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Sample records for surry station blackout

  1. SCDAP/RELAP5 analysis of station blackout with pump seal LOCA in Surry plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidaka, Akihide; Soda, Kunihisa; Sugimoto, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-06-01

    During a station blackout of PWR, the pump seal will fail due to loss of the seal cooling. This particular transient-LOCA sequence designated as S3-TMLB` analyzed by SNL with MELPROG/TRAC for Surry plant showed that the depressurization due to the pump seal LOCA would result in early accumulator injection and subsequent core cooling which lead to the delay of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) meltthrough. The present analysis was performed with SCDAP/RELAP5 to evaluate this scenario shown in the MELPROG/TRAC analyses. Additionally, the calculated results were compared with the similar experimental studies of JAERI`s ROSA-IV program. The present analyses showed that: (1) During S3-TMLB`, the loop seal clearing would occur and cause a slight delay of accident progression. (2) It is unlikely that the accumulator injection, which leads to the delay of RPV meltthrough by approximately 60 min, is initiated automatically during S3-TMLB`. Accordingly, an intentional depressurization using PORVs is recommended for the mitigation of the accident consequences. (3) The present SCDAP/RELAP5 analyses did not show significant delay of accident progression. It was found that non-realistic lower heat generation and higher core cooling models used in the MELPROG/TRAC analysis are attributed to this discrepancy. (author).

  2. 77 FR 16175 - Station Blackout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency ac power system). Station blackout does not... plant achieves safe shutdown by relying on components that are not ac powered, such as turbine- or..., or seismic activity and that preexisting licensing requirements specified sufficient...

  3. 78 FR 44035 - Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 and 52 RIN 3150-AJ08 Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies AGENCY: Nuclear... concerning nuclear power plant licensees' and applicants' station blackout mitigation strategies. The... Mitigation Strategies,'' is available in ADAMS under Accession No. ML13171A061. NRC's PDR: You may...

  4. Accident tolerant clad material modeling by MELCOR: Benchmark for SURRY Short Term Station Black Out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun, E-mail: jwang564@wisc.edu [College of Engineering, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison 53706 (United States); Mccabe, Mckinleigh [College of Engineering, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison 53706 (United States); Wu, Lei [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Dong, Xiaomeng [College of Engineering, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison 53706 (United States); Wang, Xianmao [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Haskin, Troy Christopher [College of Engineering, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison 53706 (United States); Corradini, Michael L., E-mail: corradini@engr.wisc.edu [College of Engineering, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison 53706 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Thermo-physical and oxidation kinetics properties calculation and analysis of FeCrAl. • Properties modelling of FeCrAl in MELCOR. • Benchmark calculation of Surry nuclear power plant. - Abstract: Accident tolerant fuel and cladding materials are being investigated to provide a greater resistance to fuel degradation, oxidation and melting if long-term cooling is lost in a Light Water Reactor (LWR) following an accident such as a Station Blackout (SBO) or Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). Researchers at UW-Madison are analyzing an SBO sequence and examining the effect of a loss of auxiliary feedwater (AFW) with the MELCOR systems code. Our research work considers accident tolerant cladding materials (e.g., FeCrAl alloy) and their effect on the accident behavior. We first gathered the physical properties of this alternative cladding material via literature review and compared it to the usual zirconium alloys used in LWRs. We then developed a model for the Surry reactor for a Short-term SBO sequence and examined the effect of replacing FeCrAl for Zircaloy cladding. The analysis uses MELCOR, Version 1.8.6 YR, which is developed by Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with MELCOR developers at Sandia National Laboratories. This version allows the user to alter the cladding material considered, and our study examines the behavior of the FeCrAl alloy as a substitute for Zircaloy. Our benchmark comparisons with the Sandia National Laboratory’s analysis of Surry using MELCOR 1.8.6 and the more recent MELCOR 2.1 indicate good overall agreement through the early phases of the accident progression. When FeCrAl is substituted for Zircaloy to examine its performance, we confirmed that FeCrAl slows the accident progression and reduce the amount of hydrogen generated. Our analyses also show that this special version of MELCOR can be used to evaluate other potential ATF cladding materials, e.g., SiC as well as innovative coatings on zirconium cladding

  5. Reactor coolant pump shaft seal stability during station blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, D B; Hill, R C; Wensel, R G

    1987-05-01

    Results are presented from an investigation into the behavior of Reactor Coolant Pump shaft seals during a potential station blackout (loss of all ac power) at a nuclear power plant. The investigation assumes loss of cooling to the seals and focuses on the effect of high temperature on polymer seals located in the shaft seal assemblies, and the identification of parameters having the most influence on overall hydraulic seal performance. Predicted seal failure thresholds are presented for a range of station blackout conditions and shaft seal geometries.

  6. Reactor coolant pump shaft seal behavior during station blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittmer, C.A.; Wensel, R.G.; Rhodes, D.B.; Metcalfe, R.; Cotnam, B.M.; Gentili, H.; Mings, W.J.

    1985-04-01

    A testing program designed to provide fundamental information pertaining to the behavior of reactor coolant pump (RCP) shaft seals during a postulated nuclear power plant station blackout has been completed. One seal assembly, utilizing both hydrodynamic and hydrostatic types of seals, was modeled and tested. Extrusion tests were conducted to determine if seal materials could withstand predicted temperatures and pressures. A taper-face seal model was tested for seal stability under conditions when leaking water flashes to steam across the seal face. Test information was then used as the basis for a station blackout analysis. Test results indicate a potential problem with an elastomer material used for O-rings by a pump vendor; that vendor is considering a change in material specification. Test results also indicate a need for further research on the generic issue of RCP seal integrity and its possible consideration for designation as an unresolved safety issue.

  7. Station blackout with reactor coolant pump seal leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evinay, A. (Southern California Edison, Irvine, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended its regulations in 10CFR50 with the addition of a new section, 50.63, [open quotes]Loss of All Alternating Current Power.[close quotes] The objective of these requirements is to ensure that all nuclear plants have the capability to withstand a station blackout (SBO) and maintain adequate reactor core cooling and containment integrity for a specified period of time. The NRC also issued Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.155, [open quotes]Station Blackout,[close quotes] to provide guidance for meeting the requirements of 10CFR50.63. Concurrent with RG-1.155, the Nuclear Utility Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) has developed NUMARC 87-00 to address SBO-coping duration and capabilities at light water reactors. Licensees are required to submit a topical report based on NUMARC 87-00 guidelines, to demonstrate compliance with the SBO rule. One of the key compliance criteria is the ability of the plant to maintain adequate reactor coolant system (RCS) inventory to ensure core cooling for the required coping duration, assuming a leak rate of 25 gal/min per reactor coolant pump (RCP) seal in addition to technical specification (TS) leak rate.

  8. Station blackout at nuclear power plants: Radiological implications for nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.S.

    1986-12-01

    Recent work on station blackout is reviewed its radiological implications for a nuclear war scenario is explored. The major conclusion is that the effects of radiation from many nuclear weapon detonations in a nuclear war would swamp those from possible reactor accidents that result from station blackout.

  9. Blackouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and learn how to operate it. - Keep your car’s gas tank at least half full; gas stations rely on electricity to power their pumps. -Have an extra battery on hand for battery- operated wheelchairs. - Turn off ...

  10. A Passive System Reliability Analysis for a Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunett, Acacia; Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David; Sofu, Tanju; Grelle, Austin

    2015-05-03

    The latest iterations of advanced reactor designs have included increased reliance on passive safety systems to maintain plant integrity during unplanned sequences. While these systems are advantageous in reducing the reliance on human intervention and availability of power, the phenomenological foundations on which these systems are built require a novel approach to a reliability assessment. Passive systems possess the unique ability to fail functionally without failing physically, a result of their explicit dependency on existing boundary conditions that drive their operating mode and capacity. Argonne National Laboratory is performing ongoing analyses that demonstrate various methodologies for the characterization of passive system reliability within a probabilistic framework. Two reliability analysis techniques are utilized in this work. The first approach, the Reliability Method for Passive Systems, provides a mechanistic technique employing deterministic models and conventional static event trees. The second approach, a simulation-based technique, utilizes discrete dynamic event trees to treat time- dependent phenomena during scenario evolution. For this demonstration analysis, both reliability assessment techniques are used to analyze an extended station blackout in a pool-type sodium fast reactor (SFR) coupled with a reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). This work demonstrates the entire process of a passive system reliability analysis, including identification of important parameters and failure metrics, treatment of uncertainties and analysis of results.

  11. Extended Station Blackout Analyses of an APR1400 with MARS-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, WoongBae; Jang, HyungWook; Oh, Seungjong; Lee, Sangyong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident shows that natural disasters such as earthquakes and the subsequent tsunamis can cause station blackout for several days. The electricity required for essential systems during a station blackout is provided from the emergency backup batteries installed at the nuclear power plant. In South Korea, in the event of an extended station blackout, the life of these emergency backup batteries has recently been extended from 8 hours to 24 hours at Shin-Kori 5, 6 and APR1400 for design certification. For a battery life of 24 hours, available safety means system, equipment and procedures are studied and analyzed in their ability to cope with an extended station blackout. A sensitivity study of reactor coolant pump seal leakage is performed to verify how different seal leakages could affect the system. For simulating of extended station blackout scenarios, the best estimate MARS-KS was used. In this paper, an APR1400 RELAP5 input deck was developed for station blackout scenario to analyze operation strategy by manually depressurizing the reactor coolant system through the steam generator's secondary side. Additionally, a sensitivity study was performed on reactor coolant pump seal leakage.

  12. Extended station blackout analyses of an APR1400 with MARS-KS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woongbae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident shows that natural disasters such as earthquakes and the subsequent tsunamis can cause station blackout for several days. The electric energy required for essential systems during a station blackout is provided from emergency backup batteries installed at the nuclear power plant. In South Korea, in the event of an extended station blackout, the life of these emergency backup batteries has recently been extended from 8 hours to 24 hours at Shin-Kori 5, 6, and APR1400 for design certification. For a battery life of 24 hours, available safety means system, equipment and procedures are studied and analyzed in their ability to cope with an extended station blackout. A sensitivity study of reactor coolant pump seal leakage is performed to verify how different seal leakages could affect the system. For simulating extended station blackout scenarios, the best estimate MARS-KS computer code was used. In this paper, an APR1400 RELAP5 input deck was developed for station blackout scenario to analyze operation strategy by manually depressurizing the reactor coolant system through the steam generator's secondary side. Additionally, a sensitivity study on reactor coolant pump seal leakage was carried out.

  13. Behavior of primary coolant pump shaft seals during station blackout conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.C.; Rhodes, D.B.

    1986-09-12

    An assessment is made of the ability of typical Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) Shaft Seals to withstand the conditions predicted for a station blackout (loss of all alternating current power) at a nuclear power station. Several factors are identified that are key to seal stability including inlet fluid conditions, pressure downstream of the seal, and geometrical details of the seal rings. Limits for stable seal operation are determined for various combinations of these factors, and the conclusion is drawn that some RPC seals would be near the threshold of instability during a station blackout. If the threshold were exceeded, significant leakage of coolant from the primary coolant system could be expected.

  14. Parameters important to reactor coolant pump seal stability during station blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.C.; Rhodes, D.B.

    1986-10-24

    An assessment is made of the ability of typical Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) Shaft Seals to withstand the conditions predicted for a station blackout (loss of all alternating current power) at a nuclear power station. Several factors are identified that are key to seal stability including inlet fluid conditions, pressure downstream of the seal, and geometrical details of the seal rings. Limits for stable seal operation are determined for various combinations of these factors, and the conclusion is drawn that some RPC seals would be near or over the threshold of instability during a station blackout. If the threshold were exceeded, significant leakage of coolant from the primary coolant system could be expected.

  15. Station Blackout Initiated Event Chronology in LWR/HWR NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Since the crisis at Fukushima nuclear power plants, a severe accident progression has been recognized as a very important area for an accident management and emergency planning. The purpose of this study is to investigate the comparative characteristics of a severe accident progression among the typical pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). The OPR 1000-like (ABB-CE type PWR), Peach Bottom-like (BWR/4 RCS with a MARK I Containment), and Wolsong1-like (CANDU6 type) plants are selected as reference plants of typical 1000 MWe PWR, 1140MWe BWR, and 600 MWe PHWR, respectively. The design parameters of these plants are quite different. Some of the major different design features of CANDU6 plant from other light water reactors, in terms of a severe accident, are that the plant adopts a duel primary heat transport system and has an additional amount of cooling water in the calandria vessel (calandria tank, CT) and calandria vault (CV). Another feature is that the CT is always submerged in water because the CV is flooded during normal operation. The containment (reactor building, R/B) failure pressure of the CANDU6 plant is considerably lower than that of the typical PWR or BWR4/MARK-I. The containment vessel free volume of MARK-I is much smaller than that of the PWR or CANDU6 plant. Since there is no steam generator (SG) or passive cooling system, the amount of cooling water inventory in BWR4 is relatively less than other plants. Meanwhile the minimum available time of battery power against station blackout (SBO) accident is different among plant types: six hours for BWR4 and four hours for 1000MWe PWR. Therefore, plant responses against the severe core damage scenarios like Fukushima accident are expected to be much different. By identifying plant response signatures, the appropriate correction actions can be developed as part of severe accident management. A SBO scenario, where all off-site power is lost

  16. Accident Analysis of Chinese CPR1000 in Response to Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juyoul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Cilliers, Anthonie [North-West University, Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    Stress tests required evaluation of the consequences of loss of safety functions from any initiating event (e.g., earthquake or flooding) causing loss of electrical power, including station blackout (SBO). The SBO scenario involves a loss of offsite power, failure of the redundant emergency diesel generators, failure of alternate current (AC) power restoration and the eventual degradation of the reactor coolant pump (RCP) seals resulting in a long term loss of coolant. Using PCTRAN/CPR1000, this study analyses the station blackout on a Chinese CPR1000 which is the most representative type reactor in terms of number of reactors, operating period, power capacity and geological distance from Korean Peninsula. Both the physical effects of the accidents as well as the releases of radioisotopes are calculated and discussed. Station blackout simulation was conducted in this study. The resulting effects seen are consistent with other stress test station blackout tests used utilizing licensed simulation codes. An exact comparison is however not possible as the plants on which the simulations was done vary greatly and the limitations of availability to Chinese FSAR. PCTRAN/CPR1000 is an extremely useful simulation package that provides engineers and scientists very accurate feedback to how a nuclear power plant would react as a whole under various plant conditions. It is able to do this extremely fast as well. As a training tool PCTRAN/CPR1000 provides hands-on experience with many of the primary plant operations and develops an intuitive understanding of the plant.

  17. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle W.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  18. Severe accident analysis of a station blackout accident using MAAP-CANDU for the Point Lepreau station refurbishment project level 2 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.J.; Petoukhov, S.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    A Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment was performed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station, using the MAAP-CANDU code to simulate the progression of severe core damage accidents and fission product releases. Five representative severe accidents were selected: Station Blackout, Small Loss-of-Coolant, Stagnation Feeder Break, Steam Generator Tube Rupture, and Shutdown State. Analysis results for the reference station blackout accident are discussed in this paper. (author)

  19. Analysis of hot leg natural circulation under station blackout severe accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Under severe accidents, natural circulation flows are important to influence the accident progression and result in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). In a station blackout accident with no recovery of steam generator (SG) auxiliary feedwater (TMLB' severe accident scenario), the hot leg countercurrent natural circulation flow is analyzed by using a severe-accident code, to better understand its potential impacts on the creep-rupture timing among the surge line, the hot leg, and SG tubes. The results show that the natural circulation may delay the failure time of the hot leg.The recirculation ratio and the hot mixing factor are also calculated and discussed.

  20. Development of Extended Station Blackout Recovery Guideline for OPR1000 and APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Gyun; Cho, Dong Hyun; Park, Ki Moon; Huh, Jae Young; Lee, Gyu Cheon [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Many regulatory requirements and recommendations following the Fukushima accident have been issued to cope with the extended station blackout (SBO) by the NRC, INPO, IAEA, ENSREG, WENRA, etc., and the nuclear safety improvement design features of each country have been enhanced to incorporate the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident. There have been many evaluations to cope with the extended loss of alternating current (AC) power (ELAP) event after the Fukushima accident. PWROG has developed the FLEX support guideline (FSG) that provides the guidance to mitigate the consequences of ELAP event based on the FLEX. The FSG is interfaced with emergency operating guidelines (EOGs) and severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs). However, the FSG developed by PWROG is not compatible with EOGs for both OPR1000 and APR1400 NPPs. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an extended station blackout recovery guideline (ESRG) to cope with an extended SBO event utilizing the newly adopted safety improvement design features against Fukushima accident for OPR1000 and APR1400 NPPs. The ESRG is also performed to satisfy all safety functions and to prevent from entering SAMGs during an extended SBO event. Therefore, this ESRG is entirely appropriate to cope with an extended SBO event by utilizing the newly adopted safety improvement design features following Fukushima accident for OPR1000 and APR1400 NPPs. This guideline will be considered in the establishment of accident management planning in near future.

  1. Investigation of station blackout scenario in VVER440/v230 with RELAP5 computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencheva, Rositsa Veselinova, E-mail: roseh@mail.bg; Stefanova, Antoaneta Emilova, E-mail: antoanet@inrne.bas.bg; Groudev, Pavlin Petkov, E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.bg

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • We have modeled SBO in VVER440. • RELAP5/MOD3 computer code has been used. • Base case calculation has been done. • Fail case calculation has been done. • Operator and alternative operator actions have been investigated. - Abstract: During the development of symptom-based emergency operating procedures (SB-EOPs) for VVER440/v230 units at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) a number of analyses have been performed using the RELAP5/MOD3 (Carlson et al., 1990). Some of them investigate the response of VVER440/v230 during the station blackout (SBO). The main purpose of the analyses presented in this paper is to identify the behavior of important VVER440 parameters in case of total station blackout. The RELAP5/MOD3 has been used to simulate the SBO in VVER440 NPP model (Fletcher and Schultz, 1995). This model was developed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE-BAS), Sofia, for analyses of operational occurrences, abnormal events and design based scenarios. The model provides a significant analytical capability for specialists working in the field of NPP safety.

  2. Evaluation of severe accident risks and the potential for risk reduction: Surry Power Station, Unit 1: Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, A.S.; Boyd, G.J.; Kunsman, D.M.; Murfin, W.B.; Williams, D.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a rebaselining of the risks to the public from a particular pressurized water reactor with a subatmospheric containment (Surry, Unit 1). Emphasis was placed on determining the magnitude and character of the uncertainties, rather than focusing on a point estimate. The risk-reduction potential of a set of proposed safety option backfits was also studied, and their costs and benefits were also evaluated. It was found that the risks from internal events are generally lower than previously evaluated in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS). However, certain unresolved issues (such as direct containment heating) caused the top of the uncertainty band to appear at a level that is comparable with the RSS point estimate. None of the postulated safety options appears to be cost effective for the Surry power plant. This work supports the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's assessment of severe accidents in NUREG-1150.

  3. MELCOR simulation of long-term station blackout at Peach Bottom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madni, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results from MELCOR (Version 1.8BC) calculations of the Long-Term Station Blackout Accident Sequence, with failure to depressurize the reactor vessel, at the Peach Bottom (BWR Mark I) plant, and presents comparisons with Source Term Code Package (STCP) calculations of the same sequence. This sequence assumes that batteries are available for six hours following loss of all power to the plant. Following battery failure, the reactor coolant system (RCS) inventory is boiled off through the relief valves by continued decay heat generation. This leads to core uncovery, heatup, clad oxidation, core degradation, relocation, and, eventually, vessel failure at high pressure. STCP has calculated the transient out to 13.5 hours after core uncovery. The results include the timing of key events, pressure and temperature response in the reactor vessel and containment, hydrogen production, and the release of source terms to the environment. 12 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Proposed SPAR Modeling Method for Quantifying Time Dependent Station Blackout Cut Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Schroeder

    2010-06-01

    Abstract: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (USNRC’s) Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models and industry risk models take similar approaches to analyzing the risk associated with loss of offsite power and station blackout (LOOP/SBO) events at nuclear reactor plants. In both SPAR models and industry models, core damage risk resulting from a LOOP/SBO event is analyzed using a combination of event trees and fault trees that produce cut sets that are, in turn, quantified to obtain a numerical estimate of the resulting core damage risk. A proposed SPAR method for quantifying the time-dependent cut sets is sometimes referred to as a convolution method. The SPAR method reflects assumptions about the timing of emergency diesel failures, the timing of subsequent attempts at emergency diesel repair, and the timing of core damage that may be different than those often used in industry models. This paper describes the proposed SPAR method.

  5. Demonstration of fully coupled simplified extended station black-out accident simulation with RELAP-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anders, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The RELAP-7 code develop-ment effort started in October of 2011 and by the end of the second development year, a number of physical components with simplified two phase flow capability have been de-veloped to support the simplified boiling water reactor (BWR) extended station blackout (SBO) analyses. The demonstration case includes the major components for the primary system of a BWR, as well as the safety system components for the safety relief valve (SRV), the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system, and the wet well. Three scenar-ios for the SBO simulations have been considered. Since RELAP-7 is not a severe acci-dent analysis code, the simulation stops when fuel clad temperature reaches damage point. Scenario I represents an extreme station blackout accident without any external cooling and cooling water injection. The system pressure is controlled by automatically releasing steam through SRVs. Scenario II includes the RCIC system but without SRV. The RCIC system is fully coupled with the reactor primary system and all the major components are dynamically simulated. The third scenario includes both the RCIC system and the SRV to provide a more realistic simulation. This paper will describe the major models and dis-cuss the results for the three scenarios. The RELAP-7 simulations for the three simplified SBO scenarios show the importance of dynamically simulating the SRVs, the RCIC sys-tem, and the wet well system to the reactor safety during extended SBO accidents.

  6. Station Blackout: A case study in the interaction of mechanistic and probabilistic safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli; Cristian Rabiti

    2013-11-01

    The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margins is important to improved decision making about nuclear power plant design, operation, and plant life extension. As research and development (R&D) in the light-water reactor (LWR) Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a “station blackout” wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario.

  7. Analysis of Safety Margins in an Initial Stage during the KALIMER Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Won Pyo; Jeong, Hae Yong; Lee, Yong Bum

    2008-01-15

    The main effort in the present study contributes to investigating the safety margins by analyzing the KALIMER station blackout accident. Natural circulation becomes the main heat transfer mechanism. The flow depends mostly on pump's halving time, friction factor for the wire-wrapped rod bundles in the core, and heat transfer coefficient. Therefore, physical models concerned with heat transfer in both pipe internals (IHX/DHX tube sides) and tube bundles (core, IHX/DHX shell sides), including the core wire-wrapped rod bundles, are also to be assessed in the study. In results, the heat transfer coefficient currently featured in SSC-K for an IHX rod bundle has been found acceptable. The heat transfer coefficient used for the core rod bundle, however, has not shown suitability and thus an alternative one has been proposed. Meanwhile, the friction factor model in SSC-K has not shown a prominent discrepancy in prediction trend but it has not been backed by an enough theoretical basis so that it has been replaced by the Cheng and Todreas model. An assessment matrix has been made to analyze systematically the effects of those parameters affecting on the conservatism of the safety analysis, and the matrix is constituted with the average value and the upper/lower limits in the correlation's applicable ranges. The preliminary calculation has shown negligible effect on the fuel temperature, while the pump halving time and the friction factor for the wire-wrapped rod bundle in the core have affected on the analysis results.

  8. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Convergence of the Uncertainty Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bixler, Nathan E.; Osborn, Douglas.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Mattie, Patrick D.; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the convergence of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) probabilistic results of offsite consequences for the uncertainty analysis of the State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The consequence metrics evaluated are individual latent-cancer fatality (LCF) risk and individual early fatality risk. Consequence results are presented as conditional risk (i.e., assuming the accident occurs, risk per event) to individuals of the public as a result of the accident. In order to verify convergence for this uncertainty analysis, as recommended by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, a ‘high’ source term from the original population of Monte Carlo runs has been selected to be used for: (1) a study of the distribution of consequence results stemming solely from epistemic uncertainty in the MACCS2 parameters (i.e., separating the effect from the source term uncertainty), and (2) a comparison between Simple Random Sampling (SRS) and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) in order to validate the original results obtained with LHS. Three replicates (each using a different random seed) of size 1,000 each using LHS and another set of three replicates of size 1,000 using SRS are analyzed. The results show that the LCF risk results are well converged with either LHS or SRS sampling. The early fatality risk results are less well converged at radial distances beyond 2 miles, and this is expected due to the sparse data (predominance of “zero” results).

  9. Comparing Simulation Results with Traditional PRA Model on a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhegang Ma; Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    A previous study used RELAP and RAVEN to conduct a boiling water reactor station black-out (SBO) case study in a simulation based environment to show the capabilities of the risk-informed safety margin characterization methodology. This report compares the RELAP/RAVEN simulation results with traditional PRA model results. The RELAP/RAVEN simulation run results were reviewed for their input parameters and output results. The input parameters for each simulation run include various timing information such as diesel generator or offsite power recovery time, Safety Relief Valve stuck open time, High Pressure Core Injection or Reactor Core Isolation Cooling fail to run time, extended core cooling operation time, depressurization delay time, and firewater injection time. The output results include the maximum fuel clad temperature, the outcome, and the simulation end time. A traditional SBO PRA model in this report contains four event trees that are linked together with the transferring feature in SAPHIRE software. Unlike the usual Level 1 PRA quantification process in which only core damage sequences are quantified, this report quantifies all SBO sequences, whether they are core damage sequences or success (i.e., non core damage) sequences, in order to provide a full comparison with the simulation results. Three different approaches were used to solve event tree top events and quantify the SBO sequences: “W” process flag, default process flag without proper adjustment, and default process flag with adjustment to account for the success branch probabilities. Without post-processing, the first two approaches yield incorrect results with a total conditional probability greater than 1.0. The last approach accounts for the success branch probabilities and provides correct conditional sequence probabilities that are to be used for comparison. To better compare the results from the PRA model and the simulation runs, a simplified SBO event tree was developed with only four

  10. A STRONGLY COUPLED REACTOR CORE ISOLATION COOLING SYSTEM MODEL FOR EXTENDED STATION BLACK-OUT ANALYSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Laboratory; Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Laboratory; Zou, Ling [Idaho National Laboratory; Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    The reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system in a boiling water reactor (BWR) provides makeup cooling water to the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) when the main steam lines are isolated and the normal supply of water to the reactor vessel is lost. The RCIC system operates independently of AC power, service air, or external cooling water systems. The only required external energy source is from the battery to maintain the logic circuits to control the opening and/or closure of valves in the RCIC systems in order to control the RPV water level by shutting down the RCIC pump to avoid overfilling the RPV and flooding the steam line to the RCIC turbine. It is generally considered in almost all the existing station black-out accidents (SBO) analyses that loss of the DC power would result in overfilling the steam line and allowing liquid water to flow into the RCIC turbine, where it is assumed that the turbine would then be disabled. This behavior, however, was not observed in the Fukushima Daiichi accidents, where the Unit 2 RCIC functioned without DC power for nearly three days. Therefore, more detailed mechanistic models for RCIC system components are needed to understand the extended SBO for BWRs. As part of the effort to develop the next generation reactor system safety analysis code RELAP-7, we have developed a strongly coupled RCIC system model, which consists of a turbine model, a pump model, a check valve model, a wet well model, and their coupling models. Unlike the traditional SBO simulations where mass flow rates are typically given in the input file through time dependent functions, the real mass flow rates through the turbine and the pump loops in our model are dynamically calculated according to conservation laws and turbine/pump operation curves. A simplified SBO demonstration RELAP-7 model with this RCIC model has been successfully developed. The demonstration model includes the major components for the primary system of a BWR, as well as the safety

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Station Blackout Caused by External Flooding Using the RISMC Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impact of these factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) project aims to provide insight to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This report focuses, in particular, on the application of a RISMC detailed demonstration case study for an emergent issue using the RAVEN and RELAP-7 tools. This case study looks at the impact of a couple of challenges to a hypothetical pressurized water reactor, including: (1) a power uprate, (2) a potential loss of off-site power followed by the possible loss of all diesel generators (i.e., a station black-out event), (3) and earthquake induces station-blackout, and (4) a potential earthquake induced tsunami flood. The analysis is performed by using a set of codes: a thermal-hydraulic code (RELAP-7), a flooding simulation tool (NEUTRINO) and a stochastic analysis tool (RAVEN) – these are currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Station Blackout caused by external flooding using the RISMC toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis; Prescott, Steven; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Kinoshita, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impacts of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization project aims to provide insights to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This paper focuses on the impacts of power uprate on the safety margin of a boiling water reactor for a flooding induced station black-out event. Analysis is performed by using a combination of thermal-hydraulic codes and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory, i.e. RAVEN. We employed both classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. Results obtained give a detailed investigation of the issues associated with a plant power uprate including the effects of station black-out accident scenarios. We were able to quantify how the timing of specific events was impacted by a higher nominal reactor core power. Such safety insights can provide useful information to the decision makers to perform risk informed margins management.

