WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance activities including

  1. Can we expand active surveillance criteria to include biopsy Gleason 3+4 prostate cancer? A multi-institutional study of 2,323 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploussard, G.; Isbarn, H.; Briganti, A.; Sooriakumaran, P.; Surcel, C.I.; Salomon, L.; Freschi, M.; Mirvald, C.; Poel, H.G. van der; Jenkins, A.; Ost, P.; Oort, I.M. van; Yossepowitch, O.; Giannarini, G.; Bergh, R.C. van den

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the expandability of active surveillance (AS) to Gleason score 3+4 cancers by assessing the unfavorable disease risk in a large multi-institutional cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis including 2,323 patients with localized Gleason score 3+4 prosta

  2. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  3. Active surveillance for clinically localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Brasso, Klaus; Klotz, Laurence H

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as an observational strategy to delay or avoid curative treatment without compromising long-term cancer-specific survival. The 10 studies included in this review, published between 2008 and 2013, generally agreed upon patients selection for the AS stra......Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as an observational strategy to delay or avoid curative treatment without compromising long-term cancer-specific survival. The 10 studies included in this review, published between 2008 and 2013, generally agreed upon patients selection...

  4. Current Management Strategy for Active Surveillance in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jamil S; Javier-Desloges, Juan; Tatzel, Stephanie; Bhagat, Ansh; Nguyen, Kevin A; Hwang, Kevin; Kim, Sarah; Sprenkle, Preston C

    2017-02-01

    Active surveillance has been increasingly utilized as a strategy for the management of favorable-risk, localized prostate cancer. In this review, we describe contemporary management strategies of active surveillance, with a focus on traditional stratification schemes, new prognostic tools, and patient outcomes. Patient selection, follow-up strategy, and indication for delayed intervention for active surveillance remain centered around PSA, digital rectal exam, and biopsy findings. Novel tools which include imaging, biomarkers, and genetic assays have been investigated as potential prognostic adjuncts; however, their role in active surveillance remains institutionally dependent. Although 30-50% of patients on active surveillance ultimately undergo delayed treatment, the vast majority will remain free of metastasis with a low risk of dying from prostate cancer. The optimal method for patient selection into active surveillance is unknown; however, cancer-specific mortality rates remain excellent. New prognostication tools are promising, and long-term prospective, randomized data regarding their use in active surveillance will be beneficial.

  5. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adolescent's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's...

  6. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  7. Low Risk Prostate Cancer and Active Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Bul, Meelan

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe first part of this thesis comprises an introduction to prostate cancer and screening (chapter 1). The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has shown an effect of screening on prostate cancer mortality in favor of the screening population, however, controversies remain. One of the most important side-effects of screening is overdiagnosis with subsequent overtreatment, which has led to the introduction of active surveillance as an alternative to the...

  8. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems and mod...

  9. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems...... and models for interpreting surveillance data as part of ongoing control or eradication programmes. Two Danish examples are outlined. The first illustrates how models were used in documenting country freedom from disease (trichinellosis) and the second demonstrates how models were of assistance in predicting...

  10. Worldwide Surveillance, Policy, and Research on Physical Activity and Health: The Global Observatory for Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Andrea Ramirez; Pratt, Michael; Powell, Kenneth; Lee, I-Min; Bauman, Adrian; Heath, Gregory; Martins, Rafaela Costa; Kohl, Harold; Hallal, Pedro C

    2017-09-01

    The Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!) was launched in response to the physical inactivity pandemic. The aim of this article is to present current information about surveillance, policy, and research on physical activity (PA) and health worldwide. Information was collected for 217 countries. For 139 of these nations we identified a contact who confirmed information's accuracy and completeness. Associations were calculated among surveillance, policy and research categories. Of the 139 countries, 90.6% reported having completed 1 or more PA survey, but less than one-third had 3 or more. 106 included PA on a national plan, but only one-quarter of these were PA-specific. At least 1 peer reviewed publication was identified for 63.3% of the countries. Positive associations (P < .001) were found between research and policy (ρ = 0.35), research and surveillance (ρ = 0.41), and surveillance and policy (ρ = 0.31). Countries with a standalone plan were more likely to have surveillance. Countries with more research were more likely to have a standalone plan and surveillance. Surveillance, policy, and research indicators were positively correlated, suggesting that action at multiple levels tends to stimulate progress in other areas. Efforts to expand PA-related surveillance, policy, and research in lower income countries are needed.

  11. RAMA Surveillance Capsule and Component Activation Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Kenneth E.; Jones, Eric N. [TransWare Enterprises Inc., 1565 Mediterranean Dr., Sycamore, IL 60178 (United States); Carter, Robert G. [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West W. T. Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the calculated-to-measured ratios associated with the application of the RAMA Fluence Methodology software to light water reactor surveillance capsule and reactor component activation evaluations. Comparisons to measurements are performed for pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor surveillance capsule activity specimens from seventeen operating light water reactors. Comparisons to measurements are also performed for samples removed from the core shroud, top guide, and jet pump brace pads from two reactors. In conclusion: The flexible geometry modeling capabilities provided by RAMA, combined with the detailed representation of operating reactor history and anisotropic scattering detail, produces accurate predictions of the fast neutron fluence and neutron activation for BWR and PWR surveillance capsule geometries. This allows best estimate RPV fluence to be determined without the need for multiplicative bias corrections. The three-dimensional modeling capability in RAMA provides an accurate estimate of the fast neutron fluence for regions far removed from the core mid-plane elevation. The comparisons to activation measurements for various core components indicate that the RAMA predictions are reasonable, and notably conservative (i.e., C/M ratios are consistently greater than unity). It should be noted that in the current evaluations, the top and bottom fuel regions are represented by six inch height nodes. As a result, the leakage-induced decrease in power near the upper and lower edges of the core are not well represented in the current models. More precise predictions of fluence for components that lie above and below the core boundaries could be obtained if the upper and lower fuel nodes were subdivided into multiple axial regions with assigned powers that reflect the neutron leakage at the top and bottom of the core. This use of additional axial sub-meshing at the top and bottom of the core is analogous to the use of pin

  12. Strategic Priorities for Physical Activity Surveillance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E; Carlson, Susan A; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Berrigan, David; Carlson, Cynthia; Dorn, Joan M; Heath, Gregory W; Kohl, Harold W; Lee, I-Min; Lee, Sarah M; Másse, Louise C; Morrow, James R; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Pivarnik, James M; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Rodgers, Anne B; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Troiano, Richard P; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Wendel, Arthur

    2016-10-01

    Develop strategic priorities to guide future physical activity surveillance in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine convened a scientific roundtable of physical activity and measurement experts. Participants summarized the current state of aerobic physical activity surveillance for adults, focusing on practice and research needs in three areas: 1) behavior, 2) human movement, and 3) community supports. Needs and challenges for each area were identified. At the conclusion of the meeting, experts identified one overarching strategy and five strategic priorities to guide future surveillance. The identified overarching strategy was to develop a national plan for physical activity surveillance similar to the U.S. National Physical Activity Plan for promotion. The purpose of the plan would be to enhance coordination and collaboration within and between sectors, such as transportation and public health, and to address specific strategic priorities identified at the roundtable. These strategic priorities were used 1) to identify and prioritize physical activity constructs; 2) to assess the psychometric properties of instruments for physical activity surveillance; 3) to provide training and technical assistance for those collecting, analyzing, or interpreting surveillance data; 4) to explore accessing data from alternative sources; and 5) to improve communication, translation, and dissemination about estimates of physical activity from surveillance systems. This roundtable provided strategic priorities for physical activity surveillance in the United States. A first step is to develop a national plan for physical activity surveillance that would provide an operating framework from which to execute these priorities.

  13. Prudential regulation and surveillance - essential elements of the banking activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Without being an exhaustive study, the analysis aims to identify the intrinsic correlations of essential notions for the banking field - prudence, prudential supervision, international publishing and sanctions, quartered obviously in risk area. We mention that risk, as related to surveillance and caution, represents the possibility of potential, expected or unexpected events to have a negative impact on the bank capital or the bank revenue. We will not use the notion of control, which seems included in that broader surveillance, but we remind that a prudential supervision aims at preventing internal or external risk at a credit institution level, and at avoiding their spread. Macroeconomic prudential supervision is an internal management activity, given the evolution of constraints that come from outside, the change of activity place or the redefinition of prudential rules at national and international level.

  14. 21 CFR 822.10 - What must I include in my surveillance plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE Postmarket Surveillance Plan § 822.10 What... answer the surveillance question, e.g., clinical parameters or outcomes; (d) The surveillance approach or... consent document, if applicable; (j) Institutional Review Board information, if applicable; (k)...

  15. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  16. [Results of active surveillance in low and intermediate risk prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Carlos; Diaz Goizueta, Francisco Javier; Hernandez, Virginia; de la Morena, Jose Manuel; de la Peña, Enrique

    2014-06-01

    In this article we review the most significant published papers on active surveillance in prostate cancer and present the results of our case series. We used as main response variables the percentage of patients remaining in surveillance and the oncological results presented as global, cancer specific and metastasis free survivals. Globally, in published series 71.2% of patients included in active surveillance programs, 10-year overall survival is 68% in the series with longer follow up, and cancer-specific survival varies from 97% to 100%. In our series of 144 patients with median follow up of 3.2 years, 76.3% of the patients continue on surveillance. 24 patients (15.9%) stopped surveillance due to histological progression. 5 patients (21.3%) out of the 23 undergoing surgery presented unfavorable pathological criteria on prostatectomy specimen. No patient has died or developed metastases.

  17. A REVIEW OF HUMAN ACTIVITY RECONGNITION AND BEHAVIOR UNDERSTANDING IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.Revathi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey of activity recognition and understanding the behaviour of human activity in video sequence. The major goal of this paper is to provide a general review on the overall process of a surveillance system used in the current trend. Visual surveillance system is directed on automatic identification of events of interest, especially on tracking and classification of moving objects. The processing step of the video surveillance system includes the following stages: Surrounding model, object representation, object tracking, activity recognition and behaviour understanding. It describes techniques that use to define a general set of activities that are applicable to a wide range of scenes and environments in video sequence. The review methods used for real-time surveillance through a set of events for further analysis triggering, including virtual fencing, speed profiling, behaviour classification, anomaly detection, and object interaction.

  18. Lessons learned during active epidemiological surveillance of Ebola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lessons learned during active epidemiological surveillance of Ebola And Marburg Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Epidemics in Africa. ... During epidemics in rural settings, outbreak investigations have shown multiple introductions of the virus into ...

  19. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben;

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...

  20. Appropriateness Criteria for Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Michael L; Dhir, Apoorv; Auffenberg, Gregory B; Linsell, Susan; Gao, Yuqing; Rosenberg, Bradley; Jafri, S Mohammad; Klotz, Laurence; Miller, David C; Ghani, Khurshid R; Bernstein, Steven J; Montie, James E; Lane, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of active surveillance varies widely across urological communities, which suggests a need for more consistency in the counseling of patients. To address this need we used the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to develop appropriateness criteria and counseling statements for active surveillance. Panelists were recruited from MUSIC urology practices. Combinations of parameters thought to influence decision making were used to create and score 160 theoretical clinical scenarios for appropriateness of active surveillance. Recent rates of active surveillance among real patients across the state were assessed using the MUSIC registry. Low volume Gleason 6 was deemed highly appropriate for active surveillance whereas high volume Gleason 6 and low volume Gleason 3+4 were deemed appropriate to uncertain. No scenario was deemed inappropriate or highly inappropriate. Prostate specific antigen density, race and life expectancy impacted scores for intermediate and high volume Gleason 6 and low volume Gleason 3+4. The greatest degree of score dispersion (disagreement) occurred in scenarios with long life expectancy, high volume Gleason 6 and low volume Gleason 3+4. Recent rates of active surveillance use among real patients ranged from 0% to 100% at the provider level for low or intermediate biopsy volume Gleason 6, demonstrating a clear opportunity for quality improvement. By virtue of this work urologists have the opportunity to present specific recommendations from the panel to their individual patients. Community-wide efforts aimed at increasing rates of active surveillance and reducing practice and physician level variation in the choice of active surveillance vs treatment are warranted. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Care Planning for Prostate Cancer Patients on Active Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    medical tests, exams, biopsies, and treating physicians, specialists, and other care providers involved in your cancer surveillance. You will... Conditions : Allergies: Past major surgeries: Date: Clinical Trial: ☐ Yes ☐No Name/Number: Active Surveillance Treatment Date Starting Active...cancer 1 0 j) Loss of eyesight 1 0 k) Hearing loss 1 0 l) Anemia 1 0 m) Asthma 1 0 n) Severe allergies 1 0 o) Stomach problems 1 0 p) Sexual or

  2. Patients' motives for participating in active post-marketing surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmark, Linda; Lie-Kwie, Miguel; Berm, Lisette; de Gier, Han; van Grootheest, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Web-based intensive monitoring is a method to actively collect information about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) using patients as a source of information. To date, little is known about patients' motivation to participate in this kind of active post-marketing surveillance (PMS). Increased ins

  3. The Role of MRI in Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in American men, excluding skin cancer. The clinical behavior of prostate cancer varies from low-grade, slow growing tumors to high-grade aggressive tumors that may ultimately progress to metastases and cause death. Given the high incidence of men diagnosed with prostate cancer, conservative treatment strategies such as active surveillance are critical in the management of prostate cancer to reduce therapeutic complications of radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. In this review, we will review the role of multiparametric MRI in the selection and follow-up of patients on active surveillance.

  4. Low-cost active optical system for fire surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, A. B.; Lavrov, A. V.; Vilar, R. M.

    2009-06-01

    Detection of smoke plumes using active optical sensors provides many advantages with respect to passive methods of fire surveillance. However, the price of these sensors is often too high as compared to passive fire detection instruments, such as infrared and video cameras. This article describes robust and cost effective diode-laser optical sensor for automatic fire surveillance in industrial environment. Physical aspects of the sensing process allowing to simplify the hardware and software design, eventually leading to significant reduction of manufacturing and maintenance costs, are discussed.

  5. Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Progression During Active Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    cancer or a history of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hypertrophy are excluded. Somewhat surprisingly...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0451 TITLE: Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer...29 September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Progression During Active Surveillance 5b

  6. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening.

  7. LOW RISK PROSTATE CANCER: ACTIVE TREATMENT OR ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašković, Igor

    2015-09-01

    The widely used screening for prostate cancer with prostate specific antigen has resulted in identification of potentially lethal prostate cancers at a much more curable stage and has been associated with significant falls in prostate cancer mortality. In spite of the fact that prostate cancer is one of the deadliest malignancies in men, the advent of sensitive diagnostic testing has also resulted in detection of low risk cancers due to the high incidence of latent prostate cancer in aging men and prolonged natural history of the disease. This, in turn, has entailed the problem of cancer overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Approximately 6 times as many men will be diagnosed with the disease as will die from it. Active surveillance appeared as a response to the clearly documented risks of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of low risk prostate cancer for localized prostate cancer. It entails initial expectant management rather than immediate therapy, with 'curative-intent' treatment deferred until there is evidence that the patient is at an increased risk of disease progression. This approach attempts to balance the risks and side effects of overtreatment against the possibility of disease progression and lost opportunity for cure. A systematic literature review brings current knowledge on the subject.

  8. Active Surveillance of Child Abuse Fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Patricia; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Birth and death certificates were correlated with information in the state Child Abuse and Neglect Registry on 104 abuse-related fatalities. Significant findings included young age of parents at first pregnancy; high rate of single parenthood; and lower educational achievement among mothers. A model for data collection is discussed. (Author/BRM)

  9. Active surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using stool specimens submitted for testing for Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, David B; Francois, Jeannette; Blash, Stephanie; Patel, Gopi; Jenkins, Stephen G; LaBombardi, Vincent; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Srinivasan, Arjun; Calfee, David P

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance to identify asymptomatic carriers of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a recommended strategy for CRE control in healthcare facilities. Active surveillance using stool specimens tested for Clostridium difficile is a relatively low-cost strategy to detect CRE carriers. Further evaluation of this and other risk factor-based active surveillance strategies is warranted.

  10. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Berg, Kasper D; Røder, M Andreas

    2015-01-01

    and costs of AS in patients with localized PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 317 PCa patients were followed in a prospective, single-arm AS cohort. The primary outcomes were number of patient contacts, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, biopsies, hospital admissions due to biopsy complications...... including PSA testing three to four times annually. In total, 38 of the 406 biopsy sessions led to hospital admission and 87 of the 317 patients required treatment for bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). With a median of 3.7 years' follow-up, the total cost of AS was euro (€) 1,240,286. Assuming all patients...

  11. Qualitative insights into how men with low-risk prostate cancer choosing active surveillance negotiate stress and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Emily M; Li, Hsin H; Lyons, Kathleen D; Morley, Christopher P; Formica, Margaret K; Perrapato, Scott D; Irwin, Brian H; Seigne, John D; Hyams, Elias S; Mosher, Terry; Hegel, Mark T; Stewart, Telisa M

    2017-05-08

    Active surveillance is a management strategy for men diagnosed with early-stage, low-risk prostate cancer in which their cancer is monitored and treatment is delayed. This study investigated the primary coping mechanisms for men following the active surveillance treatment plan, with a specific focus on how these men interact with their social network as they negotiate the stress and uncertainty of their diagnosis and treatment approach. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews at two academic institutions located in the northeastern US. Participants include 15 men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer following active surveillance. The decision to follow active surveillance reflects the desire to avoid potentially life-altering side effects associated with active treatment options. Men on active surveillance cope with their prostate cancer diagnosis by both maintaining a sense of control over their daily lives, as well as relying on the support provided them by their social networks and the medical community. Social networks support men on active surveillance by encouraging lifestyle changes and serving as a resource to discuss and ease cancer-related stress. Support systems for men with low-risk prostate cancer do not always interface directly with the medical community. Spousal and social support play important roles in helping men understand and accept their prostate cancer diagnosis and chosen care plan. It may be beneficial to highlight the role of social support in interventions targeting the psychosocial health of men on active surveillance.

  12. Active surveillance strategy for patients with localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Active surveillance - an initial observational strategy - offers a tailored management of patients with localised prostate cancer. The aim of the strategy is to appoint patients with potentially lethal prostate cancer to curatively intended treatment, while patients with slowly evolving...... resulted in a significant risk of being misclassified according to the definition of progression. The interobserver agreement of biopsy histopathology between expert uropathologist was substantial. Still, the pathologists' disagreement would have resulted in different treatment recommendations in up to 10...... with defined final histopathological findings at radical prostatectomy that was perceived as unacceptable for a continued observational strategy. CONCLUSION: The thesis has demonstrated that active surveillance is feasible and reduces the number of patients undergoing curative intended treatment. However...

  13. PET surveillance of patients with ewing sarcomas of the trunk. Must the lower legs be included?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrachimis, A.; Stegger, L.; Weckesser, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Dirksen, U.; Juergens, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin - Paediatrische Haematologie und Onkologie, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Wessling, J. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Wenning, C.; Schober, O. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Muenster (Germany); European Inst. of Molecular Imaging, Westfaelische Wilhelms Univ. Muenster (Germany); Franzius, C. [MR- und PET/CT-Zentrum Bremen Mitte, Bremen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Aim: FDG-PET(/CT) is frequently used in surveillance of Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients. Since ES and PNET (primitive neuroectodermal tumours) may cause peripheral metastases some centers routinely recommend whole body PET acquisition from head to toe what may necessitate repositioning of the patient and thus extending examination time. It is not clear yet whether inclusion of lower leg adds to the diagnostic accuracy of PET scanning, especially in primary tumors of the trunk. Patients, method: 40 patients with ES and PNET of the trunk who were referred for surveillance after primary therapy with complete remission, were evaluated retrospectively: 27 men, 13 women; mean age at diagnosis 16.3 (3-35) years. At the time of diagnosis 28 patients had localized and 12 metastatic disease. Almost all of the patients had undergone a combined chemotherapy with surgery or/and radiotherapy. 156 follow-up PET scans of the legs of these patients were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Only in three (1.9%) of 156 scans a pathologic FDG accumulation was attributed to metastatic disease of the lower extremities. In these cases the observation of metastatic disease in the legs did not alter therapy, since in all three cases a multifocal disease progression was observed. Conclusion: Scanning of the lower legs may be omitted during follow-up in patients in whom the primary tumor was located in the trunk and in whom no clinical signs pointing to metastases in the lower legs are present. This provides a sufficient diagnostic power and a shorter examination time, thus increasing patient comfort and scanner availability. (orig.)

  14. Activity Surveillance and Hawthorne Effect to Prevent Programming Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufian Sufian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Course instructors are facing serious problems in dealing with students who plagiarize programs especially when the number of students in the course is high. Among the proposed approach to handle this problem is by using automatic detection of plagiarism in programming projects. Preventive action is required rather than curing the problem so that programming students get the right message from the beginning. Approach: To address this problem, a surveillance system was proposed to record every programming activity. It is developed in an integrated development environment so that programming activity profile in Java format is created when students are developing their Java program. A non-intrusive and non-experimental setting approach was applied in which hidden data collection is conducted to observe students’ behavior in natural programming setting. Experimental study effect i.e., Hawthorne effect and effect of expectation on subject behavior was exploited as prevention on plagiarism. Surveillance system produces two file types: Activity log to keep programming activity log information and Backup file to save the program writing record. Results: The proposed programming activity surveillance system, DwiCoder presented a programming activity report at the end of each programming session. Students can assess their own progress in developing a program in these three activities: Compilation, execution and modification. The report was presented in a simple and meaningful way to encourage student spend their own time in programming activity. Conclusion: By using DwiCoder, student’s programming activity is continuously monitored and their behavior is under control. This system provides an effective prevention method in tackling plagiarism.

  15. Monitoring activities review of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    The 1992 Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) is directed at the Radiological Environment Surveillance Program (RESP) activities at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of Idaho Engineering Laboratory (INEL). MAR panelists studied RESP documents and discussed their concerns with Environmental Monitoring Unit (EMU) staff and other panel members. These concerns were subsequently consolidated into a collection of recommendations with supporting discussions. Recommendations focus on specific monitoring activities, as well as the overall program. The MAR report also contains pertinent comments that should not require further action.

  16. Online Nonparametric Bayesian Activity Mining and Analysis From Surveillance Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastani, Vahid; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S

    2016-05-01

    A method for online incremental mining of activity patterns from the surveillance video stream is presented in this paper. The framework consists of a learning block in which Dirichlet process mixture model is employed for the incremental clustering of trajectories. Stochastic trajectory pattern models are formed using the Gaussian process regression of the corresponding flow functions. Moreover, a sequential Monte Carlo method based on Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is proposed for tracking and online classification as well as the detection of abnormality during the observation of an object. Experimental results on real surveillance video data are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in different tasks of trajectory clustering, classification, and abnormality detection.

  17. An active vision system for multitarget surveillance in dynamic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtari, Ardevan; Benhabib, Beno

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a novel agent-based method for the dynamic coordinated selection and positioning of active-vision cameras for the simultaneous surveillance of multiple objects-of-interest as they travel through a cluttered environment with a-priori unknown trajectories. The proposed system dynamically adjusts not only the orientation but also the position of the cameras in order to maximize the system's performance by avoiding occlusions and acquiring images with preferred viewing angles. Sensor selection and positioning are accomplished through an agent-based approach. The proposed sensing-system reconfiguration strategy has been verified via simulations and implemented on an experimental prototype setup for automated facial recognition. Both simulations and experimental analyses have shown that the use of dynamic sensors along with an effective online dispatching strategy may tangibly improve the surveillance performance of a sensing system.

  18. Prevalence of Physical Activity in the United States: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2001

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    Barbara E. Ainsworth, PhD, MPH

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The health benefits of regular cardiovascular exercise are well-known. Such exercise, however, has traditionally been defined as vigorous physical activity, such as jogging, swimming, or aerobic dance. Exercise of moderate intensity also promotes health, and many U.S. adults may be experiencing the health benefits of exercise through lifestyle activities of moderate intensity, such as yard work, housework, or walking for transportation. Until recently, public health surveillance systems have not included assessments of this type of physical activity, focusing on exercise of vigorous intensity. We used an enhanced surveillance tool to describe the prevalence and amount of both moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity physical activity among U.S. adults. Methods We analyzed data from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based, random-digit–dialed telephone survey administered to U.S. adults aged 18 years and older (n = 82,834 men and 120,286 women. Physical activity behavior was assessed using questions designed to quantify the frequency of participation in moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activities performed during leisure time or for household chores and transportation. Results Overall, 45% of adults (48% of men and 43% of women were active at recommended levels during nonworking hours (at least 30 minutes five or more days per week in moderate-intensity activities, equivalent to brisk walking, or at least 20 minutes three or more days per week in vigorous activities, equivalent to running, heavy yard work, or aerobic dance. Less than 16% of adults (15% of men and 17% of women reported no moderate or vigorous activity in a usual week. Conclusion Integrating surveillance of lifestyle activities into national systems is possible, and doing so may provide a more accurate representation of the prevalence of recommended levels of physical activity. These results, however, suggest that the majority of U

  19. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network-2 Decades of Achievements, 1996-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao, Olga L; Jones, Timothy F; Vugia, Duc J; Griffin, Patricia M

    2015-09-01

    The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) provides a foundation for food safety policy and illness prevention in the United States. FoodNet conducts active, population-based surveillance at 10 US sites for laboratory-confirmed infections of 9 bacterial and parasitic pathogens transmitted commonly through food and for hemolytic uremic syndrome. Through FoodNet, state and federal scientists collaborate to monitor trends in enteric illnesses, identify their sources, and implement special studies. FoodNet's major contributions include establishment of reliable, active population-based surveillance of enteric diseases; development and implementation of epidemiologic studies to determine risk and protective factors for sporadic enteric infections; population and laboratory surveys that describe the features of gastrointestinal illnesses, medical care-seeking behavior, frequency of eating various foods, and laboratory practices; and development of a surveillance and research platform that can be adapted to address emerging issues. The importance of FoodNet's ongoing contributions probably will grow as clinical, laboratory, and informatics technologies continue changing rapidly.

  20. Active surveillance of prostate cancer in African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.

  1. Measles in Italy, laboratory surveillance activity during 2010

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    Claudia Fortuna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO/Europe developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. This study describes the measles laboratory surveillance activity performed by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità during 2010. METHODS: Urine, oral fluid and capillary blood samples from 211 suspected measles cases arrived to the NRL from different regions of Italy for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Serological and/or molecular assays were performed; after molecular detection, positive samples were sequenced and genotyped. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 85% (180/211 of the specimens were confirmed as measles cases and 139 of these were analyzed phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a co-circulation of D4 and D8 genotypes for the reviewed period.

  2. Active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangma, Chris H; Bul, Meelan; van der Kwast, Theo H; Pickles, Tom; Korfage, Ida J; Hoeks, Caroline M; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Jenster, Guido; Kattan, Michael W; Bellardita, Lara; Carroll, Peter R; Denis, Louis J; Parker, Chris; Roobol, Monique J; Emberton, Mark; Klotz, Laurence H; Rannikko, Antti; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Lane, Janet A; Schröder, Fritz H; Semjonow, Axel; Trock, Bruce J; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2013-03-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is an important management strategy for men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The need for AS is increasing due to the awareness that many PCa are identified that show a low growth potential and therefore are likely to remain clinically asymptomatic during the lifetime of an individual. Currently there is no good method to prevent the overdiagnosis of indolent cancers upfront. During the last decade, several studies on AS around the world have made observations that feed the discussion on how to select and monitor these patients, how to proceed with the research to develop a better and more precise clinical definition of indolent cancers and how to manage men under AS clinically. Furthermore, patients' perspectives have become clearer, and quality of life studies give direction to the practical approach and care for patients and partners. This paper reflects the consensus on the state of the art and the future direction of AS, based on the Inside Track Conference "Active Surveillance for low risk prostate cancer" (Chairmen: C.H. Bangma, NL, and L. Klotz, CA; Co-Chairmen: L.J. Denis, BE, and C. Parker, UK; Scientific Coordinators: M. J. Roobol, NL, and E.W. Steyerberg, NL), organized by the European School of Oncology in collaboration with Europa Uomo in Rotterdam, the Netherlands in January 2012. Topics for discussion were the optimisation of patient selection based on indolent disease definition, the incorporation of therapeutic agents into AS programs, the optimisation of patient care, and the application of emerging technologies and biomarkers.

  3. Risk factors for loss to follow-up during active surveillance of patients with Stage I seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tsuyoshi; Kawai, Koji; Kamba, Tomomi; Inai, Hiromu; Uchida, Kazunori; Miyazaki, Jun; Kamoto, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Osamu; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    To elucidate the patterns and risk factors for loss to follow-up during active surveillance for Stage I seminoma. A total of 425 cases with Stage I seminoma underwent radical orchiectomy from 1985 to 2006 at 25 Japanese institutions, including 22 community hospitals and 3 university hospitals. The post-orchiectomy management selected was active surveillance for 186 patients, adjuvant radiotherapy for 182 patients and chemotherapy for 57 patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the recurrence-free survival and loss to follow-up rate. The risk factors for loss to follow-up were examined using Cox's proportional hazards model with multiple variables. The 2-, 5- and 10-year loss to follow-up rates in the active surveillance group were 14.2, 37.8 and 71.3%, respectively, which were not significantly different in comparison with those in the active surveillance and adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy groups. With regard to the active surveillance group, the multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients younger than 36 years at diagnosis, patients diagnosed since 2000 and patients treated at hospitals that enrolled more than 10 cases had a significant risk for loss to follow-up. No significant correlation between the loss to follow-up rate and pathological risk factors such as tumor size (≤4 versus >4 cm) and rete testis invasion (presence versus absence) was shown. The loss to follow-up rates beyond 5 years were unsatisfactorily high during active surveillance. Further approaches to improve the quality of active surveillance are needed, especially for high-risk patients such as those of younger age.

  4. Obesity and Prostate Cancer: A Focused Update on Active Surveillance, Race, and Molecular Subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Adriana C; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-07-01

    In 2012, we published a detailed review on obesity and prostate cancer. Since then, new studies have brought further understanding regarding the role of obesity in selecting active surveillance candidates, and differing associations between obesity and prostate cancer as a function of race and molecular subtype of prostate cancer. To review new manuscripts on these new concepts for which there were limited data before 2012. A PubMed search from July 2012 to March 2016 was performed using the terms "prostate cancer" and "obesity". Of 450 articles, we included 15 related to these three topics. Among men on active surveillance or candidates for active surveillance, multiple studies suggest that the risk of upgrading is higher for obese men. No study has shown long-term oncologic differences, and the risk of prostate cancer mortality remains low. One study suggested that the link between obesity and prostate cancer risk is stronger among black men; however, other studies found that obesity is correlated with aggressive disease regardless of race. Two studies found that the associations between obesity and prostate cancer (ie, fewer low-grade cancers and yet more aggressive cancers) was limited to men with TMPRSS2-ERG-positive tumors. The past 4 yr has seen much new work on the obesity-prostate cancer link. If confirmed in other studies, these findings provide novel insights into not only the link between obesity and prostate cancer but also prostate cancer biology in general. While their outcomes may be slightly worse, obese men with localized prostate cancer should not be discouraged from active surveillance. Early studies suggest there may be subtypes of patients in whom obesity is more strongly linked to aggressive disease. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Short-term outcomes of the prospective multicentre 'Prostate Cancer Research International : Active Surveillance' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; Vasarainen, Hanna; van der Poel, Henk G.; Vis-Maters, Jenneke J.; Rietbergen, John B.; Pickles, Tom; Cornel, Erik B.; Valdagni, Riccardo; Jaspars, Joris J.; van der Hoeven, John; Staerman, Frederic; Oomens, Eric H. G. M.; Rannikko, Antti; Roemeling, Stijn; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Bangma, Chris H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short-term outcomes of the prospective international Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance ('PRIAS') study (Dutch Trial Register NTR1718), as active surveillance (AS) for early prostate cancer might provide a partial solution to the current overtreatme

  6. Surveillance of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  7. Active epidemiological surveillance in the program of poliomyelitis eradication in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main strategy of the worldwide Program of Poliomyelitis Eradication is based on immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine and active epidemiological surveillance aimed to demonstrate the absence of wild poliovirus circulation. The specification of the surveillance in the program, reporting and investigation of certain syndrome – the acute flaccid paralysis - as a specific feature of surveillance of poliomyelitis, is a new experience both for clinicians and epidemiologists. Along with the achieved results, problems in conducting the active epidemiological surveillance in Serbia, applied measures, and suggestions for improving its quality were presented. This experience might help in implementing the active surveillance for some other diseases that could be prevented by vaccine immunization.

  8. Active surveillance for avian influenza virus, Egypt, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed.

  9. [Active surveillance in prostate cancer and quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez Escrig, Jose L; Romero, Rocio

    2014-06-01

    Active surveillance was born as a therapeutic strategy for a well selected group of patients with low risk prostate cancer with the aim to defer or completely avoid the negative impact of secondary effects of curative therapies. Nevertheless, the patient who chooses this treatment does it at the expense of greater anxiety and doubts about the possible progression of the disease. The main psychological features influencing the quality of life of these patients are, on one hand anxiety, due to the uncertainty and fear to disease progression, and on the other hand, the difficult decision making process. Among the factors that seem to influence the election are: urologist's recommendation, effects on urinary function, age and impact of the therapy on sexual function. In the timorous journey walked, it is recommended to apply psycho-educational programs, with the objective of increasing the perceived control and adaptive confrontation. We propose an intervention with 4 group sessions, the objectives of which would be first to improve the decision making process and diminish the fear to progression and, second to reinforce the information already given at the time of diagnosis and increase the sensation of control, e.g promoting healthy habits.

  10. Real-time Prescription Surveillance and its Application to Monitoring Seasonal Influenza Activity in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Yasushi; Ibuka, Yoko; Kawanohara, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Background Real-time surveillance is fundamental for effective control of disease outbreaks, but the official sentinel surveillance in Japan collects information related to disease activity only weekly and updates it with a 1-week time lag. Objective To report on a prescription surveillance system using electronic records related to prescription drugs that was started in 2008 in Japan, and to evaluate the surveillance system for monitoring influenza activity during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons. Methods We developed an automatic surveillance system using electronic records of prescription drug purchases collected from 5275 pharmacies through the application service provider’s medical claims service. We then applied the system to monitoring influenza activity during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons. The surveillance system collected information related to drugs and patients directly and automatically from the electronic prescription record system, and estimated the number of influenza cases based on the number of prescriptions of anti-influenza virus medication. Then it shared the information related to influenza activity through the Internet with the public on a daily basis. Results During the 2009–2010 influenza season, the number of influenza patients estimated by the prescription surveillance system between the 28th week of 2009 and the 12th week of 2010 was 9,234,289. In the 2010–2011 influenza season, the number of influenza patients between the 36th week of 2010 and the 12th week of 2011 was 7,153,437. The estimated number of influenza cases was highly correlated with that predicted by the official sentinel surveillance (r = .992, P prescription surveillance system produced a good approximation of activity patterns. Conclusions Our prescription surveillance system presents great potential for monitoring influenza activity and for providing early detection of infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:22249906

  11. Situational awareness of influenza activity based on multiple streams of surveillance data using multivariate dynamic linear model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Y Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sources of influenza surveillance data are becoming more available; however integration of these data streams for situational awareness of influenza activity is less explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: We applied multivariate time-series methods to sentinel outpatient and school absenteeism surveillance data in Hong Kong during 2004-2009. School absenteeism data and outpatient surveillance data experienced interruptions due to school holidays and changes in public health guidelines during the pandemic, including school closures and the establishment of special designated flu clinics, which in turn provided 'drop-in' fever counts surveillance data. A multivariate dynamic linear model was used to monitor influenza activity throughout epidemics based on all available data. The inferred level followed influenza activity closely at different times, while the inferred trend was less competent with low influenza activity. Correlations between inferred level and trend from the multivariate model and reference influenza activity, measured by the product of weekly laboratory influenza detection rates and weekly general practitioner influenza-like illness consultation rates, were calculated and compared with those from univariate models. Over the whole study period, there was a significantly higher correlation (ρ = 0.82, p≤0.02 for the inferred trend based on the multivariate model compared to other univariate models, while the inferred trend from the multivariate model performed as well as the best univariate model in the pre-pandemic and the pandemic period. The inferred trend and level from the multivariate model was able to match, if not outperform, the best univariate model albeit with missing data plus drop-in and drop-out of different surveillance data streams. An overall influenza index combining level and trend was constructed to demonstrate another potential use of the method. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the

  12. Surveillance for Neisseria meningitidis Disease Activity and Transmission Using Information Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sohail Ahmed

    Full Text Available While formal reporting, surveillance, and response structures remain essential to protecting public health, a new generation of freely accessible, online, and real-time informatics tools for disease tracking are expanding the ability to raise earlier public awareness of emerging disease threats. The rationale for this study is to test the hypothesis that the HealthMap informatics tools can complement epidemiological data captured by traditional surveillance monitoring systems for meningitis due to Neisseria meningitides (N. meningitides by highlighting severe transmissible disease activity and outbreaks in the United States.Annual analyses of N. meningitides disease alerts captured by HealthMap were compared to epidemiological data captured by the Centers for Disease Control's Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs for N. meningitides. Morbidity and mortality case reports were measured annually from 2010 to 2013 (HealthMap and 2005 to 2012 (ABCs.HealthMap N. meningitides monitoring captured 80-90% of alerts as diagnosed N. meningitides, 5-20% of alerts as suspected cases, and 5-10% of alerts as related news articles. HealthMap disease alert activity for emerging disease threats related to N. meningitides were in agreement with patterns identified historically using traditional surveillance systems. HealthMap's strength lies in its ability to provide a cumulative "snapshot" of weak signals that allows for rapid dissemination of knowledge and earlier public awareness of potential outbreak status while formal testing and confirmation for specific serotypes is ongoing by public health authorities.The underreporting of disease cases in internet-based data streaming makes inadequate any comparison to epidemiological trends illustrated by the more comprehensive ABCs network published by the Centers for Disease Control. However, the expected delays in compiling confirmatory reports by traditional surveillance systems (at the time of writing, ABCs data

  13. [Risk factors in police activities: operational criticism in surveillance programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprani, Fabrizio; Moroni, Maria; Conte, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The planning of specific health surveillance programs for police officers is extremely complex due to difficulty in predictability and variety of occupational hazards. Even in the case of conventional occupational risk factors clearly identified by current regulations, particular working conditions may require specific assessment to effectively identify and quantify the risk of occupational exposure. An extensive program of health surveillance, aimed at promoting overall health and effectiveness of the operators, would be really desirable, in order to help better address a number of risks that cannot be easily predicted. The progressive increase in the average age of the working population and the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases, may also suggest the need for health surveillance procedures designed to verify continued unqualified suitability to police service, providing for the identification of diversified suitability profiles in relation to age and state of health: accordingly, in regard to our field of interest, there is a close link between medico-legal eligibility and occupational medicine.

  14. Role of serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer active surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larissa J Vos; Michele Janoski; Keith Wachowicz; Atiyah Yahya; Oleksandr Boychak; John Amanie; Nadeem Pervez; Matthew B Parliament; Edith Pituskin; B Gino Fallone; Nawaid Usmani

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To examine whether addition of 3T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging(mp MRI)to an active surveillance protocol could detect aggressive or progressive prostate cancer.METHODS:Twenty-three patients with low risk disease were enrolled on this active surveillance study,all of which had Gleason score 6 or less disease.All patients had clinical assessments,including digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen(PSA)testing,every 6 mo with annual 3T mp MRI scans with gadolinium contrast and minimum sextant prostate biopsies.The MRI images were anonymized of patient identifiers and clinical information and each scan underwentradiological review without the other results known.Descriptive statistics for demographics and follow-up as well as the sensitivity and specificity of mp MRI to identify prostate cancer and progressive disease were calculated.RESULTS:During follow-up(median 24.8 mo)11 of 23 patients with low-risk prostate cancer had disease progression and were taken off study to receive definitive treatment.Disease progression was identified through upstaging of Gleason score on subsequent biopsies for all 11 patients with only 2 patients also having a PSA doubling time of less than 2 years.All 23 patients had biopsy confirmed prostate cancer but only 10 had a positive index of suspicion on mp MRI scans at baseline(43.5% sensitivity).Aggressive disease prediction from baseline mpM RI scans had satisfactory specificity(81.8%)but low sensitivity(58.3%).Twentytwo patients had serial mp MRI scans and evidence of disease progression was seen for 3 patients all of whom had upstaging of Gleason score on biopsy(30% specificity and 100% sensitivity).CONCLUSION:Addition of mp MRI imaging in active surveillance decision making may help in identifying aggressive disease amongst men with indolent prostate cancer earlier than traditional methods.

