenza-related deaths was established and laboratory surveillance for influenza was strengthened. School absenteeism reports were also collected and compared with results from the automatic surveillance system. The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) was diagnosed in Iceland in May 2009, but sustained community transmission was not confirmed until mid-August. The pandemic virus circulated during the summer and early autumn before an abrupt increase in the number of cases was observed in October. There were large outbreaks in elementary schools for children aged 6–15 years throughout the country that peaked in late October. School absenteeism reports from all elementary schools in Iceland gave a similar epidemiological curve as that from data from the healthcare system. Estimates of the proportion of the population infected with the pandemic virus ranged from 10% to 22%. This study shows how the sudden need for improved surveillance in the pandemic led to rapid improvements in data collection in Iceland. This reporting system will be improved upon and expanded to include other notifiable diseases, to ensure accurate and timely collection of epidemiological data.

  3. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-05

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  4. Understanding the data-action cycle of surveillance: a qualitative study of federal and state stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sussner, Katarina M; Greaney, Mary L; Mierzwa, Sharon; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Wiecha, Jean; Peterson, Karen

    2010-03-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand how personnel in state and federal agencies view surveillance systems and the extent to which systematically collected data inform nutrition and physical activity policies and interventions addressing obesity. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 respondents purposively sampled from state health departments, federal public health agencies, and prevention research centers. All informants acknowledged the importance of surveillance systems and influence of the data-action cycle for monitoring trends and increasing obesity awareness. However, state-level respondents believed surveillance systems should be designed for programmatic purposes, whereas federal participants thought they should be designed for monitoring. Respondents held differing opinions about the flexibility, timeliness, accessibility, and usefulness of existing national surveillance systems, highlighting significant differences in state and federal agencies' perceptions and utilization of surveillance systems. Such discrepancies call for increased communication surrounding purposes and uses of surveillance data, enabling stronger partnerships between state and federal agencies.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse Electric Company Waste Isolation Division

    1999-09-29

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements (DOE, 1990a), requires each DOE facility to prepare an EMP. This document is prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (DOE, 1990b); Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 834, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (Draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1 (DOE, 1995), which is the driver for the Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Company, Waste Isolation Division (WID), for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of the WIPP's effluent and environmental monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses the WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE, 1991). This document references DOE orders and other federal and state regulations affecting environmental monitoring programs at the site. WIPP procedures

  6. Plating effluent management in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, P. [Environment Canada, Hull, PQ (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    There are some 600 firms in Canada classified as metal finishers, employing about 8,000 people; 60 per cent of these firms are located in Ontario. Annual sales are in the range of $800 million. About 25 per cent of the total effort is devoted to the automotive industry. Regulatory initiatives are based on the Toxic Substance Management Policy 1995 Framework, and involve multi-stakeholder consultation to identify, evaluate and recommend goals, targets, and management options to reduce exposure to hexavalent chromium, maximize the recycling of nickel and minimize the releases of cadmium from industry operations by promoting and encouraging appropriate P2 practices. Other regulatory initiatives follow from the Fisheries Act of 1970, the Metal Finishing Liquid Effluent Guidelines of 1977, and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act of 1988. There are also non-regulatory initiatives, such as the Metal Finishing Industry Pollution Project, a voluntary cooperative effort directed towards formulating plans to reduce toxic effluents from metal finishing operations and to develop and implement site-specific P2 plans. The various treatment technologies such as physico-chemical treatment of multi-metal rinse waters and periodic bath dumpings at on-site waste water treatment plants, water reduction practices to make more effective use of rinse water, evaporation, ion exchange, packed bed scrubbers, fume suppressants, composite mesh pads and separate ventilation for degreasing are also described. Specific case studies are cited to illustrate the various treatment technologies.

  7. Liquid effluent study characterization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    During the development of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), public comments were received regarding reduction of the discharge of liquid effluents into the soil column. As a result, the US Department of Energy (DOE), with concurrence of the Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE)and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), committed to a special project designed to document the discharge history and the charter of Hanford Site liquid discharges. The results of this project will be used in determining the need for additional waste stream analysis, and/or to negotiate additional milestones pertaining to such discharges in the Tri-Party Agreement. Wastestream sampling data collected prior to October 1989 were reported in the Waste Stream Characterization Report. Preliminary Stream-specific Reports were prepared which evaluated that data and proposed dangerous waste designations for each stream. This document contains the wastestream sampling and analysis data collected as part of the liquid effluent study. Data contained in this report were obtained from samples collected from October 1989 through March 1990. Information is presented on the wastestreams that have been sampled, the parameters analyzed, and the dates and times at which the samples were collected. This information will be evaluated in the final Stream-Specific Reports. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. 2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orias, Frédéric; Perrodin, Yves

