Van den Heede, Pieter; Ribbens, Kees; Jeroen, Jansz
Especially since the 1990s, World War II has been one of the most popular historical conflicts to be represented and simulated in digital games (Mobygames, 2016). Yet, in the current body of research about these games, mainly aspects of individual games or game types, such as the World War II-themed
The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...
Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)
Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)
Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.
This issue of the children's quarterly magazine, "The Goldfinch," focuses on World War I. A brief discussion of how the United States came to enter the War is followed by a discussion of propaganda. An article on the use of posters to encourage citizens to participate in the war effort is illustrated with reproductions of several of…
John Scales Avery
Full Text Available The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had any idea of what it would be like. Technology had changed the character of war, but old patterns of thought remained in place. We also examine the roots of the war in industrial and colonial competition, and in an arms race. Finally, parallels with current events, and the important lessons for today’s world are discussed.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...
The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugos...
Winkler, Allan M.
Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)
Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.
These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June…
Full Text Available The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugoslavs’ examples, where ethnic violence in after war period was overshadowed by general suffering from foreign occupants and local traitors in the Second World War. Instead of reassessment of existing ethnic and national identities, the process of reconciliation between Croatian and Serbian community after the Second World War was exhilarated with radical changes of collective identities.
Department of Defense, Washington, DC.
This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…
The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have....... The "extreme 20th century" will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be more extreme and its temporal bindings easier to observe. The much celebrated revolutions in military affairs will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away. Kantian convergences may appear....
Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conﬂicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion sca...
Sutcliffe, Marcella P.
This paper focuses on the reading and educational practices of common soldiers during the First World War. It argues that the question of how war libraries were imagined and constructed by civilians needs to be framed in the larger context of pre-war Edwardian debates surrounding the "value of books" in society. Indeed, it was within…
Foster, Stuart J.; Rosch, Richard
Outlines a multicultural approach to World War I that emphasizes the truly international character of the war, in which many soldiers and support workers from European colonies were compelled to participate. Discusses the fighting in East Africa and Asia, as well as, the contributions of the Indian Expeditionary Forces. (MJP)
Flintham, A. J.
The effectiveness of gas warfare during World War I was increased by the lack of a basic understanding of the behavior of gases on the part of the soldiers. This was a result of deficiencies in science education. (BB)
Smith, Craig A
Modern communications, combined with the near instantaneous publication of information on the World Wide Web, are providing the means to dramatically affect the pursuit, conduct, and public opinion of war on both sides...
Union officer become Supreme Court Justice, spoke of the Civil War’s psychic effect on those who had fought. Determined to act greatly, Holmes and his...than psychic and hardiy limited to those who, like himself, had served in the Union armies. Institutions as well as individuals had emerged from the war...to match unemployed workers with vacant jobs. 39 If by the close of 1918, the government reacted to possible strikes with threatened removal of a
Full Text Available Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conﬂicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion scales in the Russian army explained as objective factors - diﬃ cult ﬁghts, shortage of supply, defeat at the front, and subjective - unwillingness to participate in war, melancholy for the house, desire to help a family the work. Desertion in diﬀerent years of war had various forms. If at the beginning of war there were mainly «self-arrows», in 1915, during defeats at the front - evasion from entrenchments. By the end of 1916, because of the general fatigue from war, desertion takes the real form - ﬂight from the front to the back. After February revolution desertion becomes mass in which hundreds thousands military personnel take part already. Disorder of army and development of revolutionary process extremely strengthen desertion scales that is explained by the actual lack of punishment for this crime. Destruction of the Russian state during revolution became the main reason of coming to power of Bolsheviks, an exit of Russia from war and the army demobilization which essential part in 1917 already deserted from the front.
Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien
During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.
Enrique Plasencia de la Parra
Full Text Available This paper analyses the participation of Mexican and Mexican- American troops in the United States army during World War II. Recruiting, discrimination, their role in the armed forces and their reinsertion into society once the war ended, are examined. Special emphasis is placed on the Hispanics fight for their civil and political rights that was carried on very actively by many War veterans.
Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.
Peureux, Laure; Dubourg, Olivier; Rousseau, Fra Emmanuel; Lefort, Hugues
The sovereign Military Order of Malta is one of the oldest humanitarian organizations still existing today The First World War gave it the opportunity to prove its large knowledge of emergency medicine, under exceptional circumstances, from the front to the hospitals at the back of the front. On all parts of the European conflict the Order took care of more than 800 000 victims of the war.
Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)
Corresponding to the topic under investigation, i.e. referring to the two-pronged decision of the NATO consisting of the modernization of TNF and the offer for arms control, the present study is structured as a balance of forces analysis, embedded into the theory and practice of the cooperative Ruestungssteuerung (arms control), and aiming at the analyses of the risk and prevention of war in the Euronuclear field. The two leading questions of the investigation are: 1. Does the WTO in fact have a dangerous military superiority in the TNF sector which had required the NATO decision of the modernization of TNF in 1979 without delay and, in particular, without previous arms control negotiations. 2. Can, as a general principle independent a so of the answer to the preciding question - an increase of nuclear intermediate range missiles be identified with more strategic stability and security even at the beginning of the eighties. (orig./HP) [de
The 1982 Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship, and belonging. This article casts light on the persistent purchase of the idea of Greater Britain long after the end of empire, addressing a case that would normally be deemed...... outside its spatial and temporal boundaries. By highlighting the inherent contradictions of this transnational bond, the South Atlantic conflict had a profound effect on an underexposed British community with a lingering attachment to a “British world”: the Anglo-Argentines. As they found themselves...... wedged between two irreconcilable identities, divisions threatened to derail this already enfeebled grouping. Yet leaders of the community, presuming a common Britishness with the Falkland Islanders and Britons in the United Kingdom, sought to intervene in the conflict by reaching out to both...
Bodle, Walter S., Ed.
A poster from the National Archives that intermediate grade and secondary social studies teachers can use to teach students about race relations in the military during World War I is presented. Background information concerning the ill treatment given blacks and teaching activities are also included. (RM)
Ohanian, Lee E
During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...
The world is committed through the Non-proliferation Treaty, not only to ultimate goal of complete nuclear disarmament bur also to complete disarmament with respect to to conventional arms. The way to a sane and war-free world will be long and difficult, the European Union is one step along this road. The START, NPT and CTB treaties are also important steps. Education is also needed to build up the concept of the world as a single community, and here are the almost miraculous achievements of modern information technology which is of great help
How have the dramatic events of the Second World War been viewed in the Nordic countries? In Nordic Narratives of the Second World War, leading Nordic historians analyse post-war memory and historiography. They explore the relationship between scholarly and public understandings of the war. How have national interpretations been shaped by official security-policy doctrines? And in what way has the end of the Cold War affected the Nordic narratives? The authors not only present the ...
Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Brazil in War World II): In order to have personnel to perform the jobs of company commanders, it was necessary to...Branco, 136. 18Octavio Costa, Trinta Anos Depois da Volta. O Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Rio de Janeiro: Bibliex, 1976), 30. 46 19McCann...na Segunda Guerra Mundial . Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército Editora, 1976. Dulles, John W. F. Vargas of Brazil: A Political Biography. Austin
Mortality trends in Hungary since the Second World War are analyzed. Two periods are distinguished; the first, from 1946 to 1966, was a period of declining mortality and increasing life expectancy, and the second, from 1966 until the present, a period of rising mortality and declining life expectancy, particularly for males, coupled with relatively stable mortality levels for females. The author analyzes differences in causes of death by age in these two periods. (ANNOTATION)
Trimble, Virginia L.
Mention chemistry and the Great "War to End all Wars" in the same sentence, and nearly everybody who ever had a history class will nod sorrowfully and say,"Yes, poison gases." True enough, and Fritz Haber, who led the development of them for the Central Powers, was the one German scientist whom Rutherford never forgave or spoke to again. Such substances (not all really gaseous, and something like 50 have been tried) were used by both sides from 1915 onward, killed about 90,000 people (about 1% of the total), maimed many more, and arguably loosened constraints on future uses of chemical weapons in other wars, prison camps, and terrorist actions. But the war was not determined by them and could have been fought without them. On the other hand, the sudden blockading of ports and termination of most international trade forced Germany (etc) to expand very quickly processes for fixing nitrogen for explosives and for fertilizers in lieu of Chilean guano (yes there is also a Haber process for that). They needed in addition to find domestic replacements for rubber (for tires, hoses, and gas masks) and liquid fuels for tanks and aircraft. The Allies, for their part, had been heavily dependent on German dyestuffs, optical-quality glass for binoculars, and phosphates (fertilizer again). Production facilities for derivatives of coal tars, cottonseed oil, etc. were of necessity scaled up rapidly. And once people have learned to do these things, there is no way to have them be forgotten. The same is, of course, true of the nuclear weapons of World War II and of whatever biological and/or cybernetic entities prove to be essential in the next war.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. 404.1340 Section 404.1340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II...
Focuses on how the United States Post Office reacted to the massive influx of political propaganda, primarily from the Soviet Union, immediately prior to and during World War II. Describes how the Post Office played an active role in stopping and burning some 50 tons of incoming material. (RS)
There would be hundreds of millions of dead people and another hundreds of millions of injured or severely radiation-injured people in a nuclear world war who would hardly have any chances of survival without intensive medical care as cannot be expected in the world ''after''. By the clouds of smoke coming from the fires started by the bomb explosions the sun would be darkened for many weeks. There would be heavy smog on the whole of the Northern hemisphere. The social structures, industry, transport and also agricultural production would break down. Most of the people who would have survived for the first few weeks would finally starve. These are the conclusions drawn from a study carried out on behalf of the Swedish Academy of Sciences. (orig./HP) [de
Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III
International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…
Scholz, Joachim; Berdelmann, Kathrin
The outbreak of the First World War had a powerful impact on German schools. Undoubtedly, schools were institutions of socialisation that did offer support to the war. Indeed, research has shown that a specific "war pedagogy" made an aggressive propaganda possible in the classroom. This research usually emphasises the enthusiasm for war…
Andersen, Tea Sindbæk
This article investigates the developments of public memory of the First World War as it is written in to the national narratives of Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia on the way to the centennial of the war’s outbreak. The First World War constitutes both a shared and a divided memory in Serbia, Croatia...
Fell, Alison S; Meyer, Jessica
The current centenary of the First World War provides an unrivalled opportunity to uncover some of the social legacies of the war. The four articles which make up this special issue each examine a different facet of the war's impact on British society to explore an as yet untold story. The subjects investigated include logistics, the history of science, the social history of medicine and resistance to war. This article introduces the four which follow, locating them in the wider historiographic debates around the interface between warfare and societies engaged in war.
Hăisan, Anca; Dumea, Mihaela; Ursaru, Manuela; Bulat, C; Cimpoeşu, Diana Carmen
Emergency medicine as a medical specialty has to deal with all kind of emergency situations, from medical to post traumatic acute eyents and from new born to the elderly persons, but also with particular situations like explosions. In Romania nowadays these are accidental explosions and rare like frequency, but may be dramatic due to numbers of victims and multisystem injury that may occur. We present a case of a single victim of accidental detonated bomb, a projectile from the Second World War, which unfortunately still may be found in some areas. The management of the case from first call to 112 until the victim is discharge-involves high professional team work. We use these opportunity to make a brief review of the mechanism through the lesions may appear and also to renew the fact that the most impressive lesion may not be the most severe, and we have to examine carefully in order to find the real life threatening injury of the patient.
Hunt, N; Robbins, I
People use many different coping strategies to deal with their traumatic recollections. Twenty-five British World War II veterans were interviewed regarding the ways they used social support both during the war and in the years afterwards. The findings demonstrate that social support is used in fundamentally different ways. During the war comradeship was particularly important and even fifty years after the war comrades are still a valuable resource for discussing war experiences, and dealing with the emotional content of traumatic recollections. Veterans rely on wives and families to help deal with the more physical and practical elements of coping, but tend not to discuss their traumatic memories with them. The findings show that social support is an important lifelong coping strategy for World War II veterans.
This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end…
Lefort, Hugues; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Tabbagh, Xavier; Domanski, Laurent; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre
The First World War because of the use of new weapons, injured more than 3 500 000 people (500 000 in the face), more than diseases (tuberculosis, typhoid fever, etc.) or even weather circumstances. The healing of the war wounds through surgery undertook a significant evolution thanks to the use of asepsis and antiseptics. Mortality go down, opening the way to the physical and psychological rehabilitation of those injured by the war.
The outbreak of the First World War and the four years of conflict disrupted the activities of the International Council of Nurses (ICN). The results obtained before the war, notably with regard to the improvement of women's working conditions, were thrown into question, and the international spirit which characterised the ICN was threatened. After the war, nurses were nevertheless considered as having a key role to play in public healthcare.
Gay, Victor; Boehnke, Jörn
We explore the effect of military fatalities from World War I on female labor participation in post-war France. We build a unique dataset containing individual level information for all 1.3 million fallen soldiers, and find that the tightness of the marriage market along with negative income shocks generated by the scarcity of men induced many young single women and older widows to enter the labor force permanently after the war, especially in the industrial sector. These findings are robust ...
Edward M. Spiers
This article reviews the course and development of British planning to commemorate the First World War. It highlights the fact that any commentary on that war in Britain has to take account of the prevailing cultural norms. These norms have evolved through much of the poetry, literature, theatre and film of the past century, and have come to represent the war as essentially futile, with an horrendous loss of life, best commemorated through the annual acts of remembrance for the fallen. As thi...
Hoeneveld, Friso; Kloosterman, Ingrid; Abma, Ruud
The centennial has revived attention for the First World War. Because of the Netherlands’ neutral position, the influence of the horrendous war in this nation has long been qualified as marginal. In the last two decades, this perspective has gradually changed and several studies were published on
Hilton describes the team of cryptanalysts who tried to decipher German and Japanese codes during the Second World War. The work of Turing, essentially developing the computer, is reported, as well as inferences about pure and applied mathematics. (MNS)
Full Text Available This essay places the contemporary period of global development in long-run historical perspective, elaborates a model of world-system cycles and trends, and discusses the main structural forces influencing the probability of future war among core powers. The possible continuation of the cycle of hegemonic rivalry is discussed in terms of the similarities and differences between the coming three decades and earlier periods in which a declining hegemon was challenged by upwardly mobile states. Possible bids for economic and political hegemony by Japan, Germany, China and the United States are discussed, as are the possibilities for different coalitions in East Asia and Europe. The phenomenon of bloc formation is discussed in a long-term perspective that includes earlier periods of colonial empire and "commonwealth." We conclude that there is a significantly high probability that warfare among core states could occur in the 2020s. The prospects for global state formation within the next three decades are considered. We recommend a combination of the build-up of U.N. peace-keeping forces and the continuation of U.S. military strength as the least worst and most feasible solution to the problem of avoiding nuclear holocaust in the 2020s.
Mattheisen, Donald J.
Discusses the television series "Victory at Sea" and "The World at War" and their use in teaching about World War II. Contrasts that war's glorious portrayal in "Victory at Sea" with the more ambiguous presentation of "The World at War." Suggests that students can learn a great deal about war and film itself…
EVSEEVA G. P.
Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Despite the attempts of historians to objectively present the events of the prehistory and history of the war, the opening of new archives and the desire to get rid of ideological stereotypes, are driving the need to once again explore the role of Ukraine in world war II to prevent its recurrence. On the other hand, the deep understanding of the history of the previous generations will provide an opportunity to properly understand the events of today. The analysis of the research. During the years of independence in the national historiography it was a new understanding of the conceptual foundations of the study of war. Over the past decade it was written a large number of scientific studies in which the main direction of new concepts there was an increased attention to the person, separate social groups and society as a whole in situations of conflict and crises. The article aims to analyze the role and place of Ukraine in the events of the Second world war; identify "Ukrainian dimension" of war and its implications for the modern generation, especially the youth. Conclusion. The effects of war for decades identified the complex and contradictory political, economic and social processes in Ukrainian society, affected the moral and psychological qualities of post-war generations. The memory of war – spiritual-historical heritage of our nation, which lays the foundations for self-sufficiency and identity and integrates it seamlessly into a civilizational flow. The modern level of researches of the events of world war II pays special attention to humanitarian problems of the war. For the youth of Ukraine it is important to join the European perception of the war as tragedy, to understand the responsibility for the memory of the past, because it's a chance for the future.
The First World War in Popular Music since 1958Peter GrantIntroductionSince 1958 there have been over 1,400 newly composed songs ‘about’ the First World War in the different genres of popular music with numbers increasing signifi cantly since the new millennium. By this I mean songs where the infl uence of the war is discernible, whether directly or through ‘signifi ers’ or references, in the title or lyrics. Not surprisingly the largest number emanate from countries that were prominent in th...
The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War'' is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details of the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.
Many scholars of the First World War have examined the European armies in new ways that have shown not only how those armies actually fought along the Western Front, but how they changed their ideas...
Full Text Available The Regulations on laws and customs of land warfare of 1907 that existed during World War I did not protect war prisoners. The tragic experience forced us to return tothe problem of protection of the rights of the victims of war. The Geneva Convention on the war prisoners of 1929 was the first document of international law in which the status of war prisoners was determined in detail. The Soviet Union did not join the states which had signed the Convention, and during the World War II it was guided by its national legislation confirmed by the Soviet Government on July 1, 1941. On the whole, the items of the Regulations on War Prisoners adopted in 1941 corresponded to the Geneva Convention. But non-recognition of the international convention provided the heads of fascist Germany with the reason for inhuman treatment of the Soviet captives. Serious consequences of war compelled the world community to pay the closest attention to the issues of military captivity again. On August 12, 1949 in Geneva the Soviet Union joined the new Convention on prisoners.
Henderson, Rob; Stark, Cameron; Humphry, Roger W; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam
It is believed that total reported suicide rates tend to decrease during wartime. However, analysis of suicide rates during recent conflicts suggests a more complex picture, with increases in some age groups and changes in method choice. As few age and gender specific analyses of more distant conflicts have been conducted, it is not clear if these findings reflect a change in the epidemiology of suicide in wartime. Therefore, we examined suicide rates in Scotland before, during and after the Second World War to see if similar features were present. Data on deaths in Scotland recorded as suicide during the period 1931-1952, and population estimates for each of these years, were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland. Using computer spreadsheets, suicide rates by gender, age and method were calculated. Forward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess the effect of gender, war and year on suicide rates using SAS V8.2. The all-age suicide rate among both men and women declined during the period studied. However, when this long-term decline is taken into account, the likelihood of suicide during the Second World War was higher than during both the pre-War and post-War periods. Suicide rates among men aged 15-24 years rose during the Second World War, peaking at 148 per million (41 deaths) during 1942 before declining to 39 per million (10 deaths) by 1945, while the rate among men aged 25-34 years reached 199 per million (43 deaths) during 1943 before falling to 66 per million (23 deaths) by 1946. This was accompanied by an increase in male suicides attributable to firearms and explosives during the War years which decreased following its conclusion. All age male and female suicide rates decreased in Scotland during World War II. However, once the general background decrease in suicide rates over the whole period is accounted for, the likelihood of suicide among the entire Scottish population during the Second World War was elevated. The overall
Batten, Alan H.
Both the beginning and ending of World War I were signalled by total solar eclipses at which attempts were made to measure the deflection, predicted by Albert Einstein, of starlight passing close to the Sun. An American team led by W. W. Campbell and a German team led by E. F. Freundlich travelled to Russia to observe the eclipse of 1914 August 21. The Americans were foiled by the weather, and the Germans were interned as enemy aliens, so no successful measurements were made. British astronomers, led by A. S. Eddington, mounted two expeditions to observe the eclipse of 1919 May 29, one to Brazil, the other, with Eddington personally in charge, to an island off the west coast of Africa. The results, presented with much fanfare, appeared to constitute a spectacular confirmation of general relativity, although much debate surrounded the observations and their interpretation in later decades. The stories of Freundlich and Eddington intertwine not only with controversial questions about how best to make and to reduce the observations, but also with attitudes toward the war, notably the extreme anti-German sentiment that pervaded the countries of the western alliance, contrasted with the Quaker pacifism of Eddington himself; and also with differing attitudes to relativity among European and American astronomers. Eddington later played a role in bringing Freundlich to the United Kingdom after the rise of Hitler and the Nazis. Ironically, in later life, Freundlich became increasingly sceptical of general relativity and proposed a theory of proton-proton interaction to account for the cosmological red-shifts.
Full Text Available Women’s pacifism in the course of the First World War is a chapter of collective memory that has never become a shared memory.The idea that war is “men’s business, not ladies”, is largely responsible for it. Paul Fussel summarises this attitude: correctly or not, as he writes in The Great War and Modern Memory, the current idea of the Great War derives primarily from images of the trenches in France and Belgium. Given this, it is not something unusual that outstanding events such as The Hague International Congress of Women (April-May 2015 is still a neglected chapter of women’s history. This paper focuses on the event and other significant experiences in women’s partecipation in the Great War.
Agoston-Nikolova, Elka; van Diggelen, Marijke; van Hengel, Guido; van Koningsbrugge, Hans; Kraft van Ermel, Nicolaas A.
One hundred years ago Europe unleashed a storm of violence upon the world: The First World War had an enormous impact on the lives of Europeans, European history and culture. To this day, the iconic images of trench warfare in Belgium and France are burned onto our retinas, the names of its major
Introduction. This study is part the project “Nursing in Borderland – Finnmark 1939–1950” within nursing history that sheds light on nursing and health care during World War II in Finnmark County, Northern Norway. The study focuses on challenges in nursing care that arose during the war because of war activities in the Barents area. This article focuses on challenges caused by shortage of supplies. The aim of the project is to widen the understanding of development within health care and livi...
The president commission of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft studied the contribution of German scientists to research projects during the Second World War, classified as ''important for the war''. The study is also thought as remembrance to the victims of these research projects. During the last years the history of the field office Oberschlema of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute for biophysics was and the radium research institute Oberschlema was investigated. Obviously there were no casualties among the voluntary test persons.
After the outbreak of the First World War, when Bulgaria joined the Central Powers through the alliance with Germany, and Romania joined the Entente, the religious relations had a few special times. The defeat of the Romanian army in Dobrudgea and its occupation by the German – Bulgarian troops brought about a real exodus of the Romanian Orthodox clergy who took refuge especially to Moldova. The war ruined a few churches of Dobrudgea and destroyed the houses of t...
In 1917, the Göttingen gynaecologist Dietrich published a short article about a phenomenon which he called "war amenorrhea" ("Kriegsamenorrhoe"). The article attracted the attention of his colleagues. While the affected women did not pay much attention to their amenorrhea, the physicians considered the phenomenon a new disease which was mainly caused by the war. This new disease gave the gynaecologists the opportunity to present their specialty as a discipline with high relevance for medicine in times of war. Nevertheless, there was no consensus about the importance, the incidence, the diagnostic criteria, the causes and the appropriate therapy of"war amenorrhea". Although the gynaecologists failed to define a uniform clinical syndrome, they maintained the construction of "war amenorrhea" after the war and subsumed it under well known types of amenorrhea. We can conclude that under the conditions of war a new disease emerged which was not sharply defined.
Silver, Shawn A
Osteopathic physicians were denied the same rights and privileges that were granted to allopathic physicians by the US government regarding voluntary and compulsory service in World War I and World War II. Even after changes to the examination process allowed osteopathic physicians to take the examinations required to obtain commission as a physician in the army, osteopathic physicians' service was still rejected. The US government's decision to ban DOs from serving in the war was a blessing in disguise that led to tremendous changes in osteopathic medicine, education, and public acceptance of osteopathic physicians. Using primary documents from military officials, congressional hearings, and archived publications of the American Osteopathic Association, the author recounts the battle osteopathic physicians fought to serve their country during war and the challenges they faced while obtaining both legal and social equality in the eyes of the government and the public.
E. G. Bahdanovich
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the main events of the last period of the World War II. A special attention is paid to the feat of the Soviet Armed Forces, that defeated the Kwantun Army in August 1945 and precipitated an unconditional capitulation of Japan and brought freedom to the peoples of Asia. The paper also reveals tragic consequences of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The authors emphasize a key role of the Soviet Union in victorious completion of the World War II.
Le, H Q; Knudsen, S J
Sulfur mustards act as vesicants and alkylating agents. They have been used as chemical warfare since 1917 during the first world war. This brief report illustrates the progression of injury on a primary exposed patient to a first world war blistering agent. This case documents the rapid timeline and progression of symptoms. It emphasises the importance of appropriate personal protective equipment and immediate medical response plan with rapid decontamination and proper action from military and civilian medical treatment facilities. This case reports the first US active duty military exposure to a blistering agent in the age of global terrorism.
Rostovtsev, E A; Sidorchuk, I V
The article is devoted to the history of higher medical education of the Petrograd just before and during the First World War. The topical issue is the lack of information concerning this period of the history of Russian medicine and medical education, and the history of development of domestic medicine during the First World War, the centenary of which is celebrated this year. On the basis of a wide range of published and archival sources the authors show the basic vectors of development of medical education and exploring the role of St. Petersburg as one of the leading academic medical centres in the country.
The nation recently celebrated the 50th anniversary of World War II (WWII) with a renewed interest in Pearl Harbor and D-Day (ie, the day the Allies invaded Europe.) One group of war heroes--all volunteers--received little attention, although they endured bombings, torpedoes, antiaircraft fire, prison, starvation, and death. They were the nurses of WWII. They served all over the world and left a legacy that today's perioperative nurses are committed to preserving. This article was written to honor the nurses of WWII. It relates only a few stories of thousands that could be told.
smallpox, chicken pox , meningitis, typhoid, diptheria and other diseases resulted in the deaths of between 17,000 to 19,000 men during the course of...lessons of previous wars in both periods. The Spanish-American War and the United States’ incursion into Mexico provided valuable experience in
Full Text Available Romania's participation in the Second World War was caused by loss of an area ofapproximately 1/3 of the national territory and has 6 million inhabitants, for the three neighbors of theRomanian state, that the Soviet Union, Hungary and Bulgaria will bethe reason fundamental ofRomania's participation in military operations on both fronts, east and west of the Second World War.Although Romania's war economic effort, amounted to the enormous amount of 1,200,000,000dollars in 1938 currency, a situationan honorable fourth place in the hierarchy of the United Nationsthat led the fight against Germany, co-belligerent status, the country justly deserved our will berefused for political reasons known only to the Great Powers. Of all the states, are in a situationsomewhat similar to that of Romania, no one made an effort not so much military or economic indefeating Germany.
This transnational, interdisciplinary study of traumatic neurosis moves beyond the existing histories of medical theory, welfare, and symptomatology. The essays explore the personal traumas of soldiers and civilians in the wake of the First World War; they also discuss how memory and representati......This transnational, interdisciplinary study of traumatic neurosis moves beyond the existing histories of medical theory, welfare, and symptomatology. The essays explore the personal traumas of soldiers and civilians in the wake of the First World War; they also discuss how memory...... and representations of trauma are transmitted between patients, doctors and families across generations. The book argues that so far the traumatic effects of the war have been substantially underestimated. Trauma was shaped by gender, politics, and personality. To uncover the varied forms of trauma ignored by medical...
Full Text Available Unlike the World War II which brought a series of ideologies, such as Nazism and communism as reasons of outbreak, the World War I used religious themes in its propagandistic message, namely the idea to defend the homeland and faith. Religion was present in the propaganda promoted on the fronts of the Great War, and the military clergy – Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox – supported it. The military clergy have morally supported the soldiers in the trenches, most of them coming from the peasantry and labor still attached to the Christian values. This study is trying to present the efforts of the Romanian military priests enrolled in the Austro-Hungarian and Romanian armies for spiritually helping the Romanian militaries.
During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...
Carter, Dan T.
Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)
Full Text Available Providing medical care to the ill and wounded persons during World War I in Yekaterynoslav is described. The history of the creation of field hospitals, military hospitals, Red Cross hospitals and church-monument to the fallen heroes is presented. The selfless work of military medical personnel is shown. Biographical information about a doctor, public figure Yefim Pavlovskyi is provided.
Provides a teaching plan which helps students imaginatively take the roles of leaders in the United States during World War II so that they might more completely understand such difficult decisions as allying with the Soviet Union, relocating Japanese-Americans, and dropping the atomic bomb. Provides a statement of goals and objectives, required…
The historical sources detailing South Africa's participation in the First World War are vast, and range from official publications to regimental histories, private diaries and first-hand accounts. The Department of Defence (DOD) Documentation Centre is the custodian of all military archival material generated since the ...
When Helen Fairchild, a young nurse in Pennsylvania, volunteered to take her skills to Europe in the first world war, she was glad to go but felt sorry for her mother. 'If she would only not worry so much', she wrote to her brother Ned.
Describes government efforts to mobilize U.S. women during World War II. Discusses the need for women's participation and the problems confronted by women who joined the wartime labor force. Describes efforts to increase participation by women in the armed forces. (CFR)
Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…
Machowski, James Stanley; Brown, James William
To examine the role of the animated cartoon in propaganda associated with World War II, 194 of 262 cartoons produced for theatrical release by Warner Brothers, Inc., from 1939 to 1946 were analyzed. Propaganda content was determined by the number and nature of symbols used and the cartoon's "attitudes" toward these symbols. An analysis…
Sproule, J. Michael
To recount the development of the propaganda analysis movement before and since World War I, this paper reviews the precursors of the movement, traces the propaganda conciousness produced by wartime campaigns and subsequent domestic campaigns, and looks at major obstacles to propaganda analysis produced by social and academic conditions after…
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 3 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. SA forces in the Second World war.
Ultee, W.C.; Luijkx, R.; van Tubergen, F.; Sher, L.; Vilens, A.
World War II in the Netherlands lasted from May 1940 to May 1945. Suicide numbers peaked in these months, in the first case because of suicide by Jews, and in the second case because of suicide by collaborators with the German occupier. Suicide rates for Jews were higher in 1942 than in 1940 and
Full Text Available The end of World War I and the victory of the forces of Antante on 11 November 1918 did not result in the end of war in Londonized Albania and in the territories inhabited by Albanian people in Yugoslavia and Greece because neighbouring countries did not withdraw from Albanian territories since their desires were to extend even more to the detriment of the Albanian and were not satisfi ed only with the invasion of Kosovo by Serbia, Cameria by Greece, and Italy aspiring to keep Albania under its supervision. The European countries of Antante, such as England, France and Italy, did not support the Albanian people because they had reached an agreement during the World War 1 to conquer the countries of the triple alliance by promising Albanian territories to the neighbouring countries of Albania. The Protocol of April 1915 was devastating for Albania. The fate of Albanian people was such that European countries could not change the course of the World War 1. The intervention of USA was the one that changed the course of the World War 1, and USA even joined the war by stating that it did not recognize the agreements made during the war with regard to the territorial division. The neighboring countries of Albania had forgo$ en that in the global stage a political-military power was emerging which would lay the foundations of the new world order. Even though the war had ended, the neighboring countries of Albania were making agreements for the supervision of Albania. Italy was interested in keeping Albania under its supervision whereas Greece and Yugoslavia were interested in the division of Albania. Under these circumstances the Albanian people was facing new invasive challenges and they had to get organized both inside and outside the country for their national salvation. Albanians were organized in clubs and associations abroad, in order to help the freedom of Londonized Albania. The Albanians in Albania were fed up with long and savage invasions
Full Text Available The article is an analysis of the representation of Australian nurses in Thomas Keneally 2012 First World War novel, The Daughters of Mars. Inspired by rigorous research, Keneally fictionalizes the lives of two nursing sisters in the Middle East, on a hospital ship in the Dardanelles, as well as in hospitals and casualty clearing stations on the Western Front. His novel thus reclaims an important facet of the medical history of the First World War. The author of the article situates her analysis in the context of historical research on the First World War and the Australian Anzac myth, illuminating the specifically Australian elements in Keneally’s portrait of the Durance sisters. She demonstrates that The Daughters of Mars celebrates the achievements of “Anzac girls”, negotiating a place for them in the culture of commemoration. Yet, at the same time, Keneally attempts to include his female protagonists in the “manly” world of Anzac values, privileging heroism over victimization. Consequently, they become “misfits of war”, eagerly accepting imperial and nationalist ideologies. Thus, in a way characteristic of Australian First World War literature, The Daughters of Mars fuses the tropes of affirmation and desolation.
Edward M. Spiers
Full Text Available This article reviews the course and development of British planning to commemorate the First World War. It highlights the fact that any commentary on that war in Britain has to take account of the prevailing cultural norms. These norms have evolved through much of the poetry, literature, theatre and film of the past century, and have come to represent the war as essentially futile, with an horrendous loss of life, best commemorated through the annual acts of remembrance for the fallen. As this national memory paid scant attention to the many works of revisionist military history written over the last generation, military historians were among the more sceptical when the UK government belatedly announced plans (and derisory levels of government funding to commemorate the First World War. However, the Heritage Lottery Fund has filled the funding gap with £57 million, enabling all manner of projects to flourish whether of national, regional or local significance. By 4-5 August 2014, over 2,330 events, including 519 exhibitions, had been held, and numerous events marked the outbreak of the war. Poppies were again to the fore, most notably the 800,000 ceramic poppies, one for each fallen serviceman, at the Tower of London.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of economic development of world lead countries after the First World War. The aim of investigation is the identification of regularities of the post-conflict reconstruction of national economies of the world lead countries in the interwar period and the assessment of the dynamics of national defense financing as the indicator of international tension. The authors studies the experience in reconstruction of the European economies at the end of the First World War, in particular the main activities of the League of Nations (the world first International Organization for Security and Peace in Germany, Hungary, Estonia, Greece and Bulgaria in the interwar period are highlighted. Considering the data of military expenditures of main military and political bloc participants on the eve of the Second World War, the number of military personnel and the volume of iron and steel production during the 1920–1938, the author examines their relation with the help of correlation and regression analysis that allows to quantify the impact of these factors on the financing the defense sector.
Examines how the First World War prompted British museums to change their educational functions. Discusses museums in pre-war Britain, wartime exhibitions and educational activities, the outcome of the war experience, and First World War's implications for education in museums. (GEA)
Ossowski, Andrzej; Kuś, Marta; Brzeziński, Piotr; Prüffer, Jakub; Piątek, Jarosław; Zielińska, Grażyna; Bykowska, Milena; Jałowińska, Katarzyna; Torgaszev, Anton; Skoryukov, Antoliy; Parafiniuk, Mirosław
This paper presents the procedure elaborated by our team which was applied to the mode of identification of Red Army soldiers who were taken as prisoners by the German Army during World War II and deceased in captivity. In the course of our search the unmarked burial of ten Soviet prisoners of war was found. Historical, anthropological and genetic research conducted by us led to the personal identification of nine of them, including two by means of DNA analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
During the First World War, some nurses distinguished themselves by playing a significant role in spy networks, using their activity as a cover. They took an active part in the setting up of escape routes for allied prisoners of war and the gathering of intelligence on the positions of German troops, in particular in Belgium and northern France. Among them Edith Cavell, Gabrielle Petit, Louise de Bettignies, Marie-Léonie Vanhoutte, Marthe Cocknaert and Emilienne-Rose Ducimetière are considered as heroines.