  15. Association Between User-Generated Commuting Data and Population-Representative Active Commuting Surveillance Data - Four Cities, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Ussery, Emily N; Riordan, Brian; Wendel, Arthur M

    2016-09-16

    Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users. CDC analyzed the association between GPS-based commuting data from a company that allows tracking of activity with a mobile application (Strava, Inc., San Francisco, California) and population-representative commuting data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) (3) for four U.S. cities. The level of analysis was the Census block group. The number of GPS-tracked commuters in Strava was associated with the number of ACS active commuters (Spearman's rho = 0.60), suggesting block groups were ranked similarly based on these distinct but related measurements. The correlation was higher in high population density areas. User-generated active transportation data might complement traditional surveillance systems by providing near real-time, location-specific information on where active transportation occurs.

  16. Active case surveillance, passive case surveillance and asymptomatic malaria parasite screening illustrate different age distribution, spatial clustering and seasonality in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guofa; Afrane, Yaw A; Malla, Sameer; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-01-28

    Epidemiological characteristics of clinical malaria may differ from asymptomatic infections, thus both cross-sectional parasite screening and longitudinal clinical case surveillance are necessary for malaria transmission monitoring and control. In order to monitor malaria transmission, surveillance of clinical malaria from two years of active case surveillance in three cohorts of 6,750 individuals, asymptomatic parasitaemia cases of 5,300 individuals and clinical cases in three study areas were carried out in the western Kenyan highlands in 2009 and 2010. Age distribution, seasonality and spatial clustering were analysed. The results revealed a significant difference in the age distribution of clinical cases between passive and active case surveillance, and between clinical case rate and asymptomatic parasite rate. The number of reported cases from health facilities significantly underestimated clinical malaria incidence. The increase in asymptomatic parasite prevalence from low to high transmission seasons was significantly higher for infants (malaria cases emerged in the uphill areas during the peak season. Different surveillance methods revealed different characteristics of malaria infections. The new transmission hotspots identified during the peak season with only active case surveillance is an important observation with clear implications in the context of malaria elimination. Both mass parasite screening and active case surveillance are essential for malaria transmission monitoring and control.

  17. Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Progression During Active Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    genetic regulation , enzyme activity and metabolic reactions in a dynamic profile of the biological state of a tissue (3). Our industry contractor...Payment and Remuneration a. Detail compensation for participants including possible total compensation, proposed bonus, and any proposed reductions...or penalties for not completing the protocol. Participants did not receive payment or remuneration for their original donation of specimens or consent

  18. European active surveillance study of women taking HRT (EURAS-HRT: study protocol [NCT00214903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinemann Lothar AJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The post marketing safety surveillance program for a drug containing a new chemical entity should assess both, the safety outcomes that relate specifically to the targeted population, as well as those that could potentially be related to special pharmacological characteristics of the drug. Active safety surveillance using valid epidemiological study designs has been proven to be a pertinent and reliable method to approach this endeavor. Methods/design The primary objective of the study is to compare incidence rates of serious adverse events in users of all types of newly prescribed oral HRT products. This active surveillance study will assess pertinent cardiovascular outcomes - in particular venous and arterial thromboembolism - and other serious adverse events (SAEs in new HRT users over a period of several years. One product under surveillance is Angeliq®, which contains the novel progestagen drospirenone (DRSP combined with estradiol. In addition, all other oral combined HRT products with a novel progestagen or estrogen that will be newly marketed during the study period will be studied. These new HRT products will be compared with established HRT products. The combined cohort will include at least 30,000 women recruited in several European countries. At least 90,000 years of observation are expected from the field work which started in early 2002 and will end around 2008. The participating women will complete a baseline survey using a self-administered questionnaire to describe the baseline risk. After 6 months, 12 months, and then on an annual basis, they will fill out a questionnaire in which they record complaints and events during the use of the prescribed HRTs. All adverse outcomes occurring during the observational period will be evaluated. Discussion A complete lifetime medical history, individually validated SAEs over time, and a low loss to follow-up rate are essential for a robust safety assessment. Therefore

  19. An overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.H.; Chew, E.W.; Hedahl, T.G.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG&G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities radiation is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, warer, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL.

  20. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  1. Activity-Based Scene Decomposition for Topology Inference of Video Surveillance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The topology inference is the study of spatial and temporal relationships among cameras within a video surveillance network. We propose a novel approach to understand activities based on the visual coverage of a video surveillance network. In our approach, an optimal camera placement scheme is firstly presented by using a binary integer programming algorithm in order to maximize the surveillance coverage. Then, each camera view is decomposed into regions based on the Histograms of Color Optical Flow (HCOF, according to the spatial-temporal distribution of activity patterns observed in a training set of video sequences. We conduct experiments by using hours of video sequences captured at an office building with seven camera views, all of which are sparse scenes with complex activities. The results of real scene experiment show that the features of histograms of color optic flow offer important contextual information for spatial and temporal topology inference of a camera network.

  2. The importance of perceived stress management skills for patients with prostate cancer in active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Betina; Bustillo, Natalie E; Antoni, Michael H; Lechner, Suzanne C; Dahn, Jason; Kava, Bruce; Penedo, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about whether and how stress management skills may improve adjustment for men diagnosed with prostate cancer who opt for active surveillance. This study examined whether two types of perceived stress management skills, specifically the ability to relax and confidence in coping, moderated the relationship between prostate cancer (PC) concerns and psychological distress. Participants were 71 ethnically diverse men in active surveillance. Coping confidence moderated the relationship between PC concerns and intrusive thoughts (p .05. Coping confidence also moderated the relationship between PC treatment concerns (a subscale of PC concerns) and intrusive thoughts. At low levels of coping confidence, PC treatment concerns was positively associated with intrusive thoughts, β = .73, p .05. Findings underscore the importance of interventions aimed at improving coping in men undergoing active surveillance.

  3. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems with certain geographical...

  4. Annual report on surveillance and maintenance activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1995, the sites and facilities from both the Remedial Action (RA) and Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) programs were combined to form the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program. Surveillance and Maintenance activities were conducted throughout FY 1996 at the RA facilities. Overall, the RA S and M Program consists of approximately 650 acres that include 14 waste area groupings with approximately 200 sites. These sites include 46 major facilities, several leak and contaminated soil sites, 38 inactive tanks, approximately 50 environmental study areas and approximately 2,973 wells and boreholes. Site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the RA S and M Program in accordance with the established S and M FY 1996 Incentive Task Order (ITO).

  5. Frequent observation: sexualities, self-surveillance, confession and the construction of the active patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, A

    2000-06-01

    Following Foucault's analyses of the development of the disciplinary power of the medical gaze, this paper describes the themes that are relocating the 'active patient' as the central object of health scrutiny by professionals. A key element in these discourses has been the deployment of power through disciplinary knowledge and techniques of social control through ritual forms of confession, thereby positing the patient/client as the subject of self-surveillance. The individual is also engaged their own sexuality, performativity and 'truths' of sexual experience. These Foucauldian insights have constructed the notion of surveillance medicine, whereby with the assistance of professional technologies, not only the patient's body but also the 'self' can be probed through incitement to confess. However, the actor is not docile; resistances to disciplinary techniques are evident and within the professional practices of the clinic, there is resistance to the power of the erotic. The paper draws on recent research on the social construction of male sexualities in the fields of genitourinary practice, and explores how the ceremonial practices of the clinic engage with the rise of surveillance medicine and the medicalisation of everyday life. The individual actor is exhorted to engage in increased sexual and medical self-surveillance and to be recruited in the project of becoming an 'active patient'. It concludes with an examination of some of the implications this surveillance of self may have for practitioners in terms of power and the professional lens through which the sexualised, symbolic body is viewed.

  6. Active surveillance of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in endemic areas in rural Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Luna Tedesqui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL, is endemic in Bolivia. We describe the results of active surveillance of ATL from 2001 to 2006 and assess demographic data related to ATL epidemiology in the Yungas valleys. METHODS: Community-based active ATL surveillance was performed by the institutions SERVIR, CÁRITAS, and the Health Services Department of La Paz, whose files were reviewed retrospectively. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess demographic data in two communities. RESULTS: Two thousand nine hundred nine cases of ATL were detected from 2001 to 2006: 2,488 (85.5% corresponded to LCL and 421 (14.5% to MCL. A reduction in the proportion of mucosal cases was observed between 2001 and 2006. The proportion of MCL cases increased with age and was higher among males (15.5% versus 12.1%, p=0.018. The rate of positivity via direct observation of the parasite in dermal scrapings and in parasite cultivation was significantly higher for LCL than for MCL (p<0.001 and p=0.009, respectively. The rate of reactivity in the leishmanin skin test was higher in the group with mucosal lesions (p=0.012. The cross-sectional survey showed that 40% of the families had emigrated from the Altiplano. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to undertake continuous case detection of ATL in the area, where the disease presents a high rate of mucosal cases. Increasing incidence seems to be associated with immigration and continuous deforestation to expand the crop-growing areas.

  7. Monitoring influenza activity in the United States: a comparison of traditional surveillance systems with Google Flu Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Ortiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Influenza activity data from 2003-04 through 2007-08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance, and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79. The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89. Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003-04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87 or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003-04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior.

  8. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  9. Development and application of the active surveillance of pathogens microarray to monitor bacterial gene flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinds Jason

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human and animal health is constantly under threat by emerging pathogens that have recently acquired genetic determinants that enhance their survival, transmissibility and virulence. We describe the construction and development of an Active Surveillance of Pathogens (ASP oligonucleotide microarray, designed to 'actively survey' the genome of a given bacterial pathogen for virulence-associated genes. Results The microarray consists of 4958 reporters from 151 bacterial species and include genes for the identification of individual bacterial species as well as mobile genetic elements (transposons, plasmid and phage, virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes. The ASP microarray was validated with nineteen bacterial pathogens species, including Francisella tularensis, Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The ASP microarray identified these bacteria, and provided information on potential antibiotic resistance (eg sufamethoxazole resistance and sulfonamide resistance and virulence determinants including genes likely to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer (e.g. an alpha-haemolysin. Conclusion The ASP microarray has potential in the clinic as a diagnostic tool, as a research tool for both known and emerging pathogens, and as an early warning system for pathogenic bacteria that have been recently modified either naturally or deliberately.

  10. Expansion of syndromic vaccine preventable disease surveillance to include bacterial meningitis and Japanese encephalitis: evaluation of adapting polio and measles laboratory networks in Bangladesh, China and India, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Hyde, Terri B; Johnson, Barbara W; Fischer, Marc; Mayer, Leonard W; Clark, Thomas A; Pallansch, Mark A; Yin, Zundong; Zuo, Shuyan; Hadler, Stephen C; Diorditsa, Serguey; Hasan, A S M Mainul; Bose, Anindya S; Dietz, Vance

    2015-02-25

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis with laboratory confirmation has been a key strategy in the global polio eradication initiative, and the laboratory platform established for polio testing has been expanded in many countries to include surveillance for cases of febrile rash illness to identify measles and rubella cases. Vaccine-preventable disease surveillance is essential to detect outbreaks, define disease burden, guide vaccination strategies and assess immunization impact. Vaccines now exist to prevent Japanese encephalitis (JE) and some etiologies of bacterial meningitis. We evaluated the feasibility of expanding polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks to detect bacterial meningitis and JE, using surveillance for acute meningitis-encephalitis syndrome in Bangladesh and China and acute encephalitis syndrome in India. We developed nine syndromic surveillance performance indicators based on international surveillance guidelines and calculated scores using supervisory visit reports, annual reports, and case-based surveillance data. Scores, variable by country and targeted disease, were highest for the presence of national guidelines, sustainability, training, availability of JE laboratory resources, and effectiveness of using polio-measles networks for JE surveillance. Scores for effectiveness of building on polio-measles networks for bacterial meningitis surveillance and specimen referral were the lowest, because of differences in specimens and techniques. Polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks provided useful infrastructure for establishing syndromic surveillance and building capacity for JE diagnosis, but were less applicable for bacterial meningitis. Laboratory-supported surveillance for vaccine-preventable bacterial diseases will require substantial technical and financial support to enhance local diagnostic capacity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Lessons learned during active epidemiological surveillance of Ebola and Marburg viral hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaranga, Yokouide; Kone, Mamadou Lamine; Formenty, Pierre; Libama, Francois; Boumandouki, Paul; Woodfill, Celia J I; Sow, Idrissa; Duale, Sambe; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Yada, Adamou

    2010-03-01

    To review epidemiological surveillance approaches used during Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Africa in the past fifteen years. Overall, 26 hemorrhagic epidemic outbreaks have been registered in 12 countries; 18 caused by the Ebola virus and eight by the Marburg virus. About 2551 cases have been reported, among which 268 were health workers (9,3%). Based on articles and epidemic management reports, this review analyses surveillance approaches, route of introduction of the virus into the population (urban and rural), the collaboration between the human health sector and the wildlife sector and factors that have affected epidemic management. Several factors affecting the epidemiological surveillance during Ebola and Marburg viruses hemorrhagic epidemics have been observed. During epidemics in rural settings, outbreak investigations have shown multiple introductions of the virus into the human population through wildlife. In contrast, during epidemics in urban settings a single introduction of the virus in the community was responsible for the epidemic. Active surveillance is key to containing outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg viruses Collaboration with those in charge of the conservation of wildlife is essential for the early detection of viral hemorrhagic fever epidemics. Hemorrhagic fever epidemics caused by Ebola and Marburg viruses are occurring more and more frequently in Sub-Saharan Africa and only an adapted epidemiological surveillance system will allow for early detection and effective response.

  12. Meaningful end points and outcomes in men on active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Christopher J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Carroll, Peter R

    2014-05-01

    Active surveillance is a management strategy for early-stage prostate cancer designed to balance early detection of aggressive disease and overtreatment of indolent disease. We evaluate recently reported outcomes and discuss the potentially most important endpoints for such an approach. The past 2 years have seen the publication of two trials of watchful waiting versus immediate treatment and updates of multiple active surveillance cohorts for men with early-stage prostate cancer. The watchful waiting trials demonstrated a small potential mortality benefit to immediate treatment when applied to all risk levels (6% absolute difference at 15 years), emphasizing the importance of a risk-adapted strategy. In reported active surveillance cohorts, prostate cancer death and metastasis remain rare events. Intermediate outcomes such as progression to treatment and upgrading/upstaging on final disease appear consistent among cohorts, but must be interpreted with caution when compared with historical controls of immediate treatment because of potential selection bias. The safety of active surveillance has been reinforced by recent reports. Accumulation of additional data on men with intermediate risk cancer and development and validation of new biomarkers of risk will allow refined and, likely, expanded use of this approach.

  13. Rule-based versus probabilistic selection for active surveillance using three definitions of insignificant prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); C.H. Bangma (Chris); R.C.N. van den Bergh (Roderick); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); D. Nieboer (Daan); Godtman, R; J. Hugosson (Jonas); van der Kwast, T; E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo study whether probabilistic selection by the use of a nomogram could improve patient selection for active surveillance (AS) compared to the various sets of rule-based AS inclusion criteria currently used. We studied Dutch and Swedish patients participating in the European Randomized s

  14. [The limits and possibilities of the Schistosomiasis Information System (SISPCE) for surveillance and control activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Leila Maria Mattos de; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa; Magalhães, Rosely de Oliveira; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the limits and possibilities of the Information System in the Schistosomiasis Control Program (SISPCE) for characterization and surveillance of the disease at the local level. The data were aggregated to calculate epidemiological indicators such as the program's coverage and intensity of mansoni schistosomiasis infection in the endemic municipalities (counties) in Bahia State, Brazil, from 1999 to 2005. The results indicate that few municipalities have the program activities properly in place, with insufficient records in the system and lack of reporting for characterizing the endemic or providing feedback for proper surveillance and control. However, the SISPCE is still a step forward in schistosomiasis surveillance, requiring systematic action by the municipalities and maintaining a continuous data flow to orient health system managers. It is necessary to incorporate local communities as units of analysis, given their unique characteristics in the production and reproduction of schistosomiasis.

  15. Active surveillance and control programme for Salmonella Dublin in Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Rattenborg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    surveillance systems. Register data might be useful for design of effective surveillance programmes for Salmonella Dublin in cattle in the future. Statistical analysis of register-based variables confirmed previously known risk factors for becoming test-positive (i.e. purchase of animals from test......This study illustrates how prevalence and incidence of Salmonella Dublin in cattle has been markedly reduced in dairy herds during active surveillance and a control programme targeting infected herds in Denmark from 2002 to 2010. The results suggest that this might by a good alternative to passive......-positive herds, number of cattle in test-positive neighbouring herds, herd size and season), but also pointed out additional factors affecting the risk of dairy herds changing status from test-negative to test-positive (indicative of new or recurrent infection). Increasing geometric cell count measured through...

  16. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  17. Using a data fusion-based activity recognition framework to determine surveillance system requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, WH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available activity recognition framework for maritime applications (Adapted from [20]) III. APPLYING THE FRAMEWORK A. Use Cases Use cases [12] are valuable means of capturing transactions between users and systems. In the maritime surveillance environment, a.... D. Vessel Capabilities In terms of capabilities, the design, deployment and devel- opment sub-elements have to be estimated from information and data sources. To establish that a vessel is engaged in illegal fishing activities, basic criteria...

  18. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  19. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective.

  20. ERG Protein Expression in Diagnostic Specimens Is Associated with Increased Risk of Progression During Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Vainer, Ben; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compelling biomarkers identifying prostate cancer patients with a high risk of progression during active surveillance (AS) are needed. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between ERG expression at diagnosis and the risk of progression during AS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS......: This study included 265 patients followed on AS with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements, clinical examinations, and 10-12 core rebiopsies from 2002 to 2012 in a prospectively maintained database. ERG immunohistochemical staining was performed on diagnostic paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed sections...

  1. Repeated biopsies in patients with prostate cancer on active surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Marcussen, Niels; Berg, Kasper D;

    2015-01-01

    were included. The International Society of Urological Pathology 2005 Gleason scoring system was used for the histopathological assessment of all biopsies. Three different definitions of histopathological progression were applied. Unweighted and linear weighted Kappa (κ) statistics were used to compare...... the interobserver agreement. RESULTS: The overall Gleason score agreement was 68.8% with a weighted κ of 0.670. The interobserver agreement was 79.6% for meeting the AS selection criteria. According to the three progression definitions applied, overall agreement was between 80.7% and 89.0% with weighted κ values...

  2. Dengue incidence in urban and rural Cambodia: results from population-based active fever surveillance, 2006-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirenda Vong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19-year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006-2008. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV infections for incidences of 13.4-57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons and lowest among the 16-to-19-year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons. The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5-211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5. During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The large-scale active surveillance study for dengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly

  3. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darian Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Prostate Health Index (phi has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer.

  4. Fluoroquinolone resistance in the rectal carriage of men in an active surveillance cohort: longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jason E; Landis, Patricia; Trock, Bruce J; Patel, Hiten D; Ball, Mark W; Auwaerter, Paul G; Schaeffer, Edward; Carter, H Ballentine

    2015-02-01

    Rectal swabs can identify men with fluoroquinolone resistant bacteria and decrease the infection rate after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy by targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis. We evaluated the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance in an active surveillance cohort with attention to factors associated with resistance and changes in resistance with time. We evaluated 416 men with prostate cancer on active surveillance who underwent rectal swabs to assess the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance compared to that in men undergoing diagnostic transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. The chi-square test and Student t-test were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Poisson regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. On the initial swab fluoroquinolone resistance was found in 95 of 416 men (22.8%) on active surveillance compared to 54 of 221 (24.4%) in the diagnostic biopsy cohort (p = 0.675). Diabetes was found in 4.0% of the fluoroquinolone sensitive group vs 14.7% of the resistant group (p fluoroquinolone. Resistance is significantly associated with diabetes but the number of prior biopsies is not. Men with fluoroquinolone resistant flora tend to remain resistant with time. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Natural History and Predictors for Intervention in Patients with Small Renal Mass Undergoing Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Bahouth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe the natural history of small renal mass on active surveillance and identify parameters that could help in predicting the need for intervention in patients with small renal masses undergoing active surveillance. We also discuss the need for renal biopsy in the management of these patients. Methods. A retrospective analysis of 78 renal masses ≤4 cm diagnosed at our Urology Department at Bnai Zion Medical Center between September 2003 and March 2012. Results. Seventy patients with 78 small renal masses were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 68 years (47–89. The mean follow-up period was 34 months (12–112. In 54 of 78 masses there was a growth of at least 2 mm between imaging on last available follow-up and diagnosis. Eight of the 54 (15% masses which grew in size underwent a nephron-sparing surgery, of which two were oncocytomas and six were renal cell carcinoma. Growth rate and mass diameter on diagnosis were significantly greater in the group of patients who underwent a surgery. Conclusions. Small renal masses might eventually be managed by active surveillance without compromising survival or surgical approach. All masses that were eventually excised underwent a nephron-sparing surgery. None of the patients developed metastases.

  6. Reporting Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: The PRECISE Recommendations-A Report of a European School of Oncology Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Caroline M; Giganti, Francesco; Albertsen, Peter; Allen, Clare; Bangma, Chris; Briganti, Alberto; Carroll, Peter; Haider, Masoom; Kasivisvanathan, Veeru; Kirkham, Alex; Klotz, Laurence; Ouzzane, Adil; Padhani, Anwar R; Panebianco, Valeria; Pinto, Peter; Puech, Philippe; Rannikko, Antti; Renard-Penna, Raphaele; Touijer, Karim; Turkbey, Baris; van Poppel, Heinrik; Valdagni, Riccardo; Walz, Jochen; Schoots, Ivo

    2017-04-01

    Published data on prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during follow-up of men on active surveillance are lacking. Current guidelines for prostate MRI reporting concentrate on prostate cancer (PCa) detection and staging. A standardised approach to prostate MRI reporting for active surveillance will facilitate the robust collection of evidence in this newly developing area. To develop preliminary recommendations for reporting of individual MRI studies in men on active surveillance and for researchers reporting the outcomes of cohorts of men having MRI on active surveillance. The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used. Experts in urology, radiology, and radiation oncology developed a set of 394 statements relevant to prostate MRI reporting in men on active surveillance for PCa. Each statement was scored for agreement on a 9-point scale by each panellist prior to a panel meeting. Each statement was discussed and rescored at the meeting. Measures of agreement and consensus were calculated for each statement. The most important statements, derived from both group discussion and scores of agreement and consensus, were used to create the Prostate Cancer Radiological Estimation of Change in Sequential Evaluation (PRECISE) checklist and case report form. Key recommendations include reporting the index lesion size using absolute values at baseline and at each subsequent MRI. Radiologists should assess the likelihood of true change over time (ie, change in size or change in lesion characteristics on one or more sequences) on a 1-5 scale. A checklist of items for reporting a cohort of men on active surveillance was developed. These items were developed based on expert consensus in many areas in which data are lacking, and they are expected to develop and change as evidence is accrued. The PRECISE recommendations are designed to facilitate the development of a robust evidence database for documenting changes in prostate MRI findings over time of men on active

  7. Identifying barriers to patient acceptance of active surveillance: content analysis of online patient communications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V Mishra

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Qualitative research aimed at identifying patient acceptance of active surveillance (AS has been identified as a public health research priority. The primary objective of this study was to determine if analysis of a large-sample of anonymous internet conversations (ICs could be utilized to identify unmet public needs regarding AS. METHODS: English-language ICs regarding prostate cancer (PC treatment with AS from 2002-12 were identified using a novel internet search methodology. Web spiders were developed to mine, aggregate, and analyze content from the world-wide-web for ICs centered on AS. Collection of ICs was not restricted to any specific geographic region of origin. NLP was used to evaluate content and perform a sentiment analysis. Conversations were scored as positive, negative, or neutral. A sentiment index (SI was subsequently calculated according to the following formula to compare temporal trends in public sentiment towards AS: [(# Positive IC/#Total IC-(#Negative IC/#Total IC x 100]. RESULTS: A total of 464 ICs were identified. Sentiment increased from -13 to +2 over the study period. The increase sentiment has been driven by increased patient emphasis on quality-of-life factors and endorsement of AS by national medical organizations. Unmet needs identified in these ICs include: a gap between quantitative data regarding long-term outcomes with AS vs. conventional treatments, desire for treatment information from an unbiased specialist, and absence of public role models managed with AS. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential utility of online patient communications to provide insight into patient preferences and decision-making. Based on our findings, we recommend that multidisciplinary clinics consider including an unbiased specialist to present treatment options and that future decision tools for AS include quantitative data regarding outcomes after AS.

  8. Brucella abortus surveillance of cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and a case for active disease surveillance as a training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    There have been no surveys of the cattle population for brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) for more than 15 years. This study used disease surveillance as a capacity building training tool and to examine some of the constraints that impede surveillance in PICTs. The study also developed and implemented a series of surveys for detecting antibodies to B. abortus in cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands contributing to OIE requirements. The findings indicated lack of funds, lack of technical capacity, shortage of veterinarians, high turnover of in-country officials and lack of awareness on the impacts of animal diseases on public health that were constraining active disease surveillance. During the development and implementation of the surveys, constraints highlighted were outdated census data on farm numbers and cattle population, lack of funds for mobilisation of officials to carry out the surveys, lack of equipment for collecting and processing samples, lack of staff knowledge on blood sampling, geographical difficulties and security in accessing farms. Some of the reasons why these were constraints are discussed with likely solutions presented. The detection surveys had the objectives of building capacity for the country officials and demonstrating freedom from brucellosis in cattle for PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands all demonstrated freedom from bovine brucellosis in the areas surveyed using the indirect ELISA test. Fiji had an outbreak of brucellosis, and the objective was to determine its distribution and prevalence on untested farms. The Muaniweni district surveyed during the training had a 95 % confidence interval for true prevalence between 1.66 and 5.45 %. The study showed that active disease surveillance could be used as a tool for training officials thus, improves surveillance capacity in resource poor countries.

  9. Inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The authors conducted an inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. The purpose of their inspection was to determine if a covert video surveillance operation conducted at Bonneville Power Administration was consistent with Department of Energy policies and procedures and other applicable regulations and procedures, and to determine if administrative leave policies and procedures used at Bonneville Power Administration in a specific instance were consistent with Department of Energy requirements and the Code of Federal Regulations. This inspection focused on a specific incident that occurred in 1989 on the 5th floor of the BPA Headquarters Building located in Portland, Oregon. The incident involved the soiling of an employee`s personal property with what appeared to be urine.

  10. Regional Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Among Critically Ill Children in a State With Mandated Active Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Rosie D; Trick, William E; Hayden, Mary K; Lolans, Karen; Fogg, Louis; Logan, Latania K; Shulman, Stanford T; Weinstein, Robert A; Lin, Michael Y

    2016-12-01

    In theory, active surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) reduces MRSA spread by identifying all MRSA-colonized patients and placing them under contact precautions. In October 2007, Illinois mandated active MRSA surveillance in all intensive care units, including neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). We evaluated MRSA trends in a large metropolitan region in the wake of this law. Chicago hospitals with a NICU or PICU were recruited for 8 single-day point prevalence surveys that occurred twice-yearly between June 2008 and July 2011 and then yearly in 2012 to 2013. Samples from all patients were cultured for MRSA (nose and umbilicus for neonates, nose and groin for pediatric patients). Hospital-reported admission MRSA-screening results also were obtained. Point prevalence cultures were screened for MRSA by using broth enrichment, chromogenic agar, and standard confirmatory methods. All eligible hospitals (N = 10) participated (10 NICUs, 6 PICUs). Hospital-reported adherence to state-mandated MRSA screening at admission was high (95% for NICUs, 94% for PICUs). From serial point prevalence surveys, overall MRSA prevalences in the NICUs and PICUs were 4.2% (89 of 2101) and 5.7% (36 of 632), respectively. MRSA colonization prevalences were unchanged in the NICUs (year-over-year risk ratio [RR], 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-1.12]; P = .45) and trended toward an increase in the PICUs (RR, 1.25 [95% CI, 0.72-2.12]; P = .053). We estimated that 81% and 40% of MRSA-positive patients in the NICUs and PICUs, respectively, had newly acquired MRSA. In a region with mandated active MRSA surveillance, we found ongoing unchanged rates of MRSA colonization and acquisition among NICU and PICU patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Development of an active risk-based surveillance strategy for avian influenza in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, E; Alfonso, P; Ippoliti, C; Abeledo, M; Calistri, P; Blanco, P; Conte, A; Sánchez, B; Fonseca, O; Percedo, M; Pérez, A; Fernández, O; Giovannini, A

    2014-09-01

    The authors designed a risk-based approach to the selection of poultry flocks to be sampled in order to further improve the sensitivity of avian influenza (AI) active surveillance programme in Cuba. The study focused on the western region of Cuba, which harbours nearly 70% of national poultry holdings and comprise several wetlands where migratory waterfowl settle (migratory waterfowl settlements - MWS). The model took into account the potential risk of commercial poultry farms in western Cuba contracting from migratory waterfowl of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes through dispersion for pasturing of migratory birds around the MWS. We computed spatial risk index by geographical analysis with Python scripts in ESRI(®) ArcGIS 10 on data projected in the reference system NAD 1927-UTM17. Farms located closer to MWS had the highest values for the risk indicator pj and in total 31 farms were chosen for targeted surveillance during the risk period. The authors proposed to start active surveillance in the study area 3 weeks after the onset of Anseriformes migration, with additional sampling repeated twice in the same selected poultry farms at 15 days interval (Comin et al., 2012; EFSA, 2008) to cover the whole migration season. In this way, the antibody detectability would be favoured in case of either a posterior AI introduction or enhancement of a previous seroprevalence under the sensitivity level. The model identified the areas with higher risk for AIV introduction from MW, aiming at selecting poultry premises for the application of risk-based surveillance. Given the infrequency of HPAI introduction into domestic poultry populations and the relative paucity of occurrences of LPAI epidemics, the evaluation of the effectiveness of this approach would require its application for several migration seasons to allow the collection of sufficient reliable data.

  12. Pathological findings following radical prostatectomy in patients who are candidates for active surveillance: impact of varying PSA levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Il Kang; Thomas L.Jang; Jeongyun Jeong; Eun Young Choi; Kelly Johnson; Dong Hyeon Lee; Wun-Jae Kim; Isaac Yi Kim1

    2011-01-01

    Active surveillance is an acceptable treatment option in men with a low-risk prostate cancer.In the present study,we have retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 509 men who fit the criteria for active surveillance but selected radical prostatectomy.Then,the impact of varying prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels on the risk of upstaging and upgrading in these patients was assessed.Pathological characteristics of patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria under three active surveillance criteria-those of the University of California-San Francisco,the National Cancer Institute and the European Association of Urology-were examined.The proportion of men who were deemed candidates for active surveillance but were subsequently upstaged or upgraded was determined.Of 509 patients,186 (36.5%),132 (25.9%) and 88 (17.3%) men fulfilled the active surveillance criteria,respectively.Upgrading (Gleason scores 7-10) ranged from 32.8% to 38.6%,while upstaging ( ≥ pT3) ranged from 10.2% to 12.5%,depending on the three active surveillance criteria.After a median follow-up of 24 months,three patients developed a biochemical recurrence.When the impact of varying PSA levels was examined using a test for trend analysis in the context of PSA for each protocol,rates of upstaging were lower in men with PSA <4 ng ml-1.However,there was no impact of varying PSA levels on upgrading.In conclusion,commonly used active surveillance protocols carry the risks of upgrading and upstaging.More reliable and accurate markers are needed to better stratify the risks of men who are appropriate candidates for active surveillance.

  13. Anthropogenic activities including pollution and contamination of coastal marine environment.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    to environmental contamination massive changes are reported due to various anthropogenic problem due to environmental contamination massive cahnges are reported due to various anthropogenic activities such as changes in temperatures regime and radioactive...

  14. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  15. Wideband CMOS low noise amplifier including an active balun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaakmeer, S.C.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    An inductorless LNA with active balun is proposed for multi-standard radio applications between 100MHz and 6GHz [1]. It exploits a combination of a common-gate (CG) stage and an common-source (CS) stage with replica biasing to maximize balanced operation, while simultaneously canceling the noise and

  16. Tools to identify the men with prostate cancer most appropriate for active surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Getzenberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of effort is underway in order to identify those men with prostate cancer felicitous for active surveillance with greater precision than that afforded to us today. In the manuscript by Irshad et al. the authors evaluate a novel set of genes associated with senescence and aging as tools that can provide guidance regarding the indolent nature of an individual's prostate cancer with validation using both mRNA and protein analyses. While additional studies are required to understand the full impact of these findings, the innovative approach taken enhances our understanding of distinct phenotypes of prostate cancer.

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Sexual Dysfunction in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane M. Pearce, MD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA‐SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. Pearce SM, Wang CHE, Victorson DE, Helfand BT, Novakovic KR, Brendler CB, and Albaugh JA. A longitudinal study of predictors of sexual dysfunction in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. Sex Med 2015;3:156–164.

  18. Dengue Incidence in Urban and Rural Cambodia: Results from Population-Based Active Fever Surveillance, 2006–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Sirenda; Khieu, Virak; Glass, Olivier; Ly, Sowath; Duong, Veasna; Huy, Rekol; Ngan, Chantha; Wichmann, Ole; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S.; Buchy, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19–year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006–2008. Methods and Findings Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infections for incidences of 13.4–57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons) and lowest among the 16-to-19–year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons). The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5–211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5). During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, pdengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly in preschool children and that disease incidence was high in both rural

  19. Dengue incidence in urban and rural Cambodia: results from population-based active fever surveillance, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Sirenda; Khieu, Virak; Glass, Olivier; Ly, Sowath; Duong, Veasna; Huy, Rekol; Ngan, Chantha; Wichmann, Ole; Letson, G William; Margolis, Harold S; Buchy, Philippe

    2010-11-30

    Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19-year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006-2008. Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infections for incidences of 13.4-57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons) and lowest among the 16-to-19-year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons). The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5-211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5). During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, pdengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly in preschool children and that disease incidence was high in both rural and urban areas. It also confirmed the

  20. Prostate Cancer: Can Multiparametric MR Imaging Help Identify Patients Who Are Candidates for Active Surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Aras, Omer; Ho, Jennifer; Hoang, Anthony; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R.; Agarwal, Harsh; Shah, Vijay; Bernardo, Marcelino; Pang, Yuxi; Daar, Dagane; McKinney, Yolanda L.; Linehan, W. Marston; Kaushal, Aradhana; Merino, Maria J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help identify patients with prostate cancer who would most appropriately be candidates for active surveillance (AS) according to current guidelines and to compare the results with those of conventional clinical assessment scoring systems, including the D’Amico, Epstein, and Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) systems, on the basis of findings at prostatectomy. Materials and Methods: This institutional review board–approved HIPAA-compliant retrospectively designed study included 133 patients (mean age, 59.3 years) with a mean prostate-specific antigen level of 6.73 ng/mL (median, 4.39 ng/mL) who underwent multiparametric MR imaging at 3.0 T before radical prostatectomy. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients were then retrospectively classified as to whether they would have met AS eligibility criteria or were better served by surgery. AS eligibility criteria for prostatectomy specimens were a dominant tumor smaller than 0.5 mL without Gleason 4 or 5 patterns or extracapsular or seminal vesicle invasion. Conventional clinical assessment scores (the D’Amico, Epstein, and CAPRA scoring systems) were compared with multiparametric MR imaging findings for predicting AS candidates. The level of significance of difference between scoring systems was determined by using the χ2 test for categoric variables with the level of significance set at P < .05. Results: Among 133 patients, 14 were eligible for AS on the basis of prostatectomy results. The sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and overall accuracy, respectively, were 93%, 25%, and 70% for the D’Amico system, 64%, 45%, and 88% for the Epstein criteria, and 93%, 20%, and 59% for the CAPRA scoring system for predicting AS candidates (P < .005 for all, χ2 test), while multiparametric MR imaging had a sensitivity of 93%, a PPV of 57%, and an overall accuracy of 92% (P < .005). Conclusion

  1. Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L

    2017-04-21

    Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture(†); if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.

  2. Extended followup and risk factors for disease reclassification in a large active surveillance cohort for localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Christopher J; Cowan, Janet E; Nguyen, Hao; Shinohara, Katsuto; Perez, Nannette; Greene, Kirsten L; Chan, June M; Meng, Maxwell V; Simko, Jeffry P; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Carroll, Peter R

    2015-03-01

    Active surveillance to manage prostate cancer provides an alternative to immediate treatment in men with low risk prostate cancer. We report updated outcomes from a long-standing active surveillance cohort and factors associated with reclassification. We retrospectively reviewed data on all men enrolled in the active surveillance cohort at our institution with at least 6 months of followup between 1990 and 2013. Surveillance consisted of quarterly prostate specific antigen testing, repeat imaging with transrectal ultrasound at provider discretion and periodic repeat prostate biopsies. Factors associated with repeat biopsy reclassification and local treatment were determined by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression. We also analyzed the association of prostate specific antigen density and outcomes stratified by prostate size. A total of 810 men who consented to participate in the research cohort were followed on active surveillance for a median of 60 months. Of these men 556 (69%) met strict criteria for active surveillance. Five-year overall survival was 98%, treatment-free survival was 60% and biopsy reclassification-free survival was 40%. There were no prostate cancer related deaths. On multivariate analysis prostate specific antigen density was positively associated with the risk of biopsy reclassification and treatment while the number of biopsies and time between biopsies were inversely associated with the 2 outcomes (each p <0.01). When stratified by prostate volume, prostate specific antigen density remained significantly associated with biopsy reclassification for all strata but prostate specific antigen density was only significantly associated with treatment in men with a smaller prostate. Significant prostate cancer related morbidity and mortality remained rare at intermediate followup. Prostate specific antigen density was independently associated with biopsy reclassification and treatment while on active surveillance. Copyright © 2015

  3. An assessment of self-reported physical activity instruments in young people for population surveillance: Project ALPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of physical activity is an essential part of understanding patterns and influences of behaviour, designing interventions, and undertaking population surveillance and monitoring, but it is particularly problematic when using self-report instruments with young people. This study reviewed available self-report physical activity instruments developed for use with children and adolescents to assess their suitability and feasibility for use in population surveillance systems, particularly in Europe. Methods Systematic searches and review, supplemented by expert panel assessment. Results Papers (n = 437 were assessed as potentially relevant; 89 physical activity measures were identified with 20 activity-based measures receiving detailed assessment. Three received support from the majority of the expert group: Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children/Adolescents (PAQ-C/PAQ-A, Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance Survey (YRBS, and the Teen Health Survey. Conclusions Population surveillance of youth physical activity is strongly recommended and those involved in developing and undertaking this task should consider the three identified shortlisted instruments and evaluate their appropriateness for application within their national context. Further development and testing of measures suitable for population surveillance with young people is required.

  4. Position surveillance using one active ranging satellite and time-of-arrival of a signal from an independent satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. E.; Frey, R. L.; Lewis, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Position surveillance using one active ranging/communication satellite and the time-of-arrival of signals from an independent satellite was shown to be feasible and practical. A towboat on the Mississippi River was equipped with a tone-code ranging transponder and a receiver tuned to the timing signals of the GOES satellite. A similar transponder was located at the office of the towing company. Tone-code ranging interrogations were transmitted from the General Electric Earth Station Laboratory through ATS-6 to the towboat and to the ground truth transponder office. Their automatic responses included digital transmissions of time-of-arrival measurements derived from the GOES signals. The Earth Station Laboratory determined ranges from the satellites to the towboat and computed position fixes. The ATS-6 lines-of-position were more precise than 0.1 NMi, 1 sigma, and the GOES lines-of-position were more precise than 1.6 NMi, 1 sigma. High quality voice communications were accomplished with the transponders using a nondirectional antenna on the towboat. The simple and effective surveillance technique merits further evaluation using operational maritime satellites.

  5. Is active surveillance a safe alternative in the management of localized prostate cancer? Pathological features of radical prostatectomy specimens in potential candidates for active surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrano Norman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectiveActive surveillance (AS has become an accepted alternative for patients with low risk prostate cancer. The purpose of AS is to defer definitive therapy in these patients to avoid treatment-related complications. Our aim was to determine the pathological features of the surgical specimen from potential AS candidates that underwent radical prostatectomy (RP.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed a group of patients submitted to RP who met criteria for AS: Gleason score (GS ≤ 3+3 = 6, PSA ≤ 10ng/mL, T1c - T2a, 6 in the RPS (GS 7 n = 49; GS 8 n = 3. Extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle and lymph node involvement was found in 6.1%, 3.1% and 1.2% of the specimens, respectively.ConclusionIn this study a significant proportion of potential candidates for AS showed features of aggressive and/or high-risk tumors in the RPS. Therefore, before considering a patient for an AS protocol, a proper and strict selection must be performed, and informed consent is crucial for these patients.

  6. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Verbruggen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings.

  7. The use of surveillance data and market research to promote physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridinger, Fred; Macera, Carol; Cordell, H Ken

    2002-08-01

    Using various types of data sources for assessing and monitoring physical activity behaviors on a population level adds to our ability to explain the relationships between individuals and their surrounding social and physical environments. This article presents the findings from part of a panel presentation on available data sets at the 2001 Cooper Conference on Innovative Approaches to Understanding and Influencing Physical Activity. First, an overview of large national epidemiologic and surveillance data sets is offered, followed by a discussion on the use of market segmentation data to complement more traditional sources of data by adding new dimensions to our understanding of target groups and potential intervention strategies. The relative advantages and disadvantages of using each type of data are also given, as well as recommendations for further use.

  8. Management of clinical stage I testicular seminoma: active surveillance versus adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrusova, M; Ondrus, D; Miskovska, V; Kajo, K; Szoldova, K; Usakova, V; Stastna, V

    2015-07-01

    Surveillance after orchiectomy alone has become popular in the management of clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumors (CSI NSGCTT), and adjuvant chemotherapy has been accepted in high-risk CSI NSGCTT. Because of the late toxicity of standard radiotherapy in CSI testicular seminoma (SGCTT), this therapeutic approach has been accepted also in the management of CSI SGCTT. In the current study, we analyzed single-center experience with risk-adapted therapeutic approaches (active surveillance and adjuvant chemotherapy) in patients with CSI SGCTT. The study analyzed a total of 90 patients collected at a single center from April 2008 to March 2015 with CSI SGCTT who were stratified into two groups according to risk-adapted therapeutic approaches. In the group A (low-risk CSI SGCTT-no rete testis invasion, tumor size 4 cm or pT ≥ 2 stage), which consisted of 16 patients who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, relapse occurred in two (12.5 %) patients after a mean follow-up of 13.8 months. Overall survival of patients in both groups was 100 %. The statistically significant difference in progression-free survival between these two groups was not found. Radiotherapy is currently not recommended as an adjuvant treatment in CSI SGCTT patients. The benefit of using risk-adapted therapeutic approaches in CSI SGCTTs patients is evident.

  9. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: current evidence and contemporary state of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Carter, H Ballentine; Lepor, Abbey; Loeb, Stacy

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer remains one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis and curative treatment seem to improve survival in men with unfavourable-risk cancers, but significant concerns exist regarding the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of men with lower-risk cancers. To this end, active surveillance (AS) has emerged as a primary management strategy in men with favourable-risk disease, and contemporary data suggest that use of AS has increased worldwide. Although published surveillance cohorts differ by protocol, reported rates of metastatic disease and prostate-cancer-specific mortality are exceedingly low in the intermediate term (5-10 years). Such outcomes seem to be closely associated with programme-specific criteria for selection, monitoring, and intervention, suggesting that AS--like other management strategies--could be individualized based on the level of risk acceptable to patients in light of their personal preferences. Additional data are needed to better establish the risks associated with AS and to identify patient-specific characteristics that could modify prognosis.

  10. Implementation of an integrated information system for the management of swine vesicular disease surveillance activities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Silvia; Ferrarini, Nicola; Santucci, Ugo

    2007-01-01

    In Europe in the last decade, swine vesicular disease (SVD) outbreaks have been steadily reported in Italy where surveillance and eradication activities are in place. To collect and analyse data gathered during SVD surveillance activities, the Italian reference centre for vesicular diseases (CERVES) has implemented an integrated information system for the management of the national surveillance plan. The system was developed using Web-based technology and open source software. It was designed to gather, integrate and manage data generated by the activities of the Veterinary Services, the laboratory information system, herd and animal registers and the relevant technical and scientific information. A geographic information system provides an interface for the system, which facilitates the planning, implementation and evaluation of disease control actions. Access to the system is feasible through a second level domain.

  11. Active chinese mistletoe lectin-55 enhances colon cancer surveillance through regulating innate and adaptive immune responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Hui Ma; Wei-Zhi Cheng; Fang Gong; An-Lun Ma; Qi-Wen Yu; Ji-Ying Zhang; Chao-Ying Hu; Xue-Hua Chen; Dong-Qing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the potential role of Active Chinese mistletoe lectin-55 (ACML-55) in tumor immune surveillance.METHODS:In this study,an experimental model was established by hypodermic inoculating the colon cancer cell line CT26 (5×105 cells) into BALB/c mice.The experimental treatment was orally administered with ACML-55 or PBS,followed by the inoculation of colon cancer cell line CT26.Intracellular cytokine staining was used to detect IFN-y production by tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells.FACS analysis was employed to profile composition and activation of CD4+,CD8+,γδ T and NK cells.RESULTS:Our results showed,compared to PBS treated mice,ACML-55 treatment significantly delayed colon cancer development in colon cancer-bearing Balb/c mice in vivo.Treatment with ACML-55 enhanced both Ag specific activation and proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells,and increased the number of tumor Ag specific CD8+ T cells,it was more important to increase the frequency of tumor Ag specific IFN-γ producing-CD8+ T cells.Interestingly,ACML-55 treatment also showed increased cell number of NK,and γδT cells,indicating the role of ACML-55 in activation of innate lymphooltes.CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate that ACML-55therapy can enhance function in immune surveillance in colon cancer-bearing mice through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses.

  12. Surveillance-activated defenses block the ROS-induced mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva D Runkel

    Full Text Available Disturbance of cellular functions results in the activation of stress-signaling pathways that aim at restoring homeostasis. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify components of the signal transduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt to a nuclear chaperone promoter. We used the ROS generating complex I inhibitor paraquat to induce the UPR(mt, and we employed RNAi exposure post-embryonically to allow testing genes whose knockdown results in embryonic lethality. We identified 54 novel regulators of the ROS-induced UPR(mt. Activation of the UPR(mt, but not of other stress-signaling pathways, failed when homeostasis of basic cellular mechanisms such as translation and protein transport were impaired. These mechanisms are monitored by a recently discovered surveillance system that interprets interruption of these processes as pathogen attack and depends on signaling through the JNK-like MAP-kinase KGB-1. Mutation of kgb-1 abrogated the inhibition of ROS-induced UPR(mt, suggesting that surveillance-activated defenses specifically inhibit the UPR(mt but do not compromise activation of the heat shock response, the UPR of the endoplasmic reticulum, or the SKN-1/Nrf2 mediated response to cytosolic stress. In addition, we identified PIFK-1, the orthologue of the Drosophila PI 4-kinase four wheel drive (FWD, and found that it is the only known factor so far that is essential for the unfolded protein responses of both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. This suggests that both UPRs may share a common membrane associated mechanism.

  13. Initial Experience with Electronic Tracking of Specific Tumor Sites in Men Undergoing Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonn, Geoffrey A.; Filson, Christopher P.; Chang, Edward; Natarajan, Shyam; Margolis, Daniel J.; Macairan, Malu; Lieu, Patricia; Huang, Jiaoti; Dorey, Frederick J.; Reiter, Robert E.; Marks, Leonard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Targeted biopsy, using magnetic resonance (MR) – ultrasound (US) fusion, may allow tracking of specific cancer sites in the prostate. We aimed to evaluate initial use of the technique to follow tumor sites in men on active surveillance of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials Fifty-three men with prostate cancer (all T1c) underwent re-biopsy of 74 positive biopsy sites, which were tracked and targeted using the Artemis MR-US fusion device (Eigen, Grass Valley, CA, USA) from March 2010 through January 2013. The initial biopsy included 12 cores from a standard template (mapped by software) and directed biopsies from regions of interest seen on MRI. In the repeat biopsy, samples were taken from sites containing cancer at the initial biopsy. Outcomes of interest at second MR-US biopsy included (a) presence of any cancer and (b) presence of clinically significant cancer. Results All cancers on initial biopsy were either Gleason score 3+3=6 (N=63) or 3+4=7 (N=11). At initial biopsy, 23 cancers were within an MRI target, and 51 were found on systematic biopsy. Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy (29/74, 39%) was independent of Gleason score on initial biopsy (p=NS) but directly related to initial cancer core length (CCL) (pbiopsies were positive. An increase of Gleason score was uncommon (9/74, 12%). Conclusions Monitoring of specific prostate cancer-containing sites may be achieved in some men using an electronic tracking system. The chances of finding tumor on repeat specific-site sampling was directly related to the length of tumor in the initial biopsy core and presence of tumor within an MRI target; upgrading of Gleason score was uncommon. Further research is required to evaluate the potential utility of site-specific biopsy tracking for prostate cancer patients on active surveillance. PMID:25027689

  14. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan

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    Sheila Tante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR, Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED. Methods: A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results: Two of 11 (18% surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45% surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91% rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7% considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27% surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6% surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion: In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other.

  15. First report on entomological field activities for the surveillance of West Nile disease in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goffredo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is neuropathogenic for birds, horses and humans and is maintained in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly the Culex genus; horses and humans are considered to be incidental hosts. A surveillance plan was implemented in Italy in 1998, following a limited outbreak of WNV equine encephalomyelitis and a WNV outbreak in France very close to the Italian border. This plan to assess the risks of the virus being introduced again included entomological surveillance performed in 15 study areas considered ‘at risk’ of WNV introduction in the country. Entomological surveys conducted in Italy from 2003 to 2007 resulted in the capture of a total of 28 798 mosquitoes, of which there were 14 765 adults and 14 033 larvae belonging to 22 species. According to the literature, eight of the species identified have been found to be naturally infected with WNV or were successfully infected in the laboratory in some parts of Europe and in the United States, namely: Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1897 (= Stegomiya albopicta, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830, Anopheles maculipennis Meigen, 1818, Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi, 1889, Culex modestus Ficalbi, 1889, Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758, Culex theileri Theobald, 1903 and Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771 (= Aedes caspius.

  16. NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statement: Role of active surveillance in the management of men with localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Patricia A; Barry, John M; Burke, Wylie; Col, Nananda F; Corso, Phaedra S; Dodson, Everett; Hammond, M Elizabeth; Kogan, Barry A; Lynch, Charles F; Newcomer, Lee; Seifter, Eric J; Tooze, Janet A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula Vish; Wessells, Hunter

    cancer in the United States are candidates for this approach. However, there are many unanswered questions about active surveillance strategies and prostate cancer that require further research and clarification. These include: • Improvements in the accuracy and consistency of pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer • Consensus on which men are the most appropriate candidates for active surveillance • The optimal protocol for active surveillance and the potential for individualizing the approach based on clinical and patient factors • Optimal ways to communicate the option of active surveillance to patients • Methods to assist patient decisionmaking • Reasons for acceptance or rejection of active surveillance as a treatment strategy • Short- and long-term outcomes of active surveillance. Well-designed studies to address these questions and others raised in this statement represent an important health research priority. Qualitative, observational, and interventional research designs are needed. Due to the paucity of evidence about this important public health problem, all patients being considered for active surveillance should be offered participation in multicenter research studies that incorporate community settings and partners.

  17. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  18. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like ductal prostatic adenocarcinoma: A case suitable for active surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Rais-Bahrami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to typical prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of prostate cancer with low-grade clinical behavior. We report a case of a 66-year-old African-American male with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen who underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MRI/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsies. Pathology demonstrated low-volume Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 (Grade Group 1, acinar adenocarcinoma involving one core and PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma on a separate core. Herein, we discuss the potential role of active surveillance for patients with this rare variant of prostate cancer found in the era of advanced imaging with multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer.

  19. Potential metal impurities in active pharmaceutical substances and finished medicinal products - A market surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollein, Uwe; Bauer, Bettina; Habernegg, Renate; Schramek, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    A market surveillance study has been established by using different atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of selected elemental impurities of particular interest, to gain an overview about the quality of presently marketed drug products and their bulk drug substances. The limit tests were carried out with respect to the existing EMA guideline on the specification limits for residuals of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Also attention was given to the future implementation of two new chapters of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) stating limit concentrations of elemental impurities. The methods used for determination of metal residues were inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and atomic absorption spectrometry technologies (GFAAS, CVAAS, HGAAS). This article presents the development and validation of the methods used for the determination of 21 selected metals in 113 samples from drug products and their active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  20. Responses and relationship dynamics of men and their spouses during active surveillance for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayser, Lars; Hansen-Nord, Nete S; Osborne, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    responses to a Health Literacy Questionnaire can be used to identify individuals in need of information and support and to reveal differences in perception and understanding in health related situations within couples. METHODS: We used the nine-domain Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) as a framework...... and reflections in relation to participating in an active surveillance program. Also an inductive analysis was performed to identify themes in the responses and these themes were compared to those of HLQ. RESULTS: The men tended to score higher than their spouses. There was no consistent relation between scores...... and the reported experiences and reflections. However, some interesting patterns emerged, e.g. in two of the three couples with the largest within couple differences in HLQ scores, responses revealed discrepancies in how the men and their spouses perceived their situation. Also, three themes emerged which related...

  1. Weighted Activity and Costing of Surveillance and Control in Animal Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duboz Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity based modeling and simulation is a very promising field. It has recently demonstrated its potential from modeling software development methods [9] to the design of low energy sensors. In this position paper, I would like to initiate a reflexion on the use of the weighted activity in the context of financial costing using the formulation recently proposed by X. Hu and B.P. Zeigler [5]. I propose here to formalize a recent approach of costing, the Time-Driven Activity Based Costing [3], using the theoretical modeling framework initiated by B.P. Zeigler [6]. I argue that this specification can potentially improve the traditional model of Time-Driven Activity Based Costing. I illustrate the approach in the context of surveillance and control in animal epidemiology. The demonstration of its effectiveness is not done in this position paper. Nevertheless, as the existing costing systems are designed to support decision making in business management, the scenario based approach proposed in this paper should be very useful to support decisions in complex management situations.

  2. [Active surveillance of adverse drug reaction in the era of big data: challenge and opportunity for control selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S F; Zhan, S Y

    2016-07-01

    Electronic healthcare databases have become an important source for active surveillance of drug safety in the era of big data. The traditional epidemiology research designs are needed to confirm the association between drug use and adverse events based on these datasets, and the selection of the comparative control is essential to each design. This article aims to explain the principle and application of each type of control selection, introduce the methods and parameters for method comparison, and describe the latest achievements in the batch processing of control selection, which would provide important methodological reference for the use of electronic healthcare databases to conduct post-marketing drug safety surveillance in China.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of molecular typing methods for major food-borne microbiological hazards and their use for attribution modelling, outbreak investigation and scanning surveillance: Part 2 (surveillance and data management activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance programmes based on active and harmonised sampling are considered the most suitable for food-borne outbreak investigations, hypothesis generation, early detection of emerging pathogen subtypes, attribution modelling and genetic studies of bacterial populations. Currently, prototype molecular databases are not widely linked and contain limited epidemiological data, therefore development of linkage mechanisms is a priority. A key technical requirement is determination of an agreed threshold value for the level of genetic variation amongst isolates that can still be regarded as epidemiologically-related. Molecular typing data should be coupled with a minimum required set of epidemiological data and datasets should be comparable to facilitate joint analyses in conjunction with human case data. Rules for assembling strain collections and associated provenance data should be agreed and introduced as EU standards. The data collection process and the characteristics of the data repository should ensure reproducibility and maximise compatibility and interoperability between different datasets. Molecular bacterial characterisation developments, particularly Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS, should be harmonised with those used for surveillance in the human population and food industry. Reference methods and materials, including sequence data, should be adopted for typing of food-borne pathogens. Upload of molecular data should only be allowed for approved laboratories and should be subject to External Quality Assessment. Ongoing international oversight is required to ensure a consensual ‘one-health’ approach. The establishment of a joint EFSA-ECDC-EU-RLs committee for the support of cross-sectoral molecular surveillance, with a balance of public health and veterinary expertise and including both epidemiologists and microbiologists is strongly recommended. Revision of the legal basis of programmes for pathogen reduction based on historic

  4. Continuous active surveillance of adverse events following immunisation using SMS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Darren W; Williams, Stephanie A; Leeb, Alan; Effler, Paul V

    2016-06-17

    On-going post-licensure surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is critical to detecting and responding to potentially serious adverse events in a timely manner. SmartVax is a vaccine safety monitoring tool that uses automated data extraction from existing practice management software and short message service (SMS) technology to follow-up vaccinees in real-time. We report on childhood vaccine safety surveillance using SmartVax at a medical practice in Perth, Western Australia. Parents of all children under age five years who were vaccinated according to the Australian National Immunisation Schedule between November 2011 and June 2015 were sent an SMS three days post administration to enquire whether the child had experienced a suspected vaccine reaction. Affirmative replies triggered a follow-up SMS requesting details of the reaction(s) via a link to a survey that could be completed using a smartphone or the web. Rates of reported AEFI including fever, headache, fatigue, rash, vomiting, diarrhoea, rigours, seizures, and local reactions were calculated by vaccination time point. Overall, 239 (8.2%; 95% CI 7.2-9.2%) possible vaccine reactions were reported for 2897 vaccination visits over the 44 month time period. The proportion of children experiencing a possible AEFI, mostly local reactions, was significantly greater following administration of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-poliomyelitis vaccine at 4 years of age (77/441; 17.5%; 95% CI 13.9-21.0%) compared to the vaccinations given at 2-18 months (p<0.001). Across all time points, local reactions and fatigue were the most frequently reported AEFI. Automated SMS-based reporting can facilitate sustainable, real-time, monitoring of adverse reactions and contribute to early identification of potential vaccine safety issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of Activities by Wireless Sensors for Daily Life Surveillance: Eating and Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Khong Tham

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a two-stage approach to the detection of people eating and/or drinking for the purposes of surveillance of daily life. With the sole use of wearable accelerometer sensor attached to somebody’s (man or a woman wrists, this two-stage approach consists of feature extraction followed by classification. At the first stage, based on the limb’s three dimensional kinematics movement model and the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF, the realtime arm movement features described by Euler angles are extracted from the raw accelerometer measurement data. In the latter stage, the Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM network is adopted to classify the extracted features of the eating/drinking activities based on the space and time varying property of the features, by making use of the powerful modelling capability of HTM network on dynamic signals which is varying with both space and time. The proposed approach is tested through the real eating and drinking activities using the three dimensional accelerometers. Experimental results show that the EKF and HTM based two-stage approach can perform the activity detection successfully with very high accuracy.

  6. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  7. First record of Stegomyia albopicta in Turkey determined by active ovitrap surveillance and DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oter, Kerem; Gunay, Filiz; Tuzer, Erkut; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Bellini, Romeo; Alten, Bulent

    2013-10-01

    Despite its confirmed establishment in neighboring Greece and Bulgaria, the presence of the Oriental invasive species Stegomyia albopicta (Skuse) (=Aedes albopictus) has never been confirmed in Turkey. Active surveillance for this container-breeding species was carried out using oviposition traps at 15 discrete sites in the towns of Ipsala (n=8 sites), Kesan (n=5) (Edirne District), and Malkara (n=2) (Tekirdag District) in the Thrace region of northwestern Turkey, from May 23 through November 10, 2011. Eggs collected were reared to the fourth larval instar and adult stages where possible to facilitate integrated morphological and molecular species identification. DNA barcodes (658 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I [COI] gene) were compared with all four potentially invasive Stegomyia species: St. aegypti, St. albopicta, St. cretina, and St. japonica. Sequences generated for samples collected in Thrace Region were herein confirmed as St. albopicta, the first record of this vector species in Turkey. Eggs of St. albopicta were detected in two discrete localities: (1) In the grounds of a restaurant in Kesan (in week 36), and (2) in the customs area of the Turkish-Greek border at Ipsala (in weeks 32 and 38). Multiple detection of St. albopicta eggs indicates the possible establishment of the species in northwestern Turkey. Finding this important disease vector has implications for public health and requires the implementation of active vector monitoring programs and targeted vector suppression strategies to limit the spread of this invasive vector species in Turkey.

  8. The cost-utility of open prostatectomy compared with active surveillance in early localised prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an on-going debate about whether to perform surgery on early stage localised prostate cancer and risk the common long term side effects such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Alternatively these patients could be closely monitored and treated only in case of disease progression (active surveillance). The aim of this paper is to develop a decision-analytic model comparing the cost-utility of active surveillance (AS) and radical prostatectomy (PE) for a cohort of 65 year old men with newly diagnosed low risk prostate cancer. Methods A Markov model comparing PE and AS over a lifetime horizon was programmed in TreeAge from a German societal perspective. Comparative disease specific mortality was obtained from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group trial. Direct costs were identified via national treatment guidelines and expert interviews covering in-patient, out-patient, medication, aids and remedies as well as out of pocket payments. Utility values were used as factor weights for age specific quality of life values of the German population. Uncertainty was assessed deterministically and probabilistically. Results With quality adjustment, AS was the dominant strategy compared with initial treatment. In the base case, it was associated with an additional 0.04 quality adjusted life years (7.60 QALYs vs. 7.56 QALYs) and a cost reduction of €6,883 per patient (2011 prices). Considering only life-years gained, PE was more effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €96,420/life year gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of developing metastases under AS and utility weights under AS are a major sources of uncertainty. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that AS was more likely to be cost-effective even under very high willingness to pay thresholds. Conclusion AS is likely to be a cost-saving treatment strategy for some patients with early stage localised prostate cancer. However, cost-effectiveness is

  9. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  10. OptisampleTM: Open web-based application to optimize sampling strategies for active surveillance activities at the herd level illustrated using Porcine Respiratory Reproductive Syndrome (PRRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Anna; Morrison, Robert E; Cheeran, Ann; Rovira, Albert; Alvarez, Julio; Perez, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection causes a devastating economic impact to the swine industry. Active surveillance is routinely conducted in many swine herds to demonstrate freedom from PRRSv infection. The design of efficient active surveillance sampling schemes is challenging because optimum surveillance strategies may differ depending on infection status, herd structure, management, or resources for conducting sampling. Here, we present an open web-based application, named 'OptisampleTM', designed to optimize herd sampling strategies to substantiate freedom of infection considering also costs of testing. In addition to herd size, expected prevalence, test sensitivity, and desired level of confidence, the model takes into account the presumed risk of pathogen introduction between samples, the structure of the herd, and the process to select the samples over time. We illustrate the functionality and capacity of 'OptisampleTM' through its application to active surveillance of PRRSv in hypothetical swine herds under disparate epidemiological situations. Diverse sampling schemes were simulated and compared for each herd to identify effective strategies at low costs. The model results show that to demonstrate freedom from disease, it is important to consider both the epidemiological situation of the herd and the sample selected. The approach illustrated here for PRRSv may be easily extended to other animal disease surveillance systems using the web-based application available at http://stemma.ahc.umn.edu/optisample.

  11. Cognitive and Affective Representations of Active Surveillance as a Treatment Option for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Li, Hsin H; Mader, Emily M; Stewart, Telisa M; Morley, Christopher P; Formica, Margaret K; Perrapato, Scott D; Seigne, John D; Hyams, Elias S; Irwin, Brian H; Mosher, Terry; Hegel, Mark T

    2016-06-29

    Benefits of early diagnosis and treatment remain debatable for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Active surveillance (AS) is an alternative to treatment. The goal of AS is to identify patients whose cancer is progressing rapidly while avoiding treatment in the majority of patients. The purpose of this study was to explore cognitive and affective representations of AS within a clinical environment that promotes AS a viable option for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Participants included patients for whom AS and active treatment were equally viable options, as well as practitioners who were involved in consultations for prostate cancer. Data were generated from semistructured interviews and audits of consultation notes and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Nineteen patients and 16 practitioners completed a semistructured interview. Patients generally viewed AS as a temporary strategy that was largely equated with inaction. There was variation in the degree to which inaction was viewed as warranted or favorable. Patient perceptions of AS were generally malleable and able to be influenced by information from trusted sources. Encouraging slow deliberation and multiple consultations may facilitate greater understanding and acceptance of AS as a viable treatment option for low-risk prostate cancer.

  12. Report on HPAI Surveillance Activities for 2007-08 on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pungo Unit in Pocosin Lakes NWR hosts large populations of waterfowl species that have been identified for live bird or mortality surveillance for the Highly...

  13. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. Prostate Cancer: Multi-Parametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate re- classifies patients eligible for Active Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria; Pedersen, Bodil Ginnerup; Høyer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Pathological examination of the extracted prostate after radical prostatectomy often reveals that trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) and TRUS-guided biopsy (TRUS-bx) underestimated the tumor’s true size and aggressiveness. This clinical problem seems to defy a satisfactory...... solution to the dilemma of whether to enroll patients in active surveillance (AS) or to offer the patient active treatment. We present the preliminary results of an on-going trial in which we investigate if multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate detects significant prostate...... cancer (PC) better than TRUS and TRUS-bx, and if we may in this way make selection of patients for active surveillance safer. Materials and Methods: From November 2014 patients enrolled in an AS program at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, were offered an mpMRI 8 weeks after TRUS-bx. All patients were...

  15. Active surveillance of Hansen's Disease (leprosy): importance for case finding among extra-domiciliary contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Maria L N; Dupnik, Kathryn M; Sampaio, Gabriel A A; Nóbrega, Priscilla F C; Jeronimo, Ana K; do Nascimento-Filho, Jose M; Miranda Dantas, Roberta L; Queiroz, Jose W; Barbosa, James D; Dias, Gutemberg; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Souza, Marcia C F; Nobre, Maurício L

    2013-01-01

    Hansen's disease (leprosy) remains an important health problem in Brazil, where 34,894 new cases were diagnosed in 2010, corresponding to 15.3% of the world's new cases detected in that year. The purpose of this study was to use home visits as a tool for surveillance of Hansen's disease in a hyperendemic area in Brazil. A total of 258 residences were visited with 719 individuals examined. Of these, 82 individuals had had a previous history of Hansen's disease, 209 were their household contacts and 428 lived in neighboring residences. Fifteen new Hansen's disease cases were confirmed, yielding a detection rate of 2.0% of people examined. There was no difference in the detection rate between household and neighbor contacts (p = 0.615). The two groups had the same background in relation to education (p = 0.510), household income (p = 0.582), and the number of people living in the residence (p = 0.188). Spatial analysis showed clustering of newly diagnosed cases and association with residential coordinates of previously diagnosed multibacillary cases. Active case finding is an important tool for Hansen's disease control in hyperendemic areas, enabling earlier diagnosis, treatment, decrease in disability from Hansen's disease and potentially less spread of Mycobacterium leprae.

  16. Active surveillance of Hansen's Disease (leprosy: importance for case finding among extra-domiciliary contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L N Moura

    Full Text Available Hansen's disease (leprosy remains an important health problem in Brazil, where 34,894 new cases were diagnosed in 2010, corresponding to 15.3% of the world's new cases detected in that year. The purpose of this study was to use home visits as a tool for surveillance of Hansen's disease in a hyperendemic area in Brazil. A total of 258 residences were visited with 719 individuals examined. Of these, 82 individuals had had a previous history of Hansen's disease, 209 were their household contacts and 428 lived in neighboring residences. Fifteen new Hansen's disease cases were confirmed, yielding a detection rate of 2.0% of people examined. There was no difference in the detection rate between household and neighbor contacts (p = 0.615. The two groups had the same background in relation to education (p = 0.510, household income (p = 0.582, and the number of people living in the residence (p = 0.188. Spatial analysis showed clustering of newly diagnosed cases and association with residential coordinates of previously diagnosed multibacillary cases. Active case finding is an important tool for Hansen's disease control in hyperendemic areas, enabling earlier diagnosis, treatment, decrease in disability from Hansen's disease and potentially less spread of Mycobacterium leprae.

  17. Qualitative study on decision-making by prostate cancer physicians during active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Curnyn, Caitlin; Fagerlin, Angela; Braithwaite, Ronald Scott; Schwartz, Mark D; Lepor, Herbert; Carter, Herbert Ballentine; Sedlander, Erica

    2017-07-01

    To explore and identify factors that influence physicians' decisions while monitoring patients with prostate cancer on active surveillance (AS). A purposive sampling strategy was used to identify physicians treating prostate cancer from diverse clinical backgrounds and geographic areas across the USA. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews from July to December 2015, until thematic saturation was reached. The Applied Thematic Analysis framework was used to guide data collection and analysis. Interview transcripts were reviewed and coded independently by two researchers. Matrix analysis and NVivo software were used for organization and further analysis. Eight key themes emerged to explain variation in AS monitoring: (i) physician comfort with AS; (ii) protocol selection; (iii) beliefs about the utility and quality of testing; (iv) years of experience and exposure to AS during training; (v) concerns about inflicting 'harm'; (vi) patient characteristics; (vii) patient preferences; and (viii) financial incentives. These qualitative data reveal which factors influence physicians who manage patients on AS. There is tension between providing standardized care while also considering individual patients' needs and health status. Additional education on AS is needed during urology training and continuing medical education. Future research is needed to empirically understand whether any specific protocol is superior to tailored, individualized care. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prostatic and dietary omega-3 fatty acids and prostate cancer progression during active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreel, Xavier; Allaire, Janie; Léger, Caroline; Caron, André; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Lamarche, Benoît; Julien, Pierre; Desmeules, Patrice; Têtu, Bernard; Fradet, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    The association between omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids and prostate cancer has been widely studied. However, little is known about the impact of prostate tissue fatty acid content on prostate cancer progression. We hypothesized that compared with the estimated dietary ω-3 fatty acids intake and the ω-3 fatty acids levels measured in red blood cells (RBC), the prostate tissue ω-3 fatty acid content is more strongly related to prostate cancer progression. We present the initial observations from baseline data of a phase II clinical trial conducted in a cohort of 48 untreated men affected with low-risk prostate cancer, managed under active surveillance. These men underwent a first repeat biopsy session within 6 months after the initial diagnosis of low-risk prostate cancer, at which time 29% of the men had progressed from a Gleason score of 6 to a Gleason score of 7. At the first repeat biopsy session, fatty acid levels were assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire, and determined in the RBC and in the prostate tissue biopsy. We found that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer progression when measured directly in the prostate tissue. Thus, this initial interim study analysis suggests that prostate tissue ω-3 fatty acids, especially EPA, may be protective against prostate cancer progression in men with low-risk prostate cancer.

  19. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  20. Using Hospital Inpatient Discharge Data to Supplement Active Surveillance for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: Is the Extract Worth the Exertion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Megin C; Bareta, Joseph; Coyle, Alexander; Landen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance systems monitor morbidity, mortality, and vaccine impact; accurate surveillance is important to detect changes in epidemiology. We evaluated completeness of IPD reporting in New Mexico by comparing data from the Hospital Inpatient Discharge Database (HIDD) and the New Mexico Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs) program. We linked data from the HIDD and the ABCs program. We defined cases of IPD in the HIDD among New Mexico residents with hospitalizations during 2007-2009 as specific (320.1 or 038.2) or nonspecific (481, 320.2, or 041.2) using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. To validate if HIDD records that could not be matched to ABCs data were true IPD cases, we reviewed laboratory data and determined if Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) had been isolated from a sterile body site. We examined 732 HIDD records for cases that were not matched in the ABCs database; of such records, S. pneumoniae was isolated from a sterile body site in 10 HIDD records. ABCs data detected the majority of IPD cases in New Mexico. Laboratory and medical record review is essential when using HIDD data because ICD-9-CM coding alone does not ensure data accuracy. The addition of IPD cases to the ABCs program from the HIDD was minimally beneficial to active surveillance and reporting completeness in New Mexico. States that rely exclusively on passive reporting and that have access to HIDD data might use linkages of pneumococcal and IPD-specific ICD-9-CM-coded HIDD data to improve IPD surveillance and case ascertainment.

  1. Systematic, active surveillance for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in camels in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed A; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; El-Taweel, Ahmed N; Atea, Mohamed; Hassan, Nagla; Bagato, Ola; Moatasim, Yassmin; Mahmoud, Sara H; Kutkat, Omnia; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Osman, Ahmed; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; Kayali, Ghazi

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe human infections and dromedary camels are considered an intermediary host. The dynamics of natural infection in camels are not well understood. Through systematic surveillance in Egypt, nasal, rectal, milk, urine and serum samples were collected from camels between June 2014 and February 2016. Locations included quarantines, markets, abattoirs, free-roaming herds and farmed breeding herds. The overall seroprevalence was 71% and RNA detection rate was 15%. Imported camels had higher seroprevalence (90% vs 61%) and higher RT-PCR detection rates (21% vs 12%) than locally raised camels. Juveniles had lower seroprevalence than adults (37% vs 82%) but similar RT-PCR detection rates (16% vs 15%). An outbreak in a breeding herd, showed that antibodies rapidly wane, that camels become re-infected, and that outbreaks in a herd are sustained for an extended time. Maternal antibodies titers were very low in calves regardless of the antibody titers of the mothers. Our results support the hypothesis that camels are a reservoir for MERS-CoV and that camel trade is an important route of introducing the virus into importing countries. Findings related to waning antibodies and re-infection have implications for camel vaccine development, disease management and zoonotic threat. PMID:28050021

  2. Incidence of surgical site infections in children: active surveillance in an Italian academic children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi Degli Atti, M L; Serino, L; Piga, S; Tozzi, A E; Raponi, M

    2017-01-01

    Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) account for 16-34% of all health-care associated infections. This study aimed to assess the incidence rate of SSIs in children who underwent surgical procedures in an academic children's hospital in Italy. Prospective cohort study. We actively followed-up 0-17 year old children at 30 days of surgical procedures without implants conducted during one index week per quarter, from the second quarter of 2014, to the first quarter of 2016 (8 index weeks in total). Follow up data were collected by telephone interview, or derived by clinical records if patients were still hospitalized. SSIs were defined according to case definitions of Centers for Diseases Control, Atlanta, USA. We calculated cumulative incidence of SSIs per 100 surgical procedures, by patient characteristics, procedure characteristics, and quarter. To investigate variables associated with SSIs, we compared characteristics of procedures with SSIs with those of procedures without SSIs. Over the study period, SSI incidence was 1.0% (19 cases/1,830 surgical procedures). SSI incidence was significantly lower after ear, nose and throat procedures compared to all other procedures, and significantly decreased over time. Duration of surgery was a risk factor for SSIs; patients with SSIs had a significantly longer total length of stay (LOS), due to a prolonged post-operative LOS. As reported in adults, this study confirms that SSIs are associated with longer hospitalizations in children. Active surveillance of SSIs is an important component of the overall strategy to reduce the incidence of these infections in children.

  3. Pharmacotherapy follow-up: Role in active malaria surveillance in a travel medicine centre outside the transmission area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, R S; Brasil, P; Pina-Costa, A; Machado, C R; Damasceno, L S; Daniel-Ribeiro, C T; Guaraldo, L

    2017-06-13

    (87.1%) cure occurred less than 72 hours after treatment initiation. Pharmacotherapy follow-up of malaria treatment by surveillance activities is therefore important regarding information about treatment outcomes as well as patient safety, resulting in better patient care and reducing the chance of relapses. The results underscore its use as a tool for monitoring adherence and drug resistance outside an endemic area. Pharmacotherapy follow-up should be considered a useful malaria surveillance tool that can be developed by reference centres for comprehensive health care assistance and monitoring of therapeutic resistance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Impact of multiparametric endorectal coil prostate magnetic resonance imaging on disease reclassification among active surveillance candidates: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margel, David; Yap, Stanley A; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Klotz, Laurence; Haider, Masoom; Hersey, Karen; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre; Trachtenberg, John; Fleshner, Neil

    2012-04-01

    We report magnetic resonance imaging findings among unselected men with low risk prostate cancer before active surveillance. We prospectively enrolled men with low grade, low risk, localized prostate cancer. All patients underwent multiparametric endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging and were offered confirmatory biopsy within 1 year of imaging. The primary outcome was the impact of magnetic resonance imaging on identifying patients who were reclassified by confirmatory biopsy as no longer fulfilling active surveillance criteria. We further identified clinical parameters associated with reclassification. The cohort was stratified as patients with 1) normal magnetic resonance imaging, 2) cancer on magnetic resonance imaging concordant with initial biopsy (less than 1 cm) and 3) cancer on magnetic resonance imaging larger than 1 cm. We performed univariate analysis to assess differences in clinical parameters among the groups. Magnetic resonance imaging did not detect cancer in 23 cases (38%) while magnetic resonance imaging and initial biopsy were concordant in 24 (40%). Magnetic resonance imaging detected a 1 cm or larger lesion in 13 patients (22%). Of the cases 18 (32.14%) were reclassified. When no cancer was identified on magnetic resonance imaging, only 2 cases (3.5%) were reclassified. The positive and negative predictive values for magnetic resonance imaging predicting reclassification were 83% (95% CI 73-93) and 81% (95% CI 71-91), respectively. Prostate specific antigen density was increased in patients with lesions larger than 1 cm on magnetic resonance imaging compared to those with no cancer on imaging (median 0.15 vs 0.07 ng/ml/cc, p=0.016). Magnetic resonance imaging appears to have a high yield for predicting reclassification among men who elect active surveillance. Upon confirmation of our results magnetic resonance imaging may be used to better select and guide patients before active surveillance. Copyright © 2012 American Urological

  5. Towards data justice? The ambiguity of anti-surveillance resistance in political activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Dencik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Snowden leaks, first published in June 2013, provided unprecedented insights into the operations of state-corporate surveillance, highlighting the extent to which everyday communication is integrated into an extensive regime of control that relies on the ‘datafication’ of social life. Whilst such data-driven forms of governance have significant implications for citizenship and society, resistance to surveillance in the wake of the Snowden leaks has predominantly centred on techno-legal responses relating to the development and use of encryption and policy advocacy around privacy and data protection. Based on in-depth interviews with a range of social justice activists, we argue that there is a significant level of ambiguity around this kind of anti-surveillance resistance in relation to broader activist practices, and critical responses to the Snowden leaks have been confined within particular expert communities. Introducing the notion of ‘data justice’, we therefore go on to make the case that resistance to surveillance needs to be (reconceptualized on terms that can address the implications of this data-driven form of governance in relation to broader social justice agendas. Such an approach is needed, we suggest, in light of a shift to surveillance capitalism in which the collection, use and analysis of our data increasingly comes to shape the opportunities and possibilities available to us and the kind of society we live in.

  6. Towards data justice? The ambiguity of anti-surveillance resistance in political activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Dencik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Snowden leaks, first published in June 2013, provided unprecedented insights into the operations of state-corporate surveillance, highlighting the extent to which everyday communication is integrated into an extensive regime of control that relies on the ‘datafication’ of social life. Whilst such data-driven forms of governance have significant implications for citizenship and society, resistance to surveillance in the wake of the Snowden leaks has predominantly centred on techno-legal responses relating to the development and use of encryption and policy advocacy around privacy and data protection. Based on in-depth interviews with a range of social justice activists, we argue that there is a significant level of ambiguity around this kind of anti-surveillance resistance in relation to broader activist practices, and critical responses to the Snowden leaks have been confined within particular expert communities. Introducing the notion of ‘data justice’, we therefore go on to make the case that resistance to surveillance needs to be (reconceptualized on terms that can address the implications of this data-driven form of governance in relation to broader social justice agendas. Such an approach is needed, we suggest, in light of a shift to surveillance capitalism in which the collection, use and analysis of our data increasingly comes to shape the opportunities and possibilities available to us and the kind of society we live in.

  7. Surveillance and Management Repertoires in Distributed Forms of Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buser, Martine; Koch, Christian

    on the relations between changes in management and surveillance. Management is here understood as a repertoire of activities including coordination, assignment of tasks, coaching, control surveillance and others, drawing on the genre concept used by Orlikowsky & Yates (1994). It is understood that these attributes...

  8. Passive Surveillance of Ixodes scapularis (Say), Their Biting Activity, and Associated Pathogens in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang; Mather, Thomas N.; Hollingsworth, Craig S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006–2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the University of Massachusetts for PCR testing. The vast majority of these ticks were Ixodes scapularis from Massachusetts (N = 2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. Two TaqMan duplex qPCR assays were developed to test I. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. I. scapularis submissions were concentrated from Cape Cod, the eastern half of the state outside of the Boston metropolitan area, parts of Franklin and Hampshire counties along the Quabbin Reservoir watershed, and southwestern Berkshire county. Differences in seasonal activity pattern were observed for different developmental stages of I. scapularis. The largest proportion of tick bite victims were age 9 years and under. Nymphal ticks were found more often on lower extremities of their hosts, while more adult ticks were found on the head. Overall infection rate of B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, and B. microti in human-biting ticks was 29.6%, 4.6%, and 1.8%, respectively. B. burgdorferi-infected ticks were widely distributed, but A. phagocytophilum- and B. microti-infected I. scapularis were found mainly in the eastern half of the state. We found that 1.8%, 1.0%, and 0.4% of ticks were coinfected by B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi and B. microti, and A. phagocytophilum and B. microti, respectively, and 0.3% of ticks had triple coinfection. PMID:27248292

  9. Patient Perspective on Watchful Waiting/Active Surveillance for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinping; Neale, Anne Victoria; Dailey, Rhonda K.; Eggly, Susan; Schwartz, Kendra L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe prostate cancer treatment decision making, focusing on knowledge and attitudes toward observation, known as watchful waiting (WW) or active surveillance (AS), and reasons for not choosing WW/AS. Methods Semistructured in-person interviews were conducted with 21 men (14 black; 7 white) with recently diagnosed localized prostate cancer. Results All cancers were detected by prostate-specific antigen screening; 14 men had low-risk disease. Nineteen chose surgery or radiation treatment. The majority wanted to “get rid of” or “cure” the cancer by undergoing aggressive therapy, even with awareness of the potential for significant side effects. Most men seemed unaware of the uncertainty/controversies that aggressive treatment may not cure their cancer or improve their survival. Limited knowledge about WW/AS was common, and few remembered WW/AS being presented as a viable option. Rather, many men perceived it as “doing nothing.” Some men, who initially were inclined toward WW/AS, yielded to pressure from family, physicians, or both to choose aggressive treatment. Lack of physician support was a significant barrier to WW/AS. Conclusions The observational strategy (WW/AS) was not viewed as a reasonable approach, even for those with low-risk cancer. The desire for aggressive therapy may reflect the complex psychology associated with receiving a diagnosis of cancer and the limited supportive counseling received. Further efforts to better understand and educate patients and physicians may help men make informed and appropriate treatment decisions to maximize quality of life without compromising survival. PMID:23136314

  10. Evaluation of models predicting insignificant prostate cancer to select men for active surveillance of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L M; Neal, D E; Finelli, A; Davis, S; Bonner, C; Kapoor, J; Trachtenberg, J; Thomas, B; Hovens, C M; Costello, A J; Corcoran, N M

    2015-06-01

    In an era of personalized medicine, individualized risk assessment using easily available tools on the internet and the literature are appealing. However, uninformed use by clinicians and the public raises potential problems. Herein, we assess the performance of published models to predict insignificant prostate cancer (PCa), using a multi-national low-risk population that may be considered for active surveillance (AS) based on contemporary practice. Data on men suitable for AS but undergoing upfront radical prostatectomy were pooled from three international academic institutions in Cambridge (UK), Toronto (Canada) and Melbourne (Australia). Four predictive models identified from literature review were assessed for their ability to predict the presence of four definitions of insignificant PCa. Evaluation was performed using area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curves and Brier scores for discrimination, calibration curves and decision curve analysis. A cohort of 460 men meeting the inclusion criteria of all four nomograms was identified. The highest AUCs calculated for any of the four models ranged from 0.618 to 0.664, suggesting weak positive discrimination at best. Models had best discriminative ability for a definition of insignificant disease characterized by organ-confined Gleason score ⩽6 with a total volume ⩽0.5 ml or 1.3 ml. Calibration plots showed moderate range of predictive ability for the Kattan model though this model did not perform well at decision curve analysis. External assessment of models predicting insignificant PCa showed moderate performance at best. Uninformed interpretation may cause undue anxiety or false reassurance and they should be used with caution.

  11. [On the increase in mortality in Italy in 2015: analysis of seasonal mortality in the 32 municipalities included in the Surveillance system of daily mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelozzi, Paola; De' Donato, Francesca; Scortichini, Matteo; De Sario, Manuela; Asta, Federica; Agabiti, Nera; Guerra, Ranieri; de Martino, Annamaria; Davoli, Marina

    2016-01-01

    the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat) estimated an increase in mortality in Italy of 11.3% between January and August 2015 compared to the previous year. During summer 2015, an excess in mortality, attributed to heat waves, was observed. to estimate the excess mortality in 2015 using data from the rapid mortality surveillance system (SiSMG) operational in 32 Italian cities. time series models were used to estimate the excess in mortality among the elderly (65+ years) in 2015 by season (winter and summer). Excess mortality was defined as the difference between observed daily and expected (baseline) mortality for the five previous years (2009- 2013); seasonal mortality in 2015 was compared with mortality observed in 2012, 2013, and 2014. An analysis by cause of death (cardiovascular and respiratory), gender, and age group was carried out in Rome. data confirm an overall estimated excess in mortality of +11% in 2015. Seasonal analysis shows a greater excess in winter (+13%) compared to the summer period (+10%). The excess in winter deaths seems to be attributable to the peak in influenza rather than to low temperatures. Summer excess mortality was attributed to the heat waves of July and August 2015. The lower mortality registered in Italy during summer 2014 (-5.9%) may have contributed to the greater excess registered in 2015. In Rome, cause-specific analysis showed a higher excess among the very old (85+ years) mainly for cardiovascular and respiratory causes in winter. In summer, the excess was observed among both the elderly and in the adult population (35-64 years). results suggest the need for a more timely use of mortality data to evaluate the impact of different risk factors. Public health measures targeted to susceptible subgroups should be enhanced (e.g., Heat Prevention Plans, flu vaccination campaigns).

  12. How Can We Identify the Elimination of Infectious Diseases? Experience From an Active Measles Laboratory Surveillance System in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Un; Kang, Hae Ji; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Young-Joon; Park, Ok; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Sung Soon; Jeong, Eun Kyeong

    2015-11-01

    Global efforts have markedly decreased the disease burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. Many countries have made considerable progress toward the elimination of measles. As elimination is approached, the very low incidence achieved by high vaccination coverage has underscored the need for a sensitive and timely surveillance system. In the Republic of Korea, an active laboratory surveillance system (ALSS) was implemented to supplement the existing passive surveillance system in 2006. The ALSS connects 5 major commercial laboratories and the national measles reference laboratory, where referred samples with positive or equivocal results are retested. Annually, from 2009 to 2013, 3714 suspected cases were detected through the ALSS, an expansion of 8- to 57-fold, compared with only the passive surveillance system. The ALSS, with its sensitivity and timeliness, is a reasonable strategy to supplement the existing measles surveillance system and to help identify the elimination of measles.

  13. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  14. In Vitro Activity of Cefepime against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli, Viridans Group Streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae from a Cross-Canada Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E Low

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vitro activity of cefepime against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci obtained from an ongoing cross-Canada surveillance study.

  15. Surveillance for occupational respiratory diseases in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Vinicius C; Pinheiro, Germania A

    2015-06-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa.

  16. Is "Active Surveillance" an Acceptable Alternative?: A Qualitative Study of Couples' Decision Making about Early-Stage, Localized Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Chi L; McFall, Stephanie L; Byrd, Theresa L; Volk, Robert J; Cantor, Scott B; Kuban, Deborah A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to describe decision making by men and their partners regarding active surveillance (AS) or treatment for early-stage, localized prostate cancer. Fifteen couples were recruited from a cancer center multispecialty clinic, which gave full information about all options, including AS. Data were collected via individual, semi-structured telephone interviews. Most patients were white, non-Hispanic, had private insurance, had completed at least some college, and were aged 49-72 years. Ten chose AS. All partners were female, and couples reported strong marital satisfaction and cohesion. All couples described similar sequences of a highly emotional initial reaction and desire to be rid of the cancer, information seeking, and decision making. The choice of AS was built on a nuanced evaluation of the man's condition in which the couple differentiated prostate cancer from other cancers and early stage from later stages, wanted to avoid/delay side effects, and trusted the AS protocol to identify negative changes in time for successful treatment. Treated couples continued to want immediate treatment to remove the cancer. We concluded that having a partner's support for AS may help a man feel more comfortable with choosing and adhering to AS. Using decision aids that address both a man's and his partner's concerns regarding AS may increase its acceptability. Our research shows that some patients want to and do involve their partners in the decision-making process. Ethical issues are related to the tension between desire for partner involvement and the importance of the patient as autonomous decision-maker. The extended period of decision making, particularly for AS, is also an ethical issue that requires additional support for patients and couples in the making of fully informed choices that includes AS.

  17. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the senate, authorizing the approval of the agreement between the French government and the preliminary commission of the organization of the nuclear test ban treaty, about the conduct of the activities relative to the international control facilities, including the post-certification activities; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de Loi, adopte par le Senat, autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et la Commission preparatoire de l'organisation du traite d'interdiction complete des essais nucleaires sur la conduite des activites relatives aux installations de surveillance international, y compris les activites posterieures a la certification (ensemble une annexe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, R

    2003-12-01

    France and the preliminary commission of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty organization (CTBTO) concluded on July 13, 2001, an agreement about the conduct of the activities relative to the international surveillance facilities. This agreement aims at organizing the modalities of implementation of the surveillance activities carried out by the technical secretariat of the preliminary committee of CTBTO in the French territory. This document is the report of the French national assembly about the project of law for the approval of this agreement. It presents the difficult implementation of an international test ban system, the French commitment in the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT), and the main dispositions of the agreement of July 13, 2001. (J.S.)

  18. [Activity of sanitary surveillances/offices in Warsaw at the time of the second republic of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, Warsaw, the capital of the rebirth country, was a neglected town as regards sanitary conditions. The genesis of this situation dates back to the period of the national bondage by the Russian partitioner, and since 1915 by the German invader who did not care about the problems associated with public health. The sanitary and hygienic conditions worsened significantly in 1916, after incorporating into Warsaw large out-of-town regions whose housing was of the rural character with numerous wooden cottages, field roads, without any sanitary sewage system. Poor municipal sanitary-maintenance conditions and infectious diseases spreading in Warsaw made the Town Authorities implement preventive action and entrust sanitary surveillances with this difficult task. These surveillances were set up at the time of the First World War, and after 1920 were changed into sanitary offices. Their duties included control of acute infectious diseases, sanitary inspection of living quarters, sites of production and selling of food articles, plants, service outlets, shops of a different character, as well as surveillance of food purchased by the inhabitants. In each sanitary office a doctor was employed who supervised the work of one, two or three sanitary inspectors.

  19. Treatment trends for retinopathy of prematurity in the UK: active surveillance study of infants at risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gillian G W; Xing, Wen; Butler, Lucilla; Long, Vernon; Reddy, Aravind

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment and describe current treatment patterns in the UK. Design Nationwide population-based case ascertainment study via the British Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit and a national collaborative ROP special interest group. Practitioners completed a standardised case report form (CRF). Setting All paediatric ophthalmologists providing screening and/or treatment for retinopathy in the UK were invited to take part. Participants Any baby with ROP treated or referred for treatment between 1 December 2013 and 30 November 2014, treated with laser, cryotherapy, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor or vitrectomy/scleral buckling, or a combination. Main outcome measure Incidence of ROP requiring treatment. Results We received 370 CRFs; 327 were included. Denominator from epidemiological data: 8112 infants with birth weight of <1500 g. The incidence of ROP requiring treatment was 4% (327/8112, 95% CI 3.6% to 4.5%). Median gestational age was 25 weeks (IQR 24.3–26.1), and median birth weight 706 g (IQR 620–821). Median age at first treatment was 80 days (IQR 71–96). 204 right eyes (62.39%) had type 1 ROP, and 27 (8.26%) had aggressive posterior ROP. Infants were also treated for milder disease: 9 (2.75%) right eyes were treated for type 2 ROP, and 74 (22.63%) for disease milder than type 1 with plus or preplus, which we defined here as ‘type 2 plus’ disease. First-line treatment was diode laser photoablation of the avascular retina in 90.5% and injection of VEGF inhibitor in 8%. Conclusions ROP treatment incidence in the UK is 2.5 times higher than previously estimated. 8% of treated infants receive intravitreal VEGF inhibitor, currently unlicensed. Research is needed urgently to establish safety and efficacy of this approach. Earlier treatment and increasing numbers of surviving premature infants require an increase in appropriate eye care facilities and

  20. The European surveillance activities EARSS and ESAC in the context of ABS International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Gercek, Sigrid; Mittermayer, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Development of resistance obstructs the successful use of antimicrobial drugs, since shortly after each and every introduction of a new antibiotic resistant pathogens have emerged. The hope of being able to reverse or at least slow down the occurrence of antibiotic resistance has led to a number of actions and initiatives. The project "ABS International - Implementing antibiotic strategies for appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitals in member states of the European Union", together with the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) and the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC), covers a large proportion of possible actions against antibiotic resistance. The data generated by EARSS and ESAC are an essential prerequisite for targeted interventions to cope with the problem of antibiotic resistance. The project ABS International constitutes an impressive initiative to optimize the situation in hospitals in nine European member states.

  1. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Snidaro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment.

  2. A lifestyle intervention among elderly men on active surveillance for non-aggressive prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Anne Kirstine; Hansen, Rikke Dalgaard; Borre, Michael;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognosis for men with non-aggressive prostate cancer is good, and several studies have investigated the impact of lifestyle changes including physical activity and diet on the prognosis. Despite positive results in animal studies and a few human interventions with whole-grain rye...... on markers of prostate cancer progression, the feasibility of trials investigating such dietary changes in combination with physical activity remains largely unstudied. The primary aim was to investigate the feasibility of an intervention with high whole-grain rye intake and vigorous physical activity for 6......-grain rye and 3 × 45 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity. The duration of the intervention was 6 months and end of follow-up 12 months after baseline. Clinic visits were scheduled at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months after baseline. Compliance with the intervention was evaluated by diaries, food...

  3. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  4. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  5. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad I. Hammoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER. VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1 a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2 an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs and targets of interest (TOIs by movement type and geolocation; and (3 a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV. VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  6. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advertising. 981.441 Section 981.441 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant...

  7. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  8. A surveillance sector review applied to infectious diseases at a country level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easther Sally

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new International Health Regulations (IHR require World Health Organization (WHO member states to assess their core capacity for surveillance. Such reviews also have the potential to identify important surveillance gaps, improve the organisation of disparate surveillance systems and to focus attention on upstream hazards, determinants and interventions. Methods We developed a surveillance sector review method for evaluating all of the surveillance systems and related activities across a sector, in this case those concerned with infectious diseases in New Zealand. The first stage was a systematic description of these surveillance systems using a newly developed framework and classification system. Key informant interviews were conducted to validate the available information on the systems identified. Results We identified 91 surveillance systems and related activities in the 12 coherent categories of infectious diseases examined. The majority (n = 40 or 44% of these were disease surveillance systems. They covered all categories, particularly for more severe outcomes including those resulting in death or hospitalisations. Except for some notifiable diseases and influenza, surveillance of less severe, but important infectious diseases occurring in the community was largely absent. There were 31 systems (34% for surveillance of upstream infectious disease hazards, including risk and protective factors. This area tended to have many potential gaps and lack integration, partly because such systems were operated by a range of different agencies, often outside the health sector. There were fewer surveillance systems for determinants, including population size and characteristics (n = 9, and interventions (n = 11. Conclusions It was possible to create and populate a workable framework for describing all the infectious diseases surveillance systems and related activities in a single developed country and to identify potential

  9. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  10. [Activity of sanitary surveillances in Vilnius at the time of the Second Republic of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, in March 1922, the city of Vilnius together with the Vilnius Region was incorporated into Poland. Sanitary and health negligence was one of the main problems of the city. The genesis of that situation dates back to the 120-year national bondage, when the city was under the Russian rule. Since 1915 it was occupied by the German invader, and from January to April 1919 it belonged to Soviet Russia. The legacy left by this epoch concerned bad housing conditions, problems with removal of impurities, scarcity of fresh water supply, uneven and dirt roads, which along with other bionegative factors resulted in dissemination of contagious diseases and occurrence of other health risks. In Vilnius of the interwar period, similarly to other big cities in Poland, sanitary surveillances played a significant role in controlling acute contagious diseases, inspecting sanitary conditions of living quarters, service outlets, industrial plants, sites of production and selling food articles, as well as surveillance of food. Municipal doctors supervised the work of sanitary inspectors in each sanitary office.

  11. High heterogeneity in methods used for the laboratory confirmation of pertussis diagnosis among European countries, 2010: integration of epidemiological and laboratory surveillance must include standardisation of methodologies and quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; Glismann, S; Bacci, S

    2012-08-09

    Despite extensive childhood immunisation, pertussis remains one of the world’s leading causes of vaccine preventable deaths. The current methods used for laboratory diagnosis of pertussis include bacterial culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serology. We conducted a questionnaire survey to identify variations in the laboratory methods and protocols used among participating countries included in the European surveillance network for vaccine-preventable diseases(EUVAC.NET). In February 2010, we performed the survey using a web-based questionnaire and sent it to the country experts of 25 European Union countries,and two European Economic Area (EEA) countries,Norway and Iceland. The questionnaire consisted of 37 questions which covered both general information on surveillance methods and detailed laboratory methods used. A descriptive analysis was performed.Questionnaires were answered by all 27 contacted countries. Nineteen countries had pertussis reference laboratories at the national level; their functions varied from performing diagnosis to providing technical advice for routine microbiology laboratories. Culture,PCR and serology were used in 17, 18 and 20 countries,respectively. For PCR, nine laboratories used insertion sequence IS481 as the target gene, which is present in multiple copies in the Bordetella pertussis genome and thus has a greater sensitivity over single copy targets, but has been proved not to be specific for B.pertussis. Antibodies directed against pertussis toxin(PT) are specific for B. pertussis infections. For ELISA serology, only 13 countries’ laboratories used purified PT as coating antigen and 10 included World Health Organization (WHO) or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reference sera in their tests. This present survey shows that methods used for laboratory confirmation of pertussis differ widely among European countries and that there is a great heterogeneity of the reference

  12. The presence of primary circulating prostate cells is associated with upgrading and upstaging in patients eligible for active surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nigel P; Reyes, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Cynthia; Aedo, Socrates; Jacob, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a considered treatment option for men with low or very low-risk prostate cancer. However, on repeat biopsy some 25% were upgraded and recommended for active treatment. We compare the presence or absence of primary circulating prostate cells (CPCs) with the clinical pathological findings after radical prostatectomy in men fulfilling the criteria for active surveillance and the risk of reclassification for active observation (AO). Methods and patients A single centre observational study was done involving 102 men who fulfilled the Epstein criteria for AS and underwent radical prostatectomy as mono-therapy for prostate cancer. The patients were classified according to the presence or absence of CPCs detected immediately before the prostate biopsy. Mononuclear cells were obtained by differential gel centrifugation of 8 mL of venous blood and CPCs identified using immunocytochemistry with anti-PSA and anti-P504S. A positive CPC test was defined as at least 1 PSA (+), P504S (+) cell detected/blood sample. The surgical specimen was analysed for Gleason score and pathological stage. Results A total of 25 out of 102 (24.5%) men were upgraded based on the pathological findings of the surgical specimen. Among which 45 (44%) men were positive for CPCs. They were younger, 63.9 versus 68.1 years (p = 0.0148), had a lower frequency of pT2 or lower disease (64.4% versus 91.2% p <0.001), higher median Gleason scores (6 versus 5 p < 0.001) in both the biopsy and surgical specimens, and a higher frequency of upgrading 44% versus 9% (p < 0.001) Conclusions In men fulfilling the criteria for AS, the presence of primary CPCs suggests a high risk for disease upgrade and therefore these men may not be ideal for observational therapy. Further studies with a larger population are warranted. PMID:28144285

  13. 76 FR 40736 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference on the Role of Active Surveillance in the Management of Men...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH State-of-the-Science Conference on the Role of Active Surveillance in the Management of Men With Localized Prostate Cancer ACTION: Notice. Notice is hereby given of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), ``State-of-the-Science Conference on the Role of Active...

  14. Solar attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-08-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control, which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  15. Understanding young adult physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in community colleges and 4-year post-secondary institutions: A cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lust Katherine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young adults experience many adverse health behavior changes as they transition from adolescence into adulthood. A better understanding of the relationships between health promoting and risky health behaviors may aid in the development of health promotion interventions for various types of young adult post-secondary students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity among 2-year and 4-year college students. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using 2007 survey data, collected as part of an on-going post-secondary health surveillance system in Minnesota. Students were randomly selected to participant from 14 Minnesota colleges and universities (six 2-year community and/or technical colleges, eight 4-year post-secondary institutions. The 2007 surveillance data included 9,931 respondents. Results The prevalence of demographic characteristics and health behaviors (e.g., physical activity, tobacco use differed between young adults attending 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions; in general, those attending 2-year institutions are representative of more at-risk populations. Overall, higher levels of moderate, vigorous and strengthening physical activity were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and lower levels of smoking. In general, despite the disparities in the prevalence of these risk behaviors, the associations between the behaviors did not differ substantially between 2-year and 4-year post-secondary populations. Conclusions These findings illustrate links between leading risk behaviors. Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors among young adults may warrant further consideration. Overall, future research is needed to support and inform young adult health promotion efforts that may be implemented in a wide array of post-secondary institutions.

  16. Surveillance of waste disposal activity at sea using satellite ocean color imagers: GOCI and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Yang, Dong Beom; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Yang, Sung Ryull; Chung, Hee Woon; Kim, Chang Joon; Kim, Young-Il; Chung, Chang Soo; Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Park, Young-Je; Moon, Jeong-Eon

    2012-09-01

    Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua observations of the variation in ocean color at the sea surface were utilized to monitor the impact of nutrient-rich sewage sludge disposal in the oligotrophic area of the Yellow Sea. MODIS revealed that algal blooms persisted in the spring annually at the dump site in the Yellow Sea since year 2000 to the present. A number of implications of using products of the satellite ocean color imagers were exploited here based on the measurements in the Yellow Sea. GOCI observes almost every hour during the daylight period, every day since June 2011. Therefore, GOCI provides a powerful tool to monitor waste disposal at sea in real time. Tracking of disposal activity from a large tanker was possible hour by hour from the GOCI timeseries images compared to MODIS. Smaller changes in the color of the ocean surface can be easily observed, as GOCI resolves images at smaller scales in space and time in comparison to polar orbiting satellites, e.g., MODIS. GOCI may be widely used to monitor various marine activities in the sea, including waste disposal activity from ships.

  17. Triple Active Antiretroviral Regimen Including Enfuvirtide Via the Biojector is Effective and Safe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Loutfy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For full HIV virological suppression, three fully active antiretroviral agents are required. New drug classes should be included to ensure that agents are fully active. The addition of enfuvirtide and efavirenz to the present patient’s new antiretroviral regimen ensured that two fully active agents were in use in the setting of a moderate degree of nucleoside resistance and a high level of protease resistance, and where non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were still fully active. Both viral load and CD4 count responded favourably to this regimen. The patient received support from physicians and clinic staff in the introduction and use of enfuvirtide. To reduce injection site reactions, a needle-free injection system (Biojector proved effective.

  18. Severe morbidity after antiretroviral (ART) initiation: active surveillance in HIV care programs, the IeDEA West Africa collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Yao; Zannou Djimon, Marcel; Messou, Eugène; Balestre, Eric; Kouakou, Martial; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Ahouada, Carin; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Dabis, François; Lewden, Charlotte; Minga, Albert

    2015-04-09

    The causes of severe morbidity in health facilities implementing Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) programmes are poorly documented in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to describe severe morbidity among HIV-infected patients after ART initiation, based on data from an active surveillance system established within a network of specialized care facilities in West African cities. Within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA)--West Africa collaboration, we conducted a prospective, multicenter data collection that involved two facilities in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and one in Cotonou, Benin. Among HIV-infected adults receiving ART, events were recorded using a standardized form. A simple case-definition of severe morbidity (death, hospitalization, fever>38°5C, Karnofsky indexART in ambulatory HIV care facilities in West Africa. Meanwhile, additional studies are needed due to the undiagnosed aspect of severe morbidity in substantial proportion.

  19. DATA SHARING REPORT CHARACTERIZATION OF POPULATION 7: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, DRY ACTIVE WASTE, AND MISCELLANEOUS DEBRIS, SURVEILLANCE AND MAINTENANCE PROJECT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpenau, Evan M

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  20. Data sharing report characterization of population 7: Personal protective equipment, dry active waste, and miscellaneous debris, surveillance and maintenance project Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpenau, Evan M. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  1. 2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. Minimal residual disease surveillance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelstein-Harlev, Shimrit; Fineman, Riva

    2014-10-01

    Achievement of complete response (CR) to therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has become a feasible goal, directly correlating with prolonged survival. It has been established that the classic definition of CR actually encompasses a variety of disease loads, and more sensitive multiparameter flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction methods can detect the disease burden with a much higher sensitivity. Detection of malignant cells with a sensitivity of 1 tumor cell in 10,000 cells (10(-4)), using the abovementioned sophisticated techniques, is the current cutoff for minimal residual disease (MRD). Tumor burdens lower than 10(-4) are defined as MRD-negative. Several studies in CLL have determined the achievement of MRD negativity as an independent favorable prognostic factor, leading to prolonged disease-free and overall survival, regardless of the treatment protocol or the presence of other pre-existing prognostic indicators. Minimal residual disease evaluation using flow cytometry is a sensitive and applicable approach which is expected to become an integral part of future prospective trials in CLL designed to assess the role of MRD surveillance in treatment tailoring.

  5. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed.

  6. Minimal Residual Disease Surveillance in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimrit Ringelstein-Harlev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Achievement of complete response (CR to therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL has become a feasible goal, directly correlating with prolonged survival. It has been established that the classic definition of CR actually encompasses a variety of disease loads, and more sensitive multiparameter flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction methods can detect the disease burden with a much higher sensitivity. Detection of malignant cells with a sensitivity of 1 tumor cell in 10,000 cells (10–4, using the abovementioned sophisticated techniques, is the current cutoff for minimal residual disease (MRD. Tumor burdens lower than 10–4 are defined as MRD-negative. Several studies in CLL have determined the achievement of MRD negativity as an independent favorable prognostic factor, leading to prolonged disease-free and overall survival, regardless of the treatment protocol or the presence of other pre-existing prognostic indicators. Minimal residual disease evaluation using flow cytometry is a sensitive and applicable approach which is expected to become an integral part of future prospective trials in CLL designed to assess the role of MRD surveillance in treatment tailoring.

  7. Routine active surveillance for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from rectal swabs: diagnostic implications of multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, W; Marais, M; Ahmed, K; Marcus, L

    2014-10-01

    Screening for carriage of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is considered an important infection prevention and control strategy. To date, screening has relied primarily on culture although polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based screening is gaining momentum. Currently there is no gold standard screening method and consequently it is important to consider the implications of different diagnostic strategies used in active surveillance. To assess the utility of a multiplex PCR screening strategy, as a component of active surveillance, for detection of CPE in patients admitted to various hospitals. A single rectal swab was collected from patients at various hospitals, considered to be at risk of colonization with CPE. Comparison of a modified US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention culture protocol with a PCR-based assay for the detection of the blaNDM, blaKPC, blaOxA-48-like, blaVIM, blaIMP, and blaGES genes was performed. Of the 251 consecutive rectal swabs collected, 30 were PCR positive for one or more carbapenemase genes. Fifteen (50%) were culture positive and CPE only accounted for six isolates. PCR demonstrated excellent sensitivity (100%), specificity (89.8%), and negative predictive value (100%) for detection of CPE, but a positive predictive value of only 46.6% and 16.6% for detection of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negatives and CPE, respectively. The apparent excellent performance characteristics of PCR for detection of CPE from rectal swabs must be tempered by knowledge of CPE prevalence and be interpreted within a defined epidemiological context. Further comparative research with culture, evaluating the clinical utility of PCR-based assays as a screening tool, is needed. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A single centre experience of active surveillance as management strategy for low-risk prostate cancer in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, J C; Daly, P J; White, S; Morrin, M; Smyth, G P; O'Neill, B D P; Power, R E

    2014-09-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a management strategy for addressing the widely acknowledged problem of over diagnosis and over treatment of clinically indolent prostate cancer. A total of 80 patients were enrolled on the AS program in our institution between January 2008 and June 2012. All data were collected prospectively in a secure database. The mean age of patients enrolled was 62.7 years (range 50-72). Median PSA at enrolment was 5.6 ng/mL (range 1.2-13.4). The mean follow-up was 32 months (range 2-54). In total, 85 % of patients had a repeat biopsy after 1-year with 30 % having another biopsy after 3 years. Overall, 45 % of patients remain on AS. In the remainder; 42.5 % of patients have been removed from AS for definitive treatment, while 8.75 % of patients are now on watchful waiting, 2.5 % of patients self discharged from the program and one patient died of cardiovascular disease. The prostate cancer specific survival rate is 100 %. Reasons for removal from AS and referral for treatment were; 67.6 % of patients had upgrade of disease on repeat biopsy, 17.6 % of patients had PSA progression, 11.8 % patients had progression of disease on MRI, and one patient developed a palpable nodule. Regarding definitive treatment; 52.9 % of patients have been for referred for external beam radiotherapy, 14.7 % have been referred for brachytherapy, 29.4 % have been referred for surgery and one patient has refused definitive treatment. Our findings to date support active surveillance as a valid strategy for early, localised prostate cancer.

  9. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-02-01

    In the geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances caused by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control system with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. Roll/yaw control is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators. The design also includes an active nutation damping method.

  10. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...... pressure, fitness activities, sleep cycles, etc. can be broadcasted, e.g. as tweets on Twitter or status updates on Facebook. Such quantification practices with monitoring technologies become co-producing when individuals constitute themselves as subjects engaging in self-tracking, self-care, and self......, and gamification modulate the enactment of selfhood? How does self-surveillance contribute to corresponding notions of self-optimization and self-cultivation such as “the good life”, “sustainable lifestyle”, “healthy living”, “good learning” and “work productivity”?...

  11. Molecular mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavones includes activation of promiscuous nuclear receptors. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Moore, David D; Banz, William J; Mezei, Orsolya; Shay, Neil F

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of soy has been demonstrated to reduce circulating cholesterol levels, most notably reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic individuals. The component or components that might be responsible for this effect is still a matter of debate or controversy among many researchers. Candidate agents include an activity of soy protein itself, bioactive peptides produced during the digestive process, or the soy isoflavones. Although soy intake may provide other health benefits including preventative or remediative effects on cancer, osteoporosis and symptoms of menopause, this review will focus on isoflavones as agents affecting lipid metabolism. Isoflavones were first discovered as a bioactive agent disrupting estrogen action in female sheep, thereby earning the often-used term 'phytoestrogens'. Subsequent work confirmed the ability of isoflavones to bind to estrogen receptors. Along with the cholesterol-lowering effect of soy intake, research that is more recent has pointed to a beneficial antidiabetic effect of soy intake, perhaps mediated by soy isoflavones. The two common categories of antidiabetic drugs acting on nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are the fibrates and glitazones. We and others have recently asked the research question 'do the soy isoflavones have activities as either "phytofibrates" or "phytoglitazones"?' Such an activity should be able to be confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. In both the in vivo and in vitro cases, this action has indeed been confirmed. Further work suggests a possible action of isoflavones similar to the nonestrogenic ligands that bind the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs). Recently, these receptors have been demonstrated to contribute to lipolytic processes. Finally, evaluation of receptor activation studies suggests that thyroid receptor activation may provide additional clues explaining the metabolic action of isoflavones. The recent

  12. Surveillance, Snowden, and Big Data: Capacities, consequences, critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lyon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Snowden revelations about National Security Agency surveillance, starting in 2013, along with the ambiguous complicity of internet companies and the international controversies that followed provide a perfect segue into contemporary conundrums of surveillance and Big Data. Attention has shifted from late C20th information technologies and networks to a C21st focus on data, currently crystallized in “Big Data.” Big Data intensifies certain surveillance trends associated with information technology and networks, and is thus implicated in fresh but fluid configurations. This is considered in three main ways: One, the capacities of Big Data (including metadata intensify surveillance by expanding interconnected datasets and analytical tools. Existing dynamics of influence, risk-management, and control increase their speed and scope through new techniques, especially predictive analytics. Two, while Big Data appears to be about size, qualitative change in surveillance practices is also perceptible, accenting consequences. Important trends persist – the control motif, faith in technology, public-private synergies, and user-involvement – but the future-orientation increasingly severs surveillance from history and memory and the quest for pattern-discovery is used to justify unprecedented access to data. Three, the ethical turn becomes more urgent as a mode of critique. Modernity's predilection for certain definitions of privacy betrays the subjects of surveillance who, so far from conforming to the abstract, disembodied image of both computing and legal practices, are engaged and embodied users-in-relation whose activities both fuel and foreclose surveillance.

  13. Surveillance of tedizolid activity and resistance: In vitro susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens collected over 5 years from the United States and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaci, Mekki; Sahm, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    In vitro activity of tedizolid and comparators against 11,231 Gram-positive clinical isolates from the United States (84 centers) and Europe (115 centers) were summarized as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance program between 2009 and 2013. Susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretations were based on CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing criteria. Tedizolid inhibited 99.7% of all isolates at MIC ≤0.5 mg/L; activity was similar regardless of methicillin or vancomycin resistance phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci, respectively. Tedizolid MIC >1 mg/L was reported for 3 S. aureus, 4 coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 2 enterococcal isolates; all streptococci were inhibited at MIC ≤0.5 mg/L. Tedizolid was ≥4-fold more potent than linezolid against all groups, including resistant phenotypes. Tedizolid had potent/stable activity against a large, contemporary collection of Gram-positive clinical isolates, with low rates of resistance.

  14. Recognizing suspicious activities in infrared imagery using appearance-based features and the theory of hidden conditional random fields for outdoor perimeter surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogotis, Savvas; Palaskas, Christos; Ioannidis, Dimosthenis; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Likothanassis, Spiros

    2015-11-01

    This work aims to present an extended framework for automatically recognizing suspicious activities in outdoor perimeter surveilling systems based on infrared video processing. By combining size-, speed-, and appearance-based features, like the local phase quantization and the histograms of oriented gradients, actions of small duration are recognized and used as input, along with spatial information, for modeling target activities using the theory of hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs). HCRFs are used to classify an observation sequence into the most appropriate activity label class, thus discriminating high-risk activities like trespassing from zero risk activities, such as loitering outside the perimeter. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated with experimental results in various scenarios that represent suspicious activities in perimeter surveillance systems.

  15. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  16. What is the optimal definition of misclassification in patients with very low-risk prostate cancer eligible for active surveillance? Results from a multi-institutional series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandaglia, G.; Ploussard, G.; Isbarn, H.; Suardi, N.; Visschere, P.J. De; Futterer, J.J.; Ghadjar, P.; Massard, C.; Ost, P.; Sooriakumaran, P.; Surcel, C.I.; Bergh, R.C. van den; Montorsi, F.; Ficarra, V.; Giannarini, G.; Briganti, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of unfavorable prostate cancer in active surveillance (AS) candidates is nonnegligible. However, what represents an adverse pathologic outcome in this setting is unknown. We aimed at assessing the optimal definition of misclassification and its effect on recurrence in AS candida

  17. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. A novel method of surgical site infection surveillance after cardiac surgery by active participation of stake holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Fatima; Mahmood, Syed Faisal; Asif, Shaheen; Rahim, Noureen; Khan, Ghufranullah; Hanif, Bashir

    2012-06-01

    We describe a comprehensive surveillance system involving infection control practitioners, surgeons, administrative staff, and patients aimed at improving the postdischarge surveillance of surgical site infections. The system was able to detect 22 infections out of 538 procedures, 95% of which were detected during the postdischarge period.

  10. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in the AFHSC-GEIS network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William G; Pavlin, Julie A; Hospenthal, Duane; Murray, Clinton K; Jerke, Kurt; Hawksworth, Anthony; Metzgar, David; Myers, Todd; Walsh, Douglas; Wu, Max; Ergas, Rosa; Chukwuma, Uzo; Tobias, Steven; Klena, John; Nakhla, Isabelle; Talaat, Maha; Maves, Ryan; Ellis, Michael; Wortmann, Glenn; Blazes, David L; Lindler, Luther

    2011-03-04

    International infectious disease surveillance has been conducted by the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) for many years and has been consolidated within the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) since 1998. This includes activities that monitor the presence of antimicrobial resistance among pathogens. AFHSC-GEIS partners work within DoD military treatment facilities and collaborate with host-nation civilian and military clinics, hospitals and university systems. The goals of these activities are to foster military force health protection and medical diplomacy. Surveillance activities include both community-acquired and health care-associated infections and have promoted the development of surveillance networks, centers of excellence and referral laboratories. Information technology applications have been utilized increasingly to aid in DoD-wide global surveillance for diseases significant to force health protection and global public health. This section documents the accomplishments and activities of the network through AFHSC-GEIS partners in 2009.

  12. The role of state public health agencies in national efforts to track workplace hazards and the relevance of state experiences to nanomaterial worker surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Rachel; Materna, Barbara; Beckman, Stella; Katz, Elizabeth; Shusterman, Dennis; Harrison, Robert

    2011-06-01

    This essay examines the role state public health agencies could play in the surveillance of emerging workplace hazards including nanotechnology. This essay describes existing state occupational health surveillance programs in order to demonstrate their potential applicability, and limitations, in regards to nanomaterial worker surveillance. State public health agencies have access to information and an ability to put surveillance information to use in ways that complement those of industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and federal partners. Some state public health agencies have significant experience with occupational health surveillance and are therefore valuable partners in the development and implementation of nanotechnology worker surveillance programs. Including states in emerging hazard surveillance enhances surveillance activities and builds state capacity to help workers.

  13. A universal scaling law of black hole activity including gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.

    2017-09-01

    Previous works showed a correlation among radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity and black hole (BH) mass from stellar-mass BHs in X-ray binaries to supermassive BHs in active galactic nuclei, which leads to the so-called Fundamental Plane of BH activity. However, there are two competing explanations for this Fundamental Plane, including the jet-dominated model and the disc-jet model. Thus, the physical origin of this Fundamental Plane remains unknown. In this paper, we show that the X-ray luminosities, radio luminosities and BH masses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and M82 X-1 also show a similar distribution. The universal scaling law among stellar-mass, intermediate and supermassive BH systems, together with the fact that the radio and X-ray emission of GRBs originates from relativistic jets, reveals that the Fundamental Plane of BH activity is controlled by a jet, i.e. the radio and X-ray emission is mainly from the jet. Our work also suggests that the jets are scale-invariant with respect to the BH mass.

  14. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  15. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  16. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, An; Porambage, Pawani; Gurtov, Andrei; Ylianttila, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. PMID:26729130

  17. Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Braeken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side.

  18. Global Assessment of the Activity of Tigecycline against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens between 2004 and 2014 as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Anna; Calà, Cinzia; Fasciana, Teresa; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Surveillance Trial (TEST) is to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activities of tigecycline and other contemporary agents against clinically relevant pathogens. This paper presents antimicrobial activity data from the TEST study between 2004 and 2014 and examines global rates of MDR Gram-negative isolates, including Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and members of the Enterobacteriaceae, during this time. Our results show that tigecycline retained in vitro activity against many MDR Gram-negative pathogens over the study period, while rates of MDR A. baumannii increased globally. Using these findings, we hope to highlight the current status of multidrug resistance in medical facilities worldwide.

  19. Multiview human activity recognition system based on spatiotemporal template for video surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Alok Kumar Singh; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2015-09-01

    An efficient view invariant framework for the recognition of human activities from an input video sequence is presented. The proposed framework is composed of three consecutive modules: (i) detect and locate people by background subtraction, (ii) view invariant spatiotemporal template creation for different activities, (iii) and finally, template matching is performed for view invariant activity recognition. The foreground objects present in a scene are extracted using change detection and background modeling. The view invariant templates are constructed using the motion history images and object shape information for different human activities in a video sequence. For matching the spatiotemporal templates for various activities, the moment invariants and Mahalanobis distance are used. The proposed approach is tested successfully on our own viewpoint dataset, KTH action recognition dataset, i3DPost multiview dataset, MSR viewpoint action dataset, VideoWeb multiview dataset, and WVU multiview human action recognition dataset. From the experimental results and analysis over the chosen datasets, it is observed that the proposed framework is robust, flexible, and efficient with respect to multiple views activity recognition, scale, and phase variations.

  20. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  1. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  2. Secure surveillance videotapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pepper, S. [International Safeguards Project Office, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system`s tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal.

  3. 'It's not like you just had a heart attack': decision-making about active surveillance by men with localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Robert J; McFall, Stephanie L; Cantor, Scott B; Byrd, Theresa L; Le, Yen-Chi L; Kuban, Deborah A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2014-04-01

    Growing recognition that active surveillance (AS) is a reasonable management option for many men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer led us to describe patients' conceptualizations of AS and reasons for their treatment decisions. Men were patients of a multidisciplinary prostate cancer clinic at a large tertiary cancer center where patients are routinely briefed on treatment options, including AS. We conducted a thematic analysis of interviews with 15 men who had chosen AS and 15 men who received radiation or surgery. Men who chose AS described it as an organized process with a rigorous and reassuring protocol of periodic testing, with potential for subsequent and timely decision-making about treatment. AS was seen as prolonging their current good health and function with treatment still possible later. Rationales for choosing AS included trusting their physician's monitoring, 'buying time' without experiencing adverse effects of treatment, waiting for better treatments, and seeing their cancer as very low risk. Men recognized the need to justify their choice to others because it seemed contrary to the impulse to immediately treat cancer. Descriptions of AS by men who chose surgery or radiation were less specific about the testing regimen. Getting rid of the cancer and having a cure were paramount for them. Men fully informed of their treatment options for localized prostate cancer have a comprehensive understanding of the purpose of AS. Slowing the decision-making process may enhance the acceptability of AS. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Thermal surveillance of active volcanoes. [infrared scanner recordings of thermal anomalies of Mt. Baker volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. By the end of 1973, aerial infrared scanner traverses for thermal anomaly recordings of all Cascade Range volcanoes were essentially completed. Amplitude level slices of the Mount Baker anomalies were completed and compiled at a scale of 1:24,000, thus producing, for the first time, an accurate map of the distribution and intensity of thermal activity on Mount Baker. The major thermal activity is concentrated within the crater south of the main summit and although it is characterized by intensive solfataric activity and warm ground, it is largely subglacial, causing the development of sizable glacier perforation features. The outgoing radiative flux from the east breach anomalies is sufficient to account for the volume of ice melted to form the glacier perforations. DCP station 6251 has been monitoring a thermally anomalous area on the north slope of Mount Baker. The present thermal activity of Mount Baker accounts for continuing hydrothermal alteration in the crater south of the main summit and recurrent debris avalanches from Sherman Peak on its south rim. The infrared anomalies mapped as part of the experiment SR 251 are considered the basic evidence of the subglacial heating which was the probable triggering mechanism of an avalanche down Boulder Glacier on August 20-21, 1973.

  5. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on bluetongue monitoring and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegeman, Arjan; Bøtner, Anette; Savini, Giovanni

    for the purpose of monitoring and surveillance programmes for bluetongue. A systematic literature review and a review of monitoring and surveillance data from European Union Member States was performed in order to estimate the prevalences observed in the Member States. The prevalences observed in areas that have...... there is no scientific evidence that suggests an optimal size of the relevant geographic unit for BTV monitoring and surveillance, since it depends on many factors, including the goal of the surveillance programmes. Early warning based on passive surveillance will take place irrespective of the size of the geographical...... unit but, when based on active surveillance, it is best targeted at regions considered at risk for introduction, using small geographical units, a high sampling frequency and sample size. For estimating the impact of interventions on the prevalence of infected animals, smaller areas result in more...

  6. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of insignificant prostate cancer in potential candidates for active surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Heon; Jeong, Jae Yong; Lee, Sin Woo; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Jeon, Seong Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) could help improve the prediction of insignificant prostate cancer in candidates for active surveillance (AS). Enrolled in this retrospective study were 287 AS candidates who underwent DW-MRI before radical prostatectomy. Patients were stratified into two groups; Group A consisted of patients with no visible tumour or a suspected tumour ADC value > 0.830 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec and Group B consisted of patients with a suspected tumour ADC value < 0.830 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec. We compared pathological outcomes in each group. Group A had 243 (84.7 %) patients and Group B had 44 (15.3 %) patients. The proportion of organ-confined Gleason ≤ 6 disease and insignificant prostate cancer was significantly higher in Group A than Group B (61.3 % vs. 38.6 %, p = 0.005 and 47.7 % vs. 25.0 %, p = 0.005, respectively). On multivariate analysis, a high ADC value was the independent predictor of organ-confined Gleason ≤ 6 disease and insignificant prostate cancer (odds ratio = 2.43, p = 0.011 and odds ratio = 2.74, p = 0.009, respectively). Tumour ADC values may be a useful marker for predicting insignificant prostate cancer in candidates for AS. (orig.)

  7. Intraprostatic locations of tumor foci of higher grade missed by diagnostic prostate biopsy among potential candidates for active surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangmo; Lee, Jung Keun; Choe, Gheeyoung; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    To establish optimal biopsy scheme for selection of candidates for active surveillance (AS) among prostate cancer (PCa) patients, information on topographical distribution of tumor foci of higher grade missed by contemporary biopsy amongst potential candidates of AS would certainly be useful. Thus we analyzed topographic distribution of tumor foci by examining prostatectomy specimens in 444 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for low risk PCa. Anterior and posterior prostate areas were demarcated by a horizontal line drawn at midpoint of prostatic urethra. Among 444 subjects, patients with upgrading showed relatively higher prevalence of index tumor foci in anterior prostate than those without upgrading, though not reaching statistical significance (p = 0.252). Meanwhile, among 135 (30.4%) patients with very low risk PCa, patients with upgrading showed significantly higher prevalence of index tumor foci in anterior prostate than those without upgrading (52.2% vs 33.8%; p = 0.031). In conclusions, tumor foci of higher grade missed by diagnostic biopsy were mostly located in anterior prostate among very low risk PCa patients. Such finding would be concrete evidence to support the notion that more efforts are needed to increase accuracy in detecting tumor foci in anterior prostate among potential candidates for AS. PMID:27827421

  8. Fluorogenic MMP activity assay for plasma including MMPs complexed to α2-macroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, B.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Ronday, H.K.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated MMP activities are implicated in tissue degradation in, e.g., arthritis and cancer. The present study was designed to measure MMP enzyme activity in plasma. Free active MMP is unlikely to be present in plasma: upon entering the circulation, active MMP is expected to be captured by the prote

  9. Fluorogenic MMP activity assay for plasma including MMPs complexed to α2-macroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, B.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Ronday, H.K.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated MMP activities are implicated in tissue degradation in, e.g., arthritis and cancer. The present study was designed to measure MMP enzyme activity in plasma. Free active MMP is unlikely to be present in plasma: upon entering the circulation, active MMP is expected to be captured by the

  10. Changes in Gleason score grading on serial follow-up biopsies in prostate cancer patients undergoing active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, A; Hernández, V; López, B; Capitán, C; Pérez-Fernández, E; de la Peña, E; de la Morena, J M; Llorente, C

    2015-04-01

    Active surveillance for prostate cancer has grown systematically in the recent years with more robust mid-term outcomes. However, changes in Gleason score during serial biopsies are not detailed in many of these reports. To evaluate changes in Gleason score on follow-up biopsies in low-risk prostate cancer in patients undergoing AS program in our center. Series of patients diagnosed of prostate cancer between 2004 and 2013 have been analyzed. The inclusion criteria were: PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml + Gleason ≤ 6 + T1c/T2a + ≤ 2 positive cores, and no more than 50% of affected core. The pathology of each of the biopsies was analyzed. We studied a series of 175 patients undergoing AS. Mean follow-up was 3.96 years (SD 2.4). Follow-up biopsies with Gleason scores ≥ 7 were: 5.72% in the first biopsy, 7.39% and 7.41% in subsequent biopsies. By contrast, in 42.03% of cases did not show evident tumor involvement in the first biopsy, 40.74% and 51.85% in the second and third biopsies respectively. Median stay in the AS program was: 90.99 months (95% CI: 53.53-128.46) in patients with first positive biopsy vs. 96.66 months (95% CI: 63.19-130.13) in those without evidence of tumor. In our series the pathological data of the first 3 biopsies remain stable in terms of the positive biopsy rate, Gleason score, or indication of active treatment proportions. Those patients who do not show evidence of malignancy in the first follow-up biopsy are less likely to need active treatment than the other patients in the series. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  12. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  13. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  14. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  15. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  16. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  17. Impact of active surveillance, chlorambucil, and other therapy on health-related quality of life in patients with CLL/SLL in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Esther C; Oerlemans, Simone; Nijziel, Marten R; Posthuma, Eduardus F M; Coebergh, Jan Willem W; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V

    2015-01-01

    As survival of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) increases and the number of patients who live long rises, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) becomes a relevant endpoint. Few studies investigated this, mainly as a secondary endpoint in randomized clinical trials where patients with early stage CLL/SLL, and elderly/frail patients were underrepresented. The aim of our study was to assess HRQoL in a population-based setting, including these previously underrepresented patients. Out of 175 patients diagnosed with CLL/SLL between 2004 and 2011, 136 (78 %) returned the HRQoL questionnaire. The outcomes were compared to an age- and sex-matched norm population. Detailed data on stage and treatment were extracted from a population-based hematological registry (PHAROS). Patients ever treated for CLL/SLL reported significantly poorer HRQoL than the norm population (p chlorambucil reported the lowest HRQoL scores. Drastic, long-lasting negative effects of starting treatment on HRQoL cannot be excluded, whereas active surveillance does not seem to provoke worrying, anxiety, or depressive symptoms. Further elaborate research into the impact of starting therapy on HRQoL is needed, especially in patients that are underrepresented in most clinical trials, and thoroughly consider its results during revision of treatment guidelines.

  18. Global Surveillance of In Vitro Activity of Micafungin against Candida: a Comparison with Caspofungin by CLSI-Recommended Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2006-01-01

    Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent that has recently been approved for the prevention of invasive fungal infection and the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. Prospective sentinel surveillance for the emergence of in vitro resistance to micafungin among invasive Candida sp. isolates is indicated. We determined the in vitro activity of micafungin against 2,656 invasive (bloodstream or sterile site) unique patient isolates of Candida spp. collected from 60 medical centers worldwide in 2004 and 2005. We performed antifungal susceptibility testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A2 method and used a 24-hour prominent inhibition endpoint for determination of the MIC. Caspofungin was tested in parallel against all isolates. Of 2,656 invasive Candida sp. isolates, species distribution was 55.6% Candida albicans, 14.4% Candida parapsilosis, 13.4% Candida glabrata, 10.1% Candida tropicalis, 2.4% Candida krusei, 1.7% Candida guilliermondii, 0.9% Candida lusitaniae, 0.6% Candida kefyr, and 0.9% other Candida species. Overall, micafungin was very active against Candida (MIC50/MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested are inhibited [MIC90], 0.015/1 μg/ml; 96% inhibited at a MIC of ≤1 μg/ml, 100% inhibited at a MIC of ≤2 μg/ml) and comparable to caspofungin (MIC50/MIC90, 0.03/0.25 μg/ml; 99% inhibited at a MIC of ≤2 μg/ml). Results by species, expressed as MIC50/MIC90 (micrograms per milliliter), were as follows: C. albicans, 0.015/0.03; C. glabrata, 0.015/0.015; C. tropicalis, 0.03/0.06; C. krusei, 0.06/0.12; C. kefyr, 0.06/0.06; C. parapsilosis, 1/2; C. guilliermondii, 0.5/1; C. lusitaniae, 0.12/0.25; other Candida spp., 0.25/1. Although the species distribution varied considerably among the different geographic regions, there was no difference in micafungin activity across the regions. Micafungin has excellent in vitro activity against invasive clinical isolates of Candida from centers worldwide. PMID:17021079

  19. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  20. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  1. EPS Biomarkers Improve Stratification of NCCN Active Surveillance Candidates: Performance of Secretion Capacity and TMPRSS2:ERG Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Christopher; Kawachi, Mark; Smith, David D.; Linehan, Jennifer; Babilonia, Gail; Mejia, Rosa; Wilson, Timothy; Smith, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a viable patient option for prostate cancer where a clinical determination of low-risk and presumably organ-confined disease can be made. In an effort to standardize risk stratification schemes, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has provided guidelines for the AS option. Our purpose was to determine the effectiveness of expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) biomarkers in detecting occult risk factors in NCCN AS candidates. Materials and Methods EPS specimens were obtained prior to Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy (RARP). Secretion capacity biomarkers: total RNA and EPS specimen volume were measured by standard techniques. RNA expression biomarkers: TXNRD1-mRNA, PSA-mRNA, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion mRNA and PCA3-mRNAs were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Results Of the 528 patients from whom EPS was collected, 216 were eligible for AS under NCCN guidelines. Variable Selection in logistic regression identified two models, one featuring Type III and Type VI TMPRSS2:ERG variants, and one featuring two secretion capacity biomarkers. Of the two high performing models, the secretion capacity model was the most effective in detecting patients within this group that were upstaged or both upstaged and upgraded. It reduced the risk of upstaging in patients with a negative test by nearly 8 fold, and reduced the risk of being both upstaged and upgraded by about 5 fold, while doubling the prevalence upstaging in the positive test group. Conclusions Non-invasive EPS testing may improve patient acceptance of AS by dramatically reducing the presence of occult risk factors among patients eligible for AS under NCCN guidelines. PMID:23669563

  2. Serial prostate biopsy and risk of lower urinary tract symptoms: results from a large, single-institution active surveillance cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Allison S; Hilton, Joan F; Cowan, Janet E; Washington, Samuel L; Carroll, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    To describe the effect of serial prostate biopsy on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men who undergo active surveillance (AS) at a large academic institution. This is a retrospective study of men enrolled in AS for ≥6 months who underwent ≥1 biopsy and completed ≥1 International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. In additional to total IPSS, we report the mean difference between the first and last questionnaires for patients who completed ≥2 questionnaires. Multivariate models, adjusting for disease features, age, race, prostate volume and baseline, or incident benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), were used to assess relationships between IPSS and total biopsy exposure. Four hundred eighty-two men were eligible, and 291 completed ≥2 IPSS questionnaires. Overall, mean (standard deviation) age was 61.7 (7.8) years, and median prostate volume (interquartile range) was 42 (34-61) mL. At baseline, 11% provided history of BPH. Among men who completed multiple questionnaires, 25% experienced clinically significant worsening (IPSS increase ≥4 points). In regression model, total IPSS was not significantly associated with greater biopsy exposure (P = .25). IPSS change from initial and the latest questionnaire was not significantly associated with initial or interval biopsy exposure in an adjusted longitudinal model (P = .64 and .50, respectively), but a trend was observed with greater age decade (+4.07 points, 95% CI -0.30 to 8.4; P = .07). Repeated prostate biopsy does not appear to independently pose additional risk of LUTS in an AS population. In unadjusted analyses, greater biopsy exposure is a surrogate for increasing follow-up time, age, and BPH risk, and thus, risk of LUTS onset and progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Active surveillance of abused and misused prescription opioids using poison center data: a pilot study and descriptive comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alice A; Bogdan, Gregory M; Dart, Richard C

    2007-01-01

    Prescription opioids are abused throughout the United States. Several monitoring programs are in existence, however, none of these systems provide up-to-date information on prescription opioid abuse. This article describes the use of poison centers as a real-time, geographically specific, surveillance system for prescription opioid abuse and compares our system with an existing prescription drug abuse monitoring program, the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Data were collected from eight geographically dispersed poison centers for a period of twelve months. Any call involving buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, and oxycodone was considered a case. Any case coded as intentional exposure (abuse, intentional misuse, suicide, or intentional unknown) was regarded as misuse and abuse. Comparative data were obtained from DAWN. Poison center rates of abuse and misuse were highest for hydrocodone at 3.75 per 100,000 population, followed by oxycodone at 1.81 per 100,000 population. DAWN emergency department (ED) data illustrate a similar pattern of abuse with most mentions involving hydrocodone and oxycodone. Poison center data indicate that people aged 18 to 25 had the highest rates of abuse. DAWN reported the majority of ED mentions among 35 to 44-year-olds. Geographically, Kentucky had the uppermost rates of abuse and misuse for all opioids combined at 20.69 per 100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS. Comparing poison center data to DAWN yielded mostly comparable results, including hydrocodone as the most commonly mentioned drug. Our results suggest poison center data can be used as an indicator for prescription opioid abuse and misuse and can provide timely, geographically specific information on prescription drug abuse.

  4. Data Sharing Report for the Quantification of Removable Activity in Various Surveillance and Maintenance Facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, David A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OR-EM) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. Specifically, DOE OR-EM requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting potential removable radiological contamination that may be transferrable to future personal protective equipment (PPE) and contamination control materials—collectively referred to as PPE throughout the remainder of this report—used in certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Project facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Routine surveys in Bldgs. 3001, 3005, 3010, 3028, 3029, 3038, 3042, 3517, 4507, and 7500 continuously generate PPE. The waste is comprised of Tyvek coveralls, gloves, booties, Herculite, and other materials used to prevent worker exposure or the spread of contamination during routine maintenance and monitoring activities. This report describes the effort to collect and quantify removable activity that may be used by the ORNL S&M Project team to develop radiation instrumentation “screening criteria.” Material potentially containing removable activity was collected on smears, including both masselin large-area wipes (LAWs) and standard paper smears, and analyzed for site-related constituents (SRCs) in an analytical laboratory. The screening criteria, if approved, may be used to expedite waste disposition of relatively clean PPE. The ultimate objectives of this effort were to: 1) determine whether screening criteria can be developed for these facilities, and 2) provide process knowledge information for future site planners. The screening criteria, if calculated, must be formally approved by Federal Facility Agreement parties prior to use for

  5. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic. To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii express activation properties (critical supersaturation that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter.

    The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  6. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  7. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie-Claude Bourgeois

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective: To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design: Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national; all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results: Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic, United States (Alaska] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7 and commercial software (n=6. Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion: This review successfully establishes

  8. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  9. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  10. Absence of a Classically Activated Macrophage Cytokine Signature in Peripheral Spondylarthritis, Including Psoriatic Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Vandooren; T. Noordenbos; C. Ambarus; S. Krausz; T. Cantaert; N. Yeremenko; M. Boumans; R. Lutter; P.P. Tak; D. Baeten

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Peripheral spondylarthritis (SpA) is characterized by macrophages that express CD163, a marker of alternative activation (M2). The purpose of this study was to assess whether this differential infiltration with macrophage subsets was associated with a different local inflammatory milieu i

  11. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  12. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  13. Physical activity surveillance in the European Union: reliability and validity of the European Health Interview Survey-Physical Activity Questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Sebastian E; Ricci, Cristian; Kohler, Simone; Fischer, Beate; Töpfer, Christine; Finger, Jonas D; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2016-05-23

    The current study examined the reliability and validity of the European Health Interview Survey-Physical Activity Questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ), a novel questionnaire for the surveillance of physical activity (PA) during work, transportation, leisure time, sports, health-enhancing and muscle-strengthening activities over a typical week. Reliability was assessed by administering the 8-item questionnaire twice to a population-based sample of 123 participants aged 15-79 years at a 30-day interval. Concurrent (inter-method) validity was examined in 140 participants by comparisons with self-report (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long Form (IPAQ-LF), 7-day Physical Activity Record (PAR), and objective criterion measures (GT3X+ accelerometer, physical work capacity at 75% (PWC(75%)) from submaximal cycle ergometer test, hand grip strength). The EHIS-PAQ showed acceptable reliability, with a median intraclass correlation coefficient across PA domains of 0.55 (range 0.43-0.73). Compared to the GT3X+ (counts/minutes/day), the EHIS-PAQ underestimated moderate-to-vigorous PA (median difference -11.7, p-value = 0.054). Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ) for validity were moderate-to-strong (ρ's > 0.41) for work-related PA (IPAQ = 0.64, GT3X + =0.43, grip strength = 0.48), transportation-related PA (IPAQ = 0.62, GT3X + =0.43), walking (IPAQ = 0.58), and health-enhancing PA (IPAQ = 0.58, PAR = 0.64, GT3X + =0.44, PWC(75%) = 0.48), and fair-to-poor (ρ's measurement of PA levels at work, during transportation and health-enhancing PA.

  14. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  15. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  16. Global Assessment of the Activity of Tigecycline against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens between 2004 and 2014 as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calà, Cinzia; Fasciana, Teresa; Dowzicky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    , infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria can cause increased mortality, longer hospital stays, and higher treatments costs. The aim of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) is to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activities of tigecycline and other contemporary agents against clinically relevant pathogens. This paper presents antimicrobial activity data from the TEST study between 2004 and 2014 and examines global rates of MDR Gram-negative isolates, including Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and members of the Enterobacteriaceae, during this time. Our results show that tigecycline retained in vitro activity against many MDR Gram-negative pathogens over the study period, while rates of MDR A. baumannii increased globally. Using these findings, we hope to highlight the current status of multidrug resistance in medical facilities worldwide. PMID:28124025

  17. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  18. Phytophthora infestans has a plethora of phospholipase D enzymes including a subclass that has extracellular activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J G Meijer

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol.

  19. Disease Burden of Dengue in the Philippines: Adjusting for Underreporting by Comparing Active and Passive Dengue Surveillance in Punta Princesa, Cebu City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Edillo, Frances E; Erasmo, Jonathan Neil V; Alera, Maria Theresa P; Yoon, In-Kyu; Largo, Francisco M; Shepard, Donald S

    2017-04-01

    AbstractDengue virus (DENV) is a serious threat to public health. Having reliable estimates of the burden of dengue is important to inform policy and research, but surveillance systems are not designed to capture all symptomatic DENV infections. We derived the rate of reporting of dengue by comparing active surveillance of symptomatic DENV infections in a prospective community-based seroepidemiological cohort study (N = 1008) of acute febrile illness in Punta Princesa, Cebu City, Philippines, with passive surveillance data from the Cebu City Health Department. Febrile episodes detected in a weekly follow-up of participants were tested for serotype-specific DENV by hemi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (nested RT-PCR) and acute/convalescent blood samples tested by dengue IgM/IgG enzyme immunoassay. We estimated the burden of dengue in the Philippines in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and conducted a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte-Carlo simulations to address uncertainty. The results showed a 21% cumulative reporting rate of symptomatic DENV infections, equivalent to an expansion factor of 4.7 (95% certainty level [CL]: 2.2-15.1). Based on surveillance data in the Philippines for 2010-2014, we estimated 794,255 annual dengue episodes (95% CL: 463,000-2,076,000) and a disease burden of 535 (95% CL: 380-994) DALYs per million population using age weights and time discounting and 997 (95% CL: 681-1,871) DALYs per million population without age and time adjustments. Dengue imposes a substantial burden in the Philippines; almost 10 times higher than estimated for rabies, about twice the burden of intestinal fluke infections, and about 10% of the burden of tuberculosis. Our estimates should inform policy makers and raise awareness among the public.

  20. In vitro activity of Inula helenium against clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains including MRSA.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, S

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the bactericidal activity (specifically antistaphylococcal) of Inula helenium. The antimicrobial activity of the extract is tested against 200 clinically significant Irish Staphylococcus aureus isolates consisting of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus using a drop test method and a microbroth dilution method. The antibacterial effect is evaluated by measuring the area of the inhibition zone against the isolates. Results proved I. helenium to be 100% effective against the 200 staphylococci tested, with 93% of isolates falling within the ++ and +++ groups. The minimum bactericidal concentration of I. helenium was examined on a subset of isolates and values ranged from 0.9 mg\\/mL to 9.0 mg\\/mL. The extract was equally effective against antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive strains. This plant therefore possesses compounds with potent antistaphylococcal properties, which in the future could be used to complement infection control policies and prevent staphylococcal infection and carriage. This research supports other studies wherein herbal plants exhibiting medicinal properties are being examined to overcome the problems of antibiotic resistance and to offer alternatives in the treatment and control of infectious diseases.

  1. Dengue and other common causes of acute febrile illness in Asia: an active surveillance study in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosario Capeding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common causes of acute febrile illness in tropical countries have similar symptoms, which often mimic those of dengue. Accurate clinical diagnosis can be difficult without laboratory confirmation and disease burden is generally under-reported. Accurate, population-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence data on dengue and other causes of acute fever in dengue-endemic Asian countries are needed. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This prospective, multicenter, active fever surveillance, cohort study was conducted in selected centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the incidence density of acute febrile episodes (≥ 38 °C for ≥ 2 days in 1,500 healthy children aged 2-14 years, followed for a mean 237 days. Causes of fever were assessed by testing acute and convalescent sera from febrile participants for dengue, chikungunya, hepatitis A, influenza A, leptospirosis, rickettsia, and Salmonella Typhi. Overall, 289 participants had acute fever, an incidence density of 33.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 30.0; 37.8; 57% were IgM-positive for at least one of these diseases. The most common causes of fever by IgM ELISA were chikungunya (in 35.0% of in febrile participants and S. Typhi (in 29.4%. The overall incidence density of dengue per 100 person-years was 3.4 by nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 antigen positivity (95% CI: 2.4; 4.8 and 7.3 (95% CI: 5.7; 9.2 by serology. Dengue was diagnosed in 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0; 15.7 and 23.9% (95% CI: 19.1; 29.2 of febrile participants by NS1 positivity and serology, respectively. Of the febrile episodes not clinically diagnosed as dengue, 5.3% were dengue-positive by NS1 antigen testing and 16.0% were dengue-positive by serology. CONCLUSIONS: During the study period, the most common identified causes of pediatric acute febrile illness among the seven tested for were chikungunya, S. Typhi and dengue. Not all dengue cases were clinically diagnosed; laboratory confirmation

  2. Lipid peroxidation generates biologically active phospholipids including oxidatively N-modified phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sean S; Guo, Lilu

    2014-07-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts "inert" phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease.

  3. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  4. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  5. Human blood basophils display a unique phenotype including activation linked membrane structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, C; Stockinger, H; Scharf, M; Jäger, U; Gössinger, H; Lechner, K; Bettelheim, P

    1987-12-01

    To evaluate the membrane marker profile of human basophils a panel of well-established monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs, n = 60) was used for a combined toluidine/immunofluorescence staining procedure. Myeloid-associated MoAbs (particularly MoAbs against the LFA-1 family (CD11, CDw18), MoAbs directed against lactosylceramide (CDw17), anti-glycoprotein (gp) 150 MoAbs MCS 2 and MY 7 (CDw13), anti-gp 67 MoAb MY 9, anti Fc gamma-receptor (mol wt 40 kd) MoAb CIKM5, anti-CR 1 MoAb E 11, and the antiglycolipid MoAb VIM-2) were reactive with basophils, indicating a close relationship to other mature myeloid cells. Under normal conditions, basophils surprisingly express at least three activation-linked structures not detectable on mature neutrophils, ie, the p45 structure defined by MoAbs OKT-10 and VIP-2b, the p24 structure identified by the CD9 MoAb BA-2, and the receptor for interleukin 2 (IL 2) recognized by three different MoAbs (anti-TAC, IL2RI, anti-IL 2). Moreover, under short-term culture conditions basophils both in mononuclear cell (MNC) suspension and as purified fractions display the HLA-DR and T4 antigens. The neutrophilic/eosinophilic structure 3-fucosyl-N-acetyllactosamine is expressed on basophils only after neuraminidase treatment. Basophils were not stained at all by CD 16 MoAbs directed against the Fc gamma-receptor (mol wt 50 to 70 kd) of neutrophils, by the MoAb 63D3 (CDw12) recognizing the monocyte/granulocyte-associated p 200 antigen, and by the CDw 14 antibodies (VIM-13, Mo 2) defining the monocyte-specific structure p 55. Enriched basophils freshly obtained from chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) patients yielded identical results in FACS analyses. In summary, these data indicate that basophils generate a unique combination of surface determinants and possibly represent an activated cell population.

  6. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Madam , The project entitled INCREASING BREAST CANCER SURVEILLANCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS includes activities involving human...B b- d § fr. Thomisonwill Work e .y .With’Dra) Vdldf naTir, W and y Bo • rganif Janidorf on data a"_`l- ssi reatihfiutfor pres~entatidns and publi

  7. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  8. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  9. Defense Health Care: DOD Needs to Clarify Policies Related to Occupational and Environmental Health Surveillance and Monitor Risk Mitigation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    and environmental health surveillance OEHSA Occupational and Environmental Health Site Assessment POEMS Periodic Occupational and...inhalation from burn pits in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Institute of Medicine was unable to determine whether long -term health effects are likely to result...Washington, D.C.: May 1, 2012). 5See Institute of Medicine for the Department of Veterans’ Affairs. Long -Term Health Consequences of Exposure to Burn

  10. RAISIN - a national programme for early warning, investigation and surveillance of healthcare-associated infection in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desenclos, Jean-Claude

    2009-11-19

    Surveillance is a key component of the French plan for prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) and has progressively evolved in the past decades. We describe the development and current organisation of surveillance of HAI in France and summarise key achievements and results. Surveillance of HAI is under the auspice of the national institute for public health surveillance through a central coordinating structure, the Reseau d alerte, d investigation et de surveillance des infections nosocomiales (RAISIN), which consists of five regional coordinating structures, two national advisory committees of the Ministry of Health and public health agencies. Surveillance includes the performance of national prevalence surveys every five years (latest in 2006), specific surveillance networks to follow trends and characterise HAI that are national priority, and mandatory reporting of HAI that meet specific criteria for alert purposes. RAISIN prioritises activities, defines technical specifications of surveillance systems, coordinates their implementation, and supports response to alerts, emergences or outbreaks of HAI. We demonstrate that the French surveillance program of HAI has become comprehensive and contributes to evaluating the impact of control and prevention of HAI. Data from RAISIN indicate a general decrease in the risk of HAI in acute care in France. They show a decrease in HAI during recent years, particularly of those related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for which a drop of 38% was documented between 2001 and 2006. RAISIN is also integrated into European surveillance of HAI coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Control.

  11. Synthesis and catalytic activity of Ln(III) complexes with an unsymmetrical Schiff base including multigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; Kemin; (

    2003-01-01

    [1]Elder, R. C., Tridentate and unsymmetrical tetradentate Schiff base ligands from salicylaldehydes and dimeric nickel(II) complexes, Aust. J. Chem., 1978, 31:35-45.[2]Atkins, R., Brewer, G., Kokot, G. et al., Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexesof unsymmetrical tetradentate Schiff base ligand, Inorg. Chem., 1985, 24: 127-134.[3]Meng Qingjin, Wang Ruixue, Bu Xiuren et al., New Ni (II) complexes with mixedtrimeric double Schiff ligands, Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities (in Chinese), 1990, 10: 1126-1130.[4]Yao Kemin, Zhou Wen, Lu Gui et al., Synthesis, mechanism and NMR spectra of lanthanide complexes with a novel unsymmetrical Schiff base, Science in China, Series B, 1999, 42(2): 164-169.[5]Yao Kemin, Li Ning, Huang Qiaohong et al., Synthesis and catalytic activity of novel heteronuclear Ln(III)-Cu(II) complexes with noncyclic polyether-amino acid Schiff base, Science in China, Series B, 1999, 42 (1) : 54-81.[6]Li Ning, Yao Kemin, Lou Kaiyan, Synthesis of La(III), Y(III) complexes with polyglycol aldehyde-amino acid Schiff base and their high resolution solid state 13C NMR spectra, Science in China, Series B, 1999, 42(6): 599-604.[7]Lam Berf, J. B., Shurvell, H. F., Verbet, L. et al., Organic Structural Analysis, New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., 1975, 234-250.[8]Yao Kemin, Cai Lezhen, Shen Liangfang et al., Synthesis and characterization of lanthanide perchlorates with noncyclic polyethylene glycols and their 13C-NMRspectra, Polyhedron, 1992,11(7): 2245-2251.[9]Dewar, M. J. S., Zoebisch, E. G., Healy, E. F., AM1: A new general purpose quantum mechanical molecular model, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1985, 107: 3902-3909.[10]Feifer, P., Avnjr, D., Chemistry in noninteger dimensions between two and three, I. Fractal theory of heterogeneous surfaces, J. Chem. Phys., 1983, 79(7): 3558-3565.[11]Yang Haifeng, Wang Hui, Duan Jinxia et al., Ab initio research of organic ligand Schiff base 4-[(2-hydroxyphenyl) imine]-2

  12. Malaria risk factor assessment using active and passive surveillance data from Aceh Besar, Indonesia, a low endemic, malaria elimination setting with Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiana, Herdiana; Cotter, Chris; Coutrier, Farah N; Zarlinda, Iska; Zelman, Brittany W; Tirta, Yusrifar Kharisma; Greenhouse, Bryan; Gosling, Roly D; Baker, Peter; Whittaker, Maxine; Hsiang, Michelle S

    2016-09-13

    As malaria transmission declines, it becomes more geographically focused and more likely due to asymptomatic and non-falciparum infections. To inform malaria elimination planning in the context of this changing epidemiology, local assessments on the risk factors for malaria infection are necessary, yet challenging due to the low number of malaria cases. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using passive and active surveillance data collected in Aceh Besar District, Indonesia from 2014 to 2015. Malaria infection was defined as symptomatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed infection in index cases reported from health facilities, and asymptomatic or symptomatic PCR-confirmed infection identified in reactive case detection (RACD). Potential risk factors for any infection, species-specific infection, or secondary-case detection in RACD were assessed through questionnaires and evaluated for associations. Nineteen Plasmodium knowlesi, 12 Plasmodium vivax and six Plasmodium falciparum cases were identified passively, and 1495 community members screened in RACD, of which six secondary cases were detected (one P. knowlesi, three P. vivax, and two P. falciparum, with four being asymptomatic). Compared to non-infected subjects screened in RACD, cases identified through passive or active surveillance were more likely to be male (AOR 12.5, 95 % CI 3.0-52.1), adult (AOR 14.0, 95 % CI 2.2-89.6 for age 16-45 years compared to malaria infection in index and RACD identified cases was associated with forest exposure, particularly overnights in the forest for work. In low-transmission settings, utilization of data available through routine passive and active surveillance can support efforts to target individuals at high risk.

  13. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  14. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  15. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending…

  16. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  17. Age- and influenza activity-stratified case definitions of influenza-like illness: experience from hospital-based influenza surveillance in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Un Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify clinical case definitions of influenza with higher accuracy in patients stratified by age group and influenza activity using hospital-based surveillance system. METHODS: In seven tertiary hospitals across South Korea during 2011-2012 influenza season, respiratory specimens were obtained from patients presenting an influenza-like illness (ILI, defined as having fever plus at least one of following symptoms: cough, sore throat or rhinorrhea. Influenza was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify clinical variables with better relation with laboratory-confirmed influenza, and compared the accuracy of combinations. RESULTS: Over the study period, we enrolled 1417 patients, of which 647 had laboratory-confirmed influenza. Patients with cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat or headache were more likely to have influenza (p<0.05. The most accurate criterion across the study population was the combination of cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat and headache (sensitivity 71.3%, specificity 60.1% and AUROC 0.66. The combination of rhinorrhea, sore throat and sputum during the peak influenza activity period in the young age group showed higher accuracy than that using the whole population (sensitivity 89.3%, specificity 72.1%, and AUROC 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of clinical case definitions of influenza differed across age groups and influenza activity periods. Categorizing the entire population into subgroups would improve the detection of influenza patients in the hospital-based surveillance system.

  18. Age- and Influenza Activity-Stratified Case Definitions of Influenza-Like Illness: Experience from Hospital-Based Influenza Surveillance in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Un; Cheong, Hee Jin; Song, Joon Young; Lee, Jin Soo; Wie, Seong-Heon; Kim, Young Keun; Choi, Won Suk; Lee, Jacob; Jeong, Hye Won; Kim, Woo Joo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to identify clinical case definitions of influenza with higher accuracy in patients stratified by age group and influenza activity using hospital-based surveillance system. Methods In seven tertiary hospitals across South Korea during 2011–2012 influenza season, respiratory specimens were obtained from patients presenting an influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as having fever plus at least one of following symptoms: cough, sore throat or rhinorrhea. Influenza was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify clinical variables with better relation with laboratory-confirmed influenza, and compared the accuracy of combinations. Results Over the study period, we enrolled 1417 patients, of which 647 had laboratory-confirmed influenza. Patients with cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat or headache were more likely to have influenza (p<0.05). The most accurate criterion across the study population was the combination of cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat and headache (sensitivity 71.3%, specificity 60.1% and AUROC 0.66). The combination of rhinorrhea, sore throat and sputum during the peak influenza activity period in the young age group showed higher accuracy than that using the whole population (sensitivity 89.3%, specificity 72.1%, and AUROC 0.81). Conclusions The accuracy of clinical case definitions of influenza differed across age groups and influenza activity periods. Categorizing the entire population into subgroups would improve the detection of influenza patients in the hospital-based surveillance system. PMID:24475034

  19. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients.

  20. [Actual state of medical activities as "home pharmacy" including preventive medicine in community pharmacy and their regional differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Junzo; Ohtsu, Yumiko; Hashimoto, Miwako; Kaiho, Fusao

    2008-12-01

    To determine the "home pharmacy" activities including preventive medicine in community pharmacies and their regional differences, we conducted two questionnaire surveys of pharmacies belonging to the pharmacists' association in four areas, two metropolitan areas (Kita-tama area and Minato-ku in Tokyo) and two rural areas (Ueda-shi in Nagano and Aira-gun in Kagoshima) in 1998 and 2007. The questionnaire consisted of 42 questions including the scale and characteristics of the pharmacy, the offering of information to patients and information collection from patients, and activities related to home care medicine, environmental sanitation, and healthcare. Based on 14 factors in the questionnaire, an index of "Community Medicine Contributed by Home Pharmacies" was evaluated to represent the extent of activity including preventive medicine in pharmacy. The median of the indexes in the four areas rose in 2007, and was the highest in Ueda-shi. However, the increase in the index was found to result from increases in activity related to clinical medicine such as the use of "Medication Notebooks" and the circulation of "Pharmaceutical Instructions" and did not result from increased activity related to preventive medicine. Factors to promote preventive medicine activity are discussed based on the data from Aira-gun where the greatest home care medicine activity occurred and from Ueda-shi where the greatest environmental sanitation and healthcare activities occurred.

  1. Enhanced surveillance for the Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States, Apia, Samoa, September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saketa, Salanieta; Durand, Alexis; Vaai-Nielsen, Saine; Leong-Lui, Tile Ah; Naseri, Take; Matalima, Ailuai; Amosa, Filipina; Mercier, Alize; Lepers, Christelle; Lal, Vjesh; Wojcik, Richard; Lewis, Sheri; Roth, Adam; Souares, Yvan; Merilles, Onofre Edwin; Hoy, Damian

    2017-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa’s weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics. Daily situation reports were produced and were disseminated through PacNet (the e-mail alert and communication tool of the Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network) together with daily prioritized line lists of syndrome activity to facilitate rapid response and investigation by the Samoan EpiNet team. Standard operating procedures for surveillance and response were introduced, together with a sustainability plan, including a monitoring and evaluation framework, to facilitate the transition of the mass gathering surveillance improvements to routine surveillance. The enhanced surveillance performed well, providing vital disease early warning and health security assurance. A total of 2386 encounters and 708 syndrome cases were reported. Influenza-like illness was the most frequently seen syndrome (17%). No new infectious disease outbreaks were recorded. The experience emphasized: (1) the need for a long lead time to pilot the surveillance enhancements and to maximize their sustainability; (2) the importance of good communication between key stakeholders; and (3) having sufficient staff dedicated to both surveillance and response. PMID:28409055

  2. Enhanced surveillance for the Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States, Apia, Samoa, September 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa’s weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics. Daily situation reports were produced and were disseminated through PacNet (the email alert and communication tool of the Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network together with daily prioritized line lists of syndrome activity to facilitate rapid response and investigation by the Samoan EpiNet team. Standard operating procedures for surveillance and response were introduced, together with a sustainability plan, including a monitoring and evaluation framework, to facilitate the transition of the mass gathering surveillance improvements to routine surveillance. The enhanced surveillance performed well, providing vital disease early warning and health security assurance. A total of 2386 encounters and 708 syndrome cases were reported. Influenza-like illness was the most frequently seen syndrome (17%. No new infectious disease outbreaks were recorded. The experience emphasized: (1 the need for a long lead time to pilot the surveillance enhancements and to maximize their sustainability; (2 the importance of good communication between key stakeholders; and (3 having sufficient staff dedicated to both surveillance and response.

  3. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  4. Economic Assessment of Zoonoses Surveillance in a 'One Health' Context: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2016-08-01

    Collaboration between animal and public health sectors has been highlighted as a means to improve the management of zoonotic threats. This includes surveillance systems for zoonoses, where enhanced cross-sectoral integration and sharing of information are seen as key to improved public health outcomes. Yet, there is a lack of evidence on the economic returns of such collaboration, particularly in the development and implementation of surveillance programmes. The economic assessment of surveillance in this context needs to be underpinned by the understanding of the links between zoonotic disease surveillance in animal populations and the wider public health disease mitigation process and how these relations impact on the costs and benefits of the surveillance activities. This study presents a conceptual framework of these links as a basis for the economic assessment of cross-sectoral zoonoses surveillance with the aim of supporting the prioritization of resource allocation to surveillance. In the proposed framework, monetary, non-monetary and intermediate or intangible cost components and benefit streams of three conceptually distinct stages of zoonotic disease mitigation are identified. In each stage, as the final disease mitigation objective varies so does the use of surveillance information generated in the animal populations for public health decision-making. Consequently, the associated cost components and benefit streams also change. Building on the proposed framework and taking into account these links, practical steps for its application are presented and future challenges are discussed.

  5. Radioreceptor assay to study the affinity of benzodiazepines and their receptor binding activity in human plasma including their active metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorow, R.G.; Seidler, J.; Schneider, H.H. (Schering A.G., Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1982-04-01

    A radioreceptor assay has been established to measure the receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in clinical use. The time course of receptor binding activity was studied by this method in the plasma of eight healthy subjects randomly treated with 1mg lormetazepam (Noctamid(R)), 2mg flunitrazepam (Rohypnol(R)), and 10mg diazepam (Valium(R)), and placebo on a cross-over basis. Blood samples were collected up to 154h after treatment. Receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in vitro show good correlation with therapeutic human doses (r=0.96) and may be predictive of drug potency in man. Mean peak plasma levels of lormetazepam binding equivalents were 4.8+-1 ng/ml at 2h after lormetazepam, 7.2+-1.8 ng/ml at 8h after flunitrazepam, and 17.9+-2.7 ng/ml at 15h after diazepam. Plasma elimination halflives of benzodiazepine binding equivalents were 9.3, 23 and 63h, respectively. Slow elimination of benzodiazepine binding equivalents following flunitrazepam and diazepam may be due to persistent active metabolites.

  6. Using Administrative Data to Ascertain True Cases of Muscular Dystrophy: Rare Disease Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael G; Royer, Julie; Mann, Joshua R; McDermott, Suzanne

    2017-01-12

    Administrative records from insurance and hospital discharge data sources are important public health tools to conduct passive surveillance of disease in populations. Identifying rare but catastrophic conditions is a challenge since approaches for maximizing valid case detection are not firmly established. The purpose of our study was to explore a number of algorithms in which International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes and other administrative variables could be used to identify cases of muscular dystrophy (MD). We used active surveillance to identify possible cases of MD in medical practices in neurology, genetics, and orthopedics in 5 urban South Carolina counties and to identify the cases that had diagnostic support (ie, true cases). We then developed an algorithm to identify cases based on a combination of ICD-9-CM codes and administrative variables from a public (Medicaid) and private insurer claims-based system and a statewide hospital discharge dataset (passive surveillance). Cases of all types of MD and those with Duchenne or Becker MD (DBMD) that were common to both surveillance systems were examined to identify the most specific administrative variables for ascertainment of true cases. Passive statewide surveillance identified 3235 possible cases with MD in the state, and active surveillance identified 2057 possible cases in 5 actively surveilled counties that included 2 large metropolitan areas where many people seek medical care. There were 537 common cases found in both the active and passive systems, and 260 (48.4%) were confirmed by active surveillance to be true cases. Of the 260 confirmed cases, 70 (26.9%) were recorded as DBMD. Accuracy of finding a true case in a passive surveillance system was improved substantially when specific diagnosis codes, number of times a code was used, age of the patient, and specialty provider variables were used.

  7. Environmental surveillance of low-level radioactive waste management areas at Los Alamos during 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report was compiled as a part of the DOE-sponsored radioactive waste site surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The report is a source document for data collected in 1985. However, an attempt is made to interpret the data as it relates to radionuclide transport to serve in guiding future waste site surveillance activities. This report contains information on one active and 11 inactive radioactive waste management areas at Los Alamos. Sections include the use history, current status, and future stabilization needs for all sites; the results of detailed surveillance activities at Areas G and C; and a dose evaluation based on the waste site and Laboratory environmental surveillance data. 9 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. 2003 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the East Tennessee Technology Park (K-25).The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. Nosocomial infection characteristics in a burn intensive care unit: analysis of an eleven-year active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öncül, Oral; Öksüz, Sinan; Acar, Ali; Ülkür, Ersin; Turhan, Vedat; Uygur, Fatih; Ulçay, Asım; Erdem, Hakan; Özyurt, Mustafa; Görenek, Levent

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe nosocomial infection (NI) rates, risk factors, etiologic agents, antibiotic susceptibility, invasive device utilization and invasive device associated infection rates in a burn intensive care unit (ICU) in Turkey. Prospective surveillance of nosocomial infections was performed according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria between 2001 and 2012. The data was analyzed retrospectively. During the study period 658 burn patients were admitted to our burn ICU. 469 cases acquired 602 NI for an overall NI rate of 23.1 per 1000 patient days. 109 of all the cases (16.5%) died. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (241), Acinetobacter baumannii (186) and Staphylococcus aureus (69) were the most common identified bacteria in 547 strains. Total burn surface area, full thickness burn, older age, presence of inhalation injury were determined to be the significant risk factors for acquisition of NI. Determining the NI profile at a certain burn ICU can lead the medical staff apply the appropriate treatment regimen and limit the drug resistance. Eleven years surveillance report presented here provides a recent data about the risk factors of NI in a Turkish burn ICU. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  11. 2006 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2006 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2007 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2008 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2010 Nevada National Security Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2010 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2003 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Los Alamos National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2007 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2007 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2008 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2008 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2007 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-03-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2009 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-07-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2007 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2003 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Y-12. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2003 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for the Hanford site. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The prpogram is part of DOE's commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers and includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers.

  13. 2003 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2003 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-02

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Brookhaven National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2006 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2003 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Kansas City Plant. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2003 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Pantex Plant. DOE is commited to assuring the health and safety of its workers. This includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2010 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods: Prospecti

  3. Implementation of the Project ‘Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploch Leszek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author’s research from the experiences of the implementation of the project ‘Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015’. The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper place in science and practice. In the situation of a painful lack of initiatives, the Foundation for Propagation of Disability Art and Culture of the in Warsaw, as the only institution for promoting creative activity of the disabled in Poland, undertook a number of activities in order to include this social group in the world of culture and art. It appears that participation in creative initiatives has a very positive effect on the quality of the social functioning of disabled senior citizens in their isolation from their own families.

  4. Rare disease surveillance: An international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, E.J.; Nicoll, A.; Lynn, R.; Marchessault, V.; Hirasing, R.A.; Ridley, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1998 and met formally for the first time in Ottawa, Ontario in June 2000. Objectives: To document the methodology and activities of existing national paediatric surveillance units; the formation of

  5. Rare disease surveillance: An international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, E.J.; Nicoll, A.; Lynn, R.; Marchessault, V.; Hirasing, R.A.; Ridley, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1998 and met formally for the first time in Ottawa, Ontario in June 2000. Objectives: To document the methodology and activities of existing national paediatric surveillance units; the formation of INo

  6. Do ICF core sets for low back pain include patients' self-reported activity limitations because of back problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygren, Hildegunn; Strand, Liv Inger; Anderson, Bodil; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate content validity of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for low back pain (LBP), by examining whether common activities reported as difficult to perform are included in the Core Sets. A cross-sectional design was used. Ninety-eight patients with long-lasting back pain (>3 months) between 18 and 65 years of age were consecutively recruited from a Multidisciplinary Outpatient Spine Clinic. Difficulties with daily life and work task activities because of back pain were examined by asking the patients two questions: 1) can you specify activities that are difficult to perform because of your back pain? and 2) are there specific work tasks that you are unable to do because of your back pain? Two raters independently classified the written responses according to the ICF Core Sets' component Activities and Participation. Activities and work tasks were linked to 15 of 29 categories (52%) in the Comprehensive Core Set, and 9 of 12 (75%) in the Brief Core Set, and the initial agreement between the two raters in coding the answers according to the Core Sets was (83%, k = 0.80) and (93%, k = 0.9), respectively, before consensus was reached. The Comprehensive Core Set for LBP to a large degree contains daily life and work-related activities frequently reported as difficult to perform by patients with long-lasting LBP. The categories, however, are very broad and do not provide specified descriptions of the most frequently reported activity limitations such as sitting, standing and walking. The Brief Core Set does not include categories for frequently reported activities such as pulling/pushing and leisure/recreation activities. ICF Core Sets for LBP seem suitable for obtaining a gross overview of the patients' functional limitations, but do not give sufficient information from a therapeutic point of view. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. How has early testicular cancer affected your life? A study of sexual function in men attending active surveillance for stage one testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Sue; Williams, Hilary; Braybrooke, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men, it is frequently diagnosed at key times in relationship formation. In early stage disease the vast majority of tumours will be cured by surgery alone with patients being offered active surveillance rather than adjuvant therapies. To date, research has not evaluated how surveillance alone impacts on sexual function. The aim of this quantitative longitudinal study was to ascertain the sexual function of men with stage one disease at 3 and 12 months post diagnosis and to compare with normative data. Additional data was collected on the information men sought regarding sexual function and media they used to access this. This study shows that men's sexual function is altered at diagnosis and improves by 3 months. At 12 months, whilst not statistically significant, sexual function improves but not to the same level as normative data comparison. Men appear to find verbal information useful at 3 months, however men appear to be seeking written and online information at 12 months. The intricacies of sexual function together with the low number of participants may have been best met with a qualitative approach. However, the information data indicates the importance of further research into the effects of early stage testicular cancer on sexual function. Therefore, further qualitative research is recommended to explore the effects of early stage testicular cancer in relation to sexual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in Support to the Activities of Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias

    2016-03-01

    Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period.

  9. SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan Update for 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 441.1-­1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE 2008), requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.”This 2017 update reflects changes to the surveillance plan resulting from surveillance findings as documented in Reeves et al. 2016. These findings include observations of corrosion in SAVY and Hagan containers and the indication (in one SAVY container) of possible filter membrane thermal degradation. This surveillance plan update documents the rationale for selecting surveillance containers, specifies the containers for 2017 surveillance, and identifies a minimum set of containers for 2018 surveillance. This update contains important changes to the previous surveillance plans.

  10. Surveillance issues in inflammatory bowel disease: ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, D; Onken, J

    2001-02-01

    This review article on the surveillance of patients with ulcerative colitis provides an overview of the criteria for evaluating screening and surveillance programs and applies the criteria to the available evidence to determine the effectiveness of the surveillance of patients with ulcerative colitis. We examine the clinical outcomes associated with surveillance, the additional clinical time required to confirm the diagnosis of dysplasia and cancer, compliance with surveillance and follow-up, and the effectiveness of the individual components of a surveillance program, including colonoscopy and pathologist's interpretation. The disability associated with colectomy is considered, as are the cost and acceptability of surveillance programs. Patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis are at risk for developing colorectal cancer. Recommended surveillance colonoscopy should be supported. New endoscopic and histopathologic techniques to improve the identification of high-risk patients may enhance the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surveillance practices.

  11. Methods for observational post-licensure medical product safety surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer C; Cook, Andrea J; Yu, Onchee; Zhao, Shanshan; Jackson, Lisa A; Psaty, Bruce M

    2015-04-01

    Post-licensure medical product safety surveillance is important for detecting adverse events potentially not identified pre-licensure. Historically, post-licensure safety monitoring has been accomplished using passive reporting systems and by conducting formal Phase IV randomized trials or large epidemiological studies, also known as safety surveillance or pharmacovigilance studies. However, crucial gaps in the safety evidence base provided by these approaches have led to high profile product withdrawals and growing public concern about unknown health risks associated with licensed products. To address the limitations of existing surveillance systems and to facilitate more accurate and rapid detection of safety problems, new systems involving active surveillance of large, population-based cohorts using observational health care databases are being developed. In this article, we review common statistical methods that have been employed previously for post-licensure safety monitoring, including data mining and sequential hypothesis testing, and assess which methods may be promising for potential use within this newly proposed prospective observational cohort monitoring framework. We discuss gaps in existing approaches and identify areas where methodological development is needed to improve the success of safety surveillance efforts in this setting.

  12. Evaluation of multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Frisén,Marianne; Andersson, Eva; Schiöler, Linus

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate surveillance is of interest in many areas such as industrial production, bioterrorism detection, spatial surveillance, and financial transaction strategies. Some of the suggested approaches to multivariate surveillance have been multivariate counterparts to the univariate Shewhart, EWMA, and CUSUM methods. Our emphasis is on the special challenges of evaluating multivariate surveillance methods. Some new measures are suggested and the properties of several measures are demonstrat...

  13. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  14. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    resistance surveillance, diarrhea etiology and antimicrobial resistance surveillance, sexually transmitted illness surveillance, and capacity building...vomiting, diarrhea , joint pains, general malaise. Of the samples analyzed, only 53.7% had an associated etiology: Malaria (47.0%, EBV (39.7...immunity to the disease. Many adults in those situations are reservoirs, facilitating continuing disease transmission to those without immunity. In Kenya

  15. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  16. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  17. Polio eradication initiative in Africa: influence on other infectious disease surveillance development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochi Stephen

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO and partners are collaborating to eradicate poliomyelitis. To monitor progress, countries perform surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP. The WHO African Regional Office (WHO-AFRO and the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are also involved in strengthening infectious disease surveillance and response in Africa. We assessed whether polio-eradication initiative resources are used in the surveillance for and response to other infectious diseases in Africa. Methods During October 1999-March 2000, we developed and administered a survey questionnaire to at least one key informant from the 38 countries that regularly report on polio activities to WHO. The key informants included WHO-AFRO staff assigned to the countries and Ministry of Health personnel. Results We obtained responses from 32 (84% of the 38 countries. Thirty-one (97% of the 32 countries had designated surveillance officers for AFP surveillance, and 25 (78% used the AFP resources for the surveillance and response to other infectious diseases. In 28 (87% countries, AFP program staff combined detection for AFP and other infectious diseases. Fourteen countries (44% had used the AFP laboratory specimen transportation system to transport specimens to confirm other infectious disease outbreaks. The majority of the countries that performed AFP surveillance adequately (i.e., non polio AFP rate = 1/100,000 children aged Conclusions Despite concerns regarding the targeted nature of AFP surveillance, it is partially integrated into existing surveillance and response systems in multiple African countries. Resources provided for polio eradication should be used to improve surveillance for and response to other priority infectious diseases in Africa.

  18. Environmental surveillance for Waste Management Facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, K.C.; Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Borsella, B.W.; Miles, M.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes calendar year 1994 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, performed at Waste Management Facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The major facilities monitored include the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and two surplus facilities. Included are results of the sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program, INEL Environmental Surveillance Program, and the United States Geological Survey. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to ensure compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1994 environmental surveillance data with US Department of Energy derived concentration guides and with data from previous years.

  19. Intelligent multimedia surveillance current trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Atrey, Pradeep K; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent multimedia surveillance concerns the analysis of multiple sensing inputs including video and audio streams, radio-frequency identification (RFID), and depth data. These data are processed for the automated detection and tracking of people, vehicles, and other objects. The goal is to locate moving targets, to understand their behavior, and to detect suspicious or abnormal activities for crime prevention. Despite its benefits, there is societal apprehension regarding the use of such technology, so an important challenge in this research area is to balance public safety and privacy.

  20. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Raaijmakers, S.A.; Halma, A.H.R.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  1. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Raaijmakers, S.A.; Halma, A.H.R.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  2. One Health surveillance - More than a buzz word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärk, Katharina D C; Arroyo Kuribreña, Montserrat; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Vokaty, Sandra; Ward, Michael P; Wieland, Barbara; Lindberg, Ann

    2015-06-01

    bridged, separate funding sources and budgets can jeopardise the overall strategy, especially if funding cuts are later required. To overcome such challenges, a strong business case for One Health surveillance is needed. This should include the costs and benefits of One Health activities or projects including consequences of different strategies as well as risks. Integrated training should also be further promoted. Future ICAHS conferences should continue to provide a platform for discussing surveillance in the One Health context and to provide a forum for surveillance professionals from all relevant sectors to interact.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, Activity of Yttrium(Ⅲ) Antibacterial and Antifungal Complexes Including 1,10-P henanth roli ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡梦军; 陈建定; Taha, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Two rare metal coordination complexes of yttrium(Ⅲ) including 1,10-phenanthroline, Y(phen)2(NO3)3 and (phenH)2[Y2(pydc)3(NO3)2.6H2O] (phen= 1,10-phenanthroline, pydc=2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate), and a proton transfer compound (phenH+)2(pydc2-) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, infrared spectra (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and thermal analysis. The proposed structures of yttrium complexes were exhibited. The in vitro biological activities of the newly synthesized complexes have also been investigated against Bacillus coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The results showed that yttrium(Ⅲ) complexes including 1,10-phenanthroline exhibited better antibacterial/antifungal activity than their ligands and corresponding compounds.

  4. Effective activity of cytokine-induced killer cells against autologous metastatic melanoma including cells with stemness features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammaitoni, Loretta; Giraudo, Lidia; Leuci, Valeria; Todorovic, Maja; Mesiano, Giulia; Picciotto, Franco; Pisacane, Alberto; Zaccagna, Alessandro; Volpe, Maria Giuseppa; Gallo, Susanna; Caravelli, Daniela; Giacone, Elena; Venesio, Tiziana; Balsamo, Antonella; Pignochino, Ymera; Grignani, Giovanni; Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Aglietta, Massimo; Sangiolo, Dario

    2013-08-15

    We investigate the unknown tumor-killing activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against autologous metastatic melanoma and the elusive subset of putative cancer stem cells (mCSC). We developed a preclinical autologous model using same patient-generated CIK cells and tumor targets to consider the unique biology of each patient/tumor pairing. In primary tumor cell cultures, we visualized and immunophenotypically defined a putative mCSC subset using a novel gene transfer strategy that exploited their exclusive ability to activate the promoter of stemness gene Oct4. The CIK cells from 10 patients with metastatic melanoma were successfully expanded (median, 23-fold; range, 11-117). Primary tumor cell cultures established and characterized from the same patients were used as autologous targets. Patient-derived CIK cells efficiently killed autologous metastatic melanoma [up to 71% specific killing (n = 26)]. CIK cells were active in vivo against autologous melanoma, resulting in delayed tumor growth, increased necrotic areas, and lymphocyte infiltration at tumor sites. The metastatic melanoma cultures presented an average of 11.5% ± 2.5% putative mCSCs, which was assessed by Oct4 promoter activity and stemness marker expression (Oct4, ABCG2, ALDH, MITF). Expression was confirmed on mCSC target molecules recognized by CIK cells (MIC A/B; ULBPs). CIK tumor killing activity against mCSCs was intense (up to 71%, n = 4) and comparable with results reported against differentiated metastatic melanoma cells (P = 0.8). For the first time, the intense killing activity of CIK cells against autologous metastatic melanoma, including mCSCs, has been shown. These findings move clinical investigation of a new immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma, including mCSCs, closer. ©2013 AACR.

  5. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  6. An early (3-6 weeks) active surveillance study to assess the safety of pandemic influenza vaccine Focetria in a province of Emilia-Romagna region, Italy - part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Silvia; Pergolizzi, Sara; Ragni, Pietro; Cavuto, Silvio; Nobilio, Lucia; Di Mario, Simona; Dragosevic, Valentina; Groth, Nicola; Magrini, Nicola

    2013-02-27

    An observational, non-comparative, prospective, surveillance study of individuals vaccinated with the MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine, Focetria, (Novartis Vaccines & Diagnostics, Siena, Italy), was performed in Italy during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. This study assessed the short-term (six-week) safety profile of the investigational vaccine in real time. After vaccination (N=7943), adverse events (AE) were assessed using both active (telephone) and passive (healthcare database) follow-up in enrolled vaccinated subjects, including infants (6-23 months), pregnant women, and the immunosuppressed. The treating physicians of all subjects experiencing AEs post-vaccination were consulted for clinical information on the conditions reported. All AEs were coded according to ICD-10. A total of 1583 AEs occurred during the study, 67 (4.2%) of which were serious adverse events (SAEs). One SAE was considered to be possibly related to vaccination (transitory and ill-defined neurologic disorder experienced by a 16-year-old asthmatic male). Three adverse events of special interest (AESI) were identified (convulsions experienced by two epileptic subjects), none of which were considered to be vaccine-related. Six individuals died during the study period, in each case the cause of death was not related to vaccination (four cases of severe underlying co-morbidity, one case of psychoactive drug misuse, and one case of acute myocardial infarction). No cases of clinically relevant AEs, SAEs, or AESI were observed within a six-week period of vaccine administration. In accordance with existing clinical and post-marketing safety data, the results of this active surveillance study demonstrate a good safety profile for the MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 vaccine, Focetria, within the general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Active surveillance of visual impairment due to adverse drug reactions: findings from a national study in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, Phillippa M; Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2015-02-01

    As visual impairment (VI) due to adverse drug reactions (ADR) is rare in adults and children, there is an incomplete evidence base to inform guidance for screening and for counseling patients on the potential risks of medications. We report on suspected drugs and the eye conditions found in a national study of incidence of diagnosis of visual impairment due to suspected ADR. Case ascertainment was via the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit (BOSU), between March 2010 and February 2012, with follow-up after 6 months. any child or adult with bilateral or unilateral visual impairment due to a suspected ADR, using distance acuity worse than Snellen 6/18 (logMAR 0.48) in the better eye (bilateral) or affected eye (unilateral). Anonymized patient information on potential cases was provided by managing ophthalmologists, comprising visual status before and after suspected ADR, ophthalmic condition attributable to the ADR, preexisting eye disease and prescribed medications at the time of the ADR. Permanency and causality of the visual impairment were confirmed by the managing clinician, after 6 months, using the WHO Uppsala Monitoring Committee criteria. Over 2 years, 36 eligible cases were reported of whom 23 had permanent VI. While most cases were due to drugs known to have adverse side-effects, some were unanticipated sporadic cases. Visual impairment due to ADRs is rare. However, with for example, increasing polypharmacy in the elderly, monitoring of ocular ADRs, although challenging, is necessary.

  8. PTEN loss and chromosome 8 alterations in Gleason grade 3 prostate cancer cores predicts the presence of un-sampled grade 4 tumor: implications for active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trock, Bruce J; Fedor, Helen; Gurel, Bora; Jenkins, Robert B; Knudsen, B S; Fine, Samson W; Said, Jonathan W; Carter, H Ballentine; Lotan, Tamara L; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2016-07-01

    Men who enter active surveillance because their biopsy exhibits only Gleason grade 3 (G3) frequently have higher grade tumor missed by biopsy. Thus, biomarkers are needed that, when measured on G3 tissue, can predict the presence of higher grade tumor in the whole prostate. We evaluated whether PTEN loss, chromosome 8q gain (MYC) and/or 8p loss (LPL) measured only on G3 cores is associated with un-sampled G4 tumor. A tissue microarray was constructed of prostatectomy tissue from patients whose prostates exhibited only Gleason score 3+3, only 3+4 or only 4+3 tumor (n=50 per group). Cores sampled only from areas of G3 were evaluated for PTEN loss by immunohistochemistry, and PTEN deletion, LPL/8p loss and MYC/8q gain by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Biomarker results were compared between Gleason score 6 vs 7 tumors using conditional logistic regression. PTEN protein loss, odds ratio=4.99, P=0.033; MYC/8q gain, odds ratio=5.36, P=0.010; and LPL/8p loss, odds ratio=3.96, P=0.003 were significantly more common in G3 cores derived from Gleason 7 vs Gleason 6 tumors. PTEN gene deletion was not statistically significant. Associations were stronger comparing Gleason 4+3 vs 6 than for Gleason 3+4 vs 6. MYC/8q gain, LPL/8p loss and PTEN protein loss measured in G3 tissue microarray cores strongly differentiate whether the core comes from a Gleason 6 or Gleason 7 tumor. If validated to predict upgrading from G3 biopsy to prostatectomy these biomarkers could reduce the likelihood of enrolling high-risk men and facilitate safe patient selection for active surveillance.

  9. A qualitative approach to measure the effectiveness of active avian influenza virus surveillance with respect to its cost: a case study from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, B; Howe, K S; Hauser, R; Stärk, K D C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the project was to apply cost-effectiveness analysis to the economic appraisal of avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance, using the implemented surveillance programme in Switzerland as a case study. First a qualitative risk assessment approach was used to assess the expected impact of surveillance on the transmission and spread of AIV. The effectiveness of surveillance was expressed as the difference in defined probabilities between a scenario with surveillance and a scenario without surveillance. The following probabilities were modelled (i) transmission of highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) from wild birds to poultry, (ii) mutation from low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) into HPAIV in poultry, and (iii) transmission of HPAIV to other poultry holdings given a primary outbreak. The cost-effectiveness ratio was defined conventionally as the difference in surveillance costs (ΔC) divided by the change in probability (ΔP), the technical objective, on the presumption that surveillance diminishes the respective probabilities. However, results indicated that surveillance in both wild birds and poultry was not expected to change the probabilities of primary and secondary AIV outbreaks in Switzerland. The overall surveillance costs incurred were estimated at 31,000 €/year, which, to be a rational investment of resources, must still reflect the value policy makers attribute to other benefits from having surveillance (e.g. peace of mind). The advantage of the approach adopted is that it is practical, transparent, and thus able to clarify for policy makers the key variables to be taken into account when evaluating the economic efficiency of resources invested in surveillance, prevention and intervention to exclude AIV.

  10. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: Current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Matthew R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts.

  11. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Nisha N; Maves, Ryan C; Sebeny, Peter; Kasper, Matthew R; Riddle, Mark S; Wu, Max; Lee, James E; Schnabel, David; Bowden, Robert; Oaks, Edwin V; Ocaña, Victor; Acosta, Luis; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Lanata, Claudio; Ochoa, Theresa; Aguayo, Nicolás; Bernal, Maruja; Meza, Rina; Canal, Enrique; Gregory, Michael; Cepeda, David; Listiyaningsih, Erlin; Putnam, Shannon D; Young, Sylvia; Mansour, Adel; Nakhla, Isabelle; Moustafa, Manal; Hassan, Khaled; Klena, John; Bruton, Jody; Shaheen, Hind; Farid, Sami; Fouad, Salwa; El-Mohamady, Hanan; Styles, Timothy; Shiau, L C D R Danny; Espinosa, Benjamin; McMullen, Kellie; Reed, Eva; Neil, Donald; Searles, Doug; Nevin, Remington; Von Thun, Annette; Sessions, Cecili

    2011-03-04

    The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC) is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts.

  12. 3013/9975 Surveillance Program Interim Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; McClard, J.

    2011-06-22

    The K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) requires a surveillance program to monitor the safety performance of 3013 containers and 9975 shipping packages stored in KAMS. The SRS surveillance program [Reference 1] outlines activities for field surveillance and laboratory tests that demonstrate the packages meet the functional performance requirements described in the DSA. The SRS program also supports the complexwide Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) [Reference 2] for 3013 containers. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the SRS portion of the surveillance program activities through fiscal year 2010 (FY10) and formally communicate the interpretation of these results by the Surveillance Program Authority (SPA). Surveillance for the initial 3013 container random sampling of the Innocuous bin and the Pressure bin has been completed and there has been no indication of corrosion or significant pressurization. The maximum pressure observed was less than 50 psig, which is well below the design pressure of 699 psig for the 3013 container [Reference 3]. The data collected during surveillance of these bins has been evaluated by the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Working Group and no additional surveillance is necessary for these bins at least through FY13. A decision will be made whether additional surveillance of these bins is needed during future years of storage and as additional containers are generated. Based on the data collected to date, the SPA concludes that 3013 containers in these bins can continue to be safely stored in KAMS. This year, 13 destructive examinations (DE) were performed on random samples from the Pressure & Corrosion bin. To date, DE has been completed for approximately 30% of the random samples from the Pressure & Corrosion bin. In addition, DE has been performed on 6 engineering judgment (EJ) containers, for a total of 17 to date. This includes one container that exceeded the 3013

  13. The Increasing Challenge of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli: Results of a 5-Year Active Surveillance Program in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Mario; Geraci, Daniela M; Bonura, Celestino; Saporito, Laura; Graziano, Giorgio; Insinga, Vincenzo; Aleo, Aurora; Vecchio, Davide; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are increasingly reported.We conducted a 5-year prospective cohort surveillance study in a tertiary NICU of the hospital "Paolo Giaccone," Palermo, Italy. Our objectives were to describe incidence and trends of MDR GNB colonization and the characteristics of the most prevalent organisms and to identify the risk factors for colonization. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were prospectively collected. Active surveillance cultures (ASCs) were obtained weekly. Clusters of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by conventional and molecular epidemiological tools.During the study period, 1152 infants were enrolled in the study. Prevalences of colonization by MDR GNB, ESBL-producing GNB and multiple species/genera averaged, respectively, 28.8%, 11.7%, and 3.7%. Prevalence and incidence density of colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing GNB showed an upward trend through the surveillance period. Rates of ESBL-producing E coli and K pneumoniae colonization showed wide fluctuations peaking over the last 2 years. The only independent variables associated with colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing organisms and multiple colonization were, respectively, the days of NICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.041), the days of exposure to ampicillin-sulbactam (OR 1.040), and the days of formula feeding (OR 1.031). Most clusters of E coli and K pneumoniae colonization were associated with different lineages. Ten out of 12 clusters had an outborn infant as their index case.Our study confirms that MDR GNB are an increasing challenge to NICUs. The universal once-a-week approach allowed us to understand the epidemiology of MDR GNB, to timely detect new clones and institute contact precautions, and to assess risk factors. Collection of these data can be an important tool to

  14. A Comparative Assessment of Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership and Mini-Sentinel Common Data Models and Analytics: Implications for Active Drug Safety Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihua; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Suehs, Brandon T; Hartzema, Abraham G; Kahn, Michael G; Moride, Yola; Sauer, Brian C; Liu, Qing; Moll, Keran; Pasquale, Margaret K; Nair, Vinit P; Bate, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    An often key component to coordinating surveillance activities across distributed networks is the design and implementation of a common data model (CDM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate two drug safety surveillance CDMs from an ecosystem perspective to better understand how differences in CDMs and analytic tools affect usability and interpretation of results. Humana claims data from 2007 to 2012 were mapped to Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) and Mini-Sentinel CDMs. Data were described and compared at the patient level by source code and mapped concepts. Study cohort construction and effect estimates were also compared using two different analytical methods--one based on a new user design implementing a high-dimensional propensity score (HDPS) algorithm and the other based on univariate self-controlled case series (SCCS) design--across six established positive drug-outcome pairs to learn how differences in CDMs and analytics influence steps in the database analytic process and results. Claims data for approximately 7.7 million Humana health plan members were transformed into the two CDMs. Three health outcome cohorts and two drug cohorts showed differences in cohort size and constituency between Mini-Sentinel and OMOP CDMs, which was a result of multiple factors. Overall, the implementation of the HDPS procedure on Mini-Sentinel CDM detected more known positive associations than that on OMOP CDM. The SCCS method results were comparable on both CDMs. Differences in the implementation of the HDPS procedure between the two CDMs were identified; analytic model and risk period specification had a significant impact on the performance of the HDPS procedure on OMOP CDM. Differences were observed between OMOP and Mini-Sentinel CDMs. The analysis of both CDMs at the data model level indicated that such conceptual differences had only a slight but not significant impact on identifying known safety associations. Our results show that differences at

  15. A market based active/reactive dispatch including transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks using Simulated Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Mario Helder [Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Instituto Politecnico de Tomar, Quinta do Contador, Estrada da Serra, 2300 Tomar (Portugal); Saraiva, Joao Tome [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    This paper describes an optimization model to be used by System Operators in order to validate the economic schedules obtained by Market Operators together with the injections from Bilateral Contracts. These studies will be performed off-line in the day before operation and the developed model is based on adjustment bids submitted by generators and loads and it is used by System Operators if that is necessary to enforce technical or security constraints. This model corresponds to an enhancement of an approach described in a previous paper and it now includes discrete components as transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks. The resulting mixed integer formulation is solved using Simulated Annealing, a well known metaheuristic specially suited for combinatorial problems. Once the Simulated Annealing converges and the values of the discrete variables are fixed, the resulting non-linear continuous problem is solved using Sequential Linear Programming to get the final solution. The developed model corresponds to an AC version, it includes constraints related with the capability diagram of synchronous generators and variables allowing the computation of the active power required to balance active losses. Finally, the paper includes a Case Study based on the IEEE 118 bus system to illustrate the results that it is possible to obtain and their interest. (author)

  16. Development of the Hospital Nurse Surveillance Capacity Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Kutney-Lee, Ann; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2009-01-01

    Better patient outcomes are often achieved through effective surveillance, a primary function of nurses. The purpose of this paper is to define, operationalize, measure, and evaluate the nurse surveillance capacity of hospitals. Nurse surveillance capacity is defined as the organizational features that enhance or weaken nurse surveillance. It includes a set of registered nurse (staffing, education, expertise, experience) and nurse practice environment characteristics. Empirical referents were...

  17. Study of Avian Tuberculosis in a Zoo at the Bogota savannah through Tuberculin Testing and Active Epidemiologic Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rodríguez Martínez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow of wild birds is a weakness in epidemiologic surveillance because of its unknown potential as a source of disease dissemination. The investigation focused on an epidemiological tracking of the mixed wild bird population in a zoo in the Bogota Savannah, where three birds died with a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis. In order to verify the presence of Mycobacterium avium and to plan the required measures to avoid risk factors, a control group of five poultry birds of the Hy Line Brown variety that had already been exposed was used, as well as a sentinel group of the poultry birds from the same batch as the control group, and an external control group of 102 birds from cages near the area of the problem. Retrospective and prospective studies were carried out through histopathological, microbiological, epidemiological and molecular analysis. One hundred percent (100% of the birds from the original cages that died were genotypically diagnosed with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium. Thirty-five percent (35.5% of the sentinel group was affected by Mycobacterium avium, 28.6% by Mycobacterium gordonae, 14.3% by Mycobacterium chelonae and 21.4% by a mycobacterium that is very difficult to classify. The other animals outside the cage showed no evidence of infection. It is concluded that the problematic enclosure is affected by avian tuberculosis, which is of high risk both for birds and for humans. The poultry used as sentinels are excellent infective agent detectors, particularly of mycobacteria present in the environment, and the tuberculin test is a good indicator of infection with this type of microorganisms in poultry.

  18. Activity of ceftaroline and comparators against pathogens isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in Latin America - results of AWARE surveillance 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Hoban

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As part of the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE surveillance program in 2012 the in vitro activity of ceftaroline and relevant comparator antimicrobials was evaluated in six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela against pathogens isolated from patients with hospital associated skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. The study documented that ceftaroline was highly active (MIC90 0.25 mg/L/% susceptible 100% against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MIC90 2 mg/L/% susceptible 83.3% and ß-hemolytic streptococci (MIC90 0.008-0.015 mg/L/% susceptible 100%. The activity of ceftaroline against selected species of Enterobacteriaceae was dependent upon the presence or absence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs. Against ESBL screen-negativeEscherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, andKlebsiella oxytoca the MIC90 and percent susceptible for ceftaroline were (0.5 mg/L/94.1%, (0.5 mg/L/99.0% and (0.5 mg/L/91.5%, respectively. Ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity against a recent collection of pathogens associated with SSTI in six Latin American countries in 2012.

  19. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  20. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  1. Active surveillance to update county scale distribution of four tick species of medical and veterinary importance in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcham, Jessica R; Barrett, Anne W; Gruntmeir, Jeff M; Holland, Taylor; Martin, Jaclyn E; Johnson, Eileen M; Little, Susan E; Noden, Bruce H

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of tick-borne disease continues to increase in humans and companion animals in the United States, yet distribution maps for several tick vectors in Oklahoma, including Dermacentor variabilis, Dermacentor albipictus, Ixodes scapularis, and Amblyomma maculatum, are not available or are outdated. To address this issue, county-scale tick records from peer-reviewed literature and passive collections were reviewed for Oklahoma. Additionally, dry ice traps, tick drags, and harvested deer were utilized to actively collect adult ticks throughout the state. Through these methods, D. variabilis, D. albipictus, I. scapularis, and A. maculatum were identified in 88% (68/77), 45.4% (35/77), 66.2% (51/77), and 64.9% (50/77) of the counties in Oklahoma, respectively. Baseline maps were developed for the distribution of D. variabilis and D. albipictus and distribution maps were updated for I. scapularis and A. maculatum. This data confirms that these four species of ticks continue to be widespread within Oklahoma with a western expansion of the range of I. scapularis within the state. These results assist efforts to better understand the epidemiology of the different diseases caused by pathogens transmitted by these tick species within the Great Plains region. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. The validation of a three-stage screening methodology for detecting active convulsive epilepsy in population-based studies in health and demographic surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngugi Anthony K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few studies on the epidemiology of epilepsy in large populations in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC. Most studies in these regions use two-stage population-based screening surveys, which are time-consuming and costly to implement in large populations required to generate accurate estimates. We examined the sensitivity and specificity of a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology in detecting active convulsive epilepsy (ACE, which can be embedded within on-going census of demographic surveillance systems. We validated a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology on a randomly selected sample of participants of a three-stage prevalence survey of epilepsy. Diagnosis of ACE by an experienced clinician was used as ‘gold standard’. We further compared the expenditure of this method with the standard two-stage methodology. Results We screened 4442 subjects in the validation and identified 35 cases of ACE. Of these, 18 were identified as false negatives, most of whom (15/18 were missed in the first stage and a few (3/18 in the second stage of the three-stage screening. Overall, this methodology had a sensitivity of 48.6% and a specificity of 100%. It was 37% cheaper than a two-stage survey. Conclusion This was the first study to evaluate the performance of a multi-stage screening methodology used to detect epilepsy in demographic surveillance sites. This method had poor sensitivity attributed mainly to stigma-related non-response in the first stage. This method needs to take into consideration the poor sensitivity and the savings in expenditure and time as well as validation in target populations. Our findings suggest the need for continued efforts to develop and improve case-ascertainment methods in population-based epidemiological studies of epilepsy in LMIC.

  3. Presence, distribution, and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a small animal teaching hospital: a year-long active surveillance targeting dogs and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Balen, Joany; Kelley, Christina; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Bateman, Shane; Hillier, Andrew; Dyce, Jonathan; Wittum, Thomas E; Hoet, Armando E

    2013-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known to be present in small animal veterinary clinical environments. However, a better understanding of the ecology and dynamics of MRSA in these environments is necessary for the development of effective infectious disease prevention and control programs. To achieve this goal, a yearlong active MRSA surveillance program was established at The Ohio State University (OSU) Veterinary Medical Center to describe the spatial and molecular epidemiology of this bacterium in the small animal hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, and dendrogram analysis were used to characterize and analyze the 81 environmental and 37 canine-origin MRSA isolates obtained during monthly sampling events. Overall, 13.5% of surfaces were contaminated with MRSA at 1 or more sampling times throughout the year. The majority of the environmental and canine isolates were SCCmec type II (93.8% and 86.5%, respectively) and USA100 (90.1% and 86.5%, respectively). By PFGE analysis, these isolates were found to be closely related, which reflects a low diversity of MRSA strains circulating in the hospital. For 5 consecutive months, 1 unique pulsotype was the most prevalent across the medical services and was recovered from a variety of surfaces and hospital locations. Carts/gurneys, doors, and examination tables/floors were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. Some surfaces maintained the same pulsotypes for 3 consecutive months. Molecular analysis found that incoming MRSA-positive dogs were capable of introducing a new pulsotype into the hospital environment during the surveillance period. Our results suggest that once a MRSA strain is introduced into the hospital environment, it can be maintained and spread for extended periods of time. These findings can aid in the development of biosecurity and biocontainment protocols aimed at

  4. ACTIVITIES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN KHABAROVSKY KRAI IN CONDITIONS OF THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND MEASURES UNDERTAKEN TO PROTECT THE TERRITORY AND POPULATION THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes activities of the Administration of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Khabarovsky Krai and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Khabarovsky Krai" in the situation related to the Fukushima accident in Japan

  5. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, M.; Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Borsella, B.W.; Wright, K.C.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes calendar year 1995 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring and Water Resources of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, performed at the following Waste Management Facilities: the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and tow surplus facilities. Results of the sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program, Site Environmental Surveillance Program, and the United States Geological Survey at these facilities are included in this report. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1995 environmental surveillance data with US DOE Derived Concentration Guides and with data form previous years.

  6. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  7. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  8. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant activity against pathogenic bacteria including multidrug-resistant clinical strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJAY GHOSH CHALASANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cell free modified trypticase soya broth (pH 7.4+0.2 of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reverse-phased high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined for 11 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 1 µg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100µg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule.

  9. A hybrid strategy for surveillance of individuals potentially exposed to contaminated methylprednisolone acetate--Virginia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvese, Kate; Forlano, Laurie; Gibson, Lex

    2013-01-01

    In September 2012, a multistate outbreak of fungal infections associated with the use of contaminated steroid products resulted in 675 exposed persons in Virginia and 53 cases of fungal infections, including 2 deaths. This article describes the design and implementation of a "hybrid" active public health surveillance system and related communication activities in partnership with key clinical stakeholders in Virginia. Strong collaboration with clinical partners is critical in establishing and implementing a surveillance system for an evolving outbreak. While clinicians focused on diagnosis, treatment, and routine follow-up of patients who presented with symptoms consistent with the outbreak case definition, public health took on the responsibility of weekly surveillance phone calls to all exposed persons who did not enter clinical care. Communication between clinical partners and public health was essential and included the somewhat atypical role of public health actively performing assessment and referral to care functions during an outbreak.

  10. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  11. HIV/AIDS/STI Surveillance Report:Report Number 22

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhani, Angela; Somi, Geoffrey; Josiah, Robert; Matee, M.; Hokororo, Joseph; Nondi, Joseph; Sambu, Veryeh; Lema, Levina; Kilama, Bonita; Mlingi, Grace; Mogela, Deus; Nkingwa, Mathias; Lengaki, Lina; Urassa, Jenesta; Bukuku, May

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the activities of the Tanzanian NACP of the MoHSW in dealing with the HIV pandemic as of December 2010. It includes analysis of the following interventions: blood transfusion services, HIV care and treatment, Counselling and Testing for HIV infection, Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV infection (PMTCT) as well as M&E reports and surveillance of HIV infection in the country. The following have been achieved regarding the blood transfusions serv...

  12. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  13. Moving object detection for video surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalirajan, K; Sudha, M

    2015-01-01

    .... In this paper, a novel approach of object detection for video surveillance is presented. The proposed algorithm consists of various steps including video compression, object detection, and object localization...

  14. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  15. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Alan P

    2015-01-01

    .... Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation...

  17. A prospective study of health-related quality-of-life outcomes for patients with low-risk prostate cancer managed by active surveillance or radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, John S; Hurwitz, Lauren M; Cullen, Jennifer; Wolff, Erika M; Levie, Katherine E; Rosner, Inger L; Brand, Timothy C; LʼEsperance, James O; Sterbis, Joseph R; Porter, Christopher R

    2017-05-01

    Patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) often have excellent oncologic outcomes. However, treatment with curative intent can lead to decrements in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients treated with radical prostatectomy have been shown to suffer declines in urinary and sexual HRQoL as compared to those managed with active surveillance (AS). Similarly, patients treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) are hypothesized to experience greater declines in bowel HRQoL. As health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) concerns are paramount when selecting among treatment options for low-risk PCa, this study examined HRQoL outcomes in men undergoing EBRT as compared to AS in a prospective, racially diverse cohort. A prospective study of HRQoL in patients with PCa enrolled in the Center for Prostate Disease Research (CPDR) Multicenter National Database was initiated in 2007. The current study included patients diagnosed through April 2014. HRQoL was assessed with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36). Temporal changes in HRQoL were compared for patients with low-risk PCa managed on AS vs. EBRT at baseline, 1-, 2-, and 3 years post-PCa diagnosis. Longitudinal patterns were modeled using linear regression models fitted with generalized estimating equations (GEE), adjusting for baseline HRQoL, demographic, and clinical patient characteristics. Of the 499 eligible patients with low-risk PCa, 103 (21%) selected AS and 60 (12%) were treated with EBRT. Demographic characteristics of the treatment groups were similar, though a greater proportion of patients in the EBRT group were African American (P = 0.0003). At baseline, both treatment groups reported comparable HRQoL. EBRT patients experienced significantly worse bowel function and bother at 1 year (adjusted mean score: 87 vs. 95, P = 0.001 and 89 vs. 95, P = 0.008, respectively) and 2 years (87 vs. 93, P = 0.007 and 87 vs. 96, P = 0

  18. A Methodology for Modeling Nuclear Power Plant Passive Component Aging in Probabilistic Risk Assessment under the Impact of Operating Conditions, Surveillance and Maintenance Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler Yigitoglu, Askin

    In the context of long operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) (i.e., 60-80 years, and beyond), investigation of the aging of passive systems, structures and components (SSCs) is important to assess safety margins and to decide on reactor life extension as indicated within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. In the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology, evaluating the potential significance of aging of passive SSCs on plant risk is challenging. Although passive SSC failure rates can be added as initiating event frequencies or basic event failure rates in the traditional event-tree/fault-tree methodology, these failure rates are generally based on generic plant failure data which means that the true state of a specific plant is not reflected in a realistic manner on aging effects. Dynamic PRA methodologies have gained attention recently due to their capability to account for the plant state and thus address the difficulties in the traditional PRA modeling of aging effects of passive components using physics-based models (and also in the modeling of digital instrumentation and control systems). Physics-based models can capture the impact of complex aging processes (e.g., fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, etc.) on SSCs and can be utilized to estimate passive SSC failure rates using realistic NPP data from reactor simulation, as well as considering effects of surveillance and maintenance activities. The objectives of this dissertation are twofold: The development of a methodology for the incorporation of aging modeling of passive SSC into a reactor simulation environment to provide a framework for evaluation of their risk contribution in both the dynamic and traditional PRA; and the demonstration of the methodology through its application to pressurizer surge line pipe weld and steam generator tubes in commercial nuclear power plants. In the proposed methodology, a

  19. Activation cross-section measurement of a sort of nuclide produced with a target including two isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng-Qun; TIAN Ming-Li; SONG Yue-Li; LAN Chang-Lin; KONG Xiang-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Based on a formula used to calculate the activation cross-section sum of two reactions producing a sort of nuclide with a target including two isotopes,the related problems in some references have been analyzed and discussed.It is pointed out that the calculation methods of the cross-section sum of two reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for two isotopes in some references are improper and usually it is impossible to obtain the correct cross-section sum of two reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for two isotopes in the case of using natural samples.At the same time,the related concepts are clarified and the correct processing method and representation are given.The comparison with the experimental results show that the theoretical analysis results are right.

  20. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Clinic-admitted Raptors, Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Nemeth, Nicole; Kratz, Gail; Edwards, Eric; Scherpelz, Judy; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, 13.5% of clinic-admitted raptors in northern Colorado tested positive for West Nile virus (WNV). Clinic-admitted–raptor surveillance detected WNV activity nearly 14 weeks earlier than other surveillance systems. WNV surveillance using live raptor admissions to rehabilitation clinics may offer a novel surveillance method and should be considered along with other techniques already in use.

  1. Surveillance for West Nile virus in clinic-admitted raptors, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole; Kratz, Gail; Edwards, Eric; Scherpelz, Judy; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas

    2007-02-01

    In 2005, 13.5% of clinic-admitted raptors in northern Colorado tested positive for West Nile virus (WNV). Clinic-admitted-raptor surveillance detected WNV activity nearly 14 weeks earlier than other surveillance systems. WNV surveillance using live raptor admissions to rehabilitation clinics may offer a novel surveillance method and should be considered along with other techniques already in use.

  2. Oral selenium supplementation has no effect on prostate-specific antigen velocity in men undergoing active surveillance for localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, M Suzanne; Algotar, Amit M; Ranger-Moore, James; Stratton, Steven P; Slate, Elizabeth H; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Clark, Larry C; Ahmann, Frederick R

    2010-08-01

    The Nutritional Prevention of Cancer trial showed a 52% lower incidence of prostate cancer in men supplemented with selenium. As a result, our study was designed to assess whether selenium supplementation attenuates the progression of prostate cancer. A phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in men with localized nonmetastatic prostate cancer who had elected to forgo active treatment and be followed by active surveillance. A total of 140 men were randomized to placebo (n = 46), 200 microg/d (n = 47), or 800 microg/d (n = 47) selenium p.o. (as selenized yeast) and followed every 3 months for up to 5 years. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity was used as a marker of prostate cancer progression and was estimated using mixed-effects regression. Adjusting for age, body mass index, baseline selenium, smoking, baseline PSA, race, PSA method, and Gleason score, PSA velocities for the 200 microg/d and 800 microg/d treatment groups were not statistically significantly different from placebo (P = 0.32 and P = 0.61, respectively). In the highest quartile of baseline selenium, men supplemented with 800 microg selenium showed statistically significantly higher PSA velocity as compared with placebo (P = 0.018). Selenium supplementation did not show a protective effect on PSA velocity in subjects with localized prostate cancer. On the contrary, supplementation with high-dose selenium was observed to be a risk factor for increased PSA velocity in men with high baseline plasma selenium concentrations.

  3. Individuals with a family history of ESRD are a high-risk population for CKD: implications for targeted surveillance and intervention activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, William M; Satko, Scott G; Gladstone, Elisa; Krisher, Jenna O; Narva, Andrew S; Freedman, Barry I

    2009-03-01

    Activities intended to improve the detection, treatment, and control of chronic kidney disease (CKD) should be incorporated into existing health care systems and targeted to high-risk populations to avoid redundancy and waste of resources. One high-risk population consists of first- or second-degree family members of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), who are 2 to 3 times as likely to have incident ESRD, have high rates of impaired kidney function and undetected and uncontrolled high blood pressure, and are more likely to be obese. These individuals usually are unaware of their underlying CKD and may discount their own risk of ESRD. The ESRD Network 6 Family History Project shows that the ESRD Networks, which constitute a national CKD surveillance system for patients with stage 5 CKD, may be an existing resource that can be used to identify relatives of incident patients with ESRD and provide these families with information about CKD. Nationally available resources have been developed by the National Kidney Disease Education Program for use with these at-risk families. Individuals interested in population-based CKD control activities should be aware of and use these resources.

  4. Antimicrobial activity against a global collection of skin and skin structure pathogens: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.), 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tärnberg, Maria; Nilsson, Lennart E; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    As part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) we report antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates collected globally from integumentary sources between 2010 and 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations and antimicrobial resistance were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (US Food and Drug Administration breakpoints against tigecycline). The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to identify statistically significant changes in resistance. Global rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 38% and 43%, respectively. No S. aureus isolates were resistant to linezolid or vancomycin; all isolates were susceptible to tigecycline. Two percent of Enterococcus faecalis and 28% of Enterococcus faecium were vancomycin-resistant. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers accounted for 22% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 16% of Escherichia coli. Resistance to minocycline among E. faecalis, E. faecium, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli decreased significantly (pintegumentary sources, rates of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are stabilizing. Carbapenems and tigecycline have retained their in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Few agents were active against A. baumannii; its increasing resistance is cause for concern. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Central activation of the sympathetic nervous system including the adrenals in anaesthetized guinea pigs by the muscarinic agonist talsaclidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walland, A; Pieper, M P

    1998-04-01

    Talsaclidine, a novel M1-receptor selective muscarinic agonist for cholinergic substitution therapy of Alzheimer's disease, activates the sympathetic nervous system in guinea pigs and dogs at the orthosympathic ganglia and the paraganglionic adrenals. Results from guinea pigs provide indirect evidence for an additional central site of action. The present investigation in anaesthetized and vagotomized guinea pigs intended to demonstrate central activation of the sympathetic nervous system directly by comparing the blood pressure effects of intracerebroventricular and intravenous injections of small doses of talsaclidine. Increasing doses of 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine were injected alternately into the third cerebral ventricle and intravenously in 6 guinea pigs before and after blockade of peripheral muscarinic receptors with 1 mg/kg ipratropium bromide i.v. In another group of 6 animals the injections were given into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris using the same protocol. In both groups central administration of talsaclidine caused dose-related hypertension while intravenous injections were hypotensive. Ipratropium bromide, a peripheral antimuscarinic drug, reversed this hypotensive action of intravenous talsaclidine into hypertension, but did not inhibit the effects of central administration. In contrast, atropine, an antimuscarinic drug which passes the blood-brain barrier, abolished the effect of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine injected into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 8 guinea pigs. The hypertensive effect of a first injection of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 6 guinea pigs was approximately twice as large as that of a second given 90 min after bilateral adrenalectomy. Sham operation in another 6 animals was not inhibitory. The results demonstrate that talsaclidine, a selective muscarinic M1-receptor agonist, activates central parts of the sympathetic nervous system, including central projections of the adrenals by an action

  6. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  7. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  8. Predicting the Peritoneal Absorption of Icodextrin in Rats and Humans Including the Effect of α-Amylase Activity in Dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akonur, Alp; Holmes, Clifford J; Leypoldt, John K

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to ultrafiltration, the three-pore model predictions of icodextrin absorption from the peritoneal cavity have not yet been reported likely, in part, due to difficulties in estimating the degradation of glucose-polymer chains by α-amylase activity in dialysate. We incorporated this degradation process in a modified three-pore model of peritoneal transport to predict ultrafiltration and icodextrin absorption simultaneously in rats and humans. Separate three-pore models were constructed for humans and rats. The model for humans was adapted from PD Adequest 2.0 including a clearance term out of the peritoneal cavity to account for the absorption of large molecules to the peritoneal tissues, and considering patients who routinely used icodextrin by establishing steady-state plasma concentrations. The model for rats employed a standard three-pore model in which human kinetic parameters were scaled for a rat based on differences in body weight. Both models described the icodextrin molecular weight (MW) distribution as five distinct MW fractions. First order kinetics was applied using degradation rate constants obtained from previous in-vitro measurements using gel permeation chromatography. Ultrafiltration and absorption were predicted during a 4-hour exchange in rats, and 9 and 14-hour exchanges in humans with slow to fast transport characteristics with and without the effect of amylase activity. In rats, the icodextrin MW profile shifted towards the low MW fractions due to complete disappearance of the MW fractions greater than 27.5 kDa. Including the effect of amylase activity (60 U/L) resulted in 21.1% increase in ultrafiltration (UF) (7.6 mL vs 6.0 mL) and 7.1% increase in icodextrin absorption (CHO) (62.5% with vs 58.1%). In humans, the shift in MW profile was less pronounced. The fast transport (H) patient absorbed more icodextrin than the slow transport (L) patient during both 14-hour (H: 47.9% vs L: 40.2%) and 9-hour (H: 37.4% vs L: 31.7%) exchanges

  9. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  10. Continuous thermal infrared monitoring at Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius (Italy) by automated data processing: an effective surveillance tool of active volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansivero, Fabio; Vilardo, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano Thermal Infrared Imagery Monitoring Network (TIIMNet) is made up of IR acquisition stations designed to continuously acquire IR scenes of diffuse degassing areas in the Neapolitan volcanic district. Every station consists of a RMS (Remote Monitoring Station) which manages the shooting functionalities of the IR camera and the connection to the surveillance Centre of INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano in Naples. The first developed station was equipped with a NEC Thermo Tracer TS7302 IR camera (with 320x240 pixel FPA uncooled microbolometer); a newer one is equipped with a FLIR SC645 IR camera (with 640x480 pixel FPA uncooled microbolometer) and is supported by an in-house developed hardware which manages a fully real-time control of data acquisition and transfer procedures. As a whole, TIIMNet is composed of four permanent stations and three transportable ones. The first permanent NEC Station was installed at Vesuvius on July 2004 and dismissed on May 2007. A new permanent FLIR Station was set up on June 2011 and it acquires IR scenes from the inner SW slope of Vesuvius crater. In the Campi Flegrei caldera (Pozzuoli, Italy) a permanent NEC Station was operative at Solfatara since September 2004 and it acquired scenes of the major fumaroles area located on the SE inner slope at the intersection of two active, SW-NE and NW-SE main faults. A permanent FLIR Station has been installed at Solfatara on June 2013 and takes IR shots of a significant thermal anomaly on the Northern inner slope of the crater. At Pisciarelli locality, on the Solfatara NE outer slope, a transportable NEC Station was set up on October 2006 and dismissed on September 2013. It was abreast of a permanent FLIR Station on March 2013. Both stations stored IR scenes of the outer eastern flank of the Solfatara tuff-cone characterized by heavy water vapor and CO2 emissions close to an active NW-SE fault. IR scenes are acquired every night by the TIIMNet stations and in real time

  11. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  12. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  13. Participatory Online Surveillance as a Supplementary Tool to Sentinel Doctors for Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Antonino; Rizzo, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of seasonal influenza yearly epidemics remains one of the main activity of national syndromic surveillance systems. The development of internet-based surveillance tools has brought an innovative approach to seasonal influenza surveillance by directly involving self-selected volunteers among the general population reporting their health status on a weekly basis throughout the flu season. In this paper, we explore how Influweb, an internet-based monitoring system for influenza surveillance, deployed in Italy since 2008 has performed during three years from 2012 to 2015 in comparison with data collected during the same period by the Italian sentinel doctors surveillance system. PMID:28076411

  14. Surveillance and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is as much about surveillance as about persuasive technologies (PTs). With regard to PTs it raises the question about the ethical limits of persuasion. It will be argued that even some forms of self-imposed persuasive soft surveillance technologies may be considered unethical. Therefore,

  15. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  16. Is the HIV sentinel surveillance system adequate in China? Findings from an evaluation of the national HIV sentinel surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Chen, Sanny; Seguy, Nicole; Chen, Zhongdan; Sabin, Keith; Calleja, Jesus García

    2012-01-01

    Background An external evaluation was conducted to assess the performance of the national HIV sentinel surveillance system (HSS), identify operational challenges at national and local levels and provide recommendations for improvement. Methods The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems were followed to assess the key attributes of HSS. Comprehensive assessment activities were conducted, including: using a detailed checklist to review surveillance guidelines, protocols and relevant documents; conducting self-administered, anonymous surveys with 286 local China CDC staff; and carrying out field observations in 32 sentinel sites in four provinces. Results China has built an extensive HSS with 1888 sentinel sites to monitor HIV epidemic trends by population groups over time. The strengths of HSS lie in its flexibility, simplicity, usefulness and increase in coverage in locations and populations. With its rapid expansion in 2010, HSS faces challenges in maintaining acceptability, timeliness, data quality, representativeness and sustainability. Recommendations Implementation of the national guidelines should be standardized by strengthening training, monitoring and supervision of all staff involved, including community-based organizations. National surveillance guidelines need to be revised to strengthen data quality and representativeness, particularly to include specific instructions on HIV testing result provision, collection of identifying information, sample size and sampling methods particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM), collection of refusal information, and data interpretation. Sustainability of China’s HSS could be strengthened by applying locally tailored surveillance strategies, strengthening coordination and cooperation among government agencies and ensuring financial and human resources. PMID:23908946

  17. Assessment of the Activity of Tigecycline against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Organisms Collected from Italy between 2012 and 2014, as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Stefania; Dowzicky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) we report the in vitro activity of tigecycline and its comparators against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms collected from Italian centers between 2012 and 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined according to the broth microdilution methodology of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antimicrobial resistance was determined using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing interpretive criteria. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, 31% of Escherichia coli isolates, 22% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 1% of Klebsiella oxytoca were extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers (ESBLs). Resistance rates among ESBL-K. pneumoniae and ESBL-E. coli to meropenem were 24% and <1%, respectively. Thirty-seven percent of K. pneumoniae were multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. Resistance rates among isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii to amikacin, levofloxacin and meropenem were between 84% and 94%. Eighty percent of A. baumannii isolates were MDR strains. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for 38% of S. aureus isolates. No isolates of MRSA were resistant to linezolid, tigecycline or vancomycin. Antimicrobial resistance remains a problem in Italy with increasing numbers of MDR organisms. Despite high levels, MRSA rates appear to be stabilising. Tigecycline retains its in vitro activity against the majority of organisms, including those with multidrug resistance. PMID:27898030

  18. Assessment of the Activity of Tigecycline against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Organisms Collected from Italy between 2012 and 2014, as Part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Stefani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T we report the in vitro activity of tigecycline and its comparators against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms collected from Italian centers between 2012 and 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined according to the broth microdilution methodology of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antimicrobial resistance was determined using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing interpretive criteria. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, 31% of Escherichia coli isolates, 22% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 1% of Klebsiella oxytoca were extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers (ESBLs. Resistance rates among ESBL-K. pneumoniae and ESBL-E. coli to meropenem were 24% and <1%, respectively. Thirty-seven percent of K. pneumoniae were multidrug resistant (MDR strains. Resistance rates among isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii to amikacin, levofloxacin and meropenem were between 84% and 94%. Eighty percent of A. baumannii isolates were MDR strains. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA accounted for 38% of S. aureus isolates. No isolates of MRSA were resistant to linezolid, tigecycline or vancomycin. Antimicrobial resistance remains a problem in Italy with increasing numbers of MDR organisms. Despite high levels, MRSA rates appear to be stabilising. Tigecycline retains its in vitro activity against the majority of organisms, including those with multidrug resistance.

  19. Application of IR microbolometers in border surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakfield, David K.; Norton, Peter; Plemons, Dan; Rodriguez, Christian; Sustare, Dennis

    2007-04-01

    BAE Systems led a collaborative study with New Mexico State University to investigate a series of ground based persistent surveillance solutions for potential use along the Southwest border of the United States. This study considered a wide range of system options for mobile and fixed site applications. This paper summarizes the findings of the study including the central role of the imaging subsystems in mobile ground based surveillance solutions and the suitability of uncooled IR Microbolometers within this subsystem. The paper also provides a discussion of the benefits of real time decision support applications when fielding a persistent surveillance solution.

  20. Ontology for vector surveillance and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Bandyopadhyay, Aritra; Cowell, Lindsay G; Goldfain, Albert; Eisen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Ontologies, which are made up by standardized and defined controlled vocabulary terms and their interrelationships, are comprehensive and readily searchable repositories for knowledge in a given domain. The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry was initiated in 2001 with the aims of becoming an "umbrella" for life-science ontologies and promoting the use of ontology development best practices. A software application (OBO-Edit; *.obo file format) was developed to facilitate ontology development and editing. The OBO Foundry now comprises over 100 ontologies and candidate ontologies, including the NCBI organismal classification ontology (NCBITaxon), the Mosquito Insecticide Resistance Ontology (MIRO), the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO), the IDOMAL malaria ontology, and ontologies for mosquito gross anatomy and tick gross anatomy. We previously developed a disease data management system for dengue and malaria control programs, which incorporated a set of information trees built upon ontological principles, including a "term tree" to promote the use of standardized terms. In the course of doing so, we realized that there were substantial gaps in existing ontologies with regards to concepts, processes, and, especially, physical entities (e.g., vector species, pathogen species, and vector surveillance and management equipment) in the domain of surveillance and management of vectors and vector-borne pathogens. We therefore produced an ontology for vector surveillance and management, focusing on arthropod vectors and vector-borne pathogens with relevance to humans or domestic animals, and with special emphasis on content to support operational activities through inclusion in databases, data management systems, or decision support systems. The Vector Surveillance and Management Ontology (VSMO) includes >2,200 unique terms, of which the vast majority (>80%) were newly generated during the development of this ontology. One core feature of the VSMO is the linkage, through

  1. A Framework for Automatic Video Surveillance Indexing and Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Falah Chamasemani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The manual search through the surveillance video archives for a specific object or event is very time-consuming and tedious task due to the large volume of video data captured by many installed surveillance cameras. Therefore, the solution to accelerate and facilitate this process is to design an automatic video surveillance with the efficient and effective video indexing, video data model, query formulation and language, as well as visualization interface. There are many challenges, for developing a powerful query processing module, formulating complex queries and selecting suitable similarity matching strategy to detect any abnormality based on semantic content of the video using various query types. This study presents a novel video surveillance indexing and retrieval framework to cope with the above challenges. The proposed framework consists of three main modules i.e., pre-processing, query processing and retrieval processing. Moreover, it supports an efficient search and actively refines the retrieval result by formulating various query types including: query-by-text, query-by-example and query-by-region.

  2. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. A number of DOE sites participate in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Hanford Site from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Hanford and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The information in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site, and the appendices provides additional detail. The report also contains an expanded Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories which gives examples of health conditions in each of the diagnostic categories.

  3. Activation of CpxRA in Haemophilus ducreyi primarily inhibits the expression of its targets, including major virulence determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In humans, H. ducreyi is surrounded by phagocytes and must adapt to a hostile environment to survive. To sense and respond to environmental cues, bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction (2CST) systems. The only obvious 2CST system in H. ducreyi is CpxRA; CpxR is a response regulator, and CpxA is a sensor kinase. Previous studies by Hansen and coworkers showed that CpxR directly represses the expression of dsrA, the lspB-lspA2 operon, and the flp operon, which are required for virulence in humans. They further showed that CpxA functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vitro to maintain the expression of virulence determinants. Since a cpxA mutant is avirulent while a cpxR mutant is fully virulent in humans, CpxA also likely functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vivo. To better understand the role of H. ducreyi CpxRA in controlling virulence determinants, here we defined genes potentially regulated by CpxRA by using RNA-Seq. Activation of CpxR by deletion of cpxA repressed nearly 70% of its targets, including seven established virulence determinants. Inactivation of CpxR by deletion of cpxR differentially regulated few genes and increased the expression of one virulence determinant. We identified a CpxR binding motif that was enriched in downregulated but not upregulated targets. These data reinforce the hypothesis that CpxA phosphatase activity plays a critical role in controlling H. ducreyi virulence in vivo. Characterization of the downregulated genes may offer new insights into pathogenesis.

  4. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2008-10-13

    Environmental surveillance on and around the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The environmental surveillance data collected for this report provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford Site operations. Data were also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water, sediment, and wildlife. These data are included in this appendix. This report is the first of two appendices that support "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2007" (PNNL-17603), which describes the Hanford Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, Hanford Site cleanup and remediation efforts, and environmental monitoring activities and results.

  5. Scoping review on search queries and social media for disease surveillance: a chronology of innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Theresa Marie; Rajic, Andrijana; Young, Ian; Robiadek, Katie; Pham, Mai T; Funk, Julie A

    2013-07-18

    The threat of a global pandemic posed by outbreaks of influenza H5N1 (1997) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, 2002), both diseases of zoonotic origin, provoked interest in improving early warning systems and reinforced the need for combining data from different sources. It led to the use of search query data from search engines such as Google and Yahoo! as an indicator of when and where influenza was occurring. This methodology has subsequently been extended to other diseases and has led to experimentation with new types of social media for disease surveillance. The objective of this scoping review was to formally assess the current state of knowledge regarding the use of search queries and social media for disease surveillance in order to inform future work on early detection and more effective mitigation of the effects of foodborne illness. Structured scoping review methods were used to identify, characterize, and evaluate all published primary research, expert review, and commentary articles regarding the use of social media in surveillance of infectious diseases from 2002-2011. Thirty-two primary research articles and 19 reviews and case studies were identified as relevant. Most relevant citations were peer-reviewed journal articles (29/32, 91%) published in 2010-11 (28/32, 88%) and reported use of a Google program for surveillance of influenza. Only four primary research articles investigated social media in the context of foodborne disease or gastroenteritis. Most authors (21/32 articles, 66%) reported that social media-based surveillance had comparable performance when compared to an existing surveillance program. The most commonly reported strengths of social media surveillance programs included their effectiveness (21/32, 66%) and rapid detection of disease (21/32, 66%). The most commonly reported weaknesses were the potential for false positive (16/32, 50%) and false negative (11/32, 34%) results. Most authors (24/32, 75%) recommended that

  6. Evaluation of Aryoseven Safety (Recombinant Activated Factor VII) in Patients with Bleeding Disorders (An Observational Post-Marketing Surveillance Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogeh, Gholamreza; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Eshghi, Peyman; Managhchi, Mohammadreza; Shaverdi-niasari, Mohammadreza; Karimi, Katayoon; Roostaei, Samin; Emran, Neda; Abdollahi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recombinant activated factor VII induces hemostasis in patients with coagulopathy disorders. AryoSeven™ as a safe Iranian Recombinant activated factor VII has been available on our market. This study was performed to establish the safety of AryoSeven on patients with coagulopathy disorder. Methods: This single-center, descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out in Thrombus and Homeostasis Research Center ValiAsr Hospital during 2013-2014. Fifty one patients with bleeding disorders who received at least one dose of Aryoseven were enrolled. Patients’ demographic data and adverse effect of drug and reaction related to Aryoseven or previous usage of Recombinant activated FVII were recorded in questionnaires. Finally data were analyzed to compare side effects of Aryoseven and other Recombinant activated FVII brands. Results: Aryoseven was prescribed for 51 Patients. Of all participants with mean age 57.18+21.38 yr, 31 cases were male and 26 subjects had past history of recombinant activated FVII usage. Glanzman was the most frequent disorder followed by congenital FVII deficiency, hemophilia with inhibitors, factor 5 deficiency, acquired hemophilia, hemophilia A with inhibitor, and hemophilia A or B with inhibitor. The majority of bleeding episodes had occurred in joints. Three patients (5.9%) complained about adverse effects of Aryoseven vs. 11.5 % about adverse effects of other brands. However this difference was not significant, statistically. Conclusion: Based on monitor patients closely for any adverse events, we concluded that Aryoseven administration under careful weighing of benefit versus potential harm may comparable with other counterpart drugs. PMID:27799968

  7. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-12-21

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

  8. Scientific-methodological approaches to designing risk-oriented model of control and surveillance activities in the sphere of consumer rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present scientific-methodological approaches to defining risk categories of economic entities which are subject to surveillance in the sphere of consumer rights protection. Risk is suggested to be assessed as a product of violations frequency comprising violations of separate provisions of the law on consumer rights protection detected in the course of scheduled and unscheduled inspections; a number of claims per one detected violation which were satisfied by courts in favor of consumers; each separate case of harm accepted by court in money terms (as a sum of physical and moral damage to health and damage to property; and coefficient of a potential impact scope which differentiates risks for economic entities belonging to micro-, small, medium-sized and large business. Our information sources are official statistic data obtained due to realization of state control in the sphere of consumer rights protection and court practice collected in all the RF regions over 2012–2016. It is shown that a share of economic entities with extremely high risk potential which can cause total material damage to consumers in sums greater than 10 million rubles per year amounts to about 0.15 % of the total number of economic entities (both juridical persons and private entrepreneurs; economic entities with high risk potential account for about 2 %. Such groups are made of companies involved in financial markets, share construction services, insurance and tourism. About 23 % of juridical persons and private entrepreneurs can be classified as having low risk potential and they can be excluded from scheduled inspections. Economic entities structure in general corresponds to world practices. It is shown that risk-oriented surveillance model development requires improvements in keeping registers of juridical persons and private entrepreneurs as such registers should contain comprehensive information; it is necessary for correct risk category (or hazard category

  9. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Summary Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Chancroid Selected STDs Appendix Appendix Interpreting STD Surveillance Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors ...

  10. Estimating the individual benefit of immediate treatment or active surveillance for prostate cancer after screen-detection in older (65+) men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-05-15

    A significant proportion of screen-detected men with prostate cancer is likely to be overtreated, especially in older age groups. We aim to find which groups of screen-detected older men (65+) benefit the most from Immediate Radical Treatment or Active Surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer, depending on age, screening history, health status and prostate cancer stage at detection. We used a microsimulation model (MISCAN) of the natural history of prostate cancer based on ERSPC data. Individual life histories are simulated with US comorbidity lifetables based on a random sample of MEDICARE data. Different screening histories are simulated and we count outcomes for men screen-detected from ages 66 to 72. For immediately treated men with low-risk disease (≤ T2a, Gleason 6) the probability of overtreatment ranges from 61% to 86% decreasing to between 37 and 46%, if they are assigned to AS. For intermediate risk men (≤ T2, Gleason 3 + 4) overtreatment ranges from 23 to 60%, which reduces to between 16 and 31% for AS. For high risk men (T3, or ≥ Gleason 4 + 3), overtreatment ranges from 11 to 51%. The disease stage at screen-detection is a critical risk factor for overtreatment. For low risk men, AS seems to significantly reduce overtreatment at a modest cost. For intermediate risk men, the decision between immediate treatment or AS depends on age and comorbidity status. Men screen-detected in a high risk disease stage may benefit from immediate treatment even beyond age 69.

  11. Outbreaks of H5N1 in poultry in Thailand: the relative role of poultry production types in sustaining transmission and the impact of active surveillance in control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Patrick; Cauchemez, Simon; Hartemink, Nienke; Tiensin, Thanawat; Ghani, Azra C

    2012-08-07

    H5N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza, continues to pose a public health risk in the countries of southeast Asia where it has become endemic. However, in Thailand, which experienced two of the largest recorded epidemics in 2004-2005, the disease has been successfully reduced to very low levels. We fitted a spatio-temporal model of the spread of infection to outbreak data collected during the second wave of outbreaks to assess the extent to which different poultry types were responsible for propagating infection. Our estimates suggest that the wave of outbreaks would not have been possible without the contribution of backyard flocks to the susceptibility of a sub-district. However, we also estimated that outbreaks involving commercial poultry, a much larger sector in Thailand than in neighbouring countries, were disproportionately infectious, a factor which was also crucial in sustaining the wave. As a result, implemented measures that aim to reduce the role of commercial farms in the spread of infection, such as the drive to bring aspects of the supply chain 'in house', may help to explain the subsequent success in controlling H5N1 in Thailand. We also found that periods of active surveillance substantially improved the rate of outbreak detection.

  12. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-08-29

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  13. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Quesada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a * was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  14. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-01-01

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties. PMID:28231152

  15. A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity – Part 2: Including solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Petters

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a particle to serve as a cloud condensation nucleus in the atmosphere is determined by its size, hygroscopicity and its solubility in water. Usually size and hygroscopicity alone are sufficient to predict CCN activity. Single parameter representations for hygroscopicity have been shown to successfully model complex, multicomponent particles types. Under the assumption of either complete solubility, or complete insolubility of a component, it is not necessary to explicitly include that component's solubility into the single parameter framework. This is not the case if sparingly soluble materials are present. In this work we explicitly account for solubility by modifying the single parameter equations. We demonstrate that sensitivity to the actual value of solubility emerges only in the regime of 2×10−1–5×10−4, where the solubility values are expressed as volume of solute per unit volume of water present in a saturated solution. Compounds that do not fall inside this sparingly soluble envelope can be adequately modeled assuming they are either infinitely soluble in water or completely insoluble.

  16. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC, EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP. The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole, a novel anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporin, tested against contemporary pathogens: results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2005-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2008-05-01

    Ceftobiprole is a 1st-in-class anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) extended-spectrum cephalosporin currently in clinical trials for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) and nosocomial pneumonia. This agent is also active against other prominent Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, making it an attractive candidate for broad-spectrum therapy. We evaluated the in vitro potency of ceftobiprole tested against the most commonly occurring bacterial pathogens as part of a global surveillance study for the years 2005 to 2006 (>60 medical centers in North America, Latin America, and Europe). All isolates (40 675) were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole inhibited 100% and >99% of tested S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci at Ceftobiprole was also broadly active against Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic and viridans group streptococci, inhibiting >98% of isolates at ceftobiprole was generally inactive against Enterococcus faecium, the majority of Enterococcus faecalis strains (95.7%) were inhibited at ceftobiprole and ceftazidime), ceftobiprole and cefepime were superior to ceftazidime against Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ceftobiprole was equal in potency to ceftazidime (MIC50, 2 microg/mL) and 2-fold more potent than cefepime. None of these agents inhibited >45% of Acinetobacter spp. at 8 mug/mL. Ceftobiprole is a new anti-MRSA beta-lactam with recognized activity against the most commonly occurring Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, similar to that of extended-spectrum cephems. These characteristics warrant continued evaluation of the agent as empiric therapy for cSSSIs, and in pneumonia, especially in those institutions/regions where MRSA and P. aeruginosa may be prevalent.

  18. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for GI cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Meester, Reinier G S; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2016-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. To reduce the burden of GI diseases, surveillance is recommended for some diseases, including for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, Barrett's oesophagus, precancerous gastric lesions, colorectal adenoma, and pancreatic neoplasms. This review aims to provide an overview of the evidence on cost-effectiveness of surveillance of individuals with GI conditions predisposing them to cancer, specifically focussing on the aforementioned conditions. We searched the literature and reviewed 21 studies. Despite heterogeneity of studies in terms of settings, study populations, surveillance strategies and outcomes, most reviewed studies suggested at least some surveillance of patients with these GI conditions to be cost-effective. For some high-risk conditions frequent surveillance with 3-month intervals was warranted, while for other conditions, surveillance may only be cost-effective every 10 years. Further studies based on more robust effectiveness evidence are needed to inform and optimise surveillance programmes for GI cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New Method for Real Time Influenza Surveillance in Primary Care: A Wisconsin Research and Education Network (WREN) Supported Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temte, Jonathan L; Barlow, Shari; Schemmel, Amber; Temte, Emily; Hahn, David L; Reisdorf, Erik; Shult, Peter; Tamerius, John

    2017-01-01

    The goal of public health infectious disease surveillance systems is to provide accurate laboratory results in near-real time. When it comes to influenza surveillance, most current systems are encumbered with inherent delays encountered in the real-life chaos of medical practice. To combat this, we implemented and tested near-real-time surveillance using a rapid influenza detection test (RIDT) coupled with immediate, wireless transmission of results to public health entities. A network of 19 primary care clinics across Wisconsin were recruited, including 4 sites already involved in ongoing influenza surveillance and 15 sites that were new to surveillance activities. Each site was provided with a Quidel Sofia Influenza A+B RIDT analyzer attached to a wireless router. Influenza test results, along with patient age, were transmitted immediately to a cloud-based server, automatically compiled, and forwarded to the surveillance team daily. Weekly counts of positive influenza A and B cases were compared with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detections from an independent surveillance system within the state. Following Institutional Review Board (IRB) and institutional approvals, we recruited 19 surveillance sites, installed equipment, and trained staff within 4 months. Of the 1119 cases tested between September 15, 2013 and June 28, 2014, 316 were positive for influenza. The system provided early detection of the influenza outbreak in Wisconsin. The influenza peak between January 12 and 25, 2014, as well as the epidemic curve, closely matched that derived from the established PCR laboratory network (r = 0.927; P surveillance. Results from the initial year strongly support this approach to highly accurate and timely influenza surveillance. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  20. Animal health surveillance applications: The interaction of science and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeberg, Preben

    2012-08-01

    a sound working platform not only for dealing with immediate questions when new or emerging disease situations arise, but also for more long-term activities, such as policy development, contingency planning and trade negotiations. Animal health issues, which emerged during my eight years as a CVO in Denmark from 1999 to 2007, will be used as examples, including BSE, FMD, HPAI and Trichinella testing. Emphasis will be placed on how science-based surveillance methodology and tools were developed, applied and documented.

  1. Breaking Out of Surveillance Silos: Integrative Geospatial Data Collection for Child Injury Risk and Active School Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Laura; Curtis, Jacqueline W; Curtis, Andrew; Hudson, Courtney; Wuensch, Heather; Sampsell, Malinda; Wiles, Erika; Infantino, Mary; Davis, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    The preponderance of active school transport (AST) and child injury research has occurred independently, yet they are inherently related. This is particularly true in urban areas where the environmental context of AST may pose risks to safety. However, it can be difficult to make these connections due to the often segregated nature in which these veins of research operate. Spatial video presents a geospatial approach for simultaneous data collection related to both issues. This article reports on a multi-sector pilot project among researchers, a children's hospital, and a police department, using spatial video to map child AST behaviors; a geographic information system (GIS) is used to analyze these data in the environmental context of child pedestrian injury and community violence.

  2. One Decade of Active Avian Influenza Wild Bird Surveillance in Belgium Showed a Higher Viroprevalence in Hunter-Harvested Than in Live-Ringed Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, M; Vangeluwe, D; Linden, A; Houdart, Ph; van den Berg, Thierry P; Lambrecht, B

    2016-05-01

    Active monitoring of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild birds was initiated in Belgium in 2005 in response to the first highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks occurring in Europe. In Belgium, active wild bird surveillance that targeted live-ringed and hunter-harvested wild birds was developed and maintained from 2005 onward. After one decade, this program assimilated, analyzed, and reported on over 35,000 swabs. The 2009-2014 datasets were used for the current analysis because detailed information was available for this period. The overall prevalence of avian influenza (AI) in samples from live-ringed birds during this period was 0.48% whereas it was 6.12% in hunter-harvested samples. While the ringing sampling targeted a large number of bird species and was realized over the years, the hunting sampling was mainly concentrated on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) during the hunting season, from mid-August to late January. Even when using just AI prevalence for live-ringed A. platyrhynchos during the hunting season, the value remained significantly lower (2.10%) compared to that detected for hunter-harvested mallards. One explanation for this significant difference in viroprevalence in hunter-harvested mallards was the game restocking practice, which released captive-bred birds in the wild before the hunting period. Indeed, the released game restocking birds, having an AI-naïve immune status, could act as local amplifiers of AI viruses already circulating in the wild, and this could affect AI epidemiology. Also, the release into the wild of noncontrolled restocking birds might lead to the introduction of new strains in the natural environment, leading to increased AI presence in the environment. Consequently, the release of naïve or infected restocking birds may affect AI dynamics.

  3. Differences in Renal Tumor Size Measurements for Computed Tomography Versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Implications for Patients on Active Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irtaza; Beksac, Alp Tuna; Paulucci, David J; Abaza, Ronney; Eun, Daniel D; Bhandari, Akshay; Badani, Ketan K

    2017-08-11

    To evaluate and compare the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting the final pathologic tumor size of partial nephrectomy specimens. We analyzed a multi-institutional database of 807 patients who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy for a cT1a renal mass from 2006 to 2016. Patients who had a solitary tumor with complete data on the baseline imaging modality and the tumor size (baseline and pathologic) (n = 349) were included for analysis. Baseline tumor size evaluated by both imaging modalities, in addition to the difference between the measurements and final pathologic tumor size (cm) measurements, was compared between patients who received a baseline CT (n = 276, 79.1%) and those who received an MRI (n = 73, 20.9%). There were no statistically significant differences between any baseline characteristics and receipt of a CT versus MRI. In multivariable analysis adjusting for confounders, there was no significant difference in the baseline tumor size between patients receiving an MRI and those receiving a CT (2.3 versus 2.6 cm; β = -0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.33 to 0.07; P = .208). Tumor size on imaging was smaller from final pathology by 0.43 cm on average (P = .002). Measurement error for the measured baseline versus actual pathologic tumor size did not significantly differ for patients receiving an MRI versus those receiving a CT (0.38 versus 0.44 cm; β = -0.06; 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.04; P = .232). Baseline renal tumor size measurements were not significantly different for CT scan and MRI. Choice of imaging modality can be based on doctor and patient preference, including cost and exposure to radiation.

  4. Evaluation of local media surveillance for improved disease recognition and monitoring in global hotspot regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Schwind

    Full Text Available Digital disease detection tools are technologically sophisticated, but dependent on digital information, which for many areas suffering from high disease burdens is simply not an option. In areas where news is often reported in local media with no digital counterpart, integration of local news information with digital surveillance systems, such as HealthMap (Boston Children's Hospital, is critical. Little research has been published in regards to the specific contribution of local health-related articles to digital surveillance systems. In response, the USAID PREDICT project implemented a local media surveillance (LMS pilot study in partner countries to monitor disease events reported in print media. This research assessed the potential of LMS to enhance digital surveillance reach in five low- and middle-income countries. Over 16 weeks, select surveillance system attributes of LMS, such as simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, timeliness, and stability were evaluated to identify strengths and weaknesses in the surveillance method. Findings revealed that LMS filled gaps in digital surveillance network coverage by contributing valuable localized information on disease events to the global HealthMap database. A total of 87 health events were reported through the LMS pilot in the 16-week monitoring period, including 71 unique reports not found by the HealthMap digital detection tool. Furthermore, HealthMap identified an additional 236 health events outside of LMS. It was also observed that belief in the importance of the project and proper source selection from the participants was crucial to the success of this method. The timely identification of disease outbreaks near points of emergence and the recognition of risk factors associated with disease occurrence continue to be important components of any comprehensive surveillance system for monitoring disease activity across populations. The LMS method, with its minimal resource commitment, could

  5. A Simulation-Based Evaluation of Premovement Active Surveillance Protocol Options for the Managed Movement of Turkeys to Slaughter During an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd Weaver, J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Bonney, Peter J; Patyk, Kelly A; Bergeron, Justin G; Middleton, Jamie L; Alexander, Catherine Y; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Halvorson, David A

    2016-05-01

    Risk management decisions associated with live poultry movement during a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak should be carefully considered. Live turkey movements may pose a risk for disease spread. On the other hand, interruptions in scheduled movements can disrupt business continuity. The Secure Turkey Supply (STS) Plan was developed through an industry-government-academic collaboration to address business continuity concerns that might arise during a HPAI outbreak. STS stakeholders proposed outbreak response measure options that were evaluated through risk assessment. The developed approach relies on 1) diagnostic testing of two pooled samples of swabs taken from dead turkeys immediately before movement via the influenza A matrix gene real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) test; 2) enhanced biosecurity measures in combination with a premovement isolation period (PMIP), restricting movement onto the premises for a few days before movement to slaughter; and 3) incorporation of a distance factor from known infected flocks such that exposure via local area spread is unlikely. Daily exposure likelihood estimates from spatial kernels from past HPAI outbreaks were coupled with simulation models of disease spread and active surveillance to evaluate active surveillance protocol options that differ with respect to the number of swabs per pooled sample and the timing of the tests in relation to movement. Simulation model results indicate that active surveillance testing, in combination with strict biosecurity, substantially increased HPAI virus detection probability. When distance from a known infected flock was considered, the overall combined likelihood of moving an infected, undetected turkey flock to slaughter was predicted to be lower at 3 and 5 km. The analysis of different active surveillance protocol options is designed to incorporate flexibility into HPAI emergency response plans.

  6. Active surveillance of the aquatic environment for potential prediction, prevention and spread of water borne disease: the cholera paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, A.; Colwell, R.

    2011-12-01

    Based on results of ecological and epidemiological studies, occurrence and spread of certain diseases are more fully understood. Cholera is a major waterborne disease, that is relatively easily treatable and clearly preventable, yet tens of thousands die each year worldwide. A dose dependent disease, the infectious dose can vary from 103-106, depending on health status of the victim. Historically, cholera has been shown to spread from person to person. Furthermore, the disease is caused predominantly via ingestion of contaminated water and most of the outbreaks that have been recorded worldwide originated in a coastal region. Using appropriate detection methods, Vibrio cholerae can be isolated from samples collected from ponds, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters globally. The populations of V. cholerae may vary in numbers during different seasons of the year. It is important to have a clear understanding of the distribution of the causative agent in the environment as such information can assist public health officials in taking action to prevent outbreaks of cholera. Thus an effective monitoring program is critical, particularly in light of climate change with temperature extremes more likely to be occurring. Based on a predictive model and results of ground truth data, temperature has been found to be a factor in the increase of V. cholerae in the environment. Correlation was observed with occurrence of cholera and both temperature and salinity. More recent research indicates additional factors need to be considered in predicting cholera epidemics, including the hydrology and disease dynamics.

  7. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  8. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  9. Community Participation in Chagas Disease Vector Surveillance: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Vega, M. Celeste; Rolón, Miriam S.; Santos, Walter S.; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta

    2011-01-01

    Background Vector control has substantially reduced Chagas disease (ChD) incidence. However, transmission by household-reinfesting triatomines persists, suggesting that entomological surveillance should play a crucial role in the long-term interruption of transmission. Yet, infestation foci become smaller and harder to detect as vector control proceeds, and highly sensitive surveillance methods are needed. Community participation (CP) and vector-detection devices (VDDs) are both thought to enhance surveillance, but this remains to be thoroughly assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We searched Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, the bibliographies of retrieved studies, and our own records. Data from studies describing vector control and/or surveillance interventions were extracted by two reviewers. Outcomes of primary interest included changes in infestation rates and the detection of infestation/reinfestation foci. Most results likely depended on study- and site-specific conditions, precluding meta-analysis, but we re-analysed data from studies comparing vector control and detection methods whenever possible. Results confirm that professional, insecticide-based vector control is highly effective, but also show that reinfestation by native triatomines is common and widespread across Latin America. Bug notification by householders (the simplest CP-based strategy) significantly boosts vector detection probabilities; in comparison, both active searches and VDDs perform poorly, although they might in some cases complement each other. Conclusions/Significance CP should become a strategic component of ChD surveillance, but only professional insecticide spraying seems consistently effective at eliminating infestation foci. Involvement of stakeholders at all process stages, from planning to evaluation, would probably enhance such CP-based strategies. PMID:21713022

  10. Nuclear RNA surveillance: role of TRAMP in controlling exosome specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karyn; Butler, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that pervasive transcription generates RNAs from nearly all regions of eukaryotic genomes. Normally, these transcripts undergo rapid degradation by a nuclear RNA surveillance system primarily featuring the RNA exosome. This multimeric protein complex plays a critical role in the efficient turnover and processing of a vast array of RNAs in the nucleus. Despite its initial discovery over a decade ago, important questions remain concerning the mechanisms that recruit and activate the nuclear exosome. Specificity and modulation of exosome activity requires additional protein cofactors, including the conserved TRAMP polyadenylation complex. Recent studies suggest that helicase and RNA-binding subunits of TRAMP direct RNA substrates for polyadenylation, which enhances their degradation by Dis3/Rrp44 and Rrp6, the two exosome-associated ribonucleases. These findings indicate that the exosome and TRAMP have evolved highly flexible functions that allow recognition of a wide range of RNA substrates. This flexibility provides the nuclear RNA surveillance system with the ability to regulate the levels of a broad range of coding and noncoding RNAs, which results in profound effects on gene expression, cellular development, gene silencing, and heterochromatin formation. This review summarizes recent findings on the nuclear RNA surveillance complexes, and speculates upon possible mechanisms for TRAMP-mediated substrate recognition and exosome activation.

  11. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  12. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  13. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  15. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  16. Decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance report for FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, David B.; Burwinkle, T. W.; Cannon, T. R.; Ford, M. K.; Holder, Jr., L.; Clotfelter, O. K.; Faulkner, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Wooten, H. O.

    1991-12-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program has three distinct phases: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M); (2) decontamination and removal of hazardous materials and equipment (which DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., calls Phase I of remediation); and (3) decommissioning and ultimate disposal, regulatory compliance monitoring, and property transfer (which DOE Headquarters calls Phase II of remediation). A large part of D D is devoted to S M at each of the sites. Our S M activities, which are performed on facilities awaiting decommissioning, are designed to minimize potential hazards to human health and the environment by: ensuring adequate containment of residual radioactive and hazardous materials; and, providing physical safety and security controls to minimize potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public. Typically, we classify maintenance activities as either routine or special (major repairs). Routine maintenance includes such activities as painting, cleaning, vegetation control, minor structural repairs, filter changes, and building system(s) checks. Special maintenance includes Occupational Safety and Health Act facility upgrades, roof repairs, and equipment overhaul. Surveillance activities include inspections, radiological measurements, reporting, records maintenance, and security (as required) for controlling and monitoring access to facilities. This report summarizes out FY 1991 S M activities for the Tennessee plant sites, which include the K-25 Site, the Gas Centrifuge facilities, ORNL, and the Y-12 Plant.

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992).

  18. The Influence of Psychosocial Constructs on the Adherence to Active Surveillance for Localized Prostate Cancer in a Prospective, Population-based Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Maximilian F; Tyson, Mark D; Alvarez, JoAnn Rudd; Koyama, Tatsuki; Hoffman, Karen E; Resnick, Matthew J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Chen, Vivien; Paddock, Lisa E; Hamilton, Ann S; Hashibe, Mia; Goodman, Michael; Greenfield, Sheldon; Kaplan, Sherrie H; Stroup, Antoinette; Penson, David F; Barocas, Daniel A

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of psychosocial factors such as prostate cancer (PCa) anxiety, social support, participation in medical decision-making (PDM), and educational level on patient decisions to discontinue PCa active surveillance (AS) in the absence of disease progression. The Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation study is a prospective, population-based cohort study of men with localized PCa diagnosed in 2011-2012. PCa anxiety, social support, PDM, educational level, and patient reasons for discontinuing AS were assessed through patient surveys. A Cox proportional hazards model examined the relationship between psychosocial variables and time to discontinuation of AS. Of 531 patients on AS, 165 (30.9%) underwent treatment after median follow-up of 37 months. Whereas 69% of patients cited only medical reasons for discontinuing AS, 31% cited at least 1 personal reason, and 8% cited personal reasons only. Patients with some college education discontinued AS significantly earlier (hazard ratio: 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.2) than patients with less education. PCa anxiety, social support, and PDM were not associated with seeking treatment. We found that 31% of men who choose AS for PCa discontinue AS within 3 years. Eight percent of men who sought treatment did so in the absence of disease progression. Education, but not psychosocial factors, seems to influence definitive treatment-seeking. Future research is needed to understand how factors unrelated to disease severity influence treatment decisions among patients on AS to identify opportunities to improve adherence to AS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel semisynthetic derivative of antibiotic Eremomycin active against drug-resistant gram-positive pathogens including Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Kirk R; Wheeler, Conrad; Ip, Emily; Plattner, Jacob J; Chu, Daniel; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N; Printsevskaya, Svetlana S; Solovieva, Svetlana E; Olsufyeva, Evgenia N; Heine, Henry; Lovchik, Julie; Lyons, C Richard

    2007-07-26

    Five adamantyl-containing carboxamides of eremomycin or vancomycin were synthesized and their antibacterial activities against some Gram-positive clinical isolates were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The adamantyl-2 amide of glycopeptide antibiotic eremomycin (1a in Chart 1, AN0900) was the most active compound and showed high activity against several Gram-positive pathogens: vancomycin-susceptible staphylococci and enterococci, glycopeptide-intermediate-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and glycopeptide-resistant enterococci. Compound 1a was equally active in vitro against both Ciprofloxacin-susceptible and -resistant Bacillus anthracis strains (MICs 0.25-0.5 microg/mL). It was distinguished by having a 2.8 h half-life (t1/2) in mice and a volume of distribution of 2.18 L/kg. Compound 1a was active against Staphylococcus aureus in mice (iv) and provided complete protection against a lethal intravenous challenge with vegetative B. anthracis bacilli and also in a murine pulmonary anthrax model in which mice were challenged with Bacillus anthracis spores.

  20. GPRS Video Streaming Surveillance System GVSS

    CERN Document Server

    Pushpavathi, T P; Kumar, N R Shashi

    2010-01-01

    Future security measures will create comfortable living environments that are embedded with a wide range of intelligent functionalities including home computing, entertainment, health care and security. These place stringent requirements on the home networking architecture which integrates various existing technologies for monitoring and control for future high security needs. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a gvss gprs Video Streaming Surveillance System system, which integrates various existing technologies for providing security for smart home environments. This system provides security for office, home and other buildings where high security is required.This allows the mobile user to track the activities from a particular location. The system will send snapshots of the video and stores them in different formats. It is also possible to display the time with the image when it was captured in the gprs enabled mobiles. This system is implemented using J2me Technology

  1. Padeliporfin vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy versus active surveillance in men with low-risk prostate cancer (CLIN1001 PCM301): an open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouzi, Abdel-Rahmène; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Barret, Eric; Cicco, Antony; Kleinclauss, François; van der Poel, Henk G; Stief, Christian G; Rassweiler, Jens; Salomon, Georg; Solsona, Eduardo; Alcaraz, Antonio; Tammela, Teuvo T; Rosario, Derek J; Gomez-Veiga, Francisco; Ahlgren, Göran; Benzaghou, Fawzi; Gaillac, Bertrand; Amzal, Billy; Debruyne, Frans M J; Fromont, Gaëlle; Gratzke, Christian; Emberton, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy, a novel tissue-preserving treatment for low-risk prostate cancer, has shown favourable safety and efficacy results in single-arm phase 1 and 2 studies. We compared this treatment with the standard of care, active surveillance, in men with low-risk prostate cancer in a phase 3 trial. This randomised controlled trial was done in 47 European university centres and community hospitals. Men with low-risk, localised prostate cancer (Gleason pattern 3) who had received no previous treatment were randomly assigned (1:1) to vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (4 mg/kg padeliporfin intravenously over 10 min and optical fibres inserted into the prostate to cover the desired treatment zone and subsequent activation by laser light 753 nm with a fixed power of 150 mW/cm for 22 min 15 s) or active surveillance. Randomisation was done by a web-based allocation system stratified by centre with balanced blocks of two or four patients. Best practice for active surveillance at the time of study design was followed (ie, biopsy at 12-month intervals and prostate-specific antigen measurement and digital rectal examination at 3-month intervals). The co-primary endpoints were treatment failure (histological progression of cancer from low to moderate or high risk or death during 24 months' follow-up) and absence of definite cancer (absence of any histology result definitely positive for cancer at month 24). Analysis was by intention to treat. Treatment was open-label, but investigators assessing primary efficacy outcomes were masked to treatment allocation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01310894. Between March 8, 2011, and April 30, 2013, we randomly assigned 206 patients to vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy and 207 patients to active surveillance. Median follow-up was 24 months (IQR 24-25). The proportion of participants who had disease progression at month 24 was 58 (28%) of 206 in the vascular

  2. Performance of Kala-Azar Surveillance in Gaffargaon Subdistrict of Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Kazi Mizanur; Samarawickrema, Indira V. M.; Harley, David; Olsen, Anna; Butler, Colin D.; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Biswas, Subrata Kumar; Luby, Stephen P.; Sleigh, Adrian C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Elimination of kala-azar is planned for South Asia requiring good surveillance along with other strategies. We assessed surveillance in Gaffargaon upazila (a subdistrict of 13 unions) of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh highly endemic for kala-azar. Methods In 4703 randomly sampled households, within nine randomly sampled villages, drawn from three randomly sampled unions, we actively searched for kala-azar cases that had occurred between January 2010 and December 2011. We then searched for medical records of these cases in the patient registers of Gaffargaon upazila health complex (UHC). We investigated factors associated with the medical recording by interviewing the cases and their families. We also did a general observation of UHC recording systems and interviewed health staff responsible for the monthly reports of kala-azar cases. Results Our active case finding detected 58 cases, but 29 were not recorded in the Gaffargaon UHC. Thus, only 50% (95% CI: 37%–63%) of kala-azar cases were reported via the government passive surveillance system. Interviews with health staff based in the study UHC revealed the heavy reporting burden for multiple diseases, variation in staff experience, high demands on the staff time and considerable complexity in the recording system. After adjusting for kala-azar treatment drug, recording was found more likely for those aged 18 years or more, males, receiving supply and administration of drug at the UHC, and more recent treatment. Discussion Fifty percent of kala-azar cases occurring in one highly endemic area of Bangladesh were recorded in registers that were the source for monthly reports to the national surveillance system. Recording was influenced by patient, treatment, staff and system factors. Our findings have policy implications for the national surveillance system. Future studies involving larger samples and including interviews with health authorities at more central level and surveillance experts at the

  3. Performance of kala-azar surveillance in Gaffargaon subdistrict of Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Mizanur Rahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elimination of kala-azar is planned for South Asia requiring good surveillance along with other strategies. We assessed surveillance in Gaffargaon upazila (a subdistrict of 13 unions of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh highly endemic for kala-azar.In 4703 randomly sampled households, within nine randomly sampled villages, drawn from three randomly sampled unions, we actively searched for kala-azar cases that had occurred between January 2010 and December 2011. We then searched for medical records of these cases in the patient registers of Gaffargaon upazila health complex (UHC. We investigated factors associated with the medical recording by interviewing the cases and their families. We also did a general observation of UHC recording systems and interviewed health staff responsible for the monthly reports of kala-azar cases.Our active case finding detected 58 cases, but 29 were not recorded in the Gaffargaon UHC. Thus, only 50% (95% CI: 37%-63% of kala-azar cases were reported via the government passive surveillance system. Interviews with health staff based in the study UHC revealed the heavy reporting burden for multiple diseases, variation in staff experience, high demands on the staff time and considerable complexity in the recording system. After adjusting for kala-azar treatment drug, recording was found more likely for those aged 18 years or more, males, receiving supply and administration of drug at the UHC, and more recent treatment.Fifty percent of kala-azar cases occurring in one highly endemic area of Bangladesh were recorded in registers that were the source for monthly reports to the national surveillance system. Recording was influenced by patient, treatment, staff and system factors. Our findings have policy implications for the national surveillance system. Future studies involving larger samples and including interviews with health authorities at more central level and surveillance experts at the national level will generate

  4. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in activities and provide services to create jobs and economic opportunities for its participants...) Self-employment; (4) Self-initiated training that leads a client to improved job opportunities and employment; (5) Economic development projects that lead to jobs, improved employment opportunities, or...

  5. Antimicrobial (including antimollicutes, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of Brazilian and Spanish marine organisms – evaluation of extracts and pure compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverson Miguel Bianco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work describes the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities in vitro of organic extracts from fourteen seaweeds, eleven sponges, two ascidians, one bryozoan, and one sea anemone species collected along the Brazilian and Spanish coast, as well as the isolation of the diterpene (4R, 9S, 14S-4α-acetoxy-9β,14α-dihydroxydolast-1(15,7-diene (1 and halogenated sesquiterpene elatol (2. The most promising antimicrobial results for cell wall bacteria were obtained by extracts from seaweeds Laurencia dendroidea and Sargassum vulgare var. nanun (MIC 250 μg/ml, and by the bryozoan Bugula neritina (MIC 62.5 μg/ml, both against Staphylococcus aureus. As for antimollicutes, extracts from seaweeds showed results better than the extracts from invertebrates. Almost all seaweeds assayed (92% exhibited some antimicrobial activity against mollicutes strains (Mycoplasma hominis,Mycoplasma genitalium,Mycoplasma capricolum and Mycoplasma pneumoniae strain FH. From these seaweeds, A1 (Canistrocarpus cervicornis, A11 (Gracilaria sp. and A4 (Lobophora variegata showed the best results for M. pneumoniae strain FH (MIC 250 μg/ml. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 were also assayed against mollicutes strains M. hominis,M. genitalium,M. capricolum,M. pneumoniae strain 129 and M. pneumoniae strain FH, which showed MIC > 100 μg/ml. Antioxidant activities of extracts from these marine organisms were inactive, except for E7 (from sponge Ircinia sp., which exhibited moderated antioxidant activities for two methods assayed (IC50 83.0 ± 0.1 μg/ml, and 52.0 ± 0.8 mg AA/g, respectively. Finally, for the anticholinesterase activity, all the 29 samples evaluated (100% exhibited some level of activity, with IC50 < 1000 μg/ml. From these, seaweeds extracts were considered more promising than marine invertebrate extracts [A10 (IC50 14.4 ± 0.1 μg/ml, A16 (IC50 16.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml and A8 (IC50 14.9 ± 0.5 μg/ml]. The findings of this work are useful

  6. Thermal surveillance of active volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. There are three significant scientific results of the discovery of 48 pinpoint anomalies on the upper flanks of Mt. Rainier: (1) Many of these points may actually be the location of fumarolic vapor emission or warm ground considerably below the summit crater. (2) Discovery of these small anomalies required specific V/H scanner settings for precise elevation on Mt. Rainier's flank, to avoid smearing the anomalies to the point of nonrecognition. Several past missions flown to map the thermal anomalies of the summit area did not/detect the flank anomalies. (3) This illustrates the value of the aerial IR scanner as a geophysical tool suited to specific problem-oriented missions, in contrast to its more general value in a regional or reconnaissance anomaly-mapping role.

  7. Influenza and respiratory disease surveillance: the US military’s global laboratory‐based network

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Sueker, J.; Blazes, David L.; Matthew C Johns; Patrick J Blair; Paul A Sjoberg; Tjaden, Jeffrey A.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Pavlin, Julie A; Schnabel, David C; Angelia A Eick; Tobias, Steven; Quintana, Miguel; Vest, Kelly G; Burke, Ronald L.; Lindler, Luther E.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jeremy Sueker et al. (2010) Influenza and respiratory disease surveillance: the US military’s global laboratory‐based network. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(3), 155–161. The US Department of Defense influenza surveillance system now spans nearly 500 sites in 75 countries, including active duty US military and dependent populations as well as host‐country civilian and military personnel. This system represents a major part of the US Government’s contribut...

  8. The past, present, and future of public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance-the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.-370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620-1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633-1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807-1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813-1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910-1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance.

  9. Etiology and Progression of Acute Muscle Tension Related Low Back Pain Occurring During Sustained Activity Including Combat Training Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-31

    neck and the anterior left shoulder . Subjects were instructed to wear the recorders for their waking hours and disconnect them prior to sleeping. They...myelogram consistent with HNP. b. DEGENERATIVE ARTHROSIS , SPONDYLOLYSIS, SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: (1) Radiographic findings consistent with spondylolysis...spondylolisthesis, or degenerative arthritis. This would include facet arthrosis , oseteophyte formation, disc space narrowing, anterior/posterior

  10. Study protocol: rehabilitation including social and physical activity and education in children and teenagers with cancer (RESPECT)

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Halse, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis

    2013-01-01

    Background During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years n...

  11. ARC (NSC 188491 has identical activity to Sangivamycin (NSC 65346 including inhibition of both P-TEFb and PKC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollingshead Melinda G

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nucleoside analog, ARC (NSC 188491 is a recently characterized transcriptional inhibitor that selectively kills cancer cells and has the ability to perturb angiogenesis in vitro. In this study, the mechanism of action of ARC was further investigated by comparing in vitro and in vivo activity with other anti-neoplastic purines. Methods Structure-based homology searches were used to identify those compounds with similarity to ARC. Comparator compounds were then evaluated alongside ARC in the context of viability, cell cycle and apoptosis assays to establish any similarities. Following this, biological overlap was explored in detail using gene-expression analysis and kinase inhibition assays. Results Results demonstrated that sangivamycin, an extensively characterized pro-apoptotic nucleoside isolated from Streptomyces, had identical activity to ARC in terms of 1 cytotoxicity assays, 2 ability to induce a G2/M block, 3 inhibitory effects on RNA/DNA/protein synthesis, 4 transcriptomic response to treatment, 5 inhibition of protein kinase C, 6 inhibition of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, 7 inhibition of VEGF secretion, and 8 activity within hollow fiber assays. Extending ARC activity to PKC inhibition provides a molecular basis for ARC cancer selectivity and anti-angiogenic effects. Furthermore, functional overlap between ARC and sangivamycin suggests that development of ARC may benefit from a retrospective of previous sangivamycin clinical trials. However, ARC was found to be inactive in several xenograft models, likely a consequence of rapid serum clearance. Conclusion Overall, these data expand on the biological properties of ARC but suggest additional studies are required before it can be considered a clinical trials candidate.

  12. An Intramolecular Silylene Borane Capable of Facile Activation of Small Molecules, Including Metal-Free Dehydrogenation of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhenbo; Szilvási, Tibor; Zhou, Yu-Peng; Yao, Shenglai; Driess, Matthias

    2017-02-27

    The first single-component N-heterocyclic silylene borane 1 (LSi-R-BMes2 ; L=PhC(N(t) Bu)2 ; R=1,12-xanthendiyl spacer; Mes=2,4,6-Me3 C6 H2 ), acting as a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) in small-molecule activation, can be synthesized in 65 % yields. Its HOMO is largely localized at the silicon(II) atom and the LUMO has mainly boron 2p character. In small-molecule activation 1 allows access to the intramolecular silanone-borane 3 featuring a Si=O→B interaction through reaction with O2 , N2 O, or CO2 , and formation of silanethione borane 4 from reaction with S8 . The Si(II) center in 1 undergoes immediate hydrogenation if exposed to H2 at 1 atm pressure in benzene, affording the silane borane 5-H2 , L(H2 )Si-R-BMes2 . Remarkably, no H2 activation occurs if the single silylene LSiPh and Mes3 B intermolecularly separated are exposed to dihydrogen. Unexpectedly, the pre-organized Si-B separation in 1 enables a metal-free dehydrogenation of H2 O to give the silanone-borane 3 as reactive intermediate.

  13. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of non-living, heat-killed form of lactobacilli including Lactobacillus johnsonii No.1088.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Yuji; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Komatsu, Yasuhiko

    2017-06-15

    Some strains of lactic acid bacteria are reported to inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori and proposed to be useful to support so-called triple therapy for H. pylori. Although most strains must be alive to exert their anti-H. pylori activity, some lactobacilli strains are effective even when dead. One possible underlying mechanism of such an activity of non-living lactobacilli is reportedly co-aggregation with H. pylori. In this study, we found that a non-living heat-killed form of Lactobacillus johnsonii No.1088 (HK-LJ88) and also that of some other lactobacilli inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro. Furthermore, the number of H. pylori in the infected stomach of germ-free mice was significantly decreased by the repeated oral administration of HK-LJ88. Observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed that no co-aggregation had occurred between H. pylori and HK-LJ88; instead, deformations of H. pylori (e.g. disappearance of spiral, bending of cell body, coccoid formation, degradations, etc.) appeared after incubation for 24 h with HK-LJ88. These results suggest that HK-LJ88 inhibited H. pylori activity probably not by co-aggregation but by some unknown mechanism involving HK-LJ88's cell surface molecules and that even non-living lactobacilli are possibly useful to support H. pylori eradication therapy. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The MRX Complex Ensures NHEJ Fidelity through Multiple Pathways Including Xrs2-FHA-Dependent Tel1 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Iwasaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and often cause genomic instability, precise repair of DSBs is vital for the maintenance of genomic stability. Xrs2/Nbs1 is a multi-functional regulatory subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N complex, and its function is critical for the primary step of DSB repair, whether by homologous recombination (HR or non-homologous end joining. In human NBS1, mutations result truncation of the N-terminus region, which contains a forkhead-associated (FHA domain, cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we show that the Xrs2 FHA domain of budding yeast is required both to suppress the imprecise repair of DSBs and to promote the robust activation of Tel1 in the DNA damage response pathway. The role of the Xrs2 FHA domain in Tel1 activation was independent of the Tel1-binding activity of the Xrs2 C terminus, which mediates Tel1 recruitment to DSB ends. Both the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 were required for the timely removal of the Ku complex from DSB ends, which correlates with a reduced frequency of imprecise end-joining. Thus, the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 kinase work in a coordinated manner to maintain DSB repair fidelity.

  15. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  16. Los Alamos National Laboratory SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan Update for 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-17

    technical basis for a 40-year design life. The technical basis for the longer design life will be developed based on the results of this surveillance plan and the concurrent lifetime extension studies (Blair et al. 2012, Weis et al. 2015a). A long-term surveillance plan will be developed by the completion of this plan and will be based on the results of the first several years of this five-year surveillance plan and the lifetime extension studies. In addition, the current Hagan container population is so large (approximately 3,500 LANL-wide, approximately 3,000 in PF-4) that it is anticipated Hagan containers will be in use for many years to come. Therefore, this plan includes surveillance activities for the Hagan container system during the time it takes to replace the Hagan containers with manually-compliant containers such as the SAVY 4000. These Hagan examinations not only provide information to determine if additional Hagan surveillance is needed, but also support SAVY lifetime-extension studies because some of the container components are made from similar material (e.g., stainless steel and Viton).

  17. Market-Based Approach to Mobile Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elmogy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The active surveillance of public and private sites is increasingly becoming a very important and critical issue. It is, therefore, imperative to develop mobile surveillance systems to protect these sites. Modern surveillance systems encompass spatially distributed mobile and static sensors in order to provide effective monitoring of persistent and transient objects and events in a given area of interest (AOI. The realization of the potential of mobile surveillance requires the solution of different challenging problems such as task allocation, mobile sensor deployment, multisensor management, cooperative object detection and tracking, decentralized data fusion, and interoperability and accessibility of system nodes. This paper proposes a market-based approach that can be used to handle different problems of mobile surveillance systems. Task allocation and cooperative target tracking are studied using the proposed approach as two challenging problems of mobile surveillance systems. These challenges are addressed individually and collectively.

  18. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.

  19. CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project: background, objectives, and progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Genco, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    This supplement contains papers presented at the 2006 International Association of Dental Research (IADR) symposium entitled "Development of Self-Reported Measures for Population-Based Surveillance of Periodontitis." These papers highlight activities of an independent periodontal disease surveillance workgroup convened by the Division of Oral Health (DOH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology, to examine the feasibility of using self-reported measures for population-based surveillance of periodontal disease in the United States. This workgroup was convened in 2003 as part of a CDC periodontal disease surveillance project.

  20. Adsorption of gaseous hydrocarbons on activated carbon: characteristic kinetic curve. [Includes effect of surface migration on kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, E.; Calleja, G.; Domingo, F.

    1985-06-01

    The internal diffusion coefficients, D /sub i/ , of pure methane, ethane and ethylene as well as some of their binary and ternary mixtures, have been calculated at 20/sup 0/C for solid particles of a commercial activated carbon. It has been observed that the contribution of the surface migration mechanism to the global mass transfer process inside the adsorbent particles can be as much as 70-80%. Values for the surface migration coefficient D /sub s/ have also been calculated from the relation D /sub i/ = D /sub g/ + KD /sub s/ , where K is a dimensionless mean slope factor. Values found for both coefficients are of the same order of magnitude as those reported in the literature for similar systems. All the values for the internal diffusion coefficients of these pure components and their mixtures fit into a single correlation curve, the characteristic kinetic curve of the adsorbent.

  1. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  2. Using Google Trends for influenza surveillance in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Rutherford, Shannon; Yang, Fen

    2013-01-01

    Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate influenza activity in many countries; however there is currently no Google Flu Trends or other Internet search data used for influenza surveillance in China. Influenza surveillance data from 2008 through 2011 were obtained from provincial CDC influenza-like illness and virological surveillance systems of Guangdong, a province in south China. Internet search data were downloaded from the website of Google Trends. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data and internet search trends. The correlation between CDC ILI surveillance and CDC virus surveillance was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.66). The strongest correlation was between the Google Trends term of Fever and ILI surveillance with a correlation coefficient of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.79). When compared with influenza virological surveillance, the Google Trends term of Influenza A had the strongest correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) in the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic period. This study shows that Google Trends in Chinese can be used as a complementary source of data for influenza surveillance in south China. More research in the future should develop new models using search trends in Chinese language to estimate local disease activity and detect early signals of outbreaks.

  3. [Flaccid paralysis surveillance in the Latium Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, A M; Santi, A L; Ciapetti, C; Fiore, L; Novello, F; Vellucci, L; De Stefano, F; Fara, G M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of World Health Organization is to reach the global eradication of poliomyelitis during the first decade of the third millennium. To achieve the certification of the eradication of the disease the main strategy is the Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance. In Italy the active AFP surveillance was performed at national level since 1997. In the Latium region the active surveillance was performed since January 1997 by the laboratory of virology of Institute of Hygiene G Sanarelli which established a regional hospital network. During the years of survey 7 cases were found in 1997 (0.87/100,000), 4 in 1998 (0.5/100,000), 2 in 1999 (0.25/100,000) and 2 in 2000. No wild polioviruses were detected.

  4. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  5. Acute effects of a warm-up including active, passive, and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Felipe L P; Carvalho, Mauro C G A; Simão, Roberto; Gomes, Thiago M; Costa, Pablo B; Neto, Ludgero B; Carvalho, Rodrigo L P; Dantas, Estélio H M

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of 3 different stretching methods combined with a warm-up protocol on vertical jump performance. Sixteen young tennis players (14.5 ± 2.8 years; 175 ± 5.6 cm; 64.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly assigned to 4 different experimental conditions on 4 successive days. Each session consisted of a general and specific warm-up, with 5 minutes of running followed by 10 jumps, accompanied by one of the subsequent conditions: (a) Control Condition (CC)-5 minutes of passive rest; (b) Passive Stretching Condition (PSC)-5 minutes of passive static stretching; (c) Active Stretching Condition (ASC)-5 minutes of active static stretching; and (d) Dynamic Stretching Condition (DC)-5 minutes of dynamic stretching. After each intervention, the subjects performed 3 squat jumps (SJs) and 3 countermovement jumps (CMJs), which were measured electronically. For the SJ, 1-way repeated measures analysis of variance (CC × PSC × ASC × DC) revealed significant decreases for ASC (28.7 ± 4.7 cm; p = 0.01) and PSC (28.7 ± 4.3 cm; p = 0.02) conditions when compared with CC (29.9 ± 5.0 cm). For CMJs, there were no significant decreases (p > 0.05) when all stretching conditions were compared with the CC. Significant increases in SJ performance were observed when comparing the DC (29.6 ± 4.9 cm; p = 0.02) with PSC (28.7 ± 4.3 cm). Significant increases in CMJ performance were observed when comparing the conditions ASC (34.0 ± 6.0 cm; p = 0.04) and DC (33.7 ± 5.5 cm; p = 0.03) with PSC (32.6 ± 5.5 cm). A dynamic stretching intervention appears to be more suitable for use as part of a warm-up in young athletes.

  6. Existing public health surveillance systems for mental health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.

  7. Angiogenesis, Proliferative Activity and DNA Ploidy in Oral Verrucous Carcinoma: A Comparative Study Including Verrucous Hyperplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Breta, Monika; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Mohanty, Biddhu K; Singh, Manoj K

    2015-09-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare and distinct clinicopathologic variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This study aims to evaluate the histomorphology, proliferative activity, level of angiogenesis, and DNA ploidy of these pathological entities. This was a retrospective-prospective study of 18 cases of verrucous hyperplasia (VH), 41 cases of VC, and 44 cases of SCC. Immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67 (MIB-1) and CD34 were performed. The tumor proliferative index, endothelial proliferative index and microvascular density were calculated. DNA ploidy was determined using image cytometry. The age range and gender ratio were similar in all three groups. The differences in MIB-1 labeling index (p = 0.0001), microvascular density (p = 0.01), and endothelial proliferative index (p = 0.001) between VC and SCC were found to be statistically significant. A non-significant increasing trend was observed in all of these parameters between VH and VC. On ploidy analysis, 100 % of SCC cases were aneuploid, compared to 39 % of VH and 86 % of VC cases. Our study demonstrates a significant difference in tumor proliferation, microvessel density, and ploidy between VC and SCC while increasing trend between VH and VC. These parameters, along with morphological findings, may be useful in differentiating these entities in small mucosal biopsies.

  8. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.

  9. Prognostic factors for relapse in stage I seminoma managed by surveillance: a pooled analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warde, Padraig; Specht, Lena; Horwich, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Several management options are available to patients with stage I seminoma, including adjuvant radiotherapy, surveillance, and adjuvant chemotherapy. We performed a pooled analysis of patients from the four largest surveillance studies to better delineate prognostic factors associated with disease...

  10. Economic optimization of surveillance in livestock production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is an essential activity that is usually conducted by surveillance organizations. Its importance has been highlighted by the major crises that occurred in the field of livestock production and food safety during the last

  11. Economic optimization of surveillance in livestock production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is an essential activity that is usually conducted by surveillance organizations. Its importance has been highlighted by the major crises that occurred in the field of livestock production and food safety during the last d

  12. Biological responses of three-dimensional cultured fibroblasts by sustained compressive loading include apoptosis and survival activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Kanazawa

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are characterized by chronicity, which results in delayed wound healing due to pressure. Early intervention for preventing delayed healing due to pressure requires a prediction method. However, no study has reported the prediction of delayed healing due to pressure. Therefore, this study focused on biological response-based molecular markers for the establishment of an assessment technology to predict delayed healing due to pressure. We tested the hypothesis that sustained compressive loading applied to three dimensional cultured fibroblasts leads to upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs, CD44, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 along with apoptosis via disruption of adhesion. First, sustained compressive loading was applied to fibroblast-seeded collagen sponges. Following this, collagen sponge samples and culture supernatants were collected for apoptosis and proliferation assays, gene expression analysis, immunocytochemistry, and quantification of secreted substances induced by upregulation of mRNA and protein level. Compared to the control, the compressed samples demonstrated that apoptosis was induced in a time- and load- dependent manner; vinculin and stress fiber were scarce; HSP90α, CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were increased. In addition, the gene expression of antiapoptotic Bcl2 was significantly increased in the compressed samples compared to the control. These results suggest that compressive loading induces not only apoptosis but also survival activity. These observations support that HSP90α, HA, and, PGE2 could be potential molecular markers for prediction of delayed wound healing due to pressure.

  13. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  14. MODIFIED DISEASE-ACTIVITY SCORES THAT INCLUDE 28-JOINT COUNTS - DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION IN A PROSPECTIVE LONGITUDINAL-STUDY OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PREVOO, MLL; VANTHOF, MA; KUPER, HH; VANLEEUWEN, MA; VANDEPUTTE, LBA; VANRIEL, PLCM

    1995-01-01

    Objective. The development and validation of Modified Disease Activity Scores (DAS) the include different 28-joint counts. Methods. These scores were developed by canonical discriminant analyses and validated for criterion, correlational, and construct validity. The influence of disease duration on

  15. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  16. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  17. Disease surveillance and nonprescription medication sales can predict increases in poison exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, Edward; MacPherson, Erma; Mrvos, Rita

    2008-03-01

    Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) is a national real-time syndromic surveillance system that classifies hospital registration chief complaints into one of seven syndromic categories. The National Retail Data Monitor (NRDM) is a public health surveillance tool that is designed to collect and analyze the daily sales of 18 categories of nonprescription medications. The goal of RODS and NRDM is to provide early warning of disease outbreaks, such as biological terrorism. The purpose of this study was to determine whether peak syndromic activity and the consequential purchase of nonprescription medications could predict an increase in poisoning exposures involving NRDM-monitored medications. Data from the RODS and NRDM databases were plotted graphically to portray activity that occurred during 2003. Data from a regional poison information center electronic medical record system that involved all human exposure calls related to NRDM monitored medications in 2003 were extracted and graphed. Analysis included comparisons between the data sets. Poison center exposure volume correlated predictably and simultaneously with the peak activity in both the RODS and NRDM databases. There was no delay between the onset of an influenza outbreak in December 2003, the sale of nonprescription palliative mediations, and the increase in poison center exposure call volume. Increased availability of and access to nonprescription medications resulted in more poisoning exposure calls. Real-time surveillance using other databases can help to forecast poison center activity. This knowledge allows the poison center to provide anticipatory guidance to the residents of its region.

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  19. Mass gatherings: A one-stop opportunity to complement global disease surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habida Elachola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infections including those resulting from the bioterrorist use of infectious agents have indicated the need for global health surveillance. This paper reviews multiple surveillance opportunities presented by mass gatherings (MGs that align with fundamental questions in epidemiology (why, what, who, where, when and how. Some MGs bring together large, diverse population groups coming from countries with high prevalence of communicable diseases and disparate surveillance capacities. MGs have the potential to exacerbate the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases due to various factors including the high population density and rigor of events, increase in number of people with underlying diseases that predisposes them to disease acquisition, mixing of people from countries or regions with and without efficient disease control efforts, and varying endemicity or existence of communicable diseases in home countries. MGs also have the potential to increase the opportunities for mechanical and even heat-related injuries, morbidity or deaths from accidents, alcohol use, deliberate terrorist attacks with biological agents and/or with explosives and from exacerbation of pre-existing conditions. Responding to these wider range of events may require the use of novel bio-surveillance systems designed to collect data from different sources including electronic and non-electronic medical records from emergency departments and hospitalisations, laboratories, medical examiners, emergency call centres, veterinary, food processors, drinking water systems and even other non-traditional sources such as over-the-counter drug sales and crowd photographs. Well-structured, interoperable real-time surveillance and reporting systems should be integral to MG planning. The increase in magnitude of participants exceeding millions and diversity of people attending MGs can be proactively used to conduct active surveillance of communicable and non

  20. Surveillance and Management Repertoires in Distributed Forms of Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buser, Martine; Koch, Christian

    approaches, in an open dual paradigmatic manner in order to utilise the reflections and analyses led in both streams (Lewis & Grimes, see also Willmott 1993). Control and surveillance are here found in a range of forms active through organization, technology, management, self-discipline or change programmes...... material of characteristic forms of "dislocated organizations" from the Swiss service sectors, including studies of distance work and headquarter, mobile work, a satellite office or single function outsourcing. The contribution discusses how management in practice is exercised when the organization...