    2013-06-01

    The multiple activities that take place in hospitals (surgery, drug treatments, radiology, cleaning of premises and linen, chemical and biological analysis laboratories, etc.), are a major source of pollutant emissions into the environment (disinfectants, detergents, drug residues, etc.). Most of these pollutants can be found in hospital effluents (HWW), then in urban sewer networks and WWTP (weakly adapted for their treatment) and finally in aquatic environments. In view to evaluating the impact of these pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to characterise their ecotoxicity. Several reviews have focused on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of pollutants present in HWW. However, none have focused specifically on the characterisation of their experimental ecotoxicity. We have evaluated this according to two complementary approaches: (i) a “substance” approach based on the identification of the experimental data in the literature for different substances found in hospital effluents, and on the calculation of their PNEC (Predicted Non Effect Concentration), (ii) a “matrix” approach for which we have synthesised ecotoxicity data obtained from the hospital effluents directly. This work first highlights the diversity of the substances present within hospital effluents, and the very high ecotoxicity of some of them (minimum PNEC observed close to 0,01 pg/L). We also observed that the consumption of drugs in hospitals was a predominant factor chosen by authors to prioritise the compounds to be sought. Other criteria such as biodegradability, excretion rate and the bioaccumulability of pollutants are considered, though more rarely. Studies of the ecotoxicity of the particulate phase of effluents must also be taken into account. It is also necessary to monitor the effluents of each of the specialised departments of the hospital studied. These steps is necessary to define realistic environmental management policies for hospitals

  12. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  13. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2016-03-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  14. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2017-09-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp ., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  15. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  16. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  17. Direct nanofiltration of wastewater treatment plant effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, Guillo Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration, is seen as a suitable technology to polish WWTP effluent to EU WFD standards and consequently produce an effluent quality suitable for agricultural or (in)direct potable usage. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of direct nanofiltr

  18. Keeping our Surveillance Society Non-Totalitarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Jacobs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern technologically advanced societies citizens leave numerous identifiable digital traces that are being stored, monitored and processed by both private and public parties. This has led to what is commonly called a 'surveillance society'. Increasingly, this abundance of (personal information is also being used to influence and control people. The active, deliberate, large scale control of people in their private lives is seen here as a key characteristic of a totalitarian society. The question (and also the concern arises whether the gradual move to a surveillance society will be followed by a (gradual move to a totalitarian society. The issues presented by the author are illustrated by several examples, with a focus on the technologies involved.

  19. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  20. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  1. 40 CFR 420.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

  2. 40 CFR 430.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink Subcategory § 430.102 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 430.104 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink Subcategory § 430.104 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  4. Assembly, start and operation of an activated sludge reactor for the industrial effluents treatment: physico chemical and biological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Assalin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Although of the immense available bibliography regarding the activated sludge process, little it is found in relation to the basic procedure to be adopted to implant, to activate and to monitor a reactor of activated sludge in laboratory scales. This article describes the assembly, departure and operation of an activated sludge system, operating in continuous process, at a laboratory scale, to study effluents treatments, using as example, Kraft E1 pulp mill effluent. Factors as biodegradability of the effluent to be treated, stationary state of the reactor, conventional operation parameters as physical chemistry and biological parameters are presented.

  5. History of trichinellosis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancou J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of trichinellosis, which existed in ancient times as testified by the discovery of parasite larvae on an Egyptian mummy, unfolded in several stages: discovery of encapsulated larvae (in the 1820s, identification and scientific description of these larvae (Paget Owen, 1835, followed by experimental infestations of animals (dogs, pigs, rabbits, mice or of humans as from 1850.The main occurrences of trichinellosis were followed with particular attention in Europe (Germany, Denmark, France, etc. and in the United States of America at the end of the XIXth century. They affected numerous domestic animal species (pigs, horses, etc. or wildlife and humans. Germany paid the heaviest toll with regard to the disease in humans, between 1860 and 1880, with several thousands of patients and more than 500 deaths.Different trichinellosis surveillance systems were set up in the relevant countries in the 1860s. In humans, this surveillance was carried out on affected living patients by a biopsy of the biceps muscles and subsequently by an analysis of eosinophilia (1895. In animals, surveillance was for a long time solely based on postmortem examination of the muscles of the affected animals. This method was used for the first time in 863 in Germany, and from the 1 890s, on several hundreds of thousands of pigs in Europe or in the United States of America.

