WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance body shame

  1. Role of shame and body esteem in cortisol stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Sabik, Natalie J; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-04-01

    Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame-stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes.

  2. Exploring self-compassion as a refuge against recalling the body-related shaming of caregiver eating messages on dimensions of objectified body consciousness in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daye, Chesnee A; Webb, Jennifer B; Jafari, Nadia

    2014-09-01

    Guided by an overarching body-related shame regulation framework, the present investigation examined the associations between caregiver eating messages and dimensions of objectified body consciousness and further explored whether self-compassion moderated these links in a sample of 322 U.S. college women. Correlational findings indicated that retrospective accounts of restrictive/critical caregiver eating messages were positively related to body shame and negatively related to self-compassion and appearance control beliefs. Recollections of experiencing pressure to eat from caregivers were positively correlated with body shame and inversely associated with appearance control beliefs. Higher self-compassion was associated with lower body shame and body surveillance. Self-compassion attenuated the associations between restrictive/critical caregiver eating messages and both body surveillance and body shame. Implications for advancing our understanding of the adaptive properties of a self-compassionate self-regulatory style in mitigating recall of familial body-related shaming on the internalized body-related shame regulating processes of body objectification in emerging adulthood are discussed.

  3. Enhancing positive body image: An evaluation of a cognitive behavioral therapy intervention and an exploration of the role of body shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Sarah; Lewis, Vivienne; Crisp, Dimity A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 6-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention in promoting the development of positive body image. The study also examined if, in accordance with the objectification theory, participants who reported higher levels of body shame would (a) report higher levels of body dissatisfaction, and (b) demonstrate less improvement in response to the Positive Bodies program. A total of 52 women aged 17-54 years completed self-report measures of self-esteem, body area satisfaction, body image quality of life, body shame, and self-surveillance at the commencement and conclusion of the program. The results provided preliminary support for the overall effectiveness of the program. Contrary to predictions, higher body shame was associated with greater improvements in indicators of body image over time. Further comparisons with a control or treatment comparison group are required; however, the results support benefits for individuals with body dissatisfaction, particularly those reporting higher levels of body shame.

  4. Body-related state shame and guilt in women: do causal attributions mediate the influence of physical self-concept and shame and guilt proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Peter R E; Brune, Sara M; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    Guided by the process model of self-conscious emotions, this study examined whether physical self-concept (PSC) and shame and guilt proneness were associated with body-related self-conscious emotions of state shame and guilt and if these relationships were mediated by attributions of stability, globality, and controllability. Female participants (N=284; Mean age=20.6±1.9 years) completed measures of PSC and shame and guilt proneness before reading a hypothetical scenario. Participants completed measures of attributions and state shame and guilt in response to the scenario. Significant relationships were noted between state shame and attributions of globality and controllability, and shame proneness, guilt proneness, and PSC. Similar relationships, with the additional predictor of stability, were found for state guilt. Mediation analysis partially supported the process model hypotheses for shame. Results indicate PSC and shame proneness are important in predicting body-related emotions, but the role of specific attributions are still unclear.

  5. Self-compassion in the face of shame and body image dissatisfaction: implications for eating disorders.

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    Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Cristiana

    2013-04-01

    The current study examines the role of self-compassion in face of shame and body image dissatisfaction, in 102 female eating disorders' patients, and 123 women from general population. Self-compassion was negatively associated with external shame, general psychopathology, and eating disorders' symptomatology. In women from the general population increased external shame predicted drive for thinness partially through lower self-compassion; also, body image dissatisfaction directly predicted drive for thinness. However, in the patients' sample increased shame and body image dissatisfaction predicted increased drive for thinness through decreased self-compassion. These results highlight the importance of the affiliative emotion dimensions of self-compassion in face of external shame, body image dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, emphasising the relevance of cultivating a self-compassionate relationship in eating disorders' patients.

  6. Intrapersonal characteristics of body-related guilt, shame, pride, and envy in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Eva; Brunet, Jennifer; Crocker, Peter R E; Kowalski, Kent C; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    This study examined differences in body-related shame, guilt, pride, and envy based on intrapersonal characteristics of sex, age, and weight status in 527 Canadian adults. Compared to men, women reported significantly higher shame and guilt contextualized to the body. No sex differences were observed for envy or pride. Middle-aged adults reported higher shame and lower pride compared with young adults, whereas no age differences were observed with body-related guilt. Meanwhile, shame and guilt were highest for individuals who had overweight or obese weight status, and pride was highest in individuals with average weight status. Overall, effect sizes were small and there were no significant interaction effects between sex, age, and weight status across body-related emotions. Further research is needed to capture similarities and differences of body-related self-conscious emotions between intrapersonal characteristics, to aid the development of intervention strategies to manage this important dimension of body image.

  7. The relationship between alexithymia, shame, trauma, and body image disorders: investigation over a large clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franzoni E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Emilio Franzoni,1 Stefano Gualandi,1 Vincenzo Caretti,2 Adriano Schimmenti,3 Elena Di Pietro,1 Gaetano Pellegrini,1 Giuseppe Craparo,3 Arianna Franchi,1 Alberto Verrotti,4 Alessandro Pellicciari11Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Bologna, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy; 3Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Kore University of Enna, Enna, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, ItalyBackground: The connections between eating disorders (EDs and alexithymia have not been fully clarified. This study aims to define alexithymia's connections with shame, trauma, dissociation, and body image disorders.Methods: We administered the Dissociative Experience Scale-II, Trauma Symptom Inventory, Experience of Shame Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, and Body Uneasiness Test questionnaires to 143 ED subjects. Extensive statistical analyses were performed.Results: The subjects showed higher scores on alexithymia, shame, dissociation, and traumatic feelings scales than the nonclinical population. These aspects are linked with each other in a statistically significant way. Partial correlations highlighted that feelings of shame are correlated to body dissatisfaction, irrespective of trauma or depressed mood. Multiple regression analysis demonstrates that shame (anorexic patients and perceived traumatic conditions (bulimic and ED not otherwise specified are associated with adverse image disorders.Conclusion: Shame seems to hold a central role in the perception of an adverse self-image. Alexithymia may be interpreted as being a consequence of previous unelaborated traumatic experiences and feelings of shame, and it could therefore be conceptualized as a maladaptive–reactive construct.Keywords: eating disorders, trauma, alexithymia, shame, body image

  8. Exploring the effect of external shame on body appreciation among Portuguese young adults: The role of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta-Simões, Joana; Ferreira, Cláudia; Mendes, Ana Laura

    2016-12-01

    Studies on body image-related disturbances have recently embraced a fresh and innovative construct: body appreciation. Body appreciation, an aspect of positive body image, defines as the detention of a balanced, affectionate and health-conscious relationship with one's own body's features. Its exploration is considered to be essential to the success of upcoming prevention and intervention programs in the area of body image and eating disorders. The role of shame, although widely studied in negative body image and eating psychopathology, is yet unknown regarding body appreciation. In this line, a main goal of this study was to explore the effect of external shame on body appreciation in a sample of Portuguese young adults. Also, taking into account the similarities between body appreciation and self-compassion, and since self-compassion is known as a powerful tool against the impact of shame on body image-related disturbances, this study also intended to test the role of self-compassion in the relationship between external shame and body appreciation. Results revealed body mass index and external shame as negative correlates, and self-compassion as a positive correlate of body appreciation. Also, path analysis showed that external shame holds a significant effect on body appreciation, both directly and indirectly. Specifically, this analysis revealed that self-compassion acts as a mediator between shame and body appreciation. Present findings seem to support the pertinence of programs to promote an affectionate and healthy relationship with one's own body image, which may benefit from the target of shame and the inclusion of self-compassion practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Discourses of the body in euthanasia: symptomatic, dependent, shameful and temporal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, A F; Kissane, D W

    2001-09-01

    This theoretical paper is derived from a discourse analysis of the textual material from a study of the seven deaths associated with legalised euthanasia in the Northern Territory, Australia. The textual analysis utilises evidence from interviews, letters written by people seeking euthanasia, medical reports, coroner's records and media reports concerning the social experiment of legalised euthanasia in Australia. The paper does not discuss the euthanasia debate. It argues that the body is a neglected concern in the debates and offers a construction of the discourses of the body as symptomatic, dependent, shameful and temporal. Medical discourses frame the body as symptomatic but these people were also concerned with the loss of autonomy associated with dependence, with shame connected with loss of bodily functions and the embodied experience of determining a 'time to die'.

  10. Escaping from body image shame and harsh self-criticism: exploration of underlying mechanisms of binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2014-12-01

    Shame has been highlighted as a key component of eating psychopathology. However, the specific impact of body image shame on binge eating and the mechanisms through which it operates remained unexplored. The current study tests a model examining the role that body image shame plays in binge eating and the mediator effect of self-criticism on this association, while controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms, in 329 women from the general population and college students. Correlation analyses showed that binge eating is positively associated with depressive symptoms, body image shame, and self-criticism, namely with a more severe form of self-criticism characterized by self-disgust, hating and wanting to hurt the self - hated self. Furthermore, results indicated that the path model explained 32% of binge eating behaviours and confirmed that body image shame has a significant direct effect on binge eating, and that this effect is partially mediated by increased hated self. These findings suggest that binge eating may emerge as a maladaptive way to cope with the threat of being negatively viewed by others because of one's physical appearance and the consequent engagement in a severe critical self-relating style marked by hatred, disgust and contempt towards the self. This study contributes therefore for the understanding of the processes underlying binge eating. Also, these findings have important research and clinical implications, supporting the relevance of developing eating disorder treatments that specifically target shame and self-criticism, through the development of self-compassionate skills.

  11. Is body shame a significant mediator of the relationship between mindfulness skills and the quality of life of treatment-seeking children and adolescents with overweight and obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to examine (a) whether mindfulness skills were associated with higher quality of life through lower body shame for treatment-seeking children/adolescents with overweight and obesity and (b) whether this indirect effect was moderated by children/adolescents' age and gender. The sample included 153 children/adolescents with overweight/obesity followed in individual nutrition consultations. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness, body shame, and quality of life. Moderated mediation analyses showed that higher levels of mindfulness were associated with better perceived quality of life through lower body shame, but only among girls. For boys, higher levels of body shame did not translate into a poorer perception of quality of life, and the indirect effect of mindfulness on quality of life via lower body shame was not significant. These results suggest that body shame is an important mechanism to explain why mindfulness may help girls with overweight/obesity perceive a better quality of life.

  12. Anxiety and Shame as Risk Factors for Depression, Suicidality, and Functional Impairment in Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Hilary; Renshaw, Keith D; Wilhelm, Sabine; Tangney, June P; DiMauro, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are associated with elevated depression, suicidality, functional impairment, and days housebound, yet little research has identified risk factors for these outcomes. Using path analysis, the present study examined anxiety and shame as risk factors for these outcomes across Internet-recruited self-report groups (BDD [n = 114], OCD [n = 114], and healthy control [HC; n = 133]). Paths from anxiety and shame to outcomes were similar and mostly significant across BDD and OCD, compared to non-significant paths for HCs, with one exception: the path from shame to depression was significant in the BDD group (b = 0.32) but non-significant in the OCD group (b = 0.07). Findings underscore similarities in BDD and OCD, supporting their reclassification into the same Obsessive Compulsive Related Disorders category. Results emphasize the importance of targeting shame, in addition to anxiety, in treatments for BDD and OCD.

  13. Self-Objectification and the Use of Body Image Coping Strategies: The Role of Shame in Highly Physically Active Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L; Sullivan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mediating role of body shame in the relationship between self-objectification and body image coping strategies in highly physically active university women. Bivariate correlations revealed body shame was positively related to self-objectification, appearance fixing, and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. In addition, self-objectification was positively related to appearance fixing and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. Mediation analyses showed that body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and avoidance and appearance fixing coping but did not mediate the relationship between self-objectification and positive rational acceptance. Future research should examine other potential mediators or moderators in this relationship and explore the role of positive body image framed within self-objectification theory.

  14. Do body-related shame and guilt mediate the association between weight status and self-esteem?

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    Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management.

  15. Self-esteem, body shame and eating disorder risk in obese and normal weight adolescents: A mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, Mara; D'Olimpio, Francesca; Cella, Stefania; Cotrufo, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    To investigate dysfunctional eating behaviors and psychological variables typically associated to eating disturbances such as low self-esteem, perfectionism, shame, perceived parental care and protectiveness in obese and normal weight adolescents and to examine how the main powerful eating disorder risk factors interact with each other which explains eating psychopathology vulnerability. 111 high school students (68 males; age range 13-19years) classified as obese and 111 age-, sex- and social status-homogeneous normal weight controls were included in the current study. All participants were asked to fill out self-report measures of parental behavior as perceived by the offspring, eating disturbance attitudes and behaviors, self-esteem, perfectionism and shame. Significant differences between the two groups in relation to dysfunctional eating behaviors emerged. Body shame had the strongest relationship to eating problems vulnerability and acted as a mediator in the relationship between low self-esteem and eating disorder risk among both obese and non-obese youngsters. These findings further our understanding of a potential underlying mechanism for eating pathology development in youngsters in general and in obese adolescents in particular, which is of great importance in terms of prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. "You better not leave me shaming!": Conditional indirect effect analyses of anti-fat attitudes, body shame, and fat talk as a function of self-compassion in college women.

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    Webb, Jennifer B; Fiery, Mallory F; Jafari, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    The present investigation provided a theoretically-driven analysis testing whether body shame helped account for the predicted positive associations between explicit weight bias in the form of possessing anti-fat attitudes (i.e., dislike, fear of fat, and willpower beliefs) and engaging in fat talk among 309 weight-diverse college women. We also evaluated whether self-compassion served as a protective factor in these relationships. Robust non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures adjusted for body mass index (BMI) revealed stronger indirect and conditional indirect effects for dislike and fear of fat attitudes and weaker, marginal effects for the models inclusive of willpower beliefs. In general, the indirect effect of anti-fat attitudes on fat talk via body shame declined with increasing levels of self-compassion. Our preliminary findings may point to useful process variables to target in mitigating the impact of endorsing anti-fat prejudice on fat talk in college women and may help clarify who is at higher risk.

  17. Shame and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, S; Quercioli, L

    2000-08-01

    The origins of the word "shame" recall the concept of the infraction of integrity both as scandal and as individualization. The human experience of shame stretches along a continuum from modesty to disabling interpersonal terror. Unlike other basic affects, its emergence is a fundamental moment in the process of self-awareness and self-object differentiation. Neglected by psychiatry because it was regarded as a moral concept, today it is possible to hypothesize that it has a biologic basis that one can attempt to describe in terms of corticothalamic pathways. In this respect, like other affects, it could be considered as a cognitive shortcut to activate specific and evolutionally useful behavioral patterns, such as concealment or a request for affiliation. It is fairly ubiquitous in psychopathology, but is clinically much more structured in its abnormal expressions in anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and even in bipolar mood disorder. In schizophrenia it has been described as being one stage in the construction of delusion. Its presence is connected to interpersonal relationship (altruism) though it seems absent in autism. The assessment of shame experiences in psychiatric patients could be useful for both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies, and could provide a categorization of a new psychopathology based on abnormal affects.

  18. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction.

  19. Internalized Sexualization and Its Relation to Sexualized Appearance, Body Surveillance, and Body Shame among Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Sarah J.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually objectifying messages about girls and women are common in U.S. popular culture. As a consequence of exposure to such messages, girls may develop "internalized sexualization," or internalization of the belief that sexual attractiveness to males is an important aspect of their identity. We hypothesized that internalized…

  20. Gender and Shame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    This entry aims to offer a critical summary of philosophical research at the intersection of gender studies and the particular emotion of shame. Among the emotions, shame attracts particular interest from philosophers interested in gender studies who have primarily focussed on the various facets...... of the oppression and domination of women by men. In this context, shame is often considered as part of the phenomenology of oppression. As a result of the subordinated position of women in society, shame is gender-specific in at least two important senses, which will be the object of this entry. In the first sense......, women are more shame-prone than men. This idea will be the object of Section 2. In the other more radical sense, shame is experienced and therefore conceptualized rather differently by different genders due to the different social positions they tend to occupy. This idea will be the object of Section 3....

  1. Violence, shame and humiliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of shame came into the focus of psychology and psychiatry only a few years ago. Psychopathology recognizes many shame related syndromes and disorders. Recognition of the scientific importance of shame is connected with the change in theoretical understanding of neuroses. Scientific evidence confirm the connection between violence and humiliation of human dignity. Humiliation seems to effect the individual through destruction of social competence and psychosocial identity. But, humiliation and exclusion of individuals and groups have also an important sociocultural effect. The author tries to describe the interaction between violence, shame, humiliation and related psychopathological disturbances in an attempt to contribute to a victim oriented mental health discourse.

  2. In Defense of Shame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deonna, Julien; Rodogno, Raffaele; Teroni, Fabrice

    Is shame social? Is it superficial? Is it a morally problematic emotion? Researchers in disciplines as different as psychology, philosophy, and anthropology have thought so. But what is the nature of shame and why are claims regarding its social nature and moral standing interesting and important......, thus shedding light on many aspects of this complex emotion and allowing for a sophisticated understanding of its moral significance.......Is shame social? Is it superficial? Is it a morally problematic emotion? Researchers in disciplines as different as psychology, philosophy, and anthropology have thought so. But what is the nature of shame and why are claims regarding its social nature and moral standing interesting and important...

  3. In Defense of Shame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deonna, Julien; Rodogno, Raffaele; Teroni, Fabrice

    Is shame social? Is it superficial? Is it a morally problematic emotion? Researchers in disciplines as different as psychology, philosophy, and anthropology have thought so. But what is the nature of shame and why are claims regarding its social nature and moral standing interesting and important...

  4. Self-objectification, body self-consciousness during sexual activities, and sexual satisfaction in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudat, Kim; Warren, Cortney S

    2014-09-01

    Few studies examine the mechanisms that link body image to sexual satisfaction in women. Using the tenets of objectification theory, this study investigated the relationships between body surveillance, body shame, body self-consciousness during sexual activities, and sexual satisfaction in an ethnically diverse sample of American female college students (N=368), while controlling for relationship status and body mass index. Results based on self-report measures of these constructs suggested that body shame and body self-consciousness during sexual activity were negatively correlated with sexual satisfaction. Additionally, path analysis indicated that body surveillance predicted increased body self-consciousness during sexual activity, partially mediated by body shame. Body self-consciousness, in turn, predicted decreased sexual satisfaction. Overall, study findings highlight the negative consequences of body image concerns for women's sexual satisfaction.

  5. How menstrual shame affects birth.

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    Moloney, Sharon

    2010-12-01

    In Western, industrialised culture, menstruation and birth are commonly seen as unstable, pathological processes requiring medical control. Girls learn to see menstruation as shameful and secretive. Menarche is a nodal event around which girls' beliefs and attitudes to being female are organised. The perception of menstruation as a liability has foundational implications for future female experiences, particularly birth. Other cultures have recognised menstruation and birth as spiritual phenomena, with menarche and childbirth experienced as powerful initiatory processes. My PhD research explored the links between cultural attitudes to menstruation and spirituality, and women's experiences of birth. My feminist perspective recognised the power imbalances, patriarchal controls and structural inequities that oppress women in their intimate body experiences. Menstrual shame was identified as a core patriarchal organising principle that inculcates and perpetuates male dominance and female subordination. Engendering the perception of female physiology - and thus womanhood - as inherently flawed, menstrual shame was a key factor that predisposed women to approach birth feeling fearful, disempowered and vulnerable to intervention. However, my research also unearthed a counter-cultural group of women who had transformed their relationship with both menstruation and birth. Redesignating menstruation as a spiritual phenomenon enabled these women to dismantle their menstrual shame, connect with their female spirituality and give birth fearlessly and powerfully. For others, the profound spirituality of birth transformed their understanding of menstruation. Contrary to cultural norms, both menstruation and birth can be sacred female experiences which are sources of authority and empowerment. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The phenomenology of shame in the clinical encounter.

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    Dolezal, Luna

    2015-11-01

    This article examines the phenomenology of body shame in the context of the clinical encounter, using the television program 'Embarrassing Bodies' as illustrative. I will expand on the insights of Aaron Lazare's 1987 article 'Shame and Humiliation in the Medical Encounter' where it is argued that patients often see their diseases and ailments as defects, inadequacies or personal shortcomings and that visits to doctors and medical professionals involve potentially humiliating physical and psychological exposure. I will start by outlining a phenomenology of shame in order to understand more clearly the effect shame about the body can have in terms of one's personal experience and, furthermore, one's interpersonal dynamics. I will then examine shame in the clinical encounter, linking body shame to the cultural stigma attached to illness, dysfunction and bodily frailty. I will furthermore explore how shame can be exacerbated or even incited by physicians through judgment and as a result of the power imbalance inherent to the physician-patient dynamic, compounded by the contemporary tendency to moralise about 'lifestyle' illnesses. Lastly, I will provide some reflections for how health care workers might approach patient shame in clinical practice.

  7. The Shame of Addiction

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    Flanagan, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is a person-level phenomenon that involves twin normative failures. A failure of normal rational effective agency or self-control with respect to the substance; and shame at both this failure, and the failure to live up to the standards for a good life that the addict himself acknowledges and aspires to. Feeling shame for addiction is not a mistake. It is part of the shape of addiction, part of the normal phenomenology of addiction, and often a source of motivation for the addict to heal. Like other recent attempts in the addiction literature to return normative concepts such as “choice” and “responsibility” to their rightful place in understanding and treating addiction, the twin normative failure model is fully compatible with investigation of genetic and neuroscientific causes of addiction. Furthermore, the model does not re-moralize addiction. There can be shame without blame. PMID:24115936

  8. Shame and the Internalized Other

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Sanchez, Alba

    2015-01-01

    In Shame and Necessity, Bernard Williams engages in a forceful vindication of the ethical significance of shame. In his view, shame is an extremely productive moral emotion because of the distinctive connection that it establishes between self, others and world, through a self-evaluation that is ...

  9. Shameful Separations and Embarrassing Proximities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maja Bissenbakker

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces various theories of shame as they figure within a queer theoretical framework. Drawing on E.K. Sedgwick’s thinking, shame is presented as a theory of nonnormative subject formation that holds potential for political activist thinking. Rather than regarding shame as an inner...

  10. Developing a Statewide Childhood Body Mass Index Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David R.; Scruggs, Philip W.; Goc Karp, Grace; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Robinson, Clay; Lester, Michael J.; Gao, Yong; Petranek, Laura J.; Brown, Helen; Shimon, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several states have implemented childhood obesity surveillance programs supported by legislation. Representatives from Idaho wished to develop a model for childhood obesity surveillance without the support of state legislation, and subsequently report predictors of overweight and obesity in the state. Methods: A coalition comprised of…

  11. Features of objectified body consciousness and sociocultural perspectives as risk factors for disordered eating among late-adolescent women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Body surveillance and body shame are features of objectified body consciousness (OBC) that have been linked to disordered eating, yet the evidence base is largely cross-sectional and limited to samples in certain Western countries. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these factors contribute to the prediction of eating disturbances independent of conceptually related risk factors emphasized within other sociocultural accounts. In this prospective study, body surveillance, body shame, and features of complementary sociocultural models (i.e., perceived appearance pressure from mass media and close interpersonal networks, appearance social comparisons, negative affect, body dissatisfaction) were assessed as risk factors for and concomitants of eating disturbances over time. University-age, mainland Chinese women (n = 2144) and men (n = 1017) completed validated measures of eating-disorder pathology and hypothesized risk factors at baseline (T1) and 1-year follow-up (T2). Among women, elevations on T1 measures of sociocultural-model features predicted more T2 eating disturbances, independent of T1 disturbances. After controlling for other T1 predictors, body surveillance and shame made modest unique contributions to the model. Finally, heightened T2 body dissatisfaction, media, and interpersonal appearance pressure, negative affect, and body shame predicted concomitant increases in T2 eating concerns. For men, T1 features of sociocultural accounts (negative affect, body dissatisfaction) but not OBC predicted T2 eating disturbances, along with attendant elevations in T2 negative affect, interpersonal appearance pressure, and body shame. Implications are discussed for theory and intervention that target disordered eating.

  12. Social exclusion and shame in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried; Euteneuer, Frank; Kohlmann, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Weight bias often results in the social exclusion of individuals with obesity. The direct, short-term psychological effects of social exclusion in obesity have not been investigated yet. This study experimentally tests whether social exclusion elicits stronger negative emotions in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight controls. Specifically, we test whether social exclusion has a specific impact on shame. In total, N=299 individuals (n=130 with body mass index [BMI]≤30 and n=169 with BMI>30) were randomly assigned to a social exclusion condition or a control condition that was implemented with an online Cyberball paradigm. Before and after, they filled out questionnaires assessing state emotionality. Social exclusion increased negative emotionality in both groups compared to the control condition (psocial exclusion was also significant (p=0.035) and arose from a significant, specific increase of shame in the group with obesity during social exclusion (psocial exclusion, individuals with obesity do not respond with more intensive negative emotions in general compared to controls, but with a specific increase in shame. As social exclusion is frequent in individuals with obesity, psychological interventions focussing shame-related emotional distress could be crucial.

  13. Is Shame Hallucinogenic?

    OpenAIRE

    Simon McCarthy-Jones

    2017-01-01

    Research into the causes of “hearing voices,” formally termed auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), has primarily focused on cognitive mechanisms. A potentially causative role for emotion has been relatively neglected. This paper uses historical and contemporary case studies of AVH to tentatively generate the hypothesis that shame can be a causal factor in the onset of AVH. Other sources of support for the generation of this hypothesis are then sought. First, evidence is examined for a role o...

  14. Accounting for fluctuations in body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colautti, Lauren A; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Blackburn, Stephen; Wyett, Elise

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated whether the strength of relationship between contextual cues (presence of company and mood) and state body dissatisfaction varied as a function of individual differences in key trait measures (body shame, body surveillance tendencies, internalization of appearance standards, and trait affect) which have been linked to trait body dissatisfaction. Fifty-five undergraduate women completed a questionnaire containing the trait-based measures and then carried a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) for a 7-day period. The PDA prompted participants six times daily to self-report their current mood and state body dissatisfaction. Multi-level modeling revealed that individual differences in body shame predicted inter-individual variability in the strength of the relationships between presence of company and state body dissatisfaction, and positive mood and state body dissatisfaction. Trait positive affect also explained variance in the positive mood state-body dissatisfaction relationship. The implications of the findings for prevention of body image disturbances are discussed.

  15. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  16. Envy, shame, and sadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, John W

    2005-01-01

    In this article, envy is identified as a drive derivative, erupting as a definable behavior in the anal phase of psychosexual development, locating envy as first being experienced during the stage of self-development, separation/individuation. The aim of envy, as identified by the nature of the investment the subject makes in envied objects, is described as "aquisitiveness," or, following Klein, sadism, defined in terms of the subject wanting to incorporate the envied object, making the aim of envy narcissistic, that is, an aggrandizing of the self. The usual aim assigned to envy, destructiveness, is conceptualized as a defense against the cannibalistic hunger of envy, in response to the regulatory affect, shame. The dynamic of this defense accounts for the dyadic nature of the object of envy (as opposed to jealousy), supporting the "splitting" quality of this defense. This rendering of envy, shame, and sadism promotes the integration of narcissistic urges into normative psychosexual development and deepens an understanding of the splitting defense in pathological narcissism.

  17. Self-management through shame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Bjerg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    -management works through an ambiguous production of affects within a particular affective economy where appreciation, interest and shame is produced and exchanged. The main argument of the article is how the success of appreciative management relies not only on the production of positive affects related...... of management of self-management in two ways. Firstly, by thinking management of self-management trough concepts from what has become known as the affective turn. Secondly, by illustrating the precise mechanisms of management of self-management in every day life and thereby pointing to how management of self...... to recognition, but is also linked to the production of shame or at least potential shame. This argument is developed theoretically from Brian Massumi's theory on affectivity and intensity combined with Silvan Tomkins's theory of shame as the most self-reflexive affect of all affects. In order to exemplify...

  18. Shame and the Internalized Other

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Sanchez, Alba

    2015-01-01

    -evaluation that is mediated by an internalized other. In this paper, I examine Williams’ conception of the internalized other and contrast it with other ways of conceiving the role of others in shame. I argue that, although Williams’ views contain many important insights, much is to be gained by conceiving the role of others...... in Sartrean terms instead. The other’s perspective is not merely internalized; it is constitutive of the kind of selfhood that has a capacity for shame....

  19. Gigapixel photography for skin cancer surveillance: a novel alternative to total-body photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikailov, Anar; Blechman, Adam

    2013-11-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the use of cutaneous imaging in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for early detection and treatment of melanoma. In the last 2 decades, total-body photography (TBP) has been widely used in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for active skin cancer surveillance with proven clinical utility; however, the groundbreaking image detail provided by gigapixel photography (GP) could improve dermatologists' ability to monitor suspicious lesions and therefore could serve a critical role in supplementing traditional total-body skin examinations for skin cancer surveillance. Although it has been successfully implemented in other fields, future studies are required to determine the effectiveness of GP in dermatology.

  20. Pride, Shame and Group Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eSalice

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-conscious emotions such as shame and pride are emotions that typically focus on the self of the person who feels them. In other words, the intentional object of these emotions is assumed to be the subject that experiences them. Many reasons speak in its favor and yet this account seems to leave a question open: how to cash out those cases in which one genuinely feels ashamed or proud of what someone else does?This paper contends that such cases do not necessarily challenge the idea that shame and pride are about the emoting subject. Rather, we claim that some of the most paradigmatic scenarios of shame and pride induced by others can be accommodated by taking seriously the consideration that, in such cases, the subject group-identifies with the other. This is the idea that, in feeling these forms of shame or pride, the subject is conceiving of herself as a member of the same group as the subject acting shamefully or in an admirable way. In other words, these peculiar emotive responses are elicited in the subject insofar as, and to the extent that, she is (or sees herself as being a member of a group – the group to which those who act shamefully or admirably also belong.By looking into the way in which the notion of group identification can allow for an account of hetero-induced shame and pride, this paper attempts to achieve a sort of mutual enlightenment that brings to light not only an important and generally neglected form of self-conscious emotions, but also relevant features of group identification. In particular, it generates evidence for the idea that group identification is a psychological process that the subject does not have to carry out intentionally in the sense that it is not necessarily triggered by the subject’s conative states like desires or intentions.

  1. Shame and guilt in child sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proeve, Michael; Howells, Kevin

    2002-12-01

    In this article, the authors build on previous discussions of the possible role of shame and guilt in sexual offending. They review the general psychological literature on shame and guilt and conclude that the distinction between internal and external shame is an important one in considering sexual offenders. The effects of shame and guilt on victim empathy and relapse are discussed, and it is proposed that the phenomena of shame and guilt have implications for treatment beyond those identified in previous studies. Shame is a salient feature in the initial presentation of many sexual offenders against children. Furthermore, aspects of the treatment of sexual offenders can be characterized as a shift from shame toward guilt. Implications of shame and guilt for treatment of sexual offenders are described.

  2. A study of shame from sexual abuse within the context of a Norwegian incest center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Kaare Torgny

    2013-01-01

    Working with those who have experienced sexual abuse is a complicated matter because such abuse not only involves the violation of the victim's body, but it often generates shame in those involved. This article is based on empirical data from 26 hours of videotaped focus group interviews with 19 adult men and women in a Norwegian incest center who spoke openly of the shame they experienced from sexual abuse as children, parents, and employees. Findings from this study show that shame from sexual abuse can be grouped into seven major categories: (a) family, (b) emotions, (c) body, (d) food, (e) self-image, (f) sex, and (g) therapy.

  3. ‘The fact that she just looked at me…’ – Narrations on shame in South African workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude-Hélène Mayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Shame has been internationally researched in various cultural and societal contexts as well as across cultures in the workplace, schools and institutions of higher education. It is an emotional signal that refers to experienced incongruence of identity goals and the judgement of others.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to focus on experiences of shame in the South African (SA workplace, to provide emic, in-depth insights into the experiences of shame of employees.Motivation for the study: Shame in the workplace often occurs and might impact negatively on mental health and well-being, capability, freedom and human rights. This article aims at gaining some in-depth understanding of shame experiences in SA workplaces. Building on this understanding the aim is to develop awareness in Industrial and Organisational Psychologists (IOPs, employees and organisations to cope with shame constructively in addition to add to the apparent void in the body of knowledge on shame in SA workplaces.Research design, approach and method: An interpretative hermeneutical research paradigm, based on Dilthey’s modern hermeneutics was applied. Data were collected through semistructured interviews of 11 employees narrating their experiences from various workplaces, including the military, consulting organisations and higher education institutions. Content analysis was used for data analysis and interpretation.Main findings: The major themes around which shameful experiences evolved included loss of face, mistreatment by others, low work quality, exclusion, lifestyle and internalised shame on failure in the workplace. Shame is experienced as a disturbing emotion that impacts negatively on the self within the work context. It is also experienced as reducing mental health and well-being at work.Practical/managerial implications: SA organisations need to be more aware of shame in the workplace, to address the potential negative effects of shame on

  4. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  5. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  6. Downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern among African American and Caucasian college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2011-06-01

    Within dominant American culture, females often learn to view themselves from an observer's perspective and to treat themselves as objects to be looked at (i.e., self-objectification), which can result in negative outcomes. Body surveillance (the indicator of self-objectification) has been found to predict concern with weight/shape in predominantly Caucasian samples, but research has not yet examined the potential reciprocal relations between body surveillance and weight/shape concern. Participants were 226 women attending a Midwestern university (70 self-identified as African American and 156 as Caucasian) who provided data at two time points, spaced about 5 months apart. Results revealed that downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern were apparent for the Caucasian but not the African American women. However, there was evidence that body surveillance helped account for change in weight/shape concern for the African American women.

  7. Examining social physique anxiety and disordered eating in college women. The roles of social comparison and body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Harney, Megan B; Brownstone, Lisa M; Higgins, M K; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2012-12-01

    Social physique anxiety has been found to be associated with disordered eating. However, what is not yet known is what behaviors college women may engage in that strengthen this relation. In the current study, we examined two possible moderating factors, social comparison and body surveillance. We examined whether these moderators might also generalize to trait anxiety, as well. Participants were 265 women attending a Southeastern university. Social comparison (both general and appearance-related) and body surveillance were tested as moderators of the relation between social physique anxiety and disordered eating. Results indicated that general social comparison, appearance-related social comparison, and body surveillance significantly moderated this relation. Individuals who were high in social physique anxiety and who reported high levels of general or appearance-related social comparison or body surveillance reported much higher levels of disordered eating than those with high social physique anxiety and low levels of these behaviors. Results indicated that only the trait anxiety×body surveillance interaction was significant in identifying elevated disordered eating. Results provide information regarding who may experience high levels of disordered eating in association with social physique anxiety, which has clinical implications including the conceptualization of social comparison and body surveillance as safety behaviors.

  8. Pride, Shame and Group Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salice, Alessandro; Montes Sanchez, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Self-conscious emotions such as shame and pride are emotions that typically focus on the self of the person who feels them. In other words, the intentional object of these emotions is assumed to be the subject that experiences them. Many reasons speak in its favor and yet this account seems...... to leave a question open: how to cash out those cases in which one genuinely feels ashamed or proud of what someone else does? This paper contends that such cases do not necessarily challenge the idea that shame and pride are about the emoting subject. Rather, we claim that some of the most paradigmatic...... of group identification. In particular, it generates evidence for the idea that group identification is a psychological process that the subject does not have to carry out intentionally in the sense that it is not necessarily triggered by the subject’s conative states like desires or intentions....

  9. Pride, Shame and Group Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salice, Alessandro; Montes Sanchez, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Self-conscious emotions such as shame and pride are emotions that typically focus on the self of the person who feels them. In other words, the intentional object of these emotions is assumed to be the subject that experiences them. Many reasons speak in its favor and yet this account seems...... to leave a question open: how to cash out those cases in which one genuinely feels ashamed or proud of what someone else does? This paper contends that such cases do not necessarily challenge the idea that shame and pride are about the emoting subject. Rather, we claim that some of the most paradigmatic...... of group identification. In particular, it generates evidence for the idea that group identification is a psychological process that the subject does not have to carry out intentionally in the sense that it is not necessarily triggered by the subject’s conative states like desires or intentions....

  10. Feminine Shame/Masculine Disgrace: A Literary Excursion through Gender and Embodied Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Nurka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks a disarticulation of shame and disgrace, and hypothesises that there is a gendered cultural articulation of the two terms at work that runs counter to the normative understanding of their symbiotic unity. Specifically, I argue that the primary difference is that where shame is embodied, or an emotion fundamentally of the body, disgrace is facialised and thus able to rid itself of the body in its capacity as the privileged representative of the face. I turn to literature—using JM Coetzee’s novel Disgrace (1999 as my example—both to elucidate this distinction and to argue that the meanings of shame and disgrace diverge noticeably when the two terms come into contact with gender. As a consequence, the paper will contend that the book’s dominant narrative of racial reconciliation is in fact articulated through sexually distinct shamed positionalities.