  13. THE APPLICATION OF MAMMOTH FOR A DETAILED TIGHTLY COUPLED FUEL PIN SIMULATION WITH A STATION BLACKOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleicher, Frederick; Ortensi, Javier; DeHart, Mark; Wang, Yaqi; Schunert, Sebastian; Novascone, Stephen; Hales, Jason; Williamson, Rich; Slaughter, Andrew; Permann, Cody; Andrs, David; Martineau, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Accurate calculation of desired quantities to predict fuel behavior requires the solution of interlinked equations representing different physics. Traditional fuels performance codes often rely on internal empirical models for the pin power density and a simplified boundary condition on the cladding edge. These simplifications are performed because of the difficulty of coupling applications or codes on differing domains and mapping the required data. To demonstrate an approach closer to first principles, the neutronics application Rattlesnake and the thermal hydraulics application RELAP-7 were coupled to the fuels performance application BISON under the master application MAMMOTH. A single fuel pin was modeled based on the dimensions of a Westinghouse 17x17 fuel rod. The simulation consisted of a depletion period of 1343 days, roughly equal to three full operating cycles, followed by a station blackout (SBO) event. The fuel rod was depleted for 1343 days for a near constant total power loading of 65.81 kW. After 1343 days the fission power was reduced to zero (simulating a reactor shut-down). Decay heat calculations provided the time-varying energy source after this time. For this problem, Rattlesnake, BISON, and RELAP-7 are coupled under MAMMOTH in a split operator approach. Each system solves its physics on a separate mesh and, for RELAP-7 and BISON, on only a subset of the full problem domain. Rattlesnake solves the neutronics over the whole domain that includes the fuel, cladding, gaps, water, and top and bottom rod holders. Here BISON is applied to the fuel and cladding with a 2D axi-symmetric domain, and RELAP-7 is applied to the flow of the circular outer water channel with a set of 1D flow equations. The mesh on the Rattlesnake side can either be 3D (for low order transport) or 2D (for diffusion). BISON has a matching ring structure mesh for the fuel so both the power density and local burn up are copied accurately from Rattlesnake. At each depletion time

  14. Branch-and-Bound algorithm applied to uncertainty quantification of a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Joseph, E-mail: joseph.nielsen@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 1955 N. Fremont Avenue, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); University of Idaho, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1575 (United States); Tokuhiro, Akira [University of Idaho, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1575 (United States); Hiromoto, Robert [University of Idaho, Department of Computer Science, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1575 (United States); Tu, Lei [University of Idaho, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1575 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    state. Dynamic PRA (DPRA) methods provide a more rigorous analysis of complex dynamic systems. Unfortunately DPRA methods introduce issues associated with combinatorial explosion of states. This paper presents a methodology to address combinatorial explosion using a Branch-and-Bound algorithm applied to Dynamic Event Trees (DET), which utilize LENDIT (L – Length, E – Energy, N – Number, D – Distribution, I – Information, and T – Time) as well as a set theory to describe system, state, resource, and response (S2R2) sets to create bounding functions for the DET. The optimization of the DET in identifying high probability failure branches is extended to create a Phenomenological Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) methodology to evaluate modeling parameters important to safety of those failure branches that have a high probability of failure. The PIRT can then be used as a tool to identify and evaluate the need for experimental validation of models that have the potential to reduce risk. In order to demonstrate this methodology, a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Station Blackout (SBO) case study is presented.

  15. Analysis of a Station Black-Out transient in SMR by using the TRACE and RELAP5 code

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, F.; Lombardo, C.; Mascari, F.; Polidori, M.; Chiovaro, P.; D'Amico, S.; Moscato, I.; Vella, G.

    2014-11-01

    The present paper deals with the investigation of the evolution and consequences of a Station Black-Out (SBO) initiating event transient in the SPES3 facility [1]. This facility is an integral simulator of a small modular reactor being built at the SIET laboratories, in the framework of the R&D program on nuclear fission funded by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development and led by ENEA. The SBO transient will be simulated by using the RELAP5 and TRACE nodalizations of the SPES3 facility. Moreover, the analysis will contribute to study the differences on the code predictions considering the different modelling approach with one and/or three-dimensional components and to compare the capability of these codes to describe the SPES3 facility behaviour.

  16. Development and qualification of a thermal-hydraulic nodalization for modeling station blackout accident in PSB-VVER test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghafi, Mahdi [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghofrani, Mohammad Bagher, E-mail: ghofrani@sharif.edu [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); D’Auria, Francesco [San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG), University of Pisa, Via Livornese 1291, San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A thermal-hydraulic nodalization for PSB-VVER test facility has been developed. • Station blackout accident is modeled with the developed nodalization in MELCOR code. • The developed nodalization is qualified at both steady state and transient levels. • MELCOR predictions are qualitatively and quantitatively in acceptable range. • Fast Fourier Transform Base Method is used to quantify accuracy of code predictions. - Abstract: This paper deals with the development of a qualified thermal-hydraulic nodalization for modeling Station Black-Out (SBO) accident in PSB-VVER Integral Test Facility (ITF). This study has been performed in the framework of a research project, aiming to develop an appropriate accident management support tool for Bushehr nuclear power plant. In this regard, a nodalization has been developed for thermal-hydraulic modeling of the PSB-VVER ITF by MELCOR integrated code. The nodalization is qualitatively and quantitatively qualified at both steady-state and transient levels. The accuracy of the MELCOR predictions is quantified in the transient level using the Fast Fourier Transform Base Method (FFTBM). FFTBM provides an integral representation for quantification of the code accuracy in the frequency domain. It was observed that MELCOR predictions are qualitatively and quantitatively in the acceptable range. In addition, the influence of different nodalizations on MELCOR predictions was evaluated and quantified using FFTBM by developing 8 sensitivity cases with different numbers of control volumes and heat structures in the core region and steam generator U-tubes. The most appropriate case, which provided results with minimum deviations from the experimental data, was then considered as the qualified nodalization for analysis of SBO accident in the PSB-VVER ITF. This qualified nodalization can be used for modeling of VVER-1000 nuclear power plants when performing SBO accident analysis by MELCOR code.

  17. Analysis of the FeCrAl Accident Tolerant Fuel Concept Benefits during BWR Station Blackout Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Kevin R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are being considered for fuel concepts with enhanced accident tolerance. FeCrAl alloys have very slow oxidation kinetics and good strength at high temperatures. FeCrAl could be used for fuel cladding in light water reactors and/or as channel box material in boiling water reactors (BWRs). To estimate the potential safety gains afforded by the FeCrAl concept, the MELCOR code was used to analyze a range of postulated station blackout severe accident scenarios in a BWR/4 reactor employing FeCrAl. The simulations utilize the most recently known thermophysical properties and oxidation kinetics for FeCrAl. Overall, when compared to the traditional Zircaloy-based cladding and channel box, the FeCrAl concept provides a few extra hours of time for operators to take mitigating actions and/or for evacuations to take place. A coolable core geometry is retained longer, enhancing the ability to stabilize an accident. Finally, due to the slower oxidation kinetics, substantially less hydrogen is generated, and the generation is delayed in time. This decreases the amount of non-condensable gases in containment and the potential for deflagrations to inhibit the accident response.

  18. Developing Fully Coupled Dynamical Reactor Core Isolation System Models in RELAP-7 for Extended Station Black-Out Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang; David Andrs; Richard Martineau

    2014-04-01

    The reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system in a boiling water reactor (BWR) provides makeup water to the reactor vessel for core cooling when the main steam lines are isolated and the normal supply of water to the reactor vessel is lost. It was one of the very few safety systems still available during the Fukushima Daiichi accidents after the tsunamis hit the plants and the system successfully delayed the core meltdown for a few days for unit 2 & 3. Therefore, detailed models for RCIC system components are indispensable to understand extended station black-out accidents (SBO) for BWRs. As part of the effort to develop the new generation reactor system safety analysis code RELAP-7, major components to simulate the RCIC system have been developed. This paper describes the models for those components such as turbine, pump, and wet well. Selected individual component test simulations and a simplified SBO simulation up to but before core damage is presented. The successful implementation of the simplified RCIC and wet well models paves the way to further improve the models for safety analysis by including more detailed physical processes in the near future.

  19. Long-Term Station Blackout Accident Analyses of a PWR with RELAP5/MOD3.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Prošek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress tests performed in Europe after accident at Fukushima Daiichi also required evaluation of the consequences of loss of safety functions due to station blackout (SBO. Long-term SBO in a pressurized water reactor (PWR leads to severe accident sequences, assuming that existing plant means (systems, equipment, and procedures are used for accident mitigation. Therefore the main objective was to study the accident management strategies for SBO scenarios (with different reactor coolant pumps (RCPs leaks assumed to delay the time before core uncovers and significantly heats up. The most important strategies assumed were primary side depressurization and additional makeup water to reactor coolant system (RCS. For simulations of long term SBO scenarios, including early stages of severe accident sequences, the best estimate RELAP5/MOD3.3 and the verified input model of Krško two-loop PWR were used. The results suggest that for the expected magnitude of RCPs seal leak, the core uncovery during the first seven days could be prevented by using the turbine-driven auxiliary feedwater pump and manually depressurizing the RCS through the secondary side. For larger RCPs seal leaks, in general this is not the case. Nevertheless, the core uncovery can be significantly delayed by increasing RCS depressurization.

  20. Analysis of Long-Term Station Blackout without automatic depressurization at Peach Bottom using MELCOR (Version 1.8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madni, I.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results from MELCOR calculations of the Long-Term Station Blackout Accident Sequence, with failure to depressurize the reactor vessel, at the Peach Bottom (BWR Mark I) plant, and presents comparisons with Source Term Code Package calculations of the same sequence. STCP has calculated the transient out to 13.5, hours after core uncovery. Most of the MELCOR calculations presented have been carried out to between 15 and 16.7 hours after core uncovery. The results include the release of source terms to the environment. The results of several sensitivity calculations with MELCOR are also presented, which explore the impact of varying user-input modeling and timestep control parameters on the accident progression and release of source terms to the environment. Most of the calculations documented here were performed in FY1990 using MELCOR Version 1.8BC. However, the appendices also document the results of more recent calculations performed in FY1991 using MELCOR versions 1.8CZ and 1.8DNX.

  1. An Analysis of Station Blackout Sequences Using MELCOR1.8.5 Code for the Severe Accident Analysis DB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been constructing severe accident analysis database (DB) under a National Nuclear R and D Program. Especially, MAAP (commercial code being widely used for industries) DB for many scenarios including station blackout (SBO) has been completed up to now. This report shows the analysis results for SBO scenarios using MELCOR code. These results will be used for the degree of completion after being compared with MAAP results. The developing strategy of MELCOR code is the same with that of MAAP DB. For the generation of data set, the Korean standard nuclear power plant (KSNP) has been selected as a reference plant and the eight SBO scenarios are chosen to be analyzed based on the PSA results (these eight scenarios accounted for 99 percent of occurrence frequency of total 197 SBO scenarios). Both thermal hydraulics (T/H) and source term analysis have been performed using MELCOR version 1.8.5 for the chosen scenarios. But only major T/H variables treated in the MAAP report are listed among the generated data set, which shows the characteristics of each scenario. These SBO results together with those of the other initiating events (to be analyzed in the future) will be used as inputs for DB construction and special value will be found in the comparing and complimentary process with MAAP DB

  2. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  3. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: Surry PWR TMLB` (with a DCH study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Summers, R.M.; Thompson, S.L.

    1994-02-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC. This code models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRs. As part of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze a station blackout transient in Surry, a three-loop Westinghouse PWR. Basecase results obtained with MELCOR 1.8.2 are presented, and compared to earlier results for the same transient calculated using MELCOR 1.8.1. The effects of new models added in MELCOR 1.8.2 (in particular, hydrodynamic interfacial momentum exchange, core debris radial relocation and core material eutectics, CORSOR-Booth fission product release, high-pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating) are investigated individually in sensitivity studies. The progress in reducing numeric effects in MELCOR 1.8.2, compared to MELCOR 1.8.1, is evaluated in both machine-dependency and time-step studies; some remaining sources of numeric dependencies (valve cycling, material relocation and hydrogen burn) are identified.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of NSSS and containment response during extended station blackout for Maanshan PWR plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuann, Yng-Ruey, E-mail: ryyuann@iner.gov.tw; Hsu, Keng-Hsien, E-mail: hardlycampus@iner.gov.tw; Lin, Chin-Tsu, E-mail: jtling@iner.gov.tw

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Calculate NSSS and containment transient response during extended SBO of 24 h. • RELAP5-3D and GOTHIC models are developed for Maanshan PWR plant. • Reactor coolant pump seal leakage is specifically modeled for each loop. • Analyses are performed with and without secondary-side depressurization, respectively. • Considering different total available time for turbine driven auxiliary feedwater system. - Abstract: A thermal-hydraulic analysis has been performed with respect to the response of the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) and the containment during an extended station blackout (SBO) duration of 24 h in Maanshan PWR plant. Maanshan plant is a Westinghouse three-loop PWR design with rated core thermal power of 2822 MWt. The analyses in the NSSS and the containment are based on the RELAP5-3D and GOTHIC models, respectively. Important design features of the plant in response to SBO are considered in the respective models, e.g., the steam generator PORVs, turbine driven auxiliary feedwater system (TDAFWS), accumulators, reactor coolant pump (RCP) seal design, various heat structures in the containment, etc. In the analysis it is assumed that the shaft seal in each RCP failed due to loss of seal cooling and the RCS fluid flows to the containment directly. Some parameters calculated from the RELPA5-3D model are input to the containment GOTHIC model, including the RCS average temperature and the RCP seal leakage flow and enthalpy. The RCS average temperature is used to drive the sensible heat transfer to the containment. It is found that the severity of the event depends mainly on whether the secondary side is depressurized or not. If the secondary side is depressurized in time (within 1 h after SBO) and the TDAFWS is available greater than 19 h, then the reactor core will be covered with water throughout the SBO duration, which ensures the integrity of the reactor core. On the contrary, if the secondary side is not depressurized, then the RCS

  5. Effect of Coolant Inventories and Parallel Loop Interconnections on the Natural Circulation in Various Heat Transport Systems of a Nuclear Power Plant during Station Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash J. Gaikwad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of passive means to reactor core decay heat removal enhances the nuclear power plant (NPP safety and availability. In the earlier Indian pressurised heavy water reactors (IPHWRs, like the 220 MWe and the 540 MWe, crash cooldown from the steam generators (SGs is resorted to mitigate consequences of station blackout (SBO. In the 700 MWe PHWR currently being designed an additional passive decay heat removal (PDHR system is also incorporated to condense the steam generated in the boilers during a SBO. The sustainability of natural circulation in the various heat transport systems (i.e., primary heat transport (PHT, SGs, and PDHRs under station blackout depends on the corresponding system's coolant inventories and the coolant circuit configurations (i.e., parallel paths and interconnections. On the primary side, the interconnection between the two primary loops plays an important role to sustain the natural circulation heat removal. On the secondary side, the steam lines interconnections and the initial inventory in the SGs prior to cooldown, that is, hooking up of the PDHRs are very important. This paper attempts to open up discussions on the concept and the core issues associated with passive systems which can provide continued heat sink during such accident scenarios. The discussions would include the criteria for design, and performance of such concepts already implemented and proposes schemes to be implemented in the proposed 700 MWe IPHWR. The designer feedbacks generated, and critical examination of performance analysis results for the added passive system to the existing generation II & III reactors will help ascertaining that these safety systems/inventories in fact perform in sustaining decay heat removal and augmenting safety.

  6. CPR1000全厂断电事故瞬态特性分析%Transient Analyses of Station Blackout Accident for CPR1000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚培; 田文喜; 秋穗正; 苏光辉

    2011-01-01

    The primary loop of CPR1000 nuclear power plant was modeled using RELAP5/MOD3. 4 code, and the transient thermal hydraulic characteristics were analyzed under the condition of station blackout accident (SBO). The calculation results by RELAP5 code were compared with those of THEMIS code, and the results by RELAP5 code were consistent with those of THEMIS code. The results show that the RELAP5 model can accurately simulate the transient thermal hydraulic characteristics of CPR1000 under the condition of SBO.%用RELAP5/MOD3.4程序对CPR1000压水堆一回路系统进行整体建模,分析全厂断电事故下一回路主要参数的瞬态热工水力特性,并将RELAP5模型计算结果与THEMIS程序的计算结果进行对比,二者符合得较好.计算结果表明:该模型可较准确地模拟CPR1000在事故下的热工水力特性.

  7. Blackouts and natural risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danihelka, P.; Paldusová, E.; Dobeš, P.

    2009-04-01

    "Blackout" has become the common definition for the situation when electricity supply and demand are not balanced and security of supply fails. These failures have many impacts besides the lights going out, but this term is used commonly. Blackouts have drastic impacts for the society on whole and its citizens and some of them can influence big areas and last for long period, so the consequences are catastrophic. Even if at the European scale, the large extend blackouts are supposed to be exceptional, real frequency is relatively high, approximately once per two years. According to statistics, blackouts are often caused by natural causes, especially lightning. An example of lightning caused blackout is New York blackout 1977, leading to the stand-by of nuclear power plant Indian Point and with overall cost more than 300 mil. USD. There is a clear a distinction between those blackouts caused by nature and those that were caused by other faults. Usually, the nature-caused disturbances as Canada 1988, Sweden 2005 and France 1999, stay inside one country. However, their duration can extend to several weeks, and thus the costs of the interruptions and social impacts are high. Blackouts of only technologic and/or anthropogenic origin are frequently shorter, but may concern more end-users, when cascading from one country to another. Lightning is not the only natural event causing blackouts. Eighteen various case studies of blackout caused by natural events different then lightning were studied and following natural phenomenon found as a root causes: 1x forest fire, 1x snow calamity, 1x ice storm, 1x landslide, 1x high temperature, 1x geomagnetic storm, 2x earthquake, 2x inundation, 2x contact of line with trees, 6x storm (wind, hurricane…). We can conclude, that natural event are frequent cause of blackout of medium or large extend and this phenomena should be studied more in details. This contribution was supported by Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic.

  8. Comparison Study on Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis Depending on Liquid Relief Valve Response for an Station Blackout in CANDU-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. M.; Kho, D. W. [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S. H.; Moon, B. J.; Kim, S. R. [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this analysis is to compare the results of thermal-hydraulic analysis depending on liquid relief valve response during a station black out (SBO) events in CANDU-6. The primary heat transport system (PHTS) behavior following the postulated SBO is analyzed using CATHENA code. In the paper, analysis was performed to evaluate the effect on coolant system where LRVs are assumed to be opened or opened according to normal open characteristics in the condition of SBO. The result showed that the primary pressure boundary is extended from LRV to DCT and the effects on primary system behavior were neglectable.

  9. An uncertainty analysis of the hydrogen source term for a station blackout accident in Sequoyah using MELCOR 1.8.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Wagner, Kenneth Charles.

    2014-03-01

    A methodology for using the MELCOR code with the Latin Hypercube Sampling method was developed to estimate uncertainty in various predicted quantities such as hydrogen generation or release of fission products under severe accident conditions. In this case, the emphasis was on estimating the range of hydrogen sources in station blackout conditions in the Sequoyah Ice Condenser plant, taking into account uncertainties in the modeled physics known to affect hydrogen generation. The method uses user-specified likelihood distributions for uncertain model parameters, which may include uncertainties of a stochastic nature, to produce a collection of code calculations, or realizations, characterizing the range of possible outcomes. Forty MELCOR code realizations of Sequoyah were conducted that included 10 uncertain parameters, producing a range of in-vessel hydrogen quantities. The range of total hydrogen produced was approximately 583kg 131kg. Sensitivity analyses revealed expected trends with respected to the parameters of greatest importance, however, considerable scatter in results when plotted against any of the uncertain parameters was observed, with no parameter manifesting dominant effects on hydrogen generation. It is concluded that, with respect to the physics parameters investigated, in order to further reduce predicted hydrogen uncertainty, it would be necessary to reduce all physics parameter uncertainties similarly, bearing in mind that some parameters are inherently uncertain within a range. It is suspected that some residual uncertainty associated with modeling complex, coupled and synergistic phenomena, is an inherent aspect of complex systems and cannot be reduced to point value estimates. The probabilistic analyses such as the one demonstrated in this work are important to properly characterize response of complex systems such as severe accident progression in nuclear power plants.

  10. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  11. Modelling, controlling, predicting blackouts

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Chengwei; Baptista, Murilo S

    2016-01-01

    The electric power system is one of the cornerstones of modern society. One of its most serious malfunctions is the blackout, a catastrophic event that may disrupt a substantial portion of the system, playing havoc to human life and causing great economic losses. Thus, understanding the mechanisms leading to blackouts and creating a reliable and resilient power grid has been a major issue, attracting the attention of scientists, engineers and stakeholders. In this paper, we study the blackout problem in power grids by considering a practical phase-oscillator model. This model allows one to simultaneously consider different types of power sources (e.g., traditional AC power plants and renewable power sources connected by DC/AC inverters) and different types of loads (e.g., consumers connected to distribution networks and consumers directly connected to power plants). We propose two new control strategies based on our model, one for traditional power grids, and another one for smart grids. The control strategie...

  12. Alternative cooling water flow path for RHR heat exchanger and its effect on containment response during extended station blackout for Chinshan BWR-4 plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuann, Yng-Ruey, E-mail: ryyuann@iner.gov.tw

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Motivating alternative RHR heat exchanger tube-side flow path and determining required capacity. • Calculate NSSS and containment response during 24-h SBO for Chinshan BWR-4 plant. • RETRAN and GOTHIC models are developed for NSSS and containment, respectively. • Safety relief valve blowdown flow and energy to drywell are generated by RETRAN. • Analyses are performed with and without reactor depressurization, respectively. - Abstract: The extended Station Blackout (SBO) of 24 h has been analyzed with respect to the containment response, in particular the suppression pool temperature response, for the Chinshan BWR-4 plant of MARK-I containment. The Chinshan plant, owned by Taiwan Power Company, has twin units with rated core thermal power of 1840 MW each. The analysis is aimed at determining the required alternative cooling water flow capacity for the residual heat removal (RHR) heat exchanger when its tube-side sea water cooling flow path is blocked, due to some reason such as earthquake or tsunami, and is switched to the alternative raw water source. Energy will be dissipated to the suppression pool through safety relief valves (SRVs) of the main steam lines during SBO. The RETRAN model is used to calculate the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) response and generate the SRV blowdown conditions, including SRV pressure, enthalpy, and mass flow rate. These conditions are then used as the time-dependent boundary conditions for the GOTHIC code to calculate the containment pressure and temperature response. The shaft seals of the two recirculation pumps are conservatively assumed to fail due to loss of seal cooling and a total leakage flow rate of 36 gpm to the drywell is included in the GOTHIC model. Based on the given SRV blowdown conditions, the GOTHIC containment calculation is performed several times, through the adjustment of the heat transfer rate of the RHR heat exchanger, until the criterion that the maximum suppression pool temperature

  13. Reactor coolant pump shaft seal behavior during blackout conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mings, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has classified the problem of reactor coolant pump seal failures as an unresolved safety issue. This decision was made in large part due to experimental results obtained from a research program developed to study shaft seal performance during station blackout and reported in this paper. Testing and analysis indicated a potential for pump seal failure under postulated blackout conditions leading to a loss of primary coolant with a concomitant danger of core uncovery. The work to date has not answered all the concerns regarding shaft seal failure but it has helped scope the problem and focus future research needed to completely resolve this issue.

  14. Modeling radio communication blackout and blackout mitigation in hypersonic vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Beckwith, Kristian; Stoltz, Peter; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the modeling and analysis of radio communication blackout of hypersonic vehicles is presented. A weakly ionized plasma generated around the surface of a hypersonic reentry vehicle traveling at Mach 23 was simulated using full Navier-Stokes equations in multi-species single fluid form. A seven species air chemistry model is used to compute the individual species densities in air including ionization - plasma densities are compared with experiment. The electromagnetic wave's interaction with the plasma layer is modeled using multi-fluid equations for fluid transport and full Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields. The multi-fluid solver is verified for a whistler wave propagating through a slab. First principles radio communication blackout over a hypersonic vehicle is demonstrated along with a simple blackout mitigation scheme using a magnetic window.

  15. Computer chaos and the blackout

    CERN Multimedia

    Malik, Rex

    1971-01-01

    A recent electricity dispute resulted in power black-outs with unfortunate consequences for organizations relying on computers. Article discusses the implications of similar events in Britain in the future when computers are even more widely in use (1 1/2 pages).

  16. AP1000核电厂应对全厂断电事故的稳压器防满溢对策研究%AP1000 Plant Pressurizer Overfilling Prevention Study Against Station Blackout Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘展; 王喆; 张国胜; 秦慧敏

    2014-01-01

    If loss of main feed-water occurs in a station blackout accident for AP1000 plant ,the pressurizer will overfill and the coolant will be discharged through pressurizer safety valves .It results in a loss of coolant accident ,RCS inventory will decrease ,and the risk of reactor core uncovering increases .Because of the coolant discharging , the atmosphere radiation level in the containment may be raised , w hile the possibility of radioactive release to the environment increases .In order to prevent pressurizer overfill-ing ,an effective strategy to avoid and mitigate pressurizer overfilling was provided .The results show that increasing heat transfer areas of PRHRS heat exchanger can prevent pressurizer overfilling ;reasonable decreasing of IRWST back pressure can enhance mar-gins of pressurizer overfilling , and mitigate pressurizer overfilling phenomena ;increasing pressurizer volumes can also avoid pressurizer overfilling . T he conclusions have reference value in helping design and safety analysis of AP 1000 plant .%A P1000核电厂若在全厂断电事故下丧失正常给水,会引起稳压器满溢,将通过稳压器安全阀排放液体冷却剂,引起反应堆冷却剂水装量流失,增大反应堆堆芯裸露的风险。与此同时,安全壳内的放射性水平因稳压器满溢可能会增大,增大向环境排放大量放射物质的可能。为防止稳压器满溢,本工作进行了解决或缓解稳压器满溢的对策研究。结果表明,增大非能动余热排出系统(PRHRS )热交换器的传热面积,可防止稳压器满溢;合理降低安全壳内置换料水箱(IRWST )的背压,可增大达到稳压器满溢的裕度,有效地缓解稳压器满溢;增大稳压器的自由容积,可防止稳压器满溢。此结论对A P1000核电厂的设计和事故分析有一定的参考作用。

  17. 78 FR 21275 - Station Blackout Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... document is one of the actions stemming from the NRC's lessons-learned efforts associated with the March... AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory basis and draft rule concepts; request... provides a discussion of rule language concepts that the NRC staff is considering for this potential...

  18. Blackouts, risk, and fat-tailed distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Weron, R; Simonsen, Ingve; Weron, Rafal

    2005-01-01

    We analyze a 19-year time series of North American electric power transmission system blackouts. Contrary to previously reported results we find a fatter than exponential decay in the distribution of inter-occurrence times and evidence of seasonal dependence in the number of events. Our findings question the use of self-organized criticality, and in particular the sandpile model, as a paradigm of blackout dynamics in power transmission systems. Hopefully, though, they will provide guidelines to more accurate models for evaluation of blackout risk.

  19. Batteries'Usability Study in Station Blackout (SBO) for QinShan Nuclear Power Phase II Extension Project%秦山二期扩建核电厂全厂断电(SBO)事故下蓄电池可用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游洲; 韩勇; 刘文静; 李朋

    2015-01-01

    Station Blackout (SBO) indicates the all AC power supply lost on the emergency and non-emergency bus in the nuclear power plant. In SBO period, batteries' usability is vital for the nuclear power plant to deal with this fault. This paper introduces the way to use batteries, the calculation and analysis of the power supply time in SBO accident. Some suggestions are given for how to deal with SBO.%全厂断电(SBO)是指核电厂完全丧失应急以及非应急母线上的交流电源。全厂断电后,核电厂蓄电池组的可用性成为整个核电厂应对该事故的关键。对秦山二期扩建工程的蓄电池组在SBO事故下的投用方式进行了介绍,对其带载时间进行了计算和分析,就应对SBO事故提出了建议。

  20. Engaging Honors Students through Newspaper Blackout Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladenheim, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the author's attempt to convince her students that poetry can be "their thing," and also show them how much it can shape the way they think about the world and their place in it. In this article Melissa Ladenheim describes the technique known as "newspaper blackout" poetry. The exciting thing about this…

  1. Navigation strategy with the spacecraft communications blackout for Mars entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xichen; Xia, Yuanqing

    2015-02-01

    Future Mars missions require precision entry navigation capability, especially in the presence of communications blackout. On the mission of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), there was a 70-s communications blackout period during atmospheric entry phase. In allusion to the spacecraft communications blackout encountered, this paper predicts an upper-bound for any possible blackout period firstly, improves the default integrated navigation measurements based on IMU and surface radiometric beacons, and proposes innovative attitude observation model based on IMU and range observation model based on orbiters finally. To verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed observation models in the presence of communications blackout, unscented Kalman filter is utilized to demonstrate the navigation performance. The results show that navigation errors based on improved observation models proposed in this paper degrade an order of magnitude compared with the default observation models even if the communications blackout takes place, which satisfies the requirements of future Mars landing missions.