  6. Master schedule for CY-1981 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1980-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is provided. Questions about specific entries should be referred to the authors since modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data obtained in a separate program are also reported. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Schedules are presented for the following subjects: air, Columbia River, sanitary water, surface water, ground water, foodstuffs, wildlife, soil and vegetation, external radiation measurement, portable instrument surveys, and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (JGB)

  7. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  8. Disease Surveillance on Complex Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L Herrera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As infectious disease surveillance systems expand to include digital, crowd-sourced, and social network data, public health agencies are gaining unprecedented access to high-resolution data and have an opportunity to selectively monitor informative individuals. Contact networks, which are the webs of interaction through which diseases spread, determine whether and when individuals become infected, and thus who might serve as early and accurate surveillance sensors. Here, we evaluate three strategies for selecting sensors-sampling the most connected, random, and friends of random individuals-in three complex social networks-a simple scale-free network, an empirical Venezuelan college student network, and an empirical Montreal wireless hotspot usage network. Across five different surveillance goals-early and accurate detection of epidemic emergence and peak, and general situational awareness-we find that the optimal choice of sensors depends on the public health goal, the underlying network and the reproduction number of the disease (R0. For diseases with a low R0, the most connected individuals provide the earliest and most accurate information about both the onset and peak of an outbreak. However, identifying network hubs is often impractical, and they can be misleading if monitored for general situational awareness, if the underlying network has significant community structure, or if R0 is high or unknown. Taking a theoretical approach, we also derive the optimal surveillance system for early outbreak detection but find that real-world identification of such sensors would be nearly impossible. By contrast, the friends-of-random strategy offers a more practical and robust alternative. It can be readily implemented without prior knowledge of the network, and by identifying sensors with higher than average, but not the highest, epidemiological risk, it provides reasonably early and accurate information.

  9. Methods for observational post-licensure medical product safety surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer C; Cook, Andrea J; Yu, Onchee; Zhao, Shanshan; Jackson, Lisa A; Psaty, Bruce M

    2015-04-01

    Post-licensure medical product safety surveillance is important for detecting adverse events potentially not identified pre-licensure. Historically, post-licensure safety monitoring has been accomplished using passive reporting systems and by conducting formal Phase IV randomized trials or large epidemiological studies, also known as safety surveillance or pharmacovigilance studies. However, crucial gaps in the safety evidence base provided by these approaches have led to high profile product withdrawals and growing public concern about unknown health risks associated with licensed products. To address the limitations of existing surveillance systems and to facilitate more accurate and rapid detection of safety problems, new systems involving active surveillance of large, population-based cohorts using observational health care databases are being developed. In this article, we review common statistical methods that have been employed previously for post-licensure safety monitoring, including data mining and sequential hypothesis testing, and assess which methods may be promising for potential use within this newly proposed prospective observational cohort monitoring framework. We discuss gaps in existing approaches and identify areas where methodological development is needed to improve the success of safety surveillance efforts in this setting.

  10. 40 CFR 469.14 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Semiconductor Subcategory § 469.14 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): Subpart A—Semiconductor...

  11. 40 CFR 469.19 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BCT Effluent Limitations Pollutant...

  12. 40 CFR 415.512 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Iodide Production Subcategory § 415.512 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Subpart AY—Potassium Iodide Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  14. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming... tube mills, carbon and specialty. Subpart G Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 430.93 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink Subcategory § 430.93 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  16. 40 CFR 424.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  17. 40 CFR 424.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  18. 40 CFR 424.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.47 Effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 424.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.43 Effluent...