  11. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice......In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... practitioners have to take account of a rather more complex picture than it had hitherto been thought. Restorative conferences are not simply about "shame management," though practitioners must certainly avoid shaming and humiliation. Given the nature of shame, guilt, and restorative conferences...

  12. Temple or Prison: Religious Beliefs and Attitudes Toward the Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Heather L; Hall, M Elizabeth Lewis; Anderson, Tamara L; Willingham, Michele M

    2016-12-01

    Most research on religion and the body has focused on the relationship between broad dimensions of religion, such as religious commitment or religious orientation, and body image or eating behaviors. The present study extends existing research by examining two specific religiously influenced beliefs about the body within a Protestant Christian sample, radical dualism and sanctification, and by focusing on a wider range of attitudes toward the body. The view of radical dualism sees the body as corrupt and separate from oneself, while the view of sanctification sees the body as holy, worthy of respect, and integral to one's being. This study examined how both radically dualistic and sanctified views of the body relate to attitudes people hold about their bodies including body appreciation and two components of body objectification: self-surveillance and body shame. To date, none of these attitudes have been examined in relation to specific, nuanced religious beliefs about the body. Participants were 243 adults from a variety of Protestant denominations. Using an online survey system and self-report measures, participants indicated the degree to which they hold radically dualistic and sanctified views about their bodies as well as their attitudes toward their bodies. Radical dualism was found to be negatively related to body appreciation and positively related to body shame. Sanctification was found to predict body appreciation. Body shame mediated the relationship between religious beliefs about the body and self-surveillance. This study contributes to a greater understanding of how religiously based beliefs about the body are related to attitudes about the body.

  13. Financial Stress, Shaming Experiences and Psychosocial Ill-Health: Studies into the Finances-Shame Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrin, Bengt; Aslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the Finances-Shame model and its explanatory power regarding the prevalence of psychosocial ill-health. The Finances-Shame model postulates that (i) the greater the financial stress and the more experiences of having been shamed, the greater the risk for psychosocial ill-health, (ii) the lesser the financial stress…

  14. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiklander Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA, which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n = 175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD, non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n = 162, and healthy controls (n = 161. The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters

  15. Shame in patients with narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kathrin; Vater, Aline; Rüsch, Nicolas; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Schütz, Astrid; Fydrich, Thomas; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-02-28

    Shame has been described as a central emotion in narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). However, there is a dearth of empirical data on shame in NPD. Patients with NPD (N=28), non-clinical controls (N=34) and individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD, N=31) completed self-report measures of state shame, shame-proneness, and guilt-proneness. Furthermore, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was included as a measure of implicit shame, assessing implicit shame-self associations relative to anxiety-self associations. Participants with NPD reported higher levels of explicit shame than non-clinical controls, but lower levels than patients with BPD. Levels of guilt-proneness did not differ among the three study groups. The implicit shame-self associations (relative to anxiety-self associations) were significantly stronger among patients with NPD compared to nonclinical controls and BPD patients. Our findings indicate that shame is a prominent feature of NPD. Implications for diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  16. Examining an elaborated sociocultural model of disordered eating among college women: the roles of social comparison and body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G

    2014-09-01

    Social comparison (i.e., body, eating, exercise) and body surveillance were tested as mediators of the thin-ideal internalization-body dissatisfaction relationship in the context of an elaborated sociocultural model of disordered eating. Participants were 219 college women who completed two questionnaire sessions 3 months apart. The cross-sectional elaborated sociocultural model (i.e., including social comparison and body surveillance as mediators of the thin-ideal internalization-body dissatisfaction relation) provided a good fit to the data, and the total indirect effect from thin-ideal internalization to body dissatisfaction through the mediators was significant. Social comparison emerged as a significant specific mediator while body surveillance did not. The mediation model did not hold prospectively; however, social comparison accounted for unique variance in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating 3 months later. Results suggest that thin-ideal internalization may not be "automatically" associated with body dissatisfaction and that it may be especially important to target comparison in prevention and intervention efforts.

  17. Chemical carcinogens as foreign bodies and some pitfalls regarding cancer immune surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenstein, Thomas; Qin, Zhihai

    2003-01-01

    Interferon-gamma-receptor (IFN-gammaR)-deficient mice are more susceptible to tumor induction by methylcholanthrene (MCA) in comparison to control littermates. The cellular source of IFNgamma is not known, but the absence of T cells does not significantly increase the incidence of MCA-induced tumors. However, it appears that the presence of T cells in combination with unknown, perhaps environmental, factors can decrease MCA-induced tumor incidence, indicating that IFN-gamma of unknown origin contributes to the protective response. The current knowledge of cancer biology, immune regulation, and tumor-promoting effects of inflammation are difficult to reconcile with the concept of immune surveillance against non-virus-associated cancer. Analysis of the primary MCA-treated mouse indicates, as one protective mechanism, a tissue repair response against MCA-induced damage, in the course of which MCA is encapsulated and persists for long time in tumor-free mice, termed foreign-body reaction. The protection from DNA damage could simultaneously diminish tissue injury and malignant transformation. We argue that inhibition of MCA-induced carcinogenesis is mechanistically different from tumor transplantation immunity and that a longer latency in MCA-treated mice is unlikely due to T cell-mediated tumor recognition and selection of less immunogenic variants. We discuss that the IFNgammaR-dependent mechanism against MCA is unrelated to the original concept of T cell-mediated immune surveillance and that the increased spontaneous tumor incidence observed in some immune-deficient mice is likely to be explained by opportunistic infection and tumor-promoting chronic inflammation.

  18. Surveillance of occupational blood and body fluid exposures among French healthcare workers in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, A G; Vincent, A; L'heriteau, F; Floret, N; Senechal, H; Abiteboul, D; Reyreaud, E; Coignard, B; Parneix, P

    2007-10-01

    To estimate the incidence rate of reported occupational blood and body fluid exposures among French healthcare workers (HCWs). Prospective national follow-up of HCWs from January 1 to December 31, 2004. University hospitals, hospitals, clinics, local medical centers, and specialized psychiatric centers were included in the study on a voluntary basis. At participating medical centers, every reported blood and body fluid exposure was documented by the occupational practitioner in charge of the exposed HCW by use of an anonymous, standardized questionnaire. A total of 375 medical centers (15% of French medical centers, accounting for 29% of hospital beds) reported 13,041 blood and body fluid exposures; of these, 9,396 (72.0%) were needlestick injuries. Blood and body fluid exposures were avoidable in 39.1% of cases (5,091 of 13,020), and 52.2% of percutaneous injuries (4,986 of 9,552) were avoidable (5.9% due to needle recapping). Of 10,656 percutaneous injuries, 22.6% occurred during an injection, 17.9% during blood sampling, and 16.6% during surgery. Of 2,065 splashes, 22.6% occurred during nursing activities, 19.1% during surgery, 14.1% during placement or removal of an intravenous line, and 12.0% during manipulation of a tracheotomy tube. The incidence rates of exposures were 8.9 per 100 hospital beds (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.7-9.0 exposures), 2.2 per 100 full-time-equivalent physicians (95% CI, 2.4-2.6 exposures), and 7.0 per 100 full-time-equivalent nurses (95% CI, 6.8-7.2 exposures). Human immunodeficiency virus serological status was unknown for 2,789 (21.4%) of 13,041 patients who were the source of the blood and body fluid exposures. National surveillance networks for blood and body fluid exposures help to better document their characteristics and risk factors and can enhance prevention at participating medical centers.

  19. The Use of 'Shame' with Sexual Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    McAlinden, Anne-Marie

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the use of shaming mechanisms with sexual offenders, particularly those who offend against children. Shaming, a central concept in the broader theory of restorative justice, may be of two varieties. The first, ‘disintegrative shaming’, characterises the traditional retributive framework of justice and is evident in recent state led and popular responses to the risk posed by released sexual offenders. Far from ensuring offender integration, the net result is often labelli...

  20. The Role of Body Image in the Relationship Between Internet Use and Bulimic Symptoms: Three Theoretical Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melioli, Tiffany; Rodgers, Rachel F; Rodrigues, Marie; Chabrol, Henri

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to traditional media has been associated with bulimic symptoms. However, to date, little is known regarding the effects of Internet exposure. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between Internet use and bulimic symptoms within the competing frameworks of sociocultural, impression management, and self-objectification theory. A sample of 289 French women aged 18-25 years completed an online questionnaire assessing bulimic symptoms, body dissatisfaction, body image avoidance, self-surveillance, body shame, and weekly Internet use. Bootstrapping analyses revealed that body shame and body image avoidance mediated the effect of weekly Internet use on bulimic symptoms. Furthermore, when entered into a multiple mediation analysis, these two variables provided independent mediation pathways of equal magnitude. The findings support the usefulness of both the self-objectification and impression management frameworks for investigating the relationship between Internet use and bulimic symptoms. Longitudinal research would help to clarify these pathways further.

  1. Trumping Shame by Blasts of Noise: Narcissism, Self-Esteem, Shame, and Aggression in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert

    2008-01-01

    This experiment tested how self-views influence shame-induced aggression. One hundred and sixty-three young adolescents (M = 12.2 years) completed measures of narcissism and self-esteem. They lost to an ostensible opponent on a competitive task. In the shame condition, they were told that their opponent was bad, and they saw their own name at the…

  2. Trumping Shame by Blasts of Noise: Narcissism, Self-Esteem, Shame, and Aggression in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert

    2008-01-01

    This experiment tested how self-views influence shame-induced aggression. One hundred and sixty-three young adolescents (M = 12.2 years) completed measures of narcissism and self-esteem. They lost to an ostensible opponent on a competitive task. In the shame condition, they were told that their opponent was bad, and they saw their own name at the…

  3. [The role of shame in development of the mental disorders II. Measurement of shame and relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizin, Gabriella; Unoka, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Our review is an overview of research literature aimed at evaluating the differential association of shame with various mental disorders. In the first part of this review, we present questionnaire and experimental methods applied in clinical trials for measuring shame. In the second part of our review, we review research that investigated the association between shame, and shame induced behavioral and emotional reactions, as well as the following mental disorders: anxiety disorders (social phobia, PTSD, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobias, OCD), mood disorders (unipolar depression, bipolar disorder), suicide attempts, self-harm behavior, eating disorders, somatization, personality disorders, aggression, addictions, autism and paranoia. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that this excessive emotional state associated with negative self-esteem on global self plays a central role in mental disorders, although shame is very rarely applied as diagnostic criterion in DSM.

  4. No place to hide: the group leader's moments of shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Louisa R Powell

    2006-07-01

    Shame is a powerful, universal experience; yet because of its painful, secretive nature, it often remains an underground affect for many therapists. On behalf of our patients and ourselves, we must de-stigmatize it. My aim is to further a dialogue among group therapists about processing our own shame, by openly discussing the phenomenology and dynamics of shame. Such discussion is not easy, as shame by its nature seems almost unspeakable; yet leaders, due to the group setting, are especially at risk of having shame activated. Using a self-psychological/intersubjective approach, this paper suggests how we as therapists can become cognizant of and work with our own shame. Given the dearth of experience-near accounts of the group therapist's own shame, the author provides detailed vignettes of her own experiences with shame in the clinical setting.

  5. Shame, recognition and love in Shakespeare’s 'King Lear'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Sanchez, Alba

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the experience of shame and its connections to recognition and love as manifested in Shakespeare’s King Lear. My main focus in this paper is the ethical relevance of shame. I start from Sartre’s account of shame in Being and Nothingness, and I consider Webber’s attempt to...

  6. Shame, recognition and love in Shakespeare’s 'King Lear'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Sanchez, Alba

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the experience of shame and its connections to recognition and love as manifested in Shakespeare’s King Lear. My main focus in this paper is the ethical relevance of shame. I start from Sartre’s account of shame in Being and Nothingness, and I consider Webber’s attempt...

  7. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School nutrition environment and body mass index in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; van Raaij, Joop M A; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Eva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-10-30

    Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children's weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children's BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI/A Z

  8. An investigation of shame and guilt in a depressed sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B; Brewin, C R; Vearnals, S; Wolff, G; Leff, J

    1999-09-01

    A self-report measure of proneness to shame and guilt was administered to 86 patients with moderate to severe depression, with the prediction that there would be a positive correlation of shame with severity of depression. Contrary to other, non-clinical studies, we found that guilt but not shame was associated with levels of depression. Shame-proneness demonstrated a unique association with a stable attributional style for negative outcomes, global negative self-evaluation, submissive behaviour and internalized anger. Contrary to prediction, no relationship was found between shame- or guilt-proneness and a reported history of childhood sexual abuse.

  9. The teenager's confession: regulating shame in internal family systems therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweezy, Martha

    2011-01-01

    This case study explores the clinical relevance of the differences among shame, guilt that is linked with shame, and pure guilt. Empirical literature on emotion suggests that shame is instrumental in a host of psychiatric symptoms while pure guilt is prosocial and adaptive. Regulating shame and being able to feel pure guilt may be especially important for trauma patients like the one described here, who have transgressors as well as victims. The protocol of internal family systems (IFS), a mode of therapy that utilizes psychic multiplicity and actively recruits internal compassion, is described as a treatment for regulating shame and facilitating adaptive guilt.

  10. Ashamed and Afraid: A Scoping Review of the Role of Shame in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Saraiya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite considerable progress in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, a large percentage of individuals remain symptomatic following gold-standard therapies. One route to improving care is examining affective disturbances that involve other emotions beyond fear and threat. A growing body of research has implicated shame in PTSD’s development and course, although to date no review of this specific literature exists. This scoping review investigated the link between shame and PTSD and sought to identify research gaps. Methods: A systematic database search of PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, Cochrane, and CINAHL was conducted to find original quantitative research related to shame and PTSD. Results: Forty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Review found substantial support for an association between shame and PTSD as well as preliminary evidence suggesting its utility as a treatment target. Several design limitations and under-investigated areas were recognized, including the need for a multimodal assessment of shame and more longitudinal and treatment-focused research. Conclusion: This review provides crucial synthesis of research to date, highlighting the prominence of shame in PTSD, and its likely relevance in successful treatment outcomes. The present review serves as a guide to future work into this critical area of study.

  11. Japanese Shame Culture and American Guilt Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Culture is an important factor contributing to the success of intercultural communication. In the east and west, there are many different cultures, among which Japanese shame culture and American guilt culture are two typical ones. Influenced by different cultures, these two countries have different characteristics, which reminds us that in intercultural communication culture should be paid much attention to.

  12. A Place for Shame in Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, David

    2017-01-01

    An 18th-century parable based on the Adam story offers a model of moral education rooted in communitarianism. Individual conscience arises from social norms, with a vital role for shame and pride. Emphasizing the nobility of being created in the divine image, this model overcomes shortcomings of rationalist, Enlightenment education. Moreover, the…

  13. Betray my trust, shame on me: Shame, dissociation, fear, and betrayal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Melissa G; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2015-07-01

    Recent research suggests that betrayal is a fundamental dimension of trauma that may be a major factor contributing to posttraumatic distress (Freyd & Birrell, 2013). In the current study using a college student sample of female trauma survivors, (N = 124; 79% Caucasian; mean age = 20.40, SD = 3.60), we examined the contribution of high- and low-betrayal trauma history to shame, dissociation, and fear responses to threat. We hypothesized that (a) overall, shame and dissociation would be higher following interpersonal compared with noninterpersonal threat; (b) high- but not low-betrayal trauma history would predict increased shame and dissociation following interpersonal threat; and (c) low- but not high-betrayal trauma history would predict increased fear following noninterpersonal threat. Hypothesis 1 was not supported. There was no difference in overall shame and dissociation following interpersonal compared with noninterpersonal threat. Hypotheses 2 and 3 were supported. History of high- but not low-betrayal trauma predicted increases in shame (R² = .14) and dissociation (R² = .23) following interpersonal threat, whereas history of low- but not high-betrayal trauma predicted increases in fear (R² = .07) following noninterpersonal threat. These results contribute to growing evidence that perpetrator closeness matters when considering posttraumatic responses. Shame and dissociation warrant more clinical attention as possible barriers to effective exposure therapy among betrayal trauma survivors.

  14. Sex and shame: the inhibition of female desires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elise, Dianne

    2008-03-01

    A developmental narrative is presented that centers on bodily based narcissistic injury and sense of shame in response to unrequited oedipal longings. Through an experience of oedipal defeat in relation to both mother and father, a female sense of inadequacy and shame may be internalized and accepted as one's identity, in contrast to the male phallic-omnipotent trajectory. The demise of genital narcissism in females can underlie various expressions of pervasive inhibition and failure to actualize desire. The thesis offered goes beyond separation-individuation theory in suggesting that girls may inhibit sexuality and aggression, and themselves more generally, due to a representation of self as "not having what it takes" genitally, and then bodily and psychically. Mental representations of the self, based on positive imagery of the female body, are needed to give voice to a woman's bodily experience and sexual desire and agency in various realms. Two clinical vignettes illustrate female inhibitions in sexuality and in professional ambition as understood within the framework presented.

  15. The gendered embodiment of shame: Intersections of acquaintance rape, trauma and self-blame in Pompidou posse by Sarah Lotz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Murray

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a feminist literary analysis of the gendered embodiment of shame in Pompidou posse by Sarah Lotz. In this novel, Lotz depicts female characters who are sexually assaulted by acquaintances and the resultant shame and trauma reside in their bodies. I will demonstrate that the embodied shame of these characters is distinctly gendered and that this shapes their attempts to cope with the aftermath of the sexual assaults. A close reading of the text reveals that the characters are exposed to overwhelming social messages of female culpability in a larger context that is rife with misogyny. As a result, they anticipate blame to such an extent that they blame themselves and internalise this blame as shame. By focusing on the bodies of the survivors, Lotz demonstrates the embodiment of shame, but she also suggests a corporeal challenge to silencing. The bodies of these characters speak loudly, albeit sometimes in the halting language of trauma, and they function to alert them to danger, to help them excavate memories that are made inaccessible and to testify to traumatic sexual assault.

  16. Beneficial autoimmunity at body surfaces– immune surveillance and rapid type 2 immunity regulate tissue homeostasis and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eDalessandri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells line body surface tissues and provide a physicochemical barrier to the external environment. Frequent microbial and non-microbial challenges such as those imposed by mechanical disruption, injury or exposure to noxious environmental substances including chemicals, carcinogens, ultraviolet-irradiation or toxins cause activation of epithelial cells with release of cytokines and chemokines as well as alterations in the expression of cell surface ligands. Such display of epithelial stress is rapidly sensed by tissue resident immunocytes, which can directly interact with self-moieties on epithelial cells and initiate both local and systemic immune responses. Epithelial cells are thus key drivers of immune surveillance at body surface tissues. However, epithelial cells have a propensity to drive type 2 immunity (rather than type 1 upon non-invasive challenge or stress – a type of immunity whose regulation and function still remain enigmatic. Here we review the induction and possible role of type 2 immunity in epithelial tissues and propose that rapid immune surveillance and type 2 immunity are key regulators of tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis.

  17. Shame and the motivation to change the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickel, Brian; Kushlev, Kostadin; Savalei, Victoria; Matta, Shashi; Schmader, Toni

    2014-12-01

    A central question of human psychology is whether and when people change for the better. Although it has long been assumed that emotion plays a central role in self-regulation, the role of specific emotions in motivating a desire for self-change has been largely ignored. We report 2 studies examining people's lived experiences of self-conscious emotions, particularly shame, in motivating a desire for self-change. Study 1 revealed that when participants recalled experiences of shame, guilt, or embarrassment, shame-and, to some degree, guilt-predicted a motivation for self-change. Study 2 compared shame, guilt, and regret for events and found that although shame experiences often involved high levels of both regret and guilt, it was feelings of shame that uniquely predicted a desire for self-change, whereas regret predicted an interest in mentally undoing the past and repairing harm done. Implications for motivating behavior change are discussed.

  18. Childhood physical abuse and aggression: Shame and narcissistic vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Amanda C; Epps, James

    2016-01-01

    This study examined narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness as potential mediators between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and adult anger and aggression. Participants were 400 undergraduate students, 134 of whom had a history of CPA. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing history of CPA, shame-proneness, narcissistic vulnerability, physical aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Results indicated abused participants were more angry and aggressive and experienced higher levels of shame-proneness and narcissistic vulnerability than nonabused participants. Multiple mediation analyses showed that narcissistic vulnerability, but not shame-proneness, partially mediated the relation between abuse and physical aggression. However, narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness both emerged as partial mediators between abuse and the anger and hostility variables. These findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness may function as mediators of adjustment following childhood maltreatment. Study limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  19. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  20. BodyHeat Encounter: Performing Technology in Pedagogical Spaces of Surveillance/Intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Lynn; Ricketts, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    What occurs when videographer and performer encounter each other through the lens of a camera? This collaborative performative inquiry focuses on embodiment and emergent narrative as realized through an encounter between technology and the visceral body--a relational body that smells, touches, sees, hears and feels the emergent world through…

  1. The Impact of Shame, Self-Criticism and Social Rank on Eating Behaviours in Overweight and Obese Women Participating in a Weight Management Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Matos, Marcela; Stubbs, R James; Gale, Corinne; Morris, Liam; Gouveia, Jose Pinto; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that obesity is a stigmatised condition. Concerns with personal inferiority (social rank), shame and self-criticism may impact on weight management behaviours. The current study examined associations between social comparison (shame, self-criticism), negative affect and eating behaviours in women attending a community based weight management programme focused on behaviour change. 2,236 participants of the programme completed an online survey using measures of shame, self-criticism, social comparison, and weight-related affect, which were adapted to specifically address eating behaviour, weight and body shape perceptions. Correlation analyses showed that shame, self-criticism and social comparison were associated with negative affect. All of these variables were related to eating regulation and weight control (p criticism, and perceptions of inferiority may play a significant role in self-regulation of eating behaviour in overweight people trying to manage their weight.

  2. Cultural differences and shame in an expressive writing alcohol intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Young, Chelsie M; Neighbors, Clayton; Tou, Reese; Lu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the relationships between shame, culture, and drinking behavior in predicting drinking intentions in the context of an expressive writing intervention. Theory and empirical findings have generally found that shame is maladaptive and can lead to anxiety, depression, and problematic alcohol use. However, research on cultural differences suggests that shame may be differentially damaging to individuals of collectivist, Asian cultures. Previous research evaluating expressive writing as a brief alcohol intervention has shown promising results such as reduced drinking intentions and increased readiness to change drinking behavior. The present study tested the hypothesis that feelings of shame after writing about a negative heavy drinking event would be associated with greater alcohol use generally and that this effect would differ for Caucasian compared to Asian individuals. We also explored whether this differed for light and heavy drinkers. Two hundred sixty-four undergraduates (74% female) who drank at least one alcoholic beverage in the past month completed measures of demographics, baseline drinking, event-related shame and guilt, pre- and postwriting affect, and drinking intentions. Results revealed that, independent of affect, social desirability, and event-related guilt, shame was generally negatively associated with drinking intentions for Caucasians and light drinking Asians. However, for heavy drinking Asians, shame was associated with increased drinking intentions. Results suggest that interventions that elicit shame are differentially effective and should be targeted accordingly.

  3. Shame, Guilt, and Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmoon; Thibodeau, Ryan; Jorgensen, Randall S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work has facilitated the drawing of sharp conceptual distinctions between shame and guilt. A clear view of these distinctions has permitted development of a research literature aimed at evaluating the differential associations of shame and guilt with depressive symptoms. This study quantitatively summarized the…

  4. Mediation Effects of Internet Addiction on Shame and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ugur; Kaya, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    A survey of 488 college students was conducted in Turkey to investigate the relationship between social network usage, shame and Internet addiction. It was hypothesized that a relationship between shame and social network usage was mediated by Internet addiction. First of all, according to simple regression analysis, it was found that shame…

  5. Reconciliation responses, blame, and expressions of guilt or shame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, Caroline; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Zebel, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Recipients of intergroup apologies have been found to prefer expressions of shame over guilt. However, there is little research comparing the responses of a wronged group with those of a blamed group. Kenyans/Britons evaluated guilt/shame statements about colonialism, with blame measured as the

  6. Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

  7. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Sjöberg, A.; Eldin, N.; Yngve, A.; Kunesova, M.; Stare, G.; Rito, A.I.; Duleva, V.; Hassapidou, M.; Martos, E.; Pudule, I.; Petrauskiene, A.; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V.; Hovengen, R.; Breda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries.

  8. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Sjöberg, A.; Eldin, N.; Yngve, A.; Kunesova, M.; Stare, G.; Rito, A.I.; Duleva, V.; Hassapidou, M.; Martos, E.; Pudule, I.; Petrauskiene, A.; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V.; Hovengen, R.; Breda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Meth

  9. Increased amygdala response to shame in remitted major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Pulcu

    Full Text Available Proneness to self-blaming moral emotions such as shame and guilt is increased in major depressive disorder (MDD, and may play an important role in vulnerability even after symptoms have subsided. Social psychologists have argued that shame-proneness is relevant for depression vulnerability and is distinct from guilt. Shame depends on the imagined critical perception of others, whereas guilt results from one's own judgement. The neuroanatomy of shame in MDD is unknown. Using fMRI, we compared 21 participants with MDD remitted from symptoms with no current co-morbid axis-I disorders, and 18 control participants with no personal or family history of MDD. The MDD group exhibited higher activation of the right amygdala and posterior insula for shame relative to guilt (SPM8. This neural difference was observed despite equal levels of rated negative emotional valence and frequencies of induced shame and guilt experience across groups. These same results were found in the medication-free MDD subgroup (N = 15. Increased amygdala and posterior insula activations, known to be related to sensory perception of emotional stimuli, distinguish shame from guilt responses in remitted MDD. People with MDD thus exhibit changes in the neural response to shame after symptoms have subsided. This supports the hypothesis that shame and guilt play at least partly distinct roles in vulnerability to MDD. Shame-induction may be a more sensitive probe of residual amygdala hypersensitivity in MDD compared with facial emotion-evoked responses previously found to normalize on remission.

  10. Investing in the ideal: does objectified body consciousness mediate the association between appearance contingent self-worth and appearance self-esteem in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noser, Amy; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2014-03-01

    Appearance contingent self-worth has been shown to be associated with low appearance self-esteem but little is known about the role that objectified body consciousness may play in this relationship. The purpose of the present study with 465 female undergraduates was to examine whether objectified body consciousness mediates the association between appearance contingent self-worth and low levels of appearance self-esteem. This was accomplished using a multiple mediation model to examine whether components of objectified body consciousness (i.e., body surveillance, body shame, and control beliefs) play unique roles in the connection between appearance contingent self-worth and appearance self-esteem. Results showed that body surveillance and body shame were significant mediators of the connection between appearance contingent self-worth and low levels of appearance self-esteem. Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for the ways in which appearance contingent self-worth may promote heightened body consciousness and possibly contribute to low levels of appearance self-esteem.

  11. Obesogenic slurs: How pervasive fat-shaming undermines the battle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... context is the use and consequences of obesogenic slurs or fat-shaming in homes, ... teachers, coaches and medical workers to discourage unhealthy dietary and ... health issue, as it has been linked to eating and exercise psychopathology.

  12. The relationships between self-efficacy, internet addiction and shame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Craparo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet addiction (IAD is one of the most diffuse mental disorders among adolescents. Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationships between shame, self-efficacy and Internet addiction. Materials and Methods: We recruited a total of 670 college students (males = 164, 24.5%; females = 506, 75.5%. The subjects were aged between 18 and 36 years (M = 20.93, SD = 2.52; males: M = 21.43, SD = 2.95; females: M = 20.76, SD = 2.35. We administered the following instruments: Experience of Shame Scale; Perceived Social Self-Efficacy Scale - Adult Version; Perceived Self-Efficacy in Handling Negative Emotions Scales; Internet Addiction Test. Statistics Analysis: We applied multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA, Pearson′s correlation indices and linear regression analysis. Results and Conclusion: We found a significant inter-relation between Internet addiction and shame. Shame could be a good predictor of Internet addiction.

  13. The pragmatic markers anyway, okay, and shame: A South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language varieties of South African English (SAE) are not considered to be New Englishes, ...... occurrences, 19 are by women, while only one use of the PM shame can be ... corpus with other ICE corpora, especially other southern hemisphere ...

  14. Disgust and Shame Based Safe Water and Handwashing Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Develop a New Group Version of the Becker-DeGroot-Marsckek (BDM) Auction to Measure Willingness to Pay of Compound Members for Shared Hardware.; Develop a New Survey Instrument to Measure Behavioural Determinants of Hand Washing and Water Treatment Like Disgust and Shame or Social Pressure.; Identify New Methods for Measuring Hand Washing and Water Treatment Behaviour.; Compare the Effectiveness of the Disgust and Shame Based Interventions With Standard Public Health Interventions.

  15. What a white shame: race, gender, and white shame in the relational economy of primary health care organizations in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Shona

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between white shame in contemporary UK health care contexts and historically idealized forms of white pride derived from nineteenth-century British colonialism. It uses excerpts from qualitative interview material to highlight the contemporary figures of the “white worried man” and the “white women savior” and the relationship between them. Through this, it explores how shifts from white pride to white shame reflect shifts in the focus of whiteness away from civilizing the racialized Other to civilizing the white self. Through this analysis, it further complicates shame theory arguing for an understanding of [white] shame as constituted through a relational economy, differentiated through class and gender as well as race.

  16. Non-suicidal self-injury maintenance and cessation among adolescents: a one-year longitudinal investigation of the role of objectified body consciousness, depression and emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Jamie; Heath, Nancy; Hu, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Using the objectification theory, scholars have theorized the sense of detachment and disregard for the body that results from continued body objectification are believed to put a person at greater risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), due to a lack of emotional investment in the body. The goal of the current study was to longitudinally investigate the association between body objectification and NSSI among an early adolescent sample. The overall sample consisted of 120 participants (56 % female) who ranged in age from 11 to 13 years of age (M = 12.34, SD = .48). Participants were followed over the course of a 12-month period, and classified into three groups of interest; adolescents who reported maintaining NSSI behaviour over the course of a year (NSSI Maintain group, n = 20), adolescents who reported stopping the behaviour over the course of a year (NSSI Stop group, n = 40), and a comparison group of adolescents who did not report engaging in NSSI (n = 60). Using a 3 (NSSI Maintain, NSSI Stop, and Comparison) X 2 (Gender) X 2 (Time 1 and Time 2) repeated measures multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA), results indicated a significant group by time interaction, showing group differences with respect to body shame and body surveillance over time. Specifically, both NSSI groups reported significantly greater body shame and body surveillance over time than the non-NSSI group. Additionally, the NSSI Maintain group reported significantly greater body surveillance at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group. The NSSI Maintain group also reported significantly more emotion dysregulation difficulties and depressive symptoms at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group. The influence of body objectification as a core intrapersonal risk factor related to the maintenance and cessation of NSSI behaviour is discussed, as are clinical implications considering body objectification as an important variable in prevention and

  17. Faces of Shame: Implications for Self-Esteem, Emotion Regulation, Aggression, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velotti, Patrizia; Garofalo, Carlo; Bottazzi, Federica; Caretti, Vincenzo

    2017-02-17

    There is an increasing interest in psychological research on shame experiences and their associations with other aspects of psychological functioning and well-being, as well as with possible maladaptive outcomes. In an attempt to confirm and extend previous knowledge on this topic, we investigated the nomological network of shame experiences in a large community sample (N = 380; 66.1% females), adopting a multidimensional conceptualization of shame. Females reported higher levels of shame (in particular, bodily and behavioral shame), guilt, psychological distress, emotional reappraisal, and hostility. Males had higher levels of self-esteem, emotional suppression, and physical aggression. Shame feelings were associated with low self-esteem, hostility, and psychological distress in a consistent way across gender. Associations between characterological shame and emotional suppression, as well as between bodily shame and anger occurred only among females. Moreover, characterological and bodily shame added to the prediction of low self-esteem, hostility, and psychological distress above and beyond the influence of trait shame. Finally, among females, emotional suppression mediated the influence of characterological shame on hostility and psychological distress. These findings extend current knowledge on the nomological net surrounding shame experiences in everyday life, supporting the added value of a multidimensional conceptualization of shame feelings.

  18. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's Frankenstein, or the modern Prometheus: a psychological study of unrepaired shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Sally K; Morrison, Nancy K

    2013-01-01

    Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's modern Prometheus shows us the eternal punishment of unrepaired shame--eternal entrapment within the shame triangle of victim, perpetrator and rescuer. This paper describes how Shelley's insight--that lack of love creates a monster living in shame--is being confirmed by neuroscience and how this is exemplified in two characters--the creature and Victor Frankenstein. Additionally, it delineates how pastoral counselors can help those suffering from unrepaired shame

  19. Shame, honor and responsibility in clinical dialog about lifestyle issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guassora, A.D.; Reventlow, S.; Malterud, K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how patients enact presentations of self in consultations dealing with lifestyle in general practice. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative observational study with thematic, cross-case analysis of video-recorded consultations inspired by discourse analysis. RESULTS: Patients...... presented themselves with an orientation toward responsibility in dialog about lifestyle. They described how they were taking care of themselves and doing their best. In this respect, they demonstrated their achievements as matters of honor. If one lifestyle issue was considered problematic, in some cases......: Negotiations of shame and honor, revolving around personal responsibility, are embedded in clinical discourse about lifestyle. Patients take a proactive role in presenting and defending the self against shame. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: GPs should pay more attention to the tacit role of shame in consultations...

  20. Nostalgia, Shame and the Transplanted Cuban: "la cubana arrepentida"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lorenzo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature can illuminate and extend our understanding of the affect of shame. In this paper, I will use extracts from my fictional works, published and in progress, and other fictional work and poetry by Cuban and Cuban-American exile writers to illustrate some aspects of shaming in relation to the experience of being a Cuban-American migrant in the United States, particularly relative to the sense of exilic nostalgia for the lost homeland. I will also look at how shame is used by the minority culture to control, erode or slow the process of assimilation and to try to maintain the illusion of the superiority of the minority culture.

  1. Adult Attachment and Dyadic Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2016-07-03

    Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning.

  2. Sin Verguenza: Addressing Shame with Latino Victims of Child Sexual Abuse and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson

    2007-01-01

    This article explores shame issues for Latino children who have been sexually abused and their families. Latino cultural concerns around shame that are associated with sexual abuse include: attributions for the abuse, fatalism, virginity, sexual taboos, predictions of a shameful future, revictimization, machismo, and fears of homosexuality for boy…

  3. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  4. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  5. Sin Verguenza: Addressing Shame with Latino Victims of Child Sexual Abuse and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson

    2007-01-01

    This article explores shame issues for Latino children who have been sexually abused and their families. Latino cultural concerns around shame that are associated with sexual abuse include: attributions for the abuse, fatalism, virginity, sexual taboos, predictions of a shameful future, revictimization, machismo, and fears of homosexuality for boy…

  6. Orienting perspectives on shame and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, S

    1990-01-01

    The orienting perspectives for examining shame and self-esteem included phenomenological, developmental (from a linear and from a discontinuous point of view), pathogenesis, and modes of therapeutic action. The perspectives are overlapping but potential incompatibilities exist, especially in the area of therapeutic action.

  7. Human rights "naming & shaming" and civil war violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggeri, A.; Burgoon, B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this PEPS Letter is to clarify the effects of human rights "Naming and Shaming" by international actors, such as IOs, NGOs and the international media, on the intensity of violence in domestic conflict. The note carries out, evaluates and proposes empirical strategies to study such

  8. Reintegrative shaming: Informal means of formal social control of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević-Prodanović Danica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social control includes all social processes, institutions and methods that produce conformity or regulate the individual and collective conduct of its members. Most of the authors distinguish between informal and formal means of social control. The informal means of social control grow themselves in society, and are considered very powerful, especialy in primary groups. Both, formal and informal modes of social control are important for deterrence of crime. Some authors argue that interaction of formal and informal modes of social control has much stronger deterrent effect on crime than if considered in isolation. John Braithwaite's theory of reintegrative shaming was presented in this article. Although many argue that reduction of recidivism is not primary aim of reintegrative shaming, results of some research indicate that properly designed and implemented procedures can lower the rate of reoffending. This paper analysis the relationship between informal social control and punishment as a means of formal social control of crime. It was also emphasised the importance and discussed perspective of the use of reintegrative shaming as a informal means in function of formal social control of crime. The author concludes that reintegrative shaming and related restorative processes present very alluring challenge for the criminal justice practice.