Lyubov G. Polyakova
Full Text Available This survey article addresses the historiography of World War I in the territory of Black Sea Governorate. The author singles out three chronological periods, ante-revolutionary, Soviet, and present-day Russian, and discusses distinctive characteristics in the study of the history of each of the periods. Thus, for instance, a distinctive trait in the study of World War I during the Soviet period was a permanent search in it for preconditions for the socialist revolution, which led to the artificial politicization of events and phenomena. The author comes to the conclusion that the historiography of World War I in the territory of Black Sea Governorate has considerable gaps, while the topic itself is yet to become the subject of comprehensive study. Up until the present day the following topics have remained virtually unstudied: the activity of the hospital framework across Black Sea Governorate, the identification of distinctive characteristics of combating alcoholism during the war, and the activity of charity societies.
This paper examines the lives of sixty-one Canadian Nursing Sisters who served during the First World War, and whose deaths were attributed, more or less equally, to three categories: general illness, Spanish Influenza, and killed in action. The response by Canadian Army Medical Corps (CAMC) physicians to the loss of these early female officers who were, in fact, Canada's first female war casualties, suggests a gendered construction of illness at work in the CAMC. While nurses tried to prove themselves good soldiers, military physicians were quick to attribute their illnesses and deaths to horrific war conditions deemed unsuitable for women. This gendered response is particularly evident in how CAMC physicians invoked a causal role for neurasthenia or shell shock for the nurses' poor health. The health profile of these women also suggests that some of these deaths might have occurred had these women stayed in Canada, and it encourages future comparative research into death rates among physicians and orderlies.
Koehler, Peter J; Jagella, Caroline
The correspondence (1907-1930) between two leading European neurologists, Cornelis Winkler (1855-1941) and Constantin von Monakow (1853-1930), has been preserved in Amsterdam and Zurich. For this paper, letters exchanged during World War I were studied. Professional as well as personal issues were discussed. An international neurology meeting in Berne in September 1914 had to be cancelled due to the war. They hoped that (neuro)scientists would remain politically neutral, continue scientific cooperation, and even be able to influence the course of the war. Winkler and Monakow tried to continue their work on the International Brain Atlas. Although living in neutral countries (The Netherlands and Switzerland), they observed that their practice and scientific work suffered from war conditions. While Winkler continued his activities as a neurologist, Monakow, affected emotionally, experienced a change in scientific interest toward psychoneurology. He used his diaschisis concept, originally an explanation for transient phenomena in stroke, as a metaphor for the social and cultural effects of the war. He directly related cultural development and brain science, bringing in his own emotions, which resulted in the first of several publications on the relations between biology, brain science, and culture.
Igor I. Belousov
Full Text Available After the Second World War 70 years have passed. Essentially already gone a generation of people for whom it was not a story, and the nationwide disaster and personal experience. And let time more and more we move away from the victory of 1945, the value and results of the war are enormous for the future of the modern world. Memory of the Great Victory presents to all of us now living, special requirements, the main of which consists in the fact that based on the analysis draw the necessary lessons from the past, draw the right conclusions for the safety of modern Russia. Over the years, the world has changed considerably. On the stage of world politics, a host of new independent states. There are new centers of economic development, and hence the new poles of power. Meanwhile, the events of recent months show that the main results of the Victory have not lost their importance today. This is best spoken of their incessant attempts to challenge by distorting the main points of the war and its lessons. And, obviously, it is no accident the day before and during the celebration of 70th anniversary of Victory wishing her to steal the peoples of Russia have been particularly active, as they claim - stiff and awkward. For domestic historiography it is not something unexpected. On the socio-political, military and economic results of the Second World War written many works, but probably in the light of the development of military-political processes in the world of individual instructive lesson it is important not to forget.
During the Second World War, thousands of captured British and Commonwealth troops were interned in prisoner-of-war (POW) camps in the Far East. Imprisonment was extremely harsh, and prisoners developed multiple pathologies induced by physical hardship, tropical infections and starvation. Immediately after the war, several POW doctors published their clinical experiences, including reports of skin disease caused by malnutrition. The most notable deficiency dermatoses seen in Far East POWs were ariboflavinosis (vitamin B2 or riboflavin deficiency) and pellagra (vitamin B3 or niacin deficiency). A lack of vitamin B2 produces a striking inflammatory disorder of scrotal skin. Reports of pellagra in POWs documented a novel widespread eruption, developing into exfoliative dermatitis, in addition to the usual photosensitive dermatosis. A review of the literature from 70 years ago provides a reminder of the skin's response to malnutrition. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.
groups. Fascism is a form of radical authoritarianism that became prominent in early 20th-century Europe. Fascists sought to unify their nations or...strong leader, and an emphasis on elimina- tion of diversity and of civil and human rights and the rule of law. Fascism views political violence, war
Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)
V M Falin
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the Battle of Moscow in October- December, 1941. Author analyzes the causes of the failure of German army, who tries to encircle and capture Moscow, the events taking place on the outskirts of Moscow, German troops attempts to encircle Moscow. The author presents data on the speech by Adolf Hitler in Berlin on October 5, 1941, in which he acknowledged the failure of the Blitzkrieg and the Battle for Moscow and its suburbs. The researcher uses the documents of the Wehrmacht High Command, which stated that after the Battle of Moscow, German troops could not on any further stage of the war to restore the quality and morale of the armed forces, with whom Reich rushed to a campaign for world domination. The author, a prominent public and political figure of the USSR, also relies on personal recollections, interviews with prominent generals of World War II, including I. Konev.
States: centralized intelligence, “fifth column” activities, psycho- logical or “ political warfare,” and the kind of sabotage, com- mando raids and...ship of Lt. Col. Serge Obolen- sky, a former Russian prince and New York socialite who had fought the Germans in World War I, the Bolsheviks in...and conflicting political agendas. Some veter- ans grumbled about undue emphasis on “cloak and dagger creepiness” instead of practical training that
Linden, S.; Hess, V.; Jones, Edgar
Changes in the clinical presentation of functional disorders and the influence of social and cultural factors can be investigated through the historical case notes from mental hospitals. World War I (WWI) was a potent trigger of functional disorders with neurological or psychiatric symptoms. We analysed 100 randomly selected case files of German servicemen admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of the Charité Medical School of Berlin University during WWI and classified them according to co...
Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy
How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…
This book discusses the early history of French nuclear power within its social and political context from the end of world war 2 to 1970. The author describes the creation of the nuclear reactors, the work at the reactor sites, and the impact of nuclear power on local communities. Information on the French atomic bomb program is also included. The conflicts and negotiations surrounding the nuclear programs are detailed, and the importance of the programs to French national identity is made clear. An excellent bibliography and extensive footnotes are provided
Mayall, Berry; Morrow, Virginia
Using a rich collection of archives, school histories, photographs and memoirs, this book charts and discusses the contributions English children made to the war effort during World War II. As men and women were increasingly called up for war work, as the country needed to grow as much food as possible, and as the war effort required ever…
Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran
Relatively little is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II (WWII) veterans, despite the significant number of studies on this problem in Vietnam veterans. The authors document the prevalence of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders and investigate the etiological correlates of the syndrome in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans. Sixty-two cognitively intact subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residents in a veterans' long-term care facility, were assessed for past and present psychopathology. A second investigator, blind to patients' psychiatric status, determined the degree of combat exposure and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 23%. Of those veterans with PTSD, 57% experienced chronic symptoms. The lifetime prevalence of other diagnoses was also high, including 3 7% for major depression and 53% for alcohol abuse. There was a strong correlation between the severity of the combat stressor and the development of PTSD. Significant correlations between PTSD and some pre-war variables were also found: more family histories of alcohol abuse, more deaths of close family members in early life, and less likelihood of having held a job for more than 1 year prior to the war. PTSD in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans is a common, serious problem that is often unrecognized. Copyright © 1994 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available After the outbreak of the First World War, when Bulgaria joined the Central Powers through the alliance with Germany, and Romania joined the Entente, the religious relations had a few special times. The defeat of the Romanian army in Dobrudgea and its occupation by the German – Bulgarian troops brought about a real exodus of the Romanian Orthodox clergy who took refuge especially to Moldova. The war ruined a few churches of Dobrudgea and destroyed the houses of the priests who had left their parishes. The issue of the priests fled from Dobrudgea was discussed within a Council met in Iasi in the summer of 1918, when the participants tried to find solutions for their return to their parishes. I personally examined the documents of this council found today in the Archives of the Metropolitanate of Moldova and Bucovina, because they reveal the deficiencies of the Romanian Orthodox Church in regard to the administrative organisation both in Dobrudgea and in the Quadrilateral. Our study approaches two major events occurred in the Bucharest occupied by the German-Bulgarian troops: the Te-Deum service celebrated in the honour of the royal family of Bulgaria in the Metropolitan Cathedral and the attempt to steal the Holy Relics of Pious Dimitrios Basarabov. The German administration has also been involved in the two events, because the Primate metropolitan Conon asked them to resolve these religious Romanian- Bulgarian conflicts. The documents which mention the two events can be found in the Archives of the Holy Synod of Bucharest and have a special significance because they represent an aspect less examined of the First World War and of the Romanian-Bulgarian relations. The theme of this study has never been approached so far by the Romanian theologians and historians, the research covering a gap in the study of the history of the First World War and of the Romanian- Bulgarian relations.
Rahmi, Miftahul; Qiram, Ikhwanul
Banyuwangi district has some Japanese caves and bunkers of World War II. The location of the objects are along the Banyuwangi coast as a maritime defense during the war. This structures can be used as education historical tourism object. There are many similar structures in other area that have been neglected and do not get enough preservation attention. This research is aimed to identify the potency of education historical tourism of Japanese caves and bunker in Banyuwangi. The research is done by field research for the observation of objects physical condition. It is also done by interviewing local government, historical actors and surrounding community. The result shows that the caves and bunker have a great potency but have not been used as education historical object.
Cassidy, David C
This gripping book brings back to life the events surrounding the internment of ten German Nuclear Scientists immediately after World War II. It is also an "eye-witness" account of the dawning of the nuclear age, with the dialogue and narrative spanning the period before, during and after atomic bombs were dropped on Japan at the end of the war. This pivotal historical episode is conveyed, along with the emotions as well as the facts, through drama, historical narrative, and photographs of the captive German nuclear scientists - who included Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn, and Max von Laue. The unique story that unfolds in the play is based on secretly recorded transcripts of the scientists’ actual conversations at Farm Hall, together with related documents and photographs.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es promover la discusión conceptual para una publicación más amplia “Los Ciclos del Imperialismo, Guerra, y Revolución”. Empieza desde una presuposición que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando una transición desde un contexto histórico amplio eurocéntrico hacia un contexto histórico amplio non-eurocéntrico. Continua con la discusión histórica de los conceptos relacionados con la guerra, la reforma y la revolución y explica porque, en el contexto de la fase actual de la transición mundial y la Primera Verdadera Guerra Mundial, a pesar de la discusión anterior acerca de las revoluciones y revoluciones mundiales, es razonable sugerir que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando la Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial._____________________ABSTRACTThe purpose of this article is to engage in a conceptual discussion for a broader publication on “The Cycles of Imperialism, War and Revolution”. It departs from a presupposition that our common world is experiencing a transition from a broad Eurocentric historical context into a non-Eurocentric broad historical context. It proceeds by a historical discussion on the concepts related to wars, reforms and revolutions and explains why, in the context of the actual phase of global transition and the First Real World War, it is, despite earlier discussions on revolutions and world revolutions, meaningful to suggest that our common world is experiencing a First Real World Revolution.
A S Protopopov
Full Text Available The author examines the international context of the Soviet Union and today's Russia during and after the World War II. Relations between the allies (the USSR, the US and the UK shortly after the end of World War II «gave a crack». Particular attention is paid to the development of the American nuclear program in an international context and objectives of the nuclear bombing of Japan, the expansion of NATO. The author concludes that the problem of military and economic development in the post-war period were largely dictated by the difficult international situation at that time. The Soviet Union was forced not only to establish a peaceful life, but also to take steps to create its own nuclear weapons and their means of delivery, strengthening the country's defense. After the troubled times of the second half of the 1980s and 1990s, in the XXI century Russia again began to strengthen its international position. The author proves the need for a consistent foreign policy.
Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio
The First World War was a huge tragedy for mankind, but, paradoxically, it represented a source of significant progress in a broad series of human activities, including medicine, since it forced physicians to improve their knowledge in the treatment of a large number of wounded soldiers. The use of heavy artillery and machine guns, as well as chemical warfare, caused very serious and life-threatening lesions and wounds. The most frequent causes of death were not mainly related to gunshot wounds, but rather to fractures, tetanus and septic complications of infectious diseases. In the first part of this article, we describe the surgical procedures and medical therapies carried out by Italian physicians during the First World War, with the aim of treating wounded soldiers in this pre-antibiotic era. Antibacterial solutions, such as those of Dakin-Carrel and sodium hypochlorite and boric acid, the tincture of iodine as well as the surgical and dressing approaches and techniques used to remove pus from wounds, such as ignipuncture and thermocautery or lamellar drainage are reported in detail. In the second part of the paper, the organization of the Italian military hospitals network, the systems and tools useful to transport wounded soldiers both in the front lines and in the rear is amply discussed. In addition, the number of soldiers enrolling, and those dying, wounded or missing during the Great War on the Italian front is estimated.
van Bergen, Leo
Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.
Barker, Anne M.
The field of engineering has been one of the most difficult for women to enter. Even with an increase in the proportion of women in the engineering workforce from 0.3% before the 1970s to 9.5% in 1999, women are still seriously underrepresented. This article examines the history of women in engineering in the United States during World War II. Women were actively recruited as engineering aides by the federal government, which saw them as a temporary substitute for men who were in the military. Yet this crisis did not break down the barriers to and prejudices against women in engineering, nor did it give them a real opportunity to become professional engineers equal to men. After the war, calls for a return to normalcy were used to reestablish social norms, which kept women at home and reserved desirable places in the workforce, including in engineering, for men.
Xavier Torrebadella Flix
Full Text Available The First World War (FWW was a turning point in the contemporary era. Its social impact led to the penetration by ideological forces into physical education and sport; and the publicity-related discourse of these forces were marshaled to capitalize on the productive capacity of adolescents and young adults. The current study focuses on analyzing —through the texts of the period—in what manner the events of the FWW influenced sport in Spain, socially and institutionally. The exploration of original texts from the period in question and a critical discourse analysis provides a chronological narrative of events. The study concludes that the impact of the FWW was decisive in enabling sport to appropriate the values of patriotic excitation provoked not by fears of the war itself, but rather by underlying fears of an expanding industrial context that might find itself compromised by the revolutionary conflicts of the workers’ movement.
Full Text Available On the eve of World War I, the countries of the Caribbean basin are absent from the international arena. In Cuba, the Platt amendment - inscribed in the constitutional statute of the Republic - deprives the island of all diplomatic independence. Dominican Republic and Haití construct their nationalistic discourses in relation to their historical oppositions for the dominion of the island. In Cuba, a large part of the members of the independence elite express sincere admiration for the “civilized” culture of their neighbor. They perceive the latter as a means of erasing the vestiges of a Spanish “barbarism” that should be definitively relegated to a distant past. The American intervention of 1906-1909, the invasion of Nicaragua and the Enrique Mazas case contributed to the birth of an anti-imperialist intellectual movement in the period immediately prior to the war whose first manifesto titled Contra el Yankee was published in 1913 by Cesar Gandarilla.
Gill, G V; Beeching, N J; Khoo, S; Bailey, J W; Partridge, S; Blundell, J W; Luksza, A R
A case is described of a 78-year-old British veteran of the Second World War (1939-45) who was stationed in Southeast Asia and who developed a recurrent pneumonia with blood eosinophilia. He was treated with steroids, and eventually died with a severe Pseudomonas pneumonia. Just prior to death, larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were identified in his sputum, and a specific serum ELISA test was later positive. At autopsy no other organs were involved, but bronchoalveolar carcinoma was found. Longstanding (57 years) chronic strongyloidiasis in a veteran who served in Southeast Asia but who was not a prisoner of war is very unusual. The pattern of dissemination was also not that of a true hyperinfection syndrome, and the case demonstrates the continued need for diagnostic vigilance amongst former soldiers who were based in the Far East.
Hospital admission and mortality statistics suggested that peptic ulcer reached a peak prevalence in the mid-1950s. During the Second World War, against this background of serious and common pathology, an epidemic of dyspepsia afflicted both service personnel and civilians alike. In the absence of reliable diagnostic techniques, physicians struggled to distinguish between life-threatening illness and mild, temporary disorders. This article explores the context in which non-ulcer stomach conditions flourished. At a time when fear was considered defeatist and overt psychological disorder attracted stigma, both soldiers and civilians exposed to frightening events may have unconsciously translated their distress into gastrointestinal disorders. While the nature of army food was initially identified as the cause of duodenal ulcer in servicemen, the pre-war idea that conscientious and anxious individuals were at high risk gathered support and fed into post-war beliefs that this was a stress-related illness. Diet continued to be employed as a means of management at a time when the nation was preoccupied by food because of the constraints imposed by rationing. The peptic ulcer phenomenon set much of the medical agenda for the war years and conflicted with the commonly held view that the British people had never been healthier.
For a long time, World War I has been shortchanged by the historiography of science. Until recently, World War II was usually considered as the defining event for the formation of the modern relationship between science and society. In this context, the effects of the First World War, by contrast, were often limited to the massive deaths of promising young scientists. By focusing on a few key places (Paris, Cambridge, Rome, Chicago, and others), the present book gathers studies representing a broad spectrum of positions adopted by mathematicians about the conflict, from militant pacifism to military, scientific, or ideological mobilization. The use of mathematics for war is thoroughly examined. This book suggests a new vision of the long-term influence of World War I on mathematics and mathematicians. Continuities and discontinuities in the structure and organization of the mathematical sciences are discussed, as well as their images in various milieux. Topics of research and the values with which they were d...
.... World War II provides an interesting setting to study women and warfare because the belligerent countries mobilized millions of women for the war effort, both in civilian and military capacities...
Skinner, Rasjid; Kaplick, Paul M
Post-traumatic stress disorder is an established diagnostic category. In particular, over the past 20 years, there has been an interest in culture as a fundamental factor in post-traumatic stress disorder symptom manifestation. However, only a very limited portion of this literature studies the historical variability of post-traumatic stress within a particular culture. Therefore, this study examines whether stress responses to violence associated with armed conflicts have been a culturally stable reaction in Western troops. We have compared historical records from World War I to those of the Vietnam War. Reference is also made to observations of combat trauma reactions in pre-World War I conflicts, World War II, the Korean War, the Falklands War, and the First Gulf War. The data set consisted of literature that was published during and after these armed conflicts. Accounts of World War I Shell Shock that describe symptom presentation, incidence (both acute and delayed), and prognosis were compared to the observations made of Vietnam War post-traumatic stress disorder victims. Results suggest that the conditions observed in Vietnam veterans were not the same as those which were observed in World War I trauma victims. The paper argues that the concept of post-traumatic stress disorder cannot be stretched to cover the typical battle trauma reactions of World War I. It is suggested that relatively subtle changes in culture, over little more than a generation, have had a profound effect on how mental illness forms, manifests itself, and is effectively treated. We add new evidence to the argument that post-traumatic stress disorder in its current conceptualisation does not adequately account, not only for ethnocultural variation but also for historical variation in stress responses within the same culture.
Budko, A A; Ivanovskii, Yu V
The First World War was notable for the widespread use of machine military hardware and absolutely new type of weapon--chemical weapon. As a result of the first gas attack by chlorine undertaken by the German army against the Russian armies on May, 31st, 1915, heavy poisonings have received 9100 people, 6000 of them died. Chemical attack of Germany against Russia was limited by the use chemical gases of suffocating action: chlorine, bromine,phosgene and diphosgene. It is not known exactly, how many times Germany attacked Russian positions with use of chemical gases. On available data, in the First World War from application by German of the chemical weapon Russia has suffered more, than any other of the at war countries: from five hundred thousand poisoned have died nearby 66,000 people. In turn, having received in the order the chemical weapon of own manufacture, Russian army itself tried to attack in the German armies. It is authentically known only about several cases of application dy Russian of fighting poison gases, and in all cases of loss of germen were insignificant.
During World War II, female students at the University of California, Berkeley--then the most populous undergraduate campus in American higher education--made significant advances in collegiate life. In growing numbers, women enrolled in male-dominated academic programs, including mathematics, chemistry, and engineering, as they prepared for…
... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War II...
This paper investigates the history of the Royal Prussian Phonographic Commission, a body that collected and archived linguistic, ethnographic, and anthropological data from prisoners-of-war (POWs) in Germany during World War I. Recent literature has analyzed the significance of this research for the rise of conservative physical anthropology. Taking a complementary approach, the essay charts new territory in seeking to understand how the prison-camp studies informed philology and linguistics specifically. I argue that recognizing philological commitments of the Phonographic Commission is essential to comprehending the project contextually. My approach reveals that linguists accommodated material and contemporary evidence to older text-based research models, sustaining dynamic theories of language. Through a case study based on the Iranian philologist F. C. Andreas (1846-1930), the paper ultimately argues that linguistics merits greater recognition in the historiography of the behavioral sciences. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
During the Second World War large numbers of inhabitants of central, eastern and southern Europe joined the German Armed Forces. Among them were around 250,000 soldiers who identified themselves as Ukrainian. They served in the Wehrmacht, as well as the Waffen SS; a considerable number of them also served in the auxiliary police. They were motivated to join the German Armed Forces by a combination of different factors. This paper aims to shed some light on the broad range of circumstances tha...
Poison gas has been the subject of attention from the French army (Grand Quartier General). The 22sd of April 1915, General Joffre decided that the General Direction for Health Service was in charge of the protection of troops against what he called "this new mode of terror, disease, and death". Actions are been launched to found ways for the protection means and to obtain for the army at least equivalent weapons. Pharmacists will have a leading role thanks to their knowledge in chemistry. Research laboratories were working in two areas: individual protection and production of aggressive agents. Paul Lebeau, Gabriel Bertrand, Alexandre Degrez, Charles Moureu were among many others very committed to fight and remains at the top and to react quickly to ennemy's attacks. At the end of the war, Paul Lebeau received the Legion d'Honneur medal for his contribution to war. The school of pharmacy was recognized as faculty of pharmacy, by a decree of May 14th, 1920. The knowledge that were obtained during this period will be used for the second World War, but the chemical weapon was not much used, as opposed to more recent usage in Vietnam, Irak and Syria.
Atenstaedt, R L
Around the 90-year anniversary of the Battle of the Somme, it is important to remember the international effort that went into responding to the new diseases, which appeared during the First World War, such as trench nephritis. This condition arose among soldiers in spring 1915, characterized by breathlessness, swelling of the face or legs, headache, sore throat, and the presence of albumin and renal casts in urine. It was speedily investigated by the military-medical authorities. There was debate over whether it was new condition or streptococcal nephritis, and the experts agreed that it was a new condition. The major etiologies proposed were infection, exposure, and diet (including poisons). Research pointed to the origin of the disease as being infective rather than toxic, but no definite cause was discovered. A number of labels were given to the disease, including war nephritis. However, trench nephritis was the one used most widely. Trench nephritis was a serious problem for the Allies, leading to 35 000 casualties in the British and 2000 in the American forces. There were also hundreds of deaths. The condition was treated in line with pre-war regimens designed for acute nephritis. No significant preventative methods were implemented for trench nephritis, as there was no consensus regarding causation. The medical response to trench nephritis was largely ineffective, with medical commentators recognizing that there had been a lack of medical progress.
Full Text Available This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. The Obama administration has an opportunity, and some would say an obligation, to create a doctrine that sets guidelines for the development and deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones. There are a number of debates surrounding the use of drones, the most contentious of which have been as to whether governments have legal authorization to do so, and of how combatant status is defined under current international law. In Obama’s first term, his administration worked to rollback the world’s arsenal of nuclear weapons. His efforts and vision of a world without nuclear weapons was one of the reasons why President Obama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize—inclusive, of course, of his effortto strengthen international diplomacy. Yet, during this same period, his administration has developed and utilized revolutionary military technologies that may well become signature weapons of the 21st century. Since 9/11, there has been an alarming increase in the use of drones.
Drawing on school histories, published adult recollections, oral interviews and children's letters, this article explores how the lives of young New Zealanders were affected by contemporary attitudes and activities during World War I in a country far removed from the actual theatre of war. Particular emphasis is given to school-related…
The author describes the history of Maribor General Hospital from its foundation in 1799 until the beginning of World War II. In 1799 the magistrate of the town of Maribor issued a memorandum regarding the establishment of a town hospital in the renovated building of the town hospice, providing space for 24 patients. The work of the hospital was carried out in the former hospice building until 1855. In the period between its establishment and eventual relocation 26 beds were added. The last two decades of the hospital's operation at the original location were marked by the assiduous work of the town's physicist, Dr. Anton Kuker. In the first half of the 19th century, the population of Maribor grew rapidly as a consequence of the construction of the Southern Railway. The town authorities therefore purchased the Prosenjak family villa in the Magdalena suburbs and relocated the hospital to it in 1855, providing 28 rooms for 110 patients. For a whole century, the care of patients was taken over by the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul. The hospital was soon admitting over 1000 patients a year, the most common complaints being pulmonary catarrh, gastritis and fever. In 1872, when the Master of Surgery Feliks Ferk joined the hospital, the internal "medical" and the "external" surgical departments were formed. Although medical studies were not easily accessible, there were a number of Slovene physicians working in the hospital and the town in that period. In the last decades of the 19th century, the hospital was often renovated and enlarged. The infrastructure (telephone, water supply system, heating, lighting) had also been modernized before World War I. In 1914, the first X-ray apparatus was purchased. Between the wars, the hospital's development was boosted by recruitment of the Slovene physicians Ivan Matko, Mirko Cernic, Janko Dernovsek and Hugon Robic. The initial external and medical departments split into several departments: internal medicine, surgery
Full Text Available Author describes the history of General Hospital Maribor from its foundation (1799 to the beginning of World War II. In 1799 the magistrate of the town Maribor issued a memorandum regarding establishment of a town hospital in the renovated building of the town hospice, providing space for 24 patients. The work of the hospital was carried out in the former hospice building until 1855. 26 beds were added in the period between its establishment and eventual relocation. The last two decades of the hospital’s operation at the original location were marked by the assiduous work of the town’s physicist, Dr. Anton Kuker. In the first half of the 19th century, the population of Maribor rapidly grew as a consequence of the construction of the Southern Railway. The city authorities therefore purchased the Prosenjak family villa in the Magdalena suburbs and relocated the hospital to it in 1855, providing 28 rooms for 110 patients. For a whole century, the care of patients was taken over by the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul. The hospital was soon admitting over 1000 patients a year; the most common complaints being pulmonary catarrh, gastritis and fever. In 1872, when the Master of Surgery, Feliks Ferk, joined the hospital, the internal, medical, and the »external« surgical departments were formed. Although medical studies were not easily accessible, there was a number of Slovene physicians working in the hospital and the town in that period. In the last decades of the 19th century, the hospital was often renovated and enlarged. The infrastructure (telephone, water supply system, heating, lighting had also been modernized by World War I. In 1914, the first X-ray apparatus was purchased. Between the wars, the hospital’s development was stepped up by the recruitment of the Slovene physicians Ivan Matko, Mirko Černič, Janko Dernovšek and Hugon Robič. The initial external and medical departments split into several departments
Full Text Available Introduction. The trajectory and quality of economic development of a country depend on the scale of the public entrepreneurship. The key parameters of macroeconomic dynamics are represented by the ratio between consumption and accumulation (saving in the national income, the regulation of centralized withdrawal of economic resources and the nature of their investment or expenditure. Theoretical analysis. The First World War had been changing the course of economic processes in Russia since 1914 till 1918. The funds were raised for ensuring the defense industry and supplying the troops. The incomes of population and enterprises were decreasing. The capital goods and trade ties undergone destruction processes. The besieged state turned to reducing reproduction of the gross national product. The military situation and extraordinary redistribution of resources had strengthened the economic status of the country. The funds spent on the maintenance and equipment of the army depended on the methods of resource allocation. Along with the war losses, the methods of economic regulation also contributed to the degradation of Russian economy. The devastation was caused by the armed struggle of state power for their interests and purposeful economic policy of successive governments. Conclusion. During the First World War the Russian economy had become extreme. Public withdrawal of economic resources and the impact on the economy was growing up until its overall governmentalization and transformation of the market economy into the subsistence one. The reformation processes supported each other mutually, strengthened the effect of general trends and had irreversible cumulative character. The mobilization model of the Russian economy was formed.
Bianchi, C; Bianchi, T
Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous asbestos industries began operations in various parts of the world. At the time of the First World War there is ample evidence of the use of this mineral in shipbuilding, the aircraft industry and in the construction industry. In the years 1912-17 the writer Franz Kafka was co-proprietor of a small asbestos factory in Prague. Some of the writer's novels and journal pages were inspired by this experience. In this way asbestos entered into the history of 20th century European literature. In 1917 asbestos extraction was started at the quarry in Balangero, near Turin, Italy. Risks related to the use of asbestos were known at the beginning of the 20th century and legislation aimed at preventing the harmful effects of the mineral were approved in Italy.
Víctor M. Gruel Sández
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to explain some journalistic representations of the Northern Territory of Baja California. The body of documents that pertain this article, will document different versions of the past of the peninsula, from the nature of political discourse. Bajacalifornians will appear represented by journalists, struggling to eliminate an image of an isolated, uninhabited place filled with U.S. citizens. The editorial portrayal of the Tijuana, Mexicali and Mexico City press will be analyzed in context with the regional, national and international conflicts. Public opinion was a ground where the people of Baja California negotiated the nationalism, as the rest of the world collapsed with World War ii.
This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford's Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of 'blast' exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian 'nerve' emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations.
Elena G. Timofeeva; Sergey V. Lebedev; Elena Yu. Bolotova
The article is devoted to the study of various aspects of military captivity, which became a mass phenomenon (“mass experience”) in the years of the First World War and the revolutionary events in Russia and which influenced both the individual fate of war prisoners and different sides of the development of society. The article presents data on the number of war prisoners located in the years of war and revolution on the territory of the Astrakhan province, their categories and ethnic composi...
Vorstenbosch, Tom; de Zwarte, Ingrid; Duistermaat, Leni; van Andel, Tinde
Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944-1945) made at least 25,000 victims. The Dutch government took action by opening soup kitchens and providing information on wild plants and other famine food sources in "wartime cookbooks." The Dutch wartime diet has never been examined from an ethnobotanical perspective. We interviewed 78 elderly Dutch citizens to verify what they remembered of the consumption of vegetal and fungal famine food during World War II by them and their close surroundings. We asked whether they experienced any adverse effects from consuming famine food plants and how they knew they were edible. We identified plant species mentioned during interviews by their local Dutch names and illustrated field guides and floras. We hypothesized that people living in rural areas consumed more wild species than urban people. A Welch t test was performed to verify whether the number of wild and cultivated species differed between urban and rural citizens. A total number of 38 emergency food species (14 cultivated and 21 wild plants, three wild fungi) were mentioned during interviews. Sugar beets, tulip bulbs, and potato peels were most frequently consumed. Regularly eaten wild species were common nettle, blackberry, and beechnuts. Almost one third of our interviewees explicitly described to have experienced extreme hunger during the war. People from rural areas listed significantly more wild species than urban people. The number of cultivated species consumed by both groups was similar. Negative effects were limited to sore throats and stomachache from the consumption of sugar beets and tulip bulbs. Knowledge on the edibility of famine food was obtained largely by oral transmission; few people remembered the written recipes in wartime
Elena G. Timofeeva
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of various aspects of military captivity, which became a mass phenomenon (“mass experience” in the years of the First World War and the revolutionary events in Russia and which influenced both the individual fate of war prisoners and different sides of the development of society. The article presents data on the number of war prisoners located in the years of war and revolution on the territory of the Astrakhan province, their categories and ethnic composition. The majority of war prisoners were soldiers of the German, Austro-Hungarian armies. The largest number of war prisoners on the territory of the province was recorded in May 1918. On the basis of documentary material, most of which is first introduced in the scientific use, the war prisoners’ accommodation, provision of clothing, food, medical care is researched. The placement of the contingent of war prisoners and their number depended on the needs of the region in labour force. War prisoners were sent to work on the municipal facilities in the provincial center and district towns, were attached to joint-stock and private enterprises, worked as doctors and paramedics in hospitals. The situation of war prisoners fully depended on socio-economic and political situation in the country. The problems of supply of war prisoners with clothing and food aggravated with the economic and political crisis in the country as well as rising prices and were common to all categories of population who needed support. The deterioration of living conditions led to increase in diseases, epidemics and deaths among the prisoners. Local authorities made efforts to supply war prisoners with food and provide with higher wages and hospitals. After the events of February 1917 there were hopes for mitigation of the regime of war prisoners, but visible improvement did not follow and the weakening supervision of war prisoners resulted in the growth of prison breaks.
In this article it was studied the relationship between Turkey and USA after the Second World War. To come into existence of the relationship in the conjuncture of the world after the Second World War and the public opinon of Turkey about thisrelationship investigated in this study.
This paper draws on evidence from a range of sources to consider the extent to which World War II served as a turning point in the employment opportunities open to women chemists in Britain. It argues that wartime conditions expanded women's access to some areas of employment, but that these opportunities represented, in many ways, an expansion of existing openings rather than wholly new ones, and not all of them proved permanent. Instead, women chemists benefited more permanently from increased state expenditure on higher education and on research and development after the war. This enabled some women to remain in what had originally been temporary wartime posts and others to secure employment in wholly new positions. Women were most successful in securing positions created by the expansion of state welfare and support for agriculture, but also found new employment opportunities as a result of the heavy investment in weapons development that accelerated with the advent of the Cold War. In higher education, an initial expansion of openings was not sustained, and the proportion of women in university chemistry departments actually fell during the second half of the 1950s. Industry presents a rather ambiguous picture, with many firms continuing to refuse to employ women chemists, whereas elsewhere they enjoyed enhanced opportunities and better salaries than those offered before the war. This did not mean, however, that women chemists received equal treatment to their male colleagues, and, despite the changes, they remained concentrated in subordinate positions and were expected to concentrate on routine work. Prospects in the 1950s were certainly better than they had been during the 1930s, but they remained strongly gendered.
Inić, Suzana; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella; Kujundžić, Nikola
This article looks into the autobiography of the Croatian chemist and pharmacognosist Antun Vrgoč (1881-1949) entitled My Memories of the World War 1914-1920 and published in Zagreb in 1937. The author was captured in October 1914 and deported to Siberia, where he remained prisoner of war until 1920. Since there are few memoirs describing the life of Siberian prisoners during the First World War, this work is a precious testimony about the attitude towards the prisoners of war, human relations, and the survival of an AustroHungarian army officer. The book shows a striking lack of civilian or military hostility towards the prisoners and the respect of the Geneva Convention. Antun Vrgoč adopted the culture, customs and language of his formal enemies, took part in their civilian life, and taught at their university. His cathartic experience of survival includes a clear message about the absurdity of war.