  20. An automation model of Effluent Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and intensification of industrial activities have increased the deterioration of natural resources. Industrial, hospital and residential wastes are dumped directly into landfills without processing, polluting soils. This action will have consequences later, because the liquid substance resulting from the putrefaction of organic material plows into the soil to reach water bodies. Cities arise without planning, industrial and household wastes are discharged into rivers, lakes and oceans without proper treatment, affecting water resources. It is well known that in the next century there will be fierce competition for fresh water on the planet, probably due to the scarcity of it. Demographic expansion has occurred without proper health planning, degrading oceans, lakes and rivers. Thus, a large percentage of world population suffers from diseases related to water pollution. Accordingly, it can be concluded that sewage treatment is essential to human survival, to preserve rivers, lakes and oceans. An Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP treats wastewater to reduce its pollution to acceptable levels before sending them to the oceans or rivers. To automate the operation of an ETP, motors, sensors and logic blocks, timers and counters are needed. These functions are achieved with programmable logic controllers (PLC and Supervisory Systems. The Ladder language is used to program controllers and is a pillar of the Automation and Control Engineering. The supervisory systems allow process information to be monitored, while the PLC are responsible for control and data acquisition. In the age we live in, process automation is used in an increasing scale in order to provide higher quality, raise productivity and improve the proposed activities. Therefore, an automatic ETP will improve performance and efficiency to handle large volumes of sewage. Considering the growing importance of environmental awareness with special emphasis

  1. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma;

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  2. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  3. Designing a Low-Resolution Face Recognition System for Long-Range Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Most face recognition systems deal well with high-resolution facial images, but perform much worse on low-resolution facial images. In low-resolution face recognition, there is a specific but realistic surveillance scenario: a surveillance camera monitoring a large area. In this scenario, usually

  4. The Spies We Trust: Third Party Service Providers and Law Enforcement Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soghoian, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Telecommunications carriers and service providers now play an essential role in facilitating modern surveillance by law enforcement agencies. The police merely select the individuals to be monitored, while the actual surveillance is performed by third parties: often the same email providers, search engines and telephone companies to whom consumers…

  5. Retest reliability of surveillance questions on health related quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important surveillance measure for monitoring the health of populations, as proposed in the American public health plan, Healthy People 2010. The authors investigated the retest reliability of four HRQoL questions from the US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

  6. The Spies We Trust: Third Party Service Providers and Law Enforcement Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soghoian, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Telecommunications carriers and service providers now play an essential role in facilitating modern surveillance by law enforcement agencies. The police merely select the individuals to be monitored, while the actual surveillance is performed by third parties: often the same email providers, search engines and telephone companies to whom consumers…

  7. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIAL R.A.; CHAUDHARY M.F.; ABBAS S.T.; LATIF M.I.; KHAN A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry.These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine ifthese effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH,electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher

  8. Environmental assessment and planning at Mound - environmental monitoring capabilities and personnel profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Through its long experience with radioactive materials, Mound has developed a comprehensive, routine, offsite, environmental surveillance program to safeguard its employees, the physical plant, and the integrity of the surrounding environment from any potential adverse effects of its widely diverse operations. Effluent samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological parameters. The environment surrounding Mound Facility is continuously monitored - air, water, foodstuffs, vegetation, soil, and silt samples are analyzed to ensure that radioisotopic concentrations and other possible pollutants are well within the stringent standards adopted by the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agencies (both federal and state), and various regional and local agencies. Moreover, this environmental surveillance program has been designed to ensure that the facility is designed, constructed, managed, operated, and maintained in a manner that continues to meet all federal, state, and local standards for environmental protection. Work in environmental science has been broadened to assess environmental factors associated with various aspects of the National Energy Plan. Both the management and staff at Mound have undertaken a firm commitment to make Mound`s environmental monitoring capabilities available to agencies that have the responsibility for the resolution of important environmental issues.

  9. AIDS-case surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S; Khodakevich, L; Sengupta, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 in India, the Ministry of Health realized that the diagnostic and reporting network for AIDS cases was inadequate as AIDS cases grew and that the establishment of specialized AIDS units in hospitals was not the best strategy. It decided to integrate AIDS diagnostic and management facilities into primary health services. It would arrange training for 1 physician from each district and peripheral hospital, private hospital, and inpatient service of other medical institutions in AIDS diagnosis and management. These physicians would then train others in the clinical diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The physicians would use the World Health Organization [WHO] case definition of AIDS supported by HIV serological test results. All AIDS cases would be transferred to the Medical College Hospitals of the States and Union Territories (UTs), regional hospitals, and perhaps some private hospitals. Between May 1986 and October 1993, India had 459 AIDS cases reported from 19 States and UTs, especially the States of Tamil Nadul and Maharashtra. This AIDS case surveillance system should motivate political will, describe the underlying and preceding HIV epidemic, and contribute to the understanding of current and future course of the epidemic. Thus, it will guide decision makers to develop sound preventive strategies, to plan health care, and to evaluate interventions. The surveillance system's target population is all outpatients and inpatients at medical institutions. During 1993-1994, 1000 hospitals should make up the network of referral institutions. AIDS case surveillance coordinators (ASCs) at each institution form the basis of the network. The individual case record of each suspected AIDS case will have details on his/her life and medical history. Records of confirmed cases will be sent to State ASCs who will compile them for the National AIDS Control Organisation. After 3-4 year of training and practice in AIDS diagnosis and reporting, AIDS reporting will be