  2. Fractal Characteristics Analysis of Blackouts in Interconnected Power Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Lijuan; Li, Canbing

    2017-01-01

    The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG. The distri......The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG....... The distribution characteristics of blackouts in various sub-grids are demonstrated based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. The fractal dimensions (FDs) of the IPG and its sub-grids are then obtained by using the KS test and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The blackouts data in China were used...

  3. Station Blackout Severe Accident Analysis of Spent Fuel Pool of 600 MWe NPP by Using MELCOR Code%用 MELCOR 程序分析600 MWe 核电厂乏燃料水池失去厂内外电源严重事故

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张应超; 季松涛; 魏严凇; 史晓磊; 许倩

    2016-01-01

    Using MELCOR code ,the spent fuel pool (SFP) of 600 MWe nuclear power plant (NPP) was modeled ,and the station blackout severe accidents were calculated when the SFP was under normal condition ,refuelling condition and the reactor accident condition .The calculation results show that fuel assemblies will melt down and hydro‐gen will generate ,due to zirconium‐water reaction ,after the half height of fuel assem‐blies is uncovered .The influence of injection or spray on SFP accidents was analysed , and the results show that SFP accidents will be terminated and the water level of SFP will return up before fuel cladding damage if water is injected or sprayed into the SFP with the boiling evaporation mass rate .%利用MELCOR程序建立了600 MWe核电厂乏燃料水池计算模型,分别计算了在正常储存、正常换料和反应堆事故工况下,乏燃料水池失去厂内外电源严重事故序列。计算结果表明,燃料组件大约裸露一半后,锆水反应导致燃料熔化并产生大量氢气。分析了喷淋和注水对乏燃料水池事故的影响,分析结果表明,在燃料包壳失效前,以沸腾蒸发速率注水或喷淋能中止事故发展,并能使乏燃料水池水位缓慢回升。

  4. Extended Station Blackout Coping Capabilities of APR1400

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident shows that an extreme natural disaster can prevent the proper restoration of electric power for several days, so-called extended SBO. In Korea, the government and industry performed comprehensive special safety inspections on all domestic nuclear power plants against beyond design bases external events. One of the safety improvement action items related to the extended SBO is installation of external water injection provision and equipment to RCS and SG. In this paper, the extended SBO coping capability of APR1400 is examined using MAAP4 to assess the effectiveness of the external water injection strategy. Results show that an external injection into SG is applicable to mitigate an extended SBO scenario. However, an external injection into RCS is only effective when RCS depressurization capacity is sufficiently provided in case of high pressure scenarios. Based on the above results, the technical basis of external injection strategy will be reflected on development of revised severe accident management guideline.

  5. An electromagnetic method for removing the communication blackout with a space vehicle upon re-entry into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Jin, Ke; Kou, Yong; Hu, Ruifeng; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2017-03-01

    When a hypersonic vehicle travels in the Earth and Mars atmosphere, the surface of the vehicle is surrounded by a plasma layer, which is an envelope of ionized air, created from the compression and heat of the atmosphere by the shock wave. The vehicles will lose contact with ground stations known as the reentry communication blackout. Based on the magnetohydrodynamic framework and electromagnetic wave propagation theory, an analytical model is proposed to describe the effect of the effectiveness of electromagnetic mitigation scheme on removing the reentry communication blackout. C and Global Positioning System (GPS) bands, two commonly used radio bands for communication, are taken as the cases to discuss the effectiveness of the electromagnetic field mitigation scheme. The results show that the electron density near the antenna of vehicles can be reduced by the electromagnetic field, and the required external magnetic field strength is far below the one in the magnetic window method. The directions of the external electric field and magnetic field have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the mitigation scheme. Furthermore, the effect of electron collisions on the required applied electromagnetic field is discussed, and the result indicates that electron collisions are a key factor to analyze the electromagnetic mitigation scheme. Finally, the feasible regions of the applied electromagnetic field for eliminating blackout are given. These investigations could have a significant benefit on the design and optimization of electromagnetic mitigation scheme for the blackout problem.

  6. Investigation of plasma–surface interaction effects on pulsed electrostatic manipulation for reentry blackout alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, S.; Close, S.

    2017-03-01

    The reentry blackout phenomenon affects most spacecraft entering a dense planetary atmosphere from space, due to the presence of a plasma layer that surrounds the spacecraft. This plasma layer is created by ionization of ambient air due to shock and frictional heating, and in some cases is further enhanced due to contamination by ablation products. This layer causes a strong attenuation of incoming and outgoing electromagnetic waves including those used for command and control, communication and telemetry over a period referred to as the ‘blackout period’. The blackout period may last up to several minutes and is a major contributor to the landing error ellipse at best, and a serious safety hazard in the worst case, especially in the context of human spaceflight. In this work, we present a possible method for alleviation of reentry blackout using electronegative DC pulses applied from insulated electrodes on the reentry vehicle’s surface. We study the reentry plasma’s interaction with a DC pulse using a particle-in-cell (PIC) model. Detailed models of plasma–insulator interaction are included in our simulations. The absorption and scattering of ions and electrons at the plasma–dielectric interface are taken into account. Secondary emission from the insulating surface is also considered, and its implications on various design issues is studied. Furthermore, we explore the effect of changing the applied voltage and the impact of surface physics on the creation and stabilization of communication windows. The primary aim of this analysis is to examine the possibility of restoring L- and S-band communication from the spacecraft to a ground station. Our results provide insight into the effect of key design variables on the response of the plasma to the applied voltage pulse. Simulations show the creation of pockets where electron density in the plasma layer is reduced three orders of magnitude or more in the vicinity of the electrodes. These pockets extend to

  7. Natural hazard impact on the technosphere: "blackouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E. G.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, natural-technological accidents (NTA) and disasters are increasing in their number and severity all over the world. The term "natural-technological accident (disaster)" applies for an accident (disaster) in the technosphere triggered by any natural process or phenomenon. Their growth is caused, on the one hand, by observed increasing in the frequency and intensity of some natural hazards and hazardous events due to climate change and, on the other hand, by a growing complication of the modern technosphere exposed to natural impacts and advancement of economic activities into the area at natural risk. The most large-scaled natural-technological disaster happened on March 11, 2011 in Japan, as a result of a massive earthquake and tsunami that caused a number of serious technological accidents, including accidents at "Fukushima-1" nuclear power plant, etc. Severe social, ecological and economic consequences of large-scaled NTA make investigation of these events especially important. The most frequent among NTA occurring in Russia are breakdowns in electric power supply systems that lead to so-called "blackouts" (accidental power outages). They are mainly caused by strong winds, snowstorms, deposition of ice, sleet, and snow, rainfalls, floods, and hailstones. Among other triggers earthquakes, hard frost, fierce heat, thunderstorms, landslides, snow avalanches, and debris flows should be mentioned. The great part of transmission facilities in Russia falls on overhead lines that are especially vulnerable to natural impacts. In general, natural triggers are responsible for more than 70 percent of all accidents in power supply systems. They occur more often in Far East, in the Southern and North-Western federal districts, and in some regions of the Central Russia, which are prone to hurricanes, cyclones, snowstorms, and heavy rainfalls accompanying by hailstones, icing, and sleet. A distinctive feature of these events is their synergistic nature, as power

  8. Study Of Morphological Changes Of Uterine Horn Of Surri Mouse Depended To Morphine Before Puberty And DuringPuberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadkhast M

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available : Morphine is the most important alkaloid of opium family which is found as much as ten percent in opium, and is in two types the sulfate morphine and the hydrochloride morphine."nMaterials and Methods: In this study morphological changes of uterus of surri mice due to oral consumption of sulfate morphine were studied. It was shown that, female surri mice following gradually increasing of morphine to water (0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml were depended to morphine. Female surri mice were classified in two age groups before puberty and depended to morphine during puberty. Each age group took morphine for 21 days. After finishing the period, the mice anesthetizing were weighted, then were anesthetizing and uterus was studied the length, width and apparent features."nResults&ConcIusion: In this study it was distinguished that length and width of uterine horn, between experimental and control groups, were significant (P< 0.01. Morphological changes such as anemia, the thinness and fragitidily walls of uterus and filiformity of uterine horns were observed."n"n"n"n"n"n 

  9. Areva T and D market opportunities after the US and EU Blackouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakansson, K

    2004-02-01

    This document presents the events on the transmission systems during August 2003 in Usa and in September 2003 in Italy. The author analyzes the causes of the blackouts (small margins in transmission system, not adequate control, weaknesses in interconnections between regions), the market opportunity arising out of the blackouts, the economic regulatory and environmental structure/issues today and developments, the scenario for Areva after the blackout (the market size today and in the future) and Areva strength in relation to blackout. (A.L.B.) opportunities.

  10. 29 CFR 2520.101-3 - Notice of blackout periods under individual account plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beneficiaries pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section. (d) Definitions. For purposes of this section— (1... three consecutive business days. (ii) Exclusions. The term “blackout period” does not include a... otherwise available under the plan, is called a “blackout period.” Whether or not you are...

  11. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 3-Surry Unit 1 Cycle 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors. The analysis methodology selected for all the calculations in this report is based on the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. The isotopic densities for the spent fuel assemblies in the critical configurations were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence of the SCALE-4 system. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code module was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from the SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required by the SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of the cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of each case. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all the calculations. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of two reactor critical configurations for Surry Unit 1 Cycle 2. This unit and cycle were chosen for a previous analysis using a different methodology because detailed isotopics from multidimensional reactor calculations were available from the Virginia Power Company. These data permitted a direct comparison of criticality calculations using the utility-calculated isotopics with those using the isotopics generated by the SCALE-4

  12. Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the event (Elvidge et al. 2007), which can subsequently be linked to population estimations. Power blackouts disrupt societal activities and compound the difficulties associated with search and rescue, clean up, and the provision of food and other supplies following a disastrous event. Locations and spatial extents of power blackouts are key considerations in planning and execution of the primary disaster missions of emergency management organizations. To date only one satellite data source has been used successfully for the detection of power blackouts. Operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) offers a unique capability to observe lights present at the Earth's surface at night. Including a pair of visible and thermal spectral bands and originally designed to detect moonlit clouds, this sensor enables mapping of lights from cities and towns, gas flares and offshore platforms, fires, and heavily lit fishing boats. The low light imaging of the OLS is accomplished using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which intensifies the visible band signal at night. With 14 orbits collected per day and a 3.000 km swath width, each OLS is capable of collecting a complete set of images of the Earth every 24 hours. NGDC runs the long-term archive for OLS data with the digital version extending back to 1992. OLS data is received by NGDC in near real time (1-2 hours from acquisition) and subscription based services for the near real time data are provided for users all over the

  13. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry: Unit 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T. [eds.; Musicki, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document contains a summarization of the results and insights from the Level 1 accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events, internally initiated fire and flood events, seismically initiated events, and the Level 2/3 risk analysis of internally initiated events (excluding fire and flood) for Surry, Unit 1. The analysis was confined to mid-loop operation, which can occur during three plant operational states (identified as POSs R6 and R10 during a refueling outage, and POS D6 during drained maintenance). The report summarizes the Level 1 information contained in Volumes 2--5 and the Level 2/3 information contained in Volume 6 of NUREG/CR-6144.

  14. 75 FR 13600 - Virginia Electric and Power Company, North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, Surry Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... permit the licensee the use of Mine Safety Appliance Company (MSA) Firehawk Air Mask (FireHawk) Self... offsite. There is no significant increase in occupational or public radiation exposure. Therefore,...

  15. 75 FR 80546 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; Surry Power Station Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and Appendix K to 10 CFR Part 50, ``ECCS Evaluation... or ZIRLO TM fuel rod cladding. Thus, an exemption from the requirements of 10 CFR 50.46 and Appendix K is needed to support the use of different fuel rod cladding material. Therefore, the...

  16. 75 FR 52781 - Virginia Electric and Power Company, North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, Surry Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... specific to NAPS. The proposed amendments would add Optimized ZIRLO as an acceptable fuel rod cladding... of Zircaloy or ZIRLO fuel rods * * *''. The proposed change will add Optimized ZIRLO to the...

  17. 47 CFR 76.111 - Cable sports blackout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... zone of a television broadcast station licensed to a community in which a sports event is taking place... station licensed to the community in which the sports event is taking place, the applicable specified zone shall be that of the television station licensed to the community with which the sports event or team...

  18. Sustainability from the Occurrence of Critical Dynamic Power System Blackout Determined by Using the Stochastic Event Tree Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Murtadha Othman; Nur Ashida Salim; Ismail Musirin

    2017-01-01

    .... This paper presents the proposed stochastic event tree technique used to assess the sustainability against the occurrence of dynamic power system blackout emanating from implication of critical...

  19. Can the complex networks help us in the resolution of the problem of power outages (blackouts) in Brazil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Paulo Alexandre de; Souza, Thaianne Lopes de [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Catalao, GO (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. What the Brazilian soccer championship, Hollywood actors, the network of the Internet, the spread of viruses and electric distribution network have in common? Until less than two decade ago, the answer would be 'nothing' or 'almost nothing'. However, the answer today to this same question is 'all' or 'almost all'. The answer to these questions and more can be found through a sub-area of statistical physics | called science of complex networks that has been used to approach and study the most diverse natural and non-natural systems, such as systems/social networks, information, technological or biological. In this work we study the distribution network of electric power in Brazil (DEEB), from a perspective of complex networks, where we associate stations and/or substations with a network of vertices and the links between the vertices we associate with the transmission lines. We are doing too a comparative study with the best-known models of complex networks, such as Erdoes-Renyi, Configuration Model and Barabasi-Albert, and then we compare with results obtained in real electrical distribution networks. Based on this information, we do a comparative analysis using the following variables: connectivity distribution, diameter, clustering coefficient, which are frequently used in studies of complex networks. We emphasize that the main objective of this study is to analyze the robustness of the network DEEB, and then propose alternatives for network connectivity, which may contribute to the increase of robustness in maintenance projects and/or expansion of the network, in other words our goal is to make the network to proof the blackouts or improve the endurance the network against the blackouts. For this purpose, we use information from the structural properties of networks, computer modeling and simulation. (author)

  20. Impact assessment of the 1977 New York City blackout. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, J. L.; Miles, W. T.

    1978-07-01

    This study was commissioned by the Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES), Department of Energy (DOE) shortly after the July 13, 1977 New York City Blackout. The objectives were two-fold: to assess the availability and collect, where practical, data pertaining to a wide variety of impacts occurring as a result of the blackout; and to broadly define a framework to assess the value of electric power reliability from consideration of the blackout and its effects on individuals, businesses, and institutions. The impacts were complex and included both economic and social costs. In order to systematically classify the most significant of these impacts and provide guidance for data collection, impact classification schemes were developed. Major economic impact categories examined are business; government; utilities (Consolidated Edison); insurance industry; public health services; and other public services. Impacts were classified as either direct or indirect depending upon whether the impact was due to a cessation of electricity or a response to that cessation. The principal economic costs of the blackout are shown. Social impacts, i.e., the changes in social activities and adaptations to these changes were particularly significant in New York due to its unique demographic and geographic characteristics. The looting and arson that accompanied the blackout set aside the NYC experience from other similar power failures. (MCW)

  1. Learning from the blackouts. Transmission system security in competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Electricity market reform has fundamentally changed the environment for maintaining reliable and secure power supplies. Growing inter-regional trade has placed new demands on transmission systems, creating a more integrated and dynamic network environment with new real-time challenges for reliable and secure transmission system operation. Despite these fundamental changes, system operating rules and practices remain largely unchanged. The major blackouts of 2003 and 2004 raised searching questions about the appropriateness of these arrangements. Management of system security needs to be transformed to maintain reliable electricity services in this more dynamic operating environment. These challenges raise fundamental issues for policymakers. This publication presents case studies drawn from recent large-scale blackouts in Europe, North America, and Australia. It concludes that a comprehensive, integrated policy response is required to avoid preventable large-scale blackouts in the future.

  2. The August 14,2003 blackout and its importance to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Jeffrey Palermo

    2004-01-01

    Combining news reports and comments from American circles and according to the Interim Report presented by the August 14 blackout task force,the process and reasons of the blackout were summed up. It was pointed out that due to some new problems caused by American power deregulation such as the weak coordination and control for long distance power transfers, the possibility of blackouts has been increased. The rapid economic development in eastern China sets high requirement for the development of power system.Therefore the current power system in China should be re-evaluated and re-analyzed regularly while the "breakpoints" within the transmission system should be considered in planning and designing to ensure islands operation in time of emergency.

  3. 47 CFR 76.120 - Network non-duplication protection, syndicated exclusivity and sports blackout rules for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Network non-duplication protection, syndicated... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.120 Network non-duplication protection, syndicated exclusivity and sports blackout rules...

  4. A Flooding Induced Station Blackout Analysis for a Pressurized Water Reactor Using the RISMC Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mandelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the impact of a power uprate on a pressurized water reactor (PWR for a tsunami-induced flooding test case. This analysis is performed using the RISMC toolkit: the RELAP-7 and RAVEN codes. RELAP-7 is the new generation of system analysis codes that is responsible for simulating the thermal-hydraulic dynamics of PWR and boiling water reactor systems. RAVEN has two capabilities: to act as a controller of the RELAP-7 simulation (e.g., component/system activation and to perform statistical analyses. In our case, the simulation of the flooding is performed by using an advanced smooth particle hydrodynamics code called NEUTRINO. The obtained results allow the user to investigate and quantify the impact of timing and sequencing of events on system safety. In addition, the impact of power uprate is determined in terms of both core damage probability and safety margins.

  5. Modeling of a Flooding Induced Station Blackout for a Pressurized Water Reactor Using the RISMC Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, Diego; Prescott, Steven R; Smith, Curtis L; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua J; Kinoshita, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    In the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach we want to understand not just the frequency of an event like core damage, but how close we are (or are not) to key safety-related events and how might we increase our safety margins. The RISMC Pathway uses the probabilistic margin approach to quantify impacts to reliability and safety by coupling both probabilistic (via stochastic simulation) and mechanistic (via physics models) approaches. This coupling takes place through the interchange of physical parameters and operational or accident scenarios. In this paper we apply the RISMC approach to evaluate the impact of a power uprate on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) for a tsunami-induced flooding test case. This analysis is performed using the RISMC toolkit: RELAP-7 and RAVEN codes. RELAP-7 is the new generation of system analysis codes that is responsible for simulating the thermal-hydraulic dynamics of PWR and boiling water reactor systems. RAVEN has two capabilities: to act as a controller of the RELAP-7 simulation (e.g., system activation) and to perform statistical analyses (e.g., run multiple RELAP-7 simulations where sequencing/timing of events have been changed according to a set of stochastic distributions). By using the RISMC toolkit, we can evaluate how power uprate affects the system recovery measures needed to avoid core damage after the PWR lost all available AC power by a tsunami induced flooding. The simulation of the actual flooding is performed by using a smooth particle hydrodynamics code: NEUTRINO.

  6. Depressurization analyses of PWR station blackout with MELCOR 1.8.4

    OpenAIRE

    A.R.Antariksawan; 日高 昭秀; 森山 清史; 橋本 和一郎

    2001-01-01

    PWRの全電源喪失事故(TMLB')では、高圧溶融物放出とそれに続く格納容器直接加熱により格納容器の健全性が脅かされることから、その防止・緩和対策として、一次系強制減圧が推奨されている。また、TMLB'では、一次冷却系ポンプのシール部が冷却不十分のために途中で破損する(ポンプシールLOCA; S3-TMLB')可能性がある。本報では、MELCOR 1.8.4コードを用いて行ったIndian Point 3号炉のTMLB'及びS3-TMLB'とその一次系減圧に関する解析結果について記述する。S3-TMLB'では、ポンプシールの破損タイミングによって事故進展が変化する。TMLB'中に加圧器逃がし弁を開放して減圧した場合の炉心損傷進展は、減圧しない時のそれとほぼ同じとなるが、安全弁も併せて開放すると、事故進展が約6000秒遅れた。...

  7. Tests of Shaft Seal Systems of Circulation Pumps during Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisiegel, A.; Foppe, F.; Wich, M.

    2014-07-01

    AREVA GmbH operates a unique Thermal-hydraulic plat form in Germany, France and USA. It is recognised as a test body according to ISO 17025. The Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle GmbH (DAkkS - German Society for Accreditation) has also certified the Thermal-hydraulic platform as an independent inspection body Type C according to ISO 17020. A part of this platform is the Component Laboratory located in Karlstein, Germany which is in operation since more than 50 years. The testing activities cover a wide range as: Critical Heat Flux Tests, Valve Testing and Environmental Qualification for safety related components. Since 2011 the Component Qualification Karlstein extended their testing scope for different types of Shaft Seal Systems. (Author)

  8. Milestone report - M4FT-14OR0302102b - Evaluation of Tritium Content and Release from Surry-2 Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chattin, Marc Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giaquinto, Joseph M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    To design and operate future reprocessing plants in a safe and environmentally compliant manner, the amount and form of tritium in the used nuclear fuel (UNF) must be understood and quantified.To gain a better understanding of how tritium in cladding will behave during processing, scoping tests are being performed to determine the tritium content in the cladding pre- and post-tritium pretreatment. A sample of Surry-2 pressurized water reactor (PWR) cladding was heated to 1100–1200°C to oxidize the zirconium and release all of the tritium in the cladding sample. The tritium content was measured to be ~240 µCi/g. Cladding samples were heated to 500ºC, which is within the temperature range (480 - 600ºC) expected for standard air tritium pretreatment systems, and to a slightly higher temperature (700ºC) to determine the impact of tritium pretreatment on tritium release from the cladding. Heating at 500°C for 24 hr removes ~0.2% of the tritium from the cladding, and heating at 700°C for 24 hr removes ~9%. Thus, a significant fraction of the tritium remains bound in the cladding and must be considered in operations involving cladding recycle.

  9. Remote monitoring of the Gravelly Run thermal plume at Hopewell and the thermal plume at the Surry Nuclear Power Plant on the James River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talay, T. A.; Sykes, K. W.; Kuo, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    On May 17, 1977, a remote sensing experiment was conducted on the James River, Virginia, whereby thermal spectrometer and near-infrared photography data of thermal discharges at Hopewell and the Surry nuclear power plant were obtained by an aircraft for one tidal cycle. These data were used in subsequent investigations into the near field discharge trajectories. For the Gravelly Run thermal plume at Hopewell, several empirical expressions for the plume centerline were evaluated by comparisons of the computed trajectories and those observed in the remote sensing images.

  10. Control and prediction for blackouts caused by frequency collapse in smart grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2016-09-01

    The electric power system is one of the cornerstones of modern society. One of its most serious malfunctions is the blackout, a catastrophic event that may disrupt a substantial portion of the system, playing havoc to human life and causing great economic losses. Thus, understanding the mechanisms leading to blackouts and creating a reliable and resilient power grid has been a major issue, attracting the attention of scientists, engineers, and stakeholders. In this paper, we study the blackout problem in power grids by considering a practical phase-oscillator model. This model allows one to simultaneously consider different types of power sources (e.g., traditional AC power plants and renewable power sources connected by DC/AC inverters) and different types of loads (e.g., consumers connected to distribution networks and consumers directly connected to power plants). We propose two new control strategies based on our model, one for traditional power grids and another one for smart grids. The control strategies show the efficient function of the fast-response energy storage systems in preventing and predicting blackouts in smart grids. This work provides innovative ideas which help us to build up a robuster and more economic smart power system.

  11. 47 CFR 76.127 - Satellite sports blackout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rights to a sports event, or its agent, no satellite carrier shall retransmit to subscribers within the...” carrying the live television broadcast of a sports event if the event is not available live on a television... television station licensed to the community in which the sports event is taking place, the...

  12. Lightning rod ionizing natural ionca - Ionic electrode active trimetallictriac of grounding - Definitive and total solution against 'blackouts' and electrical faults generated by atmospheric charges (lightning)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabareda, Luis

    2010-09-15

    The Natural Ionizing System of Electrical Protection conformed by: Lightning Rod Ionizing Natural Ionca and Ionic Electrode Active Trimetallic Triac of Grounding offers Total Protection, Maximum Security and Zero Risk to Clinics, Hospitals, Integral Diagnostic Center, avoiding ''the burning'' of Electronics Cards; Refineries, Tanks and Stations of Fuel Provision; Electrical Substations, Towers and Transmission Lines with transformer protection, motors, elevators, A/C, mechanicals stairs, portable and cooling equipment, electrical plants, others. This New High Technology is the solution to the paradigm of Benjamin Franklin and it's the mechanism to end the 'Blackouts' that produces so many damages and losses throughout the world.

  13. Sustainability from the Occurrence of Critical Dynamic Power System Blackout Determined by Using the Stochastic Event Tree Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Murtadha Othman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of advanced technology in smart grid, the implementation of renewable energy in a stressed and complicated power system operation, aggravated by a competitive electricity market and critical system contingencies, this will inflict higher probabilities of the occurrence of a severe dynamic power system blackout. This paper presents the proposed stochastic event tree technique used to assess the sustainability against the occurrence of dynamic power system blackout emanating from implication of critical system contingencies such as the rapid increase in total loading condition and sensitive initial transmission line tripping. An extensive analysis of dynamic power system blackout has been carried out in a case study of the following power systems: IEEE RTS-79 and IEEE RTS-96. The findings have shown that the total loading conditions and sensitive transmission lines need to be given full attention by the utility to prevent the occurrence of dynamic power system blackout.

  14. On power system blackout modeling and analysis based on self-organized criticality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper makes a comprehensive survey on power system blackout modeling and analysis based on SOC (self-organized criticality). Firstly,a generalized SOC theory from the viewpoint of cybernetics is introduced. Then the evolution model of power system and its relative mathematical description,which serves as a concrete example of the proposed generalized SOC,are given. Secondly,five blackout models capturing various critical properties of power systems in different time-scales are listed. Finally,this paper analyzes SOC in power systems,such as,the revelation of criticalities of proposed models in both micro-scale and macro-scale which can be used to assess the security of power system,and cas-cading failures process.

  15. On power system blackout modeling and analysis based on self-organized criticality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI ShengWei; XUE AnCheng; ZHANG XueMin

    2008-01-01

    This paper makes a comprehensive survey on power system blackout modeling and analysis based on SOC (self-organized criticality). Firstly, a generalized SOC theory from the viewpoint of cybernetics is introduced. Then the evolution model of power system and its relative mathematical description, which serves as a concrete example of the proposed generalized SOC, are given. Secondly, five blackout models capturing various critical properties of power systems in different time-scales are listed. Finally, this paper analyzes SOC in power systems, such as, the revelation of criticalities of proposed models in both micro-scale and macro-scale which can be used to assess the security of power system, and cascading failures process.

  16. High-Tech, Low-Tech, No-Tech: Communications Strategies During Blackouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    straight-line “ derecho ”1 windstorms hit the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. In the National Capital Region (NCR), many residents lost...flooding (Grand Forks, North Dakota, 1997), rolling blackouts (California, 2001), multi-state power outage (Ohio and seven other 1 “ Derecho ” is a...flawlessly throughout the 2012 “super- derecho ”20 storm event.21 During its 2012 typhoon, the government of the Philippines used Twitter to

  17. Advanced validation of CFD-FDTD combined method using highly applicable solver for reentry blackout prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    An analysis model of plasma flow and electromagnetic waves around a reentry vehicle for radio frequency blackout prediction during aerodynamic heating was developed in this study. The model was validated based on experimental results from the radio attenuation measurement program. The plasma flow properties, such as electron number density, in the shock layer and wake region were obtained using a newly developed unstructured grid solver that incorporated real gas effect models ...

  18. The rotation modulation inertial navigation system for blackout area during hypersonic reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Zhao, Jianhui; Sha, Xiaoqiang; Li, Fan

    2016-10-01

    Navigation of Hypersonic vehicles in the radio frequency (RF) blackout area during atmospheric reentry is challenging as the vehicles can only use the inertial navigation system (INS) as autonomous navigation method in this area. In this paper, strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) based on the Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG) is used for navigation in blackout area. However, without external navigation measurement, the errors of SINS caused by the FOG drift and accelerometer bias would cumulate with time and degrade navigation accuracy. To solve this problem, single axis rotation modulation along with the azimuth axis of the body frame is adopted. The Generic Hypersonic Vehicle (GHV) model designed by NASA Langley Research Center is used to build the reentry fight model which can generate navigation information for simulation. Through derivation the error equations of FOG SINS in the North-East-Down (NED) navigation frame, the principle of error compensation by rotation modulation can be well understood. The simulation results show that rotation modulation can effectively decrease the impact of inertial sensor drift and improve the navigation accuracy in blackout area.

  19. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal floods during mid-loop operations. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The major objective of the Surry internal flood analysis was to provide an improved understanding of the core damage scenarios arising from internal flood-related events. The mean core damage frequency of the Surry plant due to internal flood events during mid-loop operations is 4.8E-06 per year, and the 5th and 95th percentiles are 2.2E-07 and 1.8E-05 per year, respectively. Some limited sensitivity calculations were performed on three plant improvement options. The most significant result involves modifications of intake-level structure on the canal, which reduced core damage frequency contribution from floods in mid-loop by about 75%.