R.H. Tawney (1880-1962), a leading English economic historian and prominent socialist, was vigorously involved in educational reconstruction during the Second World War. For Tawney, the war was a war for social democracy. His ideals of social democracy formed a basis for his case for Public (independent) School reform and free secondary education…
Gorelova, L Ye; Rudoiy, N A
During the First World War, the Russian Society of Red Cross used experience of previous wars expanded its activities. The medical service functioned in the conditions of cruel war. For the first time in history, the weapon of mass destruction was applied The merit of the Russian society of Red Cross was development of specialized medical care.
Sunal, Cynthia S.; Haas, Mary E.
Asserts that World War I, unlike previous wars, was not fought by small groups of professional soldiers, but with large groups of citizens, including women. Presents a lesson plan using poster and postcards that examines methods used by the U.S. government to rally women to join the war effort. (CFR)
The experiences of children during the Second World War have attracted considerable attention, both scholarly and popular. Not all children however, have received equal attention. Handicapped children are conspicuous by their absence from all types of literature, both on evacuation and on children's experiences of the Second World War. This article restores these children to the story of wartime England and assesses their experiences. It examines the plans that were made for their evacuation and how they were carried out, and compares their lives, both individually and institutionally (i.e. in the various types of 'special' school) with those who, for various reasons, were not evacuated. It also compares their experiences, to a lesser degree, with those of their non-handicapped counterparts. The article argues that for many handicapped children it was a positive experience but one which depended on specific aspects, such as the attitudes of the authorities and of the general public, and perhaps more importantly, the attitudes and quality of the teaching and nursing staff, who were responsible for the children on a daily basis.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
Nuclear winter, a term used to describe potential long-term climate and environmental effects of nuclear war, has been a subject of debate and controversy. This report examines and presents scientific and policy implications of nuclear winter. Contents include: (1) an executive summary (highlighting previous and current studies on the topic); (2)…
Hulanicka, B; Gronkiewicz, L; Zietkiewicz, B
Poland is a country with significant regional differences in socio-economic, demographic and epidemiological phenomena. This is partly due to its history; notably the division of Poland among three different countries and the change of the borders after the second World War. The latter caused massive migratory movements of population. Then from the territory which now constitutes one third of Poland, Germans were evicted and Poles settled. These, then new, Western and Northern Territories of Poland (WNTP) are still the most developed parts of Poland with better roads, better housing and easier access to medical service and schools. On the other hand, some of the statistical data concerning the health and lifestyle of the population of these parts of Poland are worse than the corresponding data concerning the rest of Poland. For example the rate of lung cancer, the rate of divorce, the rate of adolescence pregnancies, the rate of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are all higher in the WNTP. In 1955, a very comprehensive anthropological nationwide survey of school children was performed. Our findings based on this material exhibit a number of phenomena which might contribute to the explanation of these negative population data. We have observed that the boys born in various regions of pre-war Poland and settled with their parents in the new territories were of different height at the age of 7-18 years than those from the four other regions of Poland whose parents were not resettled. Also the average height of boys, those sons of the migrants who during post-war migration did not go to the west but settled in the central region of Poland, was greater than those who settled in the west of Poland. Our results indicate that among the migrants there was a considerable fraction of people who were physically weaker and less socially adapted in comparison to the rest of the Polish population and that these characteristics have been passed down to the subsequent
Linden, Stefanie C; Hess, Volker; Jones, Edgar
Changes in the clinical presentation of functional disorders and the influence of social and cultural factors can be investigated through the historical case notes from mental hospitals. World War I (WWI) was a potent trigger of functional disorders with neurological or psychiatric symptoms. We analysed 100 randomly selected case files of German servicemen admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of the Charité Medical School of Berlin University during WWI and classified them according to contemporaneous and retrospective modern diagnoses. We compared the clinical presentations with accounts in the German and British medical literature of the time. Most patients obtained the contemporaneous diagnosis of 'psychopathic constitution' or hysteria reflecting the general view of German psychiatrists that not the war but an individual predisposition was the basis for the development of symptoms. The clinical picture was dominated by pseudoneurological motor or sensory symptoms as well as pseudoseizures. Some soldiers relived combat experiences in dream-like dissociative states that partly resemble modern-day post-traumatic stress disorder. Most servicemen were classified as unfit for military service but very few of them were granted compensation. Severe functional disorders of a neurological character could develop even without traumatic exposure in combat, which is of interest for the current debate on triggers of stress disorders. The high incidence of pseudoseizures accords with the psychiatric literature of the time and contrasts with accounts of war-related disorders in Britain. The tendency of German psychiatrists not to send traumatised servicemen back to active duty also distinguished between German and British practice. Our data contribute to the debate on the changing patterns of human responses to traumatic experience and their historical and social context.
Full Text Available The article examines the labour organization of Russian sisters of mercy during World War One. The author indicates two periods which took place before and after the February Revolution. Based on archive documents and oﬃ cial publications the article describes general structure of Russian Red Cross Society institutions and basic principles of sisters of mercy communities’ work. It examines the rules of new sisters’ employment, their training, service assignment and professional duties. The emphasis is put on nurses’ work in wartime. During ﬁrst years of war sisters’ position was stable. Due to speciﬁ c hierarchy in the managing structure sisters’ work was productive and demanded. After the February Revolution the managing system changed drastically as well as the status of sisters of mercy and their reception in society. The author gives a thorough examination of sisters’ position after reorganization of Russian Red Cross Society. In time of political instability Russian sisters of mercy were able to organize themselves into one big organization thus creating All-Russian Union of Sisters of Mercy. This article for the ﬁrst time ever implements into scientiﬁc research a huge amount of documents which allowed a signiﬁ cant extension of views on Bolsheviks’ political approaches to Russian Red Cross Society and institution of sisters of mercy.
Shaw Cobden, Lynsey
This is not an article about 'shell-shock'. It explores the military medical response to nervous disorders in the Royal Flying Corps. The First World War exposed the propensity of pilots to the nervous and psychological rigours of aerial warfare, but their unique experiences have been overlooked in favour of 'trauma' in infantrymen. This represents a critical lacuna in the historiography of military medicine, for flying personnel were studied apart from 'shell-shocked' soldiers. This article will show that flyers were believed to be medically different, and what set them apart from men in the trenches was their unique employment. The war necessitated, and provided the conditions for, the study of the medical problems of flying, including the significant nervous strains. Medical officers quickly established that flying not only affected bodily functions, but also 'wore down' the nerves that regulated psychological responses. This article will therefore present the medical view. It will study the research of air-minded medical officers and the conclusions reached on the nervous disorders of flying personnel.
David Archibald; Maria Velez-Serna
This article charts commercial cinema’s role in promoting the war effort in Scotland during the First World War, outlining three aspects of the relationship between cinema and the war as observed in Scottish non-fiction short films produced between 1914 and 1918. The existing practice of local topical filmmaking, made or commissioned by cinema managers, created a particular form of engagement between cinema and war that was substantially different from the national newsreels or official fi...
Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie
More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Beins, Bernard C
Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.
Jiang, Austin; Maibach, Howard
Sulfur mustard has been used as a chemical warfare agent for the past century. After its introduction by the Germans in World War I, investigators quickly began studying its impact on the human body including its deleterious effects on skin. This review focuses on two groups in particular who conducted experiments from 1917 to 1918: the United States Army at the American University Experiment Station Laboratories and Torald Sollmann at Western Reserve University. Through this work, these researchers proved far ahead of their time by anticipating dermatologic phenomena not described in the literature until later in the twentieth century. These include regional variation of percutaneous penetration, effect of vehicle on penetration and predicting immunologic contact urticaria. The work conducted by these researchers set the groundwork for much of twentieth century dermatotoxicology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
"Although there are some works, both in English and Turkish, that have studied migration into the Ottoman empire from the Balkans during the 19th century...it is difficult to find any systematic and comprehensive literature that examines the period since the establishment of the Turkish Republic.... This article aims at filling some of this gap....[The article offers] an analysis of the size and causes of migration from the Balkans to Turkey since the end of the Second World War. The statistics for tables used in this article, unless stated otherwise, have been obtained from the General Directorate of Village Works in Ankara, which is responsible for keeping the statistical records on immigrants arriving in Turkey." excerpt
Explores the circumstances surrounding the creation of education schemes in the armies of the British Empire. Discusses attitudes toward war and toward the soldier's role in the early 1900s, attitudes of the soldiers toward war, the University of Vimy Ridge, the Canadian Khaki University, the Oatlands program, and education for the New Zealand…
West, John B
The history of respiratory mechanics is reviewed over a period of some 2,500 years from the ancient Greeks to World War II. A cardinal early figure was Galen (130-199 AD) who made remarkably perceptive statements on the diaphragm and the anatomy of the phrenic nerves. The polymath Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) contributed observations on pulmonary mechanics including the pleural space and bronchial airflow that still make good reading. Vesalius (1514-1564) produced magnificent illustrations of the lung, ribcage, and diaphragm. In the 17th century, the Oxford School including Boyle, Hooke, Lower, and Mayow were responsible for many contributions on mechanical functions including the intercostal muscles and the pleura. Hales (1677-1761) calculated the size and surface area of the alveoli, the time spent by the blood in the pulmonary capillaries, and intrathoracic pressures. Poiseuille (1799-1869) carried out classical studies of fluid mechanics including one of the first demonstrations of flow limitation in collapsible vessels. The culmination of the pre-World War II period was the outstanding contributions of Rohrer (1888-1926) and his two Swiss countrymen, Wirz (1896-1978) and von Neergaard (1887-1947). Rohrer developed the first comprehensive, quantitative treatment of respiratory mechanics in the space of 10 years including an analysis of flow in airways, and the pressure-volume behavior of the respiratory system. von Neergaard performed landmark studies on the effects of surface tension on pressure-volume behavior. Progress over the 2,500 years was slow and erratic at times, but by 1940 the stage was set for the spectacular developments of the next 70 years. © 2012 American Physiological Society
Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva; Erke Kartabayeva; Nurzipa Alpysbayeva
The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.
Full Text Available The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.
Emilian M. DOBRESCU
Full Text Available Mentality is defined as an assembly of manners of acting or thinking about someone or something. Related to the history of mentalities in the 19th century the core elements were the building of the nation and the constitutional law and only at the beginning of the 20th century the economic development and the relations between social classes. Mentalities change hard and slowly. Therefore, quick leaps (social, economic, political and cultural cannot be done within a population which is immersed in old mentalities. The traditional rural society is animated by religious dogmas and conceptions. Old mentalities of the population very often generate social unrest. In Romania between the two world wars these mentalities were the background of the future social changes imposed after the Soviet model and which continue to influence even today the development of the country. Enlightened minds of Romania concerned in the first decades of the 20th century about learning and evaluating the mentalities specific to our nation. Foreseeing the important and creative role of individuals for a nation on multiple levels, these free-thinking minds inferred the assembly of conscience and behaviour traits that build up the national characteristics of the Romanian nation. In a comparative regard of the studies quoted hereunder, that we might characterise as being of reference for characterising the mentalities of our nation in the period between the two World Wars of the 20th century, we may conclude that the Romanian nation pertains to the extended family of the European nations and world nations; demanding times endowed the Romanian nation and its representative with some negative behavioural traits, but which are not predominant; the Romanian’s nature is positive, constructive and creative. A logical conclusion imposes itself: despite the relatively low number of population, along centuries, the Romanian nation still holds a place of honour in the world gallery of
For colonial troops from the British Empire, the military mobilizations of the First World War created the opportunity to visit the imperial metropolis – London – leaving the war behind. This article explores the experience and encounters of New Zealand's soldiers in London during the First World War and the ambiguity of their identity and belonging in a city that could be positioned as ‘home’. Using diaries, letters, newspapers and oral testimonies, the article builds on the work of Felicity...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service with the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II. 831.304 Section 831.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... Nurse Corps during World War II. (a) Definitions and special usages. In this section— (1) Basic pay is...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a) In...
Carole Ammann; University of Basel
Review of the monograph:Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two, New York: Peter Lang, 2014, ISBN 9781433122439, 531 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two, New York: Peter Lang, 2014, ISBN 9781433122439, 531 Seiten
... One Centennial Commission; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting AGENCY: World War One Centennial Commission. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Notice of this meeting is being provided according to... the schedule and agenda for the November 15, 2013, meeting of the World War One Centennial Commission...
The soaring prices of imported goods that accompanied the Second World War led to the increase in demand for locally made goods, indigenous industries like the textile and tinsmith therefore thrived. However, the most severe problem created by the Second World War was the acute shortage of food all over Nigeria due ...
Full Text Available Crossroads is the name of the concept that narratively connects several WWII-related cultural institutions in Brabant. We were initially looking for ways to connect 4 otherwise very diverse World War II-related institutions (in fact, 3 museums and a commemoration centre and we found it in this overarching paradigm. Crossroads does not require museums to share their collection items. It offers them instead a tool to build and offer visitors a cohesive experience related to WWII heritage. This experience is characterized by the specific focus into their WWII stories using storytelling that they can adopt. This paper will highlight the creative process that brought to the development of this concept and will discuss examples of the resulting transmedia narratives.
Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G.; Have, Margreet ten; Kessler, Ronald C.
Purpose Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Methods Adults (n= 3,370)who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Results Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders. (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Conclusions Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders. PMID:29119266
Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E; Betancourt, Theresa S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G; Ten Have, Margreet; Kessler, Ronald C
Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders.
Larsen, Matthew F; McCarthy, T J; Moulton, Jeremy G; Page, Marianne E; Patel, Ankur J
World War II and its subsequent GI Bill have been widely credited with playing a transformative role in American society, but there have been few quantitative analyses of these historical events' broad social effects. We exploit between-cohort variation in the probability of military service to investigate how WWII and the GI Bill altered the structure of marriage, and find that it had important spillover effects beyond its direct effect on men's educational attainment. Our results suggest that the additional education received by returning veterans caused them to "sort" into wives with significantly higher levels of education. This suggests an important mechanism by which socioeconomic status may be passed on to the next generation.
Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.
We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973
This article sets out to challenge conventional descriptions and explanations of war and teaching about war. It draws on raw data from three qualitative arts-based projects to illustrate the complexity of cognitive and affective understandings of the place of war, past, present and future, through the jarring dissonance of "mash-up"--a…
Schools, either in the years before or after their attendance at the Langres Staff College. 9 Mark E . Grotelueschen, The AEF Way of War: The...the First World War, 404. 76 Mark E . Grotelueschen, The AEF Way of War: The American Army and Combat in World War I (New York: Cambridge University...in Indiana, regimental staff officer in Texas, and as General Frederick N. Funston’s adjutant during the 1914 Vera Cruz Expedition.87 One
The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.
Burt, R A
This superb reference book achieved the status of 'classic' soon after its first publication in 1986; it was soon out of print and is now one of the most sought-after naval reference books on the secondhand market. It presents, in one superb volume, the complete technical history of British capital ship design and construction during the dreadnought era. One hundred years ago at Jutland, Dogger Bank, Heligoland Bight and the first battle for the Falklands, might squadrons of these great armoured ships fought their German counterparts for command of the seas. Beginning with Dreadnought, the book continues to the end of the First World War, and all of the fifty dreadnoughts, 'super-dreadnoughts' and battlecruisers that served the Royal Navy during this era are described and superbly illustrated with photographs and line drawings. Each class of ship is described in detail so that design origins, and technical and operational factors, are discussed alongside characteristics, with special emphasis on armament...
Marcos Eduardo Meinerz
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze why Latin America, especially Argentina, was the region of the world that harbored the most Nazi war criminals—for example, Josef Mengele, Adolf Eichmann and Klaus Barbie—after World War II. It also aims to analyze how this fact has set the tone for the appearance of literary works about the fantastic adventures of “Nazi hunters” seeking the whereabouts of those individuals. For this purpose, in the first part of the article we will address Nazis’ escape to Latin America. Next, we analyze some literary works by authors who called themselves Nazi hunters.
Orange Plan (Orange was the color assigned to Japan In war games and planning exercises, prior to World War Z; Mexico was "Green," I Great Britain "Red...204. Renato Cov:no, I Gianpaoio Galio and Enrico )lantovand, "L’industria dali’ economia dl guerra alla ricostruzione" In PIerluJqJ Clocca and Giani...Tonlolo, eds., V . economia Italiana nel periodo fascista (Bologna, 3 1976), p. 189. S ,, ...... ... ... .... ..... .. ..., -. ,.. .. ,, , , ._ 1 398. 5
Full Text Available The World War II led to serious casualties and left deep scars / wounds of memory. As the victory over occupation regime was glorified, honored and starting from 1965 was widely celebrated at national level, there was a great gap between official and personal memory of war. Monuments are one of the forms of living examples of the past and thus are reliable sources for the study of different epochs and Zeitgeist / spirit of time and their changes. This article considers the development of Soviet memorial landscape by the World War II starting from the war termination to the Soviet Union collapse. Special attention is attached to internal political and international views / interpretations and development with respect to victims of war. In other words, the process of different groups of war victims exclusion and inclusion in Soviet collective memory under the influence of internal political and foreign political interests symbiosis. And, as a result, resultant attitude towards memorial places.
... of Army Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the Last Surviving American Veteran of World War I By the... Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the last surviving American veteran of World War I, and in remembrance of the generation of American veterans of World War I, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the...
Despite a stream of publications acknowledging the war-time role of non- ... discourse on the military or of bridging the “long-existing gap in the larger narrative ... the pigeon memorialisation movement in general and in France and Belgium in ...... a short time: New perspectives on the Anglo-Boer War, Pretoria: Nexus.
Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva; Ryskeldy S. Myrzabekova; Moldakhmet S. Myrzabekov
The main purpose of this article is to examine the activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross and other community organizations in providing assistance to prisoners of the World War I. According to Article 15 of the Hague Convention of 1907, organizations that assist the prisoners of war, as well as their representatives can use all the benefits from the authorities of the warring countries. Representatives of these organizations are allowed to distribute benefits to places of...
Poddubnyĭ, M V
The article analyses some of illustrations dedicated to the military medical topics on the pages of some Russian magazines and newspapers (magazine "Ogonek" newspaper "Petrograd's paper" and its annexes), its place among the images of the war, formed in the mass consciousness by periodical subjects. It is concluded that with the beginning of the First World War medical illustrations were finally approved as a recognizable symbol of the war. Mass printed media played a significant role in its entrenchment.
Traditionally, historians begin the League of Nations’ history with the postwar settlement and the creation of the Versailles system. However, the continuity exists between the First World War and the emergence of international organization. There was no steady institution of multilateral diplomacy for the international arbitration before the War. The Hague Peace Conferences (1899, 1907) were not able to create strong international institutions. The ways out of the Great War and the mecha...
Full Text Available En el presente artículo se ahonda en el debate sobre los prolegómenos, orígenes y responsabilidades de la I Guerra Mundial. Alejándose de un enfoque eurocéntrico, se pretende exponer la importancia que para el desencadenamiento de los hechos de 1914 tuvo el desencadenamiento de tensiones y crisis diplomáticas situadas en la periferia del sistema internacional. Se prestará especial a las ocurridas en Extremo Oriente, describiéndose las causas de las mismas, las posiciones adoptadas por cada una de las grandes potencias ante ellas y las consecuencias que tuvieron para el equilibrio geoestratégico tanto de la región como del planeta, vinculándolo al estallido del primer conflicto mundial.______________________ABSTRACT:In the present article the author deepens in the debate on the origins and responsibilities of the World War One. Moving away from an eurocentric approach, the author tries to expose the importance that for the facts of 1914 had the triggering of tensions and diplomatic crises placed in the periphery of the international system. The author will give specially attention to happened in Far East. It will be described the reasons of the same ones, the positions adopted as each of the great powers before them and the consequences that had for the geostrategic balance both of the region and of the planet, linking it to the snap of the World War One.
CLAVERT, Frédéric; Majerus, Benoît; Beaupré, Nicolas
International audience; What is the on-line echo of the commemoration of the centenary of the 1st World War ? What is the behavior of Memorial/Heritage Institutions about the 1st World War on Twitter ? How do they pass information about the Centenary ? Is there an effect of the English predominance on Twitter about the Centenary on the way non-English twitter accounts are considering the 1st World War? Those questions are to be answered by a research project that is to be presented in this po...
Full Text Available The author examines selected examples of post-1945 Austrian literature, asking what pictures of the Second World War they imparted and what role they played when, certainly from 1948 on, a certain image of history began to take shape in Austria against the background of the Cold War. This image involved a fade-out in particular of the racist nature of the war, and it had a collectively exonerating and distorting impact. Attention is paid to the stories and novels of former participants in the war and National Socialists, such as, for example, Erich Landgrebe, Erich Kern, Hans Gustl Kernmayr, Kurt Ziesel. A contrast is seen in the anti-war novel, Letzte Ausfahrt (Last Exit (1952 by the former soldier Herbert Zand, who turns against the dominant image of history, as well as in Ingeborg Bachmann's use of war memories as a topic. The texts are read as a reservoir of selective memory: on the one hand they are critical, individual counter-memories and on the other hand, they make a positive contribution to the formation of the aforesaid collective image. One may say that a war of perception was fought around the Second World War; it was undoubtedly won in the immediate post-war years by those literary works that legitimized or at least trivialized the war. The critical voices of Herbert Zand, Gerhard Fritsch, and Ingeborg Bachmann were unfortunately the quieter ones and were not particularly successful in their time.
considerable array of supporting services -- from the chaplain to the cinema, the rest-billet to the soccer field; a great deal of Bratish working...governments. At home, Wilson seldom interfered with Baker’s running the War Department or Daniels’ the Navy Depar tnen t. During 1916-1917 Congress...sense of urgency In the military bureaucracy: ’The divergencies of opinion among the experts were only a pretext for those I who did not know or did not
turn of the century, signed the order. 16 The Root Reform Era between the Spanish -American War and World War I “saw vast changes in the entire... municipal governments, labor unions, media organizations, and other offices whiles visiting New York City each year. 39 Additionally, the College began to
The stories we tell in history are often stories about ourselves. This can lead to tremendous distortion. Rupert Gaze was shocked when a young black student told him that there was no point in his studying the Second World War because it had nothing to do with him or his family. While Gaze has worked for the Imperial War Museum (IWM) North, it has…
Lockard, Craig A.
Asserts that the American-Vietnamese War can be analyzed best in the context of three distinct entities: (1) Vietnam; (2) the United States; and (3) the larger world. Discusses Vietnam's revolutionary tradition, U.S. Cold War foreign policy, and the global context of anticolonialism and antiimperialism. (CFR)
Ericsson, Kjersti; Simonsen, Eva
This article conceptualizes Second World War children of German soldiers and native women in Norway as "border children", who became symbolic bearers of deep societal conflicts. The authors demonstrate that this position had painful consequences in the personal experiences of the children, experiences that were shared with war children…
Paksuniemi, Merja; Niemisalo, Sari
To demonstrate how changes in both foreign and domestic environments after the Second World War affected primary education and teacher training in Finland, the article presents a historical picture of the post-war reality of the school system, based on a review of sources that include laws, decrees, curricula, textbooks and previous research. The…
Balsamo, Larry T.
Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…
Chilcoat, George W.
By using propaganda commercial radio broadcasts which occurred during the Second World War as the basis for classroom activities, teachers can help students capture the emotional drama of various topics of the war, as well as certain themes still applicable in contemporary society, and stimulate student curiosity about the past. (RM)
As the United States prepared to enter the Second World War and during the early years of the conflict, Music Educators National Conference (MENC) focused attention on how music educators could support the war effort. The association worked with the federal government and other agencies on a number of national programs. Through its publication,…
Field, Sherry L.
Profiles the extraordinary World War II public support efforts conducted by school children and teachers across the United States. Encouraged by the Roosevelt administration, teachers and pupils mobilized support for war bond sales and salvage collection drives. Many children raised "Victory Gardens" producing food to help the war…
During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…
An earlier version of (parts of) APH 5 was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 125 / 2016: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies/postal areas : V Morocco", written by Ton Dietz.
Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Petaros, Anja; Balažic, Jože; Geršak, Ksenija
The aim of the study was to perform the genetic identification of a human cranium from a Second World War gravesite in Slovenia and find out if it belonged to the mother of a woman used as a family reference. Both genetic and anthropological examinations were carried out. The genetic examination was performed on 2 molars and petrous bone. Prior to DNA isolation 0.5 g of tooth and bone powder was decalcified. The DNA was purified in a Biorobot EZ1 (Qiagen) device. The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified and short tandem repeat (STR) typing performed using two different autosomal and Y-STR kits. Up to 22.4 ng DNA/g of powder was obtained from samples analyzed. We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from the left second molar and from the petrous bone. Full autosomal genetic profile including amelogenin locus revealed the male origin of the cranium that was further confirmed by the analyses of Y-STRs. The same conclusions were adopted after the anthropological analysis which identified the cranium as that of a very young Caucasoid male. The male origin of the cranium rejected the possibility of motherhood for the compared daughter. For traceability in the event of contamination, we created an elimination database including genetic profiles of the nuclear and Y-STRs of all persons that had been in contact with the analyzed cranium and no match was found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
den Velde, Wybrand Op; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Hovens, Johannes E.; Van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Aarts, Petra G. H.
The mental and physical health of 146 Dutch males exposed to severe war stress during their young adulthood were examined in 1986-1987 when they were at ages 61 to 66 years. The veterans' data were compared with a randomly selected population-based sample of same-aged males. In 2005, 70% of the war
Pedroso, José Luiz; Linden, Stefanie C; Barsottini, Orlando G; Maranhão, Péricles; Lees, Andrew J
The First World War was a global war, beginning on 28 July 1914, until 11 November 1918. Soon after the beginning of the war, there was an "epidemic" of neurological conversion symptoms. Soldiers on both sides started to present in large numbers with neurological symptoms, such as dizziness, tremor, paraplegia, tinnitus, amnesia, weakness, headache and mutism of psychosomatic origin. This condition was known as shell shock, or "war neurosis". Because medically unexplained symptoms remain a major challenge, and considering the close relationship of symptoms described in shell shock with clinical neurology, we should study their history in order to improve future care.
..., The squadron's participation in the famous Doolittle raid on Tokyo is examined along with a brief description of the planes they flew during the war, the B-25 and the B-26, The bulk of the report covers...
Alexandre M. da Fonseca
Full Text Available "It is not a coincidence that the century of war coincided with the century of central banking,” wrote Ron Paul, the libertarian candidate "sensation" for the presidential elections in 2008 and 2012, in the book End the Fed. This discussion explores in short, the powerful pamphlet by Major General Smedley Butler, "War is a Racket", demonstrating, specifically, who profited economically and who, in turn, bore the weight and violence of WW1, assuming that a war is never fought with the acquiescence of the population. However, this monograph goes further, looking for a reinterpretation of the official American history of the First World War through the lens of libertarian discourse. The aim is thus to understand, from another perspective, the fundamental cause of the paradigm shift from nonintervention to intervention taking place during this war, linking it to the project which led to the creation of the League of Nations and the growing importance of the US in the world. Finally, a fundamental connection will be established, exploring the theories argued in the book A Foreign Policy of Freedom, between the policies of Woodrow Wilson and the foreign policy of the United States throughout the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st.
Reid, Fiona; Van Everbroeck, Christine
During the First World War combatants of all armies were prey to nervous disorders or psychological breakdown. These war neuroses were a response to the highly-industrialised nature of the warfare as well as to the fatigue engendered over four years of intense conflict. Yet while fear and mental breakdown were universal, national responses varied. A comparison of British and Belgian shell shock indicates that men suffered in very similar ways but that symptoms met with rather different responses: in Britain treatment and diagnostic regimes stressed the importance of class difference and shell shock was often linked to cowardice. These issues were not of overriding importance in the Belgian army. In the longer term shell shock became, and remained, a topic of political and social concern in Britain whereas in Belgium men suffering from kloppe (extreme fear) tended to be forgotten and the topic has not excited much popular interest or scholarly attention. Yet despite these differences one overarching theme remains clear, namely that despite the extensive experience of war neuroses during and after the First World War, there still remains a fierce stigma about the mental wounds of war.
Alexander Y. Borisov
Full Text Available From ancient times, war was called "the creator of all things". And winners created the postwar world order. The article reveals the backstage, the diplomatic history of the Great Patriotic War, which make the picture of the main events of the war, that culminated in victory May 1945 in the capital of the defeated Third Reich, complete. The decisive role of the Soviet Union and its armed forces in the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies was the strong foundation on which to build the strategy and tactics of Soviet diplomacy during the war. It was implemented in the course of negotiations with the Western Allies - the United States and Britain, led by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill. World history teaches, large and small wars have been fought on Earth for centuries for specific political interests. In this context, the Second World War has been a shining example not only to curb the aggressor states, the liberation of peoples from the Nazi tyranny, but also an attempt by the victor to organize a new, better postwar world order to guarantee a durable and lasting peace based on the cooperation of the allied states. But the allies in the war did not become allies in the organization of the postwar world. Their collaboration briefly survived the end of hostilities and was overshadowed start turning to the Cold War. It was largely due to the US desire to realize their material advantages to the detriment of the Soviet Union after the war and build a system that would be a one-sided expression of the interests of Washington. Americans, especially after the death of President Roosevelt, and during his successor Truman understood international cooperation as an assertion of its global leadership while ignoring the interests of the Soviet Union, which bore the brunt of the war.
Gould, Winston A
.... This paper will examine the Luftwaffe's thinking, organization, and technology as they pertained to Countersea Operations during World War II, with a focus on the Battle of the Atlantic during the period 1939-1945...
Osur, Alan M
Race relations between white and black Americans in the Army Air Forces (AAF) during World War II ran the gamut from harmonious to hostile, depending upon the unique circumstances existing within each unit, command, and theater...
Kleinman, Steven M
As World War II unfolded, the strategic interrogation programs established by the British, German, and American forces evolved into robust collection entities that proved to be a unique source of critical intelligence...
Cathey, Emily A
This thesis explores the impact of atrocities that Japan committed against its neighbors during and prior to World War II on Japan's relationships with its neighbors, China and the Republic of Korea...
This study examines the U.S. Army's use of tank destroyers in World War II, particularly the origins and evolution of tank destroyer doctrine, changes in training at the tank destroyer school at Camp Hood, and selection...
The Norwegian Resistance during the Second World War (April 1940-June 1945) was basically a peaceful set of events conducted by the civilian population as well as underground military organizations...
Although the Great War of 1914-18 is within living memory it is disturbing to discover how many gaps there seem to be in our knowledge of this subject. In this offering I shall consider some of these in the hope that the interest of other researchers may be aroused, before the last of the veterans of that most terrible of all wars, ...
17 Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918 -1945, 485. 18 Ronald D. Bachman and Eugene K. Keefe, Romania : A Country...Suffering What They Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II A Monograph by MAJ Edward M. Kaspar United States Army...Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6
Mariane Bonfante Cesário Lourenço; Cecília Maria Izidoro Pinto; Osnir Claudiano da Silva Junior; Lúcia Helena Silva Corrêa Lourenço; Graciele Oroski Paes; Alexandre Barbosa de Oliveira
Abstract Objectives: To describe the circumstances of inclusion of female nurses in the Second World War through the Brazilian Air Force, and discuss the challenges faced by and the achievements of these nurses. Methods: Socio-historical study developed with textual and photographic sources, in addition to oral sources through interviews with war veterans. Data were treated according to the historical method and discussed with concepts support from the theory of social world, by Pierre Bour...
Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to examine the activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross and other community organizations in providing assistance to prisoners of the World War I. According to Article 15 of the Hague Convention of 1907, organizations that assist the prisoners of war, as well as their representatives can use all the benefits from the authorities of the warring countries. Representatives of these organizations are allowed to distribute benefits to places of detention of POWs, provided that a nominal permit is issued by the military authorities. During the World War I, the community organizations played a significant role in providing material and moral support to prisoners of war of belligerent countries. The role of the Red Cross in the protection of war victims and providing assistance to the POWs during the World War I is undeniable, international and national organizations interacted as natural mediators and influenced their own governments, in order to further alleviate the plight of the prisoners of war.
Hwahng, Sel J
During the Pacific War (World War II), Japan maintained an elaborate system of sexual slavery by implementing certain practices based on institutionalized policies of hygiene, efficiency, and the use of mostly Korean girls and women. Two hygienic techniques were established--vaccination and quarantine. No. 606 injections were given at mandatory regularly scheduled medical examinations to prevent and treat venereal disease, and to also deter pregnancy, induce abortions, and ultimately sterilize sex slaves. Secondary textual analysis of data collected from 1995-2000, N = 67 interview transcripts, and participant observation in 2003 and 2006. Geographic area: East Asia and the Pacific Islands.
As German men were conscripted into the armed forces during the Second World War, more and more wives were left to manage their families alone. At the same time more women than ever entered paid employment to fill the gaps in the market left by their soldier husbands. Scholars working in the field have made much of the dislocation to gender roles prompted by the Second World War. This article questions whether women's wartime experiences changed their views on being confined to the home. Ultimately, this article argues, women wanted to return to a sense of normality at the end of the war. In the aftermath of defeat, in which mere survival rather than speculation about potentially improved models of the family set-up were paramount, "normality" was most obviously represented by prewar gender roles. Women were hoping for normalization, not only in the public sphere in the sense of a flourishing economy, but also in the private sphere with the return of the men and a resumption of the old role divisions. It was therefore not only conservative politicians who wished to preserve prewar structures within the home - so too did women themselves. The re-emergence of the traditional family model in the wake of the Second World War was thus as much the result of popular aspirations "from below" as of government policies imposed "from above".
Klovland, Jan Tore
During World War I ocean freight rates rose to extraordinary levels. Using a new monthly dataset it is shown that freight rates can be well explained by economic activity, commodity prices, war risk and world tonnage in the period 1912 to 1916. In the first two years of the war part of the British merchant eet was directly controlled by the Government but neutral shipping was basically free to operate as normal. In this period neutral shipping accounted for about one third of British impo...
The review of the National Curriculum and the centenary of the First World War have emphasised an orthodox patriotic and nostalgic historical ideal. The British coalition Conservative-Liberal government has aligned itself with the centenary commemorations of the First World War, while the war as social and political history may be in danger of…
Few charitable organizations have achieved the status of global recognition enjoyed by UNICEF, the United Nations Children's Fund, which embodies the international effort to provide for needy children the world over. Created because of its synchronicity with the United Nations' stated purpose—to maintain peace in the world—UNICEF launched its operations in 1946. Its founding, early operations and eventual restructuring reveal a great deal about concurrent political and economic events, but also provide keen insight into international ideas about who qualified for full citizenship in the post-war world. The consequences of UNICEF's policies, procedures and practices posed challenges to notions of citizenship for both women and children. It challenged citizenship not by questioning sex-specific gender roles, but by judiciously adhering to the United Nations' promise to create equality for men and women alike. UNICEF found itself in the unique position to be able to globalize definitions of what constituted full citizenship in any nation, due to its rapid expansion throughout the world. Through its programs, especially those related to health care, it not only challenged these roles in the West, but began over several decades to complicate the definition of citizenship as it became a forceful presence in Asia and Africa throughout the 1970s.