  10. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  11. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  12. Projectbeschrijving Surveillance Ziekenhuisinfecties 1996-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Sprenger MJW; Cucic S; Pelt W van; Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan; CIE

    1996-01-01

    In the Project Surveillance Hospital Acquired Infections a surveillance system in a national network of hospitals is being developed and implemented. In the project surveillance of hospital acquired infections is implemented in components: surveillance of surgical wound infections, surveillance of i

  13. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vara Saritha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two fungi (unidentified were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of these fungi was also tested, and the clearance zone was obtained in the plate assay.

  14. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vara Saritha; Avasn Maruthi; Mukkanti, K.

    2010-01-01

    Two fungi (unidentified) were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of t...

  15. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Michelle; Brady, Doug

    2008-07-01

    Each year, LANL produces an Environmental Surveillance Report (ESR) in compliance with a Department of Energy (DOE) order. The ESR aims to summarize the environmental impacts of the Laboratory, the efforts to minimize these impacts, and LANL’s compliance with environmental regulations. This Summary Report presents the methods and results of environmental monitoring done in 2007 in a form that is more understandable and inviting to the public. Though other DOE sites have done Summary Reports in the past, this is LANL’s first for the ESR, and the authors were privileged to write this report from the perspective of students.

  16. Rocket exhaust effluent modeling for tropospheric air quality and environmental assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. B.; Stewart, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The various techniques for diffusion predictions to support air quality predictions and environmental assessments for aerospace applications are discussed in terms of limitations imposed by atmospheric data. This affords an introduction to the rationale behind the selection of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion (REED) program. The models utilized in the NASA/MSFC REED program are explained. This program is then evaluated in terms of some results from a joint MSFC/Langley Research Center/Kennedy Space Center Titan Exhaust Effluent Prediction and Monitoring Program.

  17. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  18. Results of EMC market surveillance tests for UPS systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamaeki, J. [Safety Technology Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the first wide electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) market surveillance project in Finland in which the uninterruptible power systems (UPS) on the Finnish market are monitored. Altogether 11 UPS units are EMC tested and the results of these tests are described in this paper. The effect of basic characters of UPS on the level of electromagnetic interference are analysed. (orig.) 3 refs.

  19. Patients' motives for participating in active post-marketing surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmark, Linda; Lie-Kwie, Miguel; Berm, Lisette; de Gier, Han; van Grootheest, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Web-based intensive monitoring is a method to actively collect information about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) using patients as a source of information. To date, little is known about patients' motivation to participate in this kind of active post-marketing surveillance (PMS). Increased ins

  20. Approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, H.; Medlock, J.M.; Vaux, A.G.C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Bartumeus, F.; Oltra, A.; Sousa, C.A.; Chouin, S.; Werner, D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order

  1. Persistent Surveillance of Transient Events with Unknown Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-18

    linear program to generate speed controllers capable of keeping the field bounded. Persistent surveillance is inherently closely related to sensor...a town -like environment that includes buildings and apartments. The persistent monitoring task for a robot -such as a UAV- is to continuously survey

  2. Dynamic intervention: pathogen disarmament of mitochondrial-based immune surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Robin L; Blanke, Steven R

    2014-11-12

    In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Suzuki et al. (2014) describe a Vibrio cholerae Type-III-secreted effector that targets mitochondrial dynamics to dampen host innate immune signaling. This suggests that mammalian hosts possess surveillance mechanisms to monitor pathogen-mediated alterations in the integrity of normal cellular processes and organelles.