  9. Socratic Pedagogy: Perplexity, Humiliation, Shame and a Broken Egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghossian, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses and rebuts the claim that the purpose of the Socratic method is to humiliate, shame, and perplex participants. It clarifies pedagogical and exegetical confusions surrounding the Socratic method, what the Socratic method is, what its epistemological ambitions are, and how the historical Socrates likely viewed it. First, this…

  10. Shame and Anxiety Feelings of a Roma Population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouva, M; Mentis, M; Kotrotsiou, S; Paralikas, Th; Kotrotsiou, E

    2015-12-01

    Shame is a crucial issue for Roma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of shame and anxiety feelings in a Roma population living in Greece and assess the differentiation of these feelings between Roma men and women. A quota sample of 194 Roma adult men and women living in Southern Greece was retrieved. The Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS) and the Spielberg's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. Women scored statistically significantly higher than men on ESS, whereas men scored higher on OAS scale (52.27 ± 16.91 vs 45.42 ± 9.98 and 35.93 ± 16.94 vs 30.87 ± 13.72 respectively). Women scored higher than men in both STAI subscales, however significant differences were observed only in State Anxiety scale (48.83 ± 9.26 vs 43.20 ± 9.81). OAS total score was inversely related to state anxiety, whereas ESS total score was positive related to trait anxiety, all correlations being significant at p Roma men and women exhibit high levels of shame and anxiety. Cultural, social and minority issues contribute to feelings of inferiority and anxiety experience.

  11. The Impact of Shame, Self-Criticism and Social Rank on Eating Behaviours in Overweight and Obese Women Participating in a Weight Management Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Matos, Marcela; Stubbs, R. James; Gale, Corinne; Morris, Liam; Gouveia, Jose Pinto; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that obesity is a stigmatised condition. Concerns with personal inferiority (social rank), shame and self-criticism may impact on weight management behaviours. The current study examined associations between social comparison (shame, self-criticism), negative affect and eating behaviours in women attending a community based weight management programme focused on behaviour change. 2,236 participants of the programme completed an online survey using measures of shame, self-criticism, social comparison, and weight-related affect, which were adapted to specifically address eating behaviour, weight and body shape perceptions. Correlation analyses showed that shame, self-criticism and social comparison were associated with negative affect. All of these variables were related to eating regulation and weight control (p < 0.001). Path analysis revealed that the association of shame, hated-self, and low self-reassurance on disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger was fully mediated by weight-related negative affect, even when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms (p < 0.050 to p < 0.010). In addition, feelings of inadequacy and unfavourable social comparisons were associated with higher disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger, partially mediated through weight-related negative affect (p = 0.001). These variables were negatively associated with extent of weight loss during programme attendance prior to the survey, while self-reassurance and positive social comparisons were positively associated with the extent of weight loss prior to the survey (p < .050). Shame, self-criticism, and perceptions of inferiority may play a significant role in self-regulation of eating behaviour in overweight people trying to manage their weight. PMID:28107449

  12. Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities in Proneness to Shame: An Adaptationist and Ecological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sznycer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available People vary in how easily they feel ashamed, that is, in their shame proneness. According to the information threat theory of shame, variation in shame proneness should, in part, be regulated by features of a person's social ecology. On this view, shame is an emotion program that evolved to mitigate the likelihood or costs of reputation-damaging information spreading to others. In social environments where there are fewer possibilities to form new relationships (i.e., low relational mobility, there are higher costs to damaging or losing existing ones. Therefore, shame proneness toward current relationship partners should increase as perceived relational mobility decreases. In contrast, individuals with whom one has little or no relationship history are easy to replace, and so shame-proneness towards them should not be modulated by relational mobility. We tested these predictions cross-culturally by measuring relational mobility and shame proneness towards friends and strangers in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Japanese subjects were more shame-prone than their British and American counterparts. Critically, lower relational mobility was associated with greater shame proneness towards friends (but not strangers, and this relationship partially mediated the cultural differences in shame proneness. Shame proneness appears tailored to respond to relevant features of one's social ecology.

  13. Perception of Shame in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMains, Kevin Christopher; Peel, Jennifer; Weitzel, Erik K; Der-Torossian, Hirak; Couch, Marion

    2015-11-01

    This survey was developed to assess the prevalence and effects of the perception of shame in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency training in the United States. Survey. US otolaryngology training programs. Faculty and trainees in US otolaryngology training programs. A 14-item survey to assess the prevalence of the experience of shame and the attitudes toward use of shame in otolaryngology residency training was sent to all otolaryngology-head and neck surgery program directors for distribution among their respective faculty and resident cohorts. A total of 267 responses were received (women, 24.7%; men, 75.3%): 42.7% of respondents were trainees; 7.0% of trainees thought that shame was a necessary/effective tool, compared with 11.4% of faculty; 50% of respondents felt that they had been personally shamed during residency; and 69.9% of respondents had witnessed another trainee being shamed during residency training. Trainees were most commonly shamed in the operating room (78.4%). Otolaryngology faculty members did the shaming 95.1% of the time. Although shaming prompted internal reflection/self-improvement in 57.4% of trainees, it also caused loss of self-confidence in 52.5%. Trainees who had been shamed were more likely to view shame as an appropriate educational tool (P Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  14. The impossibility of forgiveness: shame fantasies as instigators of vengefulness in Euripides' Medea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Melvin R

    2005-01-01

    Unforgivability in Euripides' Medea is explored in the context of intrapsychic forces favoring disruption and narcissistic withdrawal and precluding the influence of forces favoring repair of bonds, not necessarily to the betrayer, but to the social and moral order. The forces underlying disruption and withdrawal operate to such an extent that forgiveness and cooperation with the social order become impossible. Euripides' literary insights are explored with the purpose of deepening and extending the psychoanalytic understanding of shame, shame fantasies, projective identification, and vengefulness as they bear on the problem of forgiveness. Three types of shame fantasy are pertinent to the transformation of Medea's mental state from one of anguished and disjointed shame to diabolical vengefulness: anticipatory paranoid shame, the projective identification of shame, and withdrawal as a defense against shame.

  15. Avoiding shame: young LGBT people, homophobia and self-destructive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Elizabeth; Roen, Katrina; Scourfield, Jonathan

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on findings from qualitative research conducted in the UK that sought to explore the connections between sexual identities and self-destructive behaviours in young people. International evidence demonstrates that there are elevated rates of suicide and alcohol abuse amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth. Rarely included in this body of research are investigations into young LGBT people's views and experiences of self-destructive behaviours. Data from interviews and focus groups with young LGBT participants suggest a strong link between homophobia and self-destructive behaviours. Utilising a discourse analytic approach, we argue that homophobia works to punish at a deep individual level and requires young LGBT people to manage being positioned, because of their sexual desire or gendered ways of being, as abnormal, dirty and disgusting. At the centre of the complex and multiple ways in which young LGBT people negotiate homophobia are 'modalities of shame-avoidance' such as: the routinization and minimizing of homophobia; maintaining individual 'adult' responsibility; and constructing 'proud' identities. The paper argues that these strategies of shame-avoidance suggest young LGBT people manage homophobia individually, without expectation of support and, as such, may make them vulnerable to self-destructive behaviours.

  16. Shame and borderline personality features: the potential mediating role of anger and anger rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jessica R; Geiger, Paul J; Smart, Laura M; Baer, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Two prominent emotions in borderline personality disorder (BPD) are shame and anger. Rumination has been demonstrated to occur in response to shame and to escalate anger, and rumination, particularly anger rumination, has been shown to predict BPD symptoms. The present study tested a structural equation model in which shame leads to the features of BPD via increased anger and anger rumination. A sample of 823 undergraduates completed self-report measures of shame, trait-level anger, anger rumination, and BPD features. The hypothesized model of shame to anger and anger rumination to BPD features was largely supported. Bootstrapping was used to establish significant indirect effects from both situational and global forms of shame via anger rumination to BPD features, and from global shame via anger to most BPD features. The alternative hypothesis that anger and anger rumination contribute to BPD features via increased shame was also examined, with no significant indirect effects found. Recognizing this function of anger and anger rumination may be important in understanding the relationship between shame-proneness and BPD features and may have implications for treatment. Further research into determining other ways individuals maladaptively respond to shame, and understanding the functions of anger and anger rumination, is recommended.

  17. The influence of shame on posttrauma disorders: have we failed to see the obvious?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry F. Taylor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: While fear is known to be the dominant affect associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the presence and possible influence of other emotions is less well explored. Recent changes to diagnostic criteria have added anger, guilt and shame alongside fear as significant emotional states associated with the disorder. This article suggests that shame is a frequent, often poorly recognised sequel to trauma, occurring as a result of the meaning the individual places on the traumatic experience and on subsequent interpersonal and environmental events. Methods: The article reviews the literature on the socio-interpersonal aspects of the posttraumatic experience with particular emphasis on the emotion of shame as both primary and secondary emotion, in its intrapersonal and interpersonal contexts, and in adaptive and maladaptive forms. Results: The review suggests that posttrauma shame, and maladaptive shame regulation strategies, often manifesting as anger, substance abuse, social withdrawal or depression, may play an important role in the maintenance or exacerbation of the symptoms of PTSD and the development of co-morbidities. Conclusion: The recognition of shame and maladaptive shame regulation strategies in PTSD treatment and management is critical. However, because shame is frequently considered a painful and discomforting emotion, it may fail to be addressed in the therapeutic setting by both client and therapist. Examination of potential shame-related changes in self-concept, close interpersonal relationships and social inclusion are recommended for individuals who have experienced a range of traumas to identify and address any underlying unacknowledged shame.

  18. Shame closely tracks the threat of devaluation by others, even across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznycer, Daniel; Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda; Porat, Roni; Shalvi, Shaul; Halperin, Eran

    2016-03-08

    We test the theory that shame evolved as a defense against being devalued by others. By hypothesis, shame is a neurocomputational program tailored by selection to orchestrate cognition, motivation, physiology, and behavior in the service of: (i) deterring the individual from making choices where the prospective costs of devaluation exceed the benefits, (ii) preventing negative information about the self from reaching others, and (iii) minimizing the adverse effects of devaluation when it occurs. Because the unnecessary activation of a defense is costly, the shame system should estimate the magnitude of the devaluative threat and use those estimates to cost-effectively calibrate its activation: Traits or actions that elicit more negative evaluations from others should elicit more shame. As predicted, shame closely tracks the threat of devaluation in the United States (r = .69), India (r = .79), and Israel (r = .67). Moreover, shame in each country strongly tracks devaluation in the others, suggesting that shame and devaluation are informed by a common species-wide logic of social valuation. The shame-devaluation link is also specific: Sadness and anxiety-emotions that coactivate with shame-fail to track devaluation. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first empirical demonstration of a close, specific match between shame and devaluation within and across cultures.

  19. The social psychology of disintegrative shaming in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel H; Clarey, Amy M

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable research concerning drug education and zero tolerance policies, few have examined their combined youth impact. Comprehensive and nationally recognized mixed method evidence is drawn from 77 school districts and 118 schools in the Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco Education (DATE) evaluation. For the first time it is found that the combined negative impact of traditional prevention and intervention efforts--e.g., Life Skills Training (LST) and zero tolerance policies-are so serious that they extend into the wider conditions of educational achievement. Findings are explained by the social psychological processes of "disintegrative shaming," where young people are to be shamed into abstinence and experiencing or witnessing school removal rather than help when needed. With more research needed the negative effects of traditional prevention and intervention-particularly salient among disproportionately affected urban/minority youth-suggest that related efforts be reconsidered together as well as part of mainstream education.

  20. César Vallejo and the shame of the survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cernicchiaro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present essay proposes to reflect about the César Vallejo poem “El pan nuestro”, as an openness to alterity, reading in his shame a guilt for living, similar to the one that the survivors of the Shoah felt. Once exclusion is a fundamental structure of our culture and Auschwitz and its victims repeat eternally, the shame continuous to hound the survivors. For these, the words failure, of course, since the true witness is the one that can’t give testimony and since the words are unbearable. But is because of that, because they lack, that the poetic word, situated always in a position of rest, can testify, can talk.

  1. At the core of eating disorders: Overvaluation, social rank, self-criticism and shame in anorexia, bulimia and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the similarities and differences in eating psychopathology symptoms, overvaluation of body shape, weight and eating, general psychopathology, social comparison, self-criticism and shame, between AN, BN and BED patients. Also, the mediator effect of self-criticism and social comparison on the association between overvaluation and shame, was tested. Participants were 119 patients (34 AN, 34 BN and 51 BED) diagnosed through the Eating Disorder Examination. Results indicated that BED patients are older and present higher BMI. The groups differed regarding eating disorders' symptomatology, but no significant differences were observed in overvaluation, self-criticism, shame and overall psychopathology symptoms. The path model confirmed that overvaluation has a significant indirect association with shame, which is mediated by severe self-criticism and negative social comparisons. The model was fond to be invariant between the clinical groups. These findings contribute for the understanding of the common processes that feed the perpetual cycle of eating psychopathology. Thus, these data have potential implications for transdiagnostic approaches to treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Generalized Explicit and Implicit Guilt and Shame in Interpersonal Traumatization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Estelle; Roepke, Stefan; Michael, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2016-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and interpersonal traumatization are frequently associated with trauma-related guilt and shame. However, research on generalized guilt and shame in PTSD is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate generalized explicit and implicit guilt and shame in interpersonal traumatization and PTSD. Interpersonally traumatized women either with PTSD (n = 28) or without PTSD (n = 32) and 32 nontraumatized women completed the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 and the Implicit Association Test to measure explicit and implicit guilt and shame. Explicit guilt and shame were significantly higher in women with PTSD than in traumatized women without PTSD. Traumatized women without PTSD showed significantly higher levels of explicit guilt and shame than nontraumatized women did. PTSD was associated with implicit guilt but not implicit shame. In addition to trauma-related guilt and shame, generalized explicit guilt and shame and implicit guilt seem to play a crucial role in PTSD.

  3. 监控视频关键帧的人体高度测量算法%Body Height Measurement Algorithm in Key Frame from Surveillance Video

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玮; 吕艳; 石可红

    2012-01-01

    由于视频资料众多,如何从海量的视频数据中找到需要的视频,已经受到更高的重视,因此关键帧的提取算法越来越成为研究的热门问题.实验首先对监控视频进行了关键帧提取,然后利用摄像机标定以及灭点的方法,对人体的高度进行了分析和计算.结果表明:基于彩色直方图的语义距离,比较适用于监控视频中人物关键帧的提取.且算法简单可行,有较高的准确度,因此具有一定的实用价值.%It is important to find what we need from the massive video, thus the research of key frame extraction algorithm is becoming more and more hot. First, the paper present the algorithm about extraction key frames from the surveillance video. Then camera calibration and vanishing point is used to analyse and calculate the height of human body. The result showed that semantic distance based on color histogram is more suitable for extracting key frame from the surveillance video. Meanwhile this algorithm of human body height is very feasible and accurate. So the algorithm has practical value.

  4. Incivility and bullying in the workplace and nurses' shame responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felblinger, Dianne M

    2008-01-01

    Incivility and bullying in the workplace are intimidating forces that result in shame responses and threaten the well-being of nurses. Some nurses are accustomed to tolerating behaviors that are outside the realm of considerate conduct and are unaware that they are doing so. These behaviors affect the organizational climate, and their negative effects multiply if left unchecked. Interventions for incivility and bullying behaviors are needed at both individual and administrative levels.

  5. The perpetuation of menstrual shame: implications and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, P

    1984-01-01

    In North America, many taboos and myths related to menstruating women have been officially discredited. Unfortunately however, menstruation continues to be imbued with complex, largely negative meanings. This paper examines how menstrual shame and embarrassment are perpetuated through common folk wisdom, educational methods, and commercial advertising. A discussion of female socialization illustrates how girls arrive at puberty with attitudes that reflect largely negative cultural stereotypes. Implications and directions for education and research which are intended to counterbalance the prevalent menstrual ideology are presented.

  6. Dissociation, shame, complex PTSD, child maltreatment and intimate relationship self-concept in dissociative disorder, chronic PTSD and mixed psychiatric groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; McGurrin, Patrick; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2015-02-01

    Whilst a growing body of research has examined dissociation and other psychiatric symptoms in severe dissociative disorders (DDs), there has been no systematic examination of shame and sense of self in relationships in DDs. Chronic child abuse often associated with severe DDs, like dissociative identity disorder, is likely to heighten shame and relationship concerns. This study investigated complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline and Schneiderian symptoms, dissociation, shame, child abuse, and various markers of self in relationships (e.g., relationship esteem, relationship depression, fear of relationships). Participants were assessed via clinical interview with psychometrically sound questionnaires. They fell into three diagnostic groups, dissociative disorder (n=39; primarily dissociative identity disorder), chronic PTSD (Chr-PTSD; n=13) or mixed psychiatric presentations (MP; n=21; primarily mood and anxiety disorders). All participants had a history of child abuse and/or neglect, and the groups did not differ on age and gender. The DD group was higher on nearly all measured variables than the MP group, and had more severe dissociative, borderline and Schneiderian symptoms than the Chr-PTSD sample. Shame and complex PTSD symptoms fell marginally short of predicting reductions in relationship esteem, pathological dissociative symptoms predicted increased relationship depression, and complex PTSD symptoms predicted fear of relationships. The representativeness of the samples was unknown. Severe psychiatric symptoms differentiate DDs from chronic PTSD, while dissociation and shame have a meaningful impact on specific markers of relationship functioning in psychiatric patients with a history of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Body image and face image in Asian American and white women: Examining associations with surveillance, construal of self, perfectionism, and sociocultural pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Kelly, Mackenzie C; Latner, Janet D; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Tsong, Yuying

    2016-03-01

    Asian American women experience sociocultural pressures that could place them at increased risk for experiencing body and face dissatisfaction. Asian American and White women completed measures of appearance evaluation, overweight preoccupation, face satisfaction, face dissatisfaction frequency, perfectionism, surveillance, interdependent and independent self-construal, and perceived sociocultural pressures. In Study 1 (N=182), Asian American women were more likely than White women to report low appearance evaluation (24% vs. 12%; d=-0.50) and to be sometimes-always dissatisfied with the appearance of their eyes (38% vs. 6%; d=0.90) and face overall (59% vs. 34%; d=0.41). In Study 2 (N=488), they were more likely to report low appearance evaluation (36% vs. 23%; d=-0.31) and were less likely to report high eye appearance satisfaction (59% vs. 88%; d=-0.84). The findings highlight the importance of considering ethnic differences when assessing body and face image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2008: weight, height and body mass index in 6-9-year-old children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, T M A

    2012-09-21

    What is already known about this subject Overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among children based on International Obesity Task Force definitions are substantially lower than estimates based on World Health Organization definitions. Presence of a north-south gradient with the highest level of overweight found in southern European countries. Intercountry comparisons of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in Europe based on measured data lack a similar data collection protocol. What this study adds Unique dataset on overweight and obesity based on measured weights and heights in 6-9-year-old children from 12 European countries using a harmonized surveillance methodology. Because of the use of a consistent data collection protocol, it is possible to perform valid multiple comparisons between countries. It demonstrates wide variations in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among primary-school children between European countries and regions. BACKGROUND: Nutritional surveillance in school-age children, using measured weight and height, is not common in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO Regional Office for Europe has therefore initiated the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. OBJECTIVE: To present the anthropometric results of data collected in 2007\\/2008 and to investigate whether there exist differences across countries and between the sexes. METHODS: Weight and height were measured in 6-9-year-old children in 12 countries. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting, thinness and underweight as well as mean Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height, weight and body mass index were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 168 832 children were included in the analyses and a school participation rate of more than 95% was obtained in 8 out of 12 countries. Stunting, underweight and thinness were rarely prevalent. However, 19.3-49.0% of boys and 18.4-42.5% of girls were overweight (including

  9. Nosocomial Infections: Multicenter surveillance of antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative rods isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Poorabbas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Antibiotic resistance is increasing, especially in healthcare-associated infections causing significant public health concerns worldwide. National information is required to make appropriate policies, update list of essential drugs for treatment, and evaluate the effects of intervention strategies. A nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in nosocomial infections was established in Iran in 2008, so that the data obtained through the surveillance would enable us to construct a database.Materials and Methods: Seven major teaching hospitals in Shiraz, Tabriz, Sari, Mashhad, Sanandaj, Ahwaz and Isfahan participated in this study. A total of 858 strains isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids were tested. Identification at the species level was performed with conventional biochemical methods and the API system. Susceptibility tests were done using disk diffusion method. The methicillin-resistance in S. aureus (MRSA was determined by the oxacillin agar screen plate and respective MIC values were assessed using the E-test strips. The confirmatory disk diffusion methods were applied for phenotypic identification of extended-spectrum β- lactamase (ESBL production for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, according to CLSI guidelines.Results: Cultivation and re-identification of the strains yielded 858 isolates, consisting of 224 S. aureus, 148 Klebsiellaspp., 105 Serratia spp., 146 E. coli, 67 Acinetobacter spp., 38 Enterobacter spp., 95 Pseudomonas spp., 71 P.aeruginosa.35 Stenotrophomonas sp., and 8 other organisms. MRSA was detected in 37.5% of the isolates. No vancomycin-resistant or vancomycin-intermediate resistant S. aureus was detected. With the exception of Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas, 85% of the Gram-negative isolates were found to be susceptible in vitro to imipenem. Overall, about 61% of K. pneumoniae and 35% of E. coli isolates were ESBL producing.Conclusion: Multidrug resistant isolates

  10. Shame and guilt in social anxiety disorder: effects of cognitive behavior therapy and association with social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD, characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67 with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72 and a replication sample (n = 22. Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44. Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD.

  11. Atoning for Colonial Injustices: Group-Based Shame and Guilt Motivate Support for Reparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnifred R. Louis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the role of group-based shame and guilt in motivating citizens of ex-colonial countries to support restitution to former colonized groups which were the target of violence and oppression. Study 1 (N = 125 was conducted in Australia during the lead-up to the first official government apology to Aboriginal Australians. Among white Australians, guilt and shame were associated with attitudinal support for intergroup apology and victim compensation. However, only shame was associated with actual political behaviour (signing a petition in support of the apology. Study 2 (N = 181, conducted in Britain, focussed on Britain's violent mistreatment of the Kenyan population during decolonization. It tested a hypothesis that there are two forms of shame-essence shame and image shame-and demonstrated that image shame was associated with support for apology, whereas essence shame was associated with support for more substantial material and financial compensation. The findings are discussed in light of promoting restitution and reconciliation within nations with histories of colonial violence.

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, intimate partner violence perpetration, and the mediating role of shame processing bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Lauren M; Marshall, Amy D

    2011-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may produce internal "threats to the self," which generate shame. Shame is theoretically and empirically linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. We examined relations among PTSD, cognitive processing of shame-relevant information, and IPV perpetration. Forty-seven community participants completed an emotional Stroop task with shame-relevant and neutral words. Stimuli were presented supraliminally (i.e., until vocal response) and subliminally (i.e., below an individualized threshold of conscious awareness). Facilitated color-naming of shame-relevant words (thought to reflect congruence between shame and self-schemas) mediated the relation between PTSD severity and IPV perpetration frequency. Mediation results for subliminal stimuli suggest that biased processing of shame cues may occur preconsciously and potentially catalyze processes (i.e., expectations of rejection in ambiguous situations with one's partner; avoidance that minimizes discomfort and protects self-image) that lead to IPV perpetration. Psychotherapeutic approaches to PTSD and IPV should consider the role of facilitated processing of shame cues.

  13. Externalizing shame responses in children: The role of fragile positive self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, Sander

    2007-01-01

    When faced with shame, children can either respond in submissive ways to withdraw from their environment or in externalizing ways to oppose their environment. This study tested the hypothesis that fragile-positive views of self predispose children to respond in externalizing ways to shame

  14. Externalizing Shame Responses in Children: The Role of Fragile-Positive Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Sander; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert

    2007-01-01

    When faced with shame, children can either respond in submissive ways to withdraw from their environment or in externalizing ways to oppose their environment. This study tested the hypothesis that fragile-positive views of self predispose children to respond in externalizing ways to shame situations. Narcissism, actual and perceived social…

  15. The impact of shame on the therapeutic alliance and intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca S A; Curran, David; Dyer, Kevin F W

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the role of shame coping styles and state shame in predicting the therapeutic alliance and intimate relationship functioning in individuals with mental health problems. A sample of 50 treatment-receiving adults aged 21 to 67 years with a mix of common mental health difficulties was recruited from a clinical psychology service. Participants were given questionnaire measures of shame states, shame coping styles, intimate relationship functioning, and the therapeutic alliance. Regression analyses indicated that the shame coping strategy of physical and psychological withdrawal was the primary risk factor for development of a less effective therapeutic alliance. Both withdrawal and attack self coping styles were significant predictors of impaired intimate relationship functioning. These findings have implications for the theoretical role of shame in mental health presentations as well as the potential for internalizing shame coping styles (i.e., withdrawal, attack self) to act as a barrier to successful therapy and interpersonal relationships. The inclusion of shame-focused assessments and interventions in the initial stages of treatment with clients exhibiting these strategies could improve prognosis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Shame and Guilt in Men Exposed to Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…

  17. The association between shame and substance use in young people: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuma Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Shame has been associated with a range of maladaptive behaviours, including substance use. Young people may be particularly vulnerable to heightened shame sensitivity, and substance use is a significant problem amongst UK adolescents. Although there appears to be a relationship between shame and substance use, the direction of the relationship remains unclear.Aim. The purpose of this study was to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to shame and substance use in young people.Method. Five electronic databases were searched for articles containing terms related to ‘adolescence,’ ‘shame’ and ‘substance use.’ Six articles were included in the final analyses.Results. Adverse early experiences, particularly sexual abuse, predict shame-proneness, and substance use is a mechanism by which some individuals cope with negative feelings. In general, there is a dearth of literature investigating the shame-substance use relationship in adolescent samples. The available literature associates shame-proneness with poorer functioning and suggests that it may potentially lead to psychopathology and early-onset substance use. Scant attention has been paid to the cognitive and emotional processes implicated. Further research is required to ascertain the strength of the shame-substance use relationship in young people and to develop appropriate interventions for this population.

  18. The Prediction of Gender and Attachment Styles on Shame, Guilt, and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbag, Muge; Imamoglu, Seval Erden

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the predictive power of attachment styles and gender on negative social emotions such as shame, guilt, and loneliness. The sample consists of 360 (183 female, 177 male) students attending to different departments of Marmara University. The Relationships Questionnaire, Guilt-Shame Scale, and UCLA Loneliness…

  19. Shame memories and eating psychopathology: the buffering effect of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Matos, Marcela; Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2014-11-01

    Research suggests that self-compassion may protect against shame in eating disorders. This study examines the association between shame memories, self-compassion, self-judgment and eating psychopathology severity and tests the moderator effect of self-compassion on the relationships between shame memories and eating psychopathology. Participants were 34 patients with the diagnosis of an eating disorder, who were assessed using Eating Disorder Examination and the Shame Experiences Interview and self-report instruments measuring the traumatic and centrality to identity features of shame memories, self-compassion and self-judgment. Self-compassion was negatively correlated to shame memory features and eating psychopathology, and self-judgment was positively associated with such variables. Self-compassion had a moderator effect on the association between shame traumatic and central memories and eating psychopathology severity. This is the first study to explore the buffering effect of self-compassion against the pathogenic effects of shame memories on eating psychopathology severity in eating disorders, with relevant clinical and research implications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  20. Complex trauma and intimate relationships: the impact of shame, guilt and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Corry, Mary; Shannon, Maria; Webb, Kevin; McDermott, Brian; Ryan, Margaret; Dyer, Kevin F W

    2013-05-01

    This study examined dissociation, shame, guilt and intimate relationship difficulties in those with chronic and complex PTSD. Little is known about how these symptom clusters interplay within the complex PTSD constellation. Dissociation was examined as a principle organizing construct within complex PTSD. In addition, the impact of shame, guilt and dissociation on relationship difficulties was explored. Sixty five treatment-receiving adults attending a Northern Irish service for conflict-related trauma were assessed on measures of dissociation, state and trait shame, behavioral responses to shame, state and trait guilt, complex PTSD symptom severity and relationship difficulties. Ninety five percent (n=62) of participants scored above cut-off for complex PTSD. Those with clinical levels of dissociation (n=27) were significantly higher on complex PTSD symptom severity, state and trait shame, state guilt, withdrawal in response to shame and relationship preoccupation than subclinical dissociators (n=38). Dissociation and state and trait shame predicted complex PTSD. Fear of relationships was predicted by dissociation, complex PTSD and avoidance in response to shame, while complex PTSD predicted relationship anxiety and relationship depression. The study was limited to a relatively homogeneous sample of individuals with chronic and complex PTSD drawn from a single service. Complex PTSD has significant consequences for intimate relationships, and dissociation makes an independent contribution to these difficulties. Dissociation also has an organizing effect on complex PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Externalizing shame responses in children: The role of fragile positive self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, Sander

    2007-01-01

    When faced with shame, children can either respond in submissive ways to withdraw from their environment or in externalizing ways to oppose their environment. This study tested the hypothesis that fragile-positive views of self predispose children to respond in externalizing ways to shame situations

  2. Externalizing Shame Responses in Children: The Role of Fragile-Positive Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Sander; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert

    2007-01-01

    When faced with shame, children can either respond in submissive ways to withdraw from their environment or in externalizing ways to oppose their environment. This study tested the hypothesis that fragile-positive views of self predispose children to respond in externalizing ways to shame situations. Narcissism, actual and perceived social…

  3. Scenes of shame, social Roles, and the play with masks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    more ambiguous, dynamic self-image as result of an interactive evaluation of oneself by oneself and others. Seeing oneself seen contributes to the sense of who one becomes. From being absorbed in what one does, one might suddenly become self-aware, shift viewpoints and feel pressed to put on masks....... In putting on a mask, one relates to oneself in distancing oneself from oneself. In being at once a moral agent and a performing actor with an audience and norms in mind, one embodies and transcends the social roles one takes. In addition to the feeling of shame, in which the self finds itself passively...

  4. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  5. Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids in a Department of Oral Sciences: Results of a Thirteen-Year Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. A. Gatto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Aim of this analysis was to identify trends that will aid in the prevention of injury. Methods. Our data were collected from 1999 to 2011 during a surveillance program of occupational exposures to blood or other potentially infectious materials in a Dental School by using a standard coded protocol. Results. 63 exposures were reported. 56/63 (89% percutaneous and 7/63 (11% mucosal, involving a splash to the eye of the dental care workers (DCW. 25/63 (40% involved students, 23/63 (36% DCW attending masters and doctorate, 13/63 (21% DCW attending as tutors and 2/63 (3% staff. 45/63 (71% and 18/63 (29% occurred respectively during and after the use of the device; of last ones, 1/18 (0.05% were related to instrument clean-up and 1/18 (0.05% to laboratory activity, 12/18 (67% occurred when a DCW collided with a sharp object during the setting, and 4/18 (22% during other activities. The instrument and the body part most likely involved were needle and finger respectively. The overall exposure rate was 4.78 per 10,000 patient visits. Conclusions Our results may serve as benchmark that Dental Schools can employ to assess their frequency of injury.

  6. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  7. Shame, internalized homophobia, identity formation, attachment style, and the connection to relationship status in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jac; Trevethan, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This study reports on a survey of 166 gay men in Sydney, Australia, that explores the links between internalized shame, internalized homophobia, and attachment style. These variables were linked to the age of coming out, family and peer acceptance of their sexuality, relationship status, and previous marriage. Findings suggest a strong relationship between shame, internalized homophobia, and anxious and avoidant attachment style. Shame was predicted by internalized homophobia and anxious and avoidant attachment style. A significant proportion of gay men reported that they were not easily accepted when they first came out. There was a significant relationship between coming out and internalized homophobia but not with shame and attachment style. Furthermore, men who had never come out to family and friends reported higher levels of internalized homophobia but not higher levels of shame and attachment style. Of particular significance was the connection between previous marriage and higher levels of shame and internalized homophobia. Finally, gay men who were not currently in a relationship reported higher levels of shame anxious and avoidant attachment style. These findings are related to therapeutic work with gay men who have previously been married and those who are concerned with their current single status.

  8. Shame and guilt in the aftermath of terror: the Utøya Island study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Røysamb, Espen; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in trauma-related shame and guilt and their relationship to mental health. Little is known, however, about shame and guilt following mass traumas, such as terrorism. This study investigates the potential associations of trauma-related shame and guilt with posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions after the terrorist attack of July 22, 2011 on Utøya Island in Norway. Interviews were conducted with 325 of the 490 survivors 4 to 5 months after the event. Multiple linear regression analyses were employed to investigate associations. In the month previous to the interview, 44.1% (n = 143) of participants had experienced at least some guilt for what happened during the attack, and 30.5% (n = 99) had experienced at least some shame. Shame and guilt were both uniquely associated with PTS reactions after adjusting for terror exposure, gender, and other potential confounders (frequent shame: B = 0.54, frequent guilt: B = 0.33). We concluded that trauma-related shame and guilt are related to mental health after mass trauma.

  9. New DSM-5 PTSD guilt and shame symptoms among Italian earthquake survivors: Impact on maladaptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmassi, Claudia; Bertelloni, Carlo Antonio; Gesi, Camilla; Conversano, Ciro; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Rossi, Alessandro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Important changes were introduced concerning posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD) by the DSM-5 recognizing the role of negative emotions such as guilt and shame, but little evidence is yet available on their prevalence in population assessed by means of DSM-5 criteria. In this study we explored the rates of guilt and shame DSM-5 PTSD diagnostic symptoms among Italian survivors to a massive earthquake and their possible correlation with PTSD and maladaptive behaviors. 869 residents of the town of L'Aquila exposed to the earthquake of April 6th, 2009 were investigated by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) with particular attention to guilt and shame feelings. DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD was reported by 41.7% of survivors, further 11.6% endorsed at least one guilt/shame symptoms, with significantly higher rates of endorsement were in PTSD respect to No-PTSD subjects, and in the subgroup with at least one maladaptive behavior respect to those with none. There was a significant main effects of PTSD and at least one guilt/shame symptom on TALS-SR symptomatological domains. Mean TALS-SR Maladaptive coping domain score appeared significantly higher in the subgroup with at least one guilt/shame symptom. Further study are needed to investigate guilt and shame feelings in survivors to a natural disaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6-9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy Ma

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009\\/2010) and to explore changes in body mass index (BMI) and overweight among children within and across nine countries from school years 2007\\/2008 to 2009\\/2010.

  11. Two forms of self-criticism mediate differently the shame-psychopathological symptoms link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Paula; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Joana

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the relation between external shame, two types of self-criticism, and depressive, anxious and stress symptoms, in a clinical sample. Specifically, we set out to test whether the impact of external shame on such symptoms would be mediated by two forms of self-criticism. A total of 279 patients (228 female and 51 male; mean age of 28.58) with axis I and II disorders recruited from several outpatients psychiatric services in Portugal completed the Other as Shamer Scale (OAS), the Forms of Self-Criticizing/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS), and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42). Self-criticism mediated in part the shame-psychopathological symptoms link, especially the hated self form. The alternative model where shame mediates the link between self-criticism and psychopathological symptoms was also significant. This result suggests that fear of being devalued in the minds of others has a significant impact on people's psychological well-being, and this effect can be partially explained by self-criticism. This study highlights that inadequate self and hated self are separable types of self-criticism, because they show different patterns of association with psychopathology. Shame and self-criticism appear to mutually enhance one another, and both are associated with psychopathological symptoms. External shame and self-criticism should be a target in treatment. External shame and self-criticism are associated with depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms, in a clinical sample. Self-criticism, especially hatred for the self, mediates the shame-psychopathological symptoms link. Shame and self-criticism should be addressed in therapeutic interventions targeting the reduction of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Recurrence Patterns and Second Primary Lung Cancers After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Implications for Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Daniel E; Wu, Abraham J; Adeseye, Victoria; Din, Shaun U; Shaikh, Fauzia; Woo, Kaitlin M; Zhang, Zhigang; Foster, Amanda; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Gewanter, Richard; Huang, James; Rimner, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are subject to locoregional and distant recurrence, as well as the formation of second primary lung cancers (SPLCs). The optimal surveillance regimen for patients treated with SBRT for early-stage NSCLC remains unclear; we therefore investigated the posttreatment recurrence patterns and development of SPLCs. Three hundred sixty-six patients with pathologically proven inoperable early-stage NSCLC treated with SBRT between 2006 and 2013 were assessed. Patients underwent a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest every 3 months during years 1 and 2, every 6 months during years 3 and 4, and annually thereafter. Competing risk analysis was used for all time-to-event analyses. With a median follow-up of 23 months, the 2-year cumulative incidence of local, nodal, and distant treatment failures were 12.2%, 16.1%, and 15.5%, respectively. In patients with disease progression after SBRT (n = 108), 84% (n = 91) of cases occurred within the first 2 years. Five percent (n = 19) of patients experienced SPLCs. The median time to development of an SPLC was 16.5 months (range, 6.5-71.1 months), with 33% (n = 6) of these patients experiencing SPLCs after 2 years. None of the never smokers, but 4% of former tobacco smokers and 15% of current tobacco smokers, experienced an SPLC (P = .005). Close monitoring with routine CT scans within the first 2 years after SBRT is effective in detecting early disease progression. In contrast, the risk for the development of an SPLC remains elevated beyond 2 years, particularly in former and current smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender-dependent effects of body esteem and appraisal on cortisol stress responses

    OpenAIRE

    Lupis, Sarah B.; Thoma, Myriam V.; Nicolas Rohleder; Jutta Wolf

    2012-01-01

    Background : The Social Self Preservation Theory posits that situations that threaten the ‘social self’ elicit shame which, in turn, is linked to cortisol stress response. Body esteem may be one predictor of the propensity to respond with shame to stress. Hence, the present study aimed at assessing whether body esteem is associated with cortisol stress responses, and further, whether this relationship is mediated by cognitive appraisals of challenge and threat. Methods : We expo...