Full Text Available Ottoman Empire had the potential to influence policy on three continents, to expand the war broken out in Europe in 1914, thanks to its geographical position. To continue the war, Germany had to get rid of containment of the Triple Entente, and found the solution to maximize to benefit from the Ottoman geopolitics. Germans succeeded in driving the Ottomans. When the war spread with the Ottoman Empire’s entry into the war, Germany took a breath in Europe. Thanks to the newly emerging fronts Ottoman forces drew many Russian and British Colonial divisions on its own divisions. Accumulation of the British divisions in Egypt; reinforcement of fronts emerged in Gallipoli, Palestine and Iraq; and opening a second front to Russia was by courtesy of the Ottomans. This was providing strategic advantage to the Germans. And the Entente powers saw German defeat completing the containment after the Ottoman Empire out of war. Thus the British took on the Ottomans despite numerous fronts. This blow would change the Middle East map.
This paper examines the images of women war workers in advertisements for foundation garments during World War II in the United States. In wartime America, functional underwear such as brassieres and girdles were sold as a “vital necessity” for women at work, especially those engaged in defense work. \\Advertisements for foundation garments frequently depicted women war workers who were doing man-sized jobs and lauded those women for their contribution to the war effort, and women war workers’...
Full Text Available Some German commentators have spoken of 2014 as the Supergedenksjahr –the super commemoration year– which marks the 25th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, the 75th anniversary of the start of the Second World War, and the centenary of the outbreak of the First World War. This article offers a number of observations about the commemoration of the First World War within the context of a broader politics of history in contemporary Germany. First, the First World War has emerged from the shadows of the two other major events in twentieth-century German history – the Third Reich and the division of Germany overcome in 1989. Whether this will remain the case is doubtful, as the pull of the other events remains stronger. Second, if there was a single overriding debate in Germany about the First World War it owed much to the success of The Sleepwalkers by Christopher Clark. His thesis of shared responsibility was read against the background of Fritz Fischer’s thesis, which ascribed most responsibility to reckless German leaders. In turn, the re-emergence of the war guilt debate was related to discussions about Germany’s role in European politics today. Finally, the commemoration has been marked by a move away from the nation-state framework so that many exhibitions and programmes adopt either a global or a local perspective.
Havari, Enkelejda; Peracchi, Franco
We document the association between war-related shocks in childhood and adult outcomes for Europeans born during the first half of the twentieth century. Using a variety of data, at both the macro- and the micro-level, we address the following questions: What are the patterns of mortality among Europeans born during this period? Do war-related shocks in childhood and adolescence help predict adult health, human capital and wellbeing of the survivors? Are there differences by sex, socio-economic status in childhood, and age when the shocks occurred? At the macro-level, we show that the secular trend towards lower mortality was interrupted by dramatic increases in mortality during World War I, the Spanish Flu, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II, and we quantify the size of these mortality shocks. Different patterns characterize these high-mortality episodes, with substantial variation by country, sex and age group. At the micro-level, we show that war-related hardship in childhood or adolescence, in particular exposure to war events and experience of hunger, is associated with worse physical and mental health, education, cognitive ability and subjective wellbeing at older ages. The strength of the association differs by sex and type of hardship, with war exposure being more important for females and experience of hunger for males. We also show that hardships matter more if experienced in childhood, and have stronger consequences if they last longer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The memory and historiography of the First World War in Italy may be divided into four broad periods. During the immediate post-war period (1918-1922 debate mainly focused on such issues as the Italian defeat at Caporetto in 1917, the human and material costs of the war, and the peace treaty. In the subsequent decades (1922-1960, fascism was presented as the heir of the war, which became a fundamental element of its nationalist identity as well as part of the rituals of the regime. This nationalistic and fascist interpretation of the conflict then survived in many respects until the start of the 1960s. Perspectives on the war were subsequently revised over the next twenty years (1960-1980. The new cultural tendencies of these decades produced a history of the conflict from below, which encompassed the experiences of Italian soldiers, who were often seen as victims of the military machine. The historiography focused on their opposition to the war, including cases of indiscipline and mental breakdown. In more recent times (1980-2014 these trends have continued, and new studies have emerged, but many aspects of the war, including the home front and the international context (including Italy’s enemies are still relatively neglected. Moreover, although there is a keen public interest in the First World War in north-east Italy, which was the theatre of operations, the period 1915-1918 is probably part of a faraway past for most Italians.
...: Japan and the United States between the two World Wars. The Armed Forces of both nations envisioned significant risk of war between themselves and sought, with varying focus and vigor, to prepare...
Duray, Jr, Paul H
Prior to the current Global War on Terror (GWOT), the United States military had not participated in occupation and military governance mission on as a massive a scale as that experienced in World War II...
planners began to concentrate on the island- hopping campaign expected against Japan. By using Midway as an intermediate, unnamed objective, rather...your location. The morality would be debated, old ghosts would be dredged up from World War I, but the tactical framework had been laid from...GAMING THE INTERWAR: HOW NAVAL WAR COLLEGE WARGAMES TILTED THE PLAYING FIELD FOR THE U.S. NAVY DURING WORLD WAR II A thesis
Machin, P; de C Williams, A C
Study of coping with phantom pain in nonclinical war veteran amputees. Semistructured interview with amputees in their home setting. Residential home for war veteran amputees or respondents' own homes. Amputee veterans of World War II with phantom pain. Pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire) and pain history, coping (daily coping; Stone and Neale, J Pers Soc Psychol 1984;46:892-906), size of social network, and quality of war memories. No differences in pain or coping were associated with place of residence (and prevalence of cues) or social networks; war memories appeared not to be associated with availability of cues, whether media coverage or other amputees. There was some association between the emotional tone of war memories and pain intensity. Veteran amputees were in general accepting of high levels of pain and made little use of medical resources, relating that to past experience of their pain being dismissed. Coping with phantom pain in war veteran amputees is predominantly silent acceptance of the pain, with little use of social support however available, and rare recourse to medical help, based on past unhelpful experience. Pain and mood appeared to be unrelated to specific war cues, but higher pain scores were reported by those with unhappier war memories.
Harrington, James J.
In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…
Mere Eglise- Chef du Pont- Etienneville-Amfreville. The 101st Airborne Division’s mission 20War...Division, United States Army, 1993. Copp, Terry. “Canadian Operational Art: The Seige of Boulogne and Calais.” Canada’s Professional Journal on Army
Baars, Patricia, Ed.
Covers the Victory Garden campaign of the early 1940s begun by the Office of War Information and the Office of Civil Defense. Provides a facsimile of a poster designed to publicize the program in addition to seven teaching activities. (JDH)
This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland.
't Hart, M.
Most historians used to regard war as economically destructive. They focused on short-term damage to the economy, guided by archives that were dominated by documents related to reparation demands and official statistics that did not take the black market and the re-routing of trade into account.
to suffer from oxygen deprivation (anoxia typically com- mences between 8,000 and 12,000 feet). They were also sub- jected to ambient temperatures... medio - cre bombing results during the war. Paul’s "lack of confidence" in bombsights and "lack of interest" in accuracy are the opera- tional...a Sqdn. which is doing slightly better work’ but at a high cost of machines and personnel and consequently moral[ el . 208 EIGHTH BRIGADE AND
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to reconstruct the social image of Zagreb during World War I by focusing on the influence of war circumstances on urban life, the living conditions and the position of children as the most vulnerable group of inhabitants, by using primarily newspapers as historical sources. In order to achieve as complete an image as possible, various publications were used (‘Narodne novine’, ‘Jutarnji list’, ‘Obzor’, ‘Novine’, ‘Hrvatska’, ‘Ilustrovani list’, ‘Katolički list’ and ‘Narodna zaštita’ which proved to be an inexhaustible source of information and contemporary observations on the above-mentioned issues. The paper tells about the general sense of insecurity in the city during wartime, the usual war motives (the wounded in the streets, life under war regulations, forced charity events and the consequences of the war situation (shortage of living supplies and poverty, begging and vagrancy, neglected children and war orphans. The paper has proven that historic newspapers are a first-class historical source. The essential scientific contribution of the paper is the reconstruction of part of Zagreb social history during World War I, highlighting that this part of Croatian history has still been poorly and incompletely researched.
Julie B. Wiest
Full Text Available We are all storytellers. We tell stories in a variety of settings, to a variety of audiences, and for a variety of reasons. We tell structured stories about personal experiences—narratives—as a means of understanding the past, constructing identities, and communicating ourselves to others. Drawing on social psychological literature on narratives, identities, and autobiographical memories, this study examines the construction, recitation, and evaluation of 28 World War II veterans’ narratives. Findings indicate cultural influences in the ways these veterans constructed their war stories, the ways they constructed meanings about their war experiences, and the ways they constructed their identities in relation to those experiences.
Gratale, Joseph Michael
The Second World War commenced in 1939 when Germany’s Nazi regime invaded the nation-state of Poland. The violation of Polish sovereignty by both Germany and the Soviet Union compelled the British and the French to stand alongside their Polish allies as was stipulated in pre-existing treaty obligations. In spite of Nazi-Soviet cooperation in Poland, war between the two ultimately came to fruition in 1941 when Hitler initiated Operation Barbarossa. With all major powers involved in the war,...
Alexander Y. Borisov
From ancient times, war was called "the creator of all things". And winners created the postwar world order. The article reveals the backstage, the diplomatic history of the Great Patriotic War, which make the picture of the main events of the war, that culminated in victory May 1945 in the capital of the defeated Third Reich, complete. The decisive role of the Soviet Union and its armed forces in the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies was the strong foundation on which to build the strate...
The mid-twentieth century in Britain ushered in a new age of anxiety with the development of total war and the aerial bombing of civilians. Rather than trying to chart and quantify levels of anxiety and fear on the British home front during the Blitz, this article's goal is to examine how these emotions were conceptualized by psychological experts immediately prior to and during the war. The essay follows the rising problematization of anxiety and fear as new concepts calling for professional knowledge and management. It emphasizes the contribution of psychoanalysts to this development while pointing to gradual change between the two world wars.
Exhibited at the second Glucksman Memorial Symposium on June 13th 2007 From its very beginnings the First World War was a global war. The most severe fighting outside Europe took place in the tropical German colonies of the Cameroons and German East Africa (present-day Tanzania), as well as in the deserts of German Southwest Africa (present-day Namibia). The main burden of the war was carried on the shoulders of the Africans who either were enlisted as regular soldiers or forced into servi...
Czabański, Adam; Lester, David
Although scholars have examined the occurrence of suicide in the concentration camps during World War Two, little has appeared on suicide in prisoner-of-war camps. The present note presents an attempt to document the occurrence of suicide in the Oflag II-C Woldenberg camp in what is now Western Poland, and estimates a suicide rate of between 22.4 to 38.4 per 100,000 per year in the roughly 6,600 prisoners.
Cass R. Sunstein; Jason W. Ellis; Sean Scanlan
The guest editors of special issue 12, Jason W. Ellis and Sean Scanlan, interview Cass R. Sunstein, the Robert Walmsley University Professor at Harvard, where he is founder and director of the Program on Behavioral Economics and Public Policy. He is the author of many books, including the bestseller Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (with Richard H. Thaler). His 2016 book The World According to Star Wars attempts to understand the Star Wars universe in ten chapter...
Valiente-Neighbours, Jimiliz Maramba
The United States recruited more than half a million Filipino soldiers and guerrillas in the Philippines during World War II with the promise of American citizenship in return for their wartime service. Even after the official victory of the United States and its allies in 1945, the United States government continued to recruit Filipinos to serve under the American flag for post-war reconstruction and the development of American military bases in the Pacific. But in February 1946, the United ...
27Ian Dear, Escape and Evasion, (London, UK: Arms and Armour Press, 1997), 11. 28Lloyd R. Shoemaker, The Escape Factory (New York: St. Martin’s...soldiers are beginning to understand that they are the underdogs carrying the weight of the bureaucracy. 11. Building up the Nazi Gangster Ideal. In...and Evasion: Prisoner of War Breakouts and the Routes to Safety in World War Two. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1997. DeForest, Orrin, and David
Foulkes, Julia L
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan and the revitalization of the Brooklyn Academy of Music in Brooklyn offer insights into the intersection of arts and urbanization after World War II. This intra-city comparison shows the aggrandizing pull of the international arena in the shaping of Lincoln Center and the arts it featured in contrast to the local focus and debate that transformed how BAM fit into its Brooklyn neighborhood. The performing arts, bound as they are to a moment fused in space and time, reveal the making of place within grandiose formal buildings as well as outside on the streets that surround them—and it is, perhaps, that tensile connection between stages and streets that informs the relevancy of both the institution and the arts it features. At a time when the suburbs pulled more and more people, the arts provided a counterforce in cities, as magnet and stimulus. The arts were used as compensation for the demolition and re-building of a neighborhood in urban renewal, but they also exposed the more complex social dynamics that underpinned the transformation of the mid-20th century American city from a segregated to a multi-faceted place.
Full Text Available This paper discusses discourses and activities of memory of the Austrian “Federation of Jewish War Veterans” (Bund jüdischer Frontsoldaten/BJF, based primarily on the analysis of the journal “Jewish Front” (Jüdische Front as well as on archival sources. A remarkable increase in anti-Semitic activities as well as acts of violence committed by the National Socialists led former Jewish soldiers of the Austrian army to found the BJF in 1932. The aim of the BJF was to defend the Austrian Jewry against anti-Semitic accusations as well as to strengthen their Jewish self-consciousness by focusing on the remembrance of the Jewish military service during the Great War and an idealized and exaggerated war experience. To reach their objectives, the BJF was organized hierarchically and militarily. The members wore uniforms, and the BJF organized military inspections, spread propaganda via the journal “Jewish Front” and initiated the erection of Jewish war memorials in several Austrian cities. Due to the fact that the BJF wanted to unify the Austrian Jewry under its leadership, it claimed to be above all party lines and propagandized a common Austrian Jewish identity.
Surov, Alexey; Thermann, Florian; Behrmann, Curd; Spielmann, Rolf-Peter; Kornhuber, Malte
A number of people injured during the second world war harbour foreign bodies such as grenade splinters or bullets in some part of the body. Most of these metal fragments remain clinically silent. Some of them, however, may cause delayed complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of delayed complications associated with foreign bodies after world war II injuries. 159 patients with retained foreign bodies after world war II injuries were retrospectively identified radiologically in our data bases in the time interval from 1997 to 2009. Diverse delayed complications secondary to the metal objects were diagnosed in 3 cases (2%): one patient with grenade splinter migration into the choledochal duct, one case with pseudotumoural tissue reaction, and one patient with late osteomyelitis. The time from injury to clinical presentation varied from 56 to 61 years. PubMed and Medline were screened for additional cases with delayed sequelae after foreign body acquisition during the 2nd world war. A 30 year search period from 1980 up to date was selected. 15 cases were identified here. Our study demonstrates that health consequences of the 2nd world war extend into the present time, and therefore physicians should be aware of the presence of hidden foreign bodies and their different possible late reactions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article will examine a little known but long-standing group, the Lisle Fellowship, that endeavored to open the world to college students and foster international understanding--or "world-mindedness," as the organization's founders called it--ultimately with the goal to contribute to the ideal of world peace. It will also, in…
Full Text Available The Ottoman Empire's entry into the First World War and how it occurs in a process and the conditions under which the subject is extremely important in terms of recent history. Because the First World War, six centuries has resulted in the liquidation of the Ottoman Empire. From the Armistice more ink drying and Sevre paved the way for foreign occupation and intervention has led to the Turkish War of Independence. An independent state under the debris of destroyed large Turkey, under the leadership of Ataturk many years with great dedication and achievement are established by the National Struggle. It is therefore that the Ottoman Empire's entry into the war, perhaps more than the war itself were discussed. Today we rotate back to relive the events is not possible. But good to analyze what happened , they take lessons from this day to try to make the right decisions is the duty of the Turkish nation. Already Republic of Turkey, The lessons of these events have taken, II. World War didn‟t enter
Sergei A. Nekrylov
Full Text Available The article deals with the participation of the teaching staff and professors of Tomsk Imperial University in the organizing of medical aid to the wounded in the World War I. Moreover, they actively took part in the fulfillment of the defense orders for the battlefront, producing of medical drugs and development of asphyxiant gases countermeasures. The paper reconstructs the history of Tomsk University contribution to the struggle against Germany during the First World War on the basis of the existing scientific literature, documental materials, including the ones introduced into the research use for the first time and the periodical media. The article is devoted to those, who are interested in the history of the World War I and in the history of higher education and science in Russia, as well.
This article suggests how the waging of war in an imperial setting may have reshaped military and civilian relations in India from 1939-45. The number of troops stationed in India had repercussions for society and local politics. The article investigates widespread prostitution as one aspect of the gendered wartime economy. Indian prostitution was closely linked to militarization and to the effects of the 1943 Bengal famine. The article also argues this was symptomatic of a more far-reaching renegotiation of the interactions between men and women in the Indian Empire of the 1940s. Other Indian, European, North American and Anglo-Indian women worked as nurses, with the Red Cross and in a variety of roles towards the war effort. Women were subject to new social and sexual demands due to the increased numbers of troops stationed in India in the 1940s.
Hoeneveld, F; van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One
Hoeneveld, F.; van Dongen, J.
Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One
Mark James Crowley
Full Text Available In Britain during the Second World War, the Post Office constituted the single largest employer of women. Historically, the Post Office, like many other employers, had discriminated against women. During World War I, shortages of male labor had resulted in some opportunities for women at the Post Office, but the improvement had neither been comprehensive nor enduring. Unlike World War I, World War II, however, proved to a real turning point in the Post Office's personnel practices. By the end of the Second World War, while the Post Office still did not treat women workers completely equally (persisting, for instance, in gender-biased pay practices, management nevertheless had made strides in their treatment and perception of women workers. Post Office executives increasingly perceived women on the payroll not as temporary wartime employees, but as permanent employees, who would be just as essential peacetime as in war.
Page, W F; Ostfeld, A M
The harsh treatment of former prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean conflict resulted in severe malnutrition. Although rarely linked to specific long-term medical problems, a specific marker of malnutrition, self-reported lower limb edema (presumably due to a vitamin B deficiency) was associated with a three-fold increase in subsequent death attributed to ischemic heart disease (IHD) during the follow-up period from 1967 through 1975. Although there is at present no medical basis for linking edema, which is perhaps a marker for some unmeasured risk factor, to subsequent IHD, this finding may nonetheless have medical implications for the group of former POWs and other populations with severe dietary deficiency. It also suggests there may be a need to reexamine currently held theories on malnutrition and subsequent chronic disease.
This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action.
Søderberg, Jonas; Thygesen, Svante; Larsen, Silas
This project addresses the causes of the first world war, seen from a historiographical perspective. This year it is 100 years since the outbreak of the war ocurred and the historians still disagree about the origins of the war. Officially Germany was blamed for the war by signing the so called article 231 of the Versaille-treaty. However whether Germany was solely to blame became a hot topic in the following decades. Historians have reconstructed and analysed the European political dynamics ...
Vadim M. Rynkov
Full Text Available The article deals with World War I influence on dynamics of social processes in Russia. The subject of the research is limited by the channels of social mobility, which mean horizontal or mainly horizontal movement in social space. The conclusions are based on studying statistic sources and modern historiography. In 1914–1917 due to war influence severe deformation of previously stable working channels of social mobility took place. Large groups of people who had not had any prerequisites of social status change started to migrate. Some channels almost stopped working, such as agrarian migration, seasonal work, but some new ones emerged, such as refugees, captivity, desertion. The war effaced estates boundaries and deformed class groups. Produced by war, the processes of society restructuring are characterized by high level of social entropy – the most important prerequisite of revolutionary explosion of 1917.
noncon- formists, Jews, nationals of surrounding states, and others who had offended the Nazi Party. These camps included Buchenwald , Nordhausen, Dachau...Evacuation Hospital.-When the Buchenwald camp [near Weimar] was liberated a problem immediately apparent was the care and dispo- sition of several hundred...Patients From Buchenwald Concentration Camp by 45th Evacuation Ihospital. TUBERCULOSIS 351 2. Background of tabcyrculiosis proble, at Buchentcald.-a
JOSEPH C. EBEGBULEM
Full Text Available The League of Nations and the United Nations Organization were two post-World War (World War I and World War II organizations established for the maintenance of peace and security in the international system. One of the cardinal objectives of these organizations was the promotion of a Collective Security System which was considered as vital in the pursuit of global peace and security. In other words, Collective Security is an institutional mechanism established to address a comprehensive list of major threats to peace and security around the world. With the escalation of conflicts and wars in different parts of the world, there is therefore the need for collective responses at global, regional and national levels in conflict situations. The achievement of collective security in the international system would be based on the principle that any attack on any member of the United Nations would be considered as an attack on all the members. After a panoramic discourse of the meaning and nature of Collective Security, the paper also examines the problems of collective security in the international system; its failure under the League of Nations and the United Nations. The paper concludes that the weaknesses inherent in the system do not make it unuseful as it is a relevant factor in the maintenance of international peace and security.
Full Text Available Apart from army registers, some (often anonymous photographs and the files of anthropometric examination, the involvement of thousands of African soldiers in WWI and their presence in POW camps in Europe seems to have left few traces in European archives. Vis-à-vis a mass of autobiographic texts on the Great War, written by Europeans and Americans, there are very few published accounts of African soldiers that would allow for their historical experiences and views to be included in historiographies of WWI. A collection of sound recordings produced with African prisoners of war in German camps by a group of German linguists, musicologists and anthropologists between 1915-18 offers a notable documentation of their presence. Yet, similar to the anthropometric registration, these recordings were not designed to accommodate the soldiers’ accounts, but to create a collection of language recordings. If these cannot be considered as ‘authentic voices from the past’ and unmediated accounts of WWI, how do we understand and theorise these hitherto untranslated voice recordings, their form and content? This essay understands the recordings not as ‘voices’ but as echoes, that is, as mediated, often effaced reverberations of accounts of the self and the war. The notion of echo in this essay grapples with issues of extraction, attenuation, limitation, distance and distortion, or outright effacement, that is the result of the form and the mediation of those speech acts, the belatedness of listening to them, as well as, the gaps in meaning and intelligibility the recordings entail. By conceptualising the recorded voices and their translation as echoes, I seek to understand the status of the recordings, the effects of this linguistic practice and gain a sense of the situation in the camps, so as to position these subaltern articulations in their mediated, distorted form as part of the colonial archive.
Vladimir B. Karataev
Full Text Available The article discusses theregulations and combat use of the Russian aviation during the First World War. The attention is paid to the implementation of the exploration and correction of artillery fire from the airplane. The authors have selected as sources the documents of the Central state historical archive of Georgia, in which there are reflected the materials governing the use of airplanes on the fronts of the First World War. The authors used the general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, concretization, generalization, as well as the traditional methods of historical analysis. The authors used the historical-situational method, which involves the study of historical facts in the context of the studied era in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. At the conclusion of the study, it should be noted that the use of aircraft has passed a long way of developmentduring the First World War. There were expanded the spectra of the use of aircraft in war, from intelligence and reconnaissance and adjustment to using the airplanes as fighters and bombers. The change of the functional responsibilities required the establishment of clear and implemented quickly regulations in a combat situation, and such instructions governing the actions of the crew were created during the war.
While the group basically followed the agenda set out for it, it was felt that the three elements that it comprised - general and complete disarmament; world governance and peacekeeping and peace enforcement - were not the only ones or even the most apposite in considering how to attain a war-free world. A war-free world would be brought about not only by institutional means, as the agenda appeared to imply, but also by dramatic changes in the norms relating to the utility of the use of violence as a means of resolving human problems. There already appears to be a growing belief in the disutility of war as a means of settling issues between states, as witnessed by the current decline in the prevalence of inter-state wars. There are also strong indications of the growth of a norm, backed by the recent advisory opinions of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), against the legitimacy of the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons. However in large parts of the globe there appear to be quite flimsy norms against the use of violence to settle intra-state disputes, which are currently by far the predominant progenitors of armed conflict. Individuals and parties within states continue to regard war not only as legitimate but as necessary to help them retain or achieve power. Here democratization, economic justice and the establishment of the rule of law would meet the challenge
Sheehan, Mark; Davison, Martyn
This article examines the extent to which young people in New Zealand share the dominant beliefs and assumptions that inform contemporary notions of war remembrance concerning the First World War. In particular, it considers how they make meaning of the ANZAC/Gallipoli narrative. Informed by two empirical studies, it questions whether young people…
The question, "What were the causes of World War I?," has become one of the classic historical debates of which there seem to be endless permutations. In the past 90 years historians, journalists, and politicians have offered many more or less rational explanations for the war. Although at least some of the usual "causes"…
Tine T. Kurent
Full Text Available The American-Croatian painter Maksimilian Vanka, 1 1889-1963, or Maxo for his friends, composed together with his American wife Margaret, her father dr. Stetten DeWitt and his friends Louis and Stella Adamic, his most enigmatic work, the "WORLD WAR II" collage. The collage originated at the reunion of Maxo Vanka, his wife Margaret, his friends Louis and Stella Adamic, with Margaret's father Dr. Stetten DeWitt, after his return from Europe at war. The party was exhilarated with Dr. Stetten's safe escape from Korcula (Dalmatia to Paris, Le Havre and on board of the French liner lie de France to New York, and preoccupied with the imminent World War.
gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E
At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.
Ekaterina S. Lyubomirova
The article is devoted to the new aspects in the study of the history of post-war Germany, revealed in the book written by Sabine Bode «Post-war children - born in the 1950s, and their fathers-soldiers». It discusses the contribution made by Bode in the study of mental and psycho-emotional consequences of the Second World War and the «exclusion of the past», which is reflected in the fate of the post-war children and continues to have an impact on the socio-political life of the Federal Repub...
Herzberg, D L
This paper examines the social thought of University of Wisconsin professors Richard T. Ely, John R. Commons, and Edward A. Ross during World War I. Like many of their fellow scholars, these three were actively involved in the pro-war effort. Although their support for the war was strongly conditioned by personal and occupational considerations, the impact of their wartime service was not restricted to those realms. Their social thought, which they impressed into service explaining and justifying the war, was itself altered in subtle and sometimes surprising ways by the forceful positions they took on the political, economic, and racial significance of the conflict. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
World’s Top-Rated Business Schools on Educating Women for Global Management?” Journal of Business Ethics 83, no. 1 (2008): 65-83. Accessed November 8...Books, 2004. Werhane, Patricia H. “Women Leaders in a Globalized World.” Journal of Business Ethics 74, no. 4 (2007): 425-35. Accessed November 6, 2016...were in keeping with the ALRM and other leadership models as defined today . They left a lasting legacy of service to the nation and the armed forces
An earlier version of (parts of) APH 5 was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 125 / 2016: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies/postal areas : V Morocco", written by Ton Dietz.
The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...
Du Plessis, L.A
This book analyzes the present day situation of the Iranian crisis and its radicalization about the nuclear question. According to the author, this crisis will be the decisive step of a third world war with major geopolitical stakes (nuclear, petroleum, etc). The positions of China and Russia in this conflict would play a determinant role.
Stevens, John D.
Black newspapers, like the "Chicago Defender,""The Pittsburgh Courier," and the "Baltimore Afro-American," opened the eyes of Americans to the injustices suffered at home as well as in the armed services. The black press attacked the Navy for its Jim Crowism because when World War II began, the only black sailors were…
Examines the loss of various collections, especially school libraries and the Ezra Library, in Cracow (Poland) during World War II. Highlights include Nazi policies toward Cracow's Jews; the destruction of libraries, archives, and collections; Jewish book collections in the Staatsbibliotek Krakau (state library); and the removal of books by Jewish…
Bramsen, I.; van der Ploeg, H.M.
This study examined the mental and medical health care utilization of World War II (WW II) survivors and the characteristics of survivors seeking professional health care. Forty seven years after the end of WW II, a random sample of 4,057 Dutch WW II survivors answered a four-page questionnaire;
PURPOSE - This paper aims to discuss the “truism” that learning organizations cannot be large organizations and, conversely, that large organizations cannot be learning organizations. This paper analyzes learning in the German and US armies in the Second World War, based on a four-dimensional model
Friese, Elizabeth E. G.; Nixon, Jenna
Two educators and a classroom of fifth grade students integrated poetry writing into social studies curriculum focusing on World War II. Several strategies and approaches to writing poetry are highlighted including list poems, writing from photographs and artifacts, and two voice poems. The study culminated in a poetry reading and the creation of…
As a neutral and multilingual country, Switzerland struggled with major domestic political conflicts during the First World War due to the two cultures of the French-speaking and German-speaking parts of the country. The divided cultural loyalties ("fossé moral", "Röstigraben"), consisting of Swiss-Germans supporting Germany…
... hands of the United States' potential adversaries. The enduring lesson of both World Wars was that it took time for the Allies to realize that technology was not the anti-submarine panacea it had been hoped to be, and it was the age-old practice...
Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the "truism" that learning organizations cannot be large organizations and, conversely, that large organizations cannot be learning organizations. This paper analyzes learning in the German and US armies in the Second World War, based on a four-dimensional model of the learning organization.…
Petin D. I.
Full Text Available The survey of the overall economic and financial situation in the Eastern Russia during the First World War is presented in the article. Special attention is paid by the author to the first experience of local emissions of money surrogates.
National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.
Guns, tanks, and bombs were the principal weapons of World War II, but there were other, more subtle forms of warfare. Words, posters, and films waged a constant battle for the hearts and minds of the U.S. citizenry as military weapons engaged the enemy. Persuading the U.S. public became a wartime industry, almost as important as the manufacturing…
As World War I approached, the potential for conflict drove the principal future protagonists, England and Germany, to seek detailed information on their anticipated enemies, not just in Europe, but wherever their nations' interests crossed paths. After 1910, the Union of South Africa turned its eyes to the northwest to keep ...
... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-WWICC-2013-01; Docket No. 2013-0007; Sequence 1] World War I Centennial Commission; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings Time and Date: Open: 9:30 a.m.-5:30 p.m. (Central Time) on Friday, September 13, 2013. Place: The...
Programs intended to improve nutrition often fall short of expectations. One exception, however, occurred during the rationing years of World War II, when U.S. citizens were encouraged to incorporate protein-rich organ meats into their protein-deficient diets. Unfortunately,, most of tire insights
Ramsey, E. Michele
Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining the rhetorical invention strategies of suffrage rhetoric in the cultural context of World War I. Shows how the political cartoons published in the mainstream Suffrage Movement's "The Woman Citizen" constructed women as strong, competent, and…
In the midst of a curricular debate at Brown University during the Second World War, the faculty's humanists seized the opportunity to pen their views on the nature and purpose of higher education. This investigation reveals humanism as a fragmented force, at once principal and peripheral to the American academy. The central argument of this study…
Suh, Yonghee; Yurita, Makito; Lin, Lin; Metzger, Scott
Informed by recurring international controversies, this study explores representations of the Second World War as official history in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean secondary-level textbooks and theorizes about how they influence and function as collective memories about this time period. Using grounded theory, it finds that the examined Japanese…
In this article the author shares a partial biography of Elizabeth Evans, who became a domestic science teacher in Britain during the First World War. This story begins with a small collection of artefacts--professional letters and personal photographs--which infuse our understanding of teaching and learning and Elizabeth's everyday life nearly a…
The paper focusses its attention to the medical work of the British Military hospitals stationed in Macedonia during the First World War, the surgical work carried out under very heavy conditions in improvised operating theatres as well as the treatment of the wounded and sick solders brought from the battlefields on the Macedonian Front.
Redmann, Jennifer; Sederberg, Kathryn
This article offers approaches to the topic of the First World War at the intermediate and advanced levels of the German curriculum through thematically diverse WWI-era cultural texts. By situating the texts within a multiliteracies framework, the authors demonstrate how this historical and literary content can provide authentic material for…
Philpott, Joanne; Guiney, Daniel
Having already reflected on ways of improving their students' understanding of historical diversity at Key Stage 3, Joanne Philpott and Daniel Guiney set themselves the challenge of extending this to post-14 students by means of fieldwork activities at First World War battlefields sites. In addition, they wanted to link the study of past diversity…
Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus
The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.
Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)
Oksana E. Dmitrieva
The article is focused on the features of more than 250 000 Czechs and Slovaks in Russian captivity during World War I: the amount, quartering and supply benefits, work in various sectors of the Russian economy, military units formation, social and national organizations activities, charity support. The conditions of Czechs and Slovaks captivity are recollected. New sources are introduced into scientific use.
Abstract. The cocoa trade in colonial West Africa, before World War II, had been operated through market forces. All attempts made by foreign trading firms to form 'cocoa buying pool' and eliminate market forces met with stiff opposition by African farmers and middlemen, the famous of which was the cocoa hold-up in Ghana ...
WWII is widely remembered and represented. Keeping the memories of this international conflict alive, both within academic and popular history writing, occurred largely within various national frameworks. On the one hand, in the immediate post-war world many stories appeared about the great events
Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs
Introduces the censorship, and imprisonment of Jehovah's Witnesses who distributed, "The Finished Mystery," which contained antiwar statements deemed seditious during World War I. Asks students to examine a Justice Department document pertaining to the case. Helps students decide whether national security needs should override First…
The article explores interactions between digital media and cultural memory in post-Soviet countries by focusing on internet memes related to World War II. It introduces the concept of historical internet memes, which are groups of digital content units associated with a historical event or a
Full Text Available How is the continuing reconciliation process between the former "hereditary enemies" Germany and France reflected in German daily newspapers between 1946 and 1970? Using quantitative content analysis, a representative sample of coverage of France and French-related topics published during this period was examined with an emphasis on a the choice of news topics and possible deviations from the predictions of Galtung’s news-factors model and on b how protagonists and events were portrayed in these articles. A further qualitative analysis was made of some promising journalistic attempts to achieve "constructive" coverage during the same period. This was intended a to determine whether and how several theoretical deductions from Kempf’s conflict model of de-escalation processes are manifest in post-conflict coverage and b to identify the stylistic "tools" journalists used – even unintentionally – to further a better understanding of the former enemy and – in the long run – to build peace and reconciliation between Germany and France. The overarching questions addressed by this study are: (What can we learn from coverage during a successful reconciliation process, and how can these lessons be transferred to contemporary coverage of post-war processes? Major findings of the two studies will be presented.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show how the filmmaker’s genre of choice shapes the main discourse of the film. The author compares Helke Sander’s documentary Liberators Take Liberties (1991-1992 and Max Farberbock’s narrative feature A Woman in Berlin (2008 both dealing with the dramatic effect of the end of WWII, in particular with the instances of German women having been raped by the Allied troops, a theme first publicized in the anonymous diary A Woman in Berlin (1953. There is a clear connection between the book and the two films, but if Sander focuses on the rape itself and on the extraordinary female experience of war, Farberbock is more concerned with cross-national revenge. The author looks closer at the genre elements, particularly at the genres of the diary, the (feminist documentary, and the narrative film. Then, the author draws some parallels between the Helke Sander film and the diary A Woman of Berlin and discusses the documentaries within the feminist framework inspired by Sander’s accomplishments.
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring to naturalize...