  20. Real-time stability in power systems techniques for early detection of the risk of blackout

    CERN Document Server

    Savulescu, Savu

    2014-01-01

    This pioneering volume has been updated and enriched to reflect the state-of-the-art in blackout prediction and prevention. It documents and explains background and algorithmic aspects of the most successful steady-state, transient and voltage stability solutions available today in real-time. It also describes new, cutting-edge stability applications of synchrophasor technology, and captures industry acceptance of metrics and visualization tools that quantify and monitor the distance to instability. Expert contributors review a broad spectrum of additionally available techniques, such as traje

  1. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices A--D. Volume 2, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the Potential risks during low Power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the Plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document, Volume 2, Pt. 2 provides appendices A through D of this report.

  2. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices E (Sections E.1--E.8). Volume 2, Part 3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. The authors recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful.

  3. FLOODPLAIN, Surry COUNTY, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  4. Silencing Boko Haram: Mobile Phone Blackout and Counterinsurgency in Nigeria’s Northeast region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Udo-Udo Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2013, the Nigerian military, as part of its counterinsurgency operations against Boko Haram insurgents, shut down GSM mobile telephony in three northeast states – Adamawa, Borno and Yobe. This article explores the rationale, impact and citizens’ opinion of the mobile phone blackout. It draws on focus group discussions with local opinion leaders and in-depth personal interviews with military and security insiders, as well as data of Boko Haram incidences before, during and after the blackout from military sources and conflict databases. It argues that, although the mobile phone shutdown was ‘successful’ from a military- tactical point of view, it angered citizens and engendered negative opinions toward the state and new emergency policies. While citizens developed various coping and circumventing strategies, Boko Haram evolved from an open network model of insurgency to a closed centralized system, shifting the center of its operations to the Sambisa Forest. This fundamentally changed the dynamics of the conflict. The shutdown demonstrated, among others, that while ICTs serve various desirable purposes for developing states, they will be jettisoned when their use challenges the state’s legitimacy and raison d'être, but not without consequences.

  5. Analysis of Radio Frequency Blackout for a Blunt-Body Capsule in Atmospheric Reentry Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Takahashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical analysis of electromagnetic waves around the atmospheric reentry demonstrator (ARD of the European Space Agency (ESA in an atmospheric reentry mission was conducted. During the ARD mission, which involves a 70% scaled-down configuration capsule of the Apollo command module, radio frequency blackout and strong plasma attenuation of radio waves in communications with data relay satellites and air planes were observed. The electromagnetic interference was caused by highly dense plasma derived from a strong shock wave generated in front of the capsule because of orbital speed during reentry. In this study, the physical properties of the plasma flow in the shock layer and wake region of the ESA ARD were obtained using a computational fluid dynamics technique. Then, electromagnetic waves were expressed using a frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain method using the plasma properties. The analysis model was validated based on experimental flight data. A comparison of the measured and predicted results showed good agreement. The distribution of charged particles around the ESA ARD and the complicated behavior of electromagnetic waves, with attenuation and reflection, are clarified in detail. It is suggested that the analysis model could be an effective tool for investigating radio frequency blackout and plasma attenuation in radio wave communication.

  6. Operative and technological management of super-large united power grids: lessons of major world's blackouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkis, K.; Kreslins, V.; Mutule, A.

    2014-02-01

    Power system (PS) blackouts still persist worldwide, evidencing that the existing protective structures need to be improved. The discussed requirements and criteria to be met for joint synchronous operation of large and super-large united PSs should be based on close co-ordination of operative and technological management of all PSs involved in order to ensure secure and stable electricity supply and minimise or avoid the threat of a total PS blackout. The authors analyse the July 2012 India blackout - the largest power outage in history, which affected over 620 million people, i.e. half of India's population and spread across its 22 states. The analysis is of a general character, being applicable also to similar blackouts that have occurred in Europe and worldwide since 2003. The authors summarise and develop the main principles and methods of operative and technological management aimed at preventing total blackouts in large and super-large PSs. Neskatoties uz sasniegumiem elektroenerģētikas jomā un energosistēmu nepārtrauktu modernizāciju, pasaulē regulāri notiek sabrukumu avārijas. Rakstā apskatīti lielu un superlielu energosistēmu apvienību savstarpējas sinhronas darbības nodrošinājuma prasības un kritēriji, kas pamatojas uz operatīvās un tehnoloģiskās vadības ciešu koordināciju starp energosistēmām. Savstarpējas sinhronas darbības nodrošinājuma prasībām un kritērijiem ir izšķiroša nozīme, lai panāktu elektroapgādes drošumu un stabilitāti katrā energosistēmā, kas darbojas apvienotas energosistēmas sastāvā. Šo prasību un kritēriju ievērošana sekmē totālo avāriju izcelšanās iespēju samazināšanu un to novēršanu. Indijas 2012.gada totālo avāriju un citu analogo avāriju Eiropā un Amerikā analīze un izvērtējums laika posmā no 2003.gada, deva iespēju apkopot un izstrādāt lielu un superlielu energosistēmu operatīvās un tehnoloģiskās vadības principus un metodoloģiju, lai novērstu vai

  7. Sex and Drugs and Starting School: Differences in Precollege Alcohol-Related Sexual Risk Taking by Gender and Recent Blackout Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Amie L; Barthel, Jennifer M; Taylor, Stephanie

    2016-10-07

    Research has demonstrated a link between alcohol use and multiple forms of risky sexual behavior, particularly among college-age individuals. Studies have also linked heavy alcohol use to other problems, such as impaired consciousness resulting from an alcohol-induced blackout, which may impact sexual decision making. However, research has rarely examined sexual risk taking (SRT) in relation to blackouts, nor has it examined this construct during the precollege transition (i.e., the interval of time between high school graduation and college matriculation). This study examined the intersection between alcohol-involved SRT, blackouts, and gender in a sample of precollege individuals with prior alcohol use (N = 229; 54% male, 63% White). Results indicated that, despite drinking less per occasion, women reporting recent blackouts were at increased risk for experiencing unwanted, unsafe, and regretted sexual behaviors compared to men with recent blackouts and their peers with no recent blackouts. Women with recent blackouts also reported differences in alcohol expectancies that may increase their risk for experiencing negative consequences while drinking, including higher social expectancies and lower negative expectancies of danger. Future directions for research and implications for precollege interventions are discussed.

  8. Global blackout following the K/T Chicxulub impact: Results of impact and atmospheric modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, K. O.; Ocampo, A. C.; Baines, K. H.; Ivanov, B. A.

    1993-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that shock decomposition of anhydrite (CaSO4) target rocks during the K/T Chicxulub impact would have ejected tremendous amounts of sulfur gas into the stratosphere. One of the many potential biospheric effects of this sulfur gas is the generation of a sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol layer capable of causing darkness and severe disruption of photosynthesis for periods of years. In this paper we report the preliminary results of our modeling of shock pressures within the anhydrites and of light attenuation by the H2SO4 aerosol cloud. These models indicate that earlier studies over-estimated the amount of sulfur gas produced, but that more than enough was produced to extend global blackout conditions 4-6 times longer than the approximately 3 month predictions for silicate dust alone.

  9. Muerte por sumersión debida a shallow water blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Palomo Rando

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El llamado shallow water blackout, o síncope de las aguas superficiales, es un accidente que pueden sufrir los buceadores y llevarles a la muerte por sumersión. La natación sumergido (buceando precedida de hiperventilación crea una situación en la que el sujeto puede sufrir hipoxia antes de que la concentración en sangre arterial de dióxido de carbono alcance el nivel que le obligue a salir a la superficie a respirar. En esta situación, el sujeto inconsciente puede respirar bajo el agua y morir por sumersión.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Target Detection with a Near-Space Vehicle-Borne Radar in Blackout Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Deng, Bin; Qin, Yuliang

    2016-01-06

    Radar is a very important sensor in surveillance applications. Near-space vehicle-borne radar (NSVBR) is a novel installation of a radar system, which offers many benefits, like being highly suited to the remote sensing of extremely large areas, having a rapidly deployable capability and having low vulnerability to electronic countermeasures. Unfortunately, a target detection challenge arises because of complicated scenarios, such as nuclear blackout, rain attenuation, etc. In these cases, extra care is needed to evaluate the detection performance in blackout situations, since this a classical problem along with the application of an NSVBR. However, the existing evaluation measures are the probability of detection and the receiver operating curve (ROC), which cannot offer detailed information in such a complicated application. This work focuses on such requirements. We first investigate the effect of blackout on an electromagnetic wave. Performance evaluation indexes are then built: three evaluation indexes on the detection capability and two evaluation indexes on the robustness of the detection process. Simulation results show that the proposed measure will offer information on the detailed performance of detection. These measures are therefore very useful in detecting the target of interest in a remote sensing system and are helpful for both the NSVBR designers and users.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Target Detection with a Near-Space Vehicle-Borne Radar in Blackout Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar is a very important sensor in surveillance applications. Near-space vehicle-borne radar (NSVBR is a novel installation of a radar system, which offers many benefits, like being highly suited to the remote sensing of extremely large areas, having a rapidly deployable capability and having low vulnerability to electronic countermeasures. Unfortunately, a target detection challenge arises because of complicated scenarios, such as nuclear blackout, rain attenuation, etc. In these cases, extra care is needed to evaluate the detection performance in blackout situations, since this a classical problem along with the application of an NSVBR. However, the existing evaluation measures are the probability of detection and the receiver operating curve (ROC, which cannot offer detailed information in such a complicated application. This work focuses on such requirements. We first investigate the effect of blackout on an electromagnetic wave. Performance evaluation indexes are then built: three evaluation indexes on the detection capability and two evaluation indexes on the robustness of the detection process. Simulation results show that the proposed measure will offer information on the detailed performance of detection. These measures are therefore very useful in detecting the target of interest in a remote sensing system and are helpful for both the NSVBR designers and users.

  12. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  13. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  14. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  15. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix I, Volume 2, Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis.

  16. The Rising Frequency of IT Blackouts Indicates the Increasing Relevance of IT Emergency Concepts to Ensure Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Ulrich; Lipprandt, M; Röhrig, R

    2016-11-10

    As many medical workflows depend vastly on IT support, great demands are placed on the availability and accuracy of the applications involved. The cases of IT failure through ransomware at the beginning of 2016 are impressive examples of the dependence of clinical processes on IT. Although IT risk management attempts to reduce the risk of IT blackouts, the probability of partial/total data loss, or even worse, data falsification, is not zero. The objective of this paper is to present the state of the art with respect to strategies, processes, and governance to deal with the failure of IT systems. This article is conducted as a narrative review. Worst case scenarios are needed, dealing with methods as to how to survive the downtime of clinical systems, for example through alternative workflows. These workflows have to be trained regularly. We categorize the most important types of IT system failure, assess the usefulness of classic counter measures, and state that most risk management approaches fall short on exactly this matter. To ensure that continuous, evidence-based improvements to the recommendations for IT emergency concepts are made, it is essential that IT blackouts and IT disasters are reported, analyzed, and critically discussed. This requires changing from a culture of shame and blame to one of error and safety in healthcare IT. This change is finding its way into other disciplines in medicine. In addition, systematically planned and analyzed simulations of IT disaster may assist in IT emergency concept development.

  17. Coastal Analysis, Surry County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  18. GSO based optimization of steady state load shedding in power systems to mitigate blackout during generation contingencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mageshvaran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Load shedding is considered as a last alternative to avoid the cascaded tripping and blackout in power systems during generation contingencies. It is essential to optimize the amount of load to be shed in order to prevent excessive load shedding. To minimize load shedding, this paper proposes the implementation of nature inspired optimization algorithm known as glowworm swarm optimization (GSO algorithm. The optimal solution of steady state load shedding is carried out by squaring the difference between the connected and supplied power (active and reactive. The proposed algorithm is tested on IEEE 14, 30, 57, 118 and Northern Regional Power Grid (NRPG-(India 246 bus test systems. The viability of the proposed method in terms of solution quality and convergence properties is compared with the conventional methods, namely, projected augmented Lagrangian method (PALM, gradient technique based on Kuhn–Tucker theorem (GTBKTT and second order gradient technique (SOGT.

  19. Emergent transformation games: exploring social innovation agency and activation through the case of the Belgian electricity blackout threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonno Pel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of current societal problems has given rise to a quest for transformative social innovations. As social innovation actors seek to become change makers, it has been suggested that they need to play into impactful macrodevelopments or "game-changers". Here, we aim to deepen the understanding of the social innovation agency in these transformation games. We analyze assumptions about the game metaphor, invoking insights from actor-network theory. The very emergence of transformation games is identified as a crucial but easily overlooked issue. As explored through the recent electricity blackout threat in Belgium, some current transformation games are populated with largely passive players. This illustrative case demonstrates that socially innovative agency cannot be presupposed. In some transformation games, the crucial game-changing effect is to start the game by activating the players.

  20. Effect of a blackout in pediatric patients with home medical devices during the 2011 eastern Japan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tojo; Tanaka, Soichiro; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Morimoto, Tetsuji; Sakamoto, Osamu; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Kure, Shigeo

    2014-02-01

    during the eastern Japan earthquake in 2011 and the following prolonged blackout, pediatric patients with home medical devices sought electricity at the pediatric department. We retrospectively studied the effect of this earthquake and the following blackout. we hand-reviewed pediatric admission records in Tohoku University Hospital for new inpatients attributed to the earthquake from March 11, 2011 to April 12, 2011. A survey by questionnaire regarding the situation during the earthquake was performed for parents of technology-assisted patients. during the study period, 24 pediatric patients were admitted to the pediatric department. Eighteen technology-assisted pediatric patients, including those with home respirators, accounted for 75% of new pediatric admissions. Patients who were admitted for electricity shortage stayed in the hospital for a mean of 11.0days (3-25days). The questionnaire survey showed that 55% of technology-assisted patients were admitted to medical centers for evacuation. The majority of patients (89%) with ventilators were eventually admitted to medical centers during the earthquake. Most of the parents of technology-assisted patients experienced a prolonged petrol shortage and difficulty in communications with medical centers. the current study suggests that technology-assisted pediatric patients with neurological disorders as the primary disease can overwhelm the capacity of hospital inpatient facilities in certain situations. Disaster preparedness should consider assuring power requirements in healthcare facilities and preparing backup power generators lasting for at least 24h for these patients. Preparing alternative measures for emergent electricity and communications could remedy serious conditions during a disaster. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Observation Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  2. Severe accident analysis of a small LOCA accident using MAAP-CANDU support level 2 PSA for the Point Lepreau station refurbishment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petoukhov, S.M.; Brown, M.J.; Mathew, P.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    A Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment was performed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station. The MAAP4-CANDU code was used to calculate the progression of postulated severe core damage accidents and fission product releases. Five representative severe core damage accidents were selected: Station Blackout, Small Loss-of-Coolant Accident, Stagnation Feeder Break, Steam Generator Tube Rupture, and Shutdown State Accident. Analysis results for only the reference Small LOCA Accident scenario (which is a very low probability event) are discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. Real-Time Smart Grids Control for Preventing Cascading Failures and Blackout using Neural Networks: Experimental Approach for N-1-1 Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabian, Sina; Belkacemi, Rabie; Babalola, Adeniyi A.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel intelligent control is proposed based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to mitigate cascading failure (CF) and prevent blackout in smart grid systems after N-1-1 contingency condition in real-time. The fundamental contribution of this research is to deploy the machine learning concept for preventing blackout at early stages of its occurrence and to make smart grids more resilient, reliable, and robust. The proposed method provides the best action selection strategy for adaptive adjustment of generators' output power through frequency control. This method is able to relieve congestion of transmission lines and prevent consecutive transmission line outage after N-1-1 contingency condition. The proposed ANN-based control approach is tested on an experimental 100 kW test system developed by the authors to test intelligent systems. Additionally, the proposed approach is validated on the large-scale IEEE 118-bus power system by simulation studies. Experimental results show that the ANN approach is very promising and provides accurate and robust control by preventing blackout. The technique is compared to a heuristic multi-agent system (MAS) approach based on communication interchanges. The ANN approach showed more accurate and robust response than the MAS algorithm.

  4. 印度大停电与继电保护的三大功能%India blackout and three functions of protective relay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董新洲; 曹润彬; 王宾; 施慎行; Dominik Bak

    2013-01-01

    On July 30 and 31, 2012, India experienced two electric power blackouts. These two blackouts were both triggered by tripping of zone-3 distance relay of the same transmission line due to overload, and caused unreasonable action of other relays which resulted in cascading trip and led to widespread power blackouts. India's blackouts have exposed the vulnerability of the existing power system, especially the defects of protective relay in case of overload and power swing. Based on the analysis of relay actions in the blackouts, this paper proposes three functions of protective relay to meet the security demand of modern power grid, which are system protection function for security of power system, preventive protection function and the function of rapid removal of fault equipment.%  简介了印度电网在2012年7月30日和7月31日发生的两起大停电事故。两起事故均起源于同一回输电线路距离保护 III 段因过负荷保护动作跳闸,并导致其他设备继电保护的不合理动作而引发连锁跳闸,造成大面积停电。印度大停电事故暴露了现有电力系统的脆弱性,尤其是继电保护在过负荷和系统振荡情况下的动作缺陷。基于对停电事故中继电保护行为的分析,提出了满足现代电网需求的继电保护三大功能:面向系统安全的系统保护功能、预防性保护功能和快速切除故障设备功能。

  5. Analysis of Station Blackout Accident for Subcritical Energy Reactor%次临界能源堆全厂断电事故研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大彬; 解衡; 周志伟

    2015-01-01

    针对次临界能源堆包层燃料结构,修改了MELCOR程序堆芯导热模型,建立次临界能源包层及其冷却回路的严重事故分析模型.在验证了建模方法合理性的基础上,用MELCOR程序开展全厂断电事故导致的严重事故响应特性研究.计算结果表明:包层燃料区功率密度越高,裸露时间越早,燃料熔化越快;内包层上部燃料区域首先出现熔化,外包层熔化时间稍晚,且熔化都发生在所在区域裸露2h以后;锆水反应对事故进程影响明显,部分燃料区域锆水反应释热成为燃料温度持续升高甚至熔化的主要热源.

  6. Análisis de la respuesta estructural del edificio de contención de un reactor nuclear PWR frente a una secuencia de Station Blackout

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Después del Accidente que sucedió el 11 de marzo de 2011 en la central nuclear de Daichii-Fukushima, han sido muchos los debates reabiertos acerca de la seguridad que ofrecen los reactores nucleares en operación. Debido a las incertidumbres que este accidente ha suscitado, surge ésta tesina, en la que se pretende conocer y comprender técnicamente que sucedería si un accidente similar al de Fukushima ocurriese en uno de los reactores de nuestro país. Con el principal objetivo de encontrar res...

  7. Preliminary Assessment of the Possible BWR Core/Vessel Damage States for Fukushima Daiichi Station Blackout Scenarios Using RELAP/SCDAPSIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediately after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi, Innovative Systems Software and other members of the international SCDAP Development and Training Program started an assessment of the possible core/vessel damage states of the Fukushima Daiichi Units 1–3. The assessment included a brief review of relevant severe accident experiments and a series of detailed calculations using RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The calculations used a detailed RELAP/SCDAPSIM model of the Laguna Verde BWR vessel and related reactor cooling systems. The Laguna Verde models were provided by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, the Mexican nuclear regulatory authority. The initial assessment was originally presented to the International Atomic Energy Agency on March 21 to support their emergency response team and later to our Japanese members to support their Fukushima Daiichi specific analysis and model development.

  8. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risk during mid-loop operations. Main report. Volume 6. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Neymotin, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1 which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis including internal fire and flood was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The results of the phase 2 level 2/3 study are the subject of this volume of NUREG/CR-6144, Volume 6.

  9. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendices F-H, Volume 2, Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  10. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  11. The 4 november 2006 blackout: an outage of 'technical' democracy?; Le delestage du 4 novembre 2006: une panne de la democratie technique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leteurtrois, J.P

    2007-08-15

    With its power plants and exportation of electricity to neighboring lands, France imagined that it was sheltered from blackouts. But in the autumn of 2006, five million French households were deprived of electricity due to an error by a German operator. What to think of this? The internationalization of the electricity market, though useful to consumers, should not mean deregulation or the relinquishment of rules and regulations to power companies. Supervision of the grid must be reinforced on behalf of all European users of electricity. (author)

  12. OPTIMUM STEADY STATE LOAD SHEDDING USING SHUFFLED FROG LEAPING ALGORITHM TO AVERT BLACKOUT IN POWER SYSTEMS DURING OVERLOAD AND GENERATION CONTINGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MAGESHVARAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During generation and overload contingencies in a power system, the system voltage and frequency will decline due to the deficiency of real and reactive powers. Consequently cascaded failures may occur which will lead to complete blackout of certain parts of the power system. Load shedding is considered as the ultimate step of emergency control action that is necessary to prevent a blackout in the power system. This paper proposes a memetic meta-heuristic algorithm known as shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA to find a solution for the steady state load shedding problem presented here. The optimum steady state load shedding problem uses squares of the difference between the connected active and the reactive load and the supplied active and reactive power. The supplied active and reactive powers are treated as dependent variables modeled as functions of bus voltages only. The proposed algorithm is tested on IEEE 14 and 30 bus test systems. The viability of the proposed method is established by comparison with the other conventional methods presented earlier in terms of solution quality and convergence properties.

  13. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  14. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  15. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  16. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  17. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  18. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  19. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  20. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  1. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  2. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  3. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    OCDS) ................................................... 077 BIRJAND 408090 8612 (OCDS) ............................................. ( 381 BUSHEHR...ALL HOURS # 2 1 0 1 0 # 0 # 1 # 1 1 CACECR-IB 080 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMM ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID...082. L@ OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SIJ44ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID: OIMB LOCATION: 32054’N, 59016’E ELEVATION (FEET): 4823 LST

  4. Business interruption impacts of a terrorist attack on the electric power system of Los Angeles: customer resilience to a total blackout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Oladosu, Gbadebo; Liao, Shu-Yi

    2007-06-01

    Regional economies are highly dependent on electricity, thus making their power supply systems attractive terrorist targets. We estimate the largest category of economic losses from electricity outages-business interruption-in the context of a total blackout of electricity in Los Angeles. We advance the state of the art in the estimation of the two factors that strongly influence the losses: indirect effects and resilience. The results indicate that indirect effects in the context of general equilibrium analysis are moderate in size. The stronger factor, and one that pushes in the opposite direction, is resilience. Our analysis indicates that electricity customers have the ability to mute the potential shock to their business operations by as much as 86%. Moreover, market resilience lowers the losses, in part through the dampening of general equilibrium effects.

  5. Analysis of process of ship blackout accident based on surge tube failure%全船断电叠加波动管失效事故分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 陈力生; 张帆; 刘海鹏; 晏峰

    2014-01-01

    利用 MELCOR 程序建立了船用堆计算模型,通过模拟船用堆全船断电事故进程,分析了全船断电事故的热工水力及堆芯失效过程。建立了稳压器波动管蠕变失效模型,实现了 MELCOR 程序对稳压器波动管蠕变失效问题的计算分析。对波动管破口尺寸进行了敏感性分析,结果表明:破口尺寸越大,事故进程越快。全船断电事故舱底的熔穿及稳压器波动管的失效,给船用堆的抗沉性及船内人员健康带来潜在的危害。%A computation model of the marine reactor is established by use of the MELCOR program . The simulation of the process of blackout accident resulting from the marine reactor helps analyze the cause of the thermodynamic and reactor core failure leading to the ship electricity cutoff .Therefore , the creep failure model of pressurizer surge tube is established to make a computation and analysis of the problem of creep failure in the pressurizer surge tube .The sensibility analysis of the breaking size of the surge tube proves that the bigger the breaking ,the faster the accident progresses .It will bring potential hazards to the sinking resistant capability of the marine reactor and to the health of the ship ′s crew because of the melt penetration of the cabin bottom and the failure of pressurizer surge tube in the ship blackout accident .

  6. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  7. Space station, 1959 to . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. V.

    1981-04-01

    Early space station designs are considered, taking into account Herman Oberth's first space station, the London Daily Mail Study, the first major space station design developed during the moon mission, and the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program of DOD. Attention is given to Skylab, new space station studies, the Shuttle and Spacelab, communication satellites, solar power satellites, a 30 meter diameter radiometer for geological measurements and agricultural assessments, the mining of the moons, and questions of international cooperation. It is thought to be very probable that there will be very large space stations at some time in the future. However, for the more immediate future a step-by-step development that will start with Spacelab stations of 3-4 men is envisaged.

  8. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  9. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  10. Design of a Sustainable and Efficient Transportation Station (SETS Based on Renewable Sources and Efficient Electric Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungchin Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for reduction in power consumption for public facilities has increased after the occurrences of multiple blackout events. In an effort to enable the development of green and smart social infrastructure, this paper introduces a design for a sustainable and efficient transportation system (SETS. For this design, renewable power sources and efficient electric drives are considered to be crucial technologies. Considering the subway station as an illustrative example, a power system design that uses wind and solar energy as major power sources is studied. The adjustable speed electric drive system that uses synchronous reluctance machines for ventilation systems contributes to increasing the overall power consumption efficiency. The effectiveness of the proposed SETS system is verified through a set of various field measurement data and simulation results. While the verification results demonstrate that operation of SETS is enabled by effective integration of renewable sources and efficient ventilation systems, future research directions have also been identified.

  11. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to se

  12. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  13. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  14. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  15. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  16. The Roman stational liturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mieczkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The papal stational liturgy in Rome was a particular kind of worship service from the Christian Antiquity to the XIV century. Its essential elements are four. Its always took place under the leadership of the pope or his representative. This form of liturgy was mobile: it was celebrated in different basilicas or churches of Rome. Third, the choice of church depended on the feast, liturgical seasons or commemoration being celebrated. Fourth, the stational liturgy was the urban liturgical celebration of the day. The highpoint of this system was Lent. Throughout the entire system Church of Rome manifested its own unity. The station was usually the Pope’s solemn mass in the stational church for the whole city. But on certain days in the year the Pope went in another church (collecta, from which a solemn procession was made to the stational church.

  17. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  18. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  19. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  20. Signal Station Inspection Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  1. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  2. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  3. Realtime USGS Streamflow Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Approximately 5,000 of the 6,900 U.S. Geological Survey sampling stations are equipped with telemetry to transmit data on streamflow, temperature, and other...

  4. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  5. ASOS Station Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  6. Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  7. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  8. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  9. Station Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following plan is the result of a recent initiative in Region 5 to produce general management guidance based on stated objectives for individual field stations....

  10. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  11. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  12. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  13. Space Station Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  14. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  15. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  16. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  17. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  18. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  19. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  20. Leadership at Antarctic Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  1. LAERTIS, a multidisciplinary station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Tsagli, V.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-11-01

    LAERTIS, designed to collect environmental data from the deep-sea, is operated since 1999 and has been deployed several time at 4000 m depth at the NESTOR site. Power and data were transferred through a 30-km electro-optical cable to the Shore Station. In this report, we describe briefly the LAERTIS instrumentation and present typical data that were collected successfully during those deployment demonstrating the importance of a deep-sea station permanently connected to shore.

  2. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  3. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  4. The Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, R.; Hieatt, J.

    1984-11-01

    The configuration of the Space Station under design studies by NASA is limited only by the capabilities of the Shuttle and the purposes to which it is applied. Once the standard interlocks, launch vibration modes, and pallet designs are fixed, all other assembly of modular components, testing, and trim will be performed in space. The Station will serve for long-term experiments, as a base for planetary missions asembly, launch, and retrieval, and for loading and launching multiple satellites on an orbital transfer vehicle. Materials processing research will be carried out in the Station, as will various scientific and commercial remote sensing activities. The first operational version (1990) will require four Shuttle launches to reach an assembled mass of 70,000 kg drawing 30 kWe from solar panels and housing a crew of five. By the year 2000 the station will support 10-12 crew members in five habitat modules, will be 31 m long, will have cost $18-20 billion, and will be returning $2 billion per year. The station will be periodically reboosted to higher orbits that decay suficiently for orbiter rendezvous for supplies and assignments.

  5. Source Term Analysis on Blackout Accident of Marine Reactor%船用堆全船断电事故源项分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 陈力生; 张帆; 蔡琦

    2014-01-01

    Based on the integration program of MELCOR for severe accident analysis , the computational model of a typical marine reactor was established .The creep failure of pressurizer surge tube in the accident of blackout was verified ,and the behavior of the source term before and after the break of surge tube was analyzed .The results show that atmospheric environment and crew would suffer the radioactive harm .The smaller the surge tube break ,the slower the accident process .However ,the external radiation of the crew is slightly increased and the internal radiation is unchanged .The research results can provide a basis on further dose analysis of the source term and the emergency action inside and outside the ship .%本文以一体化严重事故分析程序M ELCOR为研究工具,建立了某型船用堆的计算模型。计算验证了全船断电事故稳压器波动管的蠕变失效,对波动管破损前后的源项行为进行了分析研究。结果表明:波动管失效直接导致对大气环境和船内人员的放射性危害。波动管破损尺寸的减小,导致失效后事故进程减慢,然而对船内人员的外照射危害略有提高,内照射危害相同。本文研究结果可为进一步的源项剂量分析及船内外应急提供依据。

  6. Blackout Accdent Analyses of AC 600 Nuclear Power Plant%AC600核电厂新电事故分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎义洲; 臧希年

    2002-01-01

    In the advanced pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant design, the passive residual heat removal system is adopted. This system is composed of the secondary side of steam generator, air cooler and air loop which consists of the air cooling tower and atmosphere environment. Wall-air heat exchanging correlation equation is added to the RELAP5 Code. The modified code is used to simulate the AC600 PWR nuclear power plant transient behavior with Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHR) in micro-circulation start-up mode after the blackout accident occurs.The calculation results show that the higher the chimney or the larger the air cooler heat transfer area, the more the heat removal capacity of PRHR system. The computational results are consistent with the theoretical analyses.%我国改进型压水堆核电站设计中采用了非能动余热排出系统,它由蒸汽发生器及空气冷却器构成的汽水回路和空气回路组成.本文在RELAP5程序中补充了空气壁面换热结构关系式,分析改进型压水堆核电站(AC600)全厂断电事故后的瞬态行为.结果表明:烟囱高度增加、换热面积增加均使系统的排热能力增强;计算结果与理论分析结果相一致.