  14. Introducing the GASP scale: a new measure of guilt and shame proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Wolf, Scott T; Panter, A T; Insko, Chester A

    2011-05-01

    Although scholars agree that moral emotions are critical for deterring unethical and antisocial behavior, there is disagreement about how 2 prototypical moral emotions--guilt and shame--should be defined, differentiated, and measured. We addressed these issues by developing a new assessment--the Guilt and Shame Proneness scale (GASP)--that measures individual differences in the propensity to experience guilt and shame across a range of personal transgressions. The GASP contains 2 guilt subscales that assess negative behavior-evaluations and repair action tendencies following private transgressions and 2 shame subscales that assess negative self-evaluations (NSEs) and withdrawal action tendencies following publically exposed transgressions. Both guilt subscales were highly correlated with one another and negatively correlated with unethical decision making. Although both shame subscales were associated with relatively poor psychological functioning (e.g., neuroticism, personal distress, low self-esteem), they were only weakly correlated with one another, and their relationships with unethical decision making diverged. Whereas shame-NSE constrained unethical decision making, shame-withdraw did not. Our findings suggest that differentiating the tendency to make NSEs following publically exposed transgressions from the tendency to hide or withdraw from public view is critically important for understanding and measuring dispositional shame proneness. The GASP's ability to distinguish these 2 classes of responses represents an important advantage of the scale over existing assessments. Although further validation research is required, the present studies are promising in that they suggest the GASP has the potential to be an important measurement tool for detecting individuals susceptible to corruption and unethical behavior. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Shame and Guilt-Proneness in Adolescents: Gene-Environment Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar; Adina Chiș; Romana Vulturar; Anca Dobrean; Diana Mirela Cândea; Andrei C Miu

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in people's preoccupation with how they are perceived and evaluated, shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that play adaptive roles in social behavior, but can also contribute to psychopathology when dysregulated. Shame and guilt-proneness develop during childhood and adolescence, and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that are little known to date. This study investigated the effects of early traumatic events and functional polymorphisms in the brain-derived neu...

  16. Neurodevelopmental correlates of proneness to guilt and shame in adolescence and early adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whittle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigating how brain development during adolescence and early adulthood underlies guilt- and shame-proneness may be important for understanding risk processes for mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurodevelopmental correlates of interpersonal guilt- and shame-proneness in healthy adolescents and young adults using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI. Sixty participants (age range: 15–25 completed sMRI and self-report measures of interpersonal guilt- and shame-proneness. Independent of interpersonal guilt, higher levels of shame-proneness were associated with thinner posterior cingulate cortex (PCC thickness and smaller amygdala volume. Higher levels of shame-proneness were also associated with attenuated age-related reductions in thickness of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC. Our findings highlight the complexities in understanding brain–behavior relationships during the adolescent/young adult period. Results were consistent with growing evidence that accelerated cortical thinning during adolescence may be associated with superior socioemotional functioning. Further research is required to understand the implications of these findings for mental disorders characterized by higher levels of guilt and shame.

  17. Substance use to regulate intense posttraumatic shame in individuals with childhood abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Julia; Wolff, Sebastian; Schumacher, Maren; Höcker, Anja; Arens, Elisabeth A; Spindler, Gabriela; Stopsack, Malte; Südhof, Jonna; Hiller, Philipp; Klein, Michael; Schäfer, Ingo; Barnow, Sven

    2016-06-13

    Childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) is considered as a risk factor for substance use disorder (SUD). Based on the drinking to cope model, this study investigated the association of two trauma-relevant emotions (shame and sadness) and substance use. Using ecological momentary assessment we compared real-time emotion regulation in situations with high and low intensity of shame and sadness in currently abstinent patients with CAN and lifetime SUD (traumaSUD group), healthy controls with CAN (traumaHC group), and without CAN (nontraumaHC group). Multilevel analysis showed a positive linear relationship between high intensity of both emotions and substance use for all groups. The traumaSUD group showed heightened substance use in low, as well as in high, intensity of shame and sadness. In addition, we found an interaction between type of emotion, intensity, and group: the traumaHC group exhibited a fourfold increased risk for substance use in high intense shame situations relative to the traumaSUD group. Our findings provide evidence for the drinking to cope model. The traumaSUD group showed a reduced distress tolerance for variable intensity of negative emotions. The differential effect of intense shame for the traumaHC group emphazises its potential role in the development of SUD following CAN. In addition, shame can be considered a relevant focus for therapeutic preinterventions and interventions for SUD after CAN.

  18. Parental Predictors of Children's Shame and Guilt at Age 6 in a Multimethod, Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisette-Sparks, Alyssa; Bufferd, Sara J; Klein, Daniel N

    2015-11-04

    Shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that begin to develop early in life and are associated with various forms of psychopathology. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to these emotions in young children. Specifically, no longitudinal studies to date have examined a range of parent factors that shape the expression of children's shame and guilt. The current multimethod, longitudinal study sought to determine whether parenting style, parental psychopathology, and parents' marital satisfaction assessed when children were age 3 predict expressions of shame and guilt in children at age 6. A large community sample of families (N = 446; 87.4% Caucasian) with 3-year-old children (45.7% female) was recruited through commercial mailing lists. Parent variables were assessed when children were age 3 with mother- and father-report questionnaires and a diagnostic interview. Children's expressions of shame and guilt were observed in the laboratory at age 6. Fathers', but not mothers', history of depression and permissive parenting assessed when children were age 3 predicted children's expressions of shame and guilt when children were age 6; parents' marital dissatisfaction also predicted children's shame and guilt. These findings suggest that parents, and fathers in particular, contribute to expressions of self-conscious emotions in children. These data on emotional development may be useful for better characterizing the risk and developmental pathways of psychopathology.

  19. Distinction between shame and guilt and relationship with stress, anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erzar

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we present a measure assessing and distinguishing between shame-proneness and guilt-proneness, TOSCA-3 (Test of Self-Conscious Affect; Tangney & Dearing, 2002, and describe its theoretical and research background. Shame is defined as a non-functional and deeply concealed emotion, involving feelings of exposure and unworthiness, which focuses on the self and potentially leads to social isolation. In contrast, guilt is described as a less painful and more functional emotion, focusing on behavior and motivating interpersonal reparation. We also present a study with a sample of students on the relationship of shame and guilt to stress, anxiety and depression. The study confirmed the results obtained with other tests, showing that shame-proneness as opposed to guilt-proneness is moderately linked to anxiety and depression. The study also demonstrated the relationship of shame-proneness to stress. In the conclusion, the possibilities of further research on interpersonal implications of shame-proneness and with specific populations are discussed.

  20. SHAME EXPERIENCES AND PROBLEMATIC SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES USE: AN UNEXPLORED ASSOCIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Casale

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current study investigates the main and indirect effects of shame experiences and perceived benefits of computer-mediated communication (CMC compared with face-to-face communication, on Problematic Social Networking Sites Use (PSNSU. In particular, a model in which perceived benefits of CMC (i.e. escapism, control over self-presentation, and approval/acceptance mediate the association between shame and PSNSU was tested. Method: A sample of 590 undergraduate students (mean age = 22.29 + 2.079; females = 53.2% completed measures of shame experiences, perceived benefits of CMC and PSNSU. Results: The assessed structural model produced adequate fit to the data (χ2= 352.99; df = 92; p <.001; RMSEA [90% CI] =.07 [.06-.08]; CFI = .97; SRMR = .06. Variables accounted for 50% of the variance in PSNSU. A partial mediation model in which shame predicted PSNSU levels through the perceived benefits of CMC was found. A direct relationship between shame and PSNSU was also detected. Conclusions: The current study highlights how feelings of shame can contribute to problematic use of SNS and emphasizes the necessity of taking into account the perceived benefits of CMC when exploring psychological risk factors for PSNSU.

  1. The role of body-related self-conscious emotions in motivating women's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Kowalski, Kent C; Wilson, Philip M; Mack, Diane E; Crocker, Peter R E

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model where body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride were associated with physical activity regulations and behavior. Adult women (N = 389; M age = 29.82, SD = 15.20 years) completed a questionnaire assessing body-related pride, shame, and guilt, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. The hypothesized measurement and structural models were deemed adequate, as was a revised model examining shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame. In the revised structural model, body-related pride was positively significantly related to identified and intrinsic regulations. Body-related shame-free guilt was significantly associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations. Body-related guilt-free shame was significantly positively related to external and introjected regulation, and negatively associated with intrinsic regulation. Identified and intrinsic regulations were significantly positively related to physical activity (R2 = .62). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding the realm of body-related self-conscious emotions and the associated links to regulations and physical activity behavior.

  2. The relation of child maltreatment to shame and guilt among adolescents: psychological routes to depression and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuewig, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Laura A

    2005-11-01

    In a longitudinal study of children followed for 8 years into adolescence, the authors investigated how different forms of maltreatment (i.e., harsh parenting, sexual abuse, witnessing domestic violence) in childhood and parenting during adolescence influenced adolescents' shame- and guilt-proneness. Furthermore, the authors examined whether diminished feelings of guilt or heightened feelings of shame were related to delinquent behavior or depression in late adolescence. Results showed that whereas harsh parenting in childhood was related to shame proneness in adolescence, this relationship was mediated by parental rejection in adolescence. Findings confirmed that youth with rejecting parents were more shame-prone and less guilt-prone than other youth. Furthermore, shame-proneness was associated with higher depression when measured 2 years later and guilt-proneness was linked to less delinquent behavior. Results suggest that, as mediators, shame and guilt may provide useful focal points for intervention and prevention efforts in reducing adolescent depression and delinquency.

  3. Role of trait shame in the association between posttraumatic stress and aggression among men with a history of interpersonal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Sippel, Lauren M; Jakupcak, Matthew; Tull, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    Given the theoretical and empirical associations among posttraumatic stress, shame, and interpersonal aggression, this study examined whether trait shame accounts for the associations between posttraumatic stress and aggressive behavior in a sample of 103 men with a history of interpersonal trauma. Results indicated that trait shame accounted for the associations of posttraumatic stress with the variety of both physically and psychologically aggressive behavior, as well as with the frequency of physical aggression. This study also examined trait guilt, given its conceptual relationship to both shame and posttraumatic stress; unlike trait shame, trait guilt did not account for the association between posttraumatic stress and the variety of physically aggressive acts. Additionally, although trait guilt reduced the association between posttraumatic stress and the frequency of physical aggression, the indirect path including guilt was nonsignificant. Taken together, the present study supports existing theories suggesting that shame, but not guilt, may contribute to aggressive behavior, especially among individuals with histories of traumatic exposure.

  4. Surveillance of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  5. Comparison of Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Data from State-Mandated School Physical Fitness Testing and a Districtwide Surveillance Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaokham, Christina B.; Hillidge, Sharon; Serpas, Shaila; McDonald, Eric; Nader, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately one third of California school-age children are overweight or obese. Legislative approaches to assessing obesity have focused on school-based data collection. During 2010-2011, the Chula Vista Elementary School District conducted districtwide surveillance and state-mandated physical fitness testing (PFT) among fifth grade…

  6. Comparison of Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index Data from State-Mandated School Physical Fitness Testing and a Districtwide Surveillance Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaokham, Christina B.; Hillidge, Sharon; Serpas, Shaila; McDonald, Eric; Nader, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately one third of California school-age children are overweight or obese. Legislative approaches to assessing obesity have focused on school-based data collection. During 2010-2011, the Chula Vista Elementary School District conducted districtwide surveillance and state-mandated physical fitness testing (PFT) among fifth grade…

  7. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  8. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  9. Automatically activated shame reactions and perceived legitimacy of discrimination: A longitudinal study among people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Olschewski, Manfred; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2010-03-01

    Perceived legitimacy of discrimination shapes reactions to mental illness stigma among stigmatized individuals. We assessed deliberately endorsed versus automatic shame-related reactions to mental illness as predictors of change in perceived legitimacy of discrimination over six months among 75 people with mental illness. Automatically activated shame-related associations with mental illness were measured using the Brief Implicit Association Test, deliberately endorsed beliefs via self-report. Controlling for depression and perceived stigma, stronger baseline automatic shame-related associations, but not deliberately endorsed beliefs, predicted higher perceived legitimacy of discrimination after six months. Automatically activated shame reactions may increase vulnerability to mental illness stigma.

  10. Literatures (or readinggs without shame Literaturas (ou leituras sem vergonha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Oliveira Ramos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a synthesis, testimony of readings, of production of Braziliannarratives post 90’s. In shopwindows and shelves, some editorial projects haveoffered us colections and authorships and a greater literary visibility. In thenarrated stories, the dialogue of male and female narrators with capital sins,death, mistery, loniless, sex, are precious themes to the literature which iscalled commercial. In another words, and validating the expression by mean ofthe readers’s conquest, two decades of a literature bravely without shame.O artigo trata de uma síntese, testemunha de leituras, da produção de narrativasbrasileiras pós anos 1990. Em vitrines e prateleiras, alguns projetos editoriaisofereceram-nos coleções, autorias e uma maior visibilidade literária. Nashistórias narradas, o diálogo dos narradores e narradoras com pecados capitais,morte, mistério, solidão, sexo, temas tão caros a uma literatura dita comercial.Em outras palavras, e positivando a expressão pela conquista de leitores, duasdécadas de uma literatura corajosamente sem vergonha.

  11. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  12. Development of Instruments to Assess Shame and Guilt in Adolescents: Empirical Differences Between the Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Maria Laskoski

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shame and guilt are terms easily mixed in everyday life and often used as synonyms. Although they are words of similar use, they represent theoretically different moral emotions. The aims of this study were to develop and validate instruments to assess shame and guilt and to test the empirical independence of the constructs. Five hundred and eighty high school students from three Brazilian states participated in this study, 55% of them female, with an average age of 16.0 years. The participants answered a questionnaire containing socio demographic questions and scales designed for this study in order to assess shame and guilt. The scales developed gave appropriate evidence of validity and reliability. A single factor was extracted to assess shame and two factors to assess guilt (recognition of mistake and regret. The constructs revealed to be correlated, but independent. It is considered that there is sufficient evidence to affirm that shame and guilt are emotions with distinctive peculiarities and can be measured using the instruments developed in this research.

  13. Perfectionism, shame, and self-concept in dancers: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusanio, Jacqueline; Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Perfectionism has been linked to various forms of physiological and psychological maladjustment. This study examined the inter-relationships between multi-dimensional aspects of perfectionism (self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed), internalized shame, and total self-concept in elite dancers (N = 24) as compared to a control group of healthy, active non-dancers (N = 23). All participants completed psychometric self-report measures targeting the variables of interest. Multivariate analysis of covariance (gender as covariate) indicated that the dancers had higher levels of self-oriented perfectionism than the control group. Building on the findings of Ashby, Rice, and Martin, we examined a model in which dancers' shame mediates the relationship between maladaptive aspects of perfectionism and self-concept. Analysis revealed internalized shame to fully mediate the relationship between dancers' socially prescribed perfectionism and total self-concept; however, shame did not mediate self-concept in the control group. We conclude that dancers would benefit from programs that enhance self-esteem and reduce the negative effects of internalized shame and self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism.

  14. Psychopathy-related personality traits and shame management strategies in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Markus B T; Mikkelsen, Fredrik

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a correlation between the amount of psychopathy-related personality traits and the type of shame management in adolescents. Two hypotheses were examined; first, that there is a positive correlation between psychopathy-related personality traits and more unconscious and externalized shame management strategies, and second, that there is a negative correlation between psychopathy-related personality traits and more conscious and internalized shame management strategies. Gender differences were also examined. In total, 236 participants were available for the study. All were secondary-level students, aged 16 to 21 years. Of these, 196 were examined: 96 were male and 100 female. The study used two self-assessment forms-the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the Compass of Shame Scale (CoSS)-to measure the relevant personality characteristics. The results indicated gender differences, which led to all the analyses being conducted separately for males and females. Support was found for the study's first hypothesis, but not for the second, which was true for both males and females. Our results may have implications for the treatment of adolescents with a high percentage of psychopathy-related personality traits; they also indicate the need for more research on the association between psychopathy and shame management.

  15. Service users' self-narratives on their journey from shame to pride: tales of transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, Sidsel; Celik, Hilde Dalen

    2015-01-01

    As part of a course on changing attitudes developed by KREM, a Norwegian service user organization, narratives are used to explore and understand identity formation. The process is based on the role of shame in the lives of those whose life experiences lead to a reliance on government social benefits to sustain themselves. Shame is identified as an obstacle that affects everyday life and undermines one's capacity to take actions that can lead to and support self-sufficiency. Exploring oneself through the construction of the fairy tale can provide service users with a renewed sense of empowerment. Using identity formation and the concept of shame as the conceptual framework, this analysis focuses on the use of narratives to construct and interpret stories. It concludes with both practice and research implications of using narratives to acquire an understanding and sensitivity to service user perspectives.

  16. The relationship between trauma, shame, and guilt: findings from a community-based study of refugee minors in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Sabrina J.; Elbert, Thomas; Müller, Veronika; Schauer, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationships between traumatic stress and self-conscious emotions, such as shame and guilt, remain to be fully explored, especially in refugees, who frequently are exposed to a multitude of stressors. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate shame and guilt in refugee minors and to assess to what extent a greater cumulative exposure to traumatic stressors would result not only in more severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms but also in higher levels of shame and guilt. Methods Thirty-two male refugee minors, who were all below the age of 18 when they sought asylum in Germany, agreed to participate. At the time of the assessment, the age ranged from 11 to 20 years. Eighteen refugees had arrived without relatives in their host country (“unaccompanied minors”). In structured diagnostic interviews, a PTSD diagnosis was established using the UCLA PTSD Index. Posttraumatic guilt was assessed by means of the Trauma-related Guilt Inventory, and the Shame Variability Questionnaire was used to record the intensity, duration, and frequency of shame episodes. Results Feelings of guilt and shame as well as trauma symptoms were all associated with the number of traumatic event types subjects had experienced. Posttraumatic guilt and shame were both correlated with PTSD symptom severity. Conclusions The findings indicate that cumulative stress such as exposure to multiple traumatic events poses a risk factor for the mental health including greater suffering and functional impairment due to shame and guilt. PMID:26105045

  17. Intimate Partner Aggression-related Shame and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: The Moderating Role of Substance Use Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicole H.; Duke, Aaron A.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2017-01-01

    A dearth of literature has examined the consequences of women’s use of aggression in intimate relationships. Women’s use of aggression against their intimate partners, regardless of their motivation (e.g., self-defense, retaliation), may elicit shame. Shame, in turn, may contribute to the maintenance and/or exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which are commonly experienced in this population. Further, emerging research suggests that emotionally-avoidant coping strategies, such as substance use, may strengthen the relation between shame and PTSD symptoms. The goal of the present study was to examine whether women’s shame concerning their use of intimate partner aggression is associated with their PTSD symptoms, and whether drug and alcohol use problems moderate this association. Participants were 369 community women who had used and been victimized by physical aggression in an intimate relationship with a male partner in the past six months. The intimate partner aggression-related shame × drug (but not alcohol) use problems interaction on PTSD symptom severity was significant. Analysis of simple slopes revealed that women’s intimate partner aggression-related shame was positively associated with their PTSD symptoms when drug use problems were high, but not when drug use problems were low. Findings have implications for the potential utility of PTSD treatments targeting a reduction in shame and maladaptive shame regulation strategies (i.e., drug use) in this population. PMID:26699821

  18. Are improvements in shame and self-compassion early in eating disorders treatment associated with better patient outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Carter, Jacqueline C; Borairi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Compassion-focused therapy (CFT; Gilbert, 2005, 2009) is a transdiagnostic treatment approach focused on building self-compassion and reducing shame. It is based on the theory that feelings of shame contribute to the maintenance of psychopathology, whereas self-compassion contributes to the alleviation of shame and psychopathology. We sought to test this theory in a transdiagnostic sample of eating disorder patients by examining whether larger improvements in shame and self-compassion early in treatment would facilitate faster eating disorder symptom remission over 12 weeks. Participants were 97 patients with an eating disorder admitted to specialized day hospital or inpatient treatment. They completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Experiences of Shame Scale, and Self-Compassion Scale at intake, and again after weeks 3, 6, 9, and 12. Multilevel modeling revealed that patients who experienced greater decreases in their level of shame in the first 4 weeks of treatment had faster decreases in their eating disorder symptoms over 12 weeks of treatment. In addition, patients who had greater increases in their level of self-compassion early in treatment had faster decreases in their feelings of shame over 12 weeks, even when controlling for their early change in eating disorder symptoms. These results suggest that CFT theory may help to explain the maintenance of eating disorders. Clinically, findings suggest that intervening with shame early in treatment, perhaps by building patients' self-compassion, may promote better eating disorders treatment response.

  19. The relationship between trauma, shame, and guilt: findings from a community-based study of refugee minors in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina J. Stotz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationships between traumatic stress and self-conscious emotions, such as shame and guilt, remain to be fully explored, especially in refugees, who frequently are exposed to a multitude of stressors. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate shame and guilt in refugee minors and to assess to what extent a greater cumulative exposure to traumatic stressors would result not only in more severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms but also in higher levels of shame and guilt. Methods: Thirty-two male refugee minors, who were all below the age of 18 when they sought asylum in Germany, agreed to participate. At the time of the assessment, the age ranged from 11 to 20 years. Eighteen refugees had arrived without relatives in their host country (“unaccompanied minors”. In structured diagnostic interviews, a PTSD diagnosis was established using the UCLA PTSD Index. Posttraumatic guilt was assessed by means of the Trauma-related Guilt Inventory, and the Shame Variability Questionnaire was used to record the intensity, duration, and frequency of shame episodes. Results: Feelings of guilt and shame as well as trauma symptoms were all associated with the number of traumatic event types subjects had experienced. Posttraumatic guilt and shame were both correlated with PTSD symptom severity. Conclusions: The findings indicate that cumulative stress such as exposure to multiple traumatic events poses a risk factor for the mental health including greater suffering and functional impairment due to shame and guilt.

  20. The Role of Shame, Anger, and Affect Regulation in Men's Perpetration of Psychological Abuse in Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Felicity W. K.; Austin, Amanda G.; Cercone, Jennifer J.; Arias, Ileana

    2005-01-01

    This study determines the relationships between shame, anger, and men's perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships. The authors' hypothesize the connection between shame proneness and men's use of psychological abuse with a dating partner, with anger's mediating in this relationship. In addition, the authors' hypothesize that…

  1. Trigger and screen: shame dynamics and the problem of instigation in Freud's dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Melvin R

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of instigation, that is to say, the dynamic triggering, of the dream in Freud's "The Interpretation of Dreams" (1900)/1953). The problem of instigation came to the author's attention in the course of studying treatment difficulties and failures outside of the psychoanalytic situation, specifically the dynamics of impulsive actions and of posttraumatic nightmares, which the author then used in the consideration of problems associated with conceptualizing instigation in "The Interpretation of Dreams." Instigatory dynamics other than Freud's metaphor of "capitalist and entrepreneur" have attracted scant attention; and that metaphor as Freud applied it is an incomplete example of the instigatory process since its theoretical formulation are discrepant with Freud's clinical sensitivity to the instigation of his own dreams. Four of Freud's major dreams reveal an instigatory experience consisting of a contemporaneous ego-ideal conflict due to an anticipation of professional status as denied or lost. This contemporaneous ego-ideal conflict resonates with early and unconscious shame dynamics and shame fantasies involving tension from the ego-ideal that result from Freud's seeing himself as relegated to inferior or asexual status. The wish to possess an object of desire was not primary in any of these dreams. The complex nexus of shame dynamics, in turn, instigates more visible competitive wishes; these strive to alter the circumstances that threaten to give rise to shame or turn the tables on the shamer. The instigating shame dynamics are thus screened by the more visible dynamics of hostile competition. This formulation offers an expanded view of the dynamics of instigation which leads to a more balanced understanding of the nature and components of instigatory shame dynamics and their relationship to the dynamics of conflicts involving hostility, competition, and guilt.

  2. Shame amplifies the association between stressful life events and paranoia amongst young adults using mental health services: Implications for understanding risk and psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Judith; Jones, Christopher; Lin, Ashleigh; Wood, Stephen; Heinze, Kareen; Jackson, Christopher

    2014-12-15

    Shame is associated with a range of psychological disorders, and is a trans-diagnostic moderator of the association between stressors and symptoms of disorder. However, research has yet to investigate shame in relation to specific psychotic symptoms in clinical groups. In order to address this, the present study investigated shame in young adults with mental health problems, to test whether shame was i) directly associated with paranoia, a prevalent psychotic symptom, and ii) a moderator of the association between stress and paranoia. Sixty participants completed measures of stressful events, paranoia, shame, depression and anxiety. Results from a cross-sectional regression analysis suggested that shame was associated with paranoia after the stressful life event measure was entered into the model, and shame moderated the association between stress and paranoia. For individuals scoring high on shame, shame amplified the association between stress and paranoia, but for low-shame individuals, the association between stress and paranoia was non-significant. These findings suggest that high levels of shame could confer vulnerability for paranoia amongst clinical groups, and that resistance to experiencing shame could be a marker of resilience.

  3. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  4. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  5. Experiences of guilt and shame in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: a qualitative interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, J.C.; Malterud, K.; Fugelli, P.

    2007-01-01

    's phenomenological method. RESULTS: Participants disclosed their condition as inherited and not caused by an unhealthy lifestyle. They could experience guilt or shame if they violated their own standards for dietary management, or if a cholesterol test was not favorable. Participants had experienced health...

  6. Faces of shame : Implications for self-esteem, emotion regulation, aggression, and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velotti, Patrizia; Garofalo, C.; Bottazzi, Federica; Caretti, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in psychological research on shame experiences and their associations with other aspects of psychological functioning and well-being, as well as with possible maladaptive outcomes. In an attempt to confirm and extend previous knowledge on this topic, we investigated t

  7. Speak Truth and Shame the Devil: An Ethnodrama in Response to Racism in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Randolph, Adah; Weems, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnodrama examines how two African American women experience racism in the academe. Both scholars examine the social/political context of racism in higher education and its manifestation in institutional practices. Both authors seek to "speak truth and shame the devil" by examining institutional responses to the racism they encounter in…

  8. Do Guilt- and Shame-Proneness Differentially Predict Prosocial, Aggressive, and Withdrawn Behaviors during Early Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In this short-term longitudinal study, we systematically examined the distinctiveness of guilt- and shame-proneness in early adolescents (N = 395, mean age = 11.8 years) in terms of differential relations with peer reported prosocial behavior, withdrawal, and aggression. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that guilt-proneness…

  9. How Do Personality Traits Effect Shame and Guilt?: An Evaluation of the Turkish Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Seval; Akbag, Müge

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Feelings of shame and guilt as negative social emotions have a deep and continuous impact throughout our lives, particularly on our behaviors in both intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships. It was widely accepted that these feelings originate from a person's early period of life's interpersonal experiences in the family…

  10. Borderline personality disorder and self-conscious affect: Too much shame but not enough guilt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jessica R; Geiger, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    Shame has emerged as a particularly relevant emotion to the maintenance and exacerbation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features; however, little attention has been paid to the potentially differing effects of other forms of self-conscious affect. While guilt has been demonstrated to have adaptive functions in the social psychology literature, it has not been previously explored whether a lack of socially adaptive guilt might also contribute to BPD-related dysfunction. The present study examined the relationship between BPD features and self-conscious emotions in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 839). Increased shame and decreased guilt independently accounted for significant variance in the association between BPD features and anger, hostility, and externalization of blame. Only increased shame significantly mediated the association between BPD features and anger rumination, and only decreased guilt significantly mediated the relationship between BPD features and aggression. These findings suggest BPD and its associated problems with anger and externalizing may be characterized not only by high levels of shame, but also by lower levels of guilt. Clinical implications include the need to differentiate between self-conscious emotions and teach adaptive responses to warranted guilt. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. On Effectiveness and Legitimacy of 'Shaming' as a Strategy for Combatting Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Behnam; Safari, Azar

    2017-04-11

    While states have agreed to substantial reduction of emissions in the Paris Agreement, the success of the Agreement strongly depends on the cooperation of large Multinational Corporations. Short of legal obligations, we discuss the effectiveness and moral legitimacy of voluntary approaches based on naming and shaming. We argue that effectiveness and legitimacy are closely tied together; as voluntary approaches are the only alternative to legally imposed duties, they are most morally defensible particularly if they would be the most effective in reducing the harmful greenhouse gases. Shaming could be made effective if states could prompt more corporations to accept voluntary cuts with high gains-such as public acknowledgements-and high losses, such as reporting on noncompliance and public exposure (naming), along with some kind of condemnation (shaming). An important challenge of such voluntary approaches is how to ensure compliance with the agreed upon commitments, while avoiding greenwashing or selective disclosure. Certain institutional arrangements are inevitable, including an independent measurement, monitoring and verification mechanism. In this paper, we discuss the potentials and ethical pitfalls of shaming as a strategy when corporations have a direct relationship with consumers, but also when they are in a relationship with governments and other corporations.

  12. Shame and Guilt-Proneness in Adolescents: Gene-Environment Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar

    Full Text Available Rooted in people's preoccupation with how they are perceived and evaluated, shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that play adaptive roles in social behavior, but can also contribute to psychopathology when dysregulated. Shame and guilt-proneness develop during childhood and adolescence, and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that are little known to date. This study investigated the effects of early traumatic events and functional polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene and the serotonin transporter gene promoter (5-HTTLPR on shame and guilt in adolescents. A sample of N = 271 healthy adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age filled in measures of early traumatic events and proneness to shame and guilt, and were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. Results of moderator analyses indicated that trauma intensity was positively associated with guilt-proneness only in carriers of the low-expressing Met allele of BDNF Val66Met. This is the first study that identifies a gene-environment interaction that significantly contributes to guilt proneness in adolescents, with potential implications for developmental psychopathology.

  13. Is Shame an Ugly Emotion? Four Discourses--Two Contrasting Interpretations for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a sustained philosophical meditation on contrasting interpretations of the emotion of shame within four academic discourses--social psychology, psychological anthropology, educational psychology and Aristotelian scholarship--in order to elicit their implications for moral education. It turns out that within each of these…

  14. Shame and Guilt-Proneness in Adolescents: Gene-Environment Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora; Chiș, Adina; Vulturar, Romana; Dobrean, Anca; Cândea, Diana Mirela; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in people's preoccupation with how they are perceived and evaluated, shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that play adaptive roles in social behavior, but can also contribute to psychopathology when dysregulated. Shame and guilt-proneness develop during childhood and adolescence, and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that are little known to date. This study investigated the effects of early traumatic events and functional polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and the serotonin transporter gene promoter (5-HTTLPR) on shame and guilt in adolescents. A sample of N = 271 healthy adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age filled in measures of early traumatic events and proneness to shame and guilt, and were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. Results of moderator analyses indicated that trauma intensity was positively associated with guilt-proneness only in carriers of the low-expressing Met allele of BDNF Val66Met. This is the first study that identifies a gene-environment interaction that significantly contributes to guilt proneness in adolescents, with potential implications for developmental psychopathology.

  15. Faces of Shame : Implications for self-esteem, emotion regulation, aggression, and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velotti, Patrizia; Garofalo, C.; Bottazzi, Federica; Caretti, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in psychological research on shame experiences and their associations with other aspects of psychological functioning and well-being, as well as with possible maladaptive outcomes. In an attempt to confirm and extend previous knowledge on this topic, we investigated t

  16. The Treatment of Maladaptive Shame in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of "Opposite Action"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to pilot test a short-term intervention for maladaptive shame in borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on the skill of "opposite action" from dialectical behavior therapy. Five women with BPD were treated with the intervention using a single-subject, multiple-baseline design. Results indicate that, although state ratings of…

  17. A Process Model for Understanding Adaptation to Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame in Defining Stigmatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical and testable model of psychological processes in child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse. It proposes that sexual abuse leads to shame through mediation of cognitive attributions which leads to poor adjustment. Three factors--social support, gender, and developmental period--are hypothesized to moderate the…

  18. Is Shame an Ugly Emotion? Four Discourses--Two Contrasting Interpretations for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a sustained philosophical meditation on contrasting interpretations of the emotion of shame within four academic discourses--social psychology, psychological anthropology, educational psychology and Aristotelian scholarship--in order to elicit their implications for moral education. It turns out that within each of these…

  19. Social cuing of guilt by anger and of shame by disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Espinosa, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have proposed a conceptual structure for the self-critical moral emotions of guilt and shame and the other-critical emotions of anger and disgust. In this model, guilt is linked with anger and shame with disgust. This relationship may express itself in asymmetrical social cuing between emotions: In a social context, other people's angry facial expressions may communicate that the target should feel guilty, and other people's disgusted facial expressions may communicate that the target should feel ashamed. We conducted two experiments, one in the United Kingdom and the other in Spain, in which participants were shown pictures of faces expressing either anger or disgust. Participants rated the degree to which the faces would make them feel guilt or shame in a casual social encounter, and they answered questions about inferences concerning the emotional expressions. In both studies, angry expressions led to greater guilt and less shame than did disgusted expressions. This relationship was explained better by the type of norm violation inferred than by whether the violation was thought to involve the target's action or personality versus the target's character.

  20. Do Guilt- and Shame-Proneness Differentially Predict Prosocial, Aggressive, and Withdrawn Behaviors during Early Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In this short-term longitudinal study, we systematically examined the distinctiveness of guilt- and shame-proneness in early adolescents (N = 395, mean age = 11.8 years) in terms of differential relations with peer reported prosocial behavior, withdrawal, and aggression. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that guilt-proneness…

  1. Faces of shame : Implications for self-esteem, emotion regulation, aggression, and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velotti, Patrizia; Garofalo, C.; Bottazzi, Federica; Caretti, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in psychological research on shame experiences and their associations with other aspects of psychological functioning and well-being, as well as with possible maladaptive outcomes. In an attempt to confirm and extend previous knowledge on this topic, we investigated

  2. Disordered eating and suicidal intent: the role of thin ideal internalisation, shame and family criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unikel, C; Von Holle, A; Bulik, C M; Ocampo, R

    2012-01-01

    We explored the effect of thin ideal internalisation, shame proneness and family criticism on disordered eating and suicidal intent in female Mexican adolescents. We studied a probabilistic sample of 2537 high school students in central Mexico, stratified by marginalisation status and migratory intensity. We used a generalised logistic regression model to estimate the odds of disordered eating and suicidal intent across scores for three predictors: Internalisation of the thin ideal, shame and family criticism. Disordered eating was reported by 4.2% (95% CI = 0.9-7.5%) and suicidal intent by 13.2% (95% CI = 12.0-14.4%) of girls. The unadjusted odds ratios of any disordered eating for thin ideal internalisation, shame proneness and familial criticism were 1.2, 1.1 and 3.2, respectively. The positive association between thin ideal internalisation and disordered eating remained even after controlling for shame proneness and familial criticism. The association of these variables with suicidal intent was weaker. Results support stronger effects for disordered eating than suicidal intent across the three unadjusted predictors. It also highlights the presence of the relationship of criticism and disordered eating in female adolescents from low and middle socio-economic backgrounds. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. Shame, hatred, and pornography: Variations on an aspect of current times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Claude

    2015-12-01

    Drawing on a number of clinical vignettes, the author seeks to highlight the relations between shame, hatred and pornography in contemporary clinical practice, and to explore certain metapsychological avenues that can help us understand how these relations are established. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  4. Shame, Dissociation, and Complex PTSD Symptoms in Traumatized Psychiatric and Control Groups: Direct and Indirect Associations With Relationship Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Corry, Mary; Black, Rebecca; Matheson, Laura; Coles, Holly; Curran, David; Seager, Lenaire; Middleton, Warwick; Dyer, Kevin F W

    2017-04-01

    Elevated shame and dissociation are common in dissociative identity disorder (DID) and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are part of the constellation of symptoms defined as complex PTSD. Previous work examined the relationship between shame, dissociation, and complex PTSD and whether they are associated with intimate relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. This study investigated these variables in traumatized clinical samples and a nonclinical community group. Participants were drawn from the DID (n = 20), conflict-related chronic PTSD (n = 65), and nonclinical (n = 125) populations and completed questionnaires assessing the variables of interest. A model examining the direct impact of shame and dissociation on relationship functioning, and their indirect effect via complex PTSD symptoms, was tested through path analysis. The DID sample reported significantly higher dissociation, shame, complex PTSD symptom severity, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships than the other two samples. Support was found for the proposed model, with shame directly affecting relationship anxiety and fear of relationships, and pathological dissociation directly affecting relationship anxiety and relationship depression. The indirect effect of shame and dissociation via complex PTSD symptom severity was evident on all relationship variables. Shame and pathological dissociation are important for not only the effect they have on the development of other complex PTSD symptoms, but also their direct and indirect effects on distress associated with relationships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Ashamed and Fused with Body Image and Eating: Binge Eating as an Avoidance Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2017-01-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is currently recognized as a severe disorder associated with relevant psychiatric and physical comorbidity, and marked emotional distress. Shame is a specific negative emotion that has been highlighted as central in eating disorders. However, the effect of shame and underlying mechanisms on binge eating symptomatology severity remained unclear. This study examines the role of shame, depressive symptoms, weight and shape concerns and eating concerns, and body image-related cognitive fusion, on binge eating symptomatology severity. Participated in this study 73 patients with the diagnosis of BED, established through a clinical interview-Eating Disorder Examination 17.0D-who completed measures of external shame, body-image related cognitive fusion, depressive symptoms and binge eating symptomatology. Results revealed positive associations between binge eating severity and depressive symptoms, shame, weight and shape concerns, eating concerns and body image-related cognitive fusion. A path analysis showed that, when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms, external shame has a direct effect on binge eating severity, and an indirect effect mediated by increased eating concern and higher levels of body image-related cognitive fusion. Results confirmed the plausibility of the model, which explained 43% of the severity of binge eating symptoms. The proposed model suggests that, in BED patients, perceiving that others see the self negatively may be associated with an entanglement with body image-related thoughts and concerns about eating, which may, in turn, fuel binge eating symptoms. Findings have important clinical implications supporting the relevance of addressing shame and associated processes in binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  7. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  8. The relationship between trauma, shame, and guilt: findings from a community-based study of refugee minors in Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stotz, Sabrina J; Elbert, Thomas; Müller, Veronika; Schauer, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between traumatic stress and self-conscious emotions, such as shame and guilt, remain to be fully explored, especially in refugees, who frequently are exposed to a multitude of stressors...

  9. Childhood Maltreatment, Shame-Proneness and Self-Criticism in Social Anxiety Disorder: A Sequential Mediational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Ben; Doron, Guy; Szepsenwol, Ohad

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown a robust link between emotional abuse and neglect with social anxiety symptoms. However, the mechanisms through which these links operate are less clear. We hypothesized a model in which early experiences of abuse and neglect create aversive shame states, internalized into a stable shame-based cognitive-affective schema. Self-criticism is conceptualized as a safety strategy designed to conceal flaws and prevent further experiences of shame. However, self-criticism maintains negative self-perceptions and insecurity in social situations. To provide preliminary, cross-sectional support for this model, a nonclinical community sample of 219 adults from Israel (110 females, mean age = 38.7) completed measures of childhood trauma, shame-proneness, self-criticism and social anxiety symptoms. A sequential mediational model showed that emotional abuse, but not emotional neglect, predicted shame-proneness, which in turn predicted self-criticism, which in turn predicted social anxiety symptoms. These results provide initial evidence supporting the role of shame and self-criticism in the development and maintenance of social anxiety disorder. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Previous research has shown that histories of emotional abuse and emotional neglect predict social anxiety symptoms, but the mechanisms that underlie these associations are not clear. Using psycho-evolutionary and emotion-focused perspectives, the findings of the current study suggest that shame and self-criticism play an important role in social anxiety and may mediate the link between emotional abuse and symptoms. These findings also suggest that therapeutic interventions specifically targeting shame and self-criticism should be incorporated into treatments for social anxiety, especially with socially anxious patients with abuse histories. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Shame and Guilt: Relationships of Test of Self-Conscious Affect Measures With Psychological Adjustment and Gender Differences in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Ghorbani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In numerous studies conducted in Western societies, shame as measured by the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA has correlated with maladjustment whereas the TOSCA Guilt Scale has predicted adjustment. The present investigation sought to determine if such linkages would also appear in the Muslim cultural context of Iran. Iranian university students (N = 132 responded to Shame and Guilt Scales from the third version of the TOSCA, along with an array of personality measures. Shame correlated negatively with adjustment and positively with maladjustment. Guilt displayed an opposite pattern of relationships. As in previous Western investigations, women scored higher than men on guilt, but the expected female elevation in shame failed to appear. Shame, nevertheless, interacted with gender to predict relationships with poorer psychological functioning in women, but not in men. These data most importantly confirmed that the TOSCA Shame and Guilt Scales in Iran display implications similar to those observed in the West and that gender differences in Iran may deserve additional research attention.

  11. Victimization, family environment and the management of the blame-shame on bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ramírez Zaragoza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine to what extent a history of victimization, handling shame-guilt and family climate differentiate students with and without harassing behavior toward peers. 132 students were identified as aggressors and reported an average of three or more aggressive behavior toward peers. A random sample of similar size was taken to complete the final number of participants. Using logistic regression, variables studied pointed significant difference between groups of students with and without aggressive behavior toward peers (R2 = .58. Victimization (OR = 10.76, shame displacement (OR = 1.99 and family conflict (OR = 1.51 increase the probability of belonging to the group of assailants while recognition (OR = 0.62 and family life (OR = 0.60 decrease this probability. It is concluded that is necessary to analyze bullying from an ecological framework considering variables located in the contexts where individuals interact.

  12. Naming and Shaming in Financial Market Regulations: A Violation of the Presumption of Innocence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette J.W. Pfaeltzer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Naming and shaming in the financial markets has become a well-known enforcement tool by national supervisors both within and outside the EU. The Netherlands is one of the Member States which permits the publication of offences and administrative sanctions including the name of the offender. However, such publication practice might raise some concerns in the light of certain fundamental human rights. For instance, does naming and shaming violate the presumption of innocence? This article tries to answer this question by evaluating the Dutch publication regime under the Financial Supervision Act. Are the legal safeguards as provided under this Act sufficiently adequate to prevent an infringement of the presumption of innocence?

  13. Shame conflicts as dream instigators: wish fulfillment and the ego ideal in dream dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Melvin R

    2003-12-01

    Understanding of the instigatory dynamics of the dream is essential to the understanding of the dream as a fulfilled wish. Both the meaning and the function of the dream can be understood only in relation to the instigating disruption that drives the dream into being. It is the instigator of the dream that connects the working of the inner world with events in the external world. The literature on the process of dream instigation is scant, still deriving from Freud's metaphor of "capitalist and entrepreneur." Hidden shame conflicts that react to the dreamer's anticipation of danger of exposure and shame are significant factors in the instigation of the dream. Clinical material in support of this view is presented in the form of a verbatim session that included a dream.

  14. The Banyamulenge people: Their angst, honour and shame in the light of the Matthean Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Rukundwa

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on two theological contributions based on a social analysis of the Gospel of Matthew and its application to the Banyamulenge community in the Democratic Republic of Congo: the work of Overman (1990, 1996 on the formation of the Matthean community and its identity versus formative Judaism in their cultural setting; the work of Neyrey (1998 on honour and shame codes in the social context of the Matthean community. The article analyses the commitment of the first Banyamulenge Christian believers in light of the cultural codes of honour and shame, which were also part of the community’s survival mechanisms. The life story of Madam Kibihira is compared to other women entries in Jesus’ genealogy (Mt 1 and the Canaanite woman (Mt 15. Madam Kibihira was the first woman who became Christian and also the first Banyamulenge victim for her faith in Christ. The article argues that faith earns honour regardless of social status.

  15. Young men’s shame about their desire for other men predicts risky sex and moderates the knowledge - self-efficacy link.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina ePark

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent findings suggest that a strong negative social emotion (i.e., shame increases YMSM’s sexual risk-taking. Unchangeable shame (e.g., desire for other men might undermine (moderate the link between knowledge and self-efficacy or between self-efficacy and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI: This may be less likely for changeable shame (e.g., shame about risky sexual behavior.Aim: To test the hypotheses that shame (i.e., sexual desire shame, but not shame about behavior (i.e., sexual behavior shame, will be positively related to UAI and will moderate the relationship between knowledge and self-efficacy and/or self-efficacy and UAI among YMSM.Method: In an online national study, 1177 young adult (18-24 year old MSM reported one or more acts of UAI in the past 90 days with a casual partner. Eligible MSM filled out a survey in which they provided information about their knowledge of safer sex, self-efficacy for safer sex, reported levels of shame, and reported past 90-day UAI. Results: Sexual desire shame was negatively correlated with knowledge and self-efficacy and positively correlated with UAI: The pattern reversed for sexual behavior shame. Sexual desire shame significantly lowered the knowledge to self-efficacy and the self-efficacy to UAI links. Sexual behavior shame also reduced the link from knowledge to self-efficacy, but not the self-efficacy to UAI link. Conclusion: The present study shows that there are different types of shame that may produce different effects with different implications for health behavior. Sexual desire shame may better reflect an emotion that is activated prior to risky behavior (e.g., when men reflect upon or feel desire for another man. Sexual behavior shame, on the other hand, better reflects what has already happened: Thus, those higher in knowledge, efficacy, and therefore safer sex are least likely to experience shame behavior.

  16. Will Shaming Prostitutes In a Public Parade Help to Curb the Illegal Practice?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Futian District in Shenzhen,Guangdong Province had a very unusual look about it late last November when hundreds of prostitutes and their customers were paraded in front of at least a thousand local residents. The move was part of a campaign by the police to crack down on the illegal sex industry and was met by whistles, applause and other less savory commentsfrom those who had turned out to see the great walk of shame.

  17. The potential of shame as a message appeal in antismoking television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonini, Claudia; Pettigrew, Simone; Clayforth, Cassandra

    2015-09-01

    As smoking is increasingly de-normalised, different messages may become more appropriate for use in tobacco control advertisements to reflect the changing social environment. To date, more commonly used messages have included fear appeals relating to physical health and guilt appeals focusing on the effects of smoking on loved ones. This study investigated the relative effectiveness of varying advertising appeals to promote smoking cessation. The study was conducted in Australia, where only 12% of the population smokes and legislation restricts smoking in many public places. The aim was to provide insight into ways to motivate the small segment of existing smokers to consider quitting. Across a qualitative phase and an ad testing phase, shame was found to be highly salient to current smokers and those who had quit recently. On the basis of these results, a television advertisement featuring a shame appeal was developed and broadcast. The ad featured various scenarios of individuals hiding their smoking from others. The campaign was evaluated using the measures of awareness, believability, perceived relevance and smoking behaviours. The shame appeal television advertisement was found to resonate with smokers and encourage quitting/reducing behaviours. Around 4 in 5 (78%) smokers surveyed recalled seeing the ad, almost all of whom could nominate at least one correct take-out message (94%). Around three-quarters (72%) found the ad to be personally relevant and half (53%) reported that they had successfully quit, attempted to quit or cut down the number of cigarettes they smoked since the start of the campaign. The use of shame appeals may be an effective method of motivating smokers to quit in an environment where they are members of a small minority and supportive legislation exists to discourage smoking in public places. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Ageism Discrimination Crowdlynching Shames Physics Pretentions of Intellectual Honesty and Ethics: Extension Throughout Universities Shaming Education By Bankrupting Overdebted Student Defrauding: Caveat Emptor!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isalie, J.; Codben, Druid; Seidwinder, Gruald; Heiller, Ereich; Young, Muddlekent; Stuntley, Hugene; Siegel, L. E. E.; Deliesie, Charlatan

    2014-03-01

    Ageism discrimination sociological-dysfunctionality crowdlynching shames physics pretentions of intellectual honesty and ethics! Extension to other departments:philo.,psych.,geo.,maths shames claims of honest education:BU,HU,NEU,UW,SDSU,ICTP/SISSA. Defrauding overdebted students, would be ``sciences'' become alas mere séances! Witness:70 year old Edward Siegel,PhD(70) firsts:multiband Hubbard-model decades pre-``Emery'' with Rosen/Feynman[IBM Conf.Comp./Math.(86)] trendy/ hyped ``Q-computing'' in ANN AI, google search-engine Page-Brin adaption; pre-trendy nanophysics [PSS(a) 11, 45(72);Scripta Met.13,913(79)];decade-earlier GMR discoverer[JMMM 7,312(78)] pre ``Fert''-``Gruenberg'' decade-earlier acoustic-emission F =ma rediscovery in Bak/BNL-hyped SOC; FUZZYICS Aristotle SoO rediscovery eliminating jargonial-obfuscation plaguing physics via implementation of Cohen-Stewart[Collapse of Chaos:Discovering Simplicity in ``Complex'' World] called for compl-icity/ simple-xity both simultaneously automaticallybig-`data'disambiguation via HoT;AMS Joint Mtg.(02) proofs:FLT;P ≠NPBSD conj.,Riemann-hypothesis as BEC; Benford's-law inversion discovering digits = bosons; (87) Majorana-fermion & HDM discoverer in complex-quantum-statistics in fractal-dimensions; ``it's a jack-in-the-box'' universe cosmology.

  19. An Investigation on Organizational Charlatan Behaviour and Moral Identity as Predictors of Shame: Importance for Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juneman Abraham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is one of the biggest problems that progressively undermine the life of Indonesian. At the psychosocial level, the Indonesian people, especially the leaders and public officials, many times have been referred to as “the shameless nation”; a designation that is attributed as the cause of the flourishing of corruption. Research breakthrough is needed in the educational world in order to better understand the roots of corruption and the minimal and even the lack of the shame. This predictive correlational study made the organization charlatan behaviour and moral identity as predictors of shame proneness. This study, which was conducted on 208 civil servants and private employees in Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia (111 males, 97 females; mean of age = 32.19 years old, standard deviation of age = 10.495 years, showed that the organizational charlatan behaviour is unable to predict shame, but the moral identity can predict it. Implications of this study’s results for further advanced researches as well as practices in education are elaborated in the Discussion and Suggestions section.

  20. Patients' shame and attitudes toward discussing the results of literacy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael S; Williams, Mark V; Parker, Ruth M; Parikh, Nina S; Nowlan, Adam W; Baker, David W

    2007-12-01

    We investigated patients' willingness to have their reading ability documented in their medical records and the degree of shame and embarrassment associated with such disclosure. Structured interviews were conducted among a consecutive sample of 283 primary care patients at an urban public hospital. Patients' literacy was measured using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). Self-report of degree of shame and embarrassment related to literacy skills was measured using an orally administered questionnaire. Fifty-one percent of patients had low literacy skills (patients reading at or below the third-grade level admitted feeling ashamed or embarrassed about their difficulties reading, compared with 19.2% of those reading at the fourth-sixth-grade level and 6.5% of those reading at the seventh-eighth-grade level (p patients with low or marginal literacy reported it would be helpful for the doctor or nurse to know they did not understand some medical words. Patients with limited literacy were more likely to report feelings of shame as a result of disclosure (p patients might experience as a result of literacy screening.

  1. Evaluation of multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Frisén,Marianne; Andersson, Eva; Schiöler, Linus

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate surveillance is of interest in many areas such as industrial production, bioterrorism detection, spatial surveillance, and financial transaction strategies. Some of the suggested approaches to multivariate surveillance have been multivariate counterparts to the univariate Shewhart, EWMA, and CUSUM methods. Our emphasis is on the special challenges of evaluating multivariate surveillance methods. Some new measures are suggested and the properties of several measures are demonstrat...

  2. “I had no idea this shame piece was in me”: Couple and family therapists’ experience with learning an evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Allan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the experience of shame while learning an evidence-based approach to working with couples or families. Couple and family therapists were interviewed about their experience with learning and using an evidence-based practice (EBP and the data was analyzed using a phenomenological approach called interpretative phenomenological analysis. The theme of shame emerged from a number of research participants as part of their development with the EBP they were integrating into their practice. Starting with an exploration of the participants’ experiences and the impact of shame, the paper will then link these experiences with the psychological and sociological research literature about shame.

  3. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    resistance surveillance, diarrhea etiology and antimicrobial resistance surveillance, sexually transmitted illness surveillance, and capacity building...vomiting, diarrhea , joint pains, general malaise. Of the samples analyzed, only 53.7% had an associated etiology: Malaria (47.0%, EBV (39.7...immunity to the disease. Many adults in those situations are reservoirs, facilitating continuing disease transmission to those without immunity. In Kenya

  4. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  5. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  6. Personnel's Health Surveillance at Work: Effect of Age, Body Mass Index, and Shift Work on Mental Workload and Work Ability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Safari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Two great changes in developed countries are taking place: populations are ageing and becoming increasingly overweight. Combination of these factors with shift work is a risk factor for work ability and mental workload that are dynamic processes which change greatly throughout an individual's work life. The aim of this study was to investigate mental workload and work ability in textile workers and to identify factors which affect work ability and mental workload. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 194 male workers in textile industry. Employees based on their job group and work conditions have been divided into 6 categories. They completed work ability index and mental workload questionnaires during three work shifts. Body mass index (BMI and demographic details were recorded. Results. All of the participants rated their work ability as moderate with high mental workload. The mean WAI and mental workload in age group were significant. The mean BMI was 25.5 kg/m2 (standard deviation 4.1 and the mean age was 40.22 years. There was a statistically significant correlation between work ability index and shift work. Conclusions. Unlike the previous study, a decrease point in WAI started in early age that may be due to life-style work and another psychological factor; on the other hand, NASA-TLX revealed high score in six subscales that can be another reason for low WAI.

  7. O sentimento de vergonha e suas relações com a moralidade Shame and its relationships with morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves de La Taille

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a relação entre o sentimento de vergonha e a moralidade. Para tanto, começamos por discutir uma perspectiva teórica do tema (a 'personalidade moral' ou moral self que nos permite incluir a dimensão afetiva nas explicações psicológicas das ações morais. Uma vez feita esta discussão, debruçamo-nos sobre o sentimento de vergonha, analisando quatro aspectos essenciais: 1 o lugar do juízo alheio e do auto-juízo na experiência da vergonha, 2 a eixo temporal da vergonha (vergonha prospectiva e retrospectiva, 3 as avaliações positivas e negativas deste sentimento e, 4 sua relação com o Eu. Acabamos nosso texto estabelecendo relação entre vergonha e moralidade através do conceito de 'honra' (ou auto-respeito procurando mostrar que o referido sentimento é condição necessária ao agir moral.The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between shame and morality. The first step is a discussion about one theoretical perspective (moral self that allows us to integrate the affective dimension into the psychological explanation of the moral action. The second step is the analysis of four essential aspects of shame: the place of self-judgment and the judgment of other in the experience of shame, 2 the temporal axis of shame (prospective and retrospective shame, 3 the positive and negative meanings of shame and 4 its relationship with the self. We conclude our text with an analysis of the concept of honor that represents the link between morality and shame. It is shown that honor is a necessary condition for the moral action.

  8. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  9. Embodied harms: gender, shame, and technology-facilitated sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Criminality in cyberspace has been the subject of much debate since the 1990s, yet comparatively little attention has been paid to technology-facilitated sexual violence and harassment (TFSV). The aim of this article is to explore the ways in which retraditionalized gender hierarchies and inequalities are manifested in online contexts, and to conceptualize the cause and effects of TFSV as "embodied harms." We argue that problematic mind/body and online/off-line dualisms result in a failure to grasp the unique nature of embodied harms, precluding an adequate understanding and theorization of TFSV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: Impact of Type of Clothing Worn during Anthropometric Measurements and Timing of the Survey on Weight and Body Mass Index Outcome Measures in 6–9-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy M. A. Wijnhoven

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The World Health Organization European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI conducted examinations in 6–9-year-old children from 16 countries in the first two rounds of data collection. Allowing participating countries to adhere to their local legal requirements or adapt to other circumstances required developing a flexible protocol for anthropometric procedures. Objectives. (1 Review intercountry variation in types of clothing worn by children during weight and height measurements, clothes weight adjustments applied, timing of the survey, and duration of data collection; (2 assess the impact of the observed variation in these practices on the children’s weight or body mass index (BMI outcome measures. Results. The relative difference between countries’ unadjusted and clothes-adjusted prevalence estimates for overweight was 0.3–11.5%; this figure was 1.4–33.3% for BMI-for-age Z-score values. Monthly fluctuations in mean BMI-for-age Z-score values did not show a systematic seasonal effect. The majority of the monthly BMI-for-age Z-score values did not differ statistically within a country; only 1–3 monthly values were statistically different within some countries. Conclusions. The findings of the present study suggest that the built-in flexibility in the COSI protocol concerning the data collection practices addressed in the paper can be kept and thus do not necessitate a revision of the COSI protocol.

  11. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  12. The Performative Uses of the Surveillance Archive in Manu Luksch's Works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses Manu Luksch's works using CCTV recordings as an example of aesthetic intervention in contemporary surveillance systems. Luksch's works are read as a “critical interface" between the artist's body and the archiving procedures of surveillance systems.......This article discusses Manu Luksch's works using CCTV recordings as an example of aesthetic intervention in contemporary surveillance systems. Luksch's works are read as a “critical interface" between the artist's body and the archiving procedures of surveillance systems....

  13. Guilt, shame and expressed emotion in carers of people with long-term mental health difficulties: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Mary Gemma; Taylor, Peter James; Brown, Stephen Lloyd; Rigby, Jake Wilfred; Sellwood, William

    2017-03-01

    Expressed emotion (EE) is a global index of familial emotional climate, whose primary components are emotional over-involvement (EOI) and critical comments (CC)/hostility. There is a strong theoretical rationale for hypothesising that carers' guilt and shame may be differentially associated with their EOI and CC/hostility respectively. This systematic review investigates the magnitude of these theorised associations in carers of people with long-term mental health difficulties. Electronic searches (conducted in May 2016 across Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO and ProQuest) were supplemented with iterative hand searches. Ten papers, reporting data from eight studies, were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a standardised checklist. Relevant data were extracted and synthesised narratively. EOI was positively associated with both guilt and shame, whereas CC/hostility was positively associated with shame. The strength of associations varied depending on whether or not guilt and shame were assessed within the context of the caring relationship. Based on these data, an argument can be made for the refinement, development and evaluation of systemic and individual interventions designed to target carers' guilt and shame. However, more research is needed to clarify the strength of these associations and their direction of effect before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  14. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  15. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men.

  16. Mediation role of shame-focused coping between shame and depression in high school students%中学生羞耻应对在羞耻与抑郁间的中介作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁欣放; 高隽; 张祖贤; 钱铭怡

    2012-01-01

    目的:考察中学生羞耻应对在羞耻与抑郁间的中介作用.方法:方便选取北京某高中高一、高二年级学生,于2009年12月和2010年6月两个时间点分别填写儿童抑郁问卷(CDI)、中学生羞耻体验量表(MSSS)、羞耻应对方式量表(CSS),时间点1回收有效问卷224份,时间点2回收与时间点1信息匹配的问卷166份.结果:使用纵向数据进行中介作用检验,结果显示,羞耻应对中的攻击自我、攻击他人两个维度对羞耻和抑郁起到中介作用,其中以时间点1的羞耻为自变量,攻击自我为中介变量的模型共可以解释时间点2抑郁方差的19%;而攻击他人作为中介变量的模型共可解释时间点2抑郁方差的13%.结论:羞耻可能通过羞耻应对而影响抑郁水平.%Objective: To examine the mediation role of shame-focused coping between shame and depression in high school students. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-two students were selected by convenience sampling and assessed with a series of questionnaires including the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Middle School Students'Shame Scale, and Compass of Shame Scale. Totally 166 participants completed the questionnaires again 6 months later. Results: Longitudinal analyses revealed that attack self coping and attack other coping were two full mediators of the relationship between shame-proneness and depression. Shame-proneness at baseline and attack self account for 19% of the variance in depression 6 months later, while shame-proneness at baseline and attack other account for 13% of the variance in depression 6 months later. Conclusion: These results suggest that shame-focused coping may be important in predicting depression.

  17. Slow and Steady Wins the Race: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Targeting Shame in Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Jason B.; Kohlenberg, Barbara S.; Hayes, Steven C.; Fletcher, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Shame has long been seen as relevant to substance use disorders, but interventions have not been tested in randomized trials. This study examined a group-based intervention for shame based on the principles of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in patients (N = 133; 61% female; M = 34 years old; 86% Caucasian) in a 28-day…

  18. Slow and Steady Wins the Race: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Targeting Shame in Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Jason B.; Kohlenberg, Barbara S.; Hayes, Steven C.; Fletcher, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Shame has long been seen as relevant to substance use disorders, but interventions have not been tested in randomized trials. This study examined a group-based intervention for shame based on the principles of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in patients (N = 133; 61% female; M = 34 years old; 86% Caucasian) in a 28-day…

  19. When does anticipating group-based shame lead to lower ingroup favoritism? The role of status and status stability : The role of status and status stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepherd, L.; Spears, Russell; Manstead, A.S.R.

    2013-01-01

    In two studies we examined whether and when anticipated group-based shame leads to less ingroup favoritism on the part of members of high-status groups in stable hierarchies. In Study 1 (n = 195) we measured anticipated group-based shame and found that it only negatively predicted ingroup favoritism

  20. Psychoanalytic and musical perspectives on shame in Donizetti's Lucia Di Lammermoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Julie Jaffee

    2008-06-01

    Two disciplines, psychoanalysis and music, are synthesized here with an eye to the origins and vicissitudes of shame and guilt as seen in the emotional disintegration of the eponymous heroine of Donizetti's opera Lucia di Lammermoor. Lucia's affects and her intrapsychic and interpersonal dynamics are heard in the music itself. A psychoanalytic and musical analysis of the opera, taking Lucia's dynamics as a quasi-substitute for clinical material, illuminates the intersections between certain theoretical aspects of the two disciplines. Both manifest and latent themes are expressed through the music of Donizetti's score.

  1. Stigma-related stress, shame and avoidant coping reactions among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibalski, J V; Müller, M; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Vetter, S; Rodgers, S; Oexle, N; Corrigan, P W; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-04-01

    It is unclear whether mental illness stigma affects individuals with subthreshold syndromes outside clinical settings. We therefore investigated the role of different stigma variables, including stigma-related stress and shame reactions, for avoidant stigma coping among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels. Based on a representative population survey, general stress resilience, stigma variables, shame about having a mental illness as well as avoidant stigma coping (secrecy and social withdrawal) were assessed by self-report among 676 participants with elevated symptom levels. Stigma variables and resilience were examined as predictors of avoidant stigma coping in a path model. Increased stigma stress was predicted by lower general stress resilience as well as by higher levels of perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy of discrimination. More shame was associated with higher perceived legitimacy. Lower resilience as well as more perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy predicted avoidant coping. Stigma stress partly mediated effects of resilience, perceived stigma and group identification on avoidant coping; shame partly mediated effects of perceived legitimacy on coping. Stigma stress and shame were also directly and positively related to avoidant stigma coping. Analyses were adjusted for symptoms, neuroticism and sociodemographic variables. Stigma may affect a larger proportion of the population than previously thought because stigma variables predicted secrecy and withdrawal among members of the general population with elevated, but overall mild symptom levels. Avoidant stigma coping likely has harmful effects, potentially exacerbating pre-existing psychological distress and undermining social networks. This highlights the need to reduce public stigma as well as to support individuals with subthreshold syndromes in their coping with stigma stress and shame reactions. Copyright © 2017

  2. Reducing shame in a game that predicts HIV risk reduction for young adult MSM: a randomized trial delivered nationally over the web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Christensen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Men who have sex with men (MSM often face socially sanctioned disapproval of sexual deviance from the heterosexual “normal.” Such sexual stigma can be internalized producing a painful affective state (i.e., shame. Although shame (e.g., addiction can predict risk-taking (e.g., alcohol abuse, sexual shame's link to sexual risk-taking is unclear. Socially Optimized Learning in Virtual Environments (SOLVE was designed to reduce MSM's sexual shame, but whether it does so, and if that reduction predicts HIV risk reduction, is unclear. Objectives: To test if at baseline, MSM's reported past unprotected anal intercourse (UAI is related to shame; MSM's exposure to SOLVE compared to a wait-list control (WLC condition reduces MSM's shame; and shame-reduction mediates the link between WLC condition and UAI risk reduction. Methods: HIV-negative, self-identified African American, Latino or White MSM, aged 18–24 years, who had had UAI with a non-primary/casual partner in the past three months were recruited for a national online study. Eligible MSM were computer randomized to either WLC or a web-delivered SOLVE. Retained MSM completed baseline measures (e.g., UAI in the past three months; current level of shame and, in the SOLVE group, viewed at least one level of the game. At the end of the first session, shame was measured again. MSM completed follow-up UAI measures three months later. All data from 921 retained MSM (WLC condition, 484; SOLVE condition, 437 were analyzed, with missing data multiply imputed. Results: At baseline, MSM reporting more risky sexual behaviour reported more shame (r s=0.21; p<0.001. MSM in the SOLVE intervention reported more shame reduction (M=−0.08 than MSM in the control condition (M=0.07; t(919=4.24; p<0.001. As predicted, the indirect effect was significant (point estimate −0.10, 95% bias-corrected CI [−0.01 to −0.23] such that participants in the SOLVE treatment condition reported greater

  3. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  4. Factors impacting the mental health of the caregivers of children with asthma in china: effects of family socioeconomic status, symptoms control, proneness to shame, and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin

    2014-12-01

    Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  5. "Error that is anguish to its own nobleness": shame and tragedy in the Mill on the Floss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Joseph

    2003-12-01

    In George Eliot's The Mill on the Floss, early unresolved emotional conflicts in Maggie set a pattern that leads her to "tragic error" as a young adult. Eliot links Maggie's dilemma with Sophocles's Ajax, in which the Greek hero takes his life after shame pushes him blindly to an action that results in only deeper humiliation and a shattering of his social being. In both works, emotional conflict is driven by a desire to transcend shame and ultimately leads to a mortifying error that is recognized only after the fact as tragic in its consequences.

  6. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  7. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Alan P

    2015-01-01

    .... Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation...

  9. The biological evolution of guilt, shame and anxiety: A new theory of negative legacy emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breggin, Peter R

    2015-07-01

    Human beings are the most social and the most violent creatures on Earth. The combination of cooperation and aggression enabled us to dominate our ecosystem. However, the existence of violent impulses would have made it difficult or impossible for humans to live in close-knit families and clans without destroying each other. Nature's answer was the development of guilt, shame and anxiety-internal emotional inhibitions or restraints specifically against aggressive self-assertion within the family and other close relationships. The theory of negative legacy emotions proposes the first unitary concept for the biopsychosocial function of guilt, shame and anxiety, and seeks their origin in biological evolution and natural selection. Natural selection favored individuals with built-in emotional restraints that reduced conflicts within their family and tribal unit, optimizing their capacity to survive and reproduce within the protection of their small, intimate societies, while maintaining their capacity for violence against outsiders. Unfortunately, these negative legacy emotions are rudimentary and often ineffective in their psychosocial and developmental function. As a result, they produce many unintended untoward effects, including the frequent breakdown of restraints in the family and the uninhibited unleashing of violence against outsiders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for posttraumatic stress symptoms: building acceptance and decreasing shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Gerhart, James I; Chesney, Samantha A; Burns, John W; Kleinman, Brighid; Hood, Megan M

    2014-10-01

    Mindfulness-based psychotherapies are associated with reductions in depression and anxiety. However, few studies address whether mindfulness-based approaches may benefit individuals with posttraumatic stress symptoms. The current pilot study explored whether group mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy reduced posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, and negative trauma-related appraisals in 9 adult participants who reported trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress or depression. Participants completed 8 sessions of mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment, as well as pretreatment, midtreatment, and posttreatment assessments of psychological symptoms, acceptance of emotional experiences, and trauma appraisals. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, and shame-based trauma appraisals were reduced over the 8-week period, whereas acceptance of emotional experiences increased. Participants' self-reported amount of weekly mindfulness practice was related to increased acceptance of emotional experiences from pretreatment to posttreatment. Results support the utility of mindfulness-based therapies for posttraumatic stress symptoms and reinforce studies that highlight reducing shame and increasing acceptance as important elements of recovery from trauma.

  11. Trauma, shame and psychotic depression experienced by ex-POWs after release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlić, Ivan; Strkalj-Ivezić, Sladana; John, Nada

    2009-09-01

    Modern societies are growing ever more sensitive to the various sources and many kinds of psychic traumas, resulting even in psychotic reactions or states of functioning. Especially the war captivity situation represents the prolonged basis for chronic severe psychic stress and traumatisation, that may become deleterious even for the core self of the person. Severely psychotraumatized war veterans, or ex-POWs in the aftermath of the war captivity situation, survivors of extreme forms of violence and humiliation, are very reluctant to recall traumas. This avoidant behaviour is many times one of the most prominent symptoms that should be recognised and confronted in order to start the retraumatising process of healing the previously unthinkable traumas. The authors believe that shameful feelings are at the very basis of the psychotraumatised persons' withdrawal, depression, suicidal attempts, and even psychotic answers. The main feature of the first phase of any therapeutic work with these patients is the mourning process that should be gradually unfolded. The clinical examples will illustrate therapeutic work with these patients. The authors will expose some basic psychodynamic approaches and concepts regarding shame. This difficult feeling will be put in relationship with the psychotic answers. In that frame of reference the concept of 'near psychosis' will be described.

  12. Surveillance and Conformity in Competitive Youth Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Underpinned by a Foucauldian analysis of sporting practices, this paper identifies the disciplinary mechanism of surveillance at work in competitive youth swimming. It highlights the ways in which swimmers and their coaches are subject to and apply this mechanism to produce embodied conformity to normative behaviour and obedient, docile bodies.…

  13. Surveillance and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is as much about surveillance as about persuasive technologies (PTs). With regard to PTs it raises the question about the ethical limits of persuasion. It will be argued that even some forms of self-imposed persuasive soft surveillance technologies may be considered unethical. Therefore,

  14. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  15. Violence against women through the lens of objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M Meghan; Gervais, Sarah J

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of violence on body image variables for college women. Undergraduate women participated in an online study assessing sexual violence (SV), intimate partner violence (IPV), self-objectification, body surveillance, and body shame experiences. Findings suggest that both SV and IPV contribute to women's body shame. In addition, the associations between IPV and body shame appear to be explained through self-objectification processes, but not the associations between SV and body shame. Thus, important differences between IPV and SV regarding self-objectification processes emerged. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.

  16. Navigating Guilt, Shame, and Fear of Appearing Racist: A Conceptual Model of Antiracist White Feminist Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this study, I employed narrative inquiry supported by intersectionality theory to explore the experiences of 6 antiracist, White, feminist undergraduate women. A conceptual model of antiracist identity development emerged from the data. Participants described vivid experiences with guilt, shame, and fear that kept them from engaging in allied…

  17. Navigating Guilt, Shame, and Fear of Appearing Racist: A Conceptual Model of Antiracist White Feminist Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this study, I employed narrative inquiry supported by intersectionality theory to explore the experiences of 6 antiracist, White, feminist undergraduate women. A conceptual model of antiracist identity development emerged from the data. Participants described vivid experiences with guilt, shame, and fear that kept them from engaging in allied…

  18. Confirming the Multidimensionality of Psychologically Controlling Parenting among Chinese-American Mothers: Love Withdrawal, Guilt Induction, and Shaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Hart, Craig H.; Sun, Shuyan; Olsen, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the theoretical conceptualization of parental psychological control as a multidimensional construct, the majority of previous studies have examined psychological control as a unidimensional scale. Moreover, the conceptualization of shaming and its associations with love withdrawal and guilt induction are unclear. The current study aimed to…

  19. Borderline Personality Features and Implicit Shame-Prone Self-Concept in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, David J.; Helyer, Rebekah; Herlianto, Eugene C.; Willing, Jonah

    2013-01-01

    This study tested if children and adolescents with high levels of borderline personality features (BPF) exhibit the same shame-prone self-concept previously found to characterize adults with borderline personality disorder (Rusch et al., 2007). Self-concept was indexed using the Implicit Association Test, in a community sample of…

  20. Put your Hands up in the Air? The Interpersonal Effects of Pride and Shame Expressions on Opponents and Teammates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eFurley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to investigate the interpersonal effects of pride and shame expressions amongst opponents and teammates in a soccer penalty scenario. Across a series of experiments using the point-light method, pride and shame expressions exerted strong effects upon observers’ anticipated emotions, associated cognitions, and performance expectations. Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT in two pilot studies we demonstrated that the created pride and shame point-light stimuli were implicitly associated with status and performance related attributes. In Experiment 1, observing pride expressions caused opponents to anticipate more negative emotions, cognitions, and lower performance expectancies towards their next performance in comparison with neutral expressions. In contrast, pride expressions led teammates to anticipate more positive emotions (i.e., pride and happiness, cognitions, and performance expectations towards their next performance than neutral expressions (Experiments 2-4. The results are discussed within the emotions as social information (EASI, van Kleef, 2009 framework by arguing that the social context has to be taken into account when investigating the interpersonal effects of emotion expressions. In conclusion, the present research highlights the potential interpersonal influence of the nonverbal expressions of pride and shame in soccer penalty shootouts.

  1. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Summary Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Chancroid Selected STDs Appendix Appendix Interpreting STD Surveillance Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors ...

  2. When the Relationship becomes Her: Revisiting Women's Body Concerns from a Relationship Contingency Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T.; Kwang, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    Given women's communally oriented socialization and social pressures to find romantic partners, many heterosexual women may derive self-worth from having romantic relationships (relationship contingency). Across two studies, we explored whether relationship contingency heightens women's body shame. Studies 1A and 1B found that relationship…

  3. Bringing Back the Body: A Retrospective on the Development of Objectification Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Hendler, Lee Meyerhoff; Nilsen, Stephanie; O'Barr, Jean Fox; Roberts, Tomi-Ann

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Barbara L. Fredrickson reflects back on two early papers--"Objectification Theory: Toward Understanding Women's Lived Experiences and Mental Health Risks" and "A Mediational Model Linking Self-Objectification, Body Shame, and Disordered Eating"--and puts them into larger context. Both papers share an unusual origin story. To tell…

  4. Learning from state surveillance of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longjohn, Matt; Sheon, Amy R; Card-Higginson, Paula; Nader, Philip R; Mason, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Data on childhood obesity collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention helped reveal the nation's epidemic of overweight and obese children. But more information is needed. Collecting body mass index (BMI)-the widely accepted measurement of childhood weight status-at the state and local levels can be instrumental in identifying and tracking obesity trends, designing interventions to help overweight children, and guiding broader policy solutions. Approximately thirty states have enacted or proposed BMI surveillance laws and regulations. Arkansas stands out as the state with the highest-quality surveillance data. Innovative strategies being pursued in a number of other states should be explored for broader dissemination.

  5. The Shame of 'Fat Shaming'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome, Pearl said. Those with higher levels of devaluation and self-blame were about 46 percent more ... at those reporting the highest levels of internalizing devaluation and self-blame compared with the lowest group, ...

  6. Sex, shame and the transcendent function: the function of fantasy in self development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jean

    2005-11-01

    This paper explores a developmental approach to the sense of self-agency and to its influence on conscious and unconscious fantasy. I suggest that the emerging sense of self-agency offers an over-arching framework for our understanding of the nature and function of fantasy. In this context, intrusive and compulsive sexual fantasies which a person experiences as perverted and shameful, can be seen to serve differing psychic purposes, depending on the level of self-agency which is predominant. The fantasies can serve both as warning signals of the dangers of relationship and as opportunities for the mind to reflect on its own processes. Differing psychodynamic theories of fantasy are examined in terms of the developmental sense of self-agency that they represent.

  7. The Silver Lining of Shame: Framing HPV to Influence Vaccination Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Janet Z; Pittman, McKenzie M

    2016-07-27

    College students suffer disproportionately from human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that could result in genital warts or cancers in both males and females. Research contends that stigma and shame may serve as barriers to disclosure intentions, as well as vaccination intentions. The goal of this study was to examine whether two framing strategies-whether to mention that HPV is sexually transmitted and whether to highlight the cause of infection as internal or external-would influence young adults' intentions to disclose a potential diagnosis and their intentions to get the recommended HPV vaccine. Results indicate that STI framing and gender had consistent impacts on disclosure and vaccination intentions. Further, causal attribution framing also influenced participants' intention to get the vaccine at no cost immediately and their intention to get the vaccine at the retail price of $375 in the future. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  8. Between humans and beasts: the fictional uncanny in The Great God Pan and Shame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley de Souza Gomes Carreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p91 The purpose of this work is to analyze two fictional works, Arthur Machen’s novella The Great God Pan and Salman Rushdie’s novel Shame, which contain unusual situations and events, examining them to discuss how the fantastic elements in both texts relate to the  context of production of the works, that is, respectively, the nineteenth century and the second half of the twentieth century. Machen promoted a break with the tradition of horror stories, then in vogue, and Rushdie introduced features of Magical Realism into the Indian Postcolonial Literature. Temporally distant, the two works resort to the same device, typical of fantastic fiction, the metamorphosis of characters, and, through it, the authors build a subliminal criticism of the political and social system dominant in their own time.

  9. Shame behind the masks: the parents' perspective on their sons' suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnblom, Annelie Werbart; Werbart, Andrzej; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Suicides are more frequent among boys than girls. A tentative, conceptual model of processes behind suicide among boys and young men (aged 12-25), grounded in their parents' views, is presented. Extensive interviews with parents in 33 cases of suicide were analyzed using grounded-theory methodology. Family alliances, coalitions, and secrets interacted with the boy concealing problems and "hiding behind a mask," while the professionals did not understand the emergency. Four interwoven paths to suicide were found: the boy was hunted and haunted, addicted, depressed, or psychotic. Different forms of shame were hidden behind the masks of "the clown," "the warrior," and "the prince." Future preventive programs need to address barriers to communication among all parties involved.

  10. Negotiating Discourses of Shame, Secrecy, and Silence: Migrant and Refugee Women's Experiences of Sexual Embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Metusela, Christine; Hawkey, Alexandra J; Morrow, Marina; Narchal, Renu; Estoesta, Jane

    2017-10-01

    In Australia and Canada, the sexual health needs of migrant and refugee women have been of increasing concern, because of their underutilization of sexual health services and higher rate of sexual health problems. Previous research on migrant women's sexual health has focused on their higher risk of difficulties, or barriers to service use, rather than their construction or understanding of sexuality and sexual health, which may influence service use and outcomes. Further, few studies of migrant and refugee women pay attention to the overlapping role of culture, gender, class, and ethnicity in women's understanding of sexual health. This qualitative study used an intersectional framework to explore experiences and constructions of sexual embodiment among 169 migrant and refugee women recently resettled in Sydney, Australia and Vancouver, Canada, from Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Sri Lanka, India, and South America, utilizing a combination of individual interviews and focus groups. Across all of the cultural groups, participants described a discourse of shame, associated with silence and secrecy, as the dominant cultural and religious construction of women's sexual embodiment. This was evident in constructions of menarche and menstruation, the embodied experience that signifies the transformation of a girl into a sexual woman; constructions of sexuality, including sexual knowledge and communication, premarital virginity, sexual pain, desire, and consent; and absence of agency in fertility control and sexual health. Women were not passive in relation to a discourse of sexual shame; a number demonstrated active resistance and negotiation in order to achieve a degree of sexual agency, yet also maintain cultural and religious identity. Identifying migrant and refugee women's experiences and constructions of sexual embodiment are essential for understanding sexual subjectivity, and provision of culturally safe sexual health information in order to

  11. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  12. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  13. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  15. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  16. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6-9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Spinelli, A.; Starc, G.; Hassapidou, M.; Spiroski, I.; Rutter, H.; Martos, E.; Rito, A.I.; Hovengen, R.; Perez-Farinos, N.; Petrauskiene, A.; Eldin, N.; Braeckevelt, L.; Pudule, I.; Kunesova, M.; Breda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009/2010) an

  17. Investigating the influence of shame, depression, and distress tolerance on the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating in lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Vanessa; Robert-McComb, Jacalyn J; Clopton, James R; Reich, Darcy A

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research evidence about the specific factors influencing disordered eating for lesbian and bisexual women. Therefore, this study investigated relationships among binge eating, internalized homophobia, shame, depression, and distress tolerance in a sample of lesbian (n=72) and bisexual women (n=66). Two hypotheses were tested. First, it was hypothesized that shame and depression would mediate the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating. Second, it was hypothesized that distress tolerance would moderate the relationship between shame and binge eating and the relationship between depression and binge eating in the mediation relationships proposed in the first hypothesis. Results indicated that shame was a significant mediator for the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating, that depression was not a significant mediator, and that distress tolerance did not moderate the significant mediation relationship between shame and binge eating. The data in this study also indicated that the proportions of lesbian and bisexual participants who reported binge eating and compensatory behavior did not differ significantly, but that bisexual participants reported significantly more depression and shame than lesbian participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On Theory of Reintegrative Shame from the Community Correction Perspective%社区矫正视野下的重整性羞耻理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍俊阁

    2016-01-01

    我国的社区矫正制度正日益完善,但也面临诸多新的问题。其中,社区矫正中出现的烙印性羞耻现象,是社区矫正制度无法回避的,也是司法改革必须解决的问题。因此,有必要从烙印性羞耻的表象入手,分析烙印性羞耻之弊端,阐释重整性羞耻理论对消除烙印性羞耻现象的价值,并将其应用到社区矫正的实践中。%The community correction system in our country is improving day by day, but it is also facing some new problems at the same time. Among them, the phenomenon of stigmatizing shame in community correction is a problem that can not be avoided, it is also the problem of judicial reform must be resolved. This paper starts with the appearance of stigmatizing shame in community correction. On the basis of analyzing the drawbacks of stigmatizing shame, this paper expound the value of reintegrative shame to the elimination of stigmatizing shame. Finally, this paper puts forward the project how to apply the theory of reintegrative shame in the community correction.

  19. Working with chronic and relentless self-hatred, self-harm, and existential shame: a clinical study and reflections (Paper 2 of 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Sue

    2016-09-01

    This second of two papers focuses on the shame which emerged in the first 14 years of analysis of a woman who was bulimic, self-harmed, and repeatedly described herself as 'feeling like a piece of shit'. To explore this intense and pervasive shame I draw on Jung's and Laplanche's emphasis on experiences of unresolvable, non-pathological 'foreignness' or 'otherness' at the heart of the psyche. Images, metaphors, elements of clinical experience, and working hypotheses from a number of analytic traditions are used to flesh out this exploration. These include Kilborne's use of Pirandello's image of shame as like a 'hole in the paper sky' which, I suggest, points to a crack in subjectivity, and reveals our belief in the efficacy of the self to be illusory. Hultberg's observations on shame as having an existential mode (function) are also explored, as is the nature of analytic truth. Using these ideas I describe my patient's process of finding some small but freeing space in relation to her shame and self-hatred. Through enduring and learning from her shame in analysis she realized that it was part of a desperate unconscious attempt to draw close to her troubled father and so to 'love him better'.

  20. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  1. Ability to show shame can include children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    children and the principals at the schools, focus group interviews with the PE teachers and modified Social Network method on the school classes. The empirical framework will be analyzed through process-sociologist Norbert Elias theory of Civilizing (1994) and The Establish and Outsiders (Elias & Scotson...... outsiders. A child’s ability to show shame as a way of uncivilized behavior and the size of the figuration has influence on how established the children are in PE....

  2. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. PMID:26729130

  3. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Braeken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side.

  4. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  5. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  6. Unacknowledged threats proffered "in a manner of speaking": recognizing workplace bullying as shaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurec, Laura Cox; Kennison, Monica; Albataineh, Raya

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine workplace bullying victims' perceptions of what they heard their bully counterparts say through their use of prosody. From a sampling frame of 89 manuscripts referenced in the authors' previous studies, we identified a subset (n = 10) that included quotes regarding bullying victims' perceptions of communication experiences with their bully perpetrators. We used hermeneutics and a recursive metasynthesis to interpret quotes embedded in the manuscripts chosen for this study. Two-thirds of language is expressed nonverbally through prosody or "manner of speaking"-rhythm, stress, intonation, and vocabulary choice. We found that as bullies communicated with their intended victims over time, they used prosody across subtle, linked communications, or boldly and openly in public venues, to establish a context-embedded, one-way communication process of "doublespeak." Bullies' confusing prosodic communication processes served to recontexualize victims' situations and, through mechanisms largely unacknowledged by the victims, to subtly demean their personhood, and to shame them and render them voiceless. This study directs formal attention to the language of workplace bullying. Further study might strengthen opportunities to effectively address and curtail the long-term personal, professional, and organizational injuries deriving from workplace bullying. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. Shame as a Cultural Artifact: A Call for Self-Awareness and Reflexivity in Personality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschieri, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    It has become common for assessors to face therapeutic impasses and dilemmas when practicing within the Therapeutic Assessment (TA) model. This is due to the explicit goal of producing therapeutic changes in clients. In this article the author discusses the importance of assessors being aware of how their clinical practices relate to their assessment outcomes. To enhance such awareness, the author reviews the characteristics of psychological assessment practices as derived from 3 paradigms developed almost 1.5 centuries ago in Europe by the forefathers of psychology as a scientific discipline. Current assessment practices are deeply ingrained in specific cultural, social, and political frameworks originating in these paradigms. Being aware of such a historical and cultural background might help the assessor avoid blindly reenacting the values, norms, and latent relational schemas implied by different assessment methods, and instead use assessment tools as potent aids in the service of clients' change. Finally, the author illustrates how the experience of clients' shame in psychological assessment might also be understood as a by-product of the specific cultural and historical background of certain common assessment practices.

  8. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  9. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  10. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  11. 羞耻脆弱性的德性伦理反思%Reflection on Shame Vulnerability from the Perspective of Virtue Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童建军

    2016-01-01

    羞耻是中国伦理思想与道德实践中的重要概念。人对羞耻的恰当反应被儒学视为良知的体现。羞耻同视觉相关,是行动者被他者“看穿”或者“识破”后的负性情绪体验。羞耻是行动者做了不正当之事后的自我意识,涉及的主要是是整体的自我,折射了行动者的德性瑕疵。羞耻固然是需要培养的一种道德心理或者道德情感,但是,羞耻与德性这二者之间没有普遍的逻辑上和事实上的必然联系。羞耻式微是必然的历史进程,也可能隐含着德性发展的新趋向。%Shame is an important concept in Chinese ethics and moral practice. Appropriate shame is viewed as the manifestation of conscience by Confucianism. Shame is associated with vision, which is a negative emotional experience when “seen through”by others. Shame is self-consciousness of wrong doings, which mainly involves a whole self and reflects the moral flaws of the wrong doers. Shame is certainly a moral psychology and feeling that needs to be cultivated, but there is no necessary correlation between shame and virtue in both logical and real sense. Loss of shame is the natural trend in history. It may hint a new trend in morality.

  12. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  13. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-05

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  14. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health

  15. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  16. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  17. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  18. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  19. History of trichinellosis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancou J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of trichinellosis, which existed in ancient times as testified by the discovery of parasite larvae on an Egyptian mummy, unfolded in several stages: discovery of encapsulated larvae (in the 1820s, identification and scientific description of these larvae (Paget Owen, 1835, followed by experimental infestations of animals (dogs, pigs, rabbits, mice or of humans as from 1850.The main occurrences of trichinellosis were followed with particular attention in Europe (Germany, Denmark, France, etc. and in the United States of America at the end of the XIXth century. They affected numerous domestic animal species (pigs, horses, etc. or wildlife and humans. Germany paid the heaviest toll with regard to the disease in humans, between 1860 and 1880, with several thousands of patients and more than 500 deaths.Different trichinellosis surveillance systems were set up in the relevant countries in the 1860s. In humans, this surveillance was carried out on affected living patients by a biopsy of the biceps muscles and subsequently by an analysis of eosinophilia (1895. In animals, surveillance was for a long time solely based on postmortem examination of the muscles of the affected animals. This method was used for the first time in 863 in Germany, and from the 1 890s, on several hundreds of thousands of pigs in Europe or in the United States of America.

  20. AIDS-case surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S; Khodakevich, L; Sengupta, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 in India, the Ministry of Health realized that the diagnostic and reporting network for AIDS cases was inadequate as AIDS cases grew and that the establishment of specialized AIDS units in hospitals was not the best strategy. It decided to integrate AIDS diagnostic and management facilities into primary health services. It would arrange training for 1 physician from each district and peripheral hospital, private hospital, and inpatient service of other medical institutions in AIDS diagnosis and management. These physicians would then train others in the clinical diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The physicians would use the World Health Organization [WHO] case definition of AIDS supported by HIV serological test results. All AIDS cases would be transferred to the Medical College Hospitals of the States and Union Territories (UTs), regional hospitals, and perhaps some private hospitals. Between May 1986 and October 1993, India had 459 AIDS cases reported from 19 States and UTs, especially the States of Tamil Nadul and Maharashtra. This AIDS case surveillance system should motivate political will, describe the underlying and preceding HIV epidemic, and contribute to the understanding of current and future course of the epidemic. Thus, it will guide decision makers to develop sound preventive strategies, to plan health care, and to evaluate interventions. The surveillance system's target population is all outpatients and inpatients at medical institutions. During 1993-1994, 1000 hospitals should make up the network of referral institutions. AIDS case surveillance coordinators (ASCs) at each institution form the basis of the network. The individual case record of each suspected AIDS case will have details on his/her life and medical history. Records of confirmed cases will be sent to State ASCs who will compile them for the National AIDS Control Organisation. After 3-4 year of training and practice in AIDS diagnosis and reporting, AIDS reporting will be

  1. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  2. Projectbeschrijving Surveillance Ziekenhuisinfecties 1996-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Sprenger MJW; Cucic S; Pelt W van; Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan; CIE

    1996-01-01

    In the Project Surveillance Hospital Acquired Infections a surveillance system in a national network of hospitals is being developed and implemented. In the project surveillance of hospital acquired infections is implemented in components: surveillance of surgical wound infections, surveillance of i

  3. When parents' affection depends on child's achievement: parental conditional positive regard, self-aggrandizement, shame and coping in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-04-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and shame following failure, which then predict compulsive over-investment. PCPR functioned as a unique predictor of maladaptive self feelings and coping also when the effects of perceived parental conditional negative regard or psychological control were controlled for. The findings suggest that the experience of one's mother as using conditional positive regard to promote achievement leads to a non-optimal self-esteem dynamics, in which people vacillate between feelings of grandiosity following success and self-derogation and shame following failure, which in turn promote a rigid and stressful mode of coping. Thus, the practice of PCPR, although seemingly benign, appears to carry significant emotional and coping costs for adolescents. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A relational model of sexual minority mental and physical health: The negative effects of shame on relationships, loneliness, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-07-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at an increased risk for poorer mental and physical health outcomes than heterosexuals, and some of these health disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test 4 models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress.

  5. Shame, hope, intimacy and growth: Dementia distress and growth in families from the perspective of senior aged care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Bruce; McCormack, Lynne

    2016-11-01

    Minimal research explores the impact of dementia and a dementia diagnosis on families from the unique vantage of senior health professionals. The participants of this study, eight senior aged care professionals, provided unique interpretative insights into family dynamics and sense-making on the journey with dementia, and their own role in that journey. Both positive and negative perspectives were sought. Data from semi-structured interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). One superordinate theme, Dementia naiveté; redefined intimacy, overarched Embarrassed shame; Maintaining hope; Redefining a model of intimacy; and Redefined relational intimacy and growth Within these themes, the participants shed light on hurtful embarrassment and shame experienced by families associated with the diagnostic label given to a loved one. This label was perceived to either trigger separation, hurt and immobility through ignorance, or precipitate a frenzy of naive yet hopeful energy for seeking that elusive cure. The participants saw their role as one of enacting a new way of connecting what was with what could be. Thus, they modelled advocacy, integral care and relational intimacy. Validation came in witnessing a redefining of intimacy in many families who were able to embrace that holistic and empathic approach to the shifting presentation of dementia. Psychological well-being was observed to occur when families embraced growthful domains, e.g. acceptance, hope, relational closeness and altruistic concern for other families. Implications for future care models are discussed.

  6. Task engagement and the relationships between the error-related negativity, agreeableness, behavioral shame proneness and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A S; Wester, Anne E; Lorist, Monicque M; Meijman, Theo F

    2006-08-01

    Previous results suggest that both cortisol mobilization and the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) reflect goal engagement, i.e. the mobilization and allocation of attentional and physiological resources. Personality measures of negative affectivity have been associated both to high cortisol levels and large ERN/Ne amplitudes. However, measures of positive social adaptation and agreeableness have also been related to high cortisol levels and large ERN/Ne amplitudes. We hypothesized that, as long as they relate to concerns over social evaluation and mistakes, both personality measures reflecting positive affectivity (e.g. agreeableness) and those reflecting negative affectivity (e.g. behavioral shame proneness) would be associated with an increased likelihood of high task engagement, and hence to increased cortisol mobilization and ERN/Ne amplitudes. We had female subjects perform a flanker task while EEG was recorded. Additionally, the subjects filled out questionnaires measuring mood and personality, and salivary cortisol immediately before and after task performance was measured. The overall pattern of relationships between our measures supports the hypothesis that cortisol mobilization and ERN/Ne amplitude reflect task engagement, and both relate positively to each other and to the personality traits agreeableness and behavioral shame proneness. We discuss the potential importance of engagement-disengagement and of concerns over social evaluation for research on psychopathology, stress and the ERN/Ne.

  7. Escalate shamefully, de-escalate angrily or gratefully: the influence of discrete emotions on escalation of commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Liljedahl, Sophie

    2014-08-01

    Decision makers often tend to escalate their commitment when faced with a dilemma of whether to continue a losing course of action. Researchers recently began to investigate the influence of discrete emotions on this decision tendency. However, this work has mainly focused on negative emotions and rarely considered positive emotions, to say nothing of comparing the effects of both of them simultaneously. The current study addresses this need by presenting the results of three experiments that examined the effects of four emotions of both positive and negative valences in escalation situations. Experiment 1 investigated the relationships of three trait emotions (hope, shame, and anger) and escalation of commitment. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the effects of three induced emotions (anger, shame, and gratitude) on escalation of commitment in a student sample and an employee sample, respectively. The results revealed that the effects of discrete emotions in escalation situations are mainly due to their associated differences on the appraisal dimension of responsibility that is related to escalation situations rather than their valence. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  8. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  9. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Yeung, Karen; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Athletes' Perceptions of the Motivational Climate to Their Compassion, Self-Compassion, Shame, and Pride in Adult Recreational Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Mario S.; Fry, Mary D.; Cramer, Emily

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between athletes' perceptions of the motivational climate (caring, task-, and ego-involving) to their levels of compassion, self-compassion, pride, and shame in a recreational sport setting. Athletes (N = 164) in a competitive Wiffle Ball tournament completed a survey. A canonical…

  11. Bound to feel bad about oneself: Relations between attachment and the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, P.E.H.M.; Meesters, C.; Cima, M.; Verhagen, M.; Brochard, N.; Sanders, A.; Kempener, C.; Beurskens, J.; Meesters, V.

    2014-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to explore the relationship between attachment and the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in childhood. Study 1 was performed in non-clinical children aged 9-13 years (N = 688) who completed a single-item measure of attachment style and a vignette-b

  12. Weight-related actual and ideal self-states, discrepancies, and shame, guilt, and pride: examining associations within the process model of self-conscious emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andree L; Brunet, Jennifer; Ferguson, Leah; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between women's actual:ideal weight-related self-discrepancies and experiences of weight-related shame, guilt, and authentic pride using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and self-conscious emotion (Tracy & Robins, 2004) theories as guiding frameworks. Participants (N=398) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved polynomial regressions, followed by the computation and evaluation of response surface values. Actual and ideal weight self-states were related to shame (R2 = .35), guilt (R2 = .25), and authentic pride (R2 = .08). When the discrepancy between actual and ideal weights increased, shame and guilt also increased, while authentic pride decreased. Findings provide partial support for self-discrepancy theory and the process model of self-conscious emotions. Experiencing weight-related self-discrepancies may be important cognitive appraisals related to shame, guilt, and authentic pride. Further research is needed exploring the relations between self-discrepancies and a range of weight-related self-conscious emotions.

  13. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  14. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...... pressure, fitness activities, sleep cycles, etc. can be broadcasted, e.g. as tweets on Twitter or status updates on Facebook. Such quantification practices with monitoring technologies become co-producing when individuals constitute themselves as subjects engaging in self-tracking, self-care, and self......, and gamification modulate the enactment of selfhood? How does self-surveillance contribute to corresponding notions of self-optimization and self-cultivation such as “the good life”, “sustainable lifestyle”, “healthy living”, “good learning” and “work productivity”?...

  15. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  16. Secure surveillance videotapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pepper, S. [International Safeguards Project Office, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system`s tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal.

  17. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  18. Between Shame and Lack of Responsibility: The Articulation of Emotions among Female Returnees of Human Trafficking in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Lazzarino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on qualitative research conducted with some female residents of a shelter for victims of trafficking located in Lào Cai, an urban centre on the Northern Vietnamese border with China, the intention, in this article, is to explore some of their expressed feelings and emotions. These seem to oscillate between a sense of shame and guilt, and a sense of self-pity and victimization. Such oscillation finds significant correspondence at two broader levels, that of Vietnamese society and of the international ideological discourse of human trafficking, which both present a stigmatizing, yet compassionate, approach to the returnees of trafficking. In this way, the aim is to show how emotions are embedded within socio-political power relations and gender inequalities.

  19. 2010年中国CHINET临床分离自无菌体液的细菌分布和耐药性监测%CHINET 2010 surveillance of bacterial distribution and resistance in sterile body fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小江; 陈中举; 胡云建; 艾效曼; 张泓; 孔菁; 贾蓓; 黄文祥; 王传清; 王爱敏; 魏莲花; 徐英春; 吴玲; 卓超; 苏丹虹; 张朝霞; 季萍; 徐元宏; 沈继录; 单斌; 杜艳; 俞云松; 杨青; 汪复; 朱德妹; 倪语星; 孙景勇; 孙自镛

    2012-01-01

    临床治疗造成严重威胁.%Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of the bacteria isolated from cerebrospi-nal fluid and other sterile body fluids from hospitals in several regions of China. Methods Twelve general hospitals and two children's hospitals were involved in this program. Disc diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer method), E-test and MIC determination were employed to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5. 4 software according to CLSI 2010 breakpoints. Results A total of 2 409 nonduplicate clinical isolates were collected from January to December in 2010, of which gram negative organisms and gram positive cocci accounted for 56.2% (1 353/2 409) and 43. 8% (1 056/2 409), respectively. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), B. baumannii, K, pneumoniae, S. aureus and E. coli were the most common bacterial species in cerebrospinal fluid. E. coli, CNS, E. faecium, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were the most frequently isolated species from other sterile body fluids. About 78.6% and 69,7% of the S. aureus and CNS isolates from cerebrospinal fluid were methicillin resistant, respectively, while 60. 3% and 67. 2% of the S. aureus and CNS strains from other sterile body fluids were methicillin resistant, respectively. No staphylococcal strain was found resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. None of the enterococcal strains from cerebro-spinal fluid was resistant to vancomycin. A total of 17 E. faecium strains from other sterile body fluid were found resistant to vancomycin. ESBLs-producing strains accounted for 62. 5% and 30. 0% in the E. coli and Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca) isolates from cerebrospinal fluid , respectively. About 50. 4% and 27. 3% of the E. coli and Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae , K. oxytoca) isolated from other sterile body fluid were ESBLs-producing strains. Pan-resist ant strains were identified in the A. baumannii (n=10, 18. 2%), K. pneumoniae (n = 8, 27. 6%) and P. aeruginosa {n= 1, 7. 7

  20. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  1. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This lecture discusses stockpile stewardship efforts and the role surveillance plays in the process. Performance of the RTGs is described, and the question of the absence of anticipated He is addressed.

  2. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    ... river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image...

  3. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8 -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  4. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7 -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  5. Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Widowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of disease in Indonesia is limited. Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. Methods In January - December 2006, a prospective, hospital-based surveillance was carried out in children aged less than five years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples were examined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed to be positive by EIA. Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of the specimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%. Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present with dehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94% vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03. Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of pediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This finding warrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease, such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:22-7].

  6. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  7. Development of the Observational Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Rieutort, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Impact of population on the environment, and conversely, is obvious and represents a real challenge for Public Health since 2000. It has been shown an increase in cancer prevalence, respiratory disease or even reproductive disorders, for which multifactorial origins are strongly suspected. In this context, surveillance has become an essential tool to decision making in public health, and surveillance networks of health events are multiplying, giving rise to numerous databases (sometimes consi...

  8. Syndromic surveillance: A local perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The promise of syndromic surveillance extends beyond early warning for bioterrorist attacks. Even if bioterrorism is first detected by an astute clinician, syndromic surveillance can help delineate the size, location, and tempo of the epidemic or provide reassurance that a large outbreak is not occurring when a single case or a small, localized cluster of an unusual illness is detected. More broadly, however, as public health and medicine proceed in our information age, the use of existing el...

  9. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  10. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  11. 儒家文化中“耻”的心理意蕴及启示%The Psychological Meaning and Revelation of Shame in Confucian Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井婷

    2011-01-01

    儒家维护"礼治",提倡"德治",重视"人治",这与个人"耻"感紧密关联。从心理学角度看,"耻"表现为羞愧与内疚的情感体验;"耻"是意识领域中的价值认知与判断,耻的文化生成表现为意识对无意识内容的领悟,个体无意识、集体无意识、文化无意识及社会无意识的共鸣;"耻’感既承载深厚的文化源流,也体现时代特色;儒家"耻"感文化对当今荣辱观教育具有重要的启示作用。%The basic tenets of Confucianism include "the rule of Li(ritual)","the rule of De(virtue)",and "the rule of Ren(humanity)".All bear direct relations to shame as a human emotion.From a psychological perspective,shame represents itself as the experience of embarrassment and guilt.It is value judgment in the consciousness,the conscious understanding of the unconscious.The conscious representation of psychological complexes and archetypes gives rise to internal examination and self-monitoring.The interaction between the conscious and the unconscious completes the internalization of shame.Shame carries deep cultural meaning and varies by cultural norm.In the field of unconsciousness,shame means a sympathy of individual,collective,cultural and social unconsciousness;shame carries both a sense of deep cultural origins,also reflects the characteristics of the times;The culture of Confucian "Chi" inspires us so much on today's moral education.

  12. Shame, guilt, and posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse at risk for human immunodeficiency virus: outcomes of a randomized clinical trial of group psychotherapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Karni; Butler, Lisa D; Giese-Davis, Janine; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Neri, Eric; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C; Spiegel, David

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of group psychotherapy in reducing levels of shame and guilt in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse at risk for HIV, and whether such reductions would mediate the effects of treatment on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. One hundred sixty-six women were randomized into 3 conditions: a trauma-focused group, a present-focused group, and a waitlist group. Women received 6 months of treatment and were assessed at pretreatment (T1), immediately posttreatment (T2), and 6 months posttreatment (T3). Both treatment conditions resulted in reduced shame and guilt. The treatment effect on PTSD symptoms was mediated by changes in shame, but it was not associated with changes in guilt. These findings suggest that, when treating childhood sexual abuse survivors' PTSD, it is important to address the negative self-appraisals, such as shame, that commonly accompany such symptoms.

  13. Shame, Guilt, and Suicide Ideation among Bondage and Discipline, Dominance and Submission, and Sadomasochism Practitioners: Examining the Role of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Mitchell, Sean M; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2016-06-20

    To date, no study has examined rates of suicide ideation or theory-based risk factors for suicide ideation among bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadomasochism (BDSM) practitioners. Participants were 321 adults that endorsed BDSM involvement. Thirty-seven percent of the sample indicated a nonzero level of suicide ideation. Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness (PB) were positively associated with suicide ideation and their interactive effect predicted additional variance in suicide ideation after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Overall, shame and guilt were positively associated with suicide ideation and these relations were mediated by thwarted belongingness and PB in parallel adjusting for depressive symptoms; however, there were some differences between demographic subgroups. Among BDSM practitioners, stigma-related internalized feelings (i.e., shame and guilt) may be associated with increased thwarted belongingness and PB, which are associated with suicide ideation.

  14. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  15. Research and Theory About Shame and PTSD%羞耻与创伤后应激障碍的相关研究及理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴赟; 王觅; 钱铭怡

    2012-01-01

    既往研究支持羞耻与创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)症状的严重程度间存在显著相关,且羞耻能预测PTSD症状的严重程度.近十年来学者们对羞耻在PTSD的发病与症状维持中所扮演的角色提出了多种理论解释,本文选取其中较有代表性和影响力的四种理论进行介绍和总结.包括:基于羞耻和内疚的创伤理论,认知理论的观点,创伤性羞耻的时程差别理论和自传体记忆的观点.建议未来的研究可以从自传体记忆和临床疗效学研究两个方向进行展开.%Previous researches have supported that there is a significant correlation between shame and severity of PTSD symptoms, and shame can also predict the severity of PTSD symptoms. To explain the relation between these two variables, researchers have endeavored to put forth a variety of theories in the last 10 years. Among these theories there are four most representative and significant, that is, shame-based and guilt-based trauma theory, on-going current threat and self-critical thinking perspective, time-course difference theory of traumatic shame and biographical memory perspective. This article also suggested that the direction for the future research should focus more on biographical memory perspective and clinical outcome perspective.

  16. Biometrics, identification and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, David

    2008-11-01

    Governing by identity describes the emerging regime of a globalizing, mobile world. Governance depends on identification but identification increasingly depends on biometrics. This 'solution' to difficulties of verification is described and some technical weaknesses are discussed. The role of biometrics in classification systems is also considered and is shown to contain possible prejudice in relation to racialized criteria of identity. Lastly, the culture of biometric identification is shown to be limited to abstract data, artificially separated from the lived experience of the body including the orientation to others. It is proposed that creators of national ID systems in particular address these crucial deficiencies in their attempt to provide new modes of verification.

  17. Validity and reliability of the Internalized Stigma of Smoking Inventory: An exploration of shame, isolation, and discrimination in smokers with mental health diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G; Cataldo, Janine K; Orozco, Nicholas; Lisha, Nadra E; Hickman, Norval J; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-08-01

    De-normalization of smoking as a public health strategy may create shame and isolation in vulnerable groups unable to quit. To examine the nature and impact of smoking stigma, we developed the Internalized Stigma of Smoking Inventory (ISSI), tested its validity and reliability, and explored factors that may contribute to smoking stigma. We evaluated the ISSI in a sample of smokers with mental health diagnoses (N = 956), using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and assessed construct validity. Results reduced the ISSI to eight items with three subscales: smoking self-stigma related to shame, felt stigma related to social isolation, and discrimination experiences. Discrimination was the most commonly endorsed of the three subscales. A multivariate generalized linear model predicted 21-30% of the variance in the smoking stigma subscales. Self-stigma was greatest among those intending to quit; felt stigma was highest among those experiencing stigma in other domains, namely ethnicity and mental illness-based; and smoking-related discrimination was highest among women, Caucasians, and those with more education. Smoking stigma may compound stigma experiences in other areas. Aspects of smoking stigma in the domains of shame, isolation, and discrimination were related to modeled stigma responses, particularly readiness to quit and cigarette addiction, and were found to be more salient for groups where tobacco use is least prevalent. The ISSI measure is useful for quantifying smoking-related stigma in multiple domains. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Validity and Reliability of the Internalized Stigma of Smoking Inventory: An Exploration of Shame, Isolation, and Discrimination in Smokers with Mental Health Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; Cataldo PhD, Janine K.; Orozco, Nicholas; Lisha, Nadra E.; Hickman, Norval; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives De-normalization of smoking as a public health strategy may create shame and isolation in vulnerable groups unable to quit. To examine the nature and impact of smoking stigma, we developed the Internalized Stigma of Smoking Inventory (ISSI), tested its validity and reliability, and explored factors that may contribute to smoking stigma. Methods We evaluated the ISSI in a sample of smokers with mental health diagnoses (N=956), using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and assessed construct validity. Results Results reduced the ISSI to 8 items with three subscales: smoking self-stigma related to shame, felt stigma related to social isolation, and discrimination experiences. Discrimination was the most commonly endorsed of the three subscales. A multivariate generalized linear model predicted 21-30% of the variance in the smoking stigma subscales. Self-stigma was greatest among those intending to quit; felt stigma was highest among those experiencing stigma in other domains, namely ethnicity and mental illness-based; and smoking-related discrimination was highest among women, Caucasians, and those with more education. Discussion and Conclusion Smoking stigma may compound stigma experiences in other areas. Aspects of smoking stigma in the domains of shame, isolation, and discrimination related to modeled stigma responses, particularly readiness to quit and cigarette addiction and was found to be more salient for groups where tobacco use is least prevalent. Scientific Significance The ISSI measure is useful for quantifying smoking-related stigma in multiple domains. PMID:25930661

  19. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... by analyzing a location-based system for airport passengers developed for a Copenhagen Airport, and the dimensions are used to explain user reactions to different services offered by the system....... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach...

  20. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  1. Emotion Categorisation of Body Expressions in Narrative Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina P. Volkova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans can recognise emotions expressed through body motion with high accuracy even when the stimuli are impoverished. However, most of the research on body motion has relied on exaggerated displays of emotions. In this paper we present two experiments where we investigated whether emotional body expressions could be recognised when they were recorded during natural narration. Our actors were free to use their entire body, face and voice to express emotions, but our resulting visual stimuli used only the upper body motion trajectories in the form of animated stick figures. Observers were asked to perform an emotion recognition task on short motion sequences using a large and balanced set of emotions (amusement, joy, pride, relief, surprise, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, shame and neutral. Even with only upper body motion available, our results show recognition accuracy significantly above chance level and high consistency rates among observers. In our first experiment, that used more classic emotion induction setup, all emotions were well recognised. In the second study that employed narrations, four basic emotion categories (joy, anger, fear and sadness, three non-basic emotion categories (amusement, pride and shame and the neutral category were recognised above chance. Interestingly, especially in the second experiment, observers showed a bias towards anger when recognising the motion sequences for emotions. We discovered that similarities between motion sequences across the emotions along such properties as mean motion speed, number of peaks in the motion trajectory and mean motion span can explain a large percent of the variation in observers' responses. Overall, our results show that upper body motion is informative for emotion recognition in narrative scenarios.

  2. Shameful diseases” and the legal regulation of prostitution. Rosario-Argentina (1874-1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Múgica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In late 19th and early 20th century venereal diseases received special attention in the medical, journalistic and political speeches. Local regulations regarding the issue of prostitution and the tipical problems of cities which, like Rosario, underwent a process of sudden modernization, accounted for this special attention. Prostitution appeared in epochal representations associated with venereal diseases, especially syphilis and gonorrhea, witch, together with alcoholism and tuberculosis, were characterized as some of the major preventable social ills. Prostitution was perceived as the main source of sexually transmitted infections. In this work we analyze discourses on venereal diseases also called “secret” at that time; we also analyse the fears these instilled in society and the prophylactic practices adopted to protect the individual bodies and the social body of the city when the regulated prostitution system was in force in Rosario (1874-1932.

  3. The Effectiveness of Ultrasound Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Canadian Centre and Determinants of Its Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korosh Khalili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC using ultrasound (US in North America has been questioned due to the predominance of patients of Caucasian ethnicity and larger body habitus.

  4. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  5. Inappropriate colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, R A

    2011-11-15

    Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.

  6. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  7. Psychosocial stressor effects on cortisol and ghrelin in emotional and non-emotional eaters: influence of anger and shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2010-09-01

    Food consumption in stressful situations vary as a function of individual difference factors (e.g., emotional vs. non-emotional eating), and may be related to hormonal responses elicited by the stressful event. These hormonal responses may be tied to specific emotions elicited by the stressful event. The present investigation examined the emotional and hormonal (cortisol, ghrelin) responses of high and low emotional eaters following a laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Women (n=48) either high or low in emotional eating status were tested in a TSST or served as controls during which blood samples were taken for analysis of cortisol and ghrelin, both of which have been implicated in eating and in response to stressors. The TSST promoted elevated cortisol levels, being somewhat more pronounced in emotional than in non-emotional eaters. Both shame and anger were provoked by the TSST, and although both these emotions were correlated with cortisol levels, only anger significantly mediated the relationship between the stressor and cortisol levels. As well, baseline ghrelin levels in low emotional eaters exceeded that of high emotional eaters, and increased moderately in response to the stressor situation, irrespective of emotional eating status. Interestingly, when provided with food, ghrelin levels declined in the non-emotional eaters, but not in emotional eaters. The possibility is offered that the lack of a decline of ghrelin in emotional eaters may sustain eating in these individuals.

  8. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture.......Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  9. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Raaijmakers, S.A.; Halma, A.H.R.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  10. Video Surveillance using Distance Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Laplante, Phillip A.

    2006-01-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors.

  11. Video surveillance with speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, Carmen J.; Brase, James M.

    2007-07-17

    A surveillance system looks through the atmosphere along a horizontal or slant path. Turbulence along the path causes blurring. The blurring is corrected by speckle processing short exposure images recorded with a camera. The exposures are short enough to effectively freeze the atmospheric turbulence. Speckle processing is used to recover a better quality image of the scene.

  12. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Raaijmakers, S.A.; Halma, A.H.R.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  13. Video surveillance using distance maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; van den Broek, Egon; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Laplante, Phillip A,

    2006-01-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors.

  14. Video Surveillance: Privacy Issues and Legal Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    . There is a need to balance the usage of video surveillance against its negative impact on privacy. This chapter aims to highlight the privacy issues in video surveillance and provides a model to help identify the privacy requirements in a video surveillance system. The authors make a step in the direction...

  15. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  16. Face consciousness among South Korean women: a culture-specific extension of objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Yeon; Seo, Young Seok; Baek, Keun Young

    2014-01-01

    This study tested key tenets of objectification theory with South Korean women and explored the roles of sexually objectifying media and culture-specific standards of beauty in body image and eating disorder symptoms. Two pilot studies with South Korean college women (n = 40, n = 30) revealed that facial characteristics such as size and shape represent a discrete variable among culture-specific standards of beauty for South Korean women. Results with a sample of 562 South Korean college women indicated that media exposure had significant positive indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms through the mediating roles of internalization, body surveillance, and face surveillance. Internalization of cultural standards of beauty had significant positive direct relations with body surveillance and face surveillance and had both direct and indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms. Body and face surveillances had significant positive direct relations with body shame and had indirect relations with eating disorder symptoms. Finally, body shame mediated the links from internalization and surveillance variables to eating disorder symptoms. The results support the applicability of objectification theory as it relates to South Korean women and point to the significance of culture-specific standards of beauty within that framework. These findings could contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research, with potential implications for therapist practices and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. A number of DOE sites participate in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Hanford Site from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Hanford and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The information in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site, and the appendices provides additional detail. The report also contains an expanded Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories which gives examples of health conditions in each of the diagnostic categories.

  18. Individuation or Identification? Self-Objectification and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Budge, Stephanie L.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Do adolescents model their mothers’ self-objectification? We measured self-objectification (body surveillance and body shame), body mass index (BMI), body esteem, and quality of the mother-adolescent relationship in 179 female and 162 male adolescents at age 15, as well as self-objectification in their mothers. Initial analyses indicated no improvement in model fit if paths were allowed to differ for females and males; therefore a single model was tested for the combined sample. Findings revealed that mothers’ body surveillance negatively predicted adolescents’ body surveillance. Mothers’ body shame was unrelated to adolescents’ body shame, but positively predicted adolescents’ body surveillance. Results for the relationship between mothers’ and adolescents’ self-objectification suggest that adolescents engaged in more individuation than modeling. A more positive mother-adolescent relationship predicted lower body shame and higher body esteem in adolescents, suggesting that the quality of the relationship with the mother may be a protective factor for adolescents’ body image. Mother-adolescent relationship quality did not moderate the association between mothers’ and adolescents’ self-objectification. These findings contribute to our understanding about the sociocultural role of parents in adolescents’ body image and inform interventions addressing negative body image in this age group. The quality of the mother-adolescent relationship is a clear point of entry for such interventions. Therapists should work with adolescents and their mothers toward a more positive relationship quality, which could then positively impact adolescents’ body image. PMID:24363490

  19. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  20. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  1. The Sharper Image for Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    A technique adapted by Livermore scientists to take the twinkle out of stars is now being used to improve the resolution of long-range surveillance systems trained on earthbound objects. The speckle-imaging technique involves taking tens to hundreds of pictures with short-exposure times and reconstructing a single, sharp image using image-processing software. The technique drew the interest of Livermore engineer Carmen Carrano. She developed a prototype remote-surveillance system that can produce a detailed image of a face from a couple of kilometers away. The system also helps identify vehicles tens of kilometers away and improves the viewing of large structures more than 60 kilometers away.

  2. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  3. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  4. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  5. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  6. Resourcefulness, Desperation, Shame, Gratitude and Powerlessness: Common Themes Emerging from A Study of Food Bank Use in Northeast Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Douglas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing policy maker and public concern about current trends in food bank use in Scotland. Yet little is known about the experiences of those seeking help from food banks in this country. This research aimed to address this issue by studying the use and operation of a food bank situated in a rich northeast city during January and June 2014. The study aimed to establish who was seeking help from the food bank, their reasons for doing so, and what those who did thought of, and dealt with the food they received from it. Consequently, an audit of the food bank's client database, four months of participant observation based in the food bank, and seven face-to-face interviews with current and former food bank clients were conducted. The audit revealed that clients came from a range of socio-economic backgrounds, with men more likely to access it compared to women. Debt and social security benefit delays were cited as the main reasons for doing so. Qualitative data confirmed that sudden and unanticipated loss of income was a key driver of use. Resourcefulness in making donated food last as long as possible, keeping fuel costs low, and concern to minimise food waste were commonly described by participants. Desperation, gratitude, shame and powerlessness were also prevalent themes. Furthermore, clients were reluctant to ask for food they normally ate, as they were acutely aware that the food bank had little control over what it was able offer. Insights from this study suggest that recent UK policy proposals to address food poverty may have limited impact, without concomitant effort to address material disadvantage. Research is urgently required to determine the precise nature and extent of household level food insecurity in Scotland, and to consider monitoring for adverse physical and mental health outcomes for those affected by it.

  7. Attaching Hollywood to a Surveillant Assemblage: Normalizing Discourses of Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy K Lippert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines video surveillance images in Hollywood film. It moves beyond previous accounts of video surveillance in relation to film by theoretically situating the use of these surveillance images in a broader “surveillant assemblage”. To this end, scenes from a sample of thirty-five (35 films of several genres are examined to discern dominant discourses and how they lend themselves to normalization of video surveillance. Four discourses are discovered and elaborated by providing examples from Hollywood films. While the films provide video surveillance with a positive associative association it is not without nuance and limitations. Thus, it is found that some forms of resistance to video surveillance are shown while its deterrent effect is not. It is ultimately argued that Hollywood film is becoming attached to a video surveillant assemblage discursively through these normalizing discourses as well as structurally to the extent actual video surveillance technology to produce the images is used.

  8. US States' Childhood Obesity Surveillance Practices and Recommendations for Improving Them, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Kelly J; Giles, Catherine M; Cradock, Angie L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Long, Michael W

    2016-07-28

    Routine collection, analysis, and reporting of data on child height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), particularly at the state and local levels, are needed to monitor the childhood obesity epidemic, plan intervention strategies, and evaluate the impact of interventions. Child BMI surveillance systems operated by the US government do not provide state or local data on children across a range of ages. The objective of this study was to describe the extent to which state governments conduct child BMI surveillance. From August through December 2014, we conducted a structured telephone survey with state government administrators to learn about state surveillance of child BMI. We also searched websites of state health and education agencies for information about state surveillance. State agency administrators in 48 states and Washington, DC, completed telephone interviews (96% response rate). Based on our interviews and Internet research, we determined that 14 states collect child BMI data in a manner consistent with standard definitions of public health surveillance. The absence of child BMI surveillance systems in most states limits the ability of public health practitioners and policymakers to develop and evaluate responses to the childhood obesity epidemic. Greater investment in surveillance is needed to identify the most effective and cost-effective childhood obesity interventions.

  9. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  10. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  11. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  12. Development and validation of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale (BASES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andrée L; Sabiston, Catherine M; Crocker, Peter R E; Mack, Diane E

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of these studies was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of shame, guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride for use in body and appearance contexts. In Study 1, 41 potential items were developed and assessed for item quality and comprehension. In Study 2, a panel of experts (N=8; M=11, SD=6.5 years of experience) reviewed the scale and items for evidence of content validity. Participants in Study 3 (n=135 males, n=300 females) completed the BASES and various body image, personality, and emotion scales. A separate sample (n=155; 35.5% male) in Study 3 completed the BASES twice using a two-week time interval. The BASES subscale scores demonstrated evidence for internal consistency, item-total correlations, concurrent, convergent, incremental, and discriminant validity, and 2-week test-retest reliability. The 4-factor solution was a good fit in confirmatory factor analysis, reflecting body-related shame, guilt, authentic and hubristic pride subscales of the BASES. The development and validation of the BASES may help advance body image and self-conscious emotion research by providing a foundation to examine the unique antecedents and outcomes of these specific emotional experiences.

  13. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2011; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2012-08-15

    , water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. Research and Environmental Surveillance Department (TKO) at STUK is a testing laboratory accredited by FINAS (Finnish Accreditation Service) under the registration number T167. The laboratory meets the requirements laid down in standard EN ISO / IEC 17025:2005. Almost all analyses in the radiation surveillance programme are made according to the accreditation requirements. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting.

  14. 羞耻感对社区女性尿失禁患者求医态度的影响%The impact of shame on Help Seeking Attitude of Female Urinary Incontinence Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼芳; 李春梅; 余黎静; 苏红侠

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of shame on Help Seeking Attitude of female Urinary Incontinence patients. Methods: A total of 232 female urinary incontinence patients were recruited from ifve community hospitals in Wenzhou by convenience sampling method. They were investigated with Urinary Incontinence knowledge questionnaire, Help Seeking Attitude Scale of Female Urinary Incontinence patients, and Shame Experience Scale. The relationship between shame and Help Seeking Attitude of Female Urinary Incontinence patients was analyzed. Results: The total score of Help Seeking Attitude of Female Urinary Incontinence patients was (31.88±3.79). There were signiifcant negative correlations between score of shame of female Urinary Incontinence patients and Help Seeking Attitude. Regression analysis showed that the factor scores of shame of female Urinary Incontinence patients such as behavioral shame and family shame could independently explain 30.7% of the variance for Help Seeking Attitude after controlling demographic variables. Conclusion: Clinical medical staff should focus on the shortcomings of Help Seeking Attitude of female Urinary Incontinence patients, and take effective measures to reduce shame of female Urinary Incontinence patients to improve the Help Seeking Attitude of female Urinary Incontinence patients.%目的:调查羞耻感对社区女性尿失禁患者求医态度的影响。方法:采用便利抽样法抽取温州市5所社区医院的女性尿失禁患者232名进行问卷调查,了解女性尿失禁患者羞耻感和求医态度的现状,并探讨两者之间的关系。结果:社区女性尿失禁患者的求医态度总分为(31.88±3.79)分,女性尿失禁患者的羞耻感与其求医态度呈负相关,回归分析显示,控制人口学变量之后,行为羞耻、家庭羞耻共可以解释女性尿失禁患者求医态度的30.7%。结论:临床医护工作者应重视女性尿失禁患者求医态度的现状,制

  15. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  16. Body dysmorphic disorder in the dermatology patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblenzer, Caroline S

    Body dysmorphic disorder is primarily a psychiatric disorder, in which the patient believes that some normal or very near normal aspect of his or her physical appearance is distorted or ugly. Should there be a minor abnormality, it is grossly exaggerated in the mind of the patient, causing feelings of shame and embarrassment and leading daily to spending hours at the mirror, or any reflecting surface, as the patient tries to conceal or remove the perceived abnormality through the development of ritualistic behavior. Although other organs can be involved-for example, the shape of the nose or a portion of an ear- the skin, hair, and nails are most commonly involved, while the patient constantly seeks reassurance about appearance from friends and family. There is a broad spectrum of severity in body dysmorphic disorder, ranging from obsessional worry to frank delusion, and the psychiatric comorbidities-anxiety, depression, and personality disorder-are prominent parts of the picture. Unfortunately, the psychiatric comorbidities and the negative impact on every aspect of the patient's life may not be recognized by dermatologists and other non-psychiatric physicians, so that effective treatment is often not instituted or appropriate referrals made. This paper describes the incidence, possible etiologies, and clinical picture of body dysmorphic disorder in dermatology patients and discusses interpersonal approaches that may permit appropriate treatment or referral to take place. Specific treatments and prognosis are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Platforms for Persistent Communications, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Membership Study Manager Ms. Anorme Anim – ASB Communications (Comms) Team Dr. Allen Adler Dr. Pete Swan BG(Ret) Bob Wynn Ms. Madhu Beriwal Surveillance...Pete Swan BG(Ret) Bob Wynn Dr. Madhu Beriwal Surveillance & Reconnaissance (SR) Team Dr. Darrell Collier Mr. Herb Gallagher Mr. Gary Glaser Mr. Steve...ASB Communications (Comms) Team Dr. Allen Adler Dr. Pete Swan BG(Ret) Bob Wynn Ms. Madhu Beriwal Surveillance & Reconnaissance (SR) Team Dr

  18. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluit, A. C.; van der Bruggen, J. T.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies...... to the various reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as hospitalised patients, nursing homes, the community, animals and food. Two studies that could serve as examples of tailored programmes are the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), which collects resistance data during...... of antibiotic resistance....

  19. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  20. Remotely piloted LTA vehicle for surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, G. R.; Harris, G. L.; Brown, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of a remotely piloted mini-LTA vehicle for surveillance, monitoring and measurement for civilian and military applications are considered. Applications, operations and economics are discussed.

  1. Processes of change in quality of life, weight self-stigma, body mass index and emotional eating after an acceptance-, mindfulness- and compassion-based group intervention (Kg-Free) for women with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Lara; Cunha, Marina; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Kg-Free: an acceptance-, mindfulness- and compassion-based group intervention for women with overweight and obesity at post-treatment and 3-month follow-up and explored the psychological processes that underlie changes in quality of life, weight self-stigma, body mass index and emotional eating at post-treatment. Overall, 53 women completed Kg-Free. At post-treatment and 3-month follow-up, participants reported increased quality of life, mindfulness and self-compassion abilities and decreased weight self-stigma, emotional eating, shame, weight-related experiential avoidance, self-criticism and body mass index. Shame and self-criticism reductions were important mediators of changes in health-related outcomes, whereas weight-related experiential avoidance, mindfulness and self-compassion mediated changes in weight and eating-related outcomes.

  2. Legionnaires’ disease Surveillance in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Ricci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the report presented, data on legionellosis diagnosed in the year 2003 in Italy and notified to the National Surveillance System are analysed. Overall, 617 cases were notified, of which 517 were confirmed and 46 were presumptive.

    The characteristics of the patients are very similar to those reported in the previous years in terms of male/female ratio, age–specific distribution, occupation, etc. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was responsible for approximately 90% of the cases.

  3. Careveillance of Aging Bodies As Proxemic Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    New healthcare technologies are increasingly used for augmenting old age homecare. These are often designed to improve risk awareness and render healthcare data more visible and mobile. At the same time this situation raises questions about how human-technological relationalities effect old age...... homecare and its surveilled bodies. This article pursues such questions with converging ideas from anthropology, science and technology studies (STS) and surveillance studies. It selects three positional sites of old age home care surveillance – or simply ‘careveillance' – where human......-technological relationalities are apparent. These are distinguished as 'watching over,' 'watching out for' and 'looking after' and explored in terms of their effects on aging bodies. Drawing on several ethnographic fieldwork encounters from the United States, the article proposes that careveillance effect embodied...

  4. Careveillance of Aging Bodies As Proxemic Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    New healthcare technologies are increasingly used for augmenting old age homecare. These are often designed to improve risk awareness and render healthcare data more visible and mobile. At the same time this situation raises questions about how human-technological relationalities effect old age...... homecare and its surveilled bodies. This article pursues such questions with converging ideas from anthropology, science and technology studies (STS) and surveillance studies. It selects three positional sites of old age home care surveillance – or simply ‘careveillance' – where human-technological...... effects are neither 'panoptic' (full view) nor solely 'oligoptic' (partial view). They also bear the paradoxical potentials for chimeric futures which screen aging bodies simultaneously visible and hidden. Such human-technological effects are significant, it is argued, because they directly impact how...

  5. Lack of guilt, guilt, and shame: a multi-informant study on the relations between self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Heijmans, Jolina; van Hulten, Sandra; Kaanen, Linsy; Oerlemans, Birgit; Stikkelbroeck, Tessa; Tielemans, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between dysregulations in self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents. For this purpose, parent-, teacher-, and self-report Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment data of 1000 youth aged 4-18 years was analyzed as this instrument not only provides information on the intensity levels of lack of guilt, guilt, and shame, but also on the severity of various types of psychopathology. The results first of all indicated that dysregulations of self-conscious emotions were more common in this clinical sample than in the general population. Further, a consistent pattern was found with regard to the relationships between self-conscious emotions and childhood psychopathology. That is, lack of guilt was predominantly associated with oppositional defiant and conduct (i.e., externalizing) problems, while guilt and shame were primarily linked with affective and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) problems. By and large, these findings confirm what has been found in non-clinical youth, and suggest that self-conscious emotions play a small but significant role in the psychopathology of children and adolescents.

  6. Systematic Review of Cerebral Palsy Registries/Surveillance Groups: Relationships between Registry Characteristics and Knowledge Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Donna S; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J; Pavone, Larissa; Mutlu, Akmer; Dewald, Julius PA; Msall, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to provide a comprehensive summary of the body of research disseminated by Cerebral Palsy (CP) registries and surveillance programs from January 2009 through May 2014 in order to describe the influence their results have on our overall understanding of CP. Secondly, registries/surveillance programs and the work they produced were evaluated and grouped using standardized definitions and classification systems. Method A systematic review search in PubMed, CINAH and Embase for original articles published from 1 January 2009 to 20 May 2014 originating from or supported by population based CP registries and surveillance programs or population based national registries including CP were included. Articles were grouped by 2009 World CP Registry Congress aim, registry/surveillance program classification, geographical region, and the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) domain. Registry variables were assessed using the ICF-CY classification. Results Literature searches returned 177 articles meeting inclusion criteria. The majority (69%) of registry/surveillance program productivity was related to contributions as a Resource for CP Research. Prevention (23%) and Surveillance (22%) articles were other areas of achievement, but fewer articles were published in the areas of Planning (17%) and Raising the Profile of CP (2%). There was a range of registry/surveillance program classifications contributing to this productivity, and representation from multiple areas of the globe, although most of the articles originated in Europe, Australia, and Canada. The domains of the ICF that were primarily covered included body structures and function at the early stages of life. Encouragingly, a variety of CP registry/surveillance program initiatives included additional ICF domains of participation and environmental and personal factors. Interpretation CP registries and surveillance programs, including novel non-traditional ones

  7. Limits on surveillance: frictions, fragilities and failures in the operation of camera surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2004-01-01

    Public video surveillance tends to be discussed in either utopian or dystopian terms: proponents maintain that camera surveillance is the perfect tool in the fight against crime, while critics argue that the use of security cameras is central to the development of a panoptic, Orwellian surveillance

  8. Limits on surveillance: frictions, fragilities and failures in the operation of camera surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, Lynsey

    2004-01-01

    Public video surveillance tends to be discussed in either utopian or dystopian terms: proponents maintain that camera surveillance is the perfect tool in the fight against crime, while critics argue that the use of security cameras is central to the development of a panoptic, Orwellian surveillance

  9. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  10. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waissmann William

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  11. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Waissmann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  12. Unattainable Beauty: An Analysis of the Role of Body Shame and Self-Objectification in Hopelessness Depression among College-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meredith A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence that women suffer from depression at twice the rate of men, the etiology for this difference remains unclear. Prior to puberty, the difference in depression is negligible; however, when adolescence begins, a precipitous rise in female depression occurs that persists across the lifespan. While no definitive biological…

  13. Unattainable Beauty: An Analysis of the Role of Body Shame and Self-Objectification in Hopelessness Depression among College-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meredith A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence that women suffer from depression at twice the rate of men, the etiology for this difference remains unclear. Prior to puberty, the difference in depression is negligible; however, when adolescence begins, a precipitous rise in female depression occurs that persists across the lifespan. While no definitive biological…

  14. 40 CFR 52.2030 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2030 Section 52.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2030 Source surveillance...

  15. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (

  16. Rare disease surveillance: An international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, E.J.; Nicoll, A.; Lynn, R.; Marchessault, V.; Hirasing, R.A.; Ridley, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1998 and met formally for the first time in Ottawa, Ontario in June 2000. Objectives: To document the methodology and activities of existing national paediatric surveillance units; the formation of

  17. Unattended video surveillance systems for international safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of unattended video surveillance systems places some unique requirements on the systems and their hardware. The systems have the traditional requirements of video imaging, video storage, and video playback but also have some special requirements such as tamper safing. The technology available to meet these requirements and how it is being applied to unattended video surveillance systems are discussed in this paper.

  18. Rare disease surveillance: An international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, E.J.; Nicoll, A.; Lynn, R.; Marchessault, V.; Hirasing, R.A.; Ridley, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1998 and met formally for the first time in Ottawa, Ontario in June 2000. Objectives: To document the methodology and activities of existing national paediatric surveillance units; the formation of INo

  19. Video Surveillance: All Eyes Turn to IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2011-01-01

    Many university officials recognize the need to upgrade their older analog video surveillance systems. In a 2010 survey by "Campus Safety" magazine, half of university respondents expressed dissatisfaction with the quality and coverage of their current video surveillance systems. Among the limitations of analog closed-circuit television…

  20. Frequent observation: sexualities, self-surveillance, confession and the construction of the active patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, A

    2000-06-01

    Following Foucault's analyses of the development of the disciplinary power of the medical gaze, this paper describes the themes that are relocating the 'active patient' as the central object of health scrutiny by professionals. A key element in these discourses has been the deployment of power through disciplinary knowledge and techniques of social control through ritual forms of confession, thereby positing the patient/client as the subject of self-surveillance. The individual is also engaged their own sexuality, performativity and 'truths' of sexual experience. These Foucauldian insights have constructed the notion of surveillance medicine, whereby with the assistance of professional technologies, not only the patient's body but also the 'self' can be probed through incitement to confess. However, the actor is not docile; resistances to disciplinary techniques are evident and within the professional practices of the clinic, there is resistance to the power of the erotic. The paper draws on recent research on the social construction of male sexualities in the fields of genitourinary practice, and explores how the ceremonial practices of the clinic engage with the rise of surveillance medicine and the medicalisation of everyday life. The individual actor is exhorted to engage in increased sexual and medical self-surveillance and to be recruited in the project of becoming an 'active patient'. It concludes with an examination of some of the implications this surveillance of self may have for practitioners in terms of power and the professional lens through which the sexualised, symbolic body is viewed.

  1. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  2. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  3. A Waste of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The opening lines of Shakespeare's sonnet on the destructive power of sexual desire are equally potent as a description of the emotions aroused by warfare. Poets are the best witnesses to the dark connection between violence and the erotic, the link between sexual desire and military aggression. Initially justified by perjured claims about weapons…

  4. A shameful public affront

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trevor-Roper, Hugh

    1975-01-01

    On February 25 the Congregation, or Parliament, of Oxford University, by a majority vote, enforced the withdrawal of the honorary doctorate already offered to, and accepted by, Mr Bhutto, the Prime Minister of Pakistan...

  5. Shame, Guilt, and Punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2009-01-01

    that this analysis enhances our understanding of the various theories of punishment that populate this part of criminal law theory and thereby sharpens the critical tools needed to assess them. My general conclusion is that, in different ways, all of the theories we encounter in this area can benefit from paying...

  6. Appreciative Leadership and Shame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Helle; Staunæs, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen forbinder et teoretisk-analytisk perspektiv på styring og ledelse i et governmentality perspektiv med et begreb om affektivitet og affektiv ledelse. De to analytiske perspektiver udfoldes i en empirisk analyse af, hvordan anerkendende ledelse i folkeskolen ikke alene producerer positive ...

  7. Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast Verification and Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) is an emerging Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) technology that will vastly expand the state...

  8. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B.; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases...... hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. CONCLUSION: The studied obstetric complications are rare...

  9. Symbolic power, robotting, and surveilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider...... primary and secondary. They establish the grammatical format of a mechanical and a formal world view. Such views become imposed on the domains addressed by means of mathematics and formal languages. Through such impositions symbolic power of mathematics becomes exercised. The idea that mathematics...... describes as it prioritises is discussed with reference to robotting and surveillance. In general, the symbolic power of mathematics and formal languages is summarised through the observations: that mathematics treats parts and properties as autonomous, that it dismembers what it addresses and destroys...

  10. Moving beyond the binary with disordered eating research: a test and extension of objectification theory with bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Melanie E; Velez, Brandon L; Esposito, Jessica; Wong, Stephanie; Geiger, Elizabeth; Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Keum, Taehyuk Brian

    2014-01-01

    In predicting disordered eating, the core model of objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) has been replicated and extended in research across most sexual minority groups (e.g., Haines et al., 2008; Wiseman & Moradi, 2010), but not bisexual women. The present study tested the tenets of objectification theory with a sample of 316 bisexual women and further extended this theory by examining the roles of 2 minority stressors-antibisexual discrimination and internalized biphobia-that are contextually salient for bisexual women. A latent variable structural equation model was conducted, and the model yielded a good fit to the data. Antibisexual discrimination and internalized biphobia (but not sexual objectification experiences) yielded significant unique links with internalization of sociocultural standards of attractiveness (internalization of CSA). Next, internalization of CSA yielded a significant unique link with body surveillance. In addition, antibisexual discrimination, internalization of CSA, and body surveillance yielded significant unique links with body shame. Finally, sexual objectification experiences, internalization of CSA, and body shame yielded significant unique links with eating disorder symptomatology. Beyond the direct relations, antibisexual discrimination yielded significant positive indirect links with body surveillance, body shame, and eating disorder symptoms. Internalization of CSA yielded significant positive indirect links with body shame and eating disorder symptoms. Lastly, body surveillance yielded a significant positive indirect link with eating disorder symptoms. Implications for research and practice with bisexual women are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Objectification Theory and Deaf Cultural Identity Attitudes: Roles in Deaf Women's Eating Disorder Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Rottenstein, Adena

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the generalizability of direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among internalization of sociocultural standards of beauty, body surveillance, body shame, and eating disorder symptoms with a sample of Deaf women. The study also examined the role of marginal Deaf cultural identity attitudes within this…

  12. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for GI cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Meester, Reinier G S; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2016-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. To reduce the burden of GI diseases, surveillance is recommended for some diseases, including for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, Barrett's oesophagus, precancerous gastric lesions, colorectal adenoma, and pancreatic neoplasms. This review aims to provide an overview of the evidence on cost-effectiveness of surveillance of individuals with GI conditions predisposing them to cancer, specifically focussing on the aforementioned conditions. We searched the literature and reviewed 21 studies. Despite heterogeneity of studies in terms of settings, study populations, surveillance strategies and outcomes, most reviewed studies suggested at least some surveillance of patients with these GI conditions to be cost-effective. For some high-risk conditions frequent surveillance with 3-month intervals was warranted, while for other conditions, surveillance may only be cost-effective every 10 years. Further studies based on more robust effectiveness evidence are needed to inform and optimise surveillance programmes for GI cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Remote container monitoring and surveillance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Aquila Technologies Group is developing a monitoring and surveillance system to monitor containers of nuclear materials. The system will both visually and physically monitor the containers. The system is based on the combination of Aquila`s Gemini All-Digital Surveillance System and on Aquila`s AssetLAN{trademark} asset tracking technology. This paper discusses the Gemini Digital Surveillance system as well as AssetLAN technology. The Gemini architecture with emphasis on anti-tamper security features is also described. The importance of all-digital surveillance versus other surveillance methods is also discussed. AssetLAN{trademark} technology is described, emphasizing the ability to continually track containers (as assets) by location utilizing touch memory technology. Touch memory technology provides unique container identification, as well as the ability to store and retrieve digital information on the container. This information may relate to container maintenance, inspection schedules, and other information. Finally, this paper describes the combination of the Gemini system with AssetLAN technology, yielding a self contained, container monitoring and area/container surveillance system. Secure container fixture design considerations are discussed. Basic surveillance review functions are also discussed.

  14. Modernization of existing VVER-1000 surveillance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V.; Erak, D.; Makhotin, D. [NRC ' Kurchatov Inst.' , 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    According to generally accepted world practice, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material behavior during operation is carried out using tests of surveillance specimens. The main objective of the surveillance program consists in insurance of safe RPV operation during the design lifetime and lifetime-extension period. At present, the approaches of pressure vessels residual life validation based on the test results of their surveillance specimens have been developed and introduced in Russia and are under consideration in other countries where vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactors- (VVER-) 1000 are in operation. In this case, it is necessary to ensure leading irradiation of surveillance specimens (as compared to the pressure vessel wall) and to provide uniformly irradiated specimen groups for mechanical testing. Standard surveillance program of VVER-1000 has several significant shortcomings and does not meet these requirements. Taking into account program of lifetime extension of VVER-1000 operating in Russia, it is necessary to carry out upgrading of the VVER-1000 surveillance program. This paper studies the conditions of a surveillance specimen's irradiation and upgrading of existing sets to provide monitoring and prognosis of RPV material properties for extension of the reactor's lifetime up to 60 years or more. (authors)

  15. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  16. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  17. Implementing maternal death surveillance and response: a review of lessons from country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Ameh, Charles; Roos, Natalie; Mathai, Matthews; Broek, Nynke van den

    2017-07-17

    Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) implementation is monitored globally, but not much is known about what works well, where and why in scaling up. We reviewed a series of country case studies in order to determine whether and to what extent these countries have implemented the four essential components of MDSR and identify lessons for improving implementation. A secondary analysis of ten case studies from countries at different stages of MDSR implementation, using a policy analysis framework to draw out lessons learnt and opportunities for improvement. We identify the consistent drivers of success in countries with well-established systems for MDSR, and common barriers in countries were Maternal Death Review (MDR) systems have been less successful. MDR is accepted and ongoing at subnational level in many countries, but it is not adequately institutionalised and the shift from facility based MDR to continuous MDSR that informs the wider health system still needs to be made. Our secondary analysis of country experiences highlights the need for a) social and team processes at facility level, for example the existence of a 'no shame, no blame' culture, and the ability to reflect on practice and manage change as a team for recommendations to be acted upon, b) health system inputs including adequate funding and reliable health information systems to enable identification and analysis of cases c) national level coordination of dissemination, and monitoring implementation of recommendations at all levels and d) mandatory notification of maternal deaths (and enforcement of this) and a professional requirement to participate in MDRs. Case studies from countries with established MDSR systems can provide valuable guidance on ways to set up the processes and overcome some of the barriers; but the challenge, as with many health system interventions, is to find a way to provide catalytic assistance and strengthen capacity for MDSR such that this becomes embedded in

  18. Application of IR microbolometers in border surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakfield, David K.; Norton, Peter; Plemons, Dan; Rodriguez, Christian; Sustare, Dennis

    2007-04-01

    BAE Systems led a collaborative study with New Mexico State University to investigate a series of ground based persistent surveillance solutions for potential use along the Southwest border of the United States. This study considered a wide range of system options for mobile and fixed site applications. This paper summarizes the findings of the study including the central role of the imaging subsystems in mobile ground based surveillance solutions and the suitability of uncooled IR Microbolometers within this subsystem. The paper also provides a discussion of the benefits of real time decision support applications when fielding a persistent surveillance solution.

  19. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) into Portuguese (Brazil) to evaluate patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirola, William Eduardo; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; Barroso, Eliane Marçon; Kissane, David W; Serrano, Claudia Valéria Maseti Pimenta; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-11-09

    Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) is the sixth leading cause of death from cancer worldwide and its treatment may involve surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The surgical procedure may cause mutilating sequelae, that can alter patient self-image. Thus, HNC is often connected to the negative stigma with decreased quality of life. Few studies assess the social stigma and shame perceived by patients with HNC. To perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) into Portuguese (Brazil). Two independent translations (English into Portuguese) were carried out by two professionals fluent in the English language. After the synthesis of the translations, two independent back-translations (from Portuguese into English) were performed by two translators whose native language is English. All translations were critically assessed by a committee of experts consisting of five members. A sample of 15 patients answered the Brazilian Portuguese version of the SSS to carry out the pretest. At this step, the patients were able to suggest modifications and evaluate the understanding of the items. There was no need to change the scale after this step. Based on the previous steps, we obtained the Portuguese (Brazil) version of the SSS, which was called "Escala de Vergonha e Estigma". The Portuguese (Brazil) version of the SSP was shown to be adequate to be applied to the population with HNC and, therefore, the psychometric properties of the tool will be evaluated during following steps. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M J; McCormack, W D; Dirkes, R L; Price, K R; Eddy, P A

    1982-05-01

    Environmental surveillance activities performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for 1981 are discussed. The results are summarized as follows: Radionuclide concentrations and radiation dose measurements were below applicable concentration guides and radiation dose standards. There was no difference detected between airborne radionuclide concentrations in samples collected near to and far from the Hanford Site. A difference in /sup 129/I concentration in Columbia River water downstream compared to upstream was observed. Strontium-90 concentrations downstream remained similar to past years while reduced concentrations were observed in the upstream samples. In addition, /sup 60/Co and /sup 131/I were observed more frequently in the downstream river water samples than in the upstream samples. In all cases, the downstream radionuclide concentrations were small in comparison to DOE radionuclide concentration guides and state and EPA drinking water standards. Low concentrations of radionuclides attributed to operations were observed in wildlife collected onsite. Low concentrations of fallout radionuclides from worldwide atmospheric nuclear testing were observed in foodstuffs and in soil and vegetation; there was no indication of a Hanford contribution to radionuclide levels. The highest penetrating dose rates were in the vicinities of the 100N and 300 Areas. Dose rates at both locations resulted from the presence, within the operating areas, of contained radioactive materials. Nonradiological water quality parameters were all within State Water Quality Standards for the Columbia River. The maximum 50-year whole body dose commitment to an individual from effluents released in 1981 was calculated to be 0.4 mrem. The maximum 50-year dose to a single organ, considering all pathways was approximately 1.3 mrem to the bone, primarily due to /sup 90/Sr in the Columbia River. (ERB)

  1. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  2. Surveillance studies about "rear-window ethics"%Surveillance studies about"rear-window ethics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷婷

    2016-01-01

    It can be said that people now live in a surveillance society. Some forms of surveillance have always existed as people watch over each other for mutual care, for moral caution and to discover information under the table. Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window is a typical fi lm for surveillance studies.What is happening on the screen is merely a projection of our own anxieties, our own existence, and our self-ambiguity as portrayed by the characters in this wonderful film.

  3. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselve...

  4. No Place Like Home? Surveillance and What Home Means in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, W Ben; Sixsmith, Andrew; Beringer, Robert

    2016-03-01

    New surveillance technologies like those included in ambient assisted living - such as body-worn and passive environmental sensors, smart interfaces, and communications networks - are being developed to improve the security and safety of "at risk" older people, but ethical questions have been raised about the extent to which they compromise the rights and privacy of the people being monitored. The qualitative study we conducted was designed to help us understand the ways these novel surveillance technologies would influence individuals' everyday experiences of home. Participants felt new forms of surveillance would influence their sense of security, autonomy, and self-confidence, and would alter perceptions of home. The findings emphasize the need to improve our understanding of how ambient assisted living will affect the lives of those being monitored.

  5. Crypto and empire: the contradictions of counter-surveillance advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürses, S.; Kundnani, A.; Van Hoboken, J.

    2016-01-01

    Since Edward Snowden’s revelations of US and UK surveillance programs, privacy advocates, progressive security engineers, and policy makers have been seeking to win majority support for countering surveillance. The problem is framed as the replacement of targeted surveillance with mass surveillance

  6. 48 CFR 37.604 - Quality assurance surveillance plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assurance surveillance plans. Requirements for quality assurance and quality assurance surveillance plans are in Subpart 46.4. The Government may either prepare the quality assurance surveillance plan or require the offerors to submit a proposed quality assurance surveillance plan for the Government's...

  7. Surveillance and Datenschutz in Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikic, Sabine; Lehmann-Grube, Fritz; Sablatnig, Jan

    Virtual environments are becoming more and more accepted, and part of the everyday online experience for many users. This offers new potential for both surveillance and data mining. Some of the techniques used are discussed in this paper.

  8. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  9. Donning and doffing PPE for HPAI surveillance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions describing the proper donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) surveillance. This protocol...

  10. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  11. Surveillance and Monitoring of Dialysis Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalathaksha Kumbar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access is the lifeline of a hemodialysis patient. Currently arteriovenous fistula and graft are considered the permanent options for vascular access. Monitoring and surveillance of vascular access are an integral part of the care of hemodialysis patient. Although different techniques and methods are available for identifying access dysfunction, the scientific evidence for the optimal methodology is lacking. A small number of randomized controlled trials have been performed evaluating different surveillance techniques. We performed a study of the recent literature published in the PUBMED, to review the scientific evidence on different methodologies currently being used for surveillance and monitoring and their impact on the care of the dialysis access. The limited randomized studies especially involving fistulae and small sample size of the published studies with conflicting results highlight the need for a larger multicentered randomized study with hard clinical end points to evaluate the optimal surveillance strategy for both fistula and graft.

  12. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  13. Future Airportal Surveillance and Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in airport surface surveillance and other sensor, automation, and data sharing technologies now allow the consideration of a significant change in...

  14. Moving object detection for video surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalirajan, K; Sudha, M

    2015-01-01

    .... In this paper, a novel approach of object detection for video surveillance is presented. The proposed algorithm consists of various steps including video compression, object detection, and object localization...

  15. Disease Surveillance at Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Deer populations have been reduced under the new Habitat Management Plan (HMP). Surveillance of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and other common ungulate diseases...

  16. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  17. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-12-21

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

  18. Enhanced surveillance program FY1998 accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, J

    1998-10-01

    This report highlights the accomplishments of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP), the highest-priority research and development effort in stockpile management today. This is volume one of eleven, the unclassified summary of selected program highlights. These highlights fall into the following focus areas: pits, high explosives, organics, dynamics, diagnostics, systems, secondaries, materials-aging models, non-nuclear components, and routine surveillance testing system upgrades. Principal investigators from around the DOE complex contributed to this report.

  19. Workplace surveillance, privacy protection, and efficiency wages

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Patrick W.

    2005-01-01

    Consider an employer who wants her employee to work hard. As is well known from the efficiency wage literature, the employer must pay the (wealth-constrained) employee a positive rent to provide incentives for exerting unobservable effort. Alternatively, the employer could make effort observable by costly workplace surveillance. It is argued that a privacy protection law preventing surveillance may increase the total surplus. While such a law reduces the employer?s profit, this loss can be ov...

  20. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Pei; Ning Li; Yunchang Guo; Xiumei Liu; Lin Yan; Ying Li; Shuran Yang; Jing Hu; Jianghui Zhu; Dajin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the na...

  1. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2002-01-16

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The document contains the CY 2002 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  2. Customer Surveillance: Consumer Attitudes and Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Plangger, Kirk Anton

    2015-01-01

    Due to technological advances, customer surveillance (i.e., the collection, capture, use, or storage of customers’ personal data) is becoming less expensive and more covert. Brands use these personal data that contain needs, preferences, characteristics, behavior, attitudes, or other customer attributes (i.e., market intelligence) to develop more competitive products and services. Customer surveillance also can put stress on customer relationships with brands, thus brands must conduct custome...

  3. Liberal luxury: Decentering Snowden, surveillance and privilege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piro Rexhepi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the continued potency of veillance theories to traverse beyond the taxonomies of surveillance inside liberal democracies. It provides a commentary on the ability of sousveillance to destabilise and disrupt suer/violence by shifting its focus from the centre to the periphery, where Big Data surveillance is tantamount to sur/violence. In these peripheral political spaces, surveillance is not framed by concerns over privacy, democracy and civil society; rather, it is a matter of life and death, a technique of both biopolitical and thanatopolitical power. I argue that the universalist, and universalizing, debates over surveillance cannot be mapped through the anxieties of privileged middle classes as they would neither transcend nor make possible alternative ways of tackling the intersection of surveillance and violence so long as they are couched in the liberal concerns for democracy. I call this phenomenon “liberal luxury,” whereby debates over surveillance have over-emphasised liberal proclivities at the expense of disengaging those peripheral populations most severely affected by sur/violence.

  4. Falling in the traps of your thoughts: The impact of body image-related cognitive fusion on inflexible eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2015-12-01

    Literature has shown that young women present high rates of body dissatisfaction, independently of their weight. Therefore, dieting may emerge as a strategy to control one's body image. Nonetheless, it also seems to be a source of great suffering rather than a solution. The aim of the present study was to explore what variables explain the inflexible engagement in eating rules. Our hypothesis is that an inflexible eating pattern results not exclusively from weight and body dissatisfaction and shame but mainly from emotional regulation processes (such as body image-related cognitive fusion). The sample of the present study comprised 659 female college students, aged between 18 and 25 years old, who completed self-report measures. Results revealed that the majority of the normal-weight participants desired to lose weight and to have a thinner body shape. Findings from the path analyses demonstrated that the effects of weight dissatisfaction and shame on the inflexible adhesion to eating rules were fully mediated through the mechanism of body image-related cognitive fusion. Furthermore, the effect of body dissatisfaction was partially operated by this process. This model was controlled by BMI and explained a total of 36% of inflexible adhesion to eating rules. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is when a woman gets fused and entangled with her body image-related thoughts that these unwanted inner events most impact on her eating rules. This study thus offers important new data for research and clinical practise in the field of body image and eating difficulties.

  5. Self-esteem moderates the associations between body-related self-conscious emotions and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Pila, Eva; Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the cross-sectional associations between body-related self-conscious emotions and depressive symptoms in young adults and examine self-esteem as a moderator of these associations. Data from a population-based sample of 811 young adults were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate linear regression analysis. Body-related shame ( β = .26) and guilt ( β = .25) were positively related to frequency of depressive symptoms. Self-esteem was negatively related to frequency of depressive symptoms ( β = -.46). Self-esteem moderated the association between body-related guilt and frequency of depressive symptoms. These findings suggest promoting self-esteem may help to reduce the negative effects of body-related guilt on depressive symptoms.

  6. National Surveillance of Occupational Exposure to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ricketts

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 1985, a prospective study was initiated to monitor the occurrence of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected blood and body fluids in Canada. This program was coordinated by the Federal Centre for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (now the Division of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. The objective was to determine the risk to workers of acquiring HIV infection as a result of exposure to HIV-infected blood and other body fluids. To be eligible, a worker must have sustained a documented parenteral, mucous membrane or skin contact exposure to blood or body fluids from an HIV-infected person. A baseline specimen was collected within a week of the exposure and then at six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months. Information concerning the type of exposure, precautions used and post exposure treatment was submitted to the Federal Centre for AIDS on standard data collection forms. All information was anonymous, identified only by a code number. Guidelines for counselling an exposed employee were provided with enrollment material. As of July 29, 1991, 414 employees have been included in the study. Two hundred and thirty-seven of the 414 exposures (57% were needlestick injuries of which 167 (70% were sustained by nurses. Other exposures consisted of open wound contamination, eye splashes, scalpel wounds and skin contact with blood and body fluids. To date, there have been no seroconversions among workers enrolled in the surveillance program.

  7. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma...

  8. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  9. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  10. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  11. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface.

  12. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  13. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  14. Organization of surveillance in GI practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senore, Carlo; Bellisario, Cristina; Hassan, Cesare

    2016-12-01

    Several reports documented an inefficient utilisation of available resources, as well as a suboptimal compliance with surveillance recommendations. Although, evidence suggests that organisational issues can influence the quality of care delivered, surveillance protocols are usually based on non-organized approaches. We conducted a literature search (publication date: 01/2000-06/2016) on PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for guidelines, or consensus statements, for surveys of practice, reporting information about patients, or providers attitudes and behaviours, for intervention studies to enhance compliance with guidelines. Related articles were also scrutinised. Based on the clinical relevance and burden on endoscopy services this review was focused on surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus, IBD and post-polypectomy surveillance of colonic adenomas. Existing guidelines are generally recognising structure and process requirements influencing delivery of surveillance interventions, while less attention had been devoted to transitions and interfaces in the care process. Available evidence from practice surveys is suggesting the need to design organizational strategies aimed to enable patients to attend and providers to deliver timely and appropriate care. Well designed studies assessing the effectiveness of specific interventions in this setting are however lacking. Indirect evidence from screening settings would suggest that the implementation of automated standardized recall systems, utilisation of clinical registries, removing financial barriers, could improve appropriateness of use and compliance with recommendations. Lack of sound evidence regarding utility and methodology of surveillance can contribute to explain the observed variability in providers and patients attitudes and in compliance with the recommended surveillance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  15. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  16. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  17. SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan Update for 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 441.1-­1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE 2008), requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.”This 2017 update reflects changes to the surveillance plan resulting from surveillance findings as documented in Reeves et al. 2016. These findings include observations of corrosion in SAVY and Hagan containers and the indication (in one SAVY container) of possible filter membrane thermal degradation. This surveillance plan update documents the rationale for selecting surveillance containers, specifies the containers for 2017 surveillance, and identifies a minimum set of containers for 2018 surveillance. This update contains important changes to the previous surveillance plans.

  18. Effective surveillance for homeland security balancing technology and social issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flammini, Francesco; Franceschetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Effective Surveillance for Homeland Security: Balancing Technology and Social Issues provides a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the surveillance and protection of citizens and critical infrastructures against natural and deliberate threats. Focusing on current technological challenges involving multi-disciplinary problem analysis and systems engineering approaches, it provides an overview of the most relevant aspects of surveillance systems in the framework of homeland security. Addressing both advanced surveillance technologies and the related socio-ethical issues, the book consists of 21 chapters written by international experts from the various sectors of homeland security. Part I, Surveillance and Society, focuses on the societal dimension of surveillance-stressing the importance of societal acceptability as a precondition to any surveillance system. Part II, Physical and Cyber Surveillance, presents advanced technologies for surveillance. It considers developing technologie...

  19. Surveillance issues in inflammatory bowel disease: ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, D; Onken, J

    2001-02-01

    This review article on the surveillance of patients with ulcerative colitis provides an overview of the criteria for evaluating screening and surveillance programs and applies the criteria to the available evidence to determine the effectiveness of the surveillance of patients with ulcerative colitis. We examine the clinical outcomes associated with surveillance, the additional clinical time required to confirm the diagnosis of dysplasia and cancer, compliance with surveillance and follow-up, and the effectiveness of the individual components of a surveillance program, including colonoscopy and pathologist's interpretation. The disability associated with colectomy is considered, as are the cost and acceptability of surveillance programs. Patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis are at risk for developing colorectal cancer. Recommended surveillance colonoscopy should be supported. New endoscopic and histopathologic techniques to improve the identification of high-risk patients may enhance the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surveillance practices.

  20. Veterinary surveillance laboratories: developing the training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Staci L; McCline, Katasha T; Hanfelt, Margery M

    2010-01-01

    The increased need and demand for onsite, frequent, rapid, and portable food and bottled water testing for indicators of microbiological and chemical agents led to the deployment of 2 laboratory veterinary equipment sets. A Surveillance Food Laboratory Program (SFLP) was developed to allow Veterinary Corps commanders to establish targeted testing programs to enhance food safety and wholesomeness, along with faster responses to food defense, suspected foodborne illness, and food/water risk assessment missions. To support the deployment of the veterinary equipment sets and the SFLP, 2 new functional courses were developed by the Department of Veterinary Science. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Technician Course teaches essential technical skills that include sample processing, assay methodologies, results review, and interpretation of results produced by these laboratories. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Manager Course, developed for designated managers of the laboratories and laboratory programs, teaches the skills critical to ensuring proper surveillance laboratory oversight, testing, evaluation of results, risk communication, and response to presumptive positive results produced by the laboratories. Together, the courses allowed for the successful deployment of the unique veterinary equipment sets, resulting in development of fully operational surveillance laboratories in support of food protection missions in every major theater of operations.

  1. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Surveillance and Resilience in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Raab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is often used as a tool in resilience strategies towards the threat posed by terrorist attacks and other serious crime. “Resilience” is a contested term with varying and ambiguous meaning in governmental, business and social discourses, and it is not clear how it relates to other terms that characterise processes or states of being. Resilience is often assumed to have positive connotations, but critics view it with great suspicion, regarding it as a neo-liberal governmental strategy. However, we argue that surveillance, introduced in the name of greater security, may itself erode social freedoms and public goods such as privacy, paradoxically requiring societal resilience, whether precautionary or in mitigation of the harms it causes to the public goods of free societies. This article develops new models and extends existing ones to describe resilience processes unfolding over time and in anticipation of, or in reaction to, adversities of different kinds and severity, and explores resilience both on the plane of abstract analysis and in the context of societal responses to mass surveillance. The article thus focuses upon surveillance as a special field for conceptual analysis and modelling of situations, and for evaluating contemporary developments in “surveillance societies”.

  3. 《论语新解》中“有耻且格”释义%On the Paraphrase of "Shame and Lattice"in"A New Interpretation of Analects"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑶

    2015-01-01

    IN Qian Mu's book "A New Interpretation of Analects",his paraphrase of "shame and lattice" in "The Analects Governing"has something improper .He said the sentence means that if everyone feels shamed to against the leadership ,they will correct to arrive somewhere their leaders wants them to .But considering the meaning of the word"lattice",the rich con‐notation of "shame"and the ideology of Confucius ,there is something inappropriate .%钱穆在《论语新解》中将《论语·为政》篇中的“有耻且格”释为“人人心中将感到违背领导是耻辱,自能正确地到达在上者所要领导他们到达的方向去”。通过对“格”字溯源,可知“格”的释义有所缩小,且有字义杂揉之嫌。此外,该解释将“耻”之内涵局限于“感到违背领导”,内涵有所缩小;又与孔子一贯的“仁本”思想有异,故本文认为此译有欠妥之处。

  4. Employee unethical behavior to shame as an indicator of self-image threat and exemplification as a form of self-image protection: The exacerbating role of supervisor bottom-line mentality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Julena M; Greenbaum, Rebecca L; Quade, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Employee unethical behavior continues to be an area of interest as real-world business scandals persist. We investigate what happens after people engage in unethical behavior. Drawing from emotion theories (e.g., Tangney & Dearing, 2002) and the self-presentation literature (e.g., Leary & Miller, 2000), we first argue that people are socialized to experience shame after moral violations (Hypothesis 1). People then manage their shame and try to protect their self-images by engaging in exemplification behaviors (i.e., self-sacrificial behaviors that give the attribution of being a dedicated person; Hypothesis 2). We also examine the moderating role of supervisor bottom-line mentality (BLM; i.e., a supervisor's singular focus on pursuing bottom-line outcomes) in relation to our theoretical model. We argue that high supervisor BLM intensifies the employee unethical behavior to shame relationship (Hypothesis 3) and results in heightened exemplification as a way to protect one's self-image by portraying the self as a dedicated person who is worthy of association (Hypothesis 4). We test our theoretical model across 2 experimental studies and 2 field studies. Although our results provide general support for Hypotheses 1, 2, and 3, our results produced mixed findings for Hypothesis 4. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Ewing, Alexander; Mandel, Michele G; Simmons, Katharine B; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2016-11-25

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2013. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2013, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 664,435 abortions were reported to CDC for 2013. Of these abortions, 98.2% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2004-2013. Among these 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2013 was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2012 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 5%. From 2004 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 20%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. In 2013, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2004-2013). In 2013 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2013, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 25.9% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.8 and 18.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.8%, 9.2%, and 3.6% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.8, 7.0, and 2

  6. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-11-27

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2012. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2012, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2003-2012. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 699,202 abortions were reported to CDC for 2012. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2003-2012. Among these same 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2012 was 13.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 210 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2011 to 2012, the total number and ratio of reported abortions decreased 4% and the abortion rate decreased 5%. From 2003 to 2012, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 17%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, and reached their lowest level in 2012 for the entire period of analysis (2003-2012). In 2012 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2012, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.8% and 25.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 23.3 and 18.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.4%, 9.1%, and 3.7% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of

  7. Alterity In/Of Happiness: Reflecting on the radical possibilities of unruly bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chandler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how fat and disabled subjects may be taught to appear as happy through biopedagogies in order to manage shame and disgust evoked by their unruly, non-conforming bodies. We begin by articulating what we mean by “biopedagogies”. We then unpack how the requirement to be happy feeds directly into a neoliberal agenda, which demands we must take care of ourselves both economically and emotionally in order to be considered good citizens. We explore how, in the midst of the requirement to be happy while living in bodies not recognised as inhabitable, we create and find moments of alterity in/of happiness. Through analysing art by disabled and fat activists and artists, we examine how disabled and fat people find happiness in difference, rather than in spite of it while at the same time, hanging on to rage and dull pain within this alterity of happiness.

  8. Body Piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common body piercing. Other common places to pierce include the eyebrow, nose, tongue, lip, belly button, nipples, and genitals. Some people also pierce their ear cartilage (the hard part of the ...

  9. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    seasonal variation that could be used in management decisions. ... To assess muscle and fat content, the leg was completely separated into meat, bone, ..... The seasonal variation in body condition of mountain reedbuck can be explained by ...

  10. Market surveillance for the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. We define market surveillance as the collection of information about variables which will allow inferences about the attractiveness of a company's present and future offerings. The attractiveness, in turn, will depend on the value customers perceive in a product relative...... to competing products and relative to its price. Such information on determinants of value perception and costs can be used in the strategy formulation of the company. 2. We define a market surveillance system as a set of methods/instruments to regularly select, collect, and process data about a market and its...... actors, with the aim of detecting changes in those long-term trends, which are expected to influence the attractiveness of a company's present an future offerings. 3. Different types of market surveillance systems can be distinguished based on the actors it covers (distributors/end users...

  11. A comprehensive review on intelligent surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Warsono Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent surveillance system (ISS has received growing attention due to the increasing demand on security and safety. ISS is able to automatically analyze image, video, audio or other type of surveillance data without or with limited human intervention. The recent developments in sensor devices, computer vision, and machine learning have an important role in enabling such intelligent system. This paper aims to provide general overview of intelligent surveillance system and discuss some possible sensor modalities and their fusion scenarios such as visible camera (CCTV, infrared camera, thermal camera and radar. This paper also discusses main processing steps in ISS: background-foreground segmentation, object detection and classification, tracking, and behavioral analysis.

  12. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  13. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  14. Inferring epidemic network topology from surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiang; Liu, Jiming; Cheung, William K; Tong, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of infectious diseases can be affected by many or even hidden factors, making it difficult to accurately predict when and where outbreaks may emerge. One approach at the moment is to develop and deploy surveillance systems in an effort to detect outbreaks as timely as possible. This enables policy makers to modify and implement strategies for the control of the transmission. The accumulated surveillance data including temporal, spatial, clinical, and demographic information, can provide valuable information with which to infer the underlying epidemic networks. Such networks can be quite informative and insightful as they characterize how infectious diseases transmit from one location to another. The aim of this work is to develop a computational model that allows inferences to be made regarding epidemic network topology in heterogeneous populations. We apply our model on the surveillance data from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong. The inferred epidemic network displays significant effect on the propagation of infectious diseases.

  15. [Flaccid paralysis surveillance in the Latium Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, A M; Santi, A L; Ciapetti, C; Fiore, L; Novello, F; Vellucci, L; De Stefano, F; Fara, G M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of World Health Organization is to reach the global eradication of poliomyelitis during the first decade of the third millennium. To achieve the certification of the eradication of the disease the main strategy is the Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance. In Italy the active AFP surveillance was performed at national level since 1997. In the Latium region the active surveillance was performed since January 1997 by the laboratory of virology of Institute of Hygiene G Sanarelli which established a regional hospital network. During the years of survey 7 cases were found in 1997 (0.87/100,000), 4 in 1998 (0.5/100,000), 2 in 1999 (0.25/100,000) and 2 in 2000. No wild polioviruses were detected.

  16. Epidemiological Concepts Regarding Disease Monitoring and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jette

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of epidemiological concepts regarding disease monitoring and surveillance can be found in textbooks on veterinary epidemiology. This paper gives a review of how the concepts: monitoring, surveillance, and disease control strategies are defined. Monitoring and surveillance systems (MO&SS involve measurements of disease occurrence, and the design of the monitoring determines which types of disease occurrence measures can be applied. However, the knowledge of the performance of diagnostic tests (sensitivity and specificity is essential to estimate the true occurrence of the disease. The terms, disease control programme (DCP or disease eradication programme (DEP, are defined, and the steps of DCP/DEP are described to illustrate that they are a process rather than a static MO&SS.

  17. Enhancing Disease Surveillance Event Communication Among Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Nathaniel R; Loschen, Wayne A; Jorgensen, Joel; Suereth, Joshua; Coberly, Jacqueline S; Holtry, Rekha S; Sikes, Marvin L; Babin, Steven M; Lewis, Sheryl L Happel

    2009-01-01

    Automated disease surveillance systems are becoming widely used by the public health community. However, communication among non-collocated and widely dispersed users still needs improvement. A web-based software tool for enhancing user communications was completely integrated into an existing automated disease surveillance system and was tested during two simulated exercises and operational use involving multiple jurisdictions. Evaluation of this tool was conducted by user meetings, anonymous surveys, and web logs. Public health officials found this tool to be useful, and the tool has been modified further to incorporate features suggested by user responses. Features of the automated disease surveillance system, such as alerts and time series plots, can be specifically referenced by user comments. The user may also indicate the alert response being considered by adding a color indicator to their comment. The web-based event communication tool described in this article provides a common ground for collaboration and communication among public health officials at different locations.

  18. [Recommendations for the surveillance of Aedes aegypti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti, such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika, continue to rise in annual incidence and geographic expansion. A key limitation for achieving control of A. aegypti has been the lack of effective tools for monitoring its population, and thus determine what control measures actually work. Surveillance of A. aegypti has been based mainly on immature indexes, but they bear little relation to the number of mosquito females, which are the ones capable of transmitting the viruses. The recent development of sampling techniques for adults of this vector species promises to facilitate surveillance and control activities. In this review, we present the various monitoring techniques for this mosquito, along with a discussion of their usefulness, and recommendations for improved entomological surveillance.

  19. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  20. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  1. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  2. Statistical analyses in disease surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Andres G; Larasati, Ria Purwita; Sedyaningsih, Endang R; Bounlu, Khanthong; Araujo-Castillo, Roger V; Munayco-Escate, Cesar V; Soto, Giselle; Mundaca, C Cecilia; Blazes, David L

    2008-11-14

    The performance of disease surveillance systems is evaluated and monitored using a diverse set of statistical analyses throughout each stage of surveillance implementation. An overview of their main elements is presented, with a specific emphasis on syndromic surveillance directed to outbreak detection in resource-limited settings. Statistical analyses are proposed for three implementation stages: planning, early implementation, and consolidation. Data sources and collection procedures are described for each analysis.During the planning and pilot stages, we propose to estimate the average data collection, data entry and data distribution time. This information can be collected by surveillance systems themselves or through specially designed surveys. During the initial implementation stage, epidemiologists should study the completeness and timeliness of the reporting, and describe thoroughly the population surveyed and the epidemiology of the health events recorded. Additional data collection processes or external data streams are often necessary to assess reporting completeness and other indicators. Once data collection processes are operating in a timely and stable manner, analyses of surveillance data should expand to establish baseline rates and detect aberrations. External investigations can be used to evaluate whether abnormally increased case frequency corresponds to a true outbreak, and thereby establish the sensitivity and specificity of aberration detection algorithms.Statistical methods for disease surveillance have focused mainly on the performance of outbreak detection algorithms without sufficient attention to the data quality and representativeness, two factors that are especially important in developing countries. It is important to assess data quality at each state of implementation using a diverse mix of data sources and analytical methods. Careful, close monitoring of selected indicators is needed to evaluate whether systems are reaching their

  3. Disease surveillance using a hidden Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Graeme

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine surveillance of disease notification data can enable the early detection of localised disease outbreaks. Although hidden Markov models (HMMs have been recognised as an appropriate method to model disease surveillance data, they have been rarely applied in public health practice. We aimed to develop and evaluate a simple flexible HMM for disease surveillance which is suitable for use with sparse small area count data and requires little baseline data. Methods A Bayesian HMM was designed to monitor routinely collected notifiable disease data that are aggregated by residential postcode. Semi-synthetic data were used to evaluate the algorithm and compare outbreak detection performance with the established Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS algorithms and a negative binomial cusum. Results Algorithm performance varied according to the desired false alarm rate for surveillance. At false alarm rates around 0.05, the cusum-based algorithms provided the best overall outbreak detection performance, having similar sensitivity to the HMMs and a shorter average time to detection. At false alarm rates around 0.01, the HMM algorithms provided the best overall outbreak detection performance, having higher sensitivity than the cusum-based Methods and a generally shorter time to detection for larger outbreaks. Overall, the 14-day HMM had a significantly greater area under the receiver operator characteristic curve than the EARS C3 and 7-day negative binomial cusum algorithms. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the HMM provides an effective method for the surveillance of sparse small area notifiable disease data at low false alarm rates. Further investigations are required to evaluation algorithm performance across other diseases and surveillance contexts.

  4. Creating a global dialogue on infectious disease surveillance: connecting organizations for regional disease surveillance (CORDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Louise S; Smolinski, Mark S; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers - not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework.

  5. Creating a Global Dialogue on Infectious Disease Surveillance: Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise S. Gresham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers – not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE, and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO. As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework.

  6. Nutritional status and food consumption in 10-11 year old Dutch boys (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppel, G.van.; Schneijder, P.; Löwik, M.R.H.; Schrijver, J.; Kok, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System, cardiovascular risk factors and food consumption (24 h recall) as well as haematological, Fe and vitamin status (A, B6, C) were assessed in 126 Dutch boys aged 10-11 years (response 71%). Body mass index (BMI) and the sum of four skinfolds were

  7. Flexible Human Behavior Analysis Framework for Video Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Lao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. Although human motion is widely investigated, we have extended such research in three aspects. By adding a second camera, not only more reliable behavior analysis is possible, but it also enables to map the ongoing scene events onto a 3D setting to facilitate further semantic analysis. The second contribution is the introduction of a 3D reconstruction scheme for scene understanding. Thirdly, we perform a fast scheme to detect different body parts and generate a fitting skeleton model, without using the explicit assumption of upright body posture. The extension of multiple-view fusion improves the event-based semantic analysis by 15%–30%. Our proposed framework proves its effectiveness as it achieves a near real-time performance (13–15 frames/second and 6–8 frames/second for monocular and two-view video sequences.

  8. Design of a Miniature Autonomous Surveillance Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chang-e; HUANG Qiang; HUANG Yuan-can

    2009-01-01

    The small size of miniature robots poses great challenges for the mechanical and deetrieal design and the implementation of autonomous capabilities.In this paper,the mechanical and electrical design for a twowheeled cylindrical miniature autonomous robot ("BMS-1",BIT MicroScout-1) is presented and some autonomous capabilities are implemented by multiple sensors and some arithmetic models.Several experimental results show that BMS-1 is useful for surveillance in confined spaces and suitable for large-scale surveillance due to some autonomous capabilities.

  9. Intelligent video surveillance systems and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2009-01-01

    From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated

  10. Event-driven surveillance possibilities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    The Web has become a rich source of personal information in the last few years. People twitter, blog, and chat online. Current feelings, experiences or latest news are posted. For instance, first hints to disease outbreaks, customer preferences, or political changes could be identified with this data. Surveillance or early warning systems enable such detection of changes and support humans in getting information on changing situations. However, the variety of data that could be considered for surveillance is immense, ranging from sensor-measured values to collected counts and information extra

  11. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  12. Syndromic surveillance: A necessary public health tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Of late much has been said about emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. The focus has been on continuous public health surveillance for early detection of outbreaks and potential threats. Preparedness is the way forward and relevant institutions and organizations need to make the necessary investments early. Familiarity, good coordination, active participation and a change of mindset amongst personnel is crucial to make the system work. We also share a general approach to using electronic Emergency Department data for syndromic surveillance.

  13. Crisis Management Using Multiple Camera Surveillance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rothkrantz , L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    During recent disasters such as tsunami, flooding, hurricanes, nuclear disaster, earthquake people have to leave their living areas for their own safety. But it proves that some people are not informed about the evacuation, or are not willing or able to leave or don’t know how to leave the hazardous areas. The topic of the paper is how to adapt current video surveillance systems along highway and streets to semi-automatic surveillance systems. When a suspicious event is detected a human opera...

  14. Reaction kinetic analysis of reactor surveillance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiie, T.; Kinomura, A.; Nagai, Y.

    2017-02-01

    In the reactor pressure vessel surveillance data of a European-type pressurized water reactor (low-Cu steel), it was found that the concentration of matrix defects was very high, and a large number of precipitates existed. In this study, defect structure evolution obtained from surveillance data was simulated by reaction kinetic analysis using 15 rate equations. The saturation of precipitation and the growth of loops were simulated, but it was not possible to explain the increase in DBTT on the basis of the defect structures. The sub-grain boundary segregation of solutes was discussed for the origin of the DBTT increase.

  15. Industrial espionage and technical surveillance counter measurers

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif

    2016-01-01

    This book examines technical aspects of industrial espionage and its impact in modern companies, organizations, and individuals while emphasizing the importance of intellectual property in the information era. The authors discuss the problem itself and then provide statistics and real world cases. The main contribution provides a detailed discussion of the actual equipment, tools and techniques concerning technical surveillance in the framework of espionage. Moreover, they present the best practices and methods of detection (technical surveillance counter measures) as well as means of intellectual property protection.

  16. Active surveillance for clinically localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Brasso, Klaus; Klotz, Laurence H

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as an observational strategy to delay or avoid curative treatment without compromising long-term cancer-specific survival. The 10 studies included in this review, published between 2008 and 2013, generally agreed upon patients selection for the AS stra......Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as an observational strategy to delay or avoid curative treatment without compromising long-term cancer-specific survival. The 10 studies included in this review, published between 2008 and 2013, generally agreed upon patients selection...

  17. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.

  18. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Tante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR, Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED. Methods: A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results: Two of 11 (18% surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45% surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91% rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7% considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27% surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6% surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion: In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other.

  19. Fathers, daughters, and self-objectification: does bonding style matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-McLean, Haley; Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J

    2014-09-01

    As women are exposed to objectification and the "male gaze," they self-objectify, which predicts negative psychological outcomes. Given the centrality of the "male gaze," positive father/child relationships may have a buffering effect. In this study, women (N=447) completed a survey measuring paternal bonding (care and overprotection), self-objectification, negative eating attitudes, and depression. Women were categorized into four groups based on bonding style. Analyses indicated an interaction such that women who reported high care and low overprotection reported the fewest negative eating attitudes. A path model was tested for each group. The fit of the high care/high overprotection group's model significantly differed from that of the high care/low overprotection group. The relationships between body surveillance and shame as well as between shame and negative eating attitudes were stronger in the former group. These findings suggest that caring but overprotective fathers may exacerbate the negative effects of body surveillance and shame.

  20. 羞耻性自传体记忆: 基于自我文化差异的对比研究%Autobiographical Memories of Shame: A Comparative Study in the Context of Cultural Differences of Self

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智丰; 高隽; 钱铭怡; 王爱民; 张黎黎; 汪智艳

    2009-01-01

    The main objective was to compare the emotion of shame under Chinese culture and American culture,based on the self theory of Markus and Kitayama. There were 69 Chinese collage students and 65 American collage students involved inthis study. Each subject was asked to recall one shameful event he or she experienced. Then based on the theoretical hypothesis and characters of these shameful autobiographical memories, a coding scheme was developed. All autobiographicalmemories were coded according to the scheme. The main results are as follows: 1) the shameful autobiographical memories of Chinese subjects were more specific than those of the American subjects';2) compared withthose of the American subjects, Chinese subjects' autobiographical memories contained more interpersonal contents;and 3) compared with the American subjects,Chinese subjects reported more shameful autobiographical memories happened in the period of childhood and adolescence, in the places of school and with teachers' comments on the events.%基于Markus和Kitayama的自我文化理论,考察羞耻情绪在中美两国文化下的差异.69名中国大学生和65名美国大学生作为被试,每个被试被要求回忆一个自己亲身经历的羞耻性事件.之后根据羞耻自传体记忆的特点及理论假设,制定了编码规则.根据编码规则,对每个记忆进行编码统计.研究结果显示: 1) 中国被试羞耻性自传体记忆的具体程度高于美国被试;2) 中国被试的羞耻记忆出现更多人际关系的内容;3) 中国被试更多报告羞耻事件发生在童年和青春期,更多涉及学校和老师的评价.