Ahern, John; Sandmann, Alexa
Provides an annotated bibliography and suggested teaching activities for units on the Great Depression and World War II. The materials support inquiry into the causes of the Great Depression and World War II and how these events transformed U.S. society. The annotated bibliography includes novels, memoirs, biographies, and political studies. (MJP)
The CANOL project was a joint U.S.-Canada undertaking during World War II. It entailed the construction of a road and pipeline from the oil fields of Norman Wells on the Mackenzie River, 960 kms over the Mackenzie Mountains to a new refinery at Whitehorse. The goal was to provide a secure supply of aviation fuel far from the menace of Japanese bombers. Initially, the pipeline was expected to operate by October 1942. In actual fact, the first gasoline was not produced in the crude distillation unit until April 24, 1944, and it was not until November 1944 that the refinery finally began producing aviation fuel. Four months later, the pipeline and the refinery were shut down. The project cost American taxpayers $ 134 million. A total of 2650 kms of pipeline was laid. During the first nine months of pipeline operation 46,000 barrels of oil was spilled, much of it directly into the Mackenzie River. Total production from the refinery, which itself cost $ 27 million, wa 866,670 barrels of products. When the refinery was shut down, most of the refinery structures were dismantled and moved, via the Alaska Highway, to the newly discovered Leduc oilfields, but buildings, tanks and hydrocarbon waste were left behind. In a 1960 report it was estimated that some four million litres of oil has been pumped into a pit located within the containment berm formerly surrounding an 80,000 barrel oil storage tank which was dismantled after the shutdown. The bureaucratic dispute about who is responsible for cleaning up has been an issue ever since. The cost of cleanup was estimated at about $ 4 million in 1994. Since the federal government, the original owners of the land , transferred the land to provincial jurisdiction in 1970, it disclaimed any responsibility for site cleanup, however, there has been some recent evidence of willingness on the part of the Department of National Defence and the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs to determine proper actions to clean up the site
S Eagles. a majo0r concern. [here was probably no tmo7re halarod(us b1 )(1v Of water in the world during 1940 and 194 1 than the North Atlantic...cross between rugby , so~ccer and American football. 11 George Sperry continues the narrative: ’S~urveying the wreckage he I Bain] slightly lost his
Wojtowicz-Jankowska, Dorota; Stasiak, Anna
At a time when history gives us one of the last opportunities to confront our knowledge of World War II, with the knowledge of people living in those days, there are buildings created with strong transmission not only architectural, but also of a great emotional load. At the same time, when the political system does not forbid to speak openly about the past period, and the technology allows you to create structures, about which we could only dream of even several dozen years ago, and objects such as the Museum of the Second World War in Gdansk are designed. In this paper are presented the current trends shaping the museum facilities, with the example of the Museum of the Second World War. The diversity of forms, materials and technology makes it impossible to establish a single standard for this type of public buildings, and that makes each of these objects unique. At the same time, it is possible to identify some common spatial treatments noted in the sector of architecture devoted to exhibitions and commemoration. The Museum of the Second World War is a newly created structure, in the design of which the authors used advanced technology (which allows the implementation of its ideas) in order to meet the ever-growing needs of users. The popularity of museums depends on many factors, such as the type and form of the offered exhibitions, the transfer of information and emotional value, location of the building and adaptation of the facility to the users‧ needs, which differ in many respects (age, the efficiency of perception, education or wealth). Given that museums are usually buildings that have noticeable form in the urban landscape, the paper will describe how to set up the idea, and later its implementation, impact on urban space. Additionally, for some time exhibitions and architecture surrounding them have become a tool for the promotion of towns, regions, or even the whole countries. The fact is that the exhibitions are visited not only by local residents
This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Wilson, Nick; Clement, Christine; Summers, Jennifer A; Bannister, John; Harper, Glyn
To identify the impact of the first world war on the lifespan of participating military personnel (including in veterans who survived the war). Comparison of two cohorts of military personnel, followed to death. Military personnel leaving New Zealand to participate in the first world war. From a dataset of the New Zealand Expeditionary Forces, we randomly selected participants who embarked on troopships in 1914 and a comparison non-combat cohort who departed on troopships in late 1918 (350 in each group). Lifespan based on dates of birth and death from a range of sources (such as individual military files and an official database of birth and death records). A quarter of the 1914 cohort died during the war, with deaths from injury predominating (94%) over deaths from disease (6%). This cohort had a significantly shorter lifespan than the late 1918 "non-combat" cohort, with median ages of death being 65.9 versus 74.2, respectively (a difference of 8.3 years shown also in Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log rank Pworld war in 1914 from New Zealand lost around eight years of life (relative to a comparable military cohort). In the postwar period they continued to have an increased risk of premature death. © Wilson et al 2014.
After World War II, Dutch psychiatrists and other mental health care professionals articulated ideals of democratic citizenship. Framed in terms of self-development, citizenship took on a broad meaning, not just in terms of political rights and obligations, but also in the context of material, social, psychological and moral conditions that individuals should meet in order to develop themselves and be able to act according to those rights and obligations in a responsible way. In the post-war period of reconstruction (1945-65), as well as between 1965 and 1985, the link between mental health and ideals of citizenship was coloured by the public memory of World War II and the German occupation, albeit in completely different, even opposite ways. The memory of the war, and especially the public consideration of its victims, changed drastically in the mid-1960s, and the mental health sector played a crucial role in bringing this change about. The widespread attention to the mental effects of the war that surfaced in the late 1960s after a period of 20 years of public silence should be seen against the backdrop of the combination of democratization and the emancipation of emotions.
The president commission of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft studied the contribution of German scientists to research projects during the Second World War, classified as ''important for the war''. The study is also thought as remembrance to the victims of these research projects. During the last years the history of the field office Oberschlema of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute for biophysics was and the radium research institute Oberschlema was investigated. Obviously there were no casualties among the voluntary test persons.
The First World War was a turning point in the cultural history of death and bereavement in Australia. The mass deaths of some 60,000 soldiers overseas led to communal rituals of mourning for the war dead and minimal public expressions of private grief. The mass slaughter of so many young men and the interminable grief of so many families devalued the deaths of civilians at home and helped to create a new cultural model of suppressed and privatised grieving which deeply constrained the next two generations. Emotional and expressive grieving became less common, mourning ritual was minimised and sorrow became a private matter. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Romania’s participation in World War II was brought about by political reasons and strategic needs that resulted from the internationalpolitical situation at the middle of the twentieth century. One can hardly say that Romania did not do its best to avoid becoming involved in the war.From September 1939 to June 1941, the foreign policy laid focus on non-belligerency and neutrality. But eventually Romania was drawn in, too,right after the series of unfortunate events in the summer of 1940
Ian Van der Waag
South Africa was ill prepared for the Second World War. Her war potential was limited and Hitler is reputed to have laughed when the South African declaration came on 6 September 1939. The Permanent and Active Citizen Forces were under strength: the first comprised only 350 officers and some five thousand men. There were a further 122 000 men in the Commandos, of whom only 18 000 were reasonably equipped, and, being rurally based and overwhelmingly Afrikaans, many of these men did not support...
The First World War of 1914-1918 produced a wealth of disability and death and much has been written of this catastrophe for mankind. Prose is prolific and much poetry has been written too, some of it discussed here; it consists of works by healthcare workers and also about the effects of the war upon those who fought and those who were left behind. Some of the work is by neurologists and some deals with the neurological disorders of those who fought. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Joseph Jon Kaminski
This paper looks at some similarities and differences between propaganda art used by Germany and the United States during World War I. The first section briefly looks at aesthetic theory and addresses the philosophical question of whether war propaganda posters are, in fact, ‘art’ at all. Then images of various posters that were popular and widely published by both nations are shown and discussed. This paper concludes that while there are many thematic similarities between the poster...
Full Text Available This article uses the case of the Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and its liquidation during the First World War to examine the challenges faced by German businesses during the war in China and China’s involvement in Allied economic warfare. This case suggests the detrimental effect that political crises and global shifts of power had on foreign businesses in modern China’s globalized treaty port economy. It also reveals China’s role in the global economic warfare of the Allies, showing that China first resisted Allied demands for a full liquidation of the German bank but eventually acquiesced to Allied pressure and handed control over the liquidation to the Allies. As a consequence, China ended up violating the very international law it had put so much value on when entering the war.
Oksana A. Karagodina
Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the charitable activities carried out in the city of Tsaritsyn during the World War I. As a method of research used analysis of materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals published in the city in time of war. The main source of analysis is the issues of the newspaper «Tsaritsyno Bulletin» for the period from July 1914 to February 1917. The analysis allowed to identify the most priority directions of charitable aid, carried out in Tsaritsyn in the war. Also, the article discusses the activities of public organizations and associations, involved in the provision of charitable assistance to the sick and wounded soldiers, their wives and children, refugees. In particular, the reports of the Ladies' Committee of Tsaritsyn and the Tsaritsyn branch of the Russian Red Cross Society are analyzed and the features of the activity of these organizations are revealed.
Ramasamy, Arul; Eardley, W G P; Edwards, D S; Clasper, J C; Stewart, M P M
The First World War (1914-1918) was the first truly industrial conflict in human history. Never before had rifle fire and artillery barrage been employed on a global scale. It was a conflict that over 4 years would leave over 750,000 British troops dead with a further 1.6 million injured, the majority with orthopaedic injuries. Against this backdrop, the skills of the orthopaedic surgeon were brought to the fore. Many of those techniques and systems form the foundation of modern orthopaedic trauma management. On the centenary of 'the War to end all Wars', we review the significant advances in wound management, fracture treatment, nerve injury and rehabilitation that were developed during that conflict. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Interest in the children’s experiences in World War One has grown substantially in the last decades. Autobiographies and private memories, documents and all kind of stories present the dimension of warfare and how the children perceived it. Affected by disruption to home life and to schooling, by absent parents, and death, these innocents tried to understand the reasons behind the events that stunned their community, restructuring attitudes towards family, fear, play, and life. This paper aims to expose how the children of the most eastern province of the Austrian Monarchy experienced the Great War, how was manifested the pervasiveness of the war to their everyday lives, and how the combatants – Russians, Austrians, Germans, and Hungarians – were seen by the youngest inhabitants of Bukovina.
Cass R. Sunstein
Full Text Available The guest editors of special issue 12, Jason W. Ellis and Sean Scanlan, interview Cass R. Sunstein, the Robert Walmsley University Professor at Harvard, where he is founder and director of the Program on Behavioral Economics and Public Policy. He is the author of many books, including the bestseller Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (with Richard H. Thaler. His 2016 book The World According to Star Wars attempts to understand the Star Wars universe in ten chapters through the lenses of Sunstein’s academic interests, namely: culture, sociology, psychology, behavioral science, and political science. The book is both personal and theoretical, practical and academic. It takes accurate measure of the genesis of the movies, the movies themselves, and briefly, but trenchantly, it examines concepts such as reputational cascades and speculates on what Star Wars can teach viewers about constitutional disputes.
Barker, D J; Osmond, C
During the second world war there were large changes in consumption of fats, fibre, and sugar in Britain. These changes matched recent recommendations made by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) with the object of reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). It is widely believed that CHD mortality fell during the war. This paper re-examines CHD mortality among middle-aged people in England and Wales from 1931 to 1967. After allowance for changes in the rules for coding cause of death, and for the sharp increase in all-causes mortality in 1940, there is little to suggest that time trends in CHD were much influenced by the war. Because of confounding variables, this does not argue against the COMA report. However, it gives no support to the view that compliance with the recommendations on fat, fibre, and sugar will lead, by itself, to an appreciable fall in CHD mortality in middle-aged people.
On May 15, 1995, only a few days after the indefinite extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, China tested a nuclear bomb. The rapid growth in China's defence spending is also alarming. Against the spirit of international non-proliferation regimes, China has sold missile components to Pakistan, a research reactor and an electromagnetic isotope separation facility to Iran. In addition to the repression of human rights domestically, in China as well as in Tibet, no one can ignore the possibility of a serious international conflict over the Spratly Islands. This paper examines whether China will pose a grave future threat to world peace or whether, fearing international isolation, it will become a guardian of the international non-proliferation regime. In other words, the paper aims to set straight the record of China's recent nuclear policy
Full Text Available This article charts commercial cinema’s role in promoting the war effort in Scotland during the First World War, outlining three aspects of the relationship between cinema and the war as observed in Scottish non-fiction short films produced between 1914 and 1918. The existing practice of local topical filmmaking, made or commissioned by cinema managers, created a particular form of engagement between cinema and war that was substantially different from the national newsreels or official films. The article offers an analysis of surviving short ‘topicals’ produced and exhibited in Scotland, which combine images of local military marches with kilted soldiers and enthusiastic onlookers and were designed to lure the assembled crowds back into the cinema to see themselves onscreen. Synthesising textual analysis with a historical account of the films’ production context, the article examines the films’ reliance on the romanticised militarism of the Highland soldier and the novelty appeal of mobilisation and armament, sidelining the growing industrial unrest and anti-war activities that led to the birth of the term ‘Red Clydeside’. The article then explores how, following the British state’s embracing of film propaganda post-1916, local cinema companies such as Green’s Film Service produced films in direct support of the war effort, for example Patriotic Porkers (1918, for the Ministry of Food. Through their production and exhibition practice exhibitors mediated the international conflict to present it to local audiences as an appealing spectacle, but also mobilised cinema’s position in Scottish communities to advance ideological and practical aspects of the war effort, including recruitment, refugee support, and fundraising.
Bonfiglioli Stagni, S; Tomba, P; Viganò, A; Zati, A; Benedetti, M G
The First World War produced a huge number of disabled soldiers. During the war, surgeons realized that it was not enough to merely treat the limbs of the wounded soldiers; it was also necessary to train them to use their remaining abilities to their greatest capacity. Governments at the same time realized that such a high number of veterans created a financial burden, by entitling disabled veterans to full healthcare, raising the issues of social welfare. Both in the US and Europe, programs of rehabilitation were instituted, providing injured soldiers with long-term medical care and vocational training aimed at restituting soldier's independence for a speedy return to work. In Italy at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, one of the most renowned Hospitals for the treatment of orthopedic deformities, Putti set up a technologically advanced Orthopedic Workshop, and a Rehabilitation House. The so called "reconstruction programs" addressed all aspects of rehabilitation (including physiotherapy, curative workshops and vocational therapy), seeing disability in terms of function. The experience gained in the treatment of war victims markedly enriched rehabilitation techniques, but overall the First World War helped engender the concept of rehabilitative programs to assist disabled veterans reintegrate in the workplace, thus laying the foundations of the modern concept of participation at a social level. In the centenary of Italy's entry into the First World War, it is worth underlining just how much hindsight affords us a new perspective on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. It reminds us that rehabilitation is not merely the role of medicine, but forms part of a multifaceted approach involving societal roles and expectations, regardless of the psychological and physical impairments suffered by the individuals concerned.
During the First World War soldiers suffered from a wide range of debilitating nervous complaints as a result of the stresses and strains of modern warfare. These complaints--widely known as shell shock--were the subject of much medical-military debate during the war and became emblematic of the war and its sufferings afterwards. One hundred years after the war the diagnosis of PTSD has not resolved the issues initially raised by First World War shell shock. The stigma of mental illness remains strong and it is still difficult to commemorate and remember the mental wounds of war in a culture which tend to glory or glamorise military heroes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jones, E; Everitt, B; Ironside, S; Palmer, I; Wessely, S
Chemical weapons exercise an enduring and often powerful psychological effect. This had been recognized during the First World War when it was shown that the symptoms of stress mimicked those of mild exposure to gas. Debate about long-term effects followed the suggestion that gassing triggered latent tuberculosis. A random sample of 103 First World War servicemen awarded a war pension for the effects of gas, but without evidence of chronic respiratory pathology, were subjected to cluster analysis using 25 common symptoms. The consistency of symptom reporting was also investigated across repeated follow-ups. Cluster analysis identified four groups: one (n=56) with a range of somatic symptoms, a second (n=30) with a focus on the respiratory system, a third (n=12) with a predominance of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and a fourth (n=5) with a narrow band of symptoms related to the throat and breathing difficulties. Veterans from the neuropsychiatric cluster had multiple diagnoses including neurasthenia and disordered action of the heart, and reported many more symptoms than those in the three somatic clusters. Mild or intermittent respiratory disorders in the post-war period supported beliefs about the damaging effects of gas in the three somatic clusters. By contrast, the neuropsychiatric group did not report new respiratory illnesses. For this cluster, the experience of gassing in a context of extreme danger may have been responsible for the intensity of their symptoms, which showed no sign of diminution over the 12-year follow-up.
The article presents the research of popular health education on venereal diseases in Croatia between the World Wars. In the inter-war period, the traditional plain approach to popular health education was replaced with new, complex meth-ods, which became the basis for the modem work in this field. New social medicine ideas and new health politics, as well as the new founded institutions such as the School of Public Health in Zagreb and different anti-venereal outpatient facilities, were crucial for changing popular health education after World War I. Based mostly on archival documents, this article explores popular health education as a vehicle for identification of attitudes and concepts within the medical community. Ambivalence in the perception of essential approaches towards popular heath education is elaborated on the ground of controversies within prominent medical representatives. With the support of new technologies, public health methods in the inter-war period matured in form and complexity. Despite various new methods, which made their way into different parts of everyday life, the subject matter of venereal diseases was treated through a limited number of methods due to the conservative attitudes of society, as well as resistance of many physicians.
The "Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie" was the official publication of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris which became later on the French Academy of pharmacy. It is consequently the organ that presented scientific publications and independent position papers from pharmacists being part of this assembly and coming from universities, drugstores or pharmaceutical industries. We have analyzed the content of this journal during the last two world wars in order to evaluate to what extent the members of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris were part of the war efforts, and encouraged or criticized the on-going events. We can observe that, in both cases, pharmacists used their expert opinions to better react and manage consequences of the conflicts, but also to express their disagreement with enemy's opinions or actions, the Society doing everything possible to maintain its activities. One can observe also that both conflicts were an opportunity to reconsider the organization of pharmacy in France, especially during the Second World War where took place discussions on pharmacy reform (1941 law) and creation of the Pharmacists' Order which will ultimately occur after the war end.
After the First World War, disabled British veterans returned home to an uncertain future of work. In addition to voluntary efforts, the government's response to the national employment crisis - the National Scheme for Disabled Ex-Servicemen (commonly known as the King's Roll) - was established in 1919 to encourage employers to hire a five per cent quota of disabled ex-servicemen. Historians have recently revisited the scheme, noting that in many cases the process was slow and fraught, with many disabled veterans facing the prospect of unemployment, yet few have paid attention to soldiers' pre-war working backgrounds and the specific requests of British industries. This article focuses on British coalminers returning from war. What role was there in this national situation for an industry known for its own high rate of accident and injury? Although the King's Roll made some attempt to find veterans specifically targeted jobs above and below ground according to their impairments, it proved unable to incorporate coalmining. Instead, many disabled ex-servicemen returned to the workplace and utilized their existing identities as miners to navigate the process. With the industry beginning to decline, many faced potential regression in job status, exploitation or unemployment. By shifting to an industry-specific focus, this case study explores the contested nature of work for disabled people after the First World War, and highlights the interrelation and importance of workplace identity for the returning disabled veteran.
Full Text Available French film historian Laurent Véray has famously called World War I ‘the first media war of the twentieth century’. Newsreels, which first appeared in 1910, brought the war to movie theaters across Europe and the U.S., screening combat for those on the ‘home front’. However, while the audience could see the action it could not hear it – sometimes only live music would accompany the movements of the troops. The arrival of sound newsreels in 1929 radically transformed moviegoers’ experiences of the news, and, by necessity, of armed conflict. Drawing on examples of World War II newsreels from British Pathé’s archive that was recently made available online, this article seeks to delineate the logic governing the combination of voice-over commentary, music, sound effects, and field-recorded sound, and argues that it can be traced directly to the treatment of sound in the ‘Great War’ fiction films of the preceding decade.
Mariane Bonfante Cesário Lourenço
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe the circumstances of inclusion of female nurses in the Second World War through the Brazilian Air Force, and discuss the challenges faced by and the achievements of these nurses. Methods: Socio-historical study developed with textual and photographic sources, in addition to oral sources through interviews with war veterans. Data were treated according to the historical method and discussed with concepts support from the theory of social world, by Pierre Bourdieu. Results: The research has demonstrated that the inclusion of female nurses to the Air Force was characterized by social and symbolic effects of war demands and gender boundaries. Conclusion: The great challenge was the official incorporation of women by the Brazilian Air Forces in the post-war period. For this purpose, the organization of a flight female nurses cadre during the conflict was fundamental. Moreover, the record of this history reiterates the Nursing's legacy and the necessity of preparation for care in chaos situations.
Having traveled extensively through the savannah of Africa, the mountains of Eastern Europe, and the deserts of Utah, the author delves into the complex science, politics and history of uranium, which presents the best and worst of mankind: the capacity for scientific progress and political genius; the capacity for nihilism, exploitation, and terror. Because the author covers so much ground, from the discovery of radioactivity, through the development of the atomic bomb, he does not go into great depth on any one topic. Nonetheless, he paints vivid pictures of uranium's impact, including forced labor in Soviet mines and lucky prospectors who struck it rich in harsh environments, the spread of uranium smuggling, as well as an explanation of why it was absurd to claim that Saddam Hussein was attempting to purchase significant quantities of uranium from Niger. The only shortcoming is the author's omission of the issue of radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power. The author knows well what uranium looks like, why peril pulses in its every atom, and how scientists exploit its nuclear volatility. The drama is found in the weaponry uranium has spawned as demonstrated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In pursuit of this raw power, the U.S. let Navajos die extracting needed ore and let southwestern cities sicken beneath clouds from reckless testing. The Soviet Union sentenced tens of thousands to lethal gulag mines. Israel diverted ore through deception on the high seas. Pakistan stole European refining technology. Alive with devious personalities, the author's narrative ultimately exposes the frightening vulnerability of a world with too many sources of a dangerous substance and too little wisdom to control it
Waugh, Melinda J; Robbins, Ian; Davies, Stephen; Feigenbaum, Janet
During World War Two 1.9 million people were evacuated from British cities where the risk of bombing was perceived to be highest. 1.5 million of these were children who, often unaccompanied, were sent to live with strangers. Two hundred and forty-five people who were evacuated as children were compared with 96 of similar age who did not experience evacuation. Within this self-selected sample, significant numbers of the evacuees were found to have experienced abuse and neglect. Pre-evacuation abuse made continued abuse likely during evacuation, while abuse during evacuation led to children being more likely to continue to be abused on their return home. Abuse during evacuation led to increased scores on the Impact of Event Scale and General Health Questionnaire, and to insecure attachment patterns. The role of evacuation and abuse in the maintenance of long-term psychological problems is discussed.
Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin
Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach.
Hallett, Christine E
Public perceptions of the work of nurses and VAD-volunteers in the First World War have been heavily influenced by a small number of VAD-writings. The work of trained, professional nurses in supporting and supervised the work of VADs has been largely overlooked. This paper examines several of the writings of both volunteers and professionals, and emphasises the overlooked supervisory, managerial and clinical work of trained nurses. In this centenary year of the First World War's opening months, the paper also explores the ways in which the British mass-media--notably the BBC--have chosen to cling to a romantic image of the untrained nurse, whilst at the same time acknowledging the significance of trained, professional nursing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fures, Rajko; Habek, Dubravko; Kozina, Drago
Red Cross Hospital in Krapina, during the First World War, was active from 1914 to 1918. Hospital led by Dr. Mirko Crkvenac, oriented humanist. The hospital is operated thanks to the help of municipalities and citizens. The hospital staff concern is for civilian and military victims of the First World War. Dr. Crkvenac, with the support of the City of Krapina and Mayor Vilibald Sluga, he succeeds to the organization and operation of the hospital to an enviable level. Across the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Croatian, Hospitals Red Cross, had a significant role in caring for the wounded, injured and sick soldiers and civilians. Red Cross Hospital in Krapina, is an example of a well-organized hospital in the toughest conditions. Such an organization was not simple in its implementation, and left the valuable lessons and experience.
Mafart, B; Brisou, P; Bertherat, E
Before the Second World War, the plague was still rife in North Africa but occurred only as sporadic cases or small outbreaks as in Egypt or Morocco. The permanent foci of infected wild rodent were the cause of these rural outbreaks. In 1943 and 1944, plague came back in several Mediterranean towns and ports and was considered as a serious danger for the Allied Forces. These resurgences were related to the World War as well as the overpopulation of the cities, regroupings and population movements, relaxation of prophylactic measures of the plague in sea transport. The Allied Forces medical officers then showed the resistance of Yersinia pestis to penicillin which they had been supplied with recently, the effectiveness of sulphamides but mortality remained high (27%). In parallel, the drastic fight against rodents and fleas (DDT) gave excellent results.
Peter Goodwin takes a critical look at how the media and arts in Britain have responded to the centenary of the First World War. He asks what this tells us about popular consciousness and the mechanisms of bourgeois ideology in Britain in the second decade of the 21st century. This contribution is a podcast of a Communication and Media Researach Institute (CAMRI) seminar that took place on January 21, 2015, at the University of Westminster.
Marleide da Mota Gomes
Full Text Available Some aspects of a dark period in the history of the modern neurology, that of the World War I (WWI, are here remembered, mainly by the neurological French School participation . Some personalities and their works related to the WWI are presented such as Joseph Babinski, Jules Froment, Clovis Vincent, Jules Joseph Dejerine, Augusta Déjérine-Klumpke, Jules Tinel, Pierre Marie, Achille Alexandre Souques, Charles Foix, and Georges Guillain.
Macleod, Ad Sandy
Case reports of the abrupt recovery of hysterical disorders during World War I (1914-18), though undoubtedly subject to publication bias, raise both aetiological and treatment issues regarding pseudo-neurological conversion symptoms. Published clinical anecdotes report circumstantial, psychotherapeutic, hypnotic, persuasive (and coercive) methods seemingly inducing recovery, and also responses to fright and alterations of consciousness. The ethics of modern medical practice would not allow many of these techniques, which were reported to be effective, even in the chronic cases.
Oksana E. Dmitrieva
Full Text Available The article is focused on the features of more than 250 000 Czechs and Slovaks in Russian captivity during World War I: the amount, quartering and supply benefits, work in various sectors of the Russian economy, military units formation, social and national organizations activities, charity support. The conditions of Czechs and Slovaks captivity are recollected. New sources are introduced into scientific use.
Moore, R.H.; Kathren, R.L.
Two individuals were exposed to massive quantities of airborne uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and its hydrolysis products following a World War II equipment rupture. An excretion pattern for uranium exhibited by these patients is, in light of current knowledge, anomalous. The possible role of pulmonary edema is discussed. Examination of these individuals 38 years later showed no physical changes believed to be related to their uranium exposure and no deposition of uranium could be detected
Edgar Pask died in 1966 at the age of 53. He was the Professor of Anaesthesia in Newcastle upon Tyne, and a quiet and unassuming man. But during the Second World War he had been involved in a number of dangerous and remarkable experiments; these included investigating the effects of acute hypoxia related to high altitude parachute descents, resuscitation techniques and the effectiveness of lifejackets.
To be published in the proceedings of the 2nd ESHS conference (Krakow, September 2006); International audience; Before World War II, international science was mainly European and Eurocentric. The International Council of Scientific Unions and the International Institute for Intellectual Co-operation paid very little attention to science and scientists beyond Europe, which were mostly confined to colonial science institutions. Non-Western scientific achievements were ignored.When joining the n...
were returned to duty. OTHER REPORTED SERIES A curious lack of realism pervades many of the reports of menis- cectomy, undoubtedly because the...irreversible changes. Another note of realism was struck by Major Breck, at the regional hospital at Camp Swift, Tex. (31). He reported that 75 percent of men...far as is known, cinematization was attempted in only five cases in World War I, in two of which it was done overseas (2). In only one of the five
Gomes, Marleide da Mota
Some aspects of a dark period in the history of the modern neurology, that of the World War I (WWI), are here remembered, mainly by the neurological French School participation . Some personalities and their works related to the WWI are presented such as Joseph Babinski, Jules Froment, Clovis Vincent, Jules Joseph Dejerine, Augusta Déjérine-Klumpke, Jules Tinel, Pierre Marie, Achille Alexandre Souques, Charles Foix, and Georges Guillain.
Full Text Available Peter Goodwin takes a critical look at how the media and arts in Britain have responded to the centenary of the First World War. He asks what this tells us about popular consciousness and the mechanisms of bourgeois ideology in Britain in the second decade of the 21st century. This contribution is a podcast of a Communication and Media Researach Institute (CAMRI seminar that took place on January 21, 2015, at the University of Westminster.
in Peru or in other countries. In Ecuador , bartonellosis has l»een report«! from the Provinces of Loja and Oro. This author " cultivated...fatal, caused by BartoneUa baciUiformis and transmitted by the bite of Phlebotomies. The dis- ease is limited to certain parts of Peru, Ecuador , and...Colombia. The disease was not a military problem in World War II. American troops stationed in Peru (Talara) and Ecuador (Salinas) were outside the
reaction to World War I, antiwar sentiment, and the Great Depression led to a large decline in the United States military.1 This decline was experienced...posts. 30Ibid., 68. 311st Engineer Amphibian Brigade to the Commanding General, Allied Forces, 30 December 1942, Lessons from Operation Torch...hostilities in Europe and Japan (celebrated as Victory in Japan Day, 2 September 1945) brought about a rapid declination of trainees within the engineer
Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A
Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dugački, Vlatka; Regan, Krešimir
World War I irrevocably changed the face of the world, including Croatia and its capital Zagreb. While between 1880 and 1910 Zagreb became a modern European city, World War I (1914-1918) was marked by new municipal regulations that overturned the everyday life of the city. Social conditions reached catastrophic proportions, especially in the later years of the war. Soldiers and refugees swarmed the city, and famine and the Spanish flu epidemic hit it hard. In such harsh social and economic circumstances Milan Rojc, head of the Theology and Education Department and three doctors from the Sisters of Mercy Hospital, namely, Theodor Wikerhauser, Miroslav Čačković pl. Vrhovinski, and Dragutin Mašek, finally started the School of Medicine in December 1917. The School had formally been founded 43 years before, on January 5th, 1874., when the Croatian Parliament, passed the law concerning the establishment of the University, which was to have four faculties: Theology, Philosophy, Law, and Medicine.
Full Text Available The present paper seeks to critically read Pat Barker’s Regeneration in terms of Cathy Caruth’s psychoanalytic study of trauma. This analysis attempts to trace the concepts of latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, and trauma in Barker’s novel in order to explore how trauma and history are interrelated in the narrative of past history and, particularly, in the history of World War I. The present paper also demonstrates how Barker’s novel Regeneration acts as the narrative of trauma that vocalizes the silenced history of shell-shocked soldiers of World War I to represent British society, the history that has been concealed due to social and individual factors. The study thus investigates the dissociative disorders which are experienced by traumatized survivors of World War I as the aftermath of traumatic experiences of wartime. In addition, it argues how time moves for the traumatized victim and how the notion of latency in terms of Caruth’s theory is traceable in Barker’s novel. In Regeneration, the traumatized survivors are haunted with traumatic memory of past history; furthermore, past history constantly disrupts their present and the victims are in continuous shift from present time to past time. Time thus loses its linearity in the narrative of traumatized survivors. Keywords: Latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, trauma
Alexander P. Abramov
Full Text Available On the basis of historical material provides information on measures of state and military administration on the eve of the First World War to improve the welfare of Russian officers and Austro-Hungary, through various forms of material incentives, which are reflected in the cash payments, promotions, awards and social guarantees. On the basis of archival materials of the study period, open scientific publications and Internet resources there are disclosed the features of the destination of salaries, various allowances and compensations Russian army in comparison to the Austro-Hungarian army, who spoke Russian opponent in the First World War. The author notes that the existing system of money allowances in the Russian army was more advantageous than in the Austro-Hungarian army. However, neither one nor the other could not fully meet the needs of the majority of officers of both armies, entered as opponents in the First World War. One of its major shortcomings, both in Russia and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was a wide gap in the amounts of all kinds of money allowances between chief officers, staff officers and generals.
fascist and Japanese imperial aggression, is generally considered straightforward. Can the same be said for propaganda’s effectiveness during the...multimedia propaganda include Film Propaganda in Britain and Nazi Germany: World War II Cinema , Jo Fox; Imagined Battles: Reflections on War in
Morris, Roger K.; Parkinson, Robert J.; Ryan, Melanie J.
This paper outlines the important role that School of Arts and Mechanics' Institutes played in the story of Australian adult education and highlights their significance in acknowledging those members of their local communities who had served in World War I, in honoring who had fallen, and in stressing the great cost of war to the community. [For…
In the early years of the Second World War the British had already begun post-war planning for education in Germany. They expressed a need to re-educate Germans and re-establish personal contacts with German people. One tool conceived to achieve these policy objectives was educational exchange. This paper will examine British educational exchange…
Silke, Wiegand-Grefe; Möller, Birgit
The paper presents some reflections on the transgenerational transmission of traumatic experiences of war and in particular bombing during Second World War. These theoretical considerations are based on a case study (family interview) deriving from the research project "Kriegskindheit im Hamburger Feuersturm" additionally illustrated and complemented with impressions based on interviews with three generations in context of the project.
Okawa, Gail Y.
One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…
Ryan, Kathy L
Walter B. Cannon (1871-1945), perhaps America's preeminent physiologist, volunteered for service with the Army Expeditionary Force (AEF) during World War I. He initially served with Base Hospital No. 5, a unit made up of Harvard clinicians, before moving forward to the front lines to serve at a casualty clearing station run by the British. During his time there, he performed research on wounded soldiers to understand the nature and causes of traumatic shock. Subsequently, Cannon performed animal experimentation on the causes of traumatic shock in the London laboratory of Dr. William Bayliss before being assigned to the AEF Central Medical Laboratory in Dijon, France, where he continued his experimental studies. During this time, he also developed and taught a curriculum on resuscitation of wounded soldiers to medical providers. Although primarily a researcher and teacher, Cannon also performed clinical duties throughout the war, serving with distinction under fire. After the war, Cannon wrote a monograph entitled Traumatic Shock (New York: Appleton, 1923), which encapsulated the knowledge that had been gained during the war, both from direct observation of wounded soldiers, as well as laboratory experimentation on the causes and treatment of traumatic shock. In his monograph, Cannon elucidates a number of principles concerning hemorrhagic shock that were later forgotten, only to be "rediscovered" during the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. This paper summarizes Cannon's wartime experiences and the knowledge gained concerning traumatic shock during World War I, with a comparison of current combat casualty care practices and knowledge to that which Cannon and his colleagues understood a century ago.
McKenzie, A G
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important health risk factor for military personnel deployed in modern warfare. In World War I this condition (then known as shell shock or 'neurasthenia') was such a problem that 'forward psychiatry' was begun by French doctors in 1915. Some British doctors tried general anaesthesia as a treatment (ether and chloroform), while others preferred application of electricity. Four British 'forward psychiatric units' were set up in 1917. Hospitals for shell shocked soldiers were also established in Britain, including (for officers) Craiglockhart War Hospital in Edinburgh; patients diagnosed to have more serious psychiatric conditions were transferred to the Royal Edinburgh Asylum. Towards the end of 1918 anaesthetic and electrical treatments of shell shock were gradually displaced by modified Freudian methods psychodynamic intervention. The efficacy of 'forward psychiatry' was controversial. In 1922 the War Office produced a report on shell shock with recommendations for prevention of war neurosis. However, when World War II broke out in 1939, this seemed to have been ignored. The term 'combat fatigue' was introduced as breakdown rates became alarming, and then the value of pre-selection was recognised. At the Maudsley Hospital in London in 1940 barbiturate abreaction was advocated for quick relief from severe anxiety and hysteria, using i.v. anaesthetics: Somnifaine, paraldehyde, Sodium Amytal. 'Pentothal narcosis' and 'narco-analysis' were adopted by British and American military psychiatrists. However, by 1945 medical thinking gradually settled on the same approaches that had seemed to be effective in 1918. The term PTSD was introduced in 1980. In the UK the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for management (2005) recommend trauma-focussed Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and consideration of antidepressants.