  7. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  8. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  9. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  10. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...

  11. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  12. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  14. Summit Station Skiway Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operating procedures (SOPs) for future construction and maintenance efforts. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for...Runway Construction .......................................................... 22 Appendix B: Rammsonde Instructions...13. Snow accumulation at Summit Station in the Bamboo Forest. .......................................... 13 Figure 14. Strength of Summit skiway

  15. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  16. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  18. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  19. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  20. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  1. Mesocarnivore Photo Stations [ds26

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This database was established to record furbearer and raptor presence through photographs taken at camera stations. The general study area where camera stations were...

  2. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  3. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  4. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  5. Station Climatic Summaries, Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    265 MEXICO - Acapulco 768056 8403 ................................ 267 Campeche 766950 8403................271 Chetumal 767500...0 0 1 # # I I # or I OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: CHETUMAL , MEXICO STATIONS #: 767500 1CAO ID: NILC LOCATION: 18030’N, 88*18’W...0 0 0 0 0 0 # ALL HOURS I # # 1 # # # # # # 1 1 ]% OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY SUPPLEMENT STATION: CHETUMAL , MEXICO STATIONS #: 767500 ICAO ID

  6. Build Your Own Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  7. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  8. Thermal management of space stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal management aims at making full use of energy resources available in the space station to reduce energy consumption, waste heat rejection and the weight of the station. It is an extension of the thermal control. This discussion introduces the concept and development of thermal management, presents the aspects of thermal management and further extends its application to subsystems of the space station.

  9. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a) Stations must identify transmissions by announcing in the English language the station's assigned call sign...) Marine utility stations, private coast stations, and associated hand-held radios, when...

  10. Multiple ground-based observations at Zhongshan Station during the April/May 1998 solar events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Ruiyuan(刘瑞源); HU; Hongqiao(胡红桥); HE; Longsong(贺龙松); LIU; Yonghua(刘勇华); LIU; Shunlin(刘顺林); LI; Shenggui(李胜桂); N.; Sato; B.; J.; Fraser

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous observations at Zhongshan Station, Antarctica, during May 1-7, 1998 are presented to show the responses of the polar ionosphere to the April/May 1998 solar events. One of the main geo-effects of the solar events resulted in the major magnetic storm on May 4. At the storm onset on May 2 the ionosphere F2 layer abruptly increased in altitude, the geomagnetic H-component started negative deviation and the spectral amplitude of the ULF wave intensified. Both large isolated riometer absorption and large negative deviation of the geomagnetic H-component occurred at about 0639UT. There was a time lag of about one hour and ten minutes between the storm onset and the IMF southward turning, as measured by the WIND satellite. The polar ionosphere was highly disturbed, as shown by frequent large deviations of the geomagnetic H-component, large riometer absorption events and strong ULF waves in all the courses of the storm. The absorption increased greatly causing the digisonde to be blackout most of the time. However, the data still showed a substantial decrease in the F2 electron density and oscillation of the F2 layer peak height with an amplitude exceeding 200 km.

  11. Test Study on Safety Features of Station Blackout Accident for Nuclear Main Pump%断电事故对核主泵安全特性影响的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘夏杰; 刘军生; 王德忠; 杨哲; 张继革

    2009-01-01

    介绍了国内外反应堆冷却剂泵在发生各种事故情况下的理论及试验研究情况,针对核主泵断电惰转过程中的瞬态水力特性进行了试验研究,对试验结果进行了讨论.介绍了用于断电试验的试验设备及试验方法,着重分析了惰转过程中流量、转速、振动参数,并用四次多项式拟合的方法模拟惰转过程的流量、转速随时间的变化.试验结果表明:在断电瞬间,泵的流量和转速迅速下降,试验结果符合安全标准规定;轴承座位移振动在断电瞬间突然加强,在断电后一段时间转轴振动才发生变化.试验和分析结果有助于认识核主泵发生全厂断电事故时的水力特性,为核主泵的安全评价提供基础依据.

  12. Calculation of Fission Product Behaviour in a Station Blackout Accident of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant%大亚湾核电厂全厂"断电"事故裂变产物行为计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎明刚; 高祖瑛; 周志伟; 奚树人

    2002-01-01

    使用 MELCOR 程序模拟大亚湾核电厂假想全厂断电事故早期进程,计算出安全壳内源项的最大存量,同KORIGEN 程序结合推导出安全壳内主要裂变产物的活性,为核电厂PSA 分析提供保守性数据.

  13. 秦山Ⅰ期核电厂全厂断电事故源项研究%Study on Source Terms in Station Blackout Accident of Qinshan-Ⅰ Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊申; 张应超; 季松涛

    2006-01-01

    利用MELCOR程序分析秦山Ⅰ期核电厂全厂断电事故进程中放射性裂变产物的行为,研究不同性质的裂变产物各自的释放、迁移和最终分布状况.同时计算了向环境释放的源项.这些数据可用于事故的厂外后果评价.

  14. Analysis of Natural Circulation and Creep Damage under Station Blackout Severe Accidents%全厂断电严重事故自然循环和蠕变失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向清安; 邓纯锐; 陈宝文; 冯进军

    2014-01-01

    使用MELCOR 2.1程序建立ACP1000自然循环模型,选取全厂断电叠加辅助给水丧失严重事故(TMLB'),分析主冷却剂管道热段和蒸汽发生器(SG)传热管自然循环现象,采用蠕变失效模型评价主冷却剂系统(RCS)部件失效时间.结果表明,压力容器(RPV)出口接管比有裂纹的SG最热传热管先失效.

  15. Analysis of Off-Site Consequence in Case of Station Blackout Accident for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant%秦山核电厂全厂断电事故厂外后果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊申; 谢建伦; 张应超

    2006-01-01

    采用MELCOR和MACCS程序对秦山核电厂全厂断电事故的源项和厂外后果进行计算.该事故将引起厂外群体受到较大剂量的放射性照射,但辐照剂量不足以引发早期确定性健康效应.对可能采取的应急防护行动进行评估,确定最佳防护措施为:安全壳泄漏阶段实施隐蔽;若安全壳超压失效无法避免,应急计划区内应立即实施撤离.

  16. 巴西"2·4"大停电事故及对电网安全稳定运行的启示%Blackout in Brazil Power Grid on February 4, 2011 and Inspirations for Stable Operation of Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林伟芳; 汤涌; 孙华东; 郭强; 赵红光; 曾兵

    2011-01-01

    On February 4, 2011, a wide spread electrical blackout occurred in Northeast Brazil power grid. The accident spread 8 states, and about 40 million people were involved. The pre-fault situation, cause, spread and restoration of the blackout are described. The lessons and experiences of the blackout are analyzed and summarized. Some recommendations for ensuring the security and stability of China's power grid and preventing the occurrence of blackout in China are presented.%2011年2月4日,巴西发生了大规模的停电事故.事故覆盖东北部8个州,影响人数约4 000万.文中介绍了事故前巴西电网的运行情况以及事故的起因、发展和恢复过程,分析总结了事故的经验和教训.结合中国电网,提出了保障电网安全稳定运行、防止大停电事故发生的建议.

  17. 从巴西电网"2·4"大停电事故看继电保护技术应用原则%Analyzing Principle of Protection Through the Blackout in Brazil Power Grid on February 4, 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 舒治淮; 程逍; 张胜祥

    2011-01-01

    简单介绍了2011年2月4日巴西东北部地区发生的大停电事故.事故由Luiz Gonzaga变电站内保护装置元件故障导致开关失灵保护误动引起.对照本次事故,分析了巴西电网采用的失灵保护逻辑方案的不足,并对中国电网的开关失灵保护标准化方案作了详细的分析.分析结果表明,中国电网开关失灵保护标准化方案能可靠避免该类型事故的发生.%On February 4, 2011, a blackout occurred in Northeast of Brazil. The process of blackout is introduced and analyzed. An error of an electronic component in the relay equipment aroused the false action of the breaker failure protection in the substation Luiz Gonzaga and resulted in the blackout finally. With reference to the blackout incident in Brazil, the deficiency of the breaker failure logic adopted in Brazil power grid is analyzed, and the standard breaker failure logic developed by State Grid Corporation of China is also analyzed. The analysis results reveal that the standard logic can avoid the occurring of similar incidents.

  18. Compressor station layout considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Rainer; Ohanian, Sebouh; Lubomirsky, Matt [Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses issues that influence the decision on the arrangement of compressors and the type of equipment in gas pipeline compressor stations. Different concepts such as multiple small units versus single large units are considered, both regarding their impact on the individual station and the overall pipeline. The necessity of standby units is discussed. Various concepts for drivers (gas turbine, gas motor and electric motor) and compressors (centrifugal and reciprocating) are analyzed. The importance of considering all possible operating conditions is stressed. With the wide range of possible operating conditions for the pipeline in mind, the discussion is brought into the general context of operational flexibility, availability, reliability, installation issues, remote control, and operability of gas turbine driven centrifugal compressors compared to other solutions such as electric motor driven compressors or gas engine driven reciprocating compressors. The impact of different concepts on emissions and fuel cost is discussed. Among the assumptions in this paper are the performance characteristics of the compressor. This paper outlines how these performance characteristics influence the conclusions. (author)

  19. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  20. The Calern atmospheric turbulence station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.

  1. Laser ranging ground station development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of ground to conduct radar range measurements of the lunar distance is discussed. The advantages of additional ground stations for this purpose are analyzed. The goals which are desirable for any new type of ranging station are: (1) full time availability of the station for laser ranging, (2) optimization for signal strength, (3) automation to the greatest extent possible, (4) the capability for blind pointing, (5) reasonable initial and modest operational costs, and (6) transportability to enhance the value of the station for geophysical purposes.

  2. Application for the Tape Station

    CERN Document Server

    Solero, A

    2003-01-01

    The Tape Station is used as an Isolde facility to observe the variations of intensity and the lifespan of certain isotopes. A Siemens Simatic FM-352-5 module controls the Tape Station in a PLC system then a DSC controls the PLC, which will be controlled the Tape station program. During the Isolde consolidation project, the Tape Station has been rebuilt, and the control system has been fully integrated in the PS control. Finally, a new application has been written in JAVA Development kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment. The main purpose of this note is to explain how to use this program.

  3. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  4. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  5. Naval Weapons Station Earle Reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    surveys for their Section 110 compliance: Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger 1999...text within brackets. Berger Report 1999 Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger... architectural treatment of buildings at NWS Earle: a traditional vernacular theme with minimal decorative detailing. This so-called minimal traditional

  6. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  7. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.207 Space station. (a) Any amateur station may be a space station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of a space station, subject to...

  8. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at...

  9. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  10. 基于“站-线-变-户”电网模型的预约停电管理模型设计%Appointment power outage management business model design based on “Station - line - change - households” grid model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛

    2014-01-01

    Based oninformation integration camp with "Station - line - change - households" grid model, appointment blackout that allow customers to participate in the development of power cut scheme will be performed in the power supply enterprise customer information and interaction platform.Establish an appointment outage management model, namely screening appointment blackout customers,select the best service channels to communicate with customers,pooled analysis of customer feedback across channels,and develop optimal algorithm to formulate an optimal power cut scheme.%本文基于营配信息集成“站-线-变-户”电网模型,让客户参与停电计划的制定,在供电企业客服信息与互动平台实行预约停电。建立预约停电管理模型,即筛选预约停电客户群,选择最佳服务渠道与客户进行沟通,汇集分析各渠道客户的意见,通过算法处理制定最优的停电计划。

  11. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  12. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  13. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  14. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  15. Non-Coop Station History (Unindexed)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Documents should be compared with those in the Non-Coop Station History...

  16. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  17. Internationalization of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  18. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kurz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  19. Gas Compressor Station Economic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    When considering gas compressor stations for pipeline projects, the economic success of the entire operation depends to a significant extent on the operation of the compressors involved. In this paper, the basic factors contributing to the economics are outlined, with particular emphasis on the interaction between the pipeline and the compressor station. Typical scenarios are described, highlighting the fact that pipeline operation has to take into account variations in load.

  20. Conveying International Space Station Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, Sharon P.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1,000 experiments have been completed, and others are being conducted and planed on the International Space Station (ISS). In order to make the information on these experiments accessible, the IGOAL develops mobile applications to easily access this content and video products to convey high level concepts. This presentation will feature the Space Station Research Explorer as well as several publicly available video examples.

  1. Source Term Analysis for the Nuclear Power Station Goesgen-Daeniken; Quelltermanalysen fuer das Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosemann, J.P.; Megaritis, G.; Guentay, S.; Hirschmann, H.; Luebbesmeyer, D.; Lieber, K.; Jaeckel, B.; Birchley, J.; Duijvestijn, G

    2001-08-01

    Analyses are performed for three accident scenarios postulated to occur in the Goesgen Nuclear Power Plant, a 900 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor of Siemens design. The scenarios investigated comprise a Station Blackout and two separate cases of small break loss-of-coolant accident which lead, respectively, to high, intermediate and low pressure conditions in the reactor system. In each case the accident assumptions are highly pessimistic, so that the sequences span a large range of plant states and a damage phenomena. Thus the plant is evaluated for a diversity of potential safety challenges. A suite of analysis tools are used to examine the reactor coolant system response, the core heat-up, melting, fission product release from the reactor system, the transport and chemical behaviour of those fission products in the containment building, and the release of radioactivity (source term) to the environment. Comparison with reference values used by the licensing authority shows that the use of modern analysis tools and current knowledge can provide substantial reduction in the estimated source term. Of particular interest are insights gained from the analyses which indicate opportunities for operators to reduce or forestall the release. (author)

  2. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-utility stations. 80.107 Section 80.107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A private coast station or a marine-utility station is authorized to transmit messages necessary for...

  3. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed...

  4. A study of the effects of implementing agricultural best management practices and in-stream restoration on suspended sediment, stream habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at three stream sites in Surry County, North Carolina, 2004-2007-Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas G.; Ferrell, G.M.; Harned, Douglas A.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Creek site indicated a statistically significant (pfollowing in-stream restoration. Stream habitat characteristics were similar at the Bull Creek and Hogan Creek reaches. However, the Pauls Creek reach was distinguished from the other two sites by a lack of pools, greater bankfull widths, greater streamflow and velocity, and larger basin size. Historical changes in the stream channel in the vicinity of the Pauls Creek streamgage are evident in aerial photographs dating from 1936 to 2005 and could have contributed to stream-channel instability. The duration of this study likely was inadequate for detecting changes in stream habitat characteristics. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages differed by site and changed during the course of the study. Bull Creek, the best management practices site, stood out as the site having the poorest overall conditions and the greatest improvement in benthic macroinvertebrate communities during the study period. Richness and diversity metrics indicated that benthic macroinvertebrate community conditions at the Hogan Creek and Pauls Creek sites declined during the study, although the status was excellent based on the North Carolina Index of Biotic Integrity. Experiences encountered during this study exemplify the difficulties of attempting to assess the short-term effects of stream-improvement efforts on a watershed scale and, in particular, the difficulty of finding similar basins for a comparative study. Data interpretation was complicated by dry climatic conditions and unanticipated land disturbances that occurred during the study in each of the three study basins. For example, agricultural best management practices were implemented in the drainage basin of the control site prior to and during the study. An impoundment on Bull Creek upstream from the streamgaging station probably influenced water-quality conditions and streamflow. Road construction in the vicinity of the Pauls Creek site potentially masked changes related to stream

  5. Overview of New Tools to Perform Safety Analysis: BWR Station Black Out Test Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Mandelli; C. Smith; T. Riley; J. Nielsen; J. Schroeder; C. Rabiti; A. Alfonsi; Cogliati; R. Kinoshita; V. Pasucci; B. Wang; D. Maljovec

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DPRA) methodologies couple system simulator codes (e.g., RELAP, MELCOR) with simulation controller codes (e.g., RAVEN, ADAPT). While system simulator codes accurately model system dynamics deterministically, simulation controller codes introduce both deterministic (e.g., system control logic, operating procedures) and stochastic (e.g., component failures, parameter uncertainties) elements into the simulation. Typically, a DPRA is performed by: 1) sampling values of a set of parameters from the uncertainty space of interest (using the simulation controller codes), and 2) simulating the system behavior for that specific set of parameter values (using the system simulator codes). For complex systems, one of the major challenges in using DPRA methodologies is to analyze the large amount of information (i.e., large number of scenarios ) generated, where clustering techniques are typically employed to allow users to better organize and interpret the data. In this paper, we focus on the analysis of a nuclear simulation dataset that is part of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) station blackout (SBO) case study. We apply a software tool that provides the domain experts with an interactive analysis and visualization environment for understanding the structures of such high-dimensional nuclear simulation datasets. Our tool encodes traditional and topology-based clustering techniques, where the latter partitions the data points into clusters based on their uniform gradient flow behavior. We demonstrate through our case study that both types of clustering techniques complement each other in bringing enhanced structural understanding of the data.

  6. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  7. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  8. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  9. 47 CFR 78.69 - Station records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notice was given. (v) Date and time notice was given to the Flight Service Station (Federal Aviation... SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.69 Station records. Each licensee of a CARS station shall... time of the beginning and end of each period of transmission of each channel; (b) For all stations,...

  10. Analysis on the importance of emergency drills of large area blackout in power grid%浅析电网大面积停电应急演练的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建新

    2016-01-01

    The power grid for a long time,a wide range of power can be caused by road traffic congestion, railway outage,commercial organizations and the functions of the government sector paralysis serious consequences,the power supply enterprise management personnel should pay attention to strengthen the large area blackout emergency drills.This paper analyzes the importance of emergency drills,including assessment of emergency status,enhance the awareness of emergency response and enhance the ability of emergency response.%电网长时间、大范围停电可引起公路交通拥堵、铁路停运、商业机构及政府职能部门瘫痪等严重后果,供电企业调控管理人员应重视强化大面积停电应急演练工作。本文分析了应急演练的重要性,包括评估应急状态、增强应急意识及提升应急能力。

  11. Business earth stations for telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  12. Single-Station Sigma for the Iranian Strong Motion Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarani, H.; Soghrat, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    In development of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), the residuals are assumed to have a log-normal distribution with a zero mean and a standard deviation, designated as sigma. Sigma has significant effect on evaluation of seismic hazard for designing important infrastructures such as nuclear power plants and dams. Both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are involved in the sigma parameter. However, ground-motion observations over long time periods are not available at specific sites and the GMPEs have been derived using observed data from multiple sites for a small number of well-recorded earthquakes. Therefore, sigma is dominantly related to the statistics of the spatial variability of ground motion instead of temporal variability at a single point (ergodic assumption). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the variability of the residuals so as to handle it as epistemic uncertainty. In this regard, it is tried to partially apply the non-ergodic assumption by removing repeatable site effects from total variability of six GMPEs driven from the local, Europe-Middle East and worldwide data. For this purpose, we used 1837 acceleration time histories from 374 shallow earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from M w 4.0 to 7.3 recorded at 370 stations with at least two recordings per station. According to estimated single-station sigma for the Iranian strong motion stations, the ratio of event-corrected single-station standard deviation (Φ ss) to within-event standard deviation (Φ) is about 0.75. In other words, removing the ergodic assumption on site response resulted in 25% reduction of the within-event standard deviation that reduced the total standard deviation by about 15%.

  13. The Medicina Station Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  14. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  15. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  16. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  17. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  18. Barrow Meteoroloigcal Station (BMET) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2004-11-01

    The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data.

  19. OMV Deployed From Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    In this 1986 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), at right, prepares to reboost the Hubble Space Telescope after being deployed from an early Space Station configuration (left). As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  20. "Artificial intelligence" at streamgaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Two types of problems are related to collecting hydrologic data at stream gaging stations. One includes the technical/logistical questions associated with measuring and transferring data for processing. Effort spent on these problems ranges from improving devices for sensing data to using electronic data loggers.

  1. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, SURRY COUNTY, VA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  2. Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  3. Manned space stations - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  4. Tracing Utopia in 'Utopia Station'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    Art (Publication due in 2012)). But it seems to differ noticeable from the ideologically driven concept(s) of the 20th century avant-garde. The paper will suggest that we in experiments with openness and structure, with an ambivalent engagement in popular culture and everyday life, and complex double......This paper will discuss how avant-garde rhetoric and working methods are used to rethink exhibition-making in the wake of the ‘relational aesthetics’ and visual art of the 90s. With Utopia Station curated by Molly Nesbit, Hans Ulrich Obrist, and Rirkrit Tiravanija as key example, we will look...... carries the same meaning and function in a contemporary culture. Utopia Station unfolded over a long period of time, starting with different gatherings in 2002, continuing with diverse ‘stations’ at the Venice Biennial (2003), Haus der Kunst in Munich (2004), and the World Social Forum in Porte Alegre...

  5. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  6. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  7. A Multi-Objective Optimization Method for Post-Blackout Unit Restoration%电力系统大停电后机组恢复的多目标优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱冬雪; 顾雪平; 钟慧荣

    2013-01-01

    大停电后的机组恢复策略多为单目标优化,忽略了大量影响机组启动顺序的因素,为此提出了机组恢复的多目标优化策略.以机组启动后提供的发电量尽可能大、已恢复的电源点尽量在网架层面铺开、有利于后续厂站层机组和重要负荷的恢复为优化目标,建立机组恢复的多目标优化模型.先将恢复过程划分为一系列顺序执行的恢复时步,再将每一时步的优化问题转化成多目标“0/1背包”问题;结合最短路径法为机组恢复方案搜索恢复路径,采用快速非支配排序遗传算法进行求解;最后对每时步的Pareto最优方案排序,确定最优解.算例结果验证了该方法的有效性.%Most post-blackout unit restoration strategies are based on single-objective optimization and factors influencing the starting sequence of units are neglected.A multi-objective optimization strategy for post-blackout unit restoration is proposed and a multi-objective optimization model for unit restoration,in which following items are taken as optimization objectives:the generating capacity of restored units should be as much as possible,the restored units should be distributed in the network frame level as possible and the restored units are favorable to the restoration of important loads and follow-up units to be restored in power plant level,is built.Firstly,the restoration process is divided into a series of restoration steps to be executed sequentially; secondly,the optimization of each restoration step is turned into multi-objective 0/1 knapsack problem and combining with the shortest path method the restoration paths for unit restoration scheme are searched,and then the restoration paths are solved by.fast and elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm and classic Dijkstra algorithm is employed to select restoration paths; finally,the Pareto optimal solutions are sorted to determine the optimal solution.The effectiveness of the proposed

  8. Station Climatic Summaries, Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    1 ARUBA Reina Beatrix 789820 Dec 86 (OCDS) --....................................... 5 ARGENTINA Buenos Alres/Ezeiza 875760 Apr 89 (CB...74 Oruro/Mendoza 852420 Feb 87 (OCDS) ...................................... 78 Potosi/ Rojas 852930 Feb 87 (OCDS...F 0 0 0 f 21-23 LST 0 0 0 0 # 0 F 1 0 0 0 F ALL HOURS # f F 0 0 # 0 F F 0 0 0 F 004 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: REINA BEATRIX INTL

  9. Space station particulate contamination environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.; Clifton, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of particulate contamination on the Space Station will mostly be from pre-launch operations. The adherence and subsequent release of these particles during space flight are discussed. Particle size, release velocity, and release direction are important in determining particle behavior in the vicinity of the vehicle. The particulate environment at the principal science instrument locations is compared to the space shuttle bay environment. Recommendations for possibly decreasing the particulate contamination are presented.

  10. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  11. Lessons from September 8, 2011 Southwest America Blackout for Prevention and Control of Cascading Outages%美国“9·8”大停电对连锁故障防控技术的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方勇杰

    2012-01-01

    Based on the 2011 Southwest America blackout inquiry report, this paper presents a description of the event evolution and an analysis of technical causes leading to the cascade development from the point of view of prevention and control of cascading outages, including ineffectiveness of security analysis and preventive control, inadequacy of real-time situational awareness, unreasonabilitp of protection relay settings, inappropriateness of control system design and lack of coordination between protection and control. It concludes that several fundamental measures need to be strengthened, including a complete, thorough and timely understanding of system dynamic characteristics, coordination of protection and control actions, and improvement of simulation analysis.%叙述了2011年9月8日在美国西南地区电网发生的大停电事故演化过程,从连锁故障防控的视角分析了事故发展的技术原因,包括安全分析和预防控制技术欠缺、实时状态觉知能力不足、保护定值整定不合理、控制方案设置不当和保护与控制动作不协调。凝练了连锁故障防控技术需要加强的基础性工作,指出必须全面、深入、及时地掌握系统动态特性,协调保护控制动作,提高仿真分析精度。

  12. M310核电站非能动安全改进措施研究%Study on Passive Safety Improvement of M310 Nuclear Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹象; 郎明刚

    2015-01-01

    A severe accident model of typical M310 nuclear power station with MELCOR 1.8.5 code was constructed in this paper .Based on the model ,several passive safety measures were designed ,and their benefits of mitigating the accident caused by station blackout (SBO) were simulated .The calculating results show that the core makeup tank system , external reactor vessel cooling system and passive residual heat removal system can operate successfully in SBO , postpone the progression of the accident markedly , stabilize the M310 nuclear power station in a safe state and gain more time for manual intervention .%本文利用MELCOR1.8.5程序建立了典型的M310核电站的严重事故模型,基于该模型设计了多种非能动的缓解措施,针对由全厂断电诱发的严重事故,模拟研究了这些非能动安全措施的缓解效果。研究结果表明:在全厂断电事故下,堆芯补水箱系统、堆腔注水系统、非能动余热排出系统均能有效地投入使用,并显著地延缓事故的发展,将核电站稳定在一个安全的状态,为人工干预赢得更多时间。

  13. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  14. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  15. 47 CFR 74.783 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... made at a code speed not in excess of 20 words per minute; or (2) By arranging for the primary station... visual presentation or a clearly understandable aural presentation of the translator station's...

  16. Automatic Control of Water Pumping Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhannad Alrheeh; JIANG Zhengfeng

    2006-01-01

    Automatic Control of pumps is an interesting proposal to operate water pumping stations among many kinds of water pumping stations according to their functions.In this paper, our pumping station is being used for water supply system. This paper is to introduce the idea of pump controller and the important factors that must be considering when we want to design automatic control system of water pumping stations. Then the automatic control circuit with the function of all components will be introduced.

  17. 49 CFR 195.128 - Station piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station piping. 195.128 Section 195.128 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.128 Station piping. Any pipe to be installed in a station that...

  18. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) communicating with Fixed...

  19. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  20. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  1. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for transmission by: (1) Stations in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service; (2) General aviation ground... continuity of any public communication in progress, provided that station identification is transmitted at... carrier; (2) For general aviation airborne mobile stations in the Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service,...

  2. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A...

  3. A historical perspective on space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, W. Ray

    1991-01-01

    The historical development of space stations is presented through a series of various spacecraft configurations including: (1) Salut 6; (2) Skylab; (3) the Space Operations Center (SOC); (4) the Manned Science and Applications Space Platform; (5) Space Station Freedom; and (4) the Mir Space Station.

  4. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent...

  5. 47 CFR 90.476 - Interconnection of fixed stations and certain mobile stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection of fixed stations and certain... Systems § 90.476 Interconnection of fixed stations and certain mobile stations. (a) Fixed stations and...)(11), 90.35(c)(42), and 90.267 are not subject to the interconnection provisions of §§ 90.477 and...

  6. A customer-friendly Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  7. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  8. Neutron proton crystallography station (PCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kovalevsky, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Hannah [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The PCS (Protein Crystallography Station) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a unique facility in the USA that is designed and optimized for detecting and collecting neutron diffraction data from macromolecular crystals. PCS utilizes the 20 Hz spallation neutron source at LANSCE to enable time-of-flight measurements using 0.6-7.0 {angstrom} neutrons. This increases the neutron flux on the sample by using a wavelength range that is optimal for studying macromolecular crystal structures. The diagram below show a schematic of PCS and photos of the detector and instrument cave.

  9. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  10. Environmental interactions on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Gabriel, Stephen B.; Murphy, Gerald B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the key environment/system interactions associated with the Space Station and its companion polar platform and defines the range of test environments that will need to be simulated. These environments include the neutral atmosphere, the ionospheric plasma, natural and man-made particulates, the ambient magnetic field, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the ram/wake environment. The system/environment interactions include glow, oxygen erosion, drag, radiation effects, induced electric fields, high-voltage solar-array effects, and EMC/EMI associated with plasma/neutral gas operations. The Space Station and its associated systems pose unique demands on the ability to simulate these effects; synergistic effects require multiple environments to be simulated simultaneously, and the long life requirements require proper scaling of the exposure time. The analysis of specific effects and the calibration or improvement of ground test techniques will likely require in situ evaluation. Qualification and acceptance testing, because of cost and the impractically of extensive on-orbit analysis/modification, will likely remain ground test objectives except in very rare cases.

  11. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  12. Space station operating system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  13. Stream Station video server system; Video saba sochi `Stream station`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A video server system Stream Station is developed for delivering moving images to the client on the VOD (video on demand) basis. In this system, video data compressed using the MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) technique are stored in a RAID (redundant arrays of independent disks) system, and is outputted as analog video data after expansion in a decoder provided at the output stage. The server system easily realizes a VOD system using the existing in-house cable TV facilities for instance for hotel rooms. The data for this purpose may be either in the MPEG1 or MPEG2 format, pictures may be simultaneously transmitted via as many as 32 channels at the maximum, and the storage holds 256 gigabytes at the maximum. It incorporates a video server architecture developed by Toshiba Corporation, and the data transfer rate from data readout to transmission is totally warranted. (translated by NEDO)

  14. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  15. Accident Process and Consequence Research for LOCA Combining with Blackout Accident of Ship Reactor%船用堆破口叠加全船断电事故进程及后果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 陈航; 张彦招; 晏峰

    2015-01-01

    Using MELCOR code ,the combination of LOCA and blackout accident of ship reactor was modeled and calculated , and the accident process and source term release were researched . The results show that the accident leads to lower head of pressure vessel and bilge creep‐rupture finally without emergency power .The release fraction of inert gases and iodine are above 80% ,the main form of iodine is CsI with great deposit and less airborne fraction .The accident process is decided by the equiva‐lent diameter of break size .The production of H2 is decided by core temperature and water remaining in the core ,but has nothing to do with equivalent diameter of break size .T he probability of H2 detonation is unlikely to occur .T he results can provide tech‐nical support for emergency maintenance and emergency decision‐making .%采用M ELCOR程序,对船用堆破口叠加全船断电事故进行建模计算,并对事故进程和源项释放进行了研究。计算结果表明:若应急电源无法投入,最终将导致压力容器下封头失效和舱底失效;所研究事故的惰性气体、碘释放量均在80%以上,且释放的I主要以CsI形式存在,滞留量大,气载量小。事故进展快慢取决于破口当量尺寸,但氢气的产量与堆芯温度、堆芯残余水量相关,与破口当量尺寸无直接关系,堆舱内发生氢爆可能性不大。本文计算结果可为应急抢修和应急决策提供技术支持。

  16. Summary and revelation of "2009· 11· 10" and "2011 · 2· 4" blackouts in Brazil Power System%巴西“2009-11-10”和“2011-2-4”大停电事故及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹江峰; 章显亮

    2011-01-01

    Based on the survey report of ONS (National Power System Operator) in Brazil, "2009·11·10" Wand "2011·2·4"blackout are described. The pre-fault condition, fault causes, spread and restoration process are analyzed. According to the summary of lessons and experience learned from these blackouts, recommendations are presented to improve security operation of power system in China.%查阅了巴西电网运行部门对巴西“2009·11·10”和“2011·2·4”大停电事故调查报告,简要描述了这2次停电的事故过程,重点回顾了具有典型特征的“2009·11·10”巴西大停电的事故经过,通过对事故的发生、发展和恢复过程的描述及事故原因的分析,借鉴国外停电事故的经验教训,结合我国电网的实际情况,总结了对我国电网安全运行的启示.

  17. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  18. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  19. ACSSB land mobile earth station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Shinichi; Ikegami, Tetsushi; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Suzuki, Shoichi; Kawahara, Hideki; Tada, Shun-Ichi

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes the performance of the land mobile earth station using the Amplitude Companded Single Sideband (ACSSB) modulation technique developed for mobile satellite communications and results of the field experiments which were conducted in rural, suburban, and urban areas. This ACSSB system uses a 3-kHz pilot tone, and the voice frequency band is from 300 to 2500 Hz. The experiments show that the required C/N0 for voice communications is 40 dBHz and the required C/N0 for pilot signal tracking is 34 dBHz. Voice quality in rural and suburban areas was degraded slightly. In urban areas shadowings due to the presence of large buildings and trees caused signal losses. A comparison of the ACSSB system with the conventional narrow-band frequency-modulation system indicates that the ACSSB system can transmit voice signals more efficiently.

  20. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  1. METALLOGRAPHIC SAMPLE PREPARATION STATION-CONSTRUCTIVE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVRAM Florin Timotei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to present the issues involved in the case of the constructive conception of a station for metallographic sample preparation. This station is destined for laboratory work. The metallographic station is composed of a robot ABB IRB1600, a metallographic microscope, a gripping device, a manipulator, a laboratory grinding and polishing machine. The robot will be used for manipulation of the sample preparation and the manipulator take the sample preparation for processing.

  2. Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 6 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Snow Drift Management Summit Station...Drift Management Summit Station Greenland Robert B. Haehnel and Matthew F. Bigl U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Cold...Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) EP-ARC-15-33, “Monitoring and Managing Snow Drifting at Summit Station, Greenland” ERDC

  3. Weather station with a web server

    OpenAIRE

    Repinc, Matej

    2013-01-01

    In this diploma thesis we present the process of making a cheap weather station using Arduino prototyping platform and its functionality. The weather station monitors current temperature, humidity of air and air pressure. The station has its own simple HTTP server that is used to relay current data in two different formats: JSON encoded data and simple HTML website. The weather station can also send data to a pre-defined server used for data collection. We implemented a web site where data an...

  4. Live From Space Station Outreach Payload Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Live from Space Station? Outreach Payload (LFSSOP) is a technologically challenging, exciting opportunity for university students to conduct significant research...

  5. China Tightens Control over Petrol Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Huiping

    2002-01-01

    @@ China has recently mounted a nationwide campaign to standardize petrol stations. Based on the reports from China Central Television, all the petrol station that have not been licensed with "Oil Products Retail Permit" issued by the provincial economic and trade commission will be halted for business operation. Such petrol stations will be allowed to resume business if they are in line with the local industrial development plan and obtain the permits after going though all the necessary formalities. The petrol stations that are not in line with the development plan will be closed before August 31,2002.

  6. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data through Quarter 4 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-31

    This publication includes 86 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the fourth quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  7. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data Through Quarter 3 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-07

    This publication includes 80 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Spring 2016 for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the third quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  8. East Baton Rouge Fire Stations, UTM15 NAD83, LAGIC (2002) [ebr_fire_stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset consists of twenty-nine (29) geocoded points representing fire stations in East Baton Rouge parish, Louisiana. Thirty (30) fire station, disctrict, and...

  9. Foreign Technology,to Alleviate the Blackout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEFFFLORY

    2004-01-01

    Torrid domestic economic growth is feeding a mammoth appetite for energy. As a partial remedy, the Chinese government has swung decisively in favor of nuclear power. While this comes as great news to the world's major nuclear energy companies, it remains to be seen who is going to be let in on the action and who will be left out.

  10. Thermoelectrical power stations in 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medici, M. (University of Padova, Italy)

    1968-01-01

    In Italy in 1967, geothermal electric power production was 2.66% of the national energy production. The implementation of traditional and nuclear power plants is described. The trend in conventional thermoelectric power plants is characterized by ever-increasing block capacities (100-160 MW at present), they are expected to increase to 600 MW in Europe and to 1200 MW in the USA 10 years from now. Nuclear power plants with pressurized-water reactors, boiling-water reactors, and graphite-gas reactors have been built recently in Italy. Studies are being conducted in the area of high-speed reactors and breeder reactors. A description is presented of a power station using geothermal energy. At the end of 1967, geothermal power plants with an electrical capacity of 340 MW were in operation. Generally, U.S. thermoelectrical engine blocks with high productivity were used. The thermodynamic characteristics of these blocks are described in detail. The most powerful engine in the field in Italy- a turbocompressore Franco Tosi- was constructed in the ENEL central Castlenuovo Val Cecina in the Larderello region. The compressor is fed by a combined flow of steam, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S. It is characterized by a load of 22 t/h and an input pressure of 0.0905 atm at the outlet. The absorbed power is 2.28 MW at a velocity of 50 rotations/sec. Thirty figures are presented.

  11. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  12. Estimating Pedestrian flows at train stations using the Station Transfer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Dekkers, K.; De Vos, S.

    2012-01-01

    Train stations play a vital role in the door to door travel experience of train passengers. From the passengers’ value of time perspective, the station is the weakest link in total time value of the journey. Within the station the transfer function – moving between the various transport modes and wa

  13. Estimating Pedestrian flows at train stations using the Station Transfer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Dekkers, K.; De Vos, S.

    2012-01-01

    Train stations play a vital role in the door to door travel experience of train passengers. From the passengers’ value of time perspective, the station is the weakest link in total time value of the journey. Within the station the transfer function – moving between the various transport modes and

  14. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part II. Amplitude Modulation Broadcasting Stations According to Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This second part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers amplitude modulation broadcasting stations according to frequency in ascending order. Information included covers call letters,…

  15. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part I. Amplitude Modulation Broadcasting Stations According to Country and City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This first part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers amplitude modulation broadcasting stations. Information is indexed alphabetically by country and city. Within a city, stations…

  16. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part III. Frequency Modulation Broadcasting Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This third part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations, with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers frequency modulation broadcasting stations. It contains two sections: one indexed alphabetically by country and city, and the…

  17. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located....

  18. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealing...

  19. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  20. Present trends in HVDC converter station design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Lennart; Asplund, Gunnar; Bjorklund, Hans; Flisberg, Gunnar [ABB Power Systems AB, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    HVDC converter station technology has developed rapidly to satisfy increasing requirements during past 10 - 15 years, but there has not been any dramatic changes since thyristor valves were introduced in the mid 70s. This paper describes some recent and expected future developments, that will substantiality change and simplify future converter stations. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Contract for new Scottish hydro station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A£4M (US$6M) Contract has been awarded to Miller Civil Engineering Services for the construction of Scottish and Southern Energy's new 3MW hydro power station on the river Cuileig, near Ullapoot in Scotland, The plant will be the pow, er company's first new hydroelectric station since the 1960s. Construction is set to take 12 months, beginning in mid November,

  2. Modeling Array Stations in SIG-VISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, N.; Moore, D.; Russell, S.

    2013-12-01

    We add support for array stations to SIG-VISA, a system for nuclear monitoring using probabilistic inference on seismic signals. Array stations comprise a large portion of the IMS network; they can provide increased sensitivity and more accurate directional information compared to single-component stations. Our existing model assumed that signals were independent at each station, which is false when lots of stations are close together, as in an array. The new model removes that assumption by jointly modeling signals across array elements. This is done by extending our existing Gaussian process (GP) regression models, also known as kriging, from a 3-dimensional single-component space of events to a 6-dimensional space of station-event pairs. For each array and each event attribute (including coda decay, coda height, amplitude transfer and travel time), we model the joint distribution across array elements using a Gaussian process that learns the correlation lengthscale across the array, thereby incorporating information of array stations into the probabilistic inference framework. To evaluate the effectiveness of our model, we perform ';probabilistic beamforming' on new events using our GP model, i.e., we compute the event azimuth having highest posterior probability under the model, conditioned on the signals at array elements. We compare the results from our probabilistic inference model to the beamforming currently performed by IMS station processing.

  3. The white SR spectrum experimental station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancharov, A.I. E-mail: a.i.ancharov@inp.nsk.su; Evdokov, O.V.; Tolochko, B.P.; Sukhorukov, A.V.; Baru, S.E.; Savinov, G.A.; Kosov, A.V.; Sheromov, M.A.; Sikka, S.K.; Momin, S.N

    2000-06-21

    A new experimental station for working with white synchrotron radiation is described. Radiation from the bending magnet of the VEPP-4 storage ring is used. The station is destined for study of structures at high pressure by energy-dispersive and Laue diffraction methods.

  4. The white SR spectrum experimental station

    CERN Document Server

    Ancharov, A I; Tolochko, B P; Sukhorukov, A V; Baru, S E; Savinov, G A; Kosov, A V; Sheromov, M A; Sikka, S K; Momin, S N

    2000-01-01

    A new experimental station for working with white synchrotron radiation is described. Radiation from the bending magnet of the VEPP-4 storage ring is used. The station is destined for study of structures at high pressure by energy-dispersive and Laue diffraction methods.

  5. Plans for Learning Stations. Tractor Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This shop guide gives graphic illustration of twenty-eight learning stations in a tractor mechanics shop, at each of which a specific learning activity occurs. The authors suggest that each station (most of them constructed of plywood or sheet metal and angle iron) be self-contained, having its own appropriate tools, supplies, parts, and set of…

  6. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  7. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2003-01-01

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealing...

  8. Rocky Mountain Research Station: Strategic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Eskew

    2003-01-01

    A strategic plan is a tool for charting a path into the future. This Strategic Framework will help guide the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station over the next decade during inevitable socioeconomic and environmental change. It is the product of a dialog with our stakeholders and employees to examine the Station's capabilities, anticipate research...

  9. 47 CFR 74.781 - Station records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.781 Station records. (a) The licensee of a low power TV, TV translator, or TV... extinguishment or improper functioning of a tower light: (1) The nature of such extinguishment or...

  10. Modeling passenger flows in public transport stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kırlangıçoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many architectural design parameters for public transport stations which include urban and station level studies. Each station must be designed in accordance with the basic passenger requirements such as accessibility, safety, comfort, satisfaction and etc. Circulation spaces must be formed and sized to meet the minimum movement needs of passengers. For an underground station; main entrance region, position of gates, location and number of turnstiles, escalators, stairs, ramps, passageways, intermediate concourses and platforms must be arranged to minimize walking distances and to prevent congestion. In this study, circulation of passengers is simulated in a quantitatively verifiable manner, taking into account how individuals interact with each other and with the physical obstacles in their environment in a metro station. Virtual experiments are performed to see the continuity and density of pedestrian flow at different levels of Haram Area East Metro Station of the first metro line of Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. According to the predictions, more than 40.000 passengers are expected to use this station in one hour after a Friday prayer during Ramadan period in the year of 2040. That means a critically high travel demand and it is really significant to design the most convenient underground station for these passengers to fulfil the necessary requirements.

  11. Nagymaros power station on the River Danube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobilka, J.

    1987-02-01

    This article deals with the economic aspects of Austrian cooperation in power station construction as practised in the consulting activities of Oesterreichische Donaukraftwerke AG, and discusses in detail this company's participation in the construction of the main structure for the Nagymaros power station on the Danube under a general contract.

  12. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  13. Solar radiation observation stations updated to 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E.A.; Cristina, J.R.; Williams, B.B.

    1979-04-01

    The type of sensing and recording equipment for 420 stations in the US are listed alphabetically by states. The stations are divided according to whether or not they are in the basic National Weather Service, NOAA, network. Reports of summarized solar radiation data are listed in an appendix. (MHR)

  14. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  15. Regeneration of water at space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Sinyak, Yu. E.; Samsonov, N. M.; Bobe, L. S.; Protasov, N. N.; Andreychuk, P. O.

    2011-05-01

    The history, current status and future prospects of water recovery at space stations are discussed. Due to energy, space and mass limitations physical/chemical processes have been used and will be used in water recovery systems of space stations in the near future. Based on the experience in operation of Russian space stations Salut, Mir and International space station (ISS) the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine are described. A perspective physical/chemical system for water supply will be composed of an integrated system for water recovery from humidity condensate, green house condensate, water from carbon dioxide reduction system and condensate from urine system; a system for water reclamation from urine; hygiene water processing system and a water storage system. Innovative processes and new water recovery systems intended for Lunar and Mars missions have to be tested on the international space station.

  16. 蒸汽发生器传热管破损叠加全船断电事故放射性分析%Radioactive Analysis on Accident of SG-tube Rupture Coupled with Whole Ship Blackout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 陈力生; 张帆; 刘海鹏

    2015-01-01

    Based on MELCOR which is the severe accident analysis integration program , the accident of SG‐tube rupture coupled with whole ship blackout was researched . Considering the release of radioactive material to other cabins in the case of SG‐tube rupture ,the release ,migration ,retention and distribution characteristics of the noble gas and CsI were analyzed . The result shows that steam pipe of the secondary loop would be overpressure failure and hydrogen combustion would result in overpressure failure of the adjacent ones of reactor cabin . At the end of the computation , about 99.61% of Xe and 49.96% of CsI in total cumulative amount were released from the reactor core .In cabin Ⅰ and Ⅱ ,the distribution fraction of Xe was 38% and 18% ,and it was 22.2% and 2.7% for CsI respectively .CsI was mainly resided in the bottom pool of the reactor cabin ,and a small amount of the CsI was leaked to the cabinⅡ .The anal‐ysis results will provide help for further analysis on the source dose and for emergency inside and outside the ship .%以严重事故分析程序M ELCOR为计算工具,研究了某型船用堆发生蒸汽发生器传热管破损叠加全船断电事故,针对传热管破损所导致的放射性物质向其他舱室的泄漏,着重分析了惰性气体和CsI的释放、迁移、滞留特点及其在舱室内的分布。计算结果表明:二回路蒸汽管道会发生超压失效,氢燃导致堆舱邻舱的超压失效。至计算结束,约占累积总量99.61%的Xe和49.96%的CsI从堆芯释放出来。舱室Ⅰ和Ⅱ内Xe的分布份额分别为38%和18%,CsI的分布份额分别为22.2%和2.7%,CsI主要存在于舱底水池中,且泄漏至舱室Ⅱ的份额微少。本文分析结果可为进一步的源项剂量分析及船内外应急提供依据。

  17. Modelling of Train Noise in Underground Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.

    1996-08-01

    TNS, a computer model for predicting the temporal and spatial distribution of train noise in underground stations, is developed. The train is regarded as a series of sections, and the train noise distribution in a station is calculated by inputting the sound attenuation from a train section source in the underground system (i.e., the station and tunnel). This input can be obtained by physical scale modelling. The prediction by TNS in an underground station in London shows good agreement with site measurements. A series of computations in the station demonstrates that: (1) the overall level of the train noise in the area near the end walls is slightly less than the other areas; (2) some conventional architectural acoustic treatments in the station are effective when a train is still in the tunnel but not as helpful when the train is already in the station; and (3) train noise has a significant effect on the speech intelligibility of public address systems as measured by the Speech Transmission Index (STI).

  18. 47 CFR 97.211 - Space telecommand station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space telecommand station. 97.211 Section 97... AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.211 Space telecommand station. (a) Any amateur station designated by the licensee of a space station is eligible to transmit as a telecommand station for that...

  19. 47 CFR 73.1020 - Station license period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., New Mexico and Idaho: (i) Radio stations, October 1, 1997. (ii) Television stations, October 1, 1998..., October 1, 1995. (ii) Television stations, October 1, 1996. (2) North Carolina and South Carolina: (i) Radio stations, December 1, 1995. (ii) Television stations, December 1, 1996. (3) Florida, Puerto...

  20. 14 CFR 145.207 - Repair station manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repair station manual. 145.207 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.207 Repair station manual. (a) A certificated repair station must prepare and follow a repair station manual acceptable to...

  1. Automation of a water pumping station

    OpenAIRE

    Mesec, Rožle

    2014-01-01

    In the thesis we displayed an automation of an industrial facility on an example of a water pumping station. We described the structure of a typical automated system and presented it's key components. We designed a water pumping station with three main components – a water pump, a reservoir and a drain. The proposed water pumping station could be used for suplying water to a small settlement, in case the settlement had access to a water source with adequate capacity in it's vicinity. As part ...

  2. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  3. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) All distress calls, automatic-alarm signals, urgency and safety signals made or intercepted, the... made comparing the radio station clock with standard time, including errors observed and corrections...

  4. Alum Astronaut Phones From International Space Station

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    For the second time inside of a year, faculty, staff and some family members at the Naval Postgraduate School were honored to participate in a video-teleconference with a member of the International Space Station (ISS) crew.

  5. Redundancy Calibration of Phased Array Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Noorishad, Parisa; van Ardenne, Arnold; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2012-01-01

    Our aim is to assess the benefits and limitations of using the redundant visibility information in regular phased array systems for improving the calibration. Regular arrays offer the possibility to use redundant visibility information to constrain the calibration of the array independent of a sky model and a beam models of the station elements. It requires a regular arrangement in the configuration of array elements and identical beam patterns. We revised a calibration method for phased array stations using the redundant visibility information in the system and applied it successfully to a LOFAR station. The performance and limitations of the method were demonstrated by comparing its use on real and simulated data. The main limitation is the mutual coupling between the station elements, which leads to non-identical beams and stronger baseline dependent noise. Comparing the variance of the estimated complex gains with the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) indicates that redundancy is a stable and optimum method for cali...

  6. Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge : Station Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify and...

  7. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  8. Non-Coop Station History Forms Digest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 71-page document entitled 'Station history non-COOP Keying Rules & Forms Digest,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC Climate Database...

  9. CDMP COOP Station History Indexing Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 66-page document entitled 'Station history COOP Rework via WSSRD and stragglers NC4 & NC3: Keying Rules,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC's...

  10. DMA Reference Base Station Network Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data (15,904 records documenting 9,090 worldwide gravity base stations) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of...

  11. case study of afam power station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    checking of emergency failure of components or .... 1, 2002. Madueme. 87. Table 7: History of Afam generating plans from 1962 to 1997 ... was no maintenance management section in the power station ... Training School, 1998. 5. Clifton, R.N. ...

  12. Outdoor Field Experience with Autonomous Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, L; Blanco, A; Carolino, N; Cerda, M A; Conceicao, R; Cunha, O; Ferreira, M; Fonte, P; Luz, R; Mendes, L; Pereira, A; Pimenta, M; Sarmento, R; Tome, B

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades Resistive Plate Chambers were employed in the Cosmic Ray Experiments COVER-PLASTEX and ARGO/YBJ. In both experiments the detectors were housed indoors, likely owing to gas distribution requirements and the need to control environment variables that directly affect RPCs operational stability. But in experiments where Extended Air Shower (EAS) sampling is necessary, large area arrays composed by dispersed stations are deployed, rendering this kind of approach impossible. In this situation, it would be mandatory to have detectors that could be deployed in small standalone stations, with very rare opportunities for maintenance, and with good resilience to environmental conditions. Aiming to meet these requirements, we started some years ago the development of RPCs for Autonomous Stations. The results from indoor tests and measurements were very promising, both concerning performance and stability under very low gas flow rate, which is the main requirement for Autonomous Stations. In this w...

  13. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Scope: National. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station information system manages images and archives of images as well as documents described by linked...

  14. Strategic planning for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Carolyn S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept for utilization and operations planning for the International Space Station Freedom was developed in a NASA Space Station Operations Task Force in 1986. Since that time the concept has been further refined to definitize the process and products required to integrate the needs of the international user community with the operational capabilities of the Station in its evolving configuration. The keystone to the process is the development of individual plans by the partners, with the parameters and formats common to the degree that electronic communications techniques can be effectively utilized, while maintaining the proper level and location of configuration control. The integration, evaluation, and verification of the integrated plan, called the Consolidated Operations and Utilization Plan (COUP), is being tested in a multilateral environment to prove out the parameters, interfaces, and process details necessary to produce the first COUP for Space Station in 1991. This paper will describe the concept, process, and the status of the multilateral test case.

  15. development development of base transceiver station selection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Placement of base transceiver station (BTSs) by different operators on a particular site as ... Although the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) viewed that ..... vacant space on the AIRTEL mast which could.

  16. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  17. Space Station concept development group studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA study activities in preparation for a Space Station began in the early 1970's. The early studies included many in-house NASA and contracted studies. A group of representatives from all the NASA Centers, titled the Space Station Concept Development Group (CDG) was involved in the studies which led to the initiation of the Space Station Program. The CDG studies were performed over a period of approximately one year and consisted of four phases. The initial phase had the objective to determine the functions required of the station as opposed to a configuration. The activities of the second phase were primarily concerned with a sizing of the facilities required for payloads and the resources necessary to support these mission payloads. The third phase of studies was designed to develop a philosophical approach to a number of areas related to autonomy, maintainability, operations and logistics, and verification. The fourth phase of the study was to be concerned with configuration assessment activities.

  18. OMV servicing missions from Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Wright, Jerome L.; Deaton, A. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will provide a means of bringing large observatories to the Space Station for servicing and redeployment to their operating altitudes. However, there are many constraints which must be met in mission planning. The missions must be designed so that propellant consumption is within the usable allowance, but contingency operations can still be accomplished. The vehicle was designed specifically to accommodate such missions, with emphasis upon servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. The OMV has been designed for operations from the Shuttle Orbiter and the Space Station. It will readily accommodate basing at the Space Station and executing observatory retrieval and redeployment missions. Mission profiles have been designed which allow retrieval with contingency hold before descent, and which allow contingency return of the observatory if it fails to reactivate properly. This capability will be a major addition to the Space Transportation System and will increase the utility of the Space Station.

  19. 77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The... aboard the International Space Station, including transportation, and crew rotation; and, to assess...

  20. 77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The... aboard the International Space Station, including transportation, and crew rotation; and, to assess...

  1. 77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The... aboard the International Space Station, including transportation, and crew rotation; and, to assess...

  2. Nuclear applications in manned space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooksbank, W. A., Jr.; Sieren, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    The zirconium hydride reactor, coupled to a thermo-electric or Brayton conversion system, and the Pu 238 isotope/Brayton system, are considered to be the viable nuclear candidates for the modular space station electrical power system. The basic integration aspects of these nuclear electrical power systems are reviewed, including unique requirements imposed by the buildup and incremental utilization considerations of the modular station. Also treated are the various programmatic aspects of nuclear power system design and selection.

  3. Predictive Attitude Maintenance For A Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattis, Philip D.

    1989-01-01

    Paper provides mathematical basis for predictive management of angular momenta of control-moment gyroscopes (CMG's) to control attitude of orbiting space station. Numerical results presented for pitch control of proposed power-tower space station. Based on prior orbit history and mathematical model of density of atmosphere, predictions made of requirements on dumping and storage of angular momentum in relation to current loading state of CMG's and to acceptable attitude tolerances.

  4. Connecting strangers at a train station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Böttcher, Niels; Pellarin, Lars

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a virtual instrument or a performance space, placed at Høje Tåstrup train station in Denmark, which is meant to establish communicative connections between strangers, by letting users of the system create soundscapes together across the rails. We discuss mapping...... to the development of an interactive installation which takes place in Hoje Taastrup train station in Denmark....

  5. Check valve slam analysis in pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, D.; Habán, V.; Dokoupil, P.

    2016-03-01

    Pumping station supplies water for technological process. The check valve in the station was replaced with a new one. The regular test of black out discovered the high pressure pulsations accompanied with noticeable pipeline movement of discharge pipe. It was caused by late check valve closing, probably, when the back flow reached the highest possible velocity. This statement was supported with analysis of results of pressure measurement near the check valve and with a numerical simulation of the flow in the pipeline system.

  6. The Auroral Station in Adventdalen, Svalbard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the Auroral Station in Adventdalen near Longyearbyen, Svalbard (78°N, 15°E). The main instruments at the site are for optical observation of aurora and airglow, but magnetic and radar observations are also carried out. Emission spectra show the difference between the dayside and nightside optical aurora. A newly compiled mesospheric temperature series from the station is also presented, derived through 20 years of spectral measurements of the hydroxyl airglow layer.

  7. Description of Measurements on Biogas Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Novosád

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on performance analysis for three biogas stations situated within the territory of the Czech Republic. This paper contains basic details of the individual biogas stations as well as description of their types. It also refers to the general description of the measurement gauge involved, with specifications of its potential use. The final part of this paper deals with the analysis of course data obtained, with special regard to voltage, current, active power and reactive power data.

  8. Connecting strangers at a train station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Böttcher, Niels; Pellarin, Lars

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a virtual instrument or a performance space, placed at Høje Tåstrup train station in Denmark, which is meant to establish communicative connections between strangers, by letting users of the system create soundscapes together across the rails. We discuss mapping...... to the development of an interactive installation which takes place in Hoje Taastrup train station in Denmark....

  9. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite (Waite, 1973). The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program (Fledderman 2003). The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  10. Compression station anti-surge system considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Rainer; White, Robert C. [Solar Turbines Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Centrifugal compressor surge and its prevention have drawn significant attention in the literature. An important aspect of surge avoidance lies in the design of the compressor station and, in particular, the piping upstream and downstream of the compressor. Most anti-surge systems are perfectly capable of avoiding surge during normal operating conditions. However, unplanned emergency shutdowns present a significant challenge, and surge avoidance in these cases depends to a large degree on the station layout. Furthermore, the concepts used in the anti surge system (valves, piping, coolers) also impact the start-up of the station, or of individual units of the station. In this paper a simplified surge control system model is presented and used to develop simpler rules that help with proper sizing of upstream and downstream piping systems, as well as the necessary control element. Since the design of the surge control and recycle system also affects the start-up of units and stations, start-up considerations for stations with and without cooled recycle loops are discussed. (author)

  11. Space station interior noise analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stusnick, E.; Burn, M.

    1987-02-01

    Documentation is provided for a microcomputer program which was developed to evaluate the effect of the vibroacoustic environment on speech communication inside a space station. The program, entitled Space Station Interior Noise Analysis Program (SSINAP), combines a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) prediction of sound and vibration levels within the space station with a speech intelligibility model based on the Modulation Transfer Function and the Speech Transmission Index (MTF/STI). The SEA model provides an effective analysis tool for predicting the acoustic environment based on proposed space station design. The MTF/STI model provides a method for evaluating speech communication in the relatively reverberant and potentially noisy environments that are likely to occur in space stations. The combinations of these two models provides a powerful analysis tool for optimizing the acoustic design of space stations from the point of view of speech communications. The mathematical algorithms used in SSINAP are presented to implement the SEA and MTF/STI models. An appendix provides an explanation of the operation of the program along with details of the program structure and code.

  12. Reevaluation of air surveillance station siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-06

    DOE Technical Standard HDBK-1216-2015 (DOE 2015) recommends evaluating air-monitoring station placement using the analytical method developed by Waite. The technique utilizes wind rose and population distribution data in order to determine a weighting factor for each directional sector surrounding a nuclear facility. Based on the available resources (number of stations) and a scaling factor, this weighting factor is used to determine the number of stations recommended to be placed in each sector considered. An assessment utilizing this method was performed in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing SRS air-monitoring program. The resulting recommended distribution of air-monitoring stations was then compared to that of the existing site perimeter surveillance program. The assessment demonstrated that the distribution of air-monitoring stations at the time generally agreed with the results obtained using the Waite method; however, at the time new stations were established in Barnwell and in Williston in order to meet requirements of DOE guidance document EH-0173T.

  13. Alkaline RFC Space Station prototype - 'Next step Space Station'. [Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell, a candidate technology for the Space Station's energy storage system, is described. An advanced development program was initiated to design, manufacture, and integrate a regenerative fuel cell Space Station prototype (RFC SSP). The RFC SSP incorporates long-life fuel cell technology, increased cell area for the fuel cells, and high voltage cell stacks for both units. The RFC SSP's potential for integration with the Space Station's life support and propulsion systems is discussed.

  14. Station characteristics of the Singapore Infrasound Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, Anna; Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Garces, Milton; Avila Encillo, Jeffrey; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon

    2016-04-01

    Singapore, located in Southeast Asia, presents an ideal location for an additional regional infrasound array, with diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional infrasound sources, including ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4,000 kilometers. Previous studies have focused on theoretical and calculated regional signal detection capability improvement with the addition of a Singapore array. The Earth Observatory of Singapore installed a five element infrasound array in northcentral Singapore in late 2014, and this station began consistent real-time data transmission mid-2015. The Singapore array uses MB2005s microbarometers and Nanometrics Taurus digitizers. Automated array processing is carried out with the INFrasonic EneRgy Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite, and PMCC (Progressive MultiChannel Correlation). The addition of the Singapore infrasound array to the existing International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in the region has increased regional infrasound detection capability, which is illustrated with the preliminary work on three observed meteor events of various sizes in late 2015. A meteor observed in Bangkok, Thailand in early September, 2015 was picked up by the CTBTO, however, another meteor observed in Bangkok in November was only recorded on the Singapore array. Additionally, another meteor observed over Sumatra was only recorded by one IMS station and the Singapore array. This study uses array processing and Power Spectral Density results for both the Singapore and publicly available regional IMS stations to examine station characteristics and detection capability of the Singapore array in the context of the regional IMS network.

  15. Seismic interferometry with antipodal station pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fan-Chi; Tsai, Victor C.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we analyze continuous data from all Global Seismographic Network stations between year 2000 and 2009 and demonstrate that several body wave phases (e.g., PP, PcPPKP, SKSP, and PPS) propagating between nearly antipodal station pairs can be clearly observed without array stacking using the noise/coda cross-correlation method. Based on temporal correlations with global seismicity, we show that the observed body waves are clearly earthquake related. Moreover, based on single-earthquake analysis, we show that the earthquake coda energy observed between ~10,000 and 30,000 s after a large earthquake contributes the majority of the signal. We refine our method based on these observations and show that the signal can be significantly improved by selecting only earthquake coda times. With our improved processing, the PKIKP phase, which does not benefit from the focusing effect near the antipode, can now also clearly be observed for long-distance station pairs.

  16. Centaur operations at the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J.; Thompson, W.; Bennett, F.; Holdridge, J.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted on the feasibility of using a Centaur vehicle as a testbed to demonstrate critical OTV technologies at the Space Station. Two Technology Demonstration Missions (TDMs) were identified: (1) Accommodations, and (2) Operations. The Accommodations TDM contained: (1) berthing, (2) checkout, maintenance and safing, and (3) payload integration missions. The Operations TDM contained: (1) a cryogenic propellant resupply mission, and (2) Centaur deployment activities. A modified Space Station Co-Orbiting Platform (COP) was selected as the optimum refueling and launch node due to safety and operational considerations. After completion of the TDMs, the fueled Centaur would carry out a mission to actually test deployment and help offset TDM costs. From the Station, the Centaur could carry a single payload in excess of 20,000 pounds to geosynchronous orbit or multiple payloads.

  17. Impact of suntracking on Space Station controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Richard; Hu, Tsay-Hsin G.; Barber, Mark; Holmes, Eric

    The multibody dynamics of the Space Station is studied as affected by the suntracking motions of the photovotaic arrays. Dynamic responses are simulated for the Station being controlled by control moment gyros (CMGs). Controllability is shown to be a function of flight orientation, stage (inertial properties, CP-CG offset) and the suntracking dynamics. For certain combinations of these parameters, the aerodynamic, inertial disturbances and motor torques from alpha joint(s) arising from near-perfect suntracking are too large for the control moment gyro system to control. However, by imposing slight restrictions on the dynamics of the suntracking, CMGs are able to provide Station attitude stability with excellent pointing performance and an excellent microgravity environment.

  18. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember... SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log and radio watches. (a) Licensees of voluntary ships are not required to maintain radio station logs....

  20. 42 CFR 35.1 - Hospital and station rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.1 Hospital and station rules. The officer in charge of a station or hospital of the Service is authorized to adopt such rules and issue such instructions... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital and station rules. 35.1 Section...

  1. 47 CFR 73.1225 - Station inspections by FCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station inspections by FCC. 73.1225 Section 73... BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1225 Station inspections by FCC. (a) The... FCC during the station's business hours, or at any time it is in operation. (b) In the course of...

  2. 47 CFR 74.3 - FCC inspections of stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FCC inspections of stations. 74.3 Section 74.3... Services in Part 74 § 74.3 FCC inspections of stations. (a) The licensee of a station authorized under this part must make the station available for inspection by representatives of the FCC during the...

  3. 76 FR 20249 - Update Station License Expiration Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ..., Arizona, Utah, New Mexico and Idaho: (i) Radio stations, October 1, 2013. (ii) Television stations... reflect the current license expiration dates for radio and television broadcast stations. The current... through 2015 for television stations; these expiration dates are long out of date. Modifying the rule...

  4. 47 CFR 80.72 - Antenna requirements for coast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirements for coast stations. 80.72 Section 80.72 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.72 Antenna requirements for coast stations. All emissions of a coast station a...

  5. 47 CFR 80.81 - Antenna requirements for ship stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirements for ship stations. 80.81 Section 80.81 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.81 Antenna requirements for ship stations. All telephony emissions of a ship station or...

  6. 47 CFR 73.621 - Noncommercial educational TV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noncommercial educational TV stations. 73.621... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.621 Noncommercial educational TV stations... telecommunications service in § 73.646 are applicable to noncommercial educational TV stations. (g)...

  7. Gravitational biology on the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

  8. XTP for the NASA space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Space Station is a truly international effort; therefore, its communications systems must conform to established international standards. Thus, NASA is requiring that each network-interface unit implement a full suite of ISO protocols. However, NASA is understandably concerned that a full ISO stack will not deliver performance consistent with the real-time demands of Space Station control systems. Therefore, as a research project, the suitability of the Xpress transfer protocol (XTP) is investigated along side a full ISO stack. The initial plans for implementing XTP and comparing its performance to ISO TP4 are described.

  9. Frontiers of technology. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, R.; Nolan, M.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the Space Station technology assessment efforts conducted by NASA under its Advanced Development Program, which has over the last three years enlisted 14 different disciplines in the refinement of every aspect of Space Station interior and exterior design. Major investigations have delved into the application of novel coatings to materials subjected to prolonged exposure to radiation, the design of berthing and docking mechanisms, the demonstration of EVA structural assembly methods in a neutral buoyancy water tank, and an investigation of the effects of meteoroids and space debris on EVA garments, which have prompted the development of a novel 'hard' suit.

  10. Rawhide Energy Station, Fort Collins, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    The staff of Platte River Power Authority's Rawhide Energy Station have been racking up operating stats and an environmental performance record that is the envy of other plant managers. In the past decade Rawhide has enjoyed an equivalent availability factor in the mid to high 90s and an average capacity factor approaching 90%. Still not content with this performance, Rawhide invested in new technology and equipment upgrades to further optimise performance, reduce emissions, and keep cost competitive. The Energy Station includes four GE France 7EA natural gas-fired turbines totalling 260 MW and a 274 MW coal-fired unit located in northeastern Colorado. 7 figs.

  11. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  12. The Lizard Wireless Station of Guglielmo Marconi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montstein, Christian

    2014-08-01

    During the vacation with my wife in Cornwall, we by chance were walking by the Lizard wireless station, originally installed by Guglielmo Marconi and recently refurbished by The National Trust/UK. Fortunately the shed was open for public visitors and a student was present telling stories about the station and its history. The historic equipment was demonstrated by sending some Morse codes. The high voltage sparks and its sound were quite impressive while in the background the Morse code receiver punched dots and dashes onto the strip chart.

  13. Study of Electromagnetism Compatibility of Bleeper Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Transmitted power will decrease, cross-modulate distortion and inter-modulate distortion will be caused and antenna pattern will shift if transmitted antennas are fixed together. All these will lead to the alteration of area coverage. According to the basic theory of electromagnetism compatibility a computer model is established. We do some quantitative analysis of the problems above and give total number, arrangement mode and distance between antennas of bleeper station that operate at 150 MHz. The relation of these factors above are also given. All these are basis of the arrangement of antenna group of bleeper station.

  14. MODELING WORK OF SORTING STATION USING UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Gorbova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is the construction of methods and models for the graphical representation process of sorting station, using the unified modeling language (UML. Methodology. Methods of graph theory, finite automata and the representation theory of queuing systems were used as the methods of investigation. A graphical representation of the process was implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language UML. The sorting station process representation is implemented as a state diagram and actions through a set of IBM Rational Rose. Graphs can show parallel operation of sorting station, the parallel existence and influence of objects process and the transition from one state to another. The IBM Rational Rose complex allows developing a diagram of work sequence of varying degrees of detailing. Findings. The study has developed a graphical representation method of the process of sorting station of different kind of complexity. All graphical representations are made using the UML. They are represented as a directed graph with the states. It is clear enough in the study of the subject area. Applying the methodology of the representation process, it allows becoming friendly with the work of any automation object very fast, and exploring the process during algorithms construction of sorting stations and other railway facilities. This model is implemented with using the Unified Modeling Language (UML using a combination of IBM Rational Rose. Originality. The representation process of sorting station was developed by means of the Unified Modeling Language (UML use. Methodology of representation process allows creating the directed graphs based on the order of execution of the works chain, objects and performers of these works. The UML allows visualizing, specifying, constructing and documenting, formalizing the representation process of sorting station and developing sequence diagrams of works of varying degrees of detail. Practical

  15. From city’s station to station city: an integrative spatial approach to the (re)development of station areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins da Conceição, A.

    2015-01-01

    The spaces of station areas do not fully achieve the liveability level sought out by recent redevelopment projects. Additionally, the role that architecture plays in their spatial definition seems to be constrained, likely because of the projects’ highly complex interdisciplinary planning processes.

  16. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. 25.137 Section 25.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL... space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition for Declaratory Ruling” requesting authority to operate with a non-U.S. licensed space station to serve the...

  17. 47 CFR 73.878 - Station inspections by FCC; availability to FCC of station logs and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station inspections by FCC; availability to FCC... (LPFM) § 73.878 Station inspections by FCC; availability to FCC of station logs and records. (a) The... FCC during the station's business hours, and at any time it is in operation. In the course of...

  18. 47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and TV... TV or TV translator station or change the facilities of an existing station will not be accepted...

  19. Fire Stations - FIRE_STATIONS_HSIP_IDHS_IN: Fire Stations in Indiana as Developed for the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — FIRE_STATIONS_HSIP_IDHS_IN is a point shapefile that contains locations of fire station, as developed for the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program (HSIP). The...

  20. Fifteen years of international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.; Celebi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrated its 15th birthday in October 2013. The ISS is the largest spaceship ever built by humans and very important for research, to understand life and physics. However, the ISS is very expensive to maintain and therefore some people argue that the ISS progr

  1. Space Station: Key to the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The possible applications, advantages and features of an advanced space station to be developed are considered in a non-technical manner in this booklet. Some of the areas of application considered include the following: the detection of large scale dynamic earth processes such as changes in snow pack, crops, and air pollution levels; the…

  2. Space Station Water Processor Process Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development program conducted under contract NAS8-38250-12 related to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor (WP) Process Pump. The results of the Process Pumps evaluation conducted on this program indicates that further development is required in order to achieve the performance and life requirements for the ISSWP.

  3. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  4. PROSPECTS AND FEATURES OF BIOGASOLINE STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the promising areas belonging to energy-saving technologies; it is the introduction of biogasoline stations into agricultural production. The analysis of the application in the world has been shown. To determine the cost-effectiveness of biogasoline stations we have shown the data for the calculation of the potential of biomass: organic waste settlements; animal waste; waste of poultry; crop residues; waste processing industry. We have obtained graphic dependences of electricity generated in the day from livestock and poultry, as well as the number of sunflower, rice, and sugar beets. The table also shows the thermal properties of organic agricultural wastes, allowing increasing the efficiency of calculations to determine the biomass resources. We have considered the schemes of biogasoline stations, a gas turbine power plant and a steam turbine power plant and disclosed the features of their work. To improve the operating and technical specifications of the stations intended for power generation we have proposed using non-contact generators and stabilization of parameters of electric power in their designs to carry out direct frequency converter. We have disclosed the advantages and disadvantages of biogas, as well as the direction of its effective use. It is shown that the use of all the possibilities in the complex of biogasoline stationns (production of fertilizers and motor oil, production of heat and electricity would improve the efficiency and the payback of investment would be from 3 to 5 years, which is mainly determined by the volumes of biomass

  5. National FCEV and Hydrogen Fueling Station Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian; Melaina, Marc

    2016-06-09

    This presentation provides a summary of the FY16 activities and accomplishments for NREL's national fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) and hydrogen fueling station scenarios project. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 9, 2016, in Washington, D.C.

  6. Routing trains through railway stations: complexity issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); H.E. Romeijn (Edwin); P.J. Zwaneveld (Peter)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider the problem of routing trains through railway stations. This problem occurs as a subproblem in the project DONS that is currently being carried out under the supervision of Railned and Netherlands Railways. The project DONS involves the determination of the

  7. Space Station - Implications for space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, D. L.; Willenberg, H. J.; Atkins, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Space-based materials processing R&D is examined. It is proposed that the Space Station's Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility will be utilized by academic, government, and commercial customers. Users requirements for materials processing in space are discussed. Consideration is given to the time allocation of the facility, charges to users, and the property rights of the users.

  8. 47 CFR 90.735 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... termination of the communication in progress on this frequency. (c) Station identification may be by voice or... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... between 15 to 20 words per minute, and by means of tone modulation of the transmitter, with the...

  9. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  10. Micro hydro-electric power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monition, L.; Le Nir, M.; Roux, J.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a discussion of all aspects of hydro-power exploitation using micro-power stations. It offers guidance to techniques for assessing the power available from a given stream, designing and building siteworks, selecting the appropriate turbine types for given conditions, and measuring and controlling environmental hazards associated with micro-hydro installations.

  11. Offshore Metocean Station for Energy Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Balluff

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy concepts are able to sustainably satisfy the world energy demand without any restrictions for the following generations. In these concepts the wind energy and wave / current energy are important factors as the description and the prognosis of waves and currents is a complex issue, especially offshore. For the estimation of the average annual wind speed and thus the energy production of offshore wind farms it is imperative to know the exact wind conditions at each project site. Suitable prognosis methods are missing so far, are not accurate enough or at beta stage. The only possibility to achieve exact information about the offshore conditions is a metocean station consisting of wind and wave sensors. These met stations can be lattice masts mounted on monopiles or buoys equipped with meteorological sensors, both in combination with wave sensors to include all important parameters. Though conventional metocean stations are far more common, established and are measuring data of high quality, cheaper and more flexible solutions as the likes of floating Lidars (Light Detection And Ranging are about to be used during the operation of wind farms. This article explains currently used methods of measurements offshore with respect to wind and wave and compares it with reanalysis data. This data has advantages in comparison to measurements from conventional metocean stations, but cannot be used independently. This article proves that using solely reanalysis data is not possible, that measurements offshore are still necessary and that its operation helps improving the performance of offshore wind farms.

  12. Fluid Studies on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Will discuss the recent activities on the international space station, including the adiabatic two phase flow, capillary flow and interfacial phenomena, and boiling and condensation. Will also give a historic introduction to Microgravity Studies at Glenn Research Center. Talk will be given to students and faculty at University of Louisville.

  13. Fifteen years of international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.; Celebi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrated its 15th birthday in October 2013. The ISS is the largest spaceship ever built by humans and very important for research, to understand life and physics. However, the ISS is very expensive to maintain and therefore some people argue that the ISS

  14. The Leica TCRA1105 Reflectorless Total Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudreault, F.

    2005-09-06

    This poster provides an overview of SLAC's TCRA1105 reflectorless total station for the Alignment Engineering Group. This instrument has shown itself to be very useful for planning new construction and providing quick measurements to difficult to reach or inaccessible surfaces.

  15. 7 CFR 29.42 - Receiving station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.42 Receiving station. Points at which producer tobacco is offered for marketing (other than sale at auction on a designated market), including tobacco auction warehouses,...

  16. International Space Station lauded, debated at symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Astronauts labored successfully in early December to unfurl solar wings on the International Space Station, which will help make that craft the third-largest object in the night sky as seen from Earth, and help power the station for at least 15 years as a continuous small scientific village in space. While astronauts from the “Endeavor” U.S. space shuttle worked on the solar panels, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee Chair James Sensenbrenner (R-Wis.) praised the International Space Station (ISS), but exchanged shots across the bow during a December 4 symposium in Washington, D.C.Sensenbrenner, a leading congressional watchdog of the project, said that the United States “should be restructuring relations with Russia on the space station” because of that country's recent, and reportedly short-lived threat to violate the international Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The regime restricts the export of some delivery systems capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction. Sensenbrenner said Russia's recent announcement [of its intention] to break a secret deal not to sell conventional weapons to Iran after January 1, 2001 is a cause for reconsidering the space station working relationship.

  17. Metsahovi Radio Observatory - IVS Network Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uunila, Minttu; Zubko, Nataliya; Poutanen, Markku; Kallunki, Juha; Kallio, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Metsahovi Radio Observatory together with Finnish Geodetic Institute officially became an IVS Network Station. Eight IVS sessions were observed during the year. Two spacecraft tracking and one EVN X-band experiment were also performed. In 2012, the Metsahovi VLBI equipment was upgraded with a Digital Base Band Converter, a Mark 5B+, a FILA10G, and a FlexBuff.

  18. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  19. Technical Design Report, Second Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bechtol, D. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Bethea, Katie L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, N. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Carden, W. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chae, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, A. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Counce, Deborah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Craft, K. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Crofford, Mark T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Richard M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cousineau, Sarah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curry, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayton, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dean, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deibele, Craig E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Doleans, Marc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dye, T. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Eason, Bob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckroth, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fincrock, C. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Fritts, S. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gawne, Ken R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hartman, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hess, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Holmes, Jeffrey A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Horak, Charlie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Matthew P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Lorelei L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Larry C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, B. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Johnson, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Kasemir, Kay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Laughon, Gregory J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mahoney, Kelly L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mammosser, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamy, T. [McManamy Consulting, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Michilini, M. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Middendorf, Mark E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Neal, Ed [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nemec, B. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Peters, Roy Cecil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Plum, Michael A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reagan, G. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rennich, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saethre, Robert B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schubert, James Phillip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shishlo, Andrei P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, C. Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strong, William Herb [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tallant, Kathie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tennant, David Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibadeau, Barbara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trumble, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Trotter, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Webb, Steven B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Derrick C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, Karen S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhao, Jinkui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Second Target Station (STS) is a proposed upgrade for SNS. It includes a doubling of the accelerator power and an additional instrument hall. The new instrument hall will receive a 467 kW 10 Hz beam. The parameters and preliminary design aspects of the STS are presented for the accelerator, target systems, instrument hall, instruments and civil construction aspects.

  20. Simple Solutions for Space Station Audio Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this summer, a number of different projects were supported relating to various NASA programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) and Orion. The primary project that was worked on was designing and testing an acoustic diverter which could be used on the ISS to increase sound pressure levels in Node 1, a module that does not have any Audio Terminal Units (ATUs) inside it. This acoustic diverter is not intended to be a permanent solution to providing audio to Node 1; it is simply intended to improve conditions while more permanent solutions are under development. One of the most exciting aspects of this project is that the acoustic diverter is designed to be 3D printed on the ISS, using the 3D printer that was set up earlier this year. Because of this, no new hardware needs to be sent up to the station, and no extensive hardware testing needs to be performed on the ground before sending it to the station. Instead, the 3D part file can simply be uploaded to the station's 3D printer, where the diverter will be made.

  1. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the

  2. Square Kilometre Array station configuration using two-stage beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Jiwani, Aziz; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Hall, Peter J; Padhi, Shantanu; de Vaate, Jan Geralt bij

    2012-01-01

    The lowest frequency band (70 - 450 MHz) of the Square Kilometre Array will consist of sparse aperture arrays grouped into geographically-localised patches, or stations. Signals from thousands of antennas in each station will be beamformed to produce station beams which form the inputs for the central correlator. Two-stage beamforming within stations can reduce SKA-low signal processing load and costs, but has not been previously explored for the irregular station layouts now favoured in radio astronomy arrays. This paper illustrates the effects of two-stage beamforming on sidelobes and effective area, for two representative station layouts (regular and irregular gridded tile on an irregular station). The performance is compared with a single-stage, irregular station. The inner sidelobe levels do not change significantly between layouts, but the more distant sidelobes are affected by the tile layouts; regular tile creates diffuse, but regular, grating lobes. With very sparse arrays, the station effective area...

  3. Soil Temperature Station Data from Permafrost Regions of Russia (Selection of Five Stations), 1880s - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes soil temperature data from boreholes located at five stations in Russia: Yakutsk, Verkhoyansk, Pokrovsk, Isit', and Churapcha. The data have...

  4. US Coast Guard Stations in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USCG [coast_guard_stations_USCG_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of eight US Coast Guard stations in Louisiana. The attributes include name, address, latitude (NAD27),...

  5. Life in the spacecraft and planetary station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovich, B A; Nefyodov, Y G; Ushakov, A S; Chizhov, S V

    1968-01-01

    Further exploration of outer space and the solar system, performance of interplanetary flights and establishment of planetary stations necessitate extensive physiological studies and development of reliable life-support systems. When developing the systems, particular attention should be paid to the concept and testing of new processes which can provide a highly efficient regeneration of vitally important materials and decrease the weight of expendables. Of great significance is the establishment of optimal parameters of the environment for long-term manned spaceflights and selection of facilities securing them. The development of new life-support systems should be based on a thorough study of the particular environment, proper selection and physiological and hygienical evaluation of their components. Long duration space missions can be planned from studies on the effects of space flight factors upon the human body to reveal its variability limits under peculiar conditions of the spacecraft or planetary station.

  6. A probe station for testing silicon sensors

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    A probe station for testing silicon sensors. The probe station is located inside a dark box that can keep away light during the measurement. The set-up is located in the DSF (Department Silicon Facility). The golden plate is the "chuck" where the sensor is usually placed on. With the help of "manipulators", thin needles can be precisely positioned that can contact the sensor surface. Using these needles and the golden chuck, a high voltage can be applied to the sensor to test its behaviour under high voltage. We will use the silicon sensors that we test here for building prototypes of a highly granular sandwich calorimeter, the CMS HGC (Highly granular Calorimeter) upgrade for High-Luminosity LHC.

  7. Expandable pallet for space station interface attachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A foldable expandable pallet having a basic square configuration is disclosed. Each pallet is comprised of a plurality of struts, joined together by node point fittings to make a rigid structure. Some of the struts have hinge fittings and are spring loaded to permit collapse of the module for stowage and transport to a space station. Dimensions of the pallet are selected to provide convenient, closely spaced attachment points between the relatively widely spaced trusses of a space station platform. A pallet is attached to a truss at four points; one close fitting hole; two oversize holes; and a slot; to allow for thermal expansion/contraction and for manufacturing tolerances. Applications of the pallet include its use in rotary or angular joints; servicing of splints; with gridded plates; as an instrument mounting bases; and as a roadbed for a Mobile Service Center (MSC).

  8. Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kyrouac, Jenni A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) is a surface meteorological station, manufactured by Vaisala, Inc., dedicated to the balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS), providing surface measurements of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the wind speed and direction for each radiosonde profile. These data are automatically provided to the BBSS during the launch procedure and included in the radiosonde profile as the surface measurements of record for the sounding. The MAWS core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (hPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: • Temperature and relative humidity: 2 meters • Barometric pressure: 1 meter • Winds: 10 meters.

  9. Space Station Freedom electrical performance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Mckissock, David B.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    The baseline Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) employs photovoltaic (PV) arrays and nickel hydrogen (NiH2) batteries to supply power to housekeeping and user electrical loads via a direct current (dc) distribution system. The EPS was originally designed for an operating life of 30 years through orbital replacement of components. As the design and development of the EPS continues, accurate EPS performance predictions are needed to assess design options, operating scenarios, and resource allocations. To meet these needs, NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has, over a 10 year period, developed SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation), a computer code designed to predict EPS performance. This paper describes SPACE, its functionality, and its capabilities.

  10. Energy Efficient Military Mobile Base Station Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Ray

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with an energy efficient network for military mobile base station placement. Theproposed method is based on minimizing the energy loss of military communication networks where thebase station is moving along a preset path and the users are constantly moving in an independent speedand direction. It takes into account the free space loss and the knife edge effect for the energy loss toestablish a path weight for the shortest path model. Then, it evaluates the neighboring points to the basestation for the energy loss of the network in order to find the position at which the minimum energy lossoccurs. The results show a clear energy saving advantage when compared to Lloyd-Max’s method

  11. A probe station for testing silicon sensors

    CERN Multimedia

    Ulysse, Fichet

    2017-01-01

    A probe station for testing silicon sensors. The probe station is located inside a dark box that can keep away light during the measurement. The set-up is located in the DSF (Department Silicon Facility). The golden plate is the "chuck" where the sensor is usually placed on. With the help of "manipulators", thin needles can be precisely positioned that can contact the sensor surface. Using these needles and the golden chuck, a high voltage can be applied to the sensor to test its behaviour under high voltage. We will use the silicon sensors that we test here for building prototypes of a highly granular sandwich calorimeter, the CMS HGC (Highly granular Calorimeter) upgrade for High-Luminosity LHC.

  12. Digitized seismic station for colliery use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, V.M.; Blyakhman, A.S.

    1979-09-01

    Seismic tests used to investigate the stress conditions in rock and conducted in different deposits throughout the USSR, have made it possible to determine the optimum variants for the application of such tests. The VNIMI Institute has developed a seismic station for mines which features a 7-channel numerical control and undertakes measurements via three operating systems: determination of the propagation speed of artifically-emitted seismic waves; measurement of the co-ordinates for the seismic-wave emission sources; and recording the number of natural seismic signals in a given area of solid rock. The Institute a plan of the station together with operational data. The feed voltage is 5 V and the power consumption 500 mA. (In Russian)

  13. Power electronic applications for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, Roy L.; Lazbin, Igor

    1990-01-01

    NASA plans to orbit a permanently manned space station in the late 1990s, which requires development and assembly of a photovoltaic (PV) power source system to supply up to 75 kW of electrical power average during the orbital period. The electrical power requirements are to be met by a combination of PV source, storage, and control elements for the sun and eclipse periods. The authors discuss the application of power electronics and controls to manage the generation, storage, and distribution of power to meet the station loads, as well as the computer models used for analysis and simulation of the PV power system. The requirements for power source integrated controls to adjust storage charge power during the insolation period current limiting, breaker interrupt current values, and the electrical fault protection approach are defined. Based on these requirements, operating concepts have been defined which then become drivers for specific system and element design.

  14. Minimum Energy Demand Locomotion on Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Kwong Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy of a space station is a precious resource, and the minimization of energy consumption of a space manipulator is crucial to maintain its normal functionalities. This paper first presents novel gaits for space manipulators by equipping a new gripping mechanism. With the use of wheels locomotion, lower energy demand gaits can be achieved. With the use of the proposed gaits, we further develop a global path planning algorithm for space manipulators which can plan a moving path on a space station with a minimum total energy demand. Different from existing approaches, we emphasize both the use of the proposed low energy demand gaits and the gaits composition during the path planning process. To evaluate the performance of the proposed gaits and path planning algorithm, numerous simulations are performed. Results show that the energy demand of both the proposed gaits and the resultant moving path is also minimum.

  15. JARE Syowa Station 11-m Antenna, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Yuichi; Doi, Koichiro; Shibuya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the 52nd and the 53rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions (hereinafter, referred to as JARE-52 and JARE-53, respectively) participated in five OHIG sessions - OHIG76, 78, 79, 80, and 81. These data were recorded on hard disks through the K5 terminal. Only the hard disks for the OHIG76 session have been brought back from Syowa Station to Japan, in April 2012, by the icebreaker, Shirase, while those of the other four sessions are scheduled to arrive in April 2013. The data obtained from the OHIG73, 74, 75, and 76 sessions by JARE-52 and JARE-53 have been transferred to the Bonn Correlator via the servers of National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). At Syowa Station, JARE-53 and JARE-54 will participate in six OHIG sessions in 2013.

  16. A Brazilian network of carbon flux stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Débora R.; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Moraes, Osvaldo L. L.

    2012-05-01

    First Brasflux Workshop; Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 14-15 November 2011 Last November, 33 researchers participated in a workshop to establish Brasflux, the Brazilian network of carbon flux stations, with the objective of integrating previous efforts and planning for the future. Among the participants were those leading ongoing flux observation projects and others planning to establish flux stations in the near future. International scientists also participated to share the experiences gained with other networks. The need to properly characterize terrestrial ecosystems for their roles in the global carbon, water, and energy budgets has motivated the implementation of hundreds of micrometeorological research sites throughout the world in recent years. The eddy covariance (EC) technique for turbulent flux determination is the preferred method to provide integral information on ecosystematmosphere exchanges. Integrating the observations regionally and globally has proven to be an effective approach to maximizing the usefulness of this technique for carbon cycle studies at multiple scales.

  17. Dual station visualization measuring method of LRCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing; Cao, Guohuaa; Lv, Qiongyinga; Zhang, Xina

    2016-10-01

    Based on the physical meaning of the laser radar scattering cross section (LRCS), When the target is the standard target or the extension target, the LRCS analytical expressions and numerical expression are deduced. Based on the LRCS expression, Proposed a dual station visualization comparison measurement method, the purpose is to use a known radar cross section of the standard target, by the power detector, and CCD images obtained gray value, calculated the target's radar cross section. In the paper, we designed the optical emission system and the optical receiving system, then detected target backscatter light power, Sampled the target image, Using MATLAB calculate the power density ratio of test objectives and reference target., compared the measured data with the empirical data, verify the feasibility of the dual station visualization comparison measurement method.

  18. QUAD METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING RELATIVELY STABLE STATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangLiren

    2003-01-01

    The QUAD(Quasi-Accurate Detection of gross errors) method which is originally developed to detect gross errors in the geodetic data is extended and used to select and indentify relatively stable stations. The formulas and algorithm are described in detail. Some problems that should be noticed in the use of this method are discussed. Finally, this method is applied to some data observed in North China as an example.

  19. Cosmic ray test station for ATLAS RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Pietra, M Della; Canale, V; Caprio, M A; Carlino, G; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Iengo, P; Patricelli, S; Romanó, L; Sekhniaidze, G; Della Volpe, D

    2003-01-01

    We describe the facility for RPC test with cosmic rays, designed and built at the laboratory of INFN and University of Naples. Trigger and tracking systems consist of a scintillator hodoscope and two drift chambers with track reconstruction resolution of similar to 400 mum. Trigger is provided by the twofold coincidence of scintillators covering a surface of 1 m**2. Two step motors move chambers synchronously along the station for RPC scanning. Up to eight RPCs can be tested simultaneously.

  20. QUAD METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING RELATIVELY STABLE STATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Liren

    2003-01-01

    The QUAD(Quasi-Accurate Detection of gross errors) method which is originally developed to detect gross errors in the geodetic data is extended and used to select and identify relatively stable stations. The formulas and algorithm are described in detail. Some problems that should be noticed in the use of this method are discussed. Finally, this method is applied to some data observed in North China as an example.

  1. DIDACTIC AUTOMATED STATION OF COMPLEX KINEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Sosnowski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design, control system and software that controls the automated station of complex kinematics. Control interface and software has been developed and manufactured in the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin in the Department of Automated Manufacturing Systems Engineering and Quality. Conducting classes designed to teach programming and design of structures and systems for monitoring the robot kinematic components with non-standard structures was the reason for installation of the control system and software.

  2. Evolutionary space station fluids management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Results are summarized for an 11-month study to define fluid storage and handling strategies and requirements for various specific mission case studies and their associated design impacts on the Space Station. There are a variety of fluid users which require a variety of fluids and use rates. Also, the cryogenic propellants required for NASA's STV, Planetary, and Code Z missions are enormous. The storage methods must accommodate fluids ranging from a high pressure gas or supercritical state fluid to a sub-cooled liquid (and superfluid helium). These requirements begin in the year 1994, reach a maximum of nearly 1800 metric tons in the year 2004, and trail off to the year 2018, as currently planned. It is conceivable that the cryogenic propellant needs for the STV and/or Lunar mission models will be met by LTCSF LH2/LO2 tanksets attached to the SS truss structure. Concepts and corresponding transfer and delivery operations have been presented for STV propellant provisioning from the SS. A growth orbit maneuvering vehicle (OMV) and associated servicing capability will be required to move tanksets from delivery launch vehicles to the SS or co-orbiting platforms. Also, appropriate changes to the software used for OMV operation are necessary to allow for the combined operation of the growth OMV. To support fluid management activities at the Space Station for the experimental payloads and propellant provisioning, there must be truss structure space allocated for fluid carriers and propellant tanksets, and substantial beam strengthening may be required. The Station must have two Mobile Remote Manipulator Systems (MRMS) and the growth OMV propellant handling operations for the STV at the SS. Propellant needs for the Planetary Initiatives and Code Z mission models will most likely be provided by co-orbiting propellant platform(s). Space Station impacts for Code Z mission fluid management activities will be minimal.

  3. Momentum management strategy during Space Station buildup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lynda; Malchow, Harvey; Hattis, Philip

    1988-01-01

    The use of momentum storage devices to control effectors for Space Station attitude control throughout the buildup sequence is discussed. Particular attention is given to the problem of providing satisfactory management of momentum storage effectors throughout buildup while experiencing variable torque loading. Continuous and discrete control strategies are compared and the effects of alternative control moment gyro strategies on peak momentum storage requirements and on commanded maneuver characteristics are described.

  4. Social factors in space station interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranz, Galen; Eichold, Alice; Hottes, Klaus; Jones, Kevin; Weinstein, Linda

    1987-01-01

    Using the example of the chair, which is often written into space station planning but which serves no non-cultural function in zero gravity, difficulties in overcoming cultural assumptions are discussed. An experimental approach is called for which would allow designers to separate cultural assumptions from logistic, social and psychological necessities. Simulations, systematic doubt and monitored brainstorming are recommended as part of basic research so that the designer will approach the problems of space module design with a complete program.

  5. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  6. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  7. Data capture and processing. [for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, John; Smith, Gene; Carper, Richard

    1987-01-01

    A systems concept developed in response to the specific requirements imposed by the Space Station and affiliated instrumentation is described. Particular attention is given to those subsystems associated with initial data capture, handling, routing, and distribution control for return link data via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. The conceived approach, designated the Customer Data and Operations System, includes a data interface facility and a data handling center whose functions are data capture, demultiplexing and routing, early preprocessing, and ancillary data handling.

  8. Students Visit Space Station Lab Mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Students from Albuquerque, MN, tour through the mockup of the U.S. Destiny laboratory module that will be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Behind them are the racks for the Fluids and Combustion Facility being developed by Glenn Research Center. The mockup was on display at the Space Tehnology International Forum in Albuquerque, MN. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  9. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  10. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  11. International space station microgravity environment design & verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Basso, Steve

    1999-01-01

    A broad class of scientific experiments has evolved which utilize extreme low acceleration environments. The International Space Station will provide such a ``microgravity'' environment, in conjunction with an unparalleled combination of quiescent period duration, payload volume and power, and manned or telescience interaction. The International Space Station is the world's first manned space vehicle with microgravity requirements. These place limits on the acceleration levels within the pressurized laboratories and affect everything from flight altitude and attitude to the mechanical and acoustic energies emitted by an air circulation fan. To achieve such performance within the program's resource constraints, a microgravity control approach has been adopted which balances both source and receiver disturbance mitigation. The Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) provides acceleration attenuation at the payload rack level, and dominant sources have been reduced either by isolation or design modifications. Analytical assessments indicate that the vehicle is capable of meeting the challenging microgravity requirements, although some current marginal non-compliances do exist. Assessment refinements will continue through the verification phase with greater reliance on test and on-orbit measured data as part of a long term effort to clearly define and understand the constitution of the acceleration environment. This process will assure that the design and operation of the International Space Station will support significant microgravity science research.

  12. Numerical flow analysis of hydro power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

    2017-07-01

    For the hydraulic engineering and design of hydro power stations and their hydraulic optimisation, mainly experimental studies of the physical submodel or of the full model at the hydraulics laboratory are carried out. Partially, the flow analysis is done by means of computational fluid dynamics based on 2D and 3D methods and is a useful supplement to experimental studies. For the optimisation of hydro power stations, fast numerical methods would be appropriate to study the influence of a wide field of optimisation parameters and flow states. Among the 2D methods, especially the methods based on the shallow water equations are suitable for this field of application, since a lot of experience verified by in-situ measurements exists because of the widely used application of this method for the problems in hydraulic engineering. As necessary, a 3D model may supplement subsequently the optimisation of the hydro power station. The quality of the results of the 2D method for the optimisation of hydro power plants is investigated by means of the results of the optimisation of the hydraulic dividing pier compared to the results of the 3D flow analysis.

  13. Cooperative Proxy Caching for Wireless Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Z. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a mobile cache model to facilitate the cooperative proxy caching in wireless base stations. This mobile cache model uses a network cache line to record the caching state information about a web document for effective data search and cache space management. Based on the proposed mobile cache model, a P2P cooperative proxy caching scheme is proposed to use a self-configured and self-managed virtual proxy graph (VPG, independent of the underlying wireless network structure and adaptive to the network and geographic environment changes, to achieve efficient data search, data cache and date replication. Based on demand, the aggregate effect of data caching, searching and replicating actions by individual proxy servers automatically migrates the cached web documents closer to the interested clients. In addition, a cache line migration (CLM strategy is proposed to flow and replicate the heads of network cache lines of web documents associated with a moving mobile host to the new base station during the mobile host handoff. These replicated cache line heads provide direct links to the cached web documents accessed by the moving mobile hosts in the previous base station, thus improving the mobile web caching performance. Performance studies have shown that the proposed P2P cooperative proxy caching schemes significantly outperform existing caching schemes.

  14. Space Station Control Moment Gyroscope Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrisi, Charles; Seidel, Raymond; Dickerson, Scott; Didziulis, Stephen; Frantz, Peter; Ferguson, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Four 4760 Nms (3510 ft-lbf-s) Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscopes (DGCMG) with unlimited gimbal freedom about each axis were adopted by the International Space Station (ISS) Program as the non-propulsive solution for continuous attitude control. These CMGs with a life expectancy of approximately 10 years contain a flywheel spinning at 691 rad/s (6600 rpm) and can produce an output torque of 258 Nm (190 ft-lbf)1. One CMG unexpectedly failed after approximately 1.3 years and one developed anomalous behavior after approximately six years. Both units were returned to earth for failure investigation. This paper describes the Space Station Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscope design, on-orbit telemetry signatures and a summary of the results of both failure investigations. The lessons learned from these combined sources have lead to improvements in the design that will provide CMGs with greater reliability to assure the success of the Space Station. These lessons learned and design improvements are not only applicable to CMGs but can be applied to spacecraft mechanisms in general.

  15. Antenna unit and radio base station therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Mikio; Doi, Nobukazu; Suzuki, Toshiro; Ishida, Yuji; Inoue, Takashi; Niida, Sumaru

    2007-04-10

    Phase and amplitude deviations, which are generated, for example, by cables connecting an array antenna of a CDMA base station and the base station, are calibrated in the baseband. The base station comprises: an antenna apparatus 1; couplers 2; an RF unit 3 that converts a receive signal to a baseband signal, converts a transmit signal to a radio frequency, and performs power control; an A/D converter 4 for converting a receive signal to a digital signal; a receive beam form unit 6 that multiplies the receive signal by semi-fixed weight; a despreader 7 for this signal input; a time-space demodulator 8 for demodulating user data; a despreader 9 for probe signal; a space modulator 14 for user data; a spreader 13 for user signal; a channel combiner 12; a Tx calibrater 11 for controlling calibration of a signal; a D/A converter 10; a unit 16 for calculation of correlation matrix for generating a probe signal used for controlling an Rx calibration system and a TX calibration system; a spreader 17 for probe signal; a power control unit 18; a D/A converter 19; an RF unit 20 for probe signal; an A/D converter 21 for signal from the couplers 2; and a despreader 22.

  16. 78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Administration announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The...

  17. 78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Administration announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The...

  18. Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2008-04-01

    Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

  19. Retrofitting automated process control systems at Ukrainian power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Simkin; V.S. Naumchik; B.D. Kozitskii (and others) [OAO L' vovORGRES, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2008-04-15

    Approaches and principles for retrofitting automated process control systems at Ukrainian power stations are considered. The results obtained from retrofitting the monitoring and control system of Unit 9 at the Burshtyn thermal power station are described.

  20. RadNet Air Quality (Fixed Station) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air for analysis of radioactivity. The RadNet network, which has stations in each State,...

  1. Streamflow Gaging Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  2. Railway Station Role in Composing Urban Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conticelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite railway infrastructure was the structural framework on which modern European States were developed, contributing to unify territories and to the establishment of Nations, right from the beginning, the relationship between railway and city has been characterized by physical, functional and social conflicts, mainly because of a lack of integration between infrastructural and urban policies, which have been produced strong conflicts during decades. These critical situations have concentrated on the railway stations surrounding areas, which have started symbolizing the main conflicts that are taking place inside the cities.Similarly to what happened in the XIX century, today railway is a strategic infrastructure for the European territory development, thanks to the introduction of high speed transport systems and the promotion of rail transport as a more sustainable transportation system, which can quickly connect metropolitan central areas, more and more impenetrable by private vehicles, and key functions centres for the contemporary urban systems.In this framework, railway stations are becoming public places representing a complex society which is more and more dedicated to motion; thus they offer an unmissable chance not only to carry out urban development and spatial cohesion policies, but also to compose old tensions caused by the sharing of physical space, which is more and more scarce and valuable, and by ghettoization phenomena which have been produced at local scale, between rail infrastructure and the surrounding urban context. Today, such conflicts are growing and they are involving many actors who express a lot of different interests, needs and expectations, relating to the station areas’ destiny.Starting from the analysis of some conflicting situations between rail stations and the surrounding areas which have took place until today, this paper investigates some recent renewal interventions on Italian and European main railway

  3. 78 FR 66964 - International Space Station Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION International Space Station Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National... International Space Station Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to sections 14(b)(1) and 9(c) of the Federal... charter of the International Space Station Advisory Committee is in the public interest in connection...

  4. Space Station Freedom. A Foothold on the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Leonard

    This booklet describes the planning of the space station program. Sections included are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "A New Era Begins" (discussing scientific experiments on the space station); (3) "Living in Space"; (4) "Dreams Fulfilled" (summarizing the history of the space station development, including the…

  5. 47 CFR 22.1031 - Temporary fixed stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1031 Temporary fixed stations. The FCC may, upon proper application therefor, authorize the construction and operation of temporary fixed stations in the... the United States and Mexico must not be carried using a temporary fixed station without...

  6. 14 CFR 145.209 - Repair station manual contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repair station manual contents. 145.209... manual contents. A certificated repair station's manual must include the following: (a) An organizational... for revising the repair station's manual and notifying its certificate holding district office...

  7. Data communications method for mobile network in fourth generation communications system, involves delivering decoded data to mobile station from relay station, where mobile station receives data from both relay and base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The method involves utilizing a base station (BS) (100) to transmit data to a relay station (RS) (110) and a mobile station (MS) (120), where the data includes two messages. The BS is utilized to transmit the two messages by utilizing a linear combination method, and the data is received in the R...

  8. Inner-city station areas in Chinese cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Redevelopments of Chinese inner-­‐city station areas introduced both new transport infrastructures (high speed railway, urban mass transit system, etc.) and real estate projects to station vicinities during the past decades. However, existing station areas are isolated from the rest of the city, and

  9. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations...

  10. Fuel cell energy storage for Space Station enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fuel cell energy storage for space station enhancement are presented. Topics covered include: power profile; solar dynamic power system; photovoltaic battery; space station energy demands; orbiter fuel cell power plant; space station energy storage; fuel cell system modularity; energy storage system development; and survival power supply.

  11. 49 CFR 192.173 - Compressor stations: Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Ventilation. 192.173 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.173 Compressor stations: Ventilation. Each compressor station building must be ventilated to ensure...

  12. 49 CFR 192.171 - Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... event of inadequate cooling or lubrication of the unit. (d) Each compressor station gas engine that... compressor station must have vent slots or holes in the baffles of each compartment to prevent gas from being... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Additional safety equipment...

  13. 49 CFR 192.736 - Compressor stations: Gas detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Gas detection. 192.736... Compressor stations: Gas detection. (a) Not later than September 16, 1996, each compressor building in a compressor station must have a fixed gas detection and alarm system, unless the building is— (1) Constructed...

  14. 47 CFR 73.4017 - Application processing: Commercial FM stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application processing: Commercial FM stations... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4017 Application processing: Commercial FM stations. See Report and Order, MM Docket 84-750, FCC 85-125, adopted March 4,...

  15. Incorporating the Campus Radio Station into Your Emergency Communications Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Radio stations have been a mainstay of American life since the 1920s. Broadcasting primarily over AM and FM frequencies, American radio stations have been used to provide entertainment, news, weather, and advertising to the public. Beginning in 1963 and continuing until 1997, local radio stations were part of the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)…

  16. 76 FR 5213 - Cable Compulsory License: Specialty Station List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... in 1989, see 54 FR 38461 (September 18, 1989), an owner or licensee of a broadcast station files a... television station classified as a specialty station at the base rate for ``permitted'' signals. See 49 FR... in order to maintain as current a list as possible. 55 FR 40021 (October 1, 1990). Its second...

  17. 47 CFR 74.705 - TV broadcast analog station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV broadcast analog station protection. 74.705... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.705 TV broadcast analog station protection. (a) The TV...

  18. Electrical Power Station Theory. A Course of Technical Information for Electrical Power Station Wireman Apprentices. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This third-year course for electrical power station wirer apprentices is a foundation for the study of all aspects of installation and maintenance of power station equipment. It also provides a good technical background as well as the general knowledge essential to power station operator trainees. The course is intended to be equivalent to a…

  19. 76 FR 40754 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; McGuire Nuclear Station, Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ..., 50-270, And 50-287] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3; Notice of Withdrawal of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  20. 76 FR 24538 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; McGuire Nuclear Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ..., 50-270, and 50-287] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3; Notice of Withdrawal of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  1. 78 FR 39200 - Federal Earth Stations-Non-Federal Fixed Satellite Service Space Stations; Spectrum for Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...-11341; FCC 13-65] Federal Earth Stations--Non-Federal Fixed Satellite Service Space Stations; Spectrum... interference protection for Fixed-Satellite Service (FSS) and Mobile- Satellite Service (MSS) earth stations... and the important role it will play in our nation's economy and technological innovation now and in...

  2. Procedural guide for the design of transit stations and terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demetsky, M.J.; Hoel, L.A.; Virkler, M.R.

    1977-06-01

    State-of-the-art concepts regarding the planning, design, and evaluation of passenger transportation stations are discussed. The material directs transportation planning teams to search for efficient station designs. The important stages and considerations in a comprehensive terminal analysis methodology are described. The transit station design process requires contributions from many disciplines and skills. The report given will help coordinate station development programs in accommodating inputs from the disciplines, and it highlights the elements of different stations to assure valid comparisons relative to performance and cost criteria.

  3. Workload characterization for the space station data communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    NASA plans to launch a permanent manned space station in the early 1990's. The station will be used to support a wide variety of activities involving Earth and space observation, satellite maintenance, scientific experimentation, and commercial manufacturing. The control and monitoring of many of these activities will require extensive computer and communications system support. In order to identify an appropriate computer and communication system for supporting the space station, an attempt to characterize the space station's data communications subsystem workload is currently underway. Some of the special aspects of the workload characterization problem are discussed in connection with the space station, and some possible approaches are presented.

  4. Southeast regional experiment station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-05

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  5. Fuel efficiency, availability and compressor station configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubomirsky, Matt; Kurz, Rainer [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Klimov, Pavel [Intergas Central Asia, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2009-12-19

    Compressor stations play a very important role in the success of a gas pipeline design and a careful selection of centrifugal compressors and drivers are key aspects for the success of the project. The state of the art design available today for this equipment provides overall high thermodynamic performance and consequently minimizes installed power requirements and energy usage with significant savings on operating expenses during the economic life of the project For any application of machinery in a pipeline compression station, one of the key questions to answer is the number of units to install to meet the flow requirements of the pipeline. Depending on the load profile of the pipeline, the answers may look different. Other factors to consider include the fact that gas turbines can produce a significant amount of additional power at lower ambient temperatures. So, even for constant load of the pipeline, the relative load of the driver changes. In this paper, a typical transcontinental pipeline with multiple compressor stations is evaluated. The determination of the exact hydraulic behavior of the pipeline is part of the modeling effort. The site ambient conditions, with a significant swing in ambient temperatures are considered. The issue discussed in this paper evolves around the availability that can be achieved with various configurations, based on actually achieved reliability and availability numbers. The other large impact on operating costs, fuel consumption will be discussed. Here, the choice of the number of installed units has a distinct impact on annual fuel consumption, as well as the capacity of the pipeline during various scenarios. (author)

  6. Weather station on platform Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgan, Matjaž

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project was to make a weather station on the computer Raspberry Pi. In the first part of the thesis we focused on the history of the computer’s development and a presentation of technologies we used. Hardware technologies enabled us to mea- sure air temperature and pressure (sensor MPL115A2), humidity (sensor DHT11) and coordinates GPS (receiver MAX-6). For the programming technologies we used Python and some other tools and libraries: Crontab, SQLAlchemy, SQLite, CherryPi, M...

  7. Automation for a base station stability testing

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Batchelor’s thesis was commissioned by Oy LM Ericsson Ab Oulu. The aim of it was to help to investigate and create a test automation solution for the stability testing of the LTE base station. The main objective was to create a test automation for a predefined test set. This test automation solution had to be created for specific environments and equipment. This work included creating the automation for the test cases and putting them to daily test automation jobs. The key factor...

  8. International Space Station -- Fluid Physics Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The optical bench for the Fluid Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown in its operational configuration. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  9. Coal-fired stations top emission league

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aegren, C.

    2004-12-01

    Topping the list of the greatest emitters of sulphur into the atmosphere in Europe are two large coal-fired power stations in Bulgaria (Maritsa II) and Spain (Puentes). These figures come from an updated survey of emissions from large point sources prepared by SENCO on behalf of the Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain. The article summarises the survey results and gives a table of the 100 largest emitters of sulphur dioxide in the European Union EU25 and accession countries (Bulgaria and Romania) together with author listing the 'best' fossil fuel power plants. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Thermal battery automated assembly station conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D

    1988-08-01

    Thermal battery assembly involves many operations which are labor- intense. In August 1986, a project team was formed at GE Neutron Devices to investigate and evaluate more efficient and productive battery assembly techniques through the use of automation. The result of this study was the acceptance of a plan to automate the piece part pellet fabrication and battery stacking operations by using computerized pellet presses and robots which would be integrated by a main computer. This report details the conceptual design and development plan to be followed in the fabrication, development, and implementation of a thermal battery automated assembly station. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Weather station on platform Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgan, Matjaž

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project was to make a weather station on the computer Raspberry Pi. In the first part of the thesis we focused on the history of the computer’s development and a presentation of technologies we used. Hardware technologies enabled us to mea- sure air temperature and pressure (sensor MPL115A2), humidity (sensor DHT11) and coordinates GPS (receiver MAX-6). For the programming technologies we used Python and some other tools and libraries: Crontab, SQLAlchemy, SQLite, CherryPi, M...

  12. Space Station Freedom attached payloads and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furio, N.; Pyfer, B.; Smith, R. B., Jr.; Hunt, S. R.; Suddeth, D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom (SSF) attaches external payloads to its main truss structure via Attached Payload Accommodation Equipment (APAE); this equipment also provides access to such SSF resources as electrical power, command/control, and data handling. In orbit, APAE payloads are installed and maintained by a teleoperated robot or by an astronaut in EVA. Commercialization of EPAE will be accomplished by private companies concerned with the development of materials processing, earth resources and ocean resources monitoring, telecommunications, and industrial services. Attention is given to APAE user-integration activity.

  13. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  14. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  15. Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

  16. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-09-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  17. Applicability of Virtual Reference Stations for Static and Kinematic Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Jakub; Rzepecka, Zofia

    2013-04-01

    There is a possibility to generate artificial observations for a particular position by using a known Virtual Reference Station technique. It is done by transferring the observations from a physical reference station and interpolating the biases, usually using a network of reference stations. Theoretically, the measurements can replace the physical reference receiver and both, simplify and improve the processing of static and kinematic measurements. Here, the VRS is used as a control station for static and kinematic post-processing taking advantage of the network of reference stations by interpolating ionospheric and tropospheric biases to location of measurement. However previous computational experiments showed that the generated virtual observations are strongly correlated with the observations gathered at the nearest physical reference station. The previous studies were performed at close vicinity of the physical reference station. For further investigations of these correlations, and the issue of how do they influence processing results, a field experiment was designed and performed, in which the real measurements were taken at various distances from the physical reference station. Basing on these measurements, the correlations between the reference station and VRS stations were studied. The unknown physical stations were determined and used as a comparison for VRS measurements. Also, the applicability of VRS observations for static and kinematic processing was validated. To assure independence of calculations and results, besides commercial software (GNSS Solutions and LGO) chosen Precise Point Positioning services were used. The VRS data were obtained from the POZGEO-D service of the ASG-EUPOS network.

  18. Measuring Robustness of Timetables in Stations using a Probability Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex

    of a station based on the plan of operation and the minimum headway times However, none of the above methods take a given timetable into account when the complexity of the station is calculated. E.g. two timetable candidates are given following the same plan of operation in a station; one will be more...... vulnerable to delays (less robust) while the other will be less vulnerable (more robust), but this cannot be measured by the above methods. In the light of this, the article will describe a new method where the complexity of a given station with a given timetable can be calculated based on a probability...... delays caused by interdependencies, and result in a more robust operation. Currently three methods to calculate the complexity of station exists: 1. Complexity of a station based on the track layout 2. Complexity of a station based on the probability of a conflict using a plan of operation 3. Complexity...

  19. Catalog of strong motion stations in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, R. W.

    1990-04-01

    The catalog contains information on all strong motion stations operating in Eastern North America known to the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). The location, coordinates, installation dates, type of instrument, operator, structure type and size, and site geology are listed for each station. The format of the catalog is patterned after the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 81-664, 'Western Hemisphere Strong-Motion Accelerograph Station List-1980' but the entries have been updated as of January 1990. There are 237 stations listed in the catalog which include 414 recording instruments. One third of these stations are intended to record free-field ground motion while the rest are associated with large engineered structures. The relationship of station location to seismicity is shown in a series of figures and a method is described to predict peak acceleration levels from an earthquake where the magnitude and distance to station are known.

  20. Risk Management for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, J.; Brezovic, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an extremely complex system, both technically and programmatically. The Space Station must support a wide range of payloads and missions. It must be launched in numerous launch packages and be safely assembled and operated in the harsh environment of space. It is being designed and manufactured by many organizations, including the prime contractor, Boeing, the NASA institutions, and international partners and their contractors. Finally, the ISS has multiple customers, (e.g., the Administration, Congress, users, public, international partners, etc.) with contrasting needs and constraints. It is the ISS Risk Management Office strategy to proactively and systematically manages risks to help ensure ISS Program success. ISS program follows integrated risk management process (both quantitative and qualitative) and is integrated into ISS project management. The process and tools are simple and seamless and permeate to the lowest levels (at a level where effective management can be realized) and follows the continuous risk management methodology. The risk process assesses continually what could go wrong (risks), determine which risks need to be managed, implement strategies to deal with those risks, and measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The process integrates all facets of risk including cost, schedule and technical aspects. Support analysis risk tools like PRA are used to support programatic decisions and assist in analyzing risks.