  3. Approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, H.; Medlock, J.M.; Vaux, A.G.C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Bartumeus, F.; Oltra, A.; Sousa, C.A.; Chouin, S.; Werner, D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order

  4. State-based surveillance for selected hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulihan, Mary M; Feuchtbaum, Lisa; Jordan, Lanetta; Kirby, Russell S; Snyder, Angela; Young, William; Greene, Yvonne; Telfair, Joseph; Wang, Ying; Cramer, William; Werner, Ellen M; Kenney, Kristy; Creary, Melissa; Grant, Althea M

    2015-02-01

    The lack of an ongoing surveillance system for hemoglobinopathies in the United States impedes the ability of public health organizations to identify individuals with these conditions, monitor their health-care utilization and clinical outcomes, and understand the effect these conditions have on the health-care system. This article describes the results of a pilot program that supported the development of the infrastructure and data collection methods for a state-based surveillance system for selected hemoglobinopathies. The system was designed to identify and gather information on all people living with a hemoglobinopathy diagnosis (sickle cell diseases or thalassemias) in the participating states during 2004-2008. Novel, three-level case definitions were developed, and multiple data sets were used to collect information. In total, 31,144 individuals who had a hemoglobinopathy diagnosis during the study period were identified in California; 39,633 in Florida; 20,815 in Georgia; 12,680 in Michigan; 34,853 in New York, and 8,696 in North Carolina. This approach provides a possible model for the development of state-based hemoglobinopathy surveillance systems.

  5. Security Event Recognition for Visual Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, M. Ying; Rosenhahn, B.

    2017-05-01

    With rapidly increasing deployment of surveillance cameras, the reliable methods for automatically analyzing the surveillance video and recognizing special events are demanded by different practical applications. This paper proposes a novel effective framework for security event analysis in surveillance videos. First, convolutional neural network (CNN) framework is used to detect objects of interest in the given videos. Second, the owners of the objects are recognized and monitored in real-time as well. If anyone moves any object, this person will be verified whether he/she is its owner. If not, this event will be further analyzed and distinguished between two different scenes: moving the object away or stealing it. To validate the proposed approach, a new video dataset consisting of various scenarios is constructed for more complex tasks. For comparison purpose, the experiments are also carried out on the benchmark databases related to the task on abandoned luggage detection. The experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and effective in recognizing complex security events.

  6. Chronic Wasting Disease Surveillance and Contingency Plan Eastern Virginia Rivers Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan is established to provide a framework for surveillance, monitoring and disease response to Chronic Wasting Disease at the Eastern Virginia Rivers National...

  7. Performance of constructed wetland systems treating anerobic effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, J T; van Haandel, A; Lima, E P C; Guimarães, A V A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this present paper is to verify the performance of three wetland systems operated with effluents from a UASB reactor, with respect nutrient removal (nitrogen and phosphorus), pathogenic organisms and remaining carbonaceous material, monitored over a three-year period. The experiment was carried out and monitored at PROSAB (Programa de Saneamento Básico) in Campina Grande, Paraíba. The removal efficiency of the carbonaceous material expressed in DQO ranged from 70 to 86%, but concerning the total suspended solids, the efficiency ranged from 50 to 71%. The removal efficiency in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus of both vegetated systems was about 65.5 to 86%, respectively, during the first year of operation. Under the operational conditions of the experiment, the removal of phosphorus in a wetland system containing washed sand as the substratum decreased, as its operation period increased. The vegetated wetland has been the most efficient in removing faecal coliforms (roughly 4 log units) as compared to the non-vegetated one (about 3 log units), when both were operated with the same hydraulic load (2.3 cm. per day). Thus, the effluent produced over the three-year period ranged from 800 to 1,800 UFC/100 mL in the analyzed samples.

  8. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-05-27

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  9. A Framework For An Event Driven Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan Kieran

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an event driven surveillance system that uses multiple cameras. The purpose of this system is to enable thorough exploration of surveillance events. The system uses a client-server web architecture as this provides scalability for further development of the system infrastructure. The system is designed to be accessed by surveillance operators who can review and comment on events generated by our event detection processing modules. We do not just focus on event detection, but are working towards the optimization of event detection. A multiple camera network system that tracks a moving object (or person and decides if this is an event of interest is also examined. Dynamic switching of the cameras is implemented to aid in human monitoring of the network. The camera displayed in the main view should be the camera with the most interesting activity occurring. Unusual activity is defined as activity occurring that is not of the norm. Normal activity is considered to be everyday repeated activity. Further thought will be given to the extension of this system into a distributed system that would effectively create an event web system. Our contributions are to the development of automated real-time switching of camera views to aid camera operators in the effort of effective video surveillance, and also the detection of events of interest within a surveillance environment, with appropriate alerts and storage of these events. To the best of our knowledge this system provides a novel approach to the technological surveillance paradigm.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in the AFHSC-GEIS network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William G; Pavlin, Julie A; Hospenthal, Duane; Murray, Clinton K; Jerke, Kurt; Hawksworth, Anthony; Metzgar, David; Myers, Todd; Walsh, Douglas; Wu, Max; Ergas, Rosa; Chukwuma, Uzo; Tobias, Steven; Klena, John; Nakhla, Isabelle; Talaat, Maha; Maves, Ryan; Ellis, Michael; Wortmann, Glenn; Blazes, David L; Lindler, Luther