Marija Uršula Geršak
Full Text Available After the Second World War many political emigrants escaped from Slovenia to Argentina, among them leaders and soldiers of the home guard (belogardisti, sympathizers of the fascist forces, opponents of communism and their families, who were persecuted by the Yugoslav socialist regime. Among them were many intellectuals and artists, typically of right-wing political conviction and of Christian faith. In Argentina, they founded a hermetic community that kept the Slovenian language and traditional values, and hoped that one day they could return. People in the former Yugoslavia knew nothing about them or their activities or indeed about events after the war from the point of view of the Other. This paper reviews the historical circumstances that led to the emigration, the organization of the émigré community and their cultural life in Argentina, their literature, mainly novels and their ensconcement in another time and space, which is the time and space of memory and an idealized homeland. They were culturally very active and wrote mostly in Slovenian. It was not until the second generation and after Slovenia‘s independence when they published several works in Spanish. Mostly they wrote historical novels, memoirs, dealing with unhealed wounds years after the Second World War, exile, life in refugee camps, post-war killings. Many of the works are ideologically laden, moralistic and idealizing life in Slovenia before the War. Due to their close community, literary works are often subject to some kind of ‚(self censorship‘. Nevertheless, after Slovenia‘s independence, albeit with a delay, some of their works, because of their aesthetic and cultural values have become part of the national literatary canon and school textbooks.
Wilson, Nick; Summers, Jennifer A; Baker, Michael G; Thomson, George; Harper, Glyn
Despite the large mortality burden of First World War (WW1) on New Zealand (NZ) military forces, no analysis using modern epidemiological methods has ever been conducted. We therefore aimed to study injury-related mortality amongst NZ military forces in WW1. An electronic version of the Roll-of-Honour for NZ Expeditionary Force (NZEF) personnel was supplemented with further coding and analysed statistically. We also performed literature searches to provide context. Out of a total of 16,703 deaths occurring during the war (28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918), injury deaths predominated: 65.1% were "killed in action" (KIA), 23.4% "died of wounds" (DOW), 1.0% were other injuries (e.g. "accidents", drownings, suicides and executions), and 10.5% were other causes (mainly disease). During the course of the war, the annual mortality rate from injury (for KIA + DOW) per 10,000 NZEF personnel in the North Hemisphere peaked at 1335 in 1915 (Gallipoli campaign) and then peaked again in 1917 at 937 (largely the Battle of Passchendaele). Some of the offensive campaigns involved very high mortality peaks (e.g. 2 days with over 450 deaths per day in October 1917). Participation in First World War was by far the worst fatal injury event in New Zealand's history. Many of these injury deaths could be considered to have been preventable through: better diplomacy (to prevent the war), improved military planning to reduce failed campaigns (e.g. Gallipoli, Passchendaele), earlier use of protective equipment such as helmets, and improved healthcare services.
In 2015, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly adopted a resolution titled "Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" and a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The notion of "transformative education" is being mainstreamed in the work of UNESCO within the new framework of the SDGs,…
Hecht, G. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
This book discusses the early history of French nuclear power within its social and political context from the end of world war 2 to 1970. The author describes the creation of the nuclear reactors, the work at the reactor sites, and the impact of nuclear power on local communities. Information on the French atomic bomb program is also included. The conflicts and negotiations surrounding the nuclear programs are detailed, and the importance of the programs to French national identity is made clear. An excellent bibliography and extensive footnotes are provided.
Full Text Available When the Nazi Germany attacked the Soviets at the beginning of World War II, the USA, the UK and the Soviet Union took part on the same side and were called the Allies. In order to convey the military aid to the Soviets through Iran, the USA and the UK invaded Iran with the Soviets and dethroned Ahmad Reza Shah, who felt sympathy for Germany. By signing a treaty in 1942, they pledged to evacuate their troops from Iran six months after the war ended. They published a declaration that they would protect Iran’s territorial integrity as well as they repeated these decisions during the conference they made in Tehran in 1943. However; despite these decisions, a hidden rivalry began between the USSR and the West in Iran. The rivalry became very clear towards the end of the war. The Soviets wouldn’t withdraw from Iran. Additionally, they endeavored to divide Iran. The Iran crisis of 1946 between the West and the Soviets formed the start of the Cold War according to some people. As a country, Iran was highly affected by this process.
Joan Maria Thomàs
Full Text Available This article studies the production, legal and illegal trade, and provisioning of strategic mineral wolfram/tungsten both by the Allies and the Axis during World War II. It analyzes the case the world’s largest producer of this mineral, China, the trade agreements signed by Chiang Kai-shek before the war with Nazi Germany, the USSR and Britain and their evolution during the global conflict. It also analyzes Japan, its difficulties in obtaining Chinese wolfram and its dependence on Korea. As for Nazi Germany, it studies its supply of Chinese ore until 1941 and later in the Iberian Peninsula, a trade made difficult by the Allied preventive purchases in Spain and Portugal. The article also studies the case of the US, its progressive auto provisioning in the Western Hemisphere, the airlift established between China and India to extract tungsten and distribution of amounts of it in Britain and the USSR. Finally, the article includes an assessment of the importance of tungsten within the set of strategic materials used by the contenders in the war and concludes that the Allied strategy hinder or prevent the provision of the enemy helped to reduce use and negatively affected the effectiveness of its machinery of war.
Full Text Available This publication adds to a rapidly growing volume of scholarship on U.S. cultural diplomacy. Most of this scholarship focuses on the Cold War and on Europe. This volume, in turn, is concerned with a lesser-known episode that came to fruition during World War II and that focused not on Europe but on Latin America. As Nazi German troops entered Paris, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration set out to launch a massive campaign to win hearts and minds for inter-American cooperation and solidarity. This campaign came to be spearheaded by an emergency agency, the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs or CIAA. Headed by the young multimillionaire and entrepreneur Nelson A. Rockefeller, the CIAA existed for only six years, but during its brief existence it helped to construct a dense State-private network that managed cultural relations with foreign countries and that continued to operate and expand long after the war was over. Of course, by then Latin America was no longer at the center of geopolitical attention. Well before the end of hostilities, the State Department began to prepare for the winding down of the CIAA’s cultural programs. The agency itself was abolished in 1946. With the onset of the Cold War, the State-private network reshuffled, its main attention now focusing elsewhere and mainly on Europe.
Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.
Full Text Available The materials of periodicals represent an important source for studying public opinion and the executive policy regarding the fate of Russian captives. The analysis of the periodicals proves that despite the patriotic fervor that swept the press during the First World War, the plight of Russian captives was not widely highlighted. The article analyzes the nature of the publications on the Russian captives and identifies the reasons of journalists’ neglect of their problems. Among these reasons, the author calls an unprecedented scale of captivity – the millions of war prisoners from each warring sides. The government and their controlled press tried to forget the captives instead of analyzing the causes of mass captivity and correcting the command errors. The theme of captivity was not a separate issue in the national press, and it was used only as the material for the formation of the “image of enemy” to illustrate the violations of the international humanistic principles by the Germans. This was largely due to the attitude of the government and the military toward their captives – they were treated like traitors, they were blamed for the failures that have dogged the Russian army in the first years of the war.
After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in
Jones, Edgar; Wessely, Simon
The 100th anniversary of the outbreak of World War 1 could be viewed as a tempting opportunity to acknowledge the origins of military psychiatry and the start of a journey from psychological ignorance to enlightenment. However, the psychiatric legacy of the war is ambiguous. During World War 1, a new disorder (shellshock) and a new treatment (forward psychiatry) were introduced, but the former should not be thought of as the first recognition of what is now called post-traumatic stress disorder and the latter did not offer the solution to the management of psychiatric casualties, as was subsequently claimed. For this Series paper, we researched contemporary publications, classified military reports, and casualty returns to reassess the conventional narrative about the effect of shellshock on psychiatric practice. We conclude that the expression of distress by soldiers was culturally mediated and that patients with postcombat syndromes presented with symptom clusters and causal interpretations that engaged the attention of doctors but also resonated with popular health concerns. Likewise, claims for the efficacy of forward psychiatry were inflated. The vigorous debates that arose in response to controversy about the nature of psychiatric disorders and the discussions about how these disorders should be managed remain relevant to the trauma experienced by military personnel who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan. The psychiatric history of World War 1 should be thought of as an opportunity for commemoration and in terms of its contemporary relevance-not as an opportunity for self-congratulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the role of militarism in the political life of Germany before WWI. By pointing out the roe of militarism in the political life of Germany at the start of the 20th century, the paper puts an emphasis on the writing of Friedrich von Bernhardi titled Germany and the next war, published in 1912. Bernhardi sought to prove the inevitability of “preemptive war” and territorial annexations in order to provide for the economic and political interests of Germany as a global force. Bernhardi legitimized his opinion by calling on social-Darwinist arguments as well as the tradition of German idealist philosophy, and claiming that war is the only means by which it is possible to sustain German culture as the highest form of “German spirit” and its most valuable contribution to humanity. Considering the high rank which Bernhardi held as a general in the German military, as well as how his attitudes fell in with German foreign policy of the period, Bernhardi’s writing represents, in a condensed fashion, an expression of militaristic ideas present in German society before WWI.
The article «Everyday Life in Wartime Arkhangelsk: The Problem of Starvation and Death during the Second World War (1939–1945)» is based on primary sources: interviews with eyewitnesses, memoirs, materials of press, diaries and archival documents. During the Second World War more than 40 thousand civilians died in Arkhangelsk (one fourth of its prewar population) because of starvation. This paper is an attempt to explain this phenomenon.
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment installations on vessels during World War II-TB/ALL. 32.20-1 Section 32.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Installations § 32.20-1 Equipment installations on vessels during World War II—TB/ALL....
Full Text Available The growing interest in archaeologies of the recent past has included attempts to link archaeology with memory in its various forms but has lacked a coherent theoretical and methodological approach. This paper outlines a model for engaging with memory in the archaeology of the Second World War, drawing on recent work in memory studies and oral history. One of the principal pitfalls in memory work is the conflation and confusion of individual and social memory: in this paper I attempt to identify and outline different forms or scales of memory: individual memory, group narratives, and social memorialisation. If we distinguish between these models in relation to Second World War archaeological sites we can assess their accuracy and usefulness and begin to trace the intricate power relations implicit in memory work. The sites in question, a Nazi prison in Berlin and a Prisoner of War camp in Poland, illustrate the contested and highly politicised nature of memory-based work and archaeological studies of this period. By opening up such sites to the popular gaze, archaeologists have the power to bring these debates into the public sphere, potentially undermining the hegemony of officially sanctioned memory and making the production of meaningful pasts a more inclusive process.
This article explores the care British nurses provided to victims of typhus during the Second World War. Typhus is associated with poverty and overcrowding. During wars in the pre-antibiotic era, civilians were particularly susceptible to epidemics, which military governments feared would spread to their troops. This discussion paper draws on archival data from three typhus epidemics in the Second World War to examine the expert work of British nurses in caring for victims during these potential public health disasters. The published sources for the paper include material from nursing and medical journals published between 1940-1947. Archival sources come from the National Archives in Kew, the Wellcome Library and the Army Medical Services Museum, between 1943-1945. Of particular interest is the correspondence with Dame Katharine Jones from nurses on active service overseas. Whilst epidemics of typhus are now rare, nurses in the present day may be required to care for the public in environments of extreme poverty and overcrowding, where life-threatening infectious diseases are prevalent. This article has demonstrated that it is possible for expert and compassionate nursing to alleviate suffering and prevent death, even when medical technologies are unavailable. Expert and compassionate care, adequate nutrition and hydration and attention to hygiene needs are crucial when there are limited pharmacological treatments and medical technologies available to treat infectious diseases. The appreciation of this could have implications for nurses working in current global conflicts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Larisa M. Efimova
Full Text Available Victorious ending of the World War 2 on May, 9, 1945, stroke a crushing blow on the military axis Berlin - Rome - Tokyo. The USSR played a decisive role both on European and Asian fronts. Fulfilling its allied duty the Soviet Union entered the war in the Far East on 9 August, 1945 and defeated the Japanese army in Manchuria. This act became a great contribution to liberation of Asian peoples from the Japanese occupation. On the 17 August 1945 the Republic of Indonesia declared its independence. The recognition on the side of international community as well as diplomatic support became\\e vital for the survival of the newly emerged Republic.The Soviet victory together with the allied nations in the Second World War, the new status of the USSR as a superpower, its constant anticolonial stance stimulated former colonies to appeal to the Soviet Union for backing and support. One of the first was the Republic of Indonesia, to which the USSR rendered all kind of help and encourages. The present article which is a result of the study of newly available documents from several recently opened Soviet archives shows the Soviet backing of Indonesia in the UN, its diplomatic recognition, in strengthening of Indonesian status as a sovereign state on the international arena as a whole.
Full Text Available The present study aims to be a recovery of the suffering, of the victims of the Second World War, Sandu Tudor's biography being approached as exempla. The observation of the up to the edge experiences he went through is, we believe, an effective method to reconstruct historical phenomena and processes that also can facilitate bringing to light the obscured areas. The presentation of the investigation and the process in which Monk Agathon was involved are added to the samples of spiritual dare and sacrifice of the director of "Credința (Faith", one of the representatives of the elite of the spiritualist younger generation who placed his existence into a continuous war held in the name of Orthodoxy, for the promotion of spiritual and social dimension of faith, rooted in liturgical horizon, was a constant and fervent mission of our subject. The Second World War was for Sandu Tudor, apparently paradoxically, a time of deepening his spiritual and clerical searches, a stage in the formation of the one who was to become the founder of the Burning Altar. In our try to re-build a real image of the process in which Monk Agathon (Sandu Tudor was involved, we conjunction the documents from the archive C.N.S.A.S. with interwar press.
During the First World War, thousands of soldiers were treated for "shell shock," a condition which encompassed a range of physical and psychological symptoms. Shell shock has most often been located within a "genealogy of trauma," and identified as an important marker in the gradual recognition of the psychological afflictions caused by combat. In recent years, shell shock has increasingly been viewed as a powerful emblem of the suffering of war. This article, which focuses on Britain, extends scholarly analyses which question characterizations of shell shock as an early form of post-traumatic stress disorder. It also considers some of the methodological problems raised by recasting shell shock as a wartime medical construction rather than an essentially timeless manifestation of trauma. It argues that shell shock must be analyzed as a diagnosis shaped by a specific set of contemporary concerns, knowledges, and practices. Such an analysis challenges accepted understandings of what shell shock "meant" in the First World War, and also offers new perspectives on the role of shell shock in shaping the emergence of psychology and psychiatry in the early part of the twentieth century. The article also considers what relation, if any, might exist between intellectual and other histories, literary approaches, and perceptions of trauma as timeless and unchanging.
This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to describe the practice of anaesthesia in partisan military hospitals in Slovenia during the Second World War. The organisation of anaesthetic services delivered as an integral part of partisan medical care was unique in Europe and in the world. Healthcare givers exhibited a high level of professsional knowledge as well as exceptional resourcefulness, adaptability, and willigness to cope with physical and psychological demands of their work.Conclusions: During the Second World War, a number of healthcare facilities for treatment of wounded and severly ill soldiers, run by partisan forces, were established on the territory of Slovenia. The paper deals with the first and most important, Slovene central military partisan hospital in Kočevski Rog, and the best-known, Franja and Pavla Hospitals in Primorska region (Franja was proposed for entry in UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites. The authors used a large body of written documentation, as well as the testimony provided by the living witnesses of war events. The main characteristics of partisan fighting were constant movement of troops and absence of hinterland. Therefore, it was not possible to apply the basic principle of war medical services, i. e. to evacuate wounded soldiers to the hinterland through graded units of care. No handbooks on the organization of partisan medical services were available at the time, and there were no hard and fast rules for action. Frequently, healthcare had to be provided before any arrangements for the management of wounded soldiers had been made. The apparently unsolvable problems had to be solved on the spot. The paper gives information not only on anaesthesia but also on general conditions characteristic of that period. It is only in the light of this dramatically different situation that the role of anaesthetic services provided during the war can be understood correctly. The material is illustrated with more, mostly
Full Text Available Traditionally, historians begin the League of Nations’ history with the postwar settlement and the creation of the Versailles system. However, the continuity exists between the First World War and the emergence of international organization. There was no steady institution of multilateral diplomacy for the international arbitration before the War. The Hague Peace Conferences (1899, 1907 were not able to create strong international institutions. The ways out of the Great War and the mechanisms of preventing its repetition had to be looked for in the bloody conflict. The situation in the USA and in the UK differed significantly. The censorship rules that did not allow publishing essays about peace or any negotiations with the enemy were introduced. In the US they could freely discuss these issues. In the US the university academicians, businessmen, and representatives of various faiths, and prominent politicians were involved in the discussions. In the UK, the League of Nations theme was discussed by the pressure groups such as Fabian Society and selected intellectuals such as Leonard Woolf. During 1916–1917 the views of the governments and various social organizations about the League of Nations significantly differed. The public opinion and social groups demanded the creation of the international organization immediately, or as part of the post-war settlement structure. The UK government recognized the need for the creation of the League of Nations only as a part of the United States involving into the war and the strengthening of the British Empire. As a result of the League of Nations carried out signs of hybridity in a dangerous form.
Ekaterina S. Lyubomirova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the new aspects in the study of the history of post-war Germany, revealed in the book written by Sabine Bode «Post-war children - born in the 1950s, and their fathers-soldiers». It discusses the contribution made by Bode in the study of mental and psycho-emotional consequences of the Second World War and the «exclusion of the past», which is reflected in the fate of the post-war children and continues to have an impact on the socio-political life of the Federal Republic of Germany up to the present day. Nevertheless the article criticizes an excessive preoccupation of the monograph with the descriptions of the individual biographies to the detriment of analysis.
Guerrero, A L
Adolf Hitler very probably suffered from Parkinson's disease. The first symptoms of it began to appear in 1937/1938. It is likely that its appearance, and the fear that it caused regarding his survival, lead Hitler to advance his initial projects of military expansion of the great Germany beginning in 1943. Thus, the Second World War broke out in 1939, perhaps quite before the time in which Germany would be prepared. Chronic treatment carried out with opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and strychnine may very well be related with a very abnormal judgement of the problems and absence of trust in the advice of his team. With this, he would make military decisions that would end up being ill-fated for his interests and which, after 1942, would lead to a change in the course of the war.
van Bergen, Leo
The paper looks at two First World War ambulance teams which distinctly differed from each other, both in the way they perceived the war and the places at the front where they worked. The first was working on the Serbian side and the second on the Austrian-Hungarian. The questions raised are: how was medical neutrality defined (was it defined at all)? Was neutrality maintained, and if so how? The writings of several protagonists are closely examined, and placed in context, to show that total neutrality was not adhered to by the physicians and nurses of these ambulances. Apparently neutrality in wartime is difficult, even for men and women coming from a neutral country with an occupation seen as essentially neutral.
This article discusses how the relationship between parents and their children were affected by the second world war in Germany. With fathers away from home for often as long as a decade, many children grew up without a father being physically present. The current historiography suggests that wartime separation caused a crisis in the family. But did the prolonged periods of time apart and the separate experiences of husbands at the Front and wives and children at home really destabilize family relationships? This article questions such a picture of families in ruin. It argues that family relationships were far more resilient in the face of wartime separation than has previously been credited. Indeed, it reveals the importance of children in keeping mothers and fathers focused on getting through the war. It further contends that, even from afar, fathers continued to play an important role in their children’s lives. And this in turn revises our understanding of the situation facing reuniting families.
Full Text Available "Marking Time" considers the relative scarcity of woman's image in Nazi propaganda posters during World War II. This scarcity departs from the ubiquity of women in paintings and sculptures of the same period. In the fine arts, woman served to solidify the "Nazi myth" and its claim to the timeless time of an Aryan order simultaneously achieved and yet to come. Looking at poster art and using Ernst Bloch's notion of the nonsynchronous, this essay explores the extent to which women as signifiers of the modern – and thus as markers of time – threatened to expose the limits of this Nazi myth especially as the regime's war effort ground to its catastrophic end.
Nagata, Donna K; Takeshita, Yuzuru J
The psychological reactions of 2nd-generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans to receiving redress from the U.S. government for the injustices of their World War II internment were investigated. The respondents, all of whom had been interned during the war, rated the degree to which the receipt of redress nearly 50 years after their incarceration was associated with 8 different areas of personal impact. Results indicated that redress was reported to be most effective in increasing faith in the government and least effective in reducing physical suffering from the internment. Women and older respondents reported more positive redress effects. In addition, lower levels of current income, an attitudinal preference for Japanese Americans, and preredress support for seeking monetary compensation each increased the prediction of positive redress effects. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of social and retributive justice.
Biochemists investigating the problem of the vitamins in the early years of the twentieth century were working without an object, as such. Although they had developed a fairly elaborate idea of the character of the 'vitamine' and its role in metabolism, vitamins were not yet biochemical objects, but rather 'functional ascriptions' and 'explanatory devices'. I suggest that an early instance of the changing status of the object of the 'vitamins' can be found in their stabilization, through the course of World War I, as bio-political objects for the British and Allied war effort. Vitamins emerged as players, active agents, in Britain's wartime bio-political problems of food distribution and population health and because of this they became increasingly real as bio-political objects, even prior to their isolation as bio-chemical molecules. I suggest that the materiality of our biology has agency in the development of political regimes and schemes.
Bramsen, Inge; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Boers, Maarten
Little is known about the effects of cumulative trauma and whether traumatized individuals are more vulnerable. In 2000, a fireworks disaster created the possibility to examine this issue among World War II survivors who were part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Between 1998 and 2000 posttraumatic stress increased in disaster exposed respondents as opposed to the control group. War-related reexperiencing and avoidance also increased. The strongest increase occurred in disaster-exposed respondents who had low levels of wartime stress and a slight decrease occurred in those who had high wartime exposure. This unique controlled observation suggests that disasters do increase the levels of posttraumatic stress, and that reactivation of previous traumatic events generally occurs. However, the vulnerability hypothesis was not supported.
Strauss, Kristin; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Silke
Dose-response relation of war experiences and posttraumatic stress, depression and poor health functioning in late life is well documented in war-affected populations. The influence of differing trauma types experienced by war-affected population in the study of dose-response relation of war trauma and psychological maladaptation in late life has not been investigated. We examined a subgroup of displaced elders and investigated whether specific trauma types were associated with differential health outcomes. From representative practitioner lists, matched groups of former displaced and non-displaced World War II children were assigned, yielding a total sample of 417 participants (response rate 50%). Measurement encompassed a self-report survey including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Consistent dose-relation between war-related experiences and posttraumatic stress or depressive symptoms in late life was found for both, displaced and non-displaced elders, whereas a gradient for poor health perception was only found in displaced people. Trauma types derived from principal component analysis showed differential associations with health outcomes. Human Right Violations emerged as risk factor for posttraumatic stress symptoms and Deprivation & Threat to Life as risk factor for depressive symptoms. Poor self-rated health was associated with multiple trauma types. Non-random recruitment, retrospective design and use of self-report. Posttraumatic stress and depression are associated with war-related experiences more than 60 years after World War II. Results suggest that different trauma types lead to unique variants of syndrome configurations, which may result from different etiological factors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Robson, D; Welch, E; Beeching, N J; Gill, G V
Though medical consequences of war attract attention, the health consequences of the prisoner-of-war (POW) experience are poorly researched and appreciated. The imprisonment of Allied military personnel by the Japanese during the World War II provides an especially dramatic POW scenario in terms of deprivation, malnutrition and exposure to tropical diseases. Though predominantly British, these POWs also included troops from Australia, Holland and North America. Imprisonment took place in various locations in Southeast Asia and the Far East for a 3.5-year period between 1942 and 1945. Nutritional deficiency syndromes, dysentery, malaria, tropical ulcers and cholera were major health problems; and supplies of drugs and medical equipment were scarce. There have been limited mortality studies on ex-Far East prisoners (FEPOWs) since repatriation, but these suggest an early (up to 10 years post-release) excess mortality due to tuberculosis, suicides and cirrhosis (probably related to hepatitis B exposure during imprisonment). In terms of morbidity, the commonest has been a psychiatric syndrome which would now be recognized as post-traumatic stress disorder--present in at least one-third of FEPOWs and frequently presenting decades later. Peptic ulceration, osteoarthritis and hearing impairment also appear to occur more frequently. In addition, certain tropical diseases have persisted in these survivors--notably infections with the nematode worm Strongyloides stercoralis. Studies 30 years or more after release have shown overall infection rates of 15%. Chronic strongyloidiasis of this type frequently causes a linear urticarial 'larva currens' rash, but can potentially lead to fatal hyperinfection if immunity is suppressed. Finally, about 5% of FEPOW survivors have chronic nutritional neuropathic syndromes--usually optic atrophy or sensory peripheral neuropathy (often painful). The World War II FEPOW experience was a unique, though often tragic, accidental experiment into
Abdol Rauh Yaccob
Full Text Available It is a difficult task to measure the importance of South West Arabia to the Ottomans and the British prior to and during World War I. Early history of imperial expansion in the area which followed by constant conflicts and involved a considerable amount of diplomacy and intrigues with the natives may suggest that South West Arabia was considered as equally as important to other areas within the empire. However from the beginning of the 20th century South West Arabia was considered something of a backwater. It may also be observed that during the First World War the position of South West Arabia to these powers in relation to other war theatres remained practically the same except in the episodes of British action at Sheikh Said and the Ottomans advance at Lahej. The Indian authorities who believed that the Ottomans were contemplating a move to Sheikh Sa‘id with the aim of acting against British Perim with the telegraphic communication, convoys and shipping, only two miles away, took the opportunity of the movement of the troops through the Red Sea to attack the fort of Sheikh Sa‘id. The action was quickly taken before obtaining official approval from the Admiralty and the India Office in London. The action was taken due to the persistent reports of the Ottoman reinforcement with guns had been sent to Sheikh Sa‘id, further to take advantage of the presence of transports with troops for Egypt. Subsequently future military operations at Sheikh Sa‘id and the Red Sea appeared to dominate the discussions among the authorities at the India Office, the Admiralty, the Indian authorities and the Resident at Aden throughout the war without materializing any further military action.
Full Text Available Finnish archaeologists, especially Aarne Michaël Tallgren, had established contacts with their colleagues in the Baltic countries before the Second World War. In the summer of 1939, the world situation became a dominant theme in letters between archaeologists. The outbreak of war in Europe and the military base negotiations in Moscow evoked increasing concern. After the Soviet attack on Finland, only a few Finnish and Baltic archaeologists stayed in contact, but communications revived quickly after the Finnish-Soviet peace treaty of 1940. Estonian archaeologist Harri Moora saw the trials of war as a punishment for forgetting all spiritual values in previous years. The Soviet occupation of the Baltic countries in 1940 broke all contacts for longer than a year. After Germany had occupied the Baltic countries in 1941 and was allied with Finland in war against the Soviet Union, connections could be resumed to some extent. Tallgren, together with the Swedish State Antiquarian Sigurd Curman, now started planning the evacuation of children from Estonia to Sweden. In 1942, scholarly discussion returned to the correspondence, although only on a practical level, but already in early 1943 all correspondence became impossible. At the same time, Finnish archaeologists were in contact with Baltic refugees, especially Francis Balodis from Latvia. There were also Scandinavian and British archaeologists with whom Finnish researchers exchanged information about colleagues in the Baltic countries. The communications mainly focused on three things: getting and spreading information regarding the current situation, offering both practical help and psychological support to colleagues in the Baltic countries, and attempting to re-establish the exchange of ideas within the scholarly community.
Full Text Available In my article, I analyse selected British novels about the First World War published at the turn of the 20th century, from the theoretical perspectives proposed by Maria Torok and Nicolas Abraham in The Shell and the Kernel: Renewals of Psychoanalysis. Pat Barker in Toby’s Room (2012 and Sue Gee in Earth and Heaven (2000 imagine their protagonists’ difficult evolution from melancholia to mourning after the loss of brothers and/or lovers, at the front. The concepts of incorporation and illness of mourning are used to explore the complicated process of bereavement in Barker’s novel, where hauntology becomes a form of honte-ology, from the French honte, shame. In Gee’s beautifully melancholic novel, the haunting trauma of loss is subtly evoked by images of empty fields, neglected farms, urban vistas filled with spectral figures of unemployed veterans. Moreover, Earth and Heaven affects the reader so deeply because the understated pain of loss becomes movingly tangible after the accidental death of the central protagonist’s six-year-old son, which seems to “condense” the pain of war bereavements a decade after the conflict. My intention is also to demonstrate that Sebastian Faulks in Birdsong (1993, Esther Freud in Summer at Gaglow (1997 and Pat Barker in Another World (1998 approach the Great War as a phantom haunting their contemporary protagonists. The persistence of the unknown past has a profound impact on these characters and only by trying to relate to the Great War do they find answers to their existential dilemmas. This directs our attention to the incomplete processes of First World War mourning, the persistence of endless grief and the potential continuity of unresolved trauma(s in transgenerational memory. The five novels under consideration also problematise the issue of silence—the unsayable family secret and/or the collective disregard for the national past. The psychoanalytic concept of crypt illuminates the relation
Obermeyer, Ziad; Murray, Christopher J L; Gakidou, Emmanuela
To provide an accurate estimate of violent war deaths. Analysis of survey data on mortality, adjusted for sampling bias and censoring, from nationally representative surveys designed to measure population health. Estimated deaths compared with estimates in database of passive reports. 2002-3 World health surveys, in which information was collected from one respondent per household about sibling deaths, including whether such deaths resulted from war injuries. Estimated deaths from war injuries in 13 countries over 50 years. From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths (95% confidence interval 3.0 to 8.7 million) in 13 countries, ranging from 7000 in the Republic of Congo [corrected] to 3.8 million in Vietnam. From 1995 to 2002 survey data indicate 36,000 war deaths annually (16,000 to 71,000) in the 13 countries studied. Data from passive surveillance, however, indicated a figure of only a third of this. On the basis of the relation between world health survey data and passive reports, we estimate 378,000 globalwar deaths annually from 1985-94, the last years for which complete passive surveillance data were available. The use of data on sibling history from peacetime population surveys can retrospectively estimate mortality from war. War causes more deaths than previously estimated, and there is no evidence to support a recent decline in war deaths.
["At times I had to be an allopathic medical officer and then again I was allowed to be a homoeopathic physician." Homoeopathy and war from the Franco-German War (1870/71) to World War I (1914-1918)].
With its focus on the Franco-German War and World War I the present paper constitutes a first approach to the comprehensive topic of "homoeopathy and war". Sources used include articles from homoeopathic magazines, homoeopathic specialist literature, material from the estate of the homoeopathic lay organization "Hahnemannia" and individual testimonies from non-homoeopaths. The paper begins by examining the importance of the two wars for research into the history of homoeopathy compared to previous conflicts and demonstrates the value of the sources used. A brief outline of homoeopathy and the military forces in the decades before 1870 provides insight into the historical context. This is followed by the investigation of homoeopathic war hospitals at home with an analysis of the attitude of the homoeopathic physicians and lay-healers involved. The paper also describes the difficult relationship between homoeopathy and conventional medicine during the two conflicts.
Svetlana A. Khubulova
Full Text Available The extracts from the personal correspondence of the career soldier of the Russian Army E.I. Denisov and his spouse E.I. Denisova-Gerlih are published for the first time. The information, obtained from the letters, enables to reconstruct some spheres of everyday life of the servicemen of the Russian Army and the wives of combatants, trace back the change of worldview attitudes, individual and social behavioral aspects of the population in the First World War. Modern challenges allow us to raise new, unpublished data, analyze the problems beyond the research survey. Letters of the contemporaries contain the data, concerning new realities in Russian citizens’ worldview formation in wartime. They enable to feel the war through people’s impressions, to see the emotional experience of the ordinary person, to penetrate into his inner world with its worries, thoughts and emotions. Personal correspondence fills the gap in our knowledge of the changes in mass and personal strategy of survival. The letters reflect the full extent of the personal values of wartime period. The study of the wartime letters helps us to get the idea of contemporaries’ inner world, understand the deep origins of selflessness, fortitude, mass heroism.
Frome, E.L.; Cragle, D.L.; McLain, R.W.
A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 28,008 white male employees who had worked for at least 1 month in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during World War II. The workers were employed at two plants that were producing enriched uranium and a research and development laboratory. Vital status was ascertained through 1980 for 98.1% of the cohort members and death certificates were obtained for 96.8% of the 11,671 decedents. A modified version of the traditional standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis was used to compare the cause-specific mortality experience of the World War II workers with the U.S. white male population. An SMR and a trend statistic were computed for each cause-of-death category for the 30-year interval from 1950 to 1980. The SMR for all causes was 1.11, and there was a significant upward trend of 0.74% per year. The excess mortality was primarily due to lung cancer and diseases of the respiratory system. Poisson regression methods were used to evaluate the influence of duration of employment, facility of employment, socioeconomic status, birth year, period of follow-up, and radiation exposure on cause-specific mortality. Maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in a main-effects model were obtained to describe the joint effects of these six factors on cause-specific mortality of the World War II workers. We show that these multivariate regression techniques provide a useful extension of conventional SMR analysis and illustrate their effective use in a large occupational cohort study
Baker, Kate S; Mather, Alison E; McGregor, Hannah; Coupland, Paul; Langridge, Gemma C; Day, Martin; Deheer-Graham, Ana; Parkhill, Julian; Russell, Julie E; Thomson, Nicholas R
Shigellosis (previously bacillary dysentery) was the primary diarrhoeal disease of World War 1, but outbreaks still occur in military operations, and shigellosis causes hundreds of thousands of deaths per year in developing nations. We aimed to generate a high-quality reference genome of the historical Shigella flexneri isolate NCTC1 and to examine the isolate for resistance to antimicrobials. In this genomic analysis, we sequenced the oldest extant Shigella flexneri serotype 2a isolate using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. Isolated from a soldier with dysentery from the British forces fighting on the Western Front in World War 1, this bacterium, NCTC1, was the first isolate accessioned into the National Collection of Type Cultures. We created a reference sequence for NCTC1, investigated the isolate for antimicrobial resistance, and undertook comparative genetics with S flexneri reference strains isolated during the 100 years since World War 1. We discovered that NCTC1 belonged to a 2a lineage of S flexneri, with which it shares common characteristics and a large core genome. NCTC1 was resistant to penicillin and erythromycin, and contained a complement of chromosomal antimicrobial resistance genes similar to that of more recent isolates. Genomic islands gained in the S flexneri 2a lineage over time were predominately associated with additional antimicrobial resistances, virulence, and serotype conversion. This S flexneri 2a lineage is a well adapted pathogen that has continued to respond to selective pressures. We have created a valuable historical benchmark for shigellae in the form of a high-quality reference sequence for a publicly available isolate. The Wellcome Trust. Copyright © 2014 Baker et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tuttle, William M., Jr.
The absence of fathers during World War II had differing effects on the development of identity in boys and girls. Articles and research of the era discussed boys' separation from their fathers but largely failed to address daughters' loss of paternal influence. Evidence suggests that for both boys and girls, the problem was not primarily the…
Histories of the First World War have regularly implicated children's literature in boys' eagerness to enlist in the first two years of that conflict. While undoubtedly the majority of children's books, comics and magazines did espouse nationalistic, jingoistic and martial attitudes, there were alternative stories and environments. Looking at the…
n this paper I focus on the possible impact that the First World War had on working women of Zagreb. The paper is based on a rich variety of published and unpublished primary material. My analysis of these materials has found that women of Zagreb experienced changes in their working opportunities and possibilities by late 1915 and early 1916. In that period, the significant lack of male workforce allowed women to be employed in vocations that were previously intended explicitly for men. My re...
Renzo Ramírez Bacca
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios187.204 The text provides a critical review of the Latin American historiography during the First World War. The author focuses on Argentina, Mexico and Colombia in order to account for the lines of work, categories of analysis and the recent contributions on the issue. In the same way, it takes into account the Western historiographical context, poses questions and dialogues based on recent studies as well as highlights the limitations and explains the reason for the identified historiographical gaps.
In WWI, the United States was segregated by custom and law, and the Army obeyed the laws, reducing opportunities for Black medical professionals to serve their country in uniform. This article surveys African-American medical personnel serving in the US Army in World War I. It includes physicians, dentists, veterinarians, and other commissioned officers, as well as medical enlisted men. Overall, despite segregation and associated professional limitations, determined individuals still served with distinction in a variety of roles, opening doors for future advances. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Patriarca, Carlo; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo
Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) is known as the founder of the Catholic University in Italy. Franciscan monk and doctor he had a central role in promoting studies on human behavior, thanks to his solid scientific training as a student of Camillo Golgi at the University of Pavia. His research activities during the years of the First World War involved studying the motivation, courage and psychological adaptation of the soldiers, engaged in trench warfare, laying the foundations of modern studies of behavior and trauma. © The Author(s) 2016.
Laing, Jennifer; Frost, Warwick
A number of dark commemorative events have been staged in recent years, marking the anniversaries of incidents that are distressing or involve death or suffering (Frost and Laing, 2013). They are a medium for thinking about and remembering the past and potentially promote healing and provide a sense of closure for those affected, yet there is a paucity of research about them from a socio-cultural perspective. This paper examines the role of the Centenary of World War One in Australia in promo...
Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira
This historic-sociologic study aims to analyse the challenges faced by the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's Air Transportation Nurses of the Army with the Theatre of Operations on the course of World War II. The primary source was comprised of a photograph from this time period and oral testimonies of those who participated in the conflict. Ideas by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu support the discussion. Results suggest that Brazilian nurses were challenged to transport the wounded without medical advice. We conclude that the challenge to fulfill the task imposed, which led to independent decision-making, gave confidence and autonomy to the ones already responsible for the transportation of the wounded.
Full Text Available In many articles we can read that containers weren't in Europe before 1966, when ship SS Fariland came with 35 feet containers invented by Keith Tantlinger for Sea Land Company owned by Malcom McLean. The focus of this study is on the problem with development norms for European containers. Thus, the main definitions and briefly literature overview in the analysed research area are given. Later, the information about these constructions are developed. Article presents Czechoslovak activity to preparation of three European norms for containers, which were described before Second World War.
Katter, I; Kunitz, O; Deller, A
The discovery of an aircraft bomb from World War II made the complete evacuation of a tertiary care hospital with 629 beds and 17 specialist departments including a neonatal intensive care unit necessary. Some months before an alarm plan had been issued and a fire practice had been carried out which made it obvious to all concerned how important such measures are. Nevertheless, more room for improvement could be learned from the evacuation, in particular the rapid classification of the patients into categories and the fact that 20-30% of the patients needed stretcher-based transport for evacuation.
This essay sketches the rise of a Popular Front-inflected vision of the U.S. city neighborhood's meaning and worth, a communitarian ideal that reached its zenith during World War II before receding in the face of cold-war anxieties, postwar suburbanization, and trepidation over creeping blight. During the war years, numerous progressives interpreted the ethnic-accented urban neighborhood as place where national values became most concrete, casting it as a uniquely American rebuff to the fascist drive for purity. Elaborations appeared in the popular press's celebratory cadences, in writings by educators and social scientists such as Rachel DuBois and Louis Wirth, and in novels, plays, and musicals by Sholem Asch, Louis Hazam, Kurt Weill, Langston Hughes, and others. Each offered new ways for making sense of urban space, yet their works reveal contradictions and uncertainties, particularly in an inability to meld competing impulses toward assimilation and particularism. Building on the volume's theme "The Arts in Place," this essay examines these texts as a collective form of imaginative "placemaking." It explores the conflicted mode of liberal nationalism that took the polyglot city neighborhood as emblem. And it outlines the fissures embedded in that vision, which emerged more fully as the provisional wartime consensus dissolved.
Mehmet Ali YILDIRIM
Full Text Available In Ottoman States there had always been grasshopper infestation now and then; and this caused some socio-economic problems and famine as a result. However, in the last years of the state, especially during World War I, the grasshoppers vastly influenced West and South Anatolia along with Aleppo and Syria regions; and the residents in these locations were negatively influenced. Acting to prevent a more destructive disaster, the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce ensured that the law and regulations related to grasshopper problem - enacted in 1912 - were strictly implemented with the aim of a centralized control. Later, in 1916, an organization under the leadership of German experts arose. This way, despite the problems of war conditions, a more efficient, informed and institutional struggle started. Despite insufficient technological infrastructure and transportation and the lack of financial resources, a considerable amount of time and money were spent on the combat efforts against grasshoppers. During the war, the authorities pushed on fighting with limited sources available at hand. They strived for effective implementation of modern mass destroying methods together with traditional methods; raising awareness of the people for a full scale campaign; and ensuring their participation to the fight with every means at hand. The local civilian and military staffs were exploited to the maximum extent for the purpose. Finally, the efforts were not wasted and this campaign became successful. As a result of the efforts, important results were accomplished
Ongre, Aksel; Sommerfelt-Pettersen, Jan
Tuberculosis became a great problem in the Royal Norwegian Navy during the first years of the Second World War (when it operated in allied services mainly from the UK); with the highest incidence (9.6 per 1 000) during the first half of 1943. Main reasons were insufficient medical examination of recruits, crowded living conditions on board (favoured the contagion) and the physical and psychological pressure during sea operations, which may have reduced the immune defence. Prophylactic measures in terms of tuberculin testing of all personnel, chest X-rays of the positives, vaccination of the negatives, environment investigation when disease was discovered, and isolation of those infected, gave control from the second half of 1943 and onwards. The article also mentions treatment, repatriation and the incidence of tuberculosis in the Norwegian Navy before and after the war as well as in the Royal Canadian Naval Services (where the incidence was low) during the war. Today, the tuberculosis situation in Norway is so favourable that routine chest X-ray of the recruits is no longer performed in the armed forces.
The historiography of penicillin has tended to overlook the importance of developing and disseminating know-how in fermentation technology. A focus on this directs attention to work before the war of a network in the US and Europe concerned with the production of organic acids, particularly gluconic and citric acids. At the heart of this network was the German-Czech Konrad Bernhauer. Other members of the network were a group of chemists at the US Department of Agriculture who first recognized the production possibilities of penicillin. The Pfizer Corporation, which had recruited a leading Department of Agriculture scientist at the end of the First World War, was also an important centre of development as well as of production. However, in wartime Bernhauer was an active member of the SS and his work was not commemorated after his death in 1975. After the war new processes of fermentation were disseminated by penicillin pioneers such as Jackson Foster and Ernst Chain. Because of its commercial context his work was not well known. The conclusion of this paper is that the commercial context, on the one hand, and the Nazi associations of Bernhauer, on the other, have submerged the significance of know-how development in the history of penicillin.
Joseph Jon Kaminski
Full Text Available This paper looks at some similarities and differences between propaganda art used by Germany and the United States during World War I. The first section briefly looks at aesthetic theory and addresses the philosophical question of whether war propaganda posters are, in fact, ‘art’ at all. Then images of various posters that were popular and widely published by both nations are shown and discussed. This paper concludes that while there are many thematic similarities between the posters used by both sides, there are also some important differences. The most obvious difference between the German and American propaganda art was in regard to the overall tone of the posters and the colors used in the presentation. The images used have been downloaded from a reputable website that depicts reproductions of the posters that were used during WW1. Understanding the nature of the propaganda used by each side can help shed light on the attitudes and sentiments towards the war held by political elites and citizens alike.
Vickers, E D
The firmly entrenched, negative attitude regarding the nurse in Czechoslovakia was a major deterrent to the development of nursing education in that country after the First World War. Social work was the culturally acceptable form of caring activity for educated women who perceived nursing as a hospital function performed by the religious orders and the less educated. Alice Masaryk, an innovative force in addressing social welfare problems after the war, reinforced this perception. Despite her early investigative experience in social welfare in American settlements before the war, Masaryk gave no indication that she was aware of the recent progress in the development of nursing in America. Her attitude fostered the indecisiveness of the ministers who lacked a clear understanding of nursing and who were reluctant to make any innovative changes that would modernize the profession. Furthermore, older physicians were content with the current nursing situation and did not share younger physicians' visions of a public health team that included well-educated nurses. Crowell had to negotiate within this political and cultural environment where the major figures struggled against proposed changes that may have seemed not only expensive, but also unsettling to their way of life. She recognized the necessity of respecting the Czech position and cooperating with them in attaining an amicable solution. Her educational and professional background, and the European cultural insights she had gained during her years in the U.S. supported her well in meeting this challenge.
Kokebayeva, Gulzhaukhar; Smagulov, Kadyrzhan; Mussabalina, Gulnara
This article attempts to address the issue of prisoners of war through the prism of international law. The object of research is the work of the Commission to investigate the Entente's complaints of violation of Hague Convention on Treatment of Prisoners of War by German authorities. After the armistice, the governments of the Entente sent notes…
Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus
We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....
Lampe John R.
Full Text Available This paper pays brief attention, although more than the recent flood of 1914 centenary books, to economic causes of the First World War before turning to it fateful economic consequences for Southeastern Europe. The Austrian lack of economic leverage over Serbia is cited as a reason for its resort to the military option. At the war’s end, the option of the victorious powers to provide significant economic relief to the region where the conflict had begun was not taken. After tracking the brief, limited assistance provided, the paper reviews to the massive economic problems confronting four of the five of independent states, neglecting Albania as a special case, that could now be called Southeastern Europe. First Greece and then Bulgaria faced forced inflow of refugees. Romania and the Yugoslav Kingdom faced the economic integration of large new, formerly Austro-Hungarian lands. All of them were left not only with war deaths and destruction but also with large war debts, or in Bulgaria’s case, reparations. The paper concentrates on the primary Western response to these four economies, an effort led by the Bank of England to replace immediate postwar inflation with the deflation needed to reestablish currencies with prewar convertibility to gold, now with Pound Sterling added to a gold reserve standard. Independent central banks, the major positive legacy of this initiative, were to lead the way. But the financial stability that all four economies did eventually achieve in the 1920s served only to reduce their war debts. Otherwise, maintaining the fixed and overvalued exchange rates restricted domestic credit, encouraged protective tariffs, and did not attract the foreign capital, especially new state loans, that this emphasis on a single, European financial framework had promised. A concluding section considers the lessons learned from a postwar period that promoted economic disintegration by the 1930s. Looking at the period since the end of
Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien
Between 1914 and 1918, war strain appeared under a number of guises and affected, to varying extents, the majority of French soldiers. The most frequent form of war strain was war psychoneurosis, but war strain also induced more paroxystic disorders, such as acute episodes of terror, self-mutilation, induced illnesses and even suicide. Fear was the constant companion of soldiers of the Great War: soldiers were either able to tame it or overwhelmed by an uncontrollable fear. Nonetheless, over the course of the war, some aspects of fear were recognised as syndromes. The French health service poorly anticipated the major consequences of war strain, as with many other types of injuries. After the establishment of wartime neuropsychiatric centres, two main medical stances emerged: listening to soldiers empathetically on the one hand and applying more repressive management on the other. For many physicians, the psychological consequences of this first modern war were synonymous with malingering or cowardice in the face of duty. The stance of French military physicians in relation to their command was not unequivocal and remained ambivalent, swaying between medico-military collusion and empathy towards soldiers experiencing psychological distress. The ubiquity of suspected malingering modified the already porous borders between neuropsychiatric disorders and disobedience. Several war psychoneurotic soldiers were sentenced by councils of war for deserting their posts in the face of the enemy and were shot. Many soldiers suspected of self-mutilation or suffering from induced illnesses were also sentenced and executed without an expert assessment of their wound or their psychological state. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Brittany L. Roberts
Full Text Available When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941, they little realized what a formidable foe they had aroused. An enraged America immediately declared war on Japan. As a result, Germany declared war on America. Now facing enemies on both fronts, America mobilized her troops for action and prepared weapons of mass destruction. The unity experienced by the American people during this time had never been and would never be matched. Both soldiers and civilians launched themselves into the war effort. This great national endeavor called for anthems of reflection and encouragement. While they continued to sing national favorites such as "The Star-Spangled Banner" and "America the Beautiful," contemporary musicians wrote pieces that directly pertained to the country’s present trials and triumphs. New works remembering Pearl Harbor, praising the soldiers and comforting the sweethearts saturated the airwaves and were featured in performance venues. Music gave a tangibility and expression to the deeply felt emotional turmoil of the American people. They identified with and drew comfort from the subject matters it explored. Musicians such as Artie Shaw, Glenn Miller and the Andrews Sisters took tours entertaining troops at home and abroad, giving them courage and strength for the daunting fight they faced. When victory was finally achieved for the Allies on September 2, 1945, the people again turned to music as an outlet for their jubilant celebrations. Thus, music played a significant part in boosting American patriotism and troop support throughout the entirety of World War II.
Richards, Erin E
Since the Civil War, a proportion of U.S. service members continues to return from war with new health problems and continues to reference battlefield exposures as the cause. Hence, one of the most pressing public health debates in military policy, the determination of causality and linking of battlefield exposures to health outcomes in veterans, continues. The advances in military environmental and occupational epidemiologic research and Department of Defense policy concerning battlefield exposures are summarized and examples from World War II through the first Gulf War are provided. The limitations associated with the unique battlefield environment, multiple environmental exposures, and the inherent stresses of war, beget challenges for researchers responsible for determining causality. In light of these difficulties, six strategies for addressing environmental exposures and their possible impact on veterans were recommended by the Institute of Medicine post Operation Desert Storm. These strategies, along with their respective progress and remaining gaps, are addressed.
Full Text Available The work entitled “Reflections of an Unpolitical Man”, written during World War I, includes an essay against the Western states. Thomas Mann compares democratic countries and the societies created after the French Revolution with the German concept of society and a country based on conservative values. Equality is set against hierarchy, the individual against the community, and a secular perspective against a religious one. Defiance of the West is based on Protestantism. The references to Nietzsche and Schopenhauer, in agreement with Darwin's theory of evolution, are advanced by the West as an argument for the conflict between rationalism and irrationalism. At the end of Thomas Mann’s work, this conflict is solved by the “principle of irony”, which gives the author the opportunity to reconcile himself with the concept of democracy. This also dominated his future work.
Full Text Available El camino a la Gran Guerra se inició con los alineamientos formados a causa de la contienda por las concesiones en el Oriente Lejano. La crisis mundial de 1904-1905 encuadró los alineamientos. Sólo cambió el lugar de la confrontación, que por una cadena de hechos extraordinarios, cruzó la isla-mundo hasta Europa. Después de la derrota de Rusia ante Japón, tanto ella como su adversaria tenían pocas dificultades a la hora de dividir sus esferas de influencias en Asia. Japón hizo un acuerdo similar con Francia. Japón desde ese momento era un miembro efectivo de la Triple Entente. También intentó llegar a pactos similares con los Estados Unidos.______________________ABSTRACT:The road to the Great War led out of the alignments formed by the Scramble for Concessions in the Far East. The world crisis of 1904-1905 had shaped the alignments. It only remained to shift the locus of the confrontation, by a chain of revolutionary events, across the world island into Europe. After Russia’s defeat in the war with Japan, she and her adversary had little difficulty dividing their Asian spheres of influence. Japan made a similar settlement with the French. Japan was at this point in effect a member of the Triple Entente. She also attempted to settle matters with the United States.
Full Text Available In this paper I want to trace briefly how Franz Kafka reacted to some salient cultural features of his time. I will select segments of his writings which I believe reflect his view, or even his characterization of the three main historical periods he lived through: pre-World War I, the war years 1914 to 1918, and five and one half of the postwar years. Of course, this is by no means a complete, thorough discussion of those periods and his works that I mention.
Smith, Kylie M
In 1952, Hildegard Peplau published her textbook Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. This was the same year the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st ed.; DSM-I; APA). These events occurred in the context of a rapidly changing policy and practice environment in the United States after World War II, where the passing of the National Mental Health Act in 1946 released vast amounts of funding for the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the development of advanced educational programs for the mental health professions including nursing. This article explores the work of two nurse leaders, Hildegard Peplau and Dorothy Mereness, as they developed their respective graduate psychiatric nursing programs and sought to create new knowledge for psychiatric nursing that would facilitate the development of advanced nursing practice. Both nurses had strong ideas about what they felt this practice should look like and developed distinct and particular approaches to their respective programs. This reflected a common belief that it was only through nurse-led education that psychiatric nursing could shape its own practice and control its own future. At the same time, there are similarities in the thinking of Peplau and Mereness that demonstrate the link between the specific social context of mental health immediately after World War II and the development of modern psychiatric nursing. Psychiatric nurses were able to gain significant control of their own education and practice after the war, but this was not without a struggle and some limitations, which continue to impact on the profession today.
Boulton, F; Roberts, D J
The centenary of the start of the First World War has stirred considerable interest in the political, social, military and human factors of the time and how they interacted to produce and sustain the material and human destruction in the 4 years of the war and beyond. Medical practice may appear distant and static and perhaps seems to have been somewhat ineffectual in the face of so much trauma and in the light of the enormous advances in medicine and surgery over the last century. However, this is an illusion of time and of course medical, surgical and psychiatric knowledge and procedures were developing rapidly at the time and the war years accelerated implementation of many important advances. Transfusion practice lay at the heart of resuscitation, and although direct transfusion from donor to recipient was still used, Geoffrey Keynes from Britain, Oswald Robertson from America and his namesake Lawrence Bruce Robertson from Canada, developed methods for indirect transfusion from donor to recipient by storing blood in bottles and also blood-banking that laid the foundation of modern transfusion medicine. This review explores the historical setting behind the development of blood transfusion up to the start of the First World War and on how they progressed during the war and afterwards. A fresh look may renew interest in how a novel medical speciality responded to the needs of war and of post-war society. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Igor Yurievich Mednikov
Full Text Available The article deals with an insufficiently studied problem, Spanish neutrality during the First World War. The author analyzes its historical significance in the international context, as well in the context of political, economical and social evolution of Spain. Spain was one of the few major European Powers that maintained its neutrality throughout the First World War. Although all Spanish governments during the conflict declared strict neutrality, it was, in actual fact, benevolent towards the Entente Powers, and by the end of hostilities Spain turned into "neutral ally" of Entente. This benevolence towards the future winners and a wide humanitarian campaign supported and headed by the King Alfonso XIII enabled Spain to improve her position in the postwar system of international relations; Spain became one of the non-permanent members of the League of Nations Council. Nevertheless the Spanish neutrality had a negative impact upon the social, political and economical evolution of Spain. The social stratification was increased, the public opinion was deeply divided and the social conflicts were aggravated, that considerably affected the further evolution of the Spanish society.
Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, P; Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J; Maercker, Andreas
Objectives: To examine posttraumatic growth and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence, trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. Participants: 103 former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years, 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Measurement: Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth ...
Given the number of years this organization has devoted to the issue, the INMM must find it quite interesting that the control of fissile materials has become such a high profile issue in the policy and political communities. But, this evolution in policy is a natural outgrowth of the changing world situation. While just ten years ago the United States and the Soviet Union were churning out the fissile materials needed for weapons, today these former rivals are working together, hand in hand, to corral the danger posed by these materials. And, while it is clear that the world no longer lives on the edge of nuclear war, the nuclear danger still exists, though in a less obvious and perhaps more insidious form. It is a great challenge in this post Cold War-world to contain this nuclear threat. It is prudent and necessary for the United States to be in the forefront of efforts to address and tame this problem. The fundamental threat posed by the proliferation of nuclear weapons and materials is a direct challenge to US and world security. President Clinton has clearly recognized the changed nature of the nuclear danger. To meet this challenge, he also labored to put in place a comprehensive and integrated plan for addressing this threat. The Department of Energy has a unique role in this effort because, as an institution with man decades of experience in fissile material matters, it is able to provide expertise and technical analyses which are essential in defining and implementing policy prescriptions. The President's comprehensive plan to prevent nuclear proliferation and reduce the danger posed by weapons-usable nuclear materials has four essential elements: (1) secure existing stockpiles; (2) limit production and use; (3) eliminate warheads; and (4) strengthen the nonproliferation regime
It is essential that members of industry, government and international organizations be able to come together to discuss the latest developments in this vital field at events such as this. Given the number of years this organization has devoted to the issue, the INMM must find it interesting that the control of fissile materials has become such a high-profile issue in the policy and political communities. But, this evolution in policy is a natural outgrowth of the changing world situation. While just 10 years ago the US and Soviet Union were churning out the fissile materials needed for weapons, today these former rivals are working together, hand in hand, to corral the danger posed by these materials. And, while it is clear that the world no longer lives on the edge of nuclear war, the nuclear danger still exists, though in a less obvious and perhaps more insidious form. It is a great challenge in this post-Cold War world to contain this nuclear threat. It is prudent and necessary for the US to be in the forefront of efforts to address and tame this problem. The fundamental threat posed by the proliferation of nuclear weapons and materials is a direct challenge to US and world security. President Clinton has clearly recognized the changed nature of the nuclear danger. To meet this challenge, he has labored to put in place a comprehensive and integrated plan for addressing this threat. The US Department of Energy has a unique role in this effort because, as an institution with many decades of experience in fissile material matters, it is able to provide expertise and technical analyses that are essential in defining and implementing policy prescriptions. The president's comprehensive plan to prevent nuclear proliferation and reduce the danger posed by weapons-usable nuclear materials has four essential elements: secure existing nuclear material stockpiles; limit fissile material production and use, eliminate warheads, and strengthen the nonproliferation regime
Full Text Available he article discusses the activity of medical institutions in Tsaritsyn, Saratov province, on assisting the wounded during the First World War. The author emphasizes that the problem of evacuating the wounded on the territory of the Saratov province were primarily associated with the irrational distribution of medical beds between the rear and front hospitals. The additional complications arose due to the lack of transport for evacuation and insufficient length of railways. The considerable distance from the front contributed to quite successful organization of medical aid to the wounded, despite the lack of qualified medical staff and the necessary medical equipment. The article contains the data on the number of medical institutions in the city and on the organization of hospitals and infirmaries functioning in Tsaritsyn during the war. The care quality in Tsaritsyn infirmaries was at a high level, as evidenced by a significant percentage of recovery of the wounded and sick. Emerging issues were often dealt with by means of different charitable organizations, primarily the Tsaritsyn Red Cross Society. Its initial task was to provide medical equipment for the hospitals. However, the activity of the Tsaritsyn Red Cross Society is not limited thereto, and the city was provided with modern medical equipment, including X-ray room. In the future, it gave a great impetus to the development of the health system in Tsaritsyn. The author emphasizes the special role of the big industrialists, merchants and patrons of Tsaritsyn, who made large donations to the Ladies’ Committee and the Committee of the Red Cross, thus contributing to the support of charitable organizations of the city during the war. The author concludes that in the provincial cities, including Tsaritsyn, the conditions for the rehabilitation of a large number of wounded and sick soldiers were created in a short time period. The charitable organizations and individuals established
Carey, Michael E
This historical review explores Harvey Cushing's difficulties with both the British and American armies during his World War I service to definitively examine the rumor of his possible court martial. It also provides a further understanding of Cushing the man. While in France during World War I, Cushing was initially assigned to British hospital units. This service began in May 1917 and ended abruptly in May 1918 when the British cashiered him for repeated censorship violations. Returning to American command, he feared court martial. The army file on this matter (retrieved from the United States National Archives) indicates that US Army authorities recommended that Cushing be reprimanded and returned to the US for his violations. The army carried out neither recommendation, and no evidence exists that a court martial was considered. Cushing's army career and possible future academic life were protected by the actions of his surgical peers and Merritte Ireland, Chief Surgeon of the US Army in France. After this censorship episode, Cushing was made a neurosurgical consultant but was also sternly warned that further rule violations would not be tolerated by the US Army. Thereafter, despite the onset of a severe peripheral neuropathy, probably Guillian Barré's syndrome, Cushing was indefatigable in ministering to neurosurgical needs in the US sector in France. Cushing's repeated defying of censorship regulations reveals poor judgment plus an initial inability to be a "team player." The explanations he offered for his censorship violations showed an ability to bend the truth. Cushing's war journal is unclear as to exactly what transpired between him and the British and US armies. It also shows no recognition of the help he received from others who were instrumental in preventing his ignominious removal from service in France. Had that happened, his academic future and ability to train future neurosurgical leaders may have been seriously threatened. Cushing's foibles
Wright, James R; Baskin, Leland B
Historical research on pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I has been limited. In the Spanish American War, these efforts were primarily focused on tropical diseases. World War I problems that could be addressed by pathology and laboratory medicine were strikingly different because of the new field of clinical pathology. Geographic differences, changing war tactics, and trench warfare created new issues. To describe the scope of pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I and the value these services brought to the war effort. Available primary and secondary sources related to American Expeditionary Forces' laboratory services were analyzed and contrasted with the British and German approaches. The United States entered the war in April 1917. Colonel Joseph Siler, MD, a career medical officer, was the director, and Colonel Louis B. Wilson, MD, head of pathology at the Mayo Clinic, was appointed assistant director of the US Army Medical Corps Division of Laboratories and Infectious Disease, based in Dijon, France. During the next year, they organized 300 efficient laboratories to support the American Expeditionary Forces. Autopsies were performed to better understand treatment of battlefield injuries, effects of chemical warfare agents, and the influenza pandemic; autopsies also generated teaching specimens for the US Army Medical Museum. Bacteriology services focused on communicable diseases. Laboratory testing for social diseases was very aggressive. Significant advances in blood transfusion techniques, which allowed brief blood storage, occurred during the war but were not primarily overseen by laboratory services. Both Siler and Wilson received Distinguished Service Medals. Wilson's vision for military pathology services helped transform American civilian laboratory services in the 1920s.
This book provided a historical context for United States global oil politics, with a focus on the goals, accomplishments and challenges of United States foreign oil policy, as well as on the relationship between the state and private sectors. This second edition has integrated developments in global politics since the end of the Cold War. It was suggested that many factors have provided the context for oil policy formation: a succession of crises in Iran since the 1950s; 2 wars in Iraq; U.S. intervention in Afghanistan; the threat of international terrorism since September 11, 2001; ongoing conflicts between Israel and the Arab nations in the Middle East; political instability in Saudi Arabia and in Venezuela and the trend towards trade and investment liberalization in Latin America in the 1990s. In addition, the emergence of oil sands reserves in Canada and other sources of non-conventional oil were discussed. Nationalism and oil policies in the Depression and World War 2 were examined. The structure of decision-making in oil policies was examined. Domestic and offshore resources were reviewed, and an outline of international agreements and relationships was presented. Issues concerning OPEC countries and the Iranian Revolution were examined. It was concluded that the United States has become more and not less vulnerable, despite its military strength. The author suggested that the main policy challenge to the United States may well be the tension between its commitment to Israel and its determination to avoid alienating the Arab oil-producing states. refs., tabs., figs.
In the nationalistic atmosphere of the early twentieth century, a nurturing medium for sports practising martial manliness abounded throughout Europe. This framework supported the invention of a new multi-disciplinary sport, aided by Baron Pierre de Coubertin himself: modern pentathlon. Though the idea of a new form of pentathlon was already born in 1894, it took 30 years, until Paris 1924, to establish modern pentathlon within the Olympic Games. This study is concerned with the reasons for that delay. It will be assessed whether the active military preparations around the First World War and the contemporary image of masculinity had a decisive influence on the early history of modern pentathlon. By including historical documents from the IOC archives in Lausanne, Switzerland, the research office for military history in Potsdam, Germany, and the LA84 Foundation in Los Angeles, USA, as well as literature on gender, military sport and Olympic history, this study offers an entirely new view on the early history of a sport that was born in an atmosphere of glorifying manliness and apparent militarism. The history of modern pentathlon thereby provides a particularly appropriate area for the analysis of connections between sport, militarism and masculinity. It was not by chance that the implementation of a combined sport, which included besides swimming and running the three military disciplines of shooting, fencing and horse riding, arose in a pre-war context. Though in 1912 the Great War had not yet begun, the awareness of an upcoming battle was rising and led to a higher attention to Coubertin's almost forgotten assumption of a new sport. In 1924 the advantages were finally admitted on two sides: the army recruited modern pentathletes as future military officers; the sports community appointed skilled officers as successful competitors. Thus the lobby for an Olympic recognition of modern pentathlon was found.
Mikić, Želimir; Lešić, Aleksandar
At the beginning of 1915, several months after the World War I started, Serbia was in an extremely difficult situation.The country was war-ravaged, full of sick and wounded soldiers, there was a desperate shortage of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel, and the epidemic of typhus fever exploded and violently attacked the entire country. At that time, however, a number of both foreign allied medical missions and individual volunteers, from various countries, mostly from Great Britain, came to Serbia to help. Among them mostly were women, and they were of enormous support to Serbia in that grave situation. It is estimated that there were more than 600 foreign women volunteers in Serbia at that time and that 22 of them died there. Dr. Elizabeth Ross was one of those brave volunteers who came to Serbia early in 1915. That noble Scottish lady doctor was born in 1878 and finished her medical studies at the University of Glasgow in 1901. After graduation she worked in various places in Great Britain until 1909, when she went to Persia (Iran), where she worked until the beginning of the so called Great War. When she heard of the urgent need in Serbia she left Persia as soon as she could and volunteered to serve in Serbia. She came to Kragujevac at the beginning of January 1915, where she worked at the First Military Reserve Hospital, which at that time was actually a typhus hospital. Working there intensively and devotedly for several weeks under shocking conditions she contracted typhus herself and died there on her 37th birthday on February 14th, 1915. She was buried in Kragujevac, next to two British ladies who also died in Serbia of typhus. Her grave was restored in 1980 when the town of Kragujevac started holding commemorations at the graveside every February 14th at noon to honor her and all other brave and noble women who lost their lives helping Serbia at that unfortunate time.
Full Text Available This work seeks to explore how certain symbols, built over time within a certain cultural context (in this case, said context being the one of western European culture, are re-contextualized within a given situation (World War I to better serve the means of propaganda. How can a visual representation of a certain symbol, thousands of years old and deeply rooted in cultural heritage, be repurposed and reshaped within months? Also, the article aims to explore the connection between the visual cannon of Orthodox icons and World War I propaganda posters.
Devorkin, David H.
The exploration of the upper atmosphere was given a jump start in the United States by German V-2 rockets - Hitler's "vengeance weapon" - captured at the end of World War II. The science performed with these missiles was largely determined by the missile itself, such as learning more about the medium through which a ballistic missile travels. Groups rapidly formed within the military and military-funded university laboratories to build instruments to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere, the nature of cosmic radiation, and the ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun. Few, if any, members of these research groups had prior experience or demonstrated interests in atmospheric, cosmic-ray, or solar physics. Although scientific agendas were at first centered on what could be done with missiles and how to make ballistic missile systems work, reports on techniques and results were widely publicized as the research groups and their patrons sought scientific legitimacy and learned how to make their science an integral part of the national security state. The process by which these groups gained scientific and institutional authority was far from straightforward and offers useful insight both for the historian and for the scientist concerned with how specialties born within the military services became part of post-war American science.
Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shi; Keinan-Boker, Lital
The vast numbers of studies regarding caloric restriction (CR) and breast cancer risk are based on war-related extreme situations. Studying the impact of CR in Jews during World War II (WW II) is challenging due to its variance and duration. To develop novel research tools in order to assess CR exposure in Jews that occurred more than 60 years ago during WW II. A pilot study based on Israeli women born in Europe in 1926-45, who lived there during WWII. Primary incident breast cancer patients and population-based controls were interviewed using a detailed questionnaire referring to demographic, obstetric factors and WW II experiences. Exposure to WWII-related CR was assessed by several proxy variables based on this information. The individual hunger score was higher in the exposed cases [mean score 141.06 vs. 130.07 in the controls). The same trend was observed for self perceived hunger score (mean score 2.75 in cases vs. 2.40 in controls) and hunger symptoms score (4.89 vs. 3.56, respectively). The novel research tools are appropriate for comparative assessment of CR exposure in case control studies.
Pearson, Richard M
To provide an overview of the use of contact lenses by RAF aircrew in World War II by identifying some of the fitters and wearers and appraising the clinical results that they achieved. A wide-ranging literature search was undertaken that encompassed peer-reviewed journals, non-refereed publications, books, official publications, newspapers and archived documents. Thirty-one aircrew are known to have worn sealed scleral lenses in order to meet the required visual standards. Of these, only two were considered to be completely unsuccessful, one of whom was unilaterally aphakic. One additional case of undisclosed contact lens wear was found and the identity of this officer was established. Brief biographies of a few pilots establish the context of their contact lens wear. Overall, the results of scleral lens wear were variable reflecting those achieved by civilian patients of the period. While three men complained of discomfort due to heat and glare, one pilot experienced no photophobia when flying above white clouds in brilliant sunshine and another found no difficulty caused by altitude or tropical climate. Wearing time ranged from about 2h to 16, or more, hours. In about a third of the cases, wearing time was limited due to the onset of a form of contact lens induced-epithelial oedema known as Sattler's veil and effective solutions to this problem were not implemented until after the war. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.
Shaw Cobden, Lynsey
This is not an article about ‘shell-shock’. It explores the military medical response to nervous disorders in the Royal Flying Corps. The First World War exposed the propensity of pilots to the nervous and psychological rigours of aerial warfare, but their unique experiences have been overlooked in favour of ‘trauma’ in infantrymen. This represents a critical lacuna in the historiography of military medicine, for flying personnel were studied apart from ‘shell-shocked’ soldiers. This article will show that flyers were believed to be medically different, and what set them apart from men in the trenches was their unique employment. The war necessitated, and provided the conditions for, the study of the medical problems of flying, including the significant nervous strains. Medical officers quickly established that flying not only affected bodily functions, but also ‘wore down’ the nerves that regulated psychological responses. This article will therefore present the medical view. It will study the research of air-minded medical officers and the conclusions reached on the nervous disorders of flying personnel. PMID:29528049
Full Text Available This research is devoted to studying the impact of international financial aid on economic growth in Europe after the Second World War. The aim of the investigation is the identification of regularities of post-war recovery of European economies in the second half of the twentieth century and the assessment of international financial aid’s role in the economic growth stimulation. The author summarizes domestic and foreign researchers’ achievements of studying the issue of the Marshall Plan and its importance for modern Ukraine, and differentiates the classic, capitalistic and modern stages of post-conflict reconstruction of the national economies. The relation between the amount of financial assistance from US government to 14 European countries and the growth of GDP in 1947–1952 is studied with the help of correlation and regression analysis and their significant linear dependence is determined. The issue of institutional support of international financing program of economic recovery of Europe has not been left without attention.
Full Text Available The article focuses on the experiences of Gertrude Stein in France during World War II that is portrayed in her book "Wars I Have Seen." The book depicts a picture of her and her partner Alice B. Toklas as well as an emphasis on media technologies. The book reveals that Stein has been preoccupied during the war with disconnected telephones and addictive radio. It also discusses the impact of acoustic communication technologies on war writing.
Gribovskaia, G A
At the beginning of the First World War professor and surgeon S.R. Mitotvortsev was appointed as a Chief Expert - Surgeon of the Western Front, there in Lyublyana he faced with difficulties such as organization of health care delivery and treatment of wounded soldiers. In the following, organized by Mirotvortsev team served in Novaya Aleksandriya, Ivan-Gorod, Radom and other towns of the Western Front. This team was named as "Collecting dressing station of professor S.R.Mirotvortsev".
Butina, Michelle; Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer
A review of professional literature was conducted to examine the history of the education of medical laboratory practitioners. This comprehensive review included historical educational milestones from the birth of medical technology to the advent of World War II. During this time period standards were developed by clinical pathologists for laboratory personnel and training programs. In addition, a formal educational model began to form and by the 1940's two years of college was required for matriculation into a medical technology program. Intertwined within the educational milestones are imprints of the evolution of critical thinking requirements and skills within the profession. For the first laboratory practitioners, critical thinking was not developed, discussed, or encouraged as duties were primarily repetitive promoting psychomotor skills.
Spearman, M. L.
An historical account is presented of the new departures in aerodynamic research conducted by NACA, and subsequently NASA, as a result of novel aircraft technologies and operational regimes encountered in the course of the Second World War. The invention and initial development of the turbojet engine furnished the basis for a new speed/altitude regime in which numerous aerodynamic design problems arose. These included compressibility effects near the speed of sound, with attendant lift/drag efficiency reductions and longitudinal stability enhancements that were accompanied by a directional stability reduction. Major research initiatives were mounted in the investigation of swept, delta, trapezoidal and variable sweep wing configurations, sometimes conducted through flight testing of the 'X-series' aircraft. Attention is also given to the development of the first generation of supersonic fighter aircraft.
Gray, F S S
At the outbreak of the First World War there was insufficient dental provision for serving military personnel. No army dental specialists were available overseas when the troops joined the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). However, the pain of toothache together with the ensuing limited mastication was debilitating and demoralising for the British soldiers. The result was that men were being withdrawn from the front for treatment at base hospitals. This was limited to extractions by medical officers, which frequently incurred unnecessary loss of dentition when restorative work would have been preferable. Other consequences of dental neglect were indigestion and malnutrition. Additionally, the painful condition of acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis, then commonly referred to as 'trench mouth', was prevalent.
Full Text Available From the point of view of the administrative organization and of the cultural and civilizing structure on the Romanian territorys, the XIX th century represented the crucial moment of passing from the Byzantine traditional model to the modern capitalist one. In this century, there are to be put into light the first issues in the domain of the serial journalism. While magazines of different professions came out only in the mid century the architectural periodicals appeared even later as in the epoch the domain itself was very vaguely structured. Even if until the First World War there were but few architectural and related fields periodicals, they brought an essential contribution to the identification, aglutination and promotion of the profession. They also played an undeniable part in the process of configuration the national identity of the Romanian culture.
Full Text Available From the point of view of the administrative organization and of the cultural and civilizing structure on the Romanian territorys, the XIX th century represented the crucial moment of passing from the Byzantine traditional model to the modern capitalist one. In this century, there are to be put into light the first issues in the domain of the serial journalism. While magazines of different professions came out only in the mid century the architectural periodicals appeared even later as in the epoch the domain itself was very vaguely structured. Even if until the First World War there were but few architectural and related fields periodicals, they brought an essential contribution to the identification, aglutination and promotion of the profession. They also played an undeniable part in the process of configuration the national identity of the Romanian culture.
In the first half of the 20th century, Civic Hospital in Split intensified its formation towards health institution in the modern sense. The need for competent physicians and specialized experts, heads of the individual hospital departments, also became in Split Hospital the part of the global process of disintegration of medicine into the direction of medical specializations. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of the Civic Hospital in Split during the Second World War on the basis of the archival sources preserved in the State Archives in Split. The work organization, the names of the physicians and detailed arrangements of hospital beds were presented, as well as the increase of its capacity during analyzed period.Great attention was also dedicated to the foundation of new hospital departments. This study revealed the development of the Civic Hospital in Split between 1941 and 1945 which could offer complete medical care to the sick and wounded persons.
Jankowski, M Kay; Schnurr, Paula P; Adams, Gary A; Green, Bonnie L; Ford, Julian D; Friedman, Matthew J
Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine associations among trauma-related contextual factors, initial psychological reactions, social support, and subsequent disclosure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of World War II (WWII) veterans exposed to mustard gas (N = 305). A structural model suggested that initial psychological reaction mediated the relationship between variables related to the context of mustard gas exposure and severity of PTSD symptoms 50 years later. Unexpectedly, social support appeared to be positively related to PTSD symptoms, and not related to the contextual variables or initial psychological reactions. These findings contribute to our understanding of PTSD in older veterans, and have relevance for early intervention services to prevent PTSD among those at risk for exposure to toxic agents.
The concept of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was to be verified considering World War I soldiers suffering from psychiatric and neurologic diseases. According to hypotheses, relevant circumstances of the case history and significance of the direct military action had to be examined. In 2002, medical histories dating from 1914 to 1921 of male soldiers in Jena, Germany, were analyzed. Statistical examination carried out by means of the chi2 test revealed mental illness more frequently in soldiers with relevant family anamnesis, previous psychiatric treatment, or degree of voluntariness than in soldiers not so characterized. The accumulation of mental illnesses was lower in soldiers involved in military actions or directly with firing weapons than in soldiers never involved in battles. These results are in accord with historical but not current literature on PTSD. The author is of the opinion that psychiatric anamnesis is not given enough consideration in the concept of PTSD.
Tvedt, B; Kjuus, H
The consequences of long-lasting and low-grade exposure to carbon monoxide are a matter of debate. During the second world war, lack of petrol led to widespread use of wood as fuel (generator gas vehicles), especially in the Nordic countries. This caused many cases of "acute" or "chronic" carbon monoxide poisoning. Typical symptoms of "chronic poisoning" were headache, dizziness and tiredness. Usually the symptoms disappeared after some weeks or month, but in some patients probably became permanent. The experiences from the generator gas era are now almost forgotten, and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning is easily overlooked. The authors describe two cases of such poisoning. A crane driver at a smelting works developed permanent symptoms after twenty years of exposure. A faulty oil-fired central heating system caused long-lasting symptoms in four members of a family.
Doward, Jr, Oscar W
... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...
In France, World War II lasted from 1939 to 1945. Under-nourishment was a national problem, and was more severe in mental hospitals. The mortality of psychiatric inpatients in France during World War II has long been a controversial issue in the country. Some authors wrote of the "soft extermination" of 40 000 mental patients, although this has been proven false. The historical study published in 2007 by Isabelle von Bueltzingsloewen provides in-depth description and analysis of starvation due to food restrictions in French mental hospitals. Although the French official statistic services published detailed data, no demographic study has been published so far. Such studies have been conducted in Norway and in Finland. "The influence of a period of under-nourishment upon mortality in mental hospitals can rarely be seen with a clarity equal to that in this work. The strict rationing was the same for everybody, but, extra muros, there was private initiative and ingenuity to help in alleviating the distress. Naturally, patients in institution had no ability to act on their own. The immense increase during the period of war from 1941 to 1945 appeared both as an increase in the exact death-risk and as an increase in the disproportion with normal mortality. The men reacted more strongly than women; which is readily comprehensible on physiological grounds, as the rations were virtually the same for all." Excess mortality continued after the war. Even though under-nourishment had ceased, death rates from tuberculosis remained high the following year. Both papers state that the poor hygiene and bad living conditions existing in mental hospitals before the war worsened the effects of food restrictions. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA: French data were published by the General Statistics of France (SGF) that became the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Insee) in 1946. A series of datasets were published each year according to sex, diagnosis and type of psychiatric
Marjanović, Damir; Hadžić Metjahić, Negra; Čakar, Jasmina; Džehverović, Mirela; Dogan, Serkan; Ferić, Elma; Džijan, Snježana; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Madžar, Tomislav; Rod, Eduard; Primorac, Dragan
To present the results obtained in the identification of human remains from World War II found in two mass graves in Ljubuški, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Samples from 10 skeletal remains were collected. Teeth and femoral fragments were collected from 9 skeletons and only a femoral fragment from 1 skeleton. DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using an optimized phenol/chloroform DNA extraction procedure. All samples required a pre-extraction decalcification with EDTA and additional post-extraction DNA purification using filter columns. Additionally, DNA from 12 reference samples (buccal swabs from potential living relatives) was extracted using the Qiagen DNA extraction method. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex ESI kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, and PowerPlex Y23 was used to amplify 23 Y chromosomal STR loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using a standard statistical approach. A total of 10 samples were processed, 9 teeth and 1 femoral fragment. Nine of 10 samples were profiled using autosomal STR loci, which resulted in useful DNA profiles for 9 skeletal remains. A comparison of established victims' profiles against a reference sample database yielded 6 positive identifications. DNA analysis may efficiently contribute to the identification of remains even seven decades after the end of the World War II. The significant percentage of positively identified remains (60%), even when the number of the examined possible living relatives was relatively small (only 12), proved the importance of cooperation with the members of the local community, who helped to identify the closest missing persons' relatives and collect referent samples from them.
Irina N. Litvinova
Full Text Available On the basis of for the first time the massif of new archival material introduced into scientific circulation in article the problem of consolidation of society of the Lower Volga province in the years of great tests of World War I is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the practices used by local charitable committees and non-governmental organizations created in that period in Tsaritsyn. In particular, it analyzes the activities of local branches of the committees of the Grand Duchess Elizabeth, to assist the families of soldiers and Grand Duchess Tatiana – to support refugee families. The article was first introduced into scientific circulation new archival sources on the issue of the functioning of national non-governmental organizations based in the city of Lithuanian, Latvian, Polish and Jewish refugees who were engaged in assisting their fellow countrymen, to move from front-line areas in the new place of residence, in Tsaritsyn. The questions of organizational character connected with difficulties of official registration of the public unions by the provincial authorities are specified; severity of rules of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, when carrying out public monetary collecting by societies from the population. On the basis of concrete historical material, revealed new tricks and techniques used by charitable institutions for admission donations from citizens, as well as forms of voluntary activity themselves representatives of provincial society, to assist the families of the soldiers called to the front, wounded, children, refugees. The microanalysis of some unique historical sources which are of interest both for researchers of the region, and for experts of the "culture of the back" direction of times of World War I is carried out.
Full Text Available The Cihan-Islam Journal which started its publication life as part of Cemiyet-i Hayriye-i İslamiye (Hayriye-i İslamiye Community was published for propaganda reasons in the pre-First World War period. The Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa which was the intelligence organization of the Ottoman Empire financially supported and directed this journal and was also under the audition of the Ittihadists. The aim of publishing this journal was to raise awareness of the Muslim public living in India, Egypt and Iran which was under the occupation of the British Empire and to prevent the propaganda made against the Ottoman Empire by the British. The owner of this journal was Ebu Saidü’lArabi who was a leading figure among the Indian Muslims and an important person of the Teşkilat- Mahsusa. The journal was published in Istanbul from 9 April 1914 to October 1915. It continued to be published in Bağdat after this peroid. In this study the copies of the journal published in Istanbul have been examined and evaluated. The journal was published once a week starting in April, but as World War 1 broke out it was not published regularly. Only twenty-five copies could be obtained from the archives and libraries in Türkiye. The 25 copies of this journal was examined and evaluated in form and content. The headings of the news and arcticles in the journals have been given in the footnotes and the statistical quantity and evaluation of some of the news and articles have also been done. As a result of the changing policies in the course of the war, the founder and owner of the journal Ebu Said and The Teşkilat-Mahsusa or some Ittihadists had some conflicts of ideas. For this reason, the journal was attempted to be taken out of the hands of Ebu Said but this attempt failed. The journal began to be published in Bağdat starting from January 1916 because of these conflicts. The Uhuvvet Newspaper was published in Istanbul dating from November 1915 to function as this journal.
During the Second World War the two largest women's services, the Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) and the Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS), responded pragmatically to the presence of lesbians in their ranks. Such disinterest arguably stemmed from the need to retain valuable personnel in a time of great instability. This article seeks to illuminate the responses of both services within the context of wider understandings of lesbianism in Britain during the inter-war period and during the Second World War. It argues that the responses of senior officials were rooted in received understandings of lesbianism as both an acquired vice and as an innate psychopathic infirmity. Overwhelmingly, however, classification fell in the former category, underpinned as it was by notions of middle-class boarding school desire.
Full Text Available During the World War I, the western district of Iran was the place of military and political conflicts of the Entente and Alliance states, owing to its strategic geographical location. On the one side, it was bordered by the Ottoman Empire, and on the other side it was located under the influence of Russia. In this research, we try to consider the impacts of the World War I on the social, economic and political spheres. Based on the results of the research, large numbers of people of this area were killed due to military combats, starvation, famine and disease during the war. Cities became the military base of the hostile powers and economic and social institutions such as municipal and farming were destroyed. The domination of the central government, and the authority of local governors and political stability were exhausted.
Eichhorn, Svenja; Klauer, Thomas; Grundke, Elena; Freyberger, Harald J; Brähler, Elmar; Kuwert, Philipp
The aim of the study was to document perceived social support in a sample of German war-raped women in World War II. Furthermore the impact of this potential resource on today's posttraumatic symptoms should be pointed out. 27 women (M = 80.3 years, SD = 3.1 years) answered each a semi-structured interview and several questionnaires. Perceived social support shows clearly lower values than in the comparative samples. The measured degree of the variable in the present sample bears negative relationship to the actual posttraumatic symptoms of the women. In World War II sexually traumatized women could profit only few from the examined resource. The found negative relationship between perceived social support and posttraumatic symptoms shows additionally the potentially long-lasting impact of these form of coping on psychological health in trauma victims. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
V. Bhatnagar (Vibha); M.A. Stoto (Michael); S.C. Morton (Sally); R. Boer (Rob); S.A. Bozzette (Samuel)
textabstractBackground: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library
During World War II, a close friendship and excellent working relations developed between President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) and Prime Minister Winston Churchill that were crucial in the establishment of a unified effort to deal with the Axis powers. In early 1941, FDR began the long-term correspondence that developed into a close working…
In post-World War II United States, women were caught between competing patriotic, economic, cultural, and psychological ideologies dictating their behavior. Differences between these expectations and challenges to behavioral norms provoked tensions in women's education that lasted until the women's movement of the 1960s. (Contains 25 references.)…
Milić, Petar; Milić, Slavica
From the historical point of view, there are three time periods when the process of modernization of Serbian society took place. First period includes the interval from the beginning of the 19th century until the end of World War I, when the Serbian country was reestablished as Serbian Knezevina (princedom) and in 1882 as Serbian Kingdom. Second period includes an interval from the unity of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians, which was established at the end of World War I (1918) and in 1929 changed the name into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which lasted until the end of World War II. The third period includes time after World War II. In this paper, the social-economical conditions in the Leskovac area during the first two periods of modernization were described, as well as the pharmacy development emphasizing the characteristic of the pharmaceutics. The Leskovac area belongs to most recently liberated areas in Serbia, i.e. Leskovac was liberated at the end of 1877. Nevertheless, the first pharmacy was opened in Leskovac in 1862, during the reign of the Turks. The authors being the people from Leskovac as well as the pharmacists believe that they contributed to better overview of the activities of people from modernization period, paying them well-deserved recognition.
Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Nov. 26, 2002. NASA Dryden is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert.
This article examines how progressive education was introduced to South Korea after the Second World War and takes a closer look at critical studies of this history. It argues that the America-led progressive education policies, which focused on art education, were an uncritical adaptation of the superpower's educational ideology and did not…
Jeican, Ionuţ Isaia; Botiş, Florin Ovidiu; Gheban, Dan
This article provides a picture of exanthematic Typhus in Romania during the Second World War: epidemiological aspects of this disease in the inner zone and in the zone of military operations, as well as information about the diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of the Typhus in our country during this period.
Hájková, Dagmara; Helan, P.
Roč. 22, č. 3 (2014), s. 661-676 ISSN 1318-0185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP410/10/1273 Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : World War I * Czechoslovak independence movement Subject RIV: AB - History Impact factor: 0.202, year: 2014
Wegner, Kathryn L.
The birth of formal citizenship education in the United States emerged in the context of mass immigration, the Progressive Movement, and the First World War. Wartime citizenship education has been chastised for its emphasis on patriotism and loyalty, and while this is a trend, historians have minimised the ways in which the democratic goals of the…
Hutchinson, Francis P.; Milojevic, Ivana
Our joint article focuses on Elise Boulding's creative work and legacy as a feminist peace theorist, peace educator and futures educator. Boulding throughout her life was deeply concerned not only with critiquing the institution of war but of working for better, more peaceable worlds. She was very much a "practical futurist". Various important…
Mitchell, William I.
This study describes the patriotic public rituals, the propaganda materials, and the censorship activities that were part of the school experience in Missouri during World War I. It also examines the apparent responses of two rural Benton County communities to those rituals, materials and activities. Benton County is a rural area of central…
A typology of crises is developed to be used with critical aspects of the social system to predict both crisis and postcrisis period role changes. The crisis framework is then applied to macro-changes in family structure in response to an archetypal crisis, World War II. Census data generally support the hypotheses. (Author)
epidemic of p) neumonia with about 400 cases occurring among 40,000 troops and a 20-percent case mortality. 3 During World War I, the great pandemic of...1,600 cases of l) neumonia occurred. On several occasions, the attack rate exceeded 150 cases per annum per 1,000 average strength. The experience of
Full Text Available Based on archival material, this study explores the participation of Swaziland’s combatants in the First World War between 1914 and 1918. At the outbreak of the war it was imperative that Swaziland, as part of the British Empire, supports the British War effort. Caught up in South Africa’s long standing imperial motives, most of the combatants from Swaziland served in the war through the South African Overseas Expeditionary Force. Except for a few individuals who joined the war front in Europe on their own, the rest of the participants had to prove that they had participated in German South West Africa in order to qualify to serve on the war front in Europe. Most of them therefore served in German West Africa and Europe, or in German East Africa and Europe because South Africa had imperial interests in German West Africa and German East Africa. In serving the British Empire, Swaziland’s white combatants implicitly served South Africa’s conceptual or anticipated empire.
Ruus, Anders; Green, Norman W; Maage, Amund; Amundsen, Carl Einar; Schøyen, Merete; Skei, Jens
The Sørfjord has a long history of agriculture and industry, and environmental monitoring has been conducted for decades, comprising analyses of contaminants in mussel, fish and sediments. DDT was used as an insecticide in orchards surrounding the fjord between World War II and 1970. Since the early 1990 s, elevated concentrations of DDT were found in mussels and fish. Unexpectedly, DDT-concentrations increased towards present day, despite the discontinuation of use. The highest concentrations in mussels (in 2006) corresponded to about two orders of magnitude higher than background. Analyses of sediment core sections also indicated increased input towards present day. Shifts in climatic parameters, as well as increased amounts of soil dissolved organic carbon following a decline in atmospheric sulphate deposition may have contributed to this phenomenon. We warrant the need for increased knowledge of the effects of alterations in variables acting regionally and globally on the disposition of contaminants in ecosystems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Radchenko, I. G.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to assistance, rescue to the Jewish people in Romanian territory, including "Transnistria" in 1939–1945. Using the archival document from different institutions (USHMM, Franklyn D. Roosevelt Library and newest literature, the author shows the scale of the assistance, its mechanism and kinds. It was determined some of existed charitable organizations and analyzed its mechanism of cooperation between each other. Before the war, the Romanian Jewish Community was the one of largest in Europe (after USSR and Poland and felt all tragedy of Holocaust. Romania was the one of the Axis states; the anti-Semitic policy has become a feature of Marshal Antonescu policy. It consisted of deportations from some regions of Romania to newly-created region "Transnistria", mass exterminations, death due to some infectious disease, hunger, etc. At the same moment, Romania became an example of cooperation of the international organizations, foreign governments on providing aid. The scale of this assistance was significant: thanks to it, many of Romanian Jews (primarily, children could survive the Holocaust: some of them were come back to Romanian regions, others decide to emigrate to Palestine. The emphasis is placed on the personalities, who played important (if not decisive role: W. Filderman, S. Mayer, Ch. Colb, J. Schwarzenberg, R. Mac Clelland and many others. It was found that the main part of assistance to Romanian Jews was began to give from the end of 1943, when the West States, World Jewish community obtained numerous proofs of Nazi crimes against the Jews (and, particularly, Romanian Jews. It is worth noting that the assistance was provided, mostly, for Romanian Jews, deported from Regat; some local (Ukrainian Jews also had the possibility to receive a lot of needful things. But before the winter 1942, most of Ukrainian Jews was exterminated in ghettos and concentration camps. The main kinds of the assistance were financial
L. P. Shvab
Full Text Available The problems of strategy formation of the Polish government, which was in emigration, during the Second World War in the period of the eastern front approaching to the Polish borders, are found out in the article. The author confirms that the success of the Red Army made London government to rise a question about the Polish eastern border and legitimacy of London government on the liberated territories. Both questions did not have the solution in the way of traditional Polish policy. Joseph Stalin expected concession in the issue of the eastern border instead of loyalty to the London government. But Polish government did not accept accomplished facts. The ambassadors Stanislav Kot, later Tadeush Romer negotiated and insisted on returning of the western Ukrainian and Byelorussian lands. They proposed military cooperation with the Polish Home Army, which supposed to be strong enough for diversionary acts. After the battle of Stalingrad victory and that resonance, which it had made in the world, Stalin refused from such cooperation, he thought that Poland was too weak partner. Stalin continued the escalation of the relations, he consciously stopped all diplomatic relations, flatly refused to continue discussion about borders and changed the way of discussion about the legitimacy of the authentic authority in Poland.
central idea of an army . . . which to be sound must be based on the principles of war, and which to be effective must be elastic enough to admit...existing definitions of effective doctrine, and considers the role doc- trine played in shaping Service culture in the Marine Corps using the landing...its role in national defense, in part, because of a streamlined, centrally directed writing process. While each doctrine was written in response to
Winton, A Black Hole in the Wild Blue Yonder: The Need for a Comprehensive Theory of Airpower (Air Command and Staff College War Theory Coursebook ... statistical comparisons made, of which most are summarized as follows2: 1. Statistical data compiled on the utilization of both planes showed that the B-17 was...easier to maintain and therefore more available for combat. 2. Statistical data on time from aircraft acceptance to delivery in theater showed that
Ochoa Crespo, Pedro
Full Text Available Sofía Casanova was a Spanish journalist and a Red Cross voluntary during World War One. Her chronicles were published by right wing diary ABC. Sofía Casanova was married with polish philosopher Wicenty Lutoslawski since 1887, lived at Polonia, and it is able to think about her as a “regular” middle-up class woman. However, if it is developed a biographic approach and it is focused in Casanova’s representations about both public and private spheres during Great War, some differences show up. Between 1914 and 1918, there was an irregular modification in gender system. The war impact in every-day life was an asymmetric modification of public-private boundaries. That historical phenomenon also depended on gender cross-wise categories as class, religion and nationalism. Sofía Casanova was in rear of the eastern front: she was both a witness and and a principal actor in all those events that modified public sphere.Sofía Casanova fue una periodista española y voluntaria de la Cruz Roja durante la Primera Guerra Mundial. Sus crónicas fueron publicadas por el diario conservador ABC. Sofía Casanova estaba casada con el filósofo polaco Wicenty Lutoslawski desde 1887, vivía en Polonia, y es factible pensar en ella como una mujer de clase media “al uso”. Sin embargo, si se lleva a cabo una aproximación biográfica y ésta se centra en las representaciones de Casanova sobre las esferas de lo público y lo privado durante la Gran Guerra, algunas diferencias se presentan. Entre 1914 y 1918, hubo una modificación irregular en el sistema de género. El impacto de la guerra en la vida cotidiana consistió en una modificación asimétrica de las fronteras público-privado. Ese fenómeno histórico también dependía de unas categorías transversales al género como la clase, la religión y el nacionalismo. Sofía Casanova estuvo en la retaguardia del frente oriental: fue tanto testigo como protagonista de todos esos acontecimientos que
Haenninen, N. (Univ. of Oulu, Thule Inst. (Finland)). email: email@example.com
During the Second World War, Finland lost a substantial amount of built and yet un-built hydropower capacity to Soviet Union due to loss of Karelia. The most significant energy user at the time was the forest industry, especially paper and pulp mills, which had to replace this loss and to secure uninterrupted supply of energy in the future; otherwise the industry could not realise their expansion plans. One solution was to harness the still untouched northern waters for the service of the industry and society in large. However, these rivers served already the forest industry in another way, as transport routes in floating of timber. Vast waterways had made the emergence of forest industry in Finland possible. Transportation of timber from distant forests, located more than hundreds of kilometres away from the mills, was possible using rivers and lakes. Especially in Northern Finland the industry had to rely on floating as the railway network was less extensive than in some other parts of the country. The objective of this paper is to study closer, how the emergence of vast hydropower dams in these northern rivers from late 1940's to 1970's changed the transportation of timber. Road transportation in particular could not compete with floating because of their higher costs and the lack of suitable trucks and roads, but this changed after the war. Despite the fact that expanding industries consumed more and more timber, the role of floating decreased. But how did these ratios change during this period? Did the build-up of hydropower plants contribute to this shift of timber transportations from waterways to the land? Salmon and logs did not fit on the same river, the fishermen had to yield in the end. Did the hydropower plants do the same to the floaters
O. V. Kovalev
Full Text Available During the war, government of the allies considered the construction of ice structures converted from artificial icebergs into aircraft carriers. The idea to use ice for construction of floating aerodromes, or giant aircraft carriers, was launched by Geoffrey Pyke, and then was developed in a project called «Habbakuk». Aircraft carriers, made of ice, had to work for a long period of time at temperatures of water and air, resulting in rapid destruction of the structure of ordinary ice. The ice in its pure form is unsuitable for any engineering form therefore the experiments on reinforcement of ice were undertaken. New form of ice engineering was based on the type of reinforcement patterns of ice and coating it with an insulating material, which would greatly reduce the influence of melting due to the temperature of the ambient air. After tests with different substances and proportions, it was found that the mixture of ice with wood pulp, amounting to about 14%, gives the best result of reinforcement. Proposed dimensions of «Habbakuk» were 610 m (2000 ft long, 90 m (300 feet in width and a height of 60 m (200 ft. In 1943, on the surface of the lake Patricia a reduced model to test the viability of the project was constructed. Development of improved long-range aviation, the airbase in Iceland and other technological advances contributed to the successful elimination of the threat from submarines, so the project had been suspended. The technology of strong ice structures invented during the World War II time can still have practical applications today.
Keinan-Boker, Lital; Shasha-Lavsky, Hadas; Eilat-Zanani, Sofia; Edri-Shur, Adi; Shasha, Shaul M
Findings of studies addressing outcomes of war-related famine in non-Jewish populations in Europe during the Second World War (WWII) confirmed an association between prenatal/early life exposure to hunger and adult obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Fetal programming was suggested as the explanatory mechanism. To study the association between being born during WWII in Europe and physical long-term outcomes in child Holocaust survivors. We conducted a cross-sectional study on all Jewish Clalit Health Services (CHS) North District members born in 1940-1945 in Europe ('exposed', n = 653) or in Israel to Europe-born parents ('non-exposed', n = 433). Data on sociodemographic variables, medical diagnoses, medication procurement, laboratory tests and health services utilization were derived from the CHS computerized database and compared between the groups. The exposed were significantly more likely than the non-exposed to present with dyslipidemia (81% vs. 72%, respectively), hypertension (67% vs. 53%), diabetes mellitus (41% vs. 28%), vascular disease (18% vs. 9%) and the metabolic syndrome (17% vs. 9%). The exposed also made lower use of health services but used anti-depressive agents more often compared to the non-exposed. In multivariate analyses, being born during WWII remained an independent risk marker for hypertension (OR = 1.52), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.60), vascular disease (OR = 1.99) and the metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.14). The results of this cross-sectional study based on highly validated data identify a high risk group for chronic morbidity. A question regarding potential trans-generational effects that may impact the 'second generation' is also raised.
Full Text Available The recent creation of a First World War museum exhibit at Huis Doorn reflects the increased Dutch attention paid to this war, accompanying the international Centenary efforts, although the neutral Netherlands had not been actively involved in the military events of wwi. This initiative, on a small estate where the former German emperor Wilhelm II lived after the defeat of Germany in 1918, was not a natural outcome of the dynamics of Dutch historical culture. This article raises the question of how wwi became increasingly emphasised in the early twenty- first century, and to what extent this reflects a profound change in the national historical culture, which previously displayed no strong connections to wwi. While familiarity with wwi has grown among the Dutch media and the wider public, governmental interest remained limited (very different from the case of wwii, making it rather difficult to actually speak of politics of memory.
Korniushko, I G; Gladkikh, P F; Loktev, A E
During the First World War 1914-1918 Russian Army hadn't a united medical service, military-medical affair was diluted in multiple governances. Evacuation of wounded and ill persons was an affair of Evacuation Governance of Main Governance the General Staff. Process of treatment in field and stationary medical formations was administered by sanitarium chiefs of armies and theaters of operation, bureaucrats of Russian Red Cross Society, Russian Union of Cities and Territorial Union. Supply by medical property, accounting and arrangement of medical staff was administered by Main Military-Sanitarium Governance, supply by sanitarium-household property--by Main Indent Governance, health resort affair--by Governance of Supreme chief of sanitarium and evacuation part in Empire of prince Ol'denburgskiy P.A. On the base of different sources were characterized casualty of Russian Army during the war.
Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M
: Although multiple sources chronicle the practice of vascular surgery in the North African, Mediterranean, and European theaters of World War II, that of the Pacific campaign remains undescribed. Relying on primary source documents from the war, this article provides the first discussion of the management of vascular injuries in the island-hopping battles of the Pacific. It explains how the particular military, logistic, and geographic conditions of this theater influenced medical and surgical care, prompting a continued emphasis on ligation when surgeons in Europe had already transitioned to repairing arteries.
Full Text Available This article questions the validity of Deborah S. Cornelius’s claims which she presents in her recently published book on interwar and World War II Hungary. These exonerate the revisionist, anti-Semitic and war-time policies of the Horthy regime. The monograph also presents the Hungarian leaders in an undeservedly positive light. The author of the review demonstrates that Cornelius’s representation of the past was accomplished by the selective reading of primary and secondary sources. Cornelius also commits too many factual errors in order to justify some of her assertions.
Full Text Available The communication examines the representations of war and peace making processes in French and German textbooks since 1945. It analyses continuity and change in the choice of themes and their textual and iconographic representations at the example of the First World War. It tries to determine the weight of transnational bi- and European co-operation in the “teaching about war” with the objective of peace education in comparing them with persisting national traditions of politics of remembrance, historiography and history didactics.
Orlowski, Henning V; Klauer, Thomas; Freyberger, Harald J; Seidler, Günter H; Kuwert, Philipp
Despite today's extensive research on the psychosocial consequences of World War II, the group of wives and children whose husbands or fathers went "missing in action" during the Second World War, has yet to be studied systematically in Germany. The present review article shows the special role the wives, and in particular the children, of missing German soldiers played in society and discusses the impact of their loved ones being unaccounted has had on the mental health of this group. An overview of current research on the psychosocial status of the war generation is given following a short historical introduction to the theme. Subsequently, we discuss the legal and social situation of the families of missing German soldiers during the postwar decades. Finally, two psychological concepts drawn from the US research show that specific disorders, such as complicated grief or "boundary ambiguity," can occur in the relatives of missing persons and blur the line between hope and grief occurring as a result of ambiguous loss. The psychosocial impact of having a relative go missing has hardly been noticed in the German research tradition after World War II. Particularly in light of the age structure of those directly affected and the experiences of transgenerational transmission this neglected psychosocial research subject urgently needs further scientific investigation, inasmuch as the age of the family members still allows it.
Woźniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Starzyński, Jarosław; Marciniak, Tomasz
The Polish population is reported to be very homogenous as far as Y chromosome polymorphism is concerned. One of the hypotheses that explains this phenomenon is based on the assumption that massive migrations that took place in Poland after the Second World War might have evoked such an effect. Thus, knowledge of the pre-war frequencies of Y chromosome haplotypes in different parts of the country would be a useful tool in testing such a hypothesis. We have collected 226 DNA samples, together with family history data, from males living in the rural area of Małopolska, Polish Southern border region. Based on donors' family histories we were able to reconstruct an 'ancestral' subpopulation of 108 males whose ancestors had inhabited the area before both World Wars. We have analyzed 12 Y-STR loci: DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I&II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 in all the collected samples. Comparisons of our contemporary and 'ancestral' population samples with other Polish and Central European populations showed that the population of Southern Małopolska is very closely related to other Polish and Slavic populations. The above-mentioned observations suggest that the population of Southern Poland could have been highly homogenous even before the Second World War.
Lyubov G. Polyakova
Full Text Available The article is focused on the Black Sea Province rear activity in the First World War. The article is based on the data of local and regional periodical press, such as: «Chernomorsky Kray», «Sochinsky Listok», «Chernomorskoe Poberezh’e», «Chernomorsky Listok Voyny», etc. Among the rear area activities, we can name charity for the wounded, entertainment at military hospitals, foundation of Mercy Sisters schools and Red Cross regional offices. Attention is also attached to the interaction with state institutions in charge of hospital work and the attitude of the royal family towards hospital care. Red Cross activities in the First World War are also significant. The conclusion states that cooperation between centre and outskirts in terms of help for the wounded was close in the First World War. Almost all of the work, concerning the establishment of regional (province hospitals was charity-funded. Outskirts attempted to model the supreme authority behavior, concerning this question and as a result the care for war victims had become the duty of the whole Russian community.
The outbreak of the war coincided with a period in the Iranian history when following the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1909; the Iranians were poised to refashion the constitutional order and establish an independent, accountable, and effective government. The global conflict between the great