    2011-03-04

    International infectious disease surveillance has been conducted by the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) for many years and has been consolidated within the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) since 1998. This includes activities that monitor the presence of antimicrobial resistance among pathogens. AFHSC-GEIS partners work within DoD military treatment facilities and collaborate with host-nation civilian and military clinics, hospitals and university systems. The goals of these activities are to foster military force health protection and medical diplomacy. Surveillance activities include both community-acquired and health care-associated infections and have promoted the development of surveillance networks, centers of excellence and referral laboratories. Information technology applications have been utilized increasingly to aid in DoD-wide global surveillance for diseases significant to force health protection and global public health. This section documents the accomplishments and activities of the network through AFHSC-GEIS partners in 2009.

  11. Benthos of Cochin backwaters receiving industrial effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.

    Faunal composition of benthos and its spatial and temporal distribution at 9 stations in the northern limb of the Cochin backwaters are studied. An industrial belt is located about 18 km upstream of barmouth, and the effluents are discharged...

  12. Microbial degradation of textile industrial effluents | Palamthodi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial degradation of textile industrial effluents. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Textile waste water is a highly variable mixture of many polluting substance ranging from inorganic compounds and elements to polymers and organic ...

  13. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  14. Active case surveillance, passive case surveillance and asymptomatic malaria parasite screening illustrate different age distribution, spatial clustering and seasonality in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guofa; Afrane, Yaw A; Malla, Sameer; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-01-28

    Epidemiological characteristics of clinical malaria may differ from asymptomatic infections, thus both cross-sectional parasite screening and longitudinal clinical case surveillance are necessary for malaria transmission monitoring and control. In order to monitor malaria transmission, surveillance of clinical malaria from two years of active case surveillance in three cohorts of 6,750 individuals, asymptomatic parasitaemia cases of 5,300 individuals and clinical cases in three study areas were carried out in the western Kenyan highlands in 2009 and 2010. Age distribution, seasonality and spatial clustering were analysed. The results revealed a significant difference in the age distribution of clinical cases between passive and active case surveillance, and between clinical case rate and asymptomatic parasite rate. The number of reported cases from health facilities significantly underestimated clinical malaria incidence. The increase in asymptomatic parasite prevalence from low to high transmission seasons was significantly higher for infants (malaria cases emerged in the uphill areas during the peak season. Different surveillance methods revealed different characteristics of malaria infections. The new transmission hotspots identified during the peak season with only active case surveillance is an important observation with clear implications in the context of malaria elimination. Both mass parasite screening and active case surveillance are essential for malaria transmission monitoring and control.

  15. 40 CFR 440.13 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines operated to obtain iron ore shall not exceed: Effluent...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440... chemical methods to beneficiate iron ore shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations...

  16. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Yeung, Karen; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of cassava starch factory effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1990-06-01

    Biomethanation of cassava starch factory effluent in a batch digester produced 130 l biogas/kg dry matter with an average melthane content of 59%. About 63% COD was removed during 60 days. In semicontinuous digesters, gas production was 3251/kg dry matter with a retention time of 33,3 days giving a COD reduction of 50%. Size of starter inoculum was important for good biogasification of the effluent.

  18. Analysis and Development of Models for Liquid Effluent from Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. ADENIYI

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The technology of transforming cotton and synthetic fibres into fabrics and dyed fabrics generates various kinds of effluent. The influence of effluents on water reserve depends on the physico-chemical properties of the present organic and inorganic impurities. This paper proposed some mathematical models for the prediction of certain concentrations of the effluents discharged from the textile industries. The parameters modelled for include the pH, alkalinity level, iron ions, chromium ions, manganese ions, total dissolved solid, chloride ions, copper ions and zinc ions. Results of the modelled equations compares favourably with the experimental values with the highest percentage deviation of 1.52% and the lowest of 0.16%. The models could serve as a tool of control and monitoring of environmental pollution.

  19. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  20. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Report, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-12-31

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations.