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Sample records for surrounding viscoelastic medium

  1. DYNAMIC DEFORMATION THE VISCOELASTIC TWOCOMPONENT MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Polenov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the article are scope harmonious warping of the two-component medium, one component which are represent viscoelastic medium, hereditary properties which are described by the kernel aftereffect Abel integral-differential ratio BoltzmannVolterr, while second – compressible liquid. Do a study one-dimensional case. Use motion equation of two-component medium at movement. Look determination system these equalization in the form of damped wave. Introduce dimensionless coefficient. Combined equations happen to homogeneous system with complex factor relatively waves amplitude in viscoelastic component and in fluid. As a result opening system determinant receive biquadratic equation. Elastic operator express through kernel aftereffect Abel for space Fourier. With the help transformation and symbol series biquadratic equation reduce to quadratic equation. Come to the conclusion that in two-component viscoelastic medium exist two mode sonic waves. As a result solution of quadratic equation be found description advance of waves sonic in viscoelastic two-component medium, which physical-mechanical properties represent complex parameter. Velocity determination advance of sonic waves, attenuation coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, depending on characteristic porous medium and circular frequency formulas receive. Graph dependences of description advance of waves sonic from the temperature logarithm and with the fractional parameter γ are constructed.

  2. Gravitational Instability of Cylindrical Viscoelastic Medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    similar to that of viscoelastic fluid where both properties work together. They also ... cylindrical gravitational waves provides a strong motivation in this regard. .... which represents the solenoidal character of the magnetic field and the total stress.

  3. Nonlocal vibration and biaxial buckling of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system with viscoelastic Pasternak medium in between

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.C. [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Y.Q., E-mail: cyqzhang@zju.edu.cn [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Structural Strength and Vibration, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Fan, L.F. [College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-04-11

    The general equation for transverse vibration of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system with viscoelastic Pasternak medium in between and each nanoplate subjected to in-plane edge loads is formulated on the basis of the Eringen's nonlocal elastic theory and the Kelvin model. The factors of the structural damping, medium damping, small size effect, loading ratio, and Winkler modulus and shear modulus of the medium are incorporated in the formulation. Based on the Navier's method, the analytical solutions for vibrational frequency and buckling load of the system with simply supported boundary conditions are obtained. The influences of these factors on vibrational frequency and buckling load of the system are discussed. It is demonstrated that the vibrational frequency of the system for the out-of-phase vibration is dependent upon the structural damping, small size effect and viscoelastic Pasternak medium, whereas the vibrational frequency for the in-phase vibration is independent of the viscoelastic Pasternak medium. While the buckling load of the system for the in-phase buckling case has nothing to do with the viscoelastic Pasternak medium, the buckling load for the out-of-phase case is related to the small size effect, loading ratio and Pasternak medium. - Highlights: • Vibration of double-viscoelastic-FGM-nanoplate system under in-plane edge loads is investigated. • Biaxial buckling of the system with simply supported boundary conditions is analyzed. • Explicit expression for the vibrational frequency and buckling load is obtained. • Impacts of viscoelastic Pasternak medium on vibrational frequency and buckling load are discussed. • Influences of structural damping, small size effect and loading ratio are also considered.

  4. Three-sphere swimmer in a nonlinear viscoelastic medium

    KAUST Repository

    Curtis, Mark P.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.

    2013-01-01

    are determined analytically in both a Newtonian Stokes fluid and a zero Reynolds number, nonlinear, Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluid with Deborah numbers of order one (or less), highlighting the effects of viscoelasticity on the net displacement of swimmer

  5. Fractal Folding and Medium Viscoelasticity Contribute Jointly to Chromosome Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovnikov, K. E.; Gherardi, M.; Cosentino-Lagomarsino, M.; Tamm, M. V.

    2018-02-01

    Chromosomes are key players of cell physiology, their dynamics provides valuable information about its physical organization. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the short-time motion of chromosomal loci has been described with a Rouse model in a simple or viscoelastic medium. However, little emphasis has been put on the influence of the folded organization of chromosomes on the local dynamics. Clearly, stress propagation, and thus dynamics, must be affected by such organization, but a theory allowing us to extract such information from data, e.g., on two-point correlations, is lacking. Here, we describe a theoretical framework able to answer this general polymer dynamics question. We provide a scaling analysis of the stress-propagation time between two loci at a given arclength distance along the chromosomal coordinate. The results suggest a precise way to assess folding information from the dynamical coupling of chromosome segments. Additionally, we realize this framework in a specific model of a polymer whose long-range interactions are designed to make it fold in a fractal way and immersed in a medium characterized by subdiffusive fractional Langevin motion with a tunable scaling exponent. This allows us to derive explicit analytical expressions for the correlation functions.

  6. Three-sphere swimmer in a nonlinear viscoelastic medium

    KAUST Repository

    Curtis, Mark P.

    2013-04-10

    A simple model for a swimmer consisting of three colinearly linked spheres attached by rods and oscillating out of phase to break reciprocal motion is analyzed. With a prescribed forcing of the rods acting on the three spheres, the swimming dynamics are determined analytically in both a Newtonian Stokes fluid and a zero Reynolds number, nonlinear, Oldroyd-B viscoelastic fluid with Deborah numbers of order one (or less), highlighting the effects of viscoelasticity on the net displacement of swimmer. For instance, the model predicts that the three-sphere swimmer with a sinusoidal, but nonreciprocal, forcing cycle within an Oldroyd-B representation of a polymeric Boger fluid moves a greater distance with enhanced efficiency in comparison with its motility in a Newtonian fluid of the same viscosity. Furthermore, the nonlinear contributions to the viscoelastic constitutive relation, while dynamically nontrivial, are predicted a posteriori to have no effect on swimmer motility at leading order, given a prescribed forcing between spheres. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  7. Quasars Probing Quasars: the Circumgalactic Medium Surrounding z ~ 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Marie; Quasars Probing Quasars survey

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the circumgalactic medium--the gaseous halo surrounding a galaxy, is an integral part to understanding galaxy evolution. The z ~ 2-3 universe is interesting as this is when the star formation rate and AGN activity peak. My thesis concludes the decade-long Quasars Probing Quasars survey designed for studying massive galaxy formation and quasar feedback. I use background quasar sightlines that pass close to foreground quasars to study the circumgalactic medium of quasar-host galaxies in absorption. My sample of 149 quasar pairs involve spectra taken with 17 different optical and near IR instruments. I present results on the statistical and physical properties of the circumgalactic medium. The circumgalactic medium is enriched even beyond the virial radius. The alpha/Fe abundance ratio is enhanced, suggesting enrichment from core-collapse supernovae. The cool gas mass within the virial radius is enough to fuel star formation for another Gyr, and may account for 1/3 of the baryonic budget of the galaxy halo. The ionization state increases with projected distance from the quasar, which implies the quasar does not dominate the ionizing radiation flux. However, detection of fluorescent Lyman-alpha emission and NV absorption imply these transverse absorbers are partially illuminated by the quasar. In one peculiar case, the absorbing clump has density >100 cm^-3 and sub-parsec size. The average absorption in the circumgalactic medium exhibits large velocity widths, and is asymmetric about the systemic redshift of the galaxies. The widths are consistent with gravitational motions and Hubble flow, and outflows are not required to explain them. The asymmetry can be explained if the ionizing radiation from the quasar is anisotropic or intermittent and the gas is not in inflow. My results pose challenges for cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to produce a substantial cool gas reservoir surrounding quasars, that is also enriched and shows extreme kinematics.

  8. MHD flow of a dusty viscoelastic liquid through a porous medium between two inclined parallel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Singh, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic flow of a dusty viscoelastic liquid (Oldroyd B-liquid) through a porous medium between two parallel plates inclined to the horizon has been studied. The liquid velocity, dust particle velocity and flux of flow have been obtained. Earlier results have been deduced as particular cases of the present investigation. The physical situation of the motion has been discussed graphically. (author)

  9. Natural oscillations of a gas bubble in a liquid-filled cavity located in a viscoelastic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doinikov, Alexander A.; Marmottant, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    The present study is motivated by cavitation phenomena that occur in the stems of trees. The internal pressure in tree conduits can drop down to significant negative values. This drop gives rise to cavitation bubbles, which undergo high-frequency eigenmodes. The aim of the present study is to determine the parameters of the bubble natural oscillations. To this end, a theory is developed that describes the pulsation of a spherical bubble located at the center of a spherical cavity surrounded by an infinite solid medium. It is assumed that the medium inside the bubble is a gas-vapor mixture, the cavity is filled with a compressible viscous liquid, and the medium surrounding the cavity behaves as a viscoelastic solid. The theoretical solution takes into account the outgoing acoustic wave produced by the bubble pulsation, the incoming wave caused by reflection from the liquid-solid boundary, and the outgoing wave propagating in the solid. A dispersion equation for the calculation of complex wavenumbers of the bubble eigenmodes is derived. Approximate analytical solutions to the dispersion equation are found. Numerical simulations are performed to reveal the effect of different physical parameters on the resonance frequency and the attenuation coefficient of the bubble oscillations.

  10. The nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in a viscoelastic medium containing cylindrical micropores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Lin, Feng; Xiao-Zhou, Liu; Jie-Hui, Liu; Li, Ma

    2009-01-01

    Based on an equivalent medium approach, this paper presents a model describing the nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in a viscoelastic medium containing cylindrical micropores. The influences of pores' nonlinear oscillations on sound attenuation, sound dispersion and an equivalent acoustic nonlinearity parameter are discussed. The calculated results show that the attenuation increases with an increasing volume fraction of micropores. The peak of sound velocity and attenuation occurs at the resonant frequency of the micropores while the peak of the equivalent acoustic nonlinearity parameter occurs at the half of the resonant frequency of the micropores. Furthermore, multiple scattering has been taken into account, which leads to a modification to the effective wave number in the equivalent medium approach. We find that these linear and nonlinear acoustic parameters need to be corrected when the volume fraction of micropores is larger than 0.1%

  11. The dynamic deformation of a layered viscoelastic medium under surface excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglyamov, Salavat R; Karpiouk, Andrei B; Emelianov, Stanislav Y; Wang, Shang; Li, Jiasong; Larin, Kirill V; Twa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In this study the dynamic behavior of a layered viscoelastic medium in response to the harmonic and impulsive acoustic radiation force applied to its surface was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. An analytical solution for a layered viscoelastic compressible medium in frequency and time domains was obtained using the Hankel transform. A special incompressible case was considered to model soft biological tissues. To verify our theoretical model, experiments were performed using tissue-like gel-based phantoms with varying mechanical properties. A 3.5 MHz single-element focused ultrasound transducer was used to apply the radiation force at the surface of the phantoms. A phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography system was used to track the displacements of the phantom surface. Theoretically predicted displacements were compared with experimental measurements. The role of the depth dependence of the elastic properties of a medium in its response to an acoustic pulse at the surface was studied. It was shown that the low-frequency vibrations at the surface are more sensitive to the deep layers than high-frequency ones. Therefore, the proposed model in combination with spectral analysis can be used to evaluate depth-dependent distribution of the mechanical properties based on the measurements of the surface deformation. (paper)

  12. On the propagation of transient waves in a viscoelastic Bessel medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombaro, Ivano; Giusti, Andrea; Mainardi, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the uniaxial propagation of transient waves within a semi-infinite viscoelastic Bessel medium. First, we provide the analytic expression for the response function of the material as we approach the wave front. To do so, we take profit of a revisited version of the so called Buchen-Mainardi algorithm. Secondly, we provide an analytic expression for the long-time behavior of the response function of the material. This result is obtained by means of the Tauberian theorems for the Laplace transform. Finally, we relate the obtained results to a peculiar model for fluid-filled elastic tubes.

  13. Quasars Probing Quasars: The Circumgalactic Medium Surrounding Z 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Marie Wingyee

    Models of galaxy formation make the most direct predictions on gas related processes. Specifically, a picture on how gas flows through dark matter halos and onto galaxies to fuel star formation. A major prediction is that massive halos, including those hosting the progenitors of massive elliptical galaxies, exhibit a higher fraction of hot gas with T 107 K. Another prediction is that some mechanism must be invoked to quench the supply of cool gas in massive systems. Under the current galaxy formation paradigm, every massive galaxy has undergone a quasar phase, making high-redshift quasars the progenitors of inactive supermassive black holes found in the center of nearly all galaxies. Moreover, quasars clustering implies Mhalo = 1012.5 Msun , making quasar-host galaxies the progenitors of present day, massive, red and dead galaxies. The Quasars Probing Quasars survey is well-suited to examine gas related processes in the context of massive galaxy formation, as well as quasar feedback. To date the survey has selected 700 closely projected quasar pairs. To study the circumgalactic medium, a sub-sample of pairs with projected separation within 300 kpc at the foreground quasar's redshift are selected. From the first to seventh paper in the Quasars Probing Quasars series, the statistical results had been limited to covering fractions, equivalent widths, and without precise redshift measurements of the foreground quasars. Signatures of quasar feedback in the cool circumgalactic medium had not been identified. Hence, a sub-sample of 14 pairs with echellette spectra are selected for more detailed analysis. It is found that the low and high ions roughly trace each other in velocity structure. The HI and low ion surface densities decline with projected distance. HI absorption is strong even beyond the virial radius. Unresolved Lyalpha emission in one case and NV detection in another case together imply that a fraction of transverse sightlines are illuminated. The ionization

  14. Gravity modulation of thermal instability in a viscoelastic fluid saturated anisotropic porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadauria, Beer S. [Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Univ., Lucknow (India). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics; Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Mathematics; Srivastava, Atul K. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Mathematics; Sacheti, Nirmal C.; Chandran, Pallath [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Mathematics

    2012-01-15

    The present paper deals with a thermal instability problem in a viscoelastic fluid saturating an anisotropic porous medium under gravity modulation. To find the gravity modulation effect, the gravity field is considered in two parts: a constant part and an externally imposed time-dependent periodic part. The time-dependent part of the gravity field, which can be realized by shaking the fluid, has been represented by a sinusoidal function. Using Hill's equation and the Floquet theory, the convective threshold has been obtained. It is found that gravity modulation can significantly affect the stability limits of the system. Further, we find that there is a competition between the synchronous and subharmonic modes of convection at the onset of instability. Effects of various parameters on the onset of instability have also been discussed. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Open Crack on Vibration Behavior of a Fluid-Conveying Pipe Embedded in a Visco-Elastic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiyam Eslami

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper vibration behavior of a fluid-conveying cracked pipe surrounded by a visco-elastic medium has been considered. During this work, the effect of an open crack parameters and flow velocity profile shape inside the pipe on natural frequency and critical flow velocity of the system has been analytically investigated. An explicit function for the local flexibility of the cracked pipe has been offered using principle of the fracture mechanics. Comparison between the results of the present study and the experimental data reported in the literature reveals success and high accuracy of the implemented method. It is demonstrated that the existence of the crack in the pipe, decreases the natural frequency and the critical flow velocity so that the system instability onsets at a lower flow velocity in comparison with the intact pipe. Results indicate that the flow velocity profile shape inside the pipe caused by the viscosity of real fluids, significantly affects the critical flow velocity of both intact and fluid-conveying cracked pipe. For instance, as the flow-profile-modification factor decreases from 1.33 to 1.015, the dimensionless critical flow velocity of intact clamped-clamped pipe increases from 5.45 to 6.24.

  16. Vibration and instability of a viscous-fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a visco-elastic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, P; Farshidianfar, A; Taherian, M M

    2010-01-01

    In this study, for the first time, the transverse vibrational model of a viscous-fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) embedded in biological soft tissue is developed. Nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory has been used to investigate fluid-induced vibration of the SWCNT while visco-elastic behaviour of the surrounding tissue is simulated by the Kelvin-Voigt model. The results indicate that the resonant frequencies and the critical flow velocity at which structural instability of nanotubes emerges are significantly dependent on the properties of the medium around the nanotube, the boundary conditions, the viscosity of the fluid and the nonlocal parameter. Detailed results are demonstrated for the dependence of damping and elastic properties of the medium on the resonant frequencies and the critical flow velocity. Three standard boundary conditions, namely clamped-clamped, clamped-pinned and pinned-pinned, are applied to study the effect of the supported end conditions. Furthermore, it is found that the visco-elastic foundation causes an obvious reduction in the critical velocity in comparison with the elastic foundation, in particular for a compliant medium, pinned-pinned boundary condition, high viscosity of the fluid and small values of the nonlocal coefficient.

  17. Effect of Longitudinal Magnetic Field on Vibration Characteristics of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Viscoelastic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D. P.; Lei, Y.; Shen, Z. B.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of longitudinal magnetic field on vibration response of a sing-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) embedded in viscoelastic medium is investigated. Based on nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Maxwell's relations, and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations of motion for vibration analysis are established. The complex natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes in closed form for the embedded SWCNT with arbitrary boundary conditions are obtained using transfer function method (TFM). The new analytical expressions for the complex natural frequencies are also derived for certain typical boundary conditions and Kelvin-Voigt model. Numerical results from the model are presented to show the effects of nonlocal parameter, viscoelastic parameter, boundary conditions, aspect ratio, and strength of the magnetic field on vibration characteristics for the embedded SWCNT in longitudinal magnetic field. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods for vibration analysis of embedded SWCNTs under magnetic field.

  18. Transient response of a cylindrical cavity in viscoelastic saturated porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Tao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study on dynamic characteristics for fluid-solid coupling system in saturated porous medium is of significant academic value and potential application foreground.In this paper,the transient response of a cylindrical cavity in infinite viscoelastic saturated porous medium with the circular lining is studied,and the corresponding results can be used in the design of foundation engineering,such as the tunnel analyses in saturated soil,the nuclear waste disposal engineering,and the exploitation and utilization of geothermal reservoirs and so on.Firstly,based on the porous media theory,the governing equations of coupled system are presented,and the corresponding boundary conditions,initial conditions as well as the joint conditions are derived.Then,the differential quadrature element method and the second-order backward difference scheme are applied to discretize the governing differential equations of the coupled system on the spatial and temporal domains,respectively.Finally,the Newton-Raphson method is adopted to solve the discretization equations with the initial conditions,the transient responses of the coupled system are analyzed,the effects of the parameters are considered,and the validity of the numerical method is verified.

  19. Stability Analysis and Internal Heating Effect on Oscillatory Convection in a Viscoelastic Fluid Saturated Porous Medium Under Gravity Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, B. S.; Singh, M. K.; Singh, A.; Singh, B. K.; Kiran, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the combined effect of internal heating and time periodic gravity modulation in a viscoelastic fluid saturated porous medium by reducing the problem into a complex non-autonomous Ginzgburg-Landau equation. Weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed by using power series expansion in terms of the amplitude of gravity modulation, which is assumed to be small. The Nusselt number is obtained in terms of the amplitude for oscillatory mode of convection. The influence of viscoelastic parameters on heat transfer has been discussed. Gravity modulation is found to have a destabilizing effect at low frequencies and a stabilizing effect at high frequencies. Finally, it is found that overstability advances the onset of convection, more with internal heating. The conditions for which the complex Ginzgburg-Landau equation undergoes Hopf bifurcation and the amplitude equation undergoes supercritical pitchfork bifurcation are studied.

  20. Stability Analysis and Internal Heating Effect on Oscillatory Convection in a Viscoelastic Fluid Saturated Porous Medium Under Gravity Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhadauria B.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the combined effect of internal heating and time periodic gravity modulation in a viscoelastic fluid saturated porous medium by reducing the problem into a complex non-autonomous Ginzgburg-Landau equation. Weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed by using power series expansion in terms of the amplitude of gravity modulation, which is assumed to be small. The Nusselt number is obtained in terms of the amplitude for oscillatory mode of convection. The influence of viscoelastic parameters on heat transfer has been discussed. Gravity modulation is found to have a destabilizing effect at low frequencies and a stabilizing effect at high frequencies. Finally, it is found that overstability advances the onset of convection, more with internal heating. The conditions for which the complex Ginzgburg-Landau equation undergoes Hopf bifurcation and the amplitude equation undergoes supercritical pitchfork bifurcation are studied.

  1. Competing effects of particle and medium inertia on particle diffusion in viscoelastic materials, and their ramifications for passive microrheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indei, Tsutomu; Schieber, Jay D; Córdoba, Andrés

    2012-04-01

    We analyze the appropriate form for the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation (GSER) for viscoelastic solids and fluids when bead inertia and medium inertia are taken into account, which we call the inertial GSER. It was previously shown for Maxwell fluids that the Basset (or Boussinesq) force arising from medium inertia can act purely dissipatively at high frequencies, where elasticity of the medium is dominant. In order to elucidate the cause of this counterintuitive result, we consider Brownian motion in a purely elastic solid where ordinary Stokes-type dissipation is not possible. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem requires the presence of a dissipative mechanism for the particle to experience fluctuating Brownian forces in a purely elastic solid. We show that the mechanism for such dissipation arises from the radiation of elastic waves toward the system boundaries. The frictional force associated with this mechanism is the Basset force, and it exists only when medium inertia is taken into consideration in the analysis of such a system. We consider first a one-dimensional harmonic lattice where all terms in the generalized Langevin equation--i.e., the elastic term, the memory kernel, and Brownian forces-can be found analytically from projection-operator methods. We show that the dissipation is purely from radiation of elastic waves. A similar analysis is made on a particle in a continuum, three-dimensional purely elastic solid, where the memory kernel is determined from continuum mechanics. Again, dissipation arises only from radiation of elastic shear waves toward infinite boundaries when medium inertia is taken into account. If the medium is a viscoelastic solid, Stokes-type dissipation is possible in addition to radiational dissipation so that the wave decays at the penetration depth. Inertial motion of the bead couples with the elasticity of the viscoelastic material, resulting in a possible resonant oscillation of the mean-square displacement (MSD) of the

  2. Nonlinear shear wave in a non Newtonian visco-elastic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, D.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Chaudhuri, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    An analysis of nonlinear transverse shear wave has been carried out on non-Newtonian viscoelastic liquid using generalized hydrodynamic model. The nonlinear viscoelastic behavior is introduced through velocity shear dependence of viscosity coefficient by well known Carreau-Bird model. The dynamical feature of this shear wave leads to the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem. Numerical solution has been obtained which shows that initial periodic solutions reoccur after passing through several patterns of periodic waves. A possible explanation for this periodic solution is given by constructing modified Korteweg de Vries equation. This model has application from laboratory to astrophysical plasmas as well as in biological systems.

  3. Hydromagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer over a Porous Oscillating Stretching Surface in a Viscoelastic Fluid with Porous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Nasir; Abbas, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) second grade fluid over a porous oscillating stretching surface embedded in porous medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the involved parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the porous medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number.

  4. Non-linear buckling of an FGM truncated conical shell surrounded by an elastic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofiyev, A.H.; Kuruoglu, N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the non-linear buckling of the truncated conical shell made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) surrounded by an elastic medium has been studied using the large deformation theory with von Karman–Donnell-type of kinematic non-linearity. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type) is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. The FGM properties are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction. The fundamental relations, the modified Donnell type non-linear stability and compatibility equations of the FGM truncated conical shell resting on the Pasternak-type elastic foundation are derived. By using the Superposition and Galerkin methods, the non-linear stability equations for the FGM truncated conical shell is solved. Finally, influences of variations of Winkler foundation stiffness and shear subgrade modulus of the foundation, compositional profiles and shell characteristics on the dimensionless critical non-linear axial load are investigated. The present results are compared with the available data for a special case. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear buckling of FGM conical shell surrounded by elastic medium is studied. • Pasternak foundation model is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. • Nonlinear basic equations are derived. • Problem is solved by using Superposition and Galerkin methods. • Influences of various parameters on the nonlinear critical load are investigated

  5. Application of H-matrices method to the calculation of the stress field in a viscoelastic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, M.; Hirahara, K.

    2017-12-01

    In SW Japan, the Philippine Sea plate subducts from the south and the large earthquakes around M (Magnitude) 8 repeatedly occur at the plate boundary along the Nankai Trough, called as Nankai/Tonankai earthquakes. Near the rupture area of these earthquakes, the active volcanoes lines in the Kyushu region SW Japan, such as Sakurajima volcano. There are also distributed in the Tokai-Kanto region SE Japan, such as Mt. Fuji. The eruption of Mt. Fuji in 1707, called as Hoei eruption, have occurred 49 days after the one of the series of Nankai/Tonankai earthquakes, 1707 Hoei earthquake (M8.4). It suggests that the stress field due to the earthquake sometimes helps the volcanoes to erupt. When we consider the stress change due to the earthquake, the effect of viscoelastic deformation of the crust will be important. FEM is always used for modeling such inelastic effect. However, it requires the high computational cost of O(N3), where N is the number of discretized cells of the inelastic medium. Recently, a new method based on BIEM is proposed by Barbot and Fialko (2010). In their method, calculation of the stress field due to the inelastic strain is replaced to solve the inhomogeneous Navier's equation with equivalent body forces of the inelastic strain. Then, using the stress-strain greenfunction in an elastic medium, we can take into account the inelastic effect. In this study, we employ their method to evaluate the stress change at the active volcanoes around the Nankai/Tonankai earthquakes. Their method requires the computational cost and memory storage of O(N2). We try to reduce the computational amount and the memory by applying the fast computation method of H-matrices method. With H-matrices method, a dense matrix is divided into hierarchical structure of submatrices, and each submatrix is approximated to be low rank. When we divide the viscoelastic medium into N = 8,640 or 69,120 uniform cuboid cells and apply the H-matrices method, the required storage memory for

  6. A New Approach for Studying Nonlinear Dynamic Response of a Thin Plate with Internal Resonance in a Fractional Viscoelastic Medium

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    Yury A. Rossikhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous analysis, the dynamic behaviour of a nonlinear plate embedded into a fractional derivative viscoelastic medium has been studied by the method of multiple time scales under the conditions of the internal resonances two-to-one and one-to-one, as well as the internal combinational resonances for the case when the linear parts of nonlinear equations of motion occur to be coupled. A new approach proposed in this paper allows one to uncouple the linear parts of equations of motion of the plate, while the same method, the method of multiple time scales, has been utilized for solving nonlinear equations. The influence of viscosity on the energy exchange mechanism between interacting nonlinear modes has been analyzed. It has been shown that for some internal resonances there exist such particular cases when it is possible to obtain two first integrals, namely, the energy integral and the stream function, which allows one to reduce the problem to the calculation of elliptic integrals. The new approach enables one to solve the problems of vibrations of thin bodies more efficiently.

  7. On the Onset of Thermal Convection in a Layer of Oldroydian Visco-Elastic Fluid Saturated by Brinkman–Darcy Porous Medium

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    Chand Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal instability in a horizontal layer of Oldroydian visco-elastic fluid in a porous medium is investigated. For porous medium the Brinkman–Darcy model is considered. A linear stability analysis based upon perturbation method and normal mode technique is used to find solution of the fluid layer confined between two free-free boundaries. The onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically. The influence of the Brinkman–Darcy, Prandtl–Darcy number, stress relaxation parameter on the stationary and oscillatory convection is studied both analytically and graphically. The sufficient condition for the validity of PES has also been derived.

  8. Finite element method for viscoelastic medium with damage and the application to structural analysis of solid rocket motor grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bin; Shen, ZhiBin; Duan, JingBo; Tang, GuoJin

    2014-05-01

    This paper studies the damage-viscoelastic behavior of composite solid propellants of solid rocket motors (SRM). Based on viscoelastic theories and strain equivalent hypothesis in damage mechanics, a three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model incorporating with damage is developed. The resulting viscoelastic constitutive equations are numerically discretized by integration algorithm, and a stress-updating method is presented by solving nonlinear equations according to the Newton-Raphson method. A material subroutine of stress-updating is made up and embedded into commercial code of Abaqus. The material subroutine is validated through typical examples. Our results indicate that the finite element results are in good agreement with the analytical ones and have high accuracy, and the suggested method and designed subroutine are efficient and can be further applied to damage-coupling structural analysis of practical SRM grain.

  9. Viscoelastic Waves Simulation in a Blocky Medium with Fluid-Saturated Interlayers Using High-Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovskii, Vladimir; Sadovskaya, Oxana

    2017-04-01

    A thermodynamically consistent approach to the description of linear and nonlinear wave processes in a blocky medium, which consists of a large number of elastic blocks interacting with each other via pliant interlayers, is proposed. The mechanical properties of interlayers are defined by means of the rheological schemes of different levels of complexity. Elastic interaction between the blocks is considered in the framework of the linear elasticity theory [1]. The effects of viscoelastic shear in the interblock interlayers are taken into consideration using the Pointing-Thomson rheological scheme. The model of an elastic porous material is used in the interlayers, where the pores collapse if an abrupt compressive stress is applied. On the basis of the Biot equations for a fluid-saturated porous medium, a new mathematical model of a blocky medium is worked out, in which the interlayers provide a convective fluid motion due to the external perturbations. The collapse of pores is modeled within the generalized rheological approach, wherein the mechanical properties of a material are simulated using four rheological elements. Three of them are the traditional elastic, viscous and plastic elements, the fourth element is the so-called rigid contact [2], which is used to describe the behavior of materials with different resistance to tension and compression. Thermodynamic consistency of the equations in interlayers with the equations in blocks guarantees fulfillment of the energy conservation law for a blocky medium in a whole, i.e. kinetic and potential energy of the system is the sum of kinetic and potential energies of the blocks and interlayers. As a result of discretization of the equations of the model, robust computational algorithm is constructed, that is stable because of the thermodynamic consistency of the finite difference equations at a discrete level. The splitting method by the spatial variables and the Godunov gap decay scheme are used in the blocks, the

  10. Love-type wave propagation in a pre-stressed viscoelastic medium influenced by smooth moving punch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Parween, Z.; Chatterjee, M.; Chattopadhyay, A.

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, a mathematical model studying the effect of smooth moving semi-infinite punch on the propagation of Love-type wave in an initially stressed viscoelastic strip is developed. The dynamic stress concentration due to the punch for the force of a constant intensity has been obtained in the closed form. Method based on Weiner-hopf technique which is indicated by Matczynski has been employed. The study manifests the significant effect of various affecting parameters viz. speed of moving punch associated with Love-type wave speed, horizontal compressive/tensile initial stress, vertical compressive/tensile initial stress, frequency parameter, and viscoelastic parameter on dynamic stress concentration due to semi-infinite punch. Moreover, some important peculiarities have been traced out and depicted by means of graphs.

  11. Effect of thermal radiation and Hall current on heat and mass transfer of unsteady MHD flow of a viscoelastic micropolar fluid through a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Olajuwon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer effects on unsteady flow of a viscoelastic micropolar fluid over an infinite moving permeable plate in a saturated porous medium in the presence of a transverse magnetic field with Hall effect and thermal radiation are studied. The governing system of partial differential equations is transformed to dimensionless equations using dimensionless variables. The dimensionless equations are then solved analytically using perturbation technique to obtain the expressions for velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration. With the help of graphs, the effects of magnetic field parameter M, thermal radiation parameter Nr, Hall current parameter m, K, viscoelastic parameter a, and slip parameter h on the velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration fields within the boundary layer are discussed. The result showed that increase in Nr and m increases translational velocity across the boundary layer while (a decreases translational velocity in the vicinity of the plate but the reverse happens when away from the plate. As h increases the translational velocity across the boundary layer increases. The higher the values of Nr, the higher the micro-rotational velocity effect while m lowers it. Also the effects n, a, m, Nr, Pr and Sc on the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers are presented numerically in tabular form. The result also revealed that increase in n reduces the skin friction coefficient. Pr enhances the rate of heat transfer while Sc enhances the rate of mass transfer.

  12. Heat and mass transfer effects on MHD viscoelastic fluid over a stretching sheet through porous medium in presence of chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Nayak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to study the heat and mass transfer effects in a boundary layer flow through porous medium of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid subject to transverse magnetic field in the presence of heat source/sink and chemical reaction. It has been considered the effects of radiation, viscous and Joule dissipations and internal heat generation/absorption. Closed form solutions for the boundary layer equations of viscoelastic, second-grade and Walters׳ B′ fluid models are obtained. The method of solution involves similarity transformation. The transformed equations of thermal and mass transport are solved by applying Kummer׳s function. The solutions of temperature field for both prescribed surface temperature (PST as well as prescribed surface heat flux (PHF are obtained. It is important to remark that the interaction of magnetic field is found to be counterproductive in enhancing velocity and concentration distribution whereas the presence of chemical reaction as well as porous matrix with moderate values of magnetic parameter reduces the temperature and concentration fields at all points of flow domain.

  13. Mathematical modelling of nonlinear thermal radiation effects on EMHD peristaltic pumping of viscoelastic dusty fluid through a porous medium duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Bhatti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biologically-inspired propulsion systems are currently receiving significant interest in the aerospace sector. Since many spacecraft propulsion systems operate at high temperatures, thermal radiation is important as a mode of heat transfer. Motivated by these developments, in the present article, the influence of nonlinear thermal radiation (via the Rosseland diffusion flux model has been studied on the laminar, incompressible, dissipative EMHD (Electro-magneto-hydrodynamic peristaltic propulsive flow of a non-Newtonian (Jefferys viscoelastic dusty fluid containing solid particles through a porous planar channel. The fluid is electrically-conducting and a constant static magnetic field is applied transverse to the flow direction (channel walls. Slip effects are also included. Magnetic induction effects are neglected. The mathematical formulation is based on continuity, momentum and energy equations with appropriate boundary conditions, which are simplified by neglecting the inertial forces and taking the long wavelength and lubrication approximations. The boundary value problem is then rendered non-dimensional with appropriate variables and the resulting system of reduced ordinary differential equations is solved analytically. The impact of various emerging parameters dictating the non-Newtonian propulsive flow i.e. Prandtl number, radiation parameter, Hartmann number, permeability parameter, Eckert number, particle volume fraction, electric field and slip parameter are depicted graphically. Increasing particle volume fraction is observed to suppress temperature magnitudes. Furthermore the computations demonstrate that an increase in particle volume fraction reduces the pumping rate in retrograde pumping region whereas it causes the opposite effect in the co-pumping region. The trapping mechanism is also visualized with the aid of streamline contour plots. Increasing thermal radiation elevates temperatures. Increasing Hartmann (magnetic body

  14. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  15. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.

    2015-06-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller-Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin-Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time.

  16. Computational Viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Severino P C

    2012-01-01

    This text is a guide how to solve problems in which viscoelasticity is present using existing commercial computational codes. The book gives information on codes’ structure and use, data preparation  and output interpretation and verification. The first part of the book introduces the reader to the subject, and to provide the models, equations and notation to be used in the computational applications. The second part shows the most important Computational techniques: Finite elements formulation, Boundary elements formulation, and presents the solutions of Viscoelastic problems with Abaqus.

  17. Dynamical problem of micropolar viscoelasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    gen (1964) and Tomar and Kumar (1999) discussed different types of problems in micropolar elastic medium. Eringen (1967) extended the theory of micropolar elasticity to obtain linear constitutive theory for micropolar material possessing inter- nal friction. A problem on micropolar viscoelastic waves has been discussed by ...

  18. Characterizing the velocity of a wandering black hole and properties of the surrounding medium using convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J. A.; Guzmán, F. S.

    2018-03-01

    We present a method for estimating the velocity of a wandering black hole and the equation of state for the gas around it based on a catalog of numerical simulations. The method uses machine-learning methods based on convolutional neural networks applied to the classification of images resulting from numerical simulations. Specifically we focus on the supersonic velocity regime and choose the direction of the black hole to be parallel to its spin. We build a catalog of 900 simulations by numerically solving Euler's equations onto the fixed space-time background of a black hole, for two parameters: the adiabatic index Γ with values in the range [1.1, 5 /3 ], and the asymptotic relative velocity of the black hole with respect to the surroundings v∞, with values within [0.2 ,0.8 ]c . For each simulation we produce a 2D image of the gas density once the process of accretion has approached a stationary regime. The results obtained show that the implemented convolutional neural networks are able to correctly classify the adiabatic index 87.78% of the time within an uncertainty of ±0.0284 , while the prediction of the velocity is correct 96.67% of the time within an uncertainty of ±0.03 c . We expect that this combination of a massive number of numerical simulations and machine-learning methods will help us analyze more complicated scenarios related to future high-resolution observations of black holes, like those from the Event Horizon Telescope.

  19. Demonstration of surface plasmons in metal island films and the effect of the surrounding medium--An undergraduate experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orfanides, P. [Department of Physics, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152 (United States); Buckner, T. F. [Department of Physics, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152 (United States); Buncick, M. C. [Department of Physics, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152 (United States); Meriaudeau, F. [LE21, 12 rue de la fonderie, 71200 Le Creusot, (France); Ferrell, T. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2000-10-01

    We present a demonstration of the surface plasmon phenomenon as it occurs in thin metal island films. The metal films are deposited on glass microscope slides. The effect of the surface plasmon resonance may be observed visually on the slide without further apparatus. Heating the film changes the shape of the islands and therefore the resonant frequency of the surface plasmon and changes the color of the film. Placing the film in a dielectric medium changes the resonance condition for the surface plasmon again and changes the color again. We show this by coating the slides with commercially available liquids with different indices of refraction. We present a theoretical model that assumes the islands are oblate spheroids. There are enough details given so that the equations can be programed and the theoretical optical absorbance can be reproduced. We also present a modification to the theory so that the shift in resonant frequency can be calculated when the spheroids are immersed in the index fluids. We describe our apparatus for making thin films and our optical spectrometer system. We then present optical absorbance measurements of thin films of both Ag and Au in air and in two liquids with different indices of refraction. (c) 2000 American Association of Physics Teachers.

  20. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman

    1977-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  1. Noise reduction of rotating machinery by viscoelastic bearing supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    The demand for silent rolling bearing applications, such as electric motors and gearboxes, has resulted in an investigation of viscoelastic bearing supports. By placing a thin viscoelastic layer between the bearing outer ring and the surrounding structure, vibrations of the shaft-bearing arrangement

  2. Magnetic susceptibility, nanorheology, and magnetoviscosity of magnetic nanoparticles in viscoelastic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Patrick; Evangelopoulos, Apostolos E. A. S.

    2018-03-01

    While magnetic nanoparticles suspended in Newtonian solvents (ferrofluids) have been intensively studied in recent years, the effects of viscoelasticity of the surrounding medium on the nanoparticle dynamics are much less understood. Here we investigate a mesoscopic model for the orientational dynamics of isolated magnetic nanoparticles subject to external fields, viscous and viscoelastic friction, as well as the corresponding random torques. We solve the model analytically in the overdamped limit for weak viscoelasticity. By comparison to Brownian dynamics simulations we establish the limits of validity of the analytical solution. We find that viscoelasticity not only slows down the magnetization relaxation, shifts the peak of the imaginary magnetic susceptibility χ″ to lower frequencies, and increases the magnetoviscosity but also leads to nonexponential relaxation and a broadening of χ″. The model we study also allows us to test a recent proposal for using magnetic susceptibility measurements as a nanorheological tool using a variant of the Germant-DiMarzio-Bishop relation. We find for the present model and certain parameter ranges that the relation of the magnetic susceptibility to the shear modulus is satisfied to a good approximation.

  3. QUASARS PROBING QUASARS. VIII. THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE COOL CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM SURROUNDING z ∼ 2–3 MASSIVE GALAXIES HOSTING QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Marie Wingyee; Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hennawi, Joseph F., E-mail: lwymarie@ucolick.org [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69115 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    We characterize the physical properties of the cool T  ∼ 10{sup 4} K circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding z  ∼ 2–3 quasar host galaxies, which are predicted to evolve into present-day massive ellipticals. Using a statistical sample of 14 quasar pairs with projected separation <300 kpc and spectra of high dispersion and high signal-to-noise ratio, we find extreme kinematics with low metal ion lines typically spanning ≈500 km s{sup −1}, exceeding any previously studied galactic population. The CGM is significantly enriched, even beyond the virial radius, with a median metallicity [M/H] ≈ −0.6. The α /Fe abundance ratio is enhanced, suggesting that halo gas is primarily enriched by core-collapse supernovae. The projected cool gas mass within the virial radius is estimated to be 1.9 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ⊙} ( R {sub ⊥}/160 kpc){sup 2}, accounting for ≈1/3 of the baryonic budget of the galaxy halo. The ionization state of CGM gas increases with projected distance from the foreground quasars, contrary to expectation if the quasar dominates the ionizing radiation flux. However, we also found peculiarities not exhibited in the CGM of other galaxy populations. In one absorption system, we may be detecting unresolved fluorescent Ly α emission, and another system shows strong N v lines. Taken together, these anomalies suggest that transverse sightlines are—at least in some cases—possibly illuminated. We also discovered a peculiar case where detection of the C ii fine-structure line implies an electron density >100 cm{sup −3} and sub-parsec-scale gas clumps.

  4. Modelling Viscoelasticity of Loudspeaker Suspensions using Retardation Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Tobias; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2010-01-01

    , the viscoelastic retardation spectrum, which provides a more fundamental description of the suspension viscoelasticity, is rst used to explain the accuracy of the empirical LOG creep model (Knudsen et al.). Then, two extensions to the LOG model are proposed which include the low and high frequency limit...... of the compliance, not accounted for in the original LOG model. The new creep models are veried by measurements on two 5.5 loudspeakers with different surrounds....

  5. Smart Surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Jansen, P.G.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Scholten, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Ambient systems are networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments and supporting people in their activities. These systems will create a Smart Surrounding for people to facilitate and enrich daily life and increase productivity at work. Such systems will be quite different from

  6. Viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming

    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm, with sperm orienting in the same direction within each cluster, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. A long-chain polyacrylamide solution was used as a model viscoelastic fluid such that its rheology can be fine-tuned to mimic that of bovine cervical mucus. In viscoelastic fluid, sperm formed dynamic clusters, and the cluster size increased with elasticity of the polyacrylamide solution. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian fluids of similar viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction is facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function. We will discuss what the orientation fluctuation within a cluster reveals about the interaction strength. Supported by NIH Grant 1R01HD070038.

  7. Topology optimization of viscoelastic rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2012-01-01

    An approach for the design of microfluidic viscoelastic rectifiers is presented based on a combination of a viscoelastic model and the method of topology optimization. This presumption free approach yields a material layout topologically different from experimentally realized rectifiers...

  8. Viscoelastic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.

  9. Modeling electrically active viscoelastic membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitikantha Roy

    Full Text Available The membrane protein prestin is native to the cochlear outer hair cell that is crucial to the ear's amplification and frequency selectivity throughout the whole acoustic frequency range. The outer hair cell exhibits interrelated dimensional changes, force generation, and electric charge transfer. Cells transfected with prestin acquire unique active properties similar to those in the native cell that have also been useful in understanding the process. Here we propose a model describing the major electromechanical features of such active membranes. The model derived from thermodynamic principles is in the form of integral relationships between the history of voltage and membrane resultants as independent variables and the charge density and strains as dependent variables. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of an active force produced by the outer hair cell in response to a harmonic electric field. Our analysis reveals the mechanism of the outer hair cell active (isometric force having an almost constant amplitude and phase up to 80 kHz. We found that the frequency-invariance of the force is a result of interplay between the electrical filtering associated with prestin and power law viscoelasticity of the surrounding membrane. Paradoxically, the membrane viscoelasticity boosts the force balancing the electrical filtering effect. We also consider various modes of electromechanical coupling in membrane with prestin associated with mechanical perturbations in the cell. We consider pressure or strains applied step-wise or at a constant rate and compute the time course of the resulting electric charge. The results obtained here are important for the analysis of electromechanical properties of membranes, cells, and biological materials as well as for a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing and the role of the protein prestin in this mechanism.

  10. Calibration of trapping force and response function of optical tweezers in viscoelastic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Mario; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2007-01-01

    , 594) is not possible as the viscoelastic properties of the bio-active medium are a priori unknown. Here, we present an approach that neither requires explicit assumptions about the size of the trapped particle nor about the viscoelastic properties of the medium. Instead, the interaction between...... the medium and the trapped particle is described in a general manner, through velocity and acceleration memory. Our method is applicable to general, at least locally homogeneous, viscoelastic media. The procedure combines active and passive approaches by the application of Onsager's regression hypothesis...

  11. A generalization of the bond fluctuation model to viscoelastic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Christian C

    2014-01-01

    A lattice-based simulation method for polymer diffusion in a viscoelastic medium is presented. This method combines the eight-site bond fluctuation model with an algorithm for the simulation of fractional Brownian motion on the lattice. The method applies to unentangled self-avoiding chains and is probed for anomalous diffusion exponents α between 0.7 and 1.0. The simulation results are in very good agreement with the predictions of the generalized Rouse model of a self-avoiding chain polymer in a viscoelastic medium. (paper)

  12. Viscoelasticity of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, W.G.; Hatakeyama, H.

    1992-01-01

    Viscoelasticity of Biomaterials is divided into three sections. The first offers a materials design lesson on the architectural arrangement of biopolymers in collagen. Included also are reviews on solution properties of polysacchardies, chiral and liquid crystalline solution characteristics of cellulose derivatives, and viscoelastic properties of wood and wood fiber reinforced thermoplastics. The second section, Biogels and Gelation, discusses the molecular arrangements of highly hydrated biomaterials such as mucus, gums, skinlike tissue, and silk fibroin. The physical effects that result from the transition from a liquid to a solid state are the subject of the third section, which focuses on relaxation phenomena. Gel formation, the conformation of domain structures, and motional aspects of complex biomaterials are described in terms of recent experimental advances in various fields. A relevant chapter on the effects of ionizing radiation on connective tissue is abstracted separately

  13. Non linear viscoelastic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2011-01-01

    Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated....... The simulations show that the nonlinear version of the Maxwell SLS model can result in a time dependent small signal stiness while the Kelvin Voight version does not....

  14. Modelling nonlinear viscoelastic behaviours of loudspeaker suspensions-like structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillou, Balbine; Lotton, Pierrick; Novak, Antonin; Simon, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical properties of an electrodynamic loudspeaker are mainly determined by its suspensions (surround and spider) that behave nonlinearly and typically exhibit frequency dependent viscoelastic properties such as creep effect. The paper aims at characterizing the mechanical behaviour of electrodynamic loudspeaker suspensions at low frequencies using nonlinear identification techniques developed in recent years. A Generalized Hammerstein based model can take into account both frequency dependency and nonlinear properties. As shown in the paper, the model generalizes existing nonlinear or viscoelastic models commonly used for loudspeaker modelling. It is further experimentally shown that a possible input-dependent law may play a key role in suspension characterization.

  15. Axial Dynamic Stiffness of Tubular Piles in Viscoelastic Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayat, Mehdi; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Large offshore wind turbines are f0W1ded on jacket structures. In this study, an elastic full-space jacket structure foundation in an elastic and viscoelastic medium is investigated by using boundary integral equations. The jacket structure foundation is modeled as a hollow, long circular cylinde...

  16. Forward and inverse viscoelastic wave scattering by irregular inclusions for shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Simon; Cloutier, Guy

    2017-10-01

    Inversion methods in shear wave elastography use simplifying assumptions to recover the mechanical properties of soft tissues. Consequently, these methods suffer from artifacts when applied to media containing strong stiffness contrasts, and do not provide a map of the viscosity. In this work, the shear wave field recorded inside and around an inclusion was used to estimate the viscoelastic properties of the inclusion and surrounding medium, based on an inverse problem approach assuming local homogeneity of both media. An efficient semi-analytical method was developed to model the scattering of an elastic wave by an irregular inclusion, based on a decomposition of the field by Bessel functions and on a decomposition of the boundaries as Fourier series. This model was validated against finite element modeling. Shear waves were experimentally induced by acoustic radiation force in soft tissue phantoms containing stiff and soft inclusions, and the displacement field was imaged at a high frame rate using plane wave imaging. A nonlinear least-squares algorithm compared the model to the experimental data and adjusted the geometrical and mechanical parameters. The estimated shear storage and loss moduli were in good agreement with reference measurements, as well as the estimated inclusion shape. This approach provides an accurate estimation of geometry and viscoelastic properties for a single inclusion in a homogeneous background in the context of radiation force elastography.

  17. Noise Reduction Evaluation of Multi-Layered Viscoelastic Infinite Cylinder under Acoustical Wave Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mofakhami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper sound transmission through the multilayered viscoelastic air filled cylinders subjected to the incident acoustic wave is studied using the technique of separation of variables on the basis of linear three dimensional theory of elasticity. The effect of interior acoustic medium on the mode maps (frequency vs geometry and noise reduction is investigated. The effects of internal absorption and external moving medium on noise reduction are also evaluated. The dynamic viscoelastic properties of the structure are rigorously taken into account with a power law technique that models the viscoelastic damping of the cylinder. A parametric study is also performed for the two layered infinite cylinders to obtain the effect of viscoelastic layer characteristics such as thickness, material type and frequency dependency of viscoelastic properties on the noise reduction. It is shown that using constant and frequency dependent viscoelastic material with high loss factor leads to the uniform noise reduction in the frequency domain. It is also shown that the noise reduction obtained for constant viscoelastic material property is subjected to some errors in the low frequency range with respect to those obtained for the frequency dependent viscoelastic material.

  18. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  19. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  20. Theory of viscoelasticity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, R

    1982-01-01

    Theory of Viscoelasticity: An Introduction, Second Edition discusses the integral form of stress strain constitutive relations. The book presents the formulation of the boundary value problem and demonstrates the separation of variables condition.The text describes the mathematical framework to predict material behavior. It discusses the problems to which integral transform methods do not apply. Another topic of interest is the thermoviscoelastic stress analysis. The section that follows describes the heat conduction, glass transition criterion, viscoelastic Rayleigh waves, optimal str

  1. Flashing subdiffusive ratchets in viscoelastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl; Goychuk, Igor

    2012-01-01

    We study subdiffusive ratchet transport in periodically and randomly flashing potentials. A central Brownian particle is elastically coupled to the surrounding auxiliary Brownian quasi-particles, which account for the influence of the viscoelastic environment. Similar to standard dynamical modeling of Brownian motion, the external force influences only the motion of the central particle, not affecting directly the environmental degrees of freedom. Just a handful of auxiliary Brownian particles suffices to model subdiffusion over many temporal decades. Time modulation of the potential violates the symmetry of thermal detailed balance and induces an anomalous subdiffusive current which exhibits a remarkably small dispersion at low temperatures, as well as a number of other surprising features such as saturation at low temperatures, and multiple inversions of the transport direction upon a change of the driving frequency in the non-adiabatic regime. It is shown that the subdiffusive current is finite at zero temperature for random flashing and can be finite for periodic flashing for a certain frequency window. Our study generalizes classical Brownian motors towards operating in sticky viscoelastic environments such as the cytosol of biological cells or dense polymer solutions. (paper)

  2. Extensional rheometer based on viscoelastic catastrophes outline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a device for determining viscoelastic properties of a fluid. The invention resides inter alia in the generation of viscoelastic catastrophes in confined systems for use in the context of extensional rheology. The viscoelastic catastrophe is according ...... to the invention generated in a bistable fluid system, and the flow conditions for which the catastrophe occurs can be used as a fingerprint of the fluid's viscoelastic properties in extensional flow....

  3. Characteristics of Viscoelastic Crustal Deformation Following a Megathrust Earthquake: Discrepancy Between the Apparent and Intrinsic Relaxation Time Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro

    2018-02-01

    The viscoelastic deformation of an elastic-viscoelastic composite system is significantly different from that of a simple viscoelastic medium. Here, we show that complicated transient deformation due to viscoelastic stress relaxation after a megathrust earthquake can occur even in a very simple situation, in which an elastic surface layer (lithosphere) is underlain by a viscoelastic substratum (asthenosphere) under gravity. Although the overall decay rate of the system is controlled by the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere, the apparent decay time constant at each observation point is significantly different from place to place and generally much longer than the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere. It is also not rare that the sense of displacement rate is reversed during the viscoelastic relaxation. If we do not bear these points in mind, we may draw false conclusions from observed deformation data. Such complicated transient behavior can be explained mathematically from the characteristics of viscoelastic solution: for an elastic-viscoelastic layered half-space, the viscoelastic solution is expressed as superposition of three decaying components with different relaxation time constants that depend on wavelength.

  4. SYNTHESIS OF VISCOELASTIC MATERIAL MODELS (SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bogomolov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principles of structural viscoelastic schemes construction for materials with linear viscoelastic properties in accordance with the given experimental data on creep tests are analyzed. It is shown that there can be only four types of materials with linear visco-elastic properties.

  5. Viscoelastic effect on acoustic band gaps in polymer-fluid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merheb, B; Deymier, P A; Muralidharan, K; Bucay, J; Jain, M; Aloshyna-Lesuffleur, M; Mohanty, S; Berker, A; Greger, R W

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of the propagation of acoustic waves through elastic and viscoelastic two-dimensional phononic crystal structures. Numerical calculations of transmission spectra are conducted by extending the finite-difference-time-domain method to account for linear viscoelastic materials with time-dependent moduli. We study a phononic crystal constituted of a square array of cylindrical air inclusions in a solid viscoelastic matrix. The elastic properties of the solid are those of a silicone rubber. This system exhibits very wide band gaps in its transmission spectrum that extend to frequencies in the audible range of the spectrum. These gaps are characteristic of fluid matrix/air inclusion systems and result from the very large contrast between the longitudinal and transverse speeds of sound in rubber. By treating the matrix as a viscoelastic medium within the standard linear solid (SLS) model, we demonstrate that viscoelasticity impacts the transmission properties of the rubber/air phononic crystal not only by attenuating the transmitted acoustic waves but also by shifting the passing bands frequencies toward lower values. The ranges of frequencies exhibiting attenuation or frequency shift are determined by the value of the relaxation time in the SLS model. We show that viscoelasticity can be used to decrease the frequency of pass bands (and consequently stop bands) in viscoelastic/air phononic crystals

  6. Viscoelastic behaviour of pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    2008-11-01

    The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.

  7. Viscoelastic behavior of rubbery materials

    CERN Document Server

    Roland, C M

    2011-01-01

    The gigantic size of polymer molecules makes them viscoelastic - their behavior changes depending on how fast and for how long the material is used. This book looks at the latest discoveries in the field from a fundamental molecular perspective, in order to guide the development of better and new applications for soft materials.

  8. Analytical solution for static and dynamic analysis of magnetically affected viscoelastic orthotropic double-layered graphene sheets resting on viscoelastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaei, M. H.; Arani, A. Ghorbanpour

    2018-02-01

    By considering the small scale effect based on the nonlocal Eringen's theory, the static and dynamic analysis of viscoelastic orthotropic double-layered graphene sheets subjected to longitudinal magnetic field and mechanical load is investigated analytically. For this objective, first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is proposed. The surrounding medium is simulated by visco-Pasternak foundation model in which damping, normal and transverse shear loads are taken into account. The governing equations of motion are obtained via energy method and Hamilton's principle which are then solved analytically by means of Navier's approach and Laplace inversion technique in the space and time domains, respectively. Through various parametric studies, the influences of the nonlocal parameter, structural damping, van der Waals (vdW) interaction, stiffness and damping coefficient of the foundation, magnetic parameter, aspect ratio and length to thickness ratio on the static and dynamic response of the nanoplates are examined. The results depict that when the vdW interaction is considered to be zero, the upper layer deflection reaches a maximum point whereas the lower layer deflection becomes zero. In addition, it is observed that with growing the vdW interaction, the effect of magnetic field on the deflection of the lower layer increases while this effect reduces for the upper layer deflection.

  9. Characterization and Analysis of Viscoelastically Loaded Thin Film Piezoelectric Resonators Incorporated in AN Oscillator Microsensing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ronald Patrick

    1994-01-01

    In the recent advancement of piezoelectric resonator technology, there has been a large growth in the application of these devices for chemical sensing. These sensors operate by detecting changes in their environment which perturb the electrical - acoustic operation and in turn can be harnessed by means of supporting electronics and signal processing to monitor various processes. Examples include remote environmental monitoring, chemical process control, and commercial gas phase detectors. In this dissertation, the chemical sensing theory and properties of piezoelectric resonators such as the bulk-acoustic wave thin-film resonator (TFR) and the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) are developed. This analysis concentrates on characterizing the resonance behavior of thickness mode resonators based upon the physical properties at the electrode interface which include interfacial mass density, elasticity, viscosity, and thickness of the composite device consisting of the piezoelectric material, the electrodes, and any deposited layer on the electrode surface in contact with the surrounding medium. In this work, no approximation is made as to the stress or particle displacement variation across the visco-elastic film which allows a complete study of the perturbational mechanical variations on the electrical and resonance properties of the composite resonator. The derivation and verification of equivalent circuit models based on the physical properties of the piezoelectric resonator and visco-elastic sensing film are presented. The results and models from this research will be beneficial to surface chemistry studies and also have application to fabrication techniques and electrical modeling. The use of this theory is employed in a study of a QCM coated with a commercially developed negative resist. Photo-polymerization of the resist results in induced visco-elastic structural changes which can be monitored and characterized using the full admittance theory of the composite

  10. A Thermodynamic Theory Of Solid Viscoelasticity. Part 1: Linear Viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D.; Leonov, Arkady I.

    2002-01-01

    The present series of three consecutive papers develops a general theory for linear and finite solid viscoelasticity. Because the most important object for nonlinear studies are rubber-like materials, the general approach is specified in a form convenient for solving problems important for many industries that involve rubber-like materials. General linear and nonlinear theories for non-isothermal deformations of viscoelastic solids are developed based on the quasi-linear approach of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this, the first paper of the series, we analyze non-isothermal linear viscoelasticity, which is applicable in a range of small strains not only to all synthetic polymers and bio-polymers but also to some non-polymeric materials. Although the linear case seems to be well developed, there still are some reasons to implement a thermodynamic derivation of constitutive equations for solid-like, non-isothermal, linear viscoelasticity. The most important is the thermodynamic modeling of thermo-rheological complexity , i.e. different temperature dependences of relaxation parameters in various parts of relaxation spectrum. A special structure of interaction matrices is established for different physical mechanisms contributed to the normal relaxation modes. This structure seems to be in accord with observations, and creates a simple mathematical framework for both continuum and molecular theories of the thermo-rheological complex relaxation phenomena. Finally, a unified approach is briefly discussed that, in principle, allows combining both the long time (discrete) and short time (continuous) descriptions of relaxation behaviors for polymers in the rubbery and glassy regions.

  11. Identification of β-SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    β-SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman ... Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its .... intensity implies very low graphite content in thin film. In.

  12. A homogenization approach for the effective drained viscoelastic properties of 2D porous media and an application for cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sy-Tuan; Vu, Mai-Ba; Vu, Minh-Ngoc; To, Quy-Dong

    2018-02-01

    Closed-form solutions for the effective rheological properties of a 2D viscoelastic drained porous medium made of a Generalized Maxwell viscoelastic matrix and pore inclusions are developed and applied for cortical bone. The in-plane (transverse) effective viscoelastic bulk and shear moduli of the Generalized Maxwell rheology of the homogenized medium are expressed as functions of the porosity and the viscoelastic properties of the solid phase. When deriving these functions, the classical inverse Laplace-Carson transformation technique is avoided, due to its complexity, by considering the short and long term approximations. The approximated results are validated against exact solutions obtained from the inverse Laplace-Carson transform for a simple configuration when the later is available. An application for cortical bone with assumption of circular pore in the transverse plane shows that the proposed approximation fit very well with experimental data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anisotropy in the viscoelastic response of knee meniscus cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccino, Luca; Peres, Chiara; Gottardi, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Diaspro, Alberto; Ceseracciu, Luca

    2017-01-26

    The knee meniscus is instrumental to stability, shock absorption, load transmission and stress distribution within the knee joint. Such functions are mechanically demanding, and replacement constructs used in meniscus repair often fail because of a poor match with the surrounding tissue. This study focused on the native structure-mechanics relationships and on their anisotropic behavior in meniscus, to define the target biomechanical viscoelastic properties required by scaffolds upon loading. To show regional orientation of the collagen fibers and their viscoelastic behavior, bovine lateral menisci were characterized by second harmonic generation microscopy and through time-dependent mechanical tests. Furthermore, their dynamic viscoelastic response was analyzed over a wide range of frequencies. Multilevel characterization aims to expand the biomimetic approach from the structure itself, to include the mechanical characteristics that give the meniscus its peculiar properties, thus providing tools for the design of novel, effective scaffolds. An example of modeling of anisotropic open-cell porous material tailored to fulfill the measured requirements is presented, leading to a definition of additional parameters for a better understanding of the load transmission mechanism and for better scaffold functionality.

  14. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s−1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Viscoelastic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.G. de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of control of sound and vibration of mechanical systems, the use of viscoelastic materials has been regarded as a convenient strategy in many types of industrial applications. Numerical models based on finite element discretization have been frequently used in the analysis and design of complex structural systems incorporating viscoelastic materials. Such models must account for the typical dependence of the viscoelastic characteristics on operational and environmental parameters, such as frequency and temperature. In many applications, including optimal design and model updating, sensitivity analysis based on numerical models is a very usefull tool. In this paper, the formulation of first-order sensitivity analysis of complex frequency response functions is developed for plates treated with passive constraining damping layers, considering geometrical characteristics, such as the thicknesses of the multi-layer components, as design variables. Also, the sensitivity of the frequency response functions with respect to temperature is introduced. As an example, response derivatives are calculated for a three-layer sandwich plate and the results obtained are compared with first-order finite-difference approximations.

  16. Propagation of the Stress Wave Through the Filled Joint with Linear Viscoelastic Deformation Behavior Using Time-Domain Recursive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Hu, Zhiping; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Qiyao

    2017-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of filled joints is mostly controlled by the filled medium. In addition to nonlinear elastic behavior, viscoelastic behavior of filled joints is also of great significance. Here, a theoretical study of stress wave propagation through a filled rock joint with linear viscoelastic deformation behavior has been carried out using a modified time-domain recursive method (TDRM). A displacement discontinuity model was extended to form a displacement and stress discontinuity model, and the differential constitutive relationship of viscoelastic model was adopted to introduce the mass and viscoelastic behavior of filled medium. A standard linear solid model, which can be degenerated into the Kelvin and Maxwell models, was adopted in deriving this method. Transmission and reflection coefficients were adopted to verify this method. Besides, the effects of some parameters on wave propagation across a filled rock joint with linear viscoelastic deformation behavior were discussed. Then, a comparison of the time-history curves calculated by the present method with those by frequency-domain method (FDM) was performed. The results indicated that change tendencies of the transmission and reflection coefficients for these viscoelastic models versus incident angle were the same as each other but not frequency. The mass and viscosity coupling of filled medium did not fundamentally change wave propagation. The modified TDRM was found to be more efficient than the FDM.

  17. pH-induced contrast in viscoelasticity imaging of biopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapp, R D; Insana, M F

    2009-01-01

    Understanding contrast mechanisms and identifying discriminating features is at the heart of diagnostic imaging development. This paper focuses on how pH influences the viscoelastic properties of biopolymers to better understand the effects of extracellular pH on breast tumour elasticity imaging. Extracellular pH is known to decrease as much as 1 pH unit in breast tumours, thus creating a dangerous environment that increases cellular mutatation rates and therapeutic resistance. We used a gelatin hydrogel phantom to isolate the effects of pH on a polymer network with similarities to the extracellular matrix in breast stroma. Using compressive unconfined creep and stress relaxation measurements, we systematically measured the viscoelastic features sensitive to pH by way of time-domain models and complex modulus analysis. These results are used to determine the sensitivity of quasi-static ultrasonic elasticity imaging to pH. We found a strong elastic response of the polymer network to pH, such that the matrix stiffness decreases as pH was reduced; however, the viscous response of the medium to pH was negligible. While physiological features of breast stroma such as proteoglycans and vascular networks are not included in our hydrogel model, observations in this study provide insight into viscoelastic features specific to pH changes in the collagenous stromal network. These observations suggest that the large contrast common in breast tumours with desmoplasia may be reduced under acidic conditions, and that viscoelastic features are unlikely to improve discriminability.

  18. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F, E-mail: Nenadic.Ivan@mayo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  19. Chaotic convection of viscoelastic fluids in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, L.-J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ljsheu@chu.edu.tw; Tam, L.-M. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau, Macau (China)], E-mail: fstlmt@umac.mo; Chen, J.-H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chen@chu.edu.tw; Chen, H.-K. [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Hsiuping Institute of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kanechen@giga.net.tw; Lin, K.-T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: willie@nanya.edu.tw; Kang Yuan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: yk@cycu.edu.tw

    2008-07-15

    Buoyancy-induced convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous medium was analyzed using an Oldroydian-type constitutive relation. An autonomous system with four differential equations was deduced by applying the truncated Galerkin expansion to the momentum and heat transfer equations. The four-dimensional system can be reduced to many systems provided in the literature such as the Lorenz system, Vadasz system, Khayat system, and Akhatov system. Depending on the flow parameters, the asymptotic behavior can be stationary, periodic, or chaotic. Generation of a four-scroll, or two-'butterfly', chaotic attractor was observed. Results also show that stress relaxation tends to precipitate the onset of chaos.

  20. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amit@fs.rri.local.net (Amit Kumar Agarwal)

    our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic ... In the vicinity of the direct beam for a sample aligned in the Bragg mode and. 297 ... experimental investigations on these modes. Duke and Du ..... scattering volume is not true in practice. In an actual ...

  1. The visco-elastic multilayer program VEROAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    The mathematical principles and derivation of a linear visco-elastic multilayer computer program are described. The mathematical derivation is based on Fourier Transformation. The program is called VEROAD, which is an acronym for Visco-Elastic ROad Analysis Delft. The program allows calculation of

  2. Jeans Instability of the Self-Gravitating Viscoelastic Ferromagnetic Cylinder with Axial Nonuniform Rotation and Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Joginder Singh; Sharma, Rajni

    2017-12-01

    The effects of nonuniform rotation and magnetic field on the instability of a self gravitating infinitely extending axisymmetric cylinder of viscoelastic ferromagnetic medium have been studied using the Generalised Hydrodynamic (GH) model. The non-uniform magnetic field and rotation are acting along the axial direction of the cylinder and the propagation of the wave is considered along the radial direction, while the ferrofluid magnetization is taken collinear with the magnetic field. A general dispersion relation representing magnetization, magnetic permeability and viscoelastic relaxation time parameters is obtained using the normal mode analysis method in the linearized perturbation equation system. Jeans criteria which represent the onset of instability of self gravitating medium are obtained under the limits; when the medium behaves like a viscous liquid (strongly coupled limit) and a Newtonian liquid (weakly coupled limit). The effects of various parameters on the Jeans instability criteria and on the growth rate of self gravitating viscoelastic ferromagnetic medium have been discussed. It is found that the magnetic polarizability due to ferromagnetization of medium marginalizes the effect of non-uniform magnetic field on the Jeans instability, whereas the viscoelasticity of the medium has the usual stabilizing effect on the instability of the system. Further, it is found that the cylindrical geometry is more stable than the Cartesian one. The variation of growth rate against the wave number and radial distance has been depicted graphically.

  3. Vibration analysis of viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes resting on a viscoelastic foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Da Peng; Lei, Yong Jun; Shen, Zhi Bin; Wang, Cheng Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Vibration responses were investigated for a viscoelastic Single-walled carbon nanotube (visco-SWCNT) resting on a viscoelastic foundation. Based on the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model, velocity-dependent external damping and Kelvin viscoelastic foundation model, the governing equations were derived. The Transfer function method (TFM) was then used to compute the natural frequencies for general boundary conditions and foundations. In particular, the exact analytical expressions of both complex natural frequencies and critical viscoelastic parameters were obtained for the Kelvin-Voigt visco-SWCNTs with full foundations and certain boundary conditions, and several physically intuitive special cases were discussed. Substantial nonlocal effects, the influence of geometric and physical parameters of the SWCNT and the viscoelastic foundation were observed for the natural frequencies of the supported SWCNTs. The study demonstrates the efficiency and robustness of the developed model for the vibration of the visco-SWCNT-viscoelastic foundation coupling system

  4. Understanding viscoelasticity an introduction to rheology

    CERN Document Server

    Phan-Thien, Nhan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity, in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis of this book is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity. This is a compact book for a first year graduate course in viscoelasticity and modelling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. The Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is introduced as a particle-based method, relevant in modelling of complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed. The third edition has been updated and expanded with new results in the meso-scale modelling, links between...

  5. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    to measure both linear and nonlinear dynamics on a single apparatus. With a software modification to the FSR motor control, we show that linear viscoelasticity can be measured via small amplitude squeeze flow (SASF). Squeeze flow is a combination of both shear and extensional flow applied by axially......Traditionally, linear viscoelasticity is measured using small amplitude oscillatory shear flow. Due to experimental difficulties, shear flows are predominately confined to the linear and mildly nonlinear regime. On the other hand, extensional flows have proven more practical in measuring...... viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...

  6. Understanding Viscoelasticity An Introduction to Rheology

    CERN Document Server

    Phan-Thien, Nhan

    2013-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to viscoelasticity; in particular, to the theories of dilute polymer solutions and dilute suspensions of rigid particles in viscous and incompressible fluids. These theories are important, not just because they apply to practical problems of industrial interest, but because they form a solid theoretical base upon which mathematical techniques can be built, from which more complex theories can be constructed, to better mimic material behaviour. The emphasis is not on the voluminous current topical research, but on the necessary tools to understand viscoelasticity at a first year graduate level. The main aim is to provide a still compact book, sufficient at the level of first year graduate course for those who wish to understand viscoelasticity and to embark in modeling of viscoelastic multiphase fluids. To this end, a new chapter on Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) was introduced which is relevant to model complex-structured fluids. All the basic ideas in DPD are reviewed,...

  7. Viscoelastic model of tungsten 'fuzz' growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S I

    2011-01-01

    A viscoelastic model of fuzz growth is presented. The model describes the main features of tungsten fuzz observed in experiments. It gives estimates of fuzz growth rate and temperature range close to experimental ones.

  8. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  9. VISCOELASTIC STRUCTURAL MODEL OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bogomolov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic rheological model of asphalt concrete based on the generalized Kelvin model is offered. The mathematical model of asphalt concrete viscoelastic behavior that can be used for calculation of asphalt concrete upper layers of non-rigid pavements for strength and rutting has been developed. It has been proved that the structural model of Burgers does not fully meet all the requirements of the asphalt-concrete.

  10. Recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, KR

    1995-01-01

    This is a collection of papers dedicated to Prof T C Woo to mark his 70th birthday. The papers focus on recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity, which are related to Prof Woo's work. Prof Woo's recent work concentrates on the viscoelastic and viscoplastic response of metals and plastics when thermal effects are significant, and the papers here address open questions in these and related areas.

  11. Viscoelastic Properties of Human Tracheal Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safshekan, Farzaneh; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Abdouss, Majid; Shadmehr, Mohammad B

    2017-01-01

    The physiological performance of trachea is highly dependent on its mechanical behavior, and therefore, the mechanical properties of its components. Mechanical characterization of trachea is key to succeed in new treatments such as tissue engineering, which requires the utilization of scaffolds which are mechanically compatible with the native human trachea. In this study, after isolating human trachea samples from brain-dead cases and proper storage, we assessed the viscoelastic properties of tracheal cartilage, smooth muscle, and connective tissue based on stress relaxation tests (at 5% and 10% strains for cartilage and 20%, 30%, and 40% for smooth muscle and connective tissue). After investigation of viscoelastic linearity, constitutive models including Prony series for linear viscoelasticity and quasi-linear viscoelastic, modified superposition, and Schapery models for nonlinear viscoelasticity were fitted to the experimental data to find the best model for each tissue. We also investigated the effect of age on the viscoelastic behavior of tracheal tissues. Based on the results, all three tissues exhibited a (nonsignificant) decrease in relaxation rate with increasing the strain, indicating viscoelastic nonlinearity which was most evident for cartilage and with the least effect for connective tissue. The three-term Prony model was selected for describing the linear viscoelasticity. Among different models, the modified superposition model was best able to capture the relaxation behavior of the three tracheal components. We observed a general (but not significant) stiffening of tracheal cartilage and connective tissue with aging. No change in the stress relaxation percentage with aging was observed. The results of this study may be useful in the design and fabrication of tracheal tissue engineering scaffolds.

  12. Rough viscoelastic sliding contact: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, G.; Putignano, C.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we show how the numerical theory introduced by the authors [Carbone and Putignano, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 61, 1822 (2013), 10.1016/j.jmps.2013.03.005] can be effectively employed to study the contact between viscoelastic rough solids. The huge numerical complexity is successfully faced up by employing the adaptive nonuniform mesh developed by the authors in Putignano et al. [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 60, 973 (2012), 10.1016/j.jmps.2012.01.006]. Results mark the importance of accounting for viscoelastic effects to correctly simulate the sliding rough contact. In detail, attention is, first, paid to evaluate the viscoelastic dissipation, i.e., the viscoelastic friction. Fixed the sliding speed and the normal load, friction is completely determined. Furthermore, since the methodology employed in the work allows to study contact between real materials, a comparison between experimental outcomes and numerical prediction in terms of viscoelastic friction is shown. The good agreement seems to validate—at least partially—the presented methodology. Finally, it is shown that viscoelasticity entails not only the dissipative effects previously outlined, but is also strictly related to the anisotropy of the contact solution. Indeed, a marked anisotropy is present in the contact region, which results stretched in the direction perpendicular to the sliding speed. In the paper, the anisotropy of the deformed surface and of the contact area is investigated and quantified.

  13. Shear test on viscoelastic granular material using Contact Dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Sagnol, Loba; Chazallon, Cyrille

    2017-06-01

    By means of 3D contact dynamic simulations, the behavior of a viscoelastic granular material under shear loading is investigated. A viscoelastic fluid phase surrounding the solid particles is simulated by a contact model acting between them. This contact law was implemented in the LMGC90 software, based on the Burgers model. This model is able to simulate also the effect of creep relaxation. To validate the proposed contact model, several direct shear tests were performed, experimentally and numerically using the Leutner device. The numerical samples were created using spheres with two particle size distribution, each one identified for two layers from a road structure. Our results show a reasonable agreement between experimental and numerical data regarding the strain-stress evolution curves and the stress levels measured at failure. The proposed model can be used to simulate the mechanical behavior of multi-layer road structure and to study the influence of traffic on road deformation, cracking and particles pull-out induced by traffic loading.

  14. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Mechanism for Aftershock Triggering and Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, R.; Zhang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Aftershocks are ubiquitous in nature. They are the manifestation of relaxation phenomena observed in various physical systems. In one prominent example, they typically occur after large earthquakes. They also occur in other natural or experimental systems, for example, in solar flares, in fracture experiments on porous materials and acoustic emissions, after stock market crashes, in the volatility of stock prices returns, in internet traffic variability and e-mail spamming, to mention a few. The observed aftershock sequences usually obey several well defined non-trivial empirical laws in magnitude, temporal, and spatial domains. In many cases their characteristics follow scale-invariant distributions. The occurrence of aftershocks displays a prominent temporal behavior due to time-dependent mechanisms of stress and/or energy transfer. In this work, we consider a slider-block model to mimic the behavior of a seismogenic fault. In the model, we introduce a nonlinear viscoelastic coupling mechanism to capture the essential characteristics of crustal rheology and stress interaction between the blocks and the medium. For this purpose we employ nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt elements consisting of an elastic spring and a dashpot assembled in parallel to introduce viscoelastic coupling between the blocks and the driving plate. By mapping the model into a cellular automaton we derive the functional form of the stress transfer mechanism in the model. We show that the nonlinear viscoelasticity plays a critical role in triggering of aftershocks. It explains the functional form of the Omori-Utsu law and gives physical interpretation of its parameters. The proposed model also suggests that the power-law rheology of the fault gauge and underlying lower crust and upper mantle control the decay rate of aftershocks. To verify this, we analyze several prominent aftershock sequences to estimate their decay rates and correlate with the rheological properties of the underlying lower crust and

  15. 3D Viscoelastic Traction Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M.; Henann, David L.; Franck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in-vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels. PMID:25170569

  16. Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Philip; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft tissue, we report viscoelastic contrast between muscle and connective tissue in fresh, ex vivo rat gastrocnemius muscle and mouse abdominal transection. Imaging viscoelastic creep deformation has the potential to provide complementary contrast to existing imaging modalities, and may provide greater insight into disease pathology.

  17. Viscoelastic love-type surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.

  18. Statistical mapping of the effect of knee extension on thigh muscle viscoelastic properties using magnetic resonance elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhill, Eric; Kennedy, Paul; Van Beek, Edwin J R; Roberts, Neil; Hammer, Steven; Brown, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle viscoelastic properties reflect muscle microstructure and neuromuscular activation. Elastographic methods, including magnetic resonance elastography, have been used to characterize muscle viscoelastic properties in terms of region of interest (ROI) measurements. The present study extended this approach to create thresholded pixel-by-pixel maps of viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscle during rest and knee extension in eleven subjects. ROI measurements were taken for individual quadricep muscles and the quadriceps region as a whole, and the viscoelastic parameter map pixels were statistically tested at positive false discovery rate q ⩽ 0.25. ROI measurements showed significant (p ⩽ 0.05) increase in storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″), with G″ increasing more than G′, in agreement with previous findings. The q-value maps further identified the vastus intermedius as the primary driver of this change, with greater G″/G′ increase than surrounding regions. Additionally, a cluster of significant decrease in G″/G′ was found in the region of vastus lateralis below the fulcrum point of the lift. Viscoelastic parameter mapping of contracted muscle allows new insight into the relationship between physiology, neuromuscular activation, and human performance. (paper)

  19. 2.5-D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modelling using finite-element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-guo; Huang, Xing-xing; Liu, Wei-fang; Zhao, Wei-jun; Song, Jian-yong; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Shang-xu

    2017-10-01

    2-D seismic modelling has notable dynamic information discrepancies with field data because of the implicit line-source assumption, whereas 3-D modelling suffers from a huge computational burden. The 2.5-D approach is able to overcome both of the aforementioned limitations. In general, the earth model is treated as an elastic material, but the real media is viscous. In this study, we develop an accurate and efficient frequency-domain finite-element method (FEM) for modelling 2.5-D viscoelastic wave propagation. To perform the 2.5-D approach, we assume that the 2-D viscoelastic media are based on the Kelvin-Voigt rheological model and a 3-D point source. The viscoelastic wave equation is temporally and spatially Fourier transformed into the frequency-wavenumber domain. Then, we systematically derive the weak form and its spatial discretization of 2.5-D viscoelastic wave equations in the frequency-wavenumber domain through the Galerkin weighted residual method for FEM. Fixing a frequency, the 2-D problem for each wavenumber is solved by FEM. Subsequently, a composite Simpson formula is adopted to estimate the inverse Fourier integration to obtain the 3-D wavefield. We implement the stiffness reduction method (SRM) to suppress artificial boundary reflections. The results show that this absorbing boundary condition is valid and efficient in the frequency-wavenumber domain. Finally, three numerical models, an unbounded homogeneous medium, a half-space layered medium and an undulating topography medium, are established. Numerical results validate the accuracy and stability of 2.5-D solutions and present the adaptability of finite-element method to complicated geographic conditions. The proposed 2.5-D modelling strategy has the potential to address modelling studies on wave propagation in real earth media in an accurate and efficient way.

  20. A boundary integral method for a dynamic, transient mode I crack problem with viscoelastic cohesive zone

    KAUST Repository

    Leise, Tanya L.

    2009-08-19

    We consider the problem of the dynamic, transient propagation of a semi-infinite, mode I crack in an infinite elastic body with a nonlinear, viscoelastic cohesize zone. Our problem formulation includes boundary conditions that preclude crack face interpenetration, in contrast to the usual mode I boundary conditions that assume all unloaded crack faces are stress-free. The nonlinear viscoelastic cohesive zone behavior is motivated by dynamic fracture in brittle polymers in which crack propagation is preceeded by significant crazing in a thin region surrounding the crack tip. We present a combined analytical/numerical solution method that involves reducing the problem to a Dirichlet-to-Neumann map along the crack face plane, resulting in a differo-integral equation relating the displacement and stress along the crack faces and within the cohesive zone. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Linear viscoelastic properties of aging suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnomo, E.H.; Purnomo, E.H; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the linear viscoelastic behavior of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel suspensions in order to obtain insight in the aging processes in these densely packed suspensions at various temperatures below the volume transition temperature. The system is found to display a strong

  2. Viscoelastic Pavement Modeling with a Spreadsheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The aim herein was to equip civil engineers and students with an advanced pavement modeling tool that is both easy to use and highly adaptive. To achieve this, a mathematical solution for a layered viscoelastic half-space subjected to a moving load was developed and subsequently implemented...

  3. experimental viscoelastic characterization of corn cob composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    sufficient to represent the viscoelastic behavior of the corn cob. The effect of moisture content and rates of loading on the mechanical model determined were investigated. 1. ..... F = applied force or residual force σ. = contact stress .... J. Agric. Engineering. Res. 7(4):. 300-315. Journal of the British Society for. Research in ...

  4. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Rene; Hassenkam, Tue; P, Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon fibr...

  5. Viscoelastic fingering with a pulsed pressure signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvera Poire, E; Rio, J A del

    2004-01-01

    We derive a generalized Darcy's law in the frequency domain for a linear viscoelastic fluid flowing in a Hele-Shaw cell. This leads to an analytic expression for the dynamic permeability that has maxima which are several orders of magnitude larger than the static permeability. We then follow an argument of de Gennes (1987 Europhys. Lett. 2 195) to obtain the smallest possible finger width when viscoelasticity is important. Using this and a conservation law, we obtain the lowest bound for the width of a single finger displacing a viscoelastic fluid. When the driving force consists of a constant pressure gradient plus an oscillatory signal, our results indicate that the finger width varies in time following the frequency of the incident signal. Also, the amplitude of the finger width in time depends on the value of the dynamic permeability at the imposed frequency. When the finger is driven with a frequency that maximizes the permeability, variations in the amplitude are also maximized. This gives results that are very different for Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids. For the former ones the amplitude of the oscillation decays with frequency. For the latter ones on the other hand, the amplitude has maxima at the same frequencies that maximize the dynamic permeability

  6. On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...

  7. Isolation of nanoscale exosomes using viscoelastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Exosomes, molecular cargos secreted by almost all mammalian cells, are considered as promising biomarkers to identify many diseases including cancers. However, the small size of exosomes (30-200 nm) poses serious challenges on their isolation from the complex media containing a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs) of different sizes, especially in small sample volumes. Here we develop a viscoelasticity-based microfluidic system to directly separate exosomes from cell culture media or serum in a continuous, size-dependent, and label-free manner. Using a small amount of biocompatible polymer as the additive into the media to control the viscoelastic forces exerted on EVs, we are able to achieve a high separation purity (>90%) and recovery (>80%) of exosomes. The size cutoff in viscoelasticity-based microfluidics can be easily controlled using different PEO concentrations. Based on this size-dependent viscoelastic separation strategy, we envision the handling of diverse nanoscale objects, such as gold nanoparticles, DNA origami structures, and quantum dots. This work was supported financially by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11572334, 91543125).

  8. Impact load time histories for viscoelastic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoykovich, M.

    1977-01-01

    Generation of the impact load time history at the contact point between a viscoelastic missile and its targets is presented. In the past, in the case of aircraft striking containment shell structure, the impact load history was determined on the basis of actual measurements by subjecting a rigid wall to aircraft crash. The effects of elastic deformation of the target upon the impact load time history is formulated in this paper. The missile is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination using viscoelastic models. These models can readily be processed taking into account the elastic as well as inelastic deformations of the missiles. The target is assumed to be either linearly elastic or rigid. In the case of the linearly elastic target, the normal mode theory is used to express the time-dependent displacements of the target which is simulated by lumped masses, elastic properties and dashpots in discrete parts. In the case of Maxwell viscoelastic model, the time-dependent displacements of the missile and the target are given in terms of the unknown impact load time history. This leads to an integral equation which may be solved by Laplace transformation. The normal mode theory is provided. Examples are given for bricks with viscoelastic materials as missiles against a rigid target. (Auth.)

  9. Seismic Analysis of a Viscoelastic Damping Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Wun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic prevention issues are discussed much more seriously around the world after Fukushima earthquake, Japan, April 2011, especially for those countries which are near the earthquake zone. Approximately 1.8×1012 kilograms of explosive energy will be released from a magnitude 9 earthquake. It destroys most of the unprotected infrastructure within several tens of miles in diameter from the epicenter. People can feel the earthquake even if living hundreds of miles away. This study is a seismic simulation analysis for an innovated and improved design of viscoelastic damping isolator, which can be more effectively applied to earthquake prevention and damage reduction of high-rise buildings, roads, bridges, power generation facilities, and so forth, from earthquake disaster. Solidworks graphic software is used to draw the 3D geometric model of the viscoelastic isolator. The dynamic behavior of the viscoelastic isolator through shock impact of specific earthquake loading, recorded by a seismometer, is obtained via ANSYS finite element package. The amplitude of the isolator is quickly reduced by the viscoelastic material in the device and is shown in a time response diagram. The result of this analysis can be a crucial reference when improving the design of a seismic isolator.

  10. Changes in protein solubility, fermentative capacity, viscoelasticity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frozen dough should be stored for fewer than 21 days; time in which the loaf volume of bread made from frozen dough was approximately 40.84% smaller than that of fresh bread dough formulation. Keywords: French type bread, frozen dough, protein solubility, baking quality, viscoelasticity. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  11. Viscoelastic properties of cellular polypropylene ferroelectrets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaal, M.; Bovtun, Viktor; Stark, W.; Erhard, A.; Yakymenko, Y.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 12 (2016), s. 1-12, č. článku 125101. ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-08389S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectrets * viscoelastic properties * ultrasonic Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  12. Experimental Viscoelastic Characterization of Corn Cob Composited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of viscoelasticity in biomateria1s and the techniques for characterizing their rheological properties were reviewed. Relaxation tests were performed with cylindrical samples of corn cob composites which were initially subjected to radial compression. It was found that a Maxwell model composed of two simple ...

  13. Tissue viscoelasticity is related to tissue composition but may not fully predict the apparent-level viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone – An experimental and finite element study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojanen, X.; Tanska, P.; Malo, M. K.H.

    2017-01-01

    Trabecular bone is viscoelastic under dynamic loading. However, it is unclear how tissue viscoelasticity controls viscoelasticity at the apparent-level. In this study, viscoelasticity of cylindrical human trabecular bone samples (n = 11, male, age 18–78 years) from 11 proximal femurs were charact......). These findings indicate that bone tissue viscoelasticity is affected by tissue composition but may not fully predict the macroscale viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone....

  14. Viscoelastic gravel-pack carrier fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehmer, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a fluid to flow adequately into the formation during gravel-pack treatments is critical to achieving a good pack. Recent studies have indicated ''fish-eyes'' and/or ''microgels'' present in many polymer gelled carrier fluids will plug pore throats, leading to impaired leakoff and causing formation damage. Intensive manipulation of the polymer gelled fluid using shear and filter devices will help remove the particles, but it adds to the cost of the treatment in terms of equipment and manpower. Excessive shear will degrade the polymer leading to poor gravel suspension, while too little shear will cause filtration problems. A gelled carried fluid using a viscoelastic surfactant system has been found to leak off very efficiently to the formation, and cause no formation damage, without the use of shear/filter devices. Viscoelastic surfactant-base gelled fluids develop viscosity because of the association of surfactant moloecules into large rod-shaped aggregates. There is no hydration of polymer involved, so fish-eyes and microgels will not be formed in the viscoelastic fluid. A surfactant-base system having a yield point allows the gravel carrying properties to be much better than fluids gelled with conventional polymer systems (hydroxyethylcellulose [HEC]). For example, a gravel carried fluid gelled with 80 lb HEC/1,000 gal has a viscosity of about 400 cp at 170 sec/sup -1/; a viscoelastic surfactant-base system having only one-half the viscosity still flows into cores about four times more efficiently than the HEC-base fluid. The rheology, leakoff, formation damage and mixing properties of a viscoelastic, surfactant-base, gravel-pack carrier fluid are discussed

  15. Acoustic Radiation Force-Induced Creep-Recovery (ARFICR): A Noninvasive Method to Characterize Tissue Viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador Carrascal, Carolina; Chen, Shigao; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography is a promising noninvasive, low cost, and clinically viable tool for liver fibrosis staging. Current shear wave imaging technologies on clinical ultrasound scanners ignore shear wave dispersion and use a single group velocity measured over the shear wave bandwidth to estimate tissue elasticity. The center frequency and bandwidth of shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force depend on the ultrasound push beam (push duration, -number, etc.) and the viscoelasticity of the medium, and therefore are different across scanners from different vendors. As a result, scanners from different vendors may give different tissue elasticity measurements within the same patient. Various methods have been proposed to evaluate shear wave dispersion to better estimate tissue viscoelasticity. A rheological model such as the Kelvin-Voigt model is typically fitted to the shear wave dispersion to solve for the elasticity and viscosity of tissue. However, these rheological models impose strong assumptions about frequency dependence of elasticity and viscosity. Here, we propose a new method called Acoustic Radiation Force Induced Creep-Recovery (ARFICR) capable of quantifying rheological model-independent measurements of elasticity and viscosity for more robust tissue health assessment. In ARFICR, the creep-recovery time signal at the focus of the push beam is used to calculate the relative elasticity and viscosity (scaled by an unknown constant) over a wide frequency range. Shear waves generated during the ARFICR measurement are also detected and used to calculate the shear wave velocity at its center frequency, which is then used to calibrate the relative elasticity and viscosity to absolute elasticity and viscosity. In this paper, finite-element method simulations and experiments in tissue mimicking phantoms are used to validate and characterize the extent of viscoelastic quantification of ARFICR. The results suggest that ARFICR can measure tissue

  16. Viscoelastic crustal deformation by magmatic intrusion: A case study in the Kutcharo caldera, eastern Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Wright, Tim J.; Fukahata, Yukitoshi

    2018-01-01

    Geodetic signals observed at volcanoes, particularly their temporal patterns, have required us to make the correlation between the surface displacement and magmatic process at depth in terms of viscoelastic crustal rheology. Here we use a parallelized 3-D finite element model to examine the response of the linear Maxwell viscoelastic crust and mantle to the inflation of a sill in order to show the characteristics of a long-term volcano deformation. In the model, an oblate-spheroidal sill is instantaneously or gradually inflated in a two-layered medium that consists of an elastic layer underlain by a viscoelastic layer. Our numerical experiments show that syn-inflation surface uplift is followed by post-inflation surface subsidence as the viscoelastic substrate relaxes. For gradual inflation events, the magnitude of inflation-induced uplift is reduced by the relaxation, through which the volume of a magma inferred by matching the prediction of an elastic model with observed surface uplift could be underestimated. For a given crustal viscosity, sill depth is the principal factor controlling subsidence caused by viscoelastic relaxation. The subsidence rate is highest when the inflation occurs at the boundary between the elastic and the viscoelastic layers. The mantle viscosity has an insignificant impact unless the depth of the inflation is greater than a half the crustal thickness. We apply the viscoelastic model to the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data in the Kutcharo caldera, eastern Hokkaido, Japan, where the surface has slowly subsided over a period of approximately three years following about a two-year period of inflation. The emplacement of a magmatic sill is constrained to occur at a depth of 4.5 km, which is significantly shallower than the geophysically imaged large-scale magma chamber. The geodetically detected deformation in the caldera reflects the small-scale emplacement of a magma that ascended from the deeper chamber, but not the

  17. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Rheology and the Occurrence of Aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, R.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Aftershocks are ubiquitous in nature. They are the manifestation of relaxation phenomena observed in various physical systems. In one prominent example, they typically occur after large earthquakes. The observed aftershock sequences usually obey several well defined non-trivial empirical laws in magnitude, temporal, and spatial domains. In many cases their characteristics follow scale-invariant distributions. The occurrence of aftershocks displays a prominent temporal behavior due to time-dependent mechanisms of stress and/or energy transfer. There are compelling evidences that the lower continental crust and upper mantle are governed by various solid state creep mechanisms. Among those mechanisms a power-law viscous flow was suggested to explain the postseismic surface deformation after large earthquakes. In this work, we consider a slider-block model to mimic the behavior of a seismogenic fault. In the model, we introduce a nonlinear viscoelastic coupling mechanism to capture the essential characteristics of crustal rheology and stress interaction between the blocks and the medium. For this purpose we employ nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt elements consisting of an elastic spring and a dashpot assembled in parallel to introduce viscoelastic coupling between the blocks and the driving plate. By mapping the model into a cellular automaton we derive the functional form of the stress transfer mechanism in the model. We show that the nonlinear viscoelasticity plays a critical role in triggering of aftershocks. It explains the functional form of the Omori-Utsu law and gives physical interpretation of its parameters. The proposed model also suggests that the power-law rheology of the fault gauge and underlying lower crust and upper mantle controls the decay rate of aftershocks. To verify this, we analyze several prominent aftershock sequences to estimate their decay rates and correlate with the rheological properties of the underlying lower crust and mantle, which were estimated

  18. Viscoelasticity of metallic, polymeric and oxide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, J.M. [GEMPPM, INSA Lyon, Bat. B. Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)]. E-mail: Jean-marc.Pelletier@insa-lyon.fr; Gauthier, C. [GEMPPM, INSA Lyon, Bat. B. Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Munch, E. [GEMPPM, INSA Lyon, Bat. B. Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2006-12-20

    Present work addresses on mechanical spectroscopy experiments performed on bulk metallic glasses (Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be alloys, Mg-Y-Cu alloys), on oxide glasses (SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO) and on amorphous polymers (polyethylene terephtalate (PET), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), etc.). It appears that whatever the nature of the chemical bonding involved in the material, we observe strong relaxation effects in an intermediate temperature range, near the glass transition temperature. In addition, when crystallization occurs in the initially amorphous material, similar evolution is observed in all the materials. A method is proposed to properly separate elastic, viscoelastic and viscoplastic contributions to the deformation. Finally a physical model is given to describe these viscoelastic phenomena.

  19. Stress wave propagation in linear viscoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Kazuo; Fukuoka, Hidekazu.

    1992-01-01

    Decreasing characteristics of both stress and stress gradient with propagation distance at a 2-dimensional linear viscoelasticity wavefront are derived by using our 3-dimensional theoretical equation for particle velocity discontinuities. By finite-element method code DYNA3D, stress at a noncurvature dilatation wavefront of linear viscoelasticity is shown to decrease exponentially. This result is in good accordance with our theory. By dynamic photoelasticity experiment, stress gradients of urethane rubber plates at 3 types of wavefronts are shown to decrease exponentially at a noncurvature wavefront and are shown to be a decreasing function of (1/√R) exp (α 1 2 /(2α 0 3 ξ)) at a curvature wavefront. These experiment results are in good accordance with our theory. (author)

  20. Quasistatic nonlinear viscoelasticity and gradient flows

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, John M.; Şengül, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    We consider the equation of motion for one-dimensional nonlinear viscoelasticity of strain-rate type under the assumption that the stored-energy function is λ-convex, which allows for solid phase transformations. We formulate this problem as a gradient flow, leading to existence and uniqueness of solutions. By approximating general initial data by those in which the deformation gradient takes only finitely many values, we show that under suitable hypotheses on the stored-energy function the d...

  1. Viscoelastic property identification from waveform reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymarie, N.; Aristégui, C.; Audoin, B.; Baste, S.

    2002-05-01

    An inverse method is proposed for the determination of the viscoelastic properties of material plates from the plane-wave transmitted acoustic field. Innovations lie in a two-step inversion scheme based on the well-known maximum-likelihood principle with an analytic signal formulation. In addition, establishing the analytical formulations of the plate transmission coefficient we implement an efficient and slightly noise-sensitive process suited to both very thin plates and strongly dispersive media.

  2. Viscoelastic creep of high-temperature concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Marchertas, A.H.; Bazant, Z.P.

    1985-01-01

    Presented in this report is the analytical model for analysis of high temperature creep response of concrete. The creep law used is linear (viscoelastic), the temperature and moisture effects on the creep rate and also aging are included. Both constant and transient temperature as well as constant and transient moisture conditions are considered. Examples are presented to correlate experimental data with parameters of the analytical model by the use of a finite element scheme

  3. Determination of the shear impedance of viscoelastic liquids using cylindrical piezoceramic resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczyński, Piotr; Pajewski, Wincenty; Szalewski, Marek

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, a new method for determining the rheological parameters of viscoelastic liquids is presented. To this end, we used the perturbation method applied to shear vibrations of cylindrical piezoceramic resonators. The resonator was viscoelastically loaded on the outer cylindrical surface. Due to this loading, the resonant frequency and quality factor of the resonator changed. According to the perturbation method, the change in the complex resonant frequency deltaomega = deltaomega(re) + jdeltaomega(im) is directly proportional to the specific acoustic impedance for cylindrical waves Zc of a viscoelastic liquid surrounding the resonator, i.e., deltaomega is approximately equal to jZc, where j = (-1)1/2. Hence, the measurement of the real and imaginary parts of the complex resonant frequency deltaomega determines the real part, Rc, and imaginary part, Xc, of the complex acoustic impedance for cylindrical waves Zc of an investigated liquid. Furthermore, the specific impedance ZL for plane waves was related to the specific impedance Zc for cylindrical waves. Using theoretical formulas established and the results of the experiments performed, the shear storage modulus mu and the viscosity eta for various liquids (e.g., epoxy resins) were determined. Moreover, the authors derived for cylindrical resonators a formula that relates the shift in resonant frequency to the viscosity of the liquid. This formula is analogous to the Kanazawa-Gordon formula that was derived for planar resonators and Newtonian liquids.

  4. VISCOELASTIC MODELS OF TIDALLY HEATED EXOMOONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, Vera [Konkoly Thege Miklos Astronomical Institute, Research Centre of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, Budapest (Hungary); Turner, Edwin L., E-mail: dobos@konkoly.hu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 08544, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Tidal heating of exomoons may play a key role in their habitability, since the elevated temperature can melt the ice on the body even without significant solar radiation. The possibility of life has been intensely studied on solar system moons such as Europa or Enceladus where the surface ice layer covers a tidally heated water ocean. Tidal forces may be even stronger in extrasolar systems, depending on the properties of the moon and its orbit. To study the tidally heated surface temperature of exomoons, we used a viscoelastic model for the first time. This model is more realistic than the widely used, so-called fixed Q models because it takes into account the temperature dependence of the tidal heat flux and the melting of the inner material. Using this model, we introduced the circumplanetary Tidal Temperate Zone (TTZ), which strongly depends on the orbital period of the moon and less on its radius. We compared the results with the fixed Q model and investigated the statistical volume of the TTZ using both models. We have found that the viscoelastic model predicts 2.8 times more exomoons in the TTZ with orbital periods between 0.1 and 3.5 days than the fixed Q model for plausible distributions of physical and orbital parameters. The viscoelastic model provides more promising results in terms of habitability because the inner melting of the body moderates the surface temperature, acting like a thermostat.

  5. VISCOELASTIC MODELS OF TIDALLY HEATED EXOMOONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobos, Vera; Turner, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    Tidal heating of exomoons may play a key role in their habitability, since the elevated temperature can melt the ice on the body even without significant solar radiation. The possibility of life has been intensely studied on solar system moons such as Europa or Enceladus where the surface ice layer covers a tidally heated water ocean. Tidal forces may be even stronger in extrasolar systems, depending on the properties of the moon and its orbit. To study the tidally heated surface temperature of exomoons, we used a viscoelastic model for the first time. This model is more realistic than the widely used, so-called fixed Q models because it takes into account the temperature dependence of the tidal heat flux and the melting of the inner material. Using this model, we introduced the circumplanetary Tidal Temperate Zone (TTZ), which strongly depends on the orbital period of the moon and less on its radius. We compared the results with the fixed Q model and investigated the statistical volume of the TTZ using both models. We have found that the viscoelastic model predicts 2.8 times more exomoons in the TTZ with orbital periods between 0.1 and 3.5 days than the fixed Q model for plausible distributions of physical and orbital parameters. The viscoelastic model provides more promising results in terms of habitability because the inner melting of the body moderates the surface temperature, acting like a thermostat

  6. Static viscoelasticity of biomass polyethylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Yang

    Full Text Available The biomass polyethylene composites filled with poplar wood flour, rice husk, cotton stalk or corn stalk were prepared by extrusion molding. The static viscoelasticity of composites was investigated by the dynamic thermal mechanical analyzer (DMA. Through the stress-strain scanning, it is found that the linear viscoelasticity interval of composites gradually decreases as the temperature rises, and the critical stress and strain values are 0.8 MPa and 0.03% respectively. The experiment shows that as the temperature rises, the creep compliance of biomass polyethylene composites is increased; under the constant temperature, the creep compliance decreases with the increase of content of biomass and calcium carbonate. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler can improve damping vibration attenuation and reduce stress deformation of composites. The stress relaxation modulus of composites is reduced and the relaxation rate increases at the higher temperature. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler not only can reduce costs, but also can increase stress relaxation modulus and improve the size thermostability of composites. The corn stalk is a good kind of biomass raw material for composites since it can improve the creep resistance property and the stress relaxation resistance property of composites more effectively than other three kinds of biomass (poplar wood flour, rice husk and cotton stalk. Keywords: Biomass, Composites, Calcium carbonate, Static viscoelasticity, Creep, Stress relaxation

  7. Viscoelastic behaviour of cold recycled asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).

  8. Viscoelastic response of hydrogel materials at finite strains

    OpenAIRE

    Skovly, Martin Johannessen

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogel materials are very soft materials consisting of polymer networks and solvent molecules. The materials may exhibit large volume changes depending on its external chemical and mechanical environment and have viscoelastic properties which is common for many polymeric materials. In order to model the material response with the finite element method, a hydrogel constitutive model have been combined with finite viscoelastic theory and the resulting viscoelastic hydrogel constitutive model ...

  9. Salt type and concentration affect the viscoelasticity of polyelectrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoz, Emre; Perazzo, Antonio; Arnold, Craig B.; Stone, Howard A.

    2018-05-01

    The addition of small amounts of xanthan gum to water yields viscoelastic solutions. In this letter, we show that the viscoelasticity of aqueous xanthan gum solutions can be tuned by different types of salts. In particular, we find that the decrease in viscoelasticity not only depends, as is known, on the salt concentration, but also is affected by the counterion ionic radius and the valence of the salt.

  10. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Bastholm, Sara; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. Spontaneously shed cervical mucus plugs from healthy women in active labor, were tested. The viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs were investigated...... with using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Random-effects regression was used for statistical analysis. The CMPs are solid-like viscoelastic structures and the elastic modulus dominated the viscous modulus at all frequencies. These rheological characteristics...

  11. Viscoelastic material inversion using Sierra-SD and ROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aquino, Wilkins [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kouri, Drew Philip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urbina, Angel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    In this report we derive frequency-domain methods for inverse characterization of the constitutive parameters of viscoelastic materials. The inverse problem is cast in a PDE-constrained optimization framework with efficient computation of gradients and Hessian vector products through matrix free operations. The abstract optimization operators for first and second derivatives are derived from first principles. Various methods from the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL) are tested on the viscoelastic inversion problem. The methods described herein are applied to compute the viscoelastic bulk and shear moduli of a foam block model, which was recently used in experimental testing for viscoelastic property characterization.

  12. Viscoelastic stress modeling in cementitious materials using constant viscoelastic hydration modulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, W.; Liu, Z.; Koenders, E.A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Viscoelastic stress modeling in ageing cementitious materials is of major importance in high performance concrete of low water cement ratio (e.g. w/c ~0.35) where crack resistance due to deformation restraint needs to be determined. Total stress analysis is complicated by the occurrence of internal

  13. Impact load time histories for viscoelastic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoykovich, M.

    1977-01-01

    Generation of the impact load time history at the contact point between a viscoelastic missile and its targets is presented. In the past, in the case of aircraft striking containment shell structure, the impact load time history was determined on the basis of actual measurements by subjecting a rigid wall to aircraft crash. The effects of elastic deformation of the target upon the impact load time history is formulated in this paper. The missile is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination using viscoelastic models. These models can readily be processed taking into account the elastic as well as inelastic deformations of the missiles. The target is assumed to be either linearly elastic or rigid. In the case of the linearly elastic target, the normal mode theory is used to express the time-dependent displacements of the target which is simulated by lumped masses, elastic properties and dashpots in discrete parts. In the case of Maxwell viscoelastic model, the time-dependent displacements of the missile and the target are given in terms of the unknown impact load time history. This leads to an integral equation which may be solved by Laplace transformation. The normal mode theory is provided. The target structure may be composed of different materials with different components. Concrete and steel structural components have inherently different viscous friction damping properties. Hence, the equivalent modal damping depends on the degree of participation of these components in the modal response. An approximate rule for determining damping in any vibration mode by weighting the damping of each component according to the modal energy stored in each component is considered

  14. Experimental Characterization of Innovative Viscoelastic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Viscardi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary trend in the automotive industry has produced over time numerous performance and aesthetic innovations, however, the exponential development related to transportation technologies also introduced new requirements concerning the environmental impact [1]. The awareness of ecological issues has led to a reorganization of the evaluations and the vehicle design, currently aimed at reducing the problems that have emerged in empirical investigations and the parallel increase in environmental solutions. The vehicle renewal process involves targeted technical mutations both to observance of ecology as to the safety and comfort of the driver. New recyclable materials and more resistant have been developed in order to minimize the environmental impact of the vehicle even at the end of the operating life of its components, as well as solutions relating to the reduction of noise pollution generated as a response to the requirements of comfort. Modern research programs on a global scale have set themselves the objective of exploiting the potentiality of innovative technologies in the optimization of vehicles efficiency, the noise reduction and in the consequent reduction of fuel burn. One of the crucial topics in the greening of the new generation automotive sector is therefore the use and development of high vibro-acoustic performance materials. The goal of this research is properly focused on the analysis of viscoelastic materials appointed to increase the damping of the vibrations generated in a vehicle. The use of a viscoelastic material in this context is due to its high property to convert vibrational energy into heat, providing a significant dissipation of the vibrations. Trade-off analyses are performed in order define the stiffness and damping capacity of several viscoelastic foams with different thickness and density.

  15. Seismic Wave Propagation in Layered Viscoelastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    Advances in the general theory of wave propagation in layered viscoelastic media reveal new insights regarding seismic waves in the Earth. For example, the theory predicts: 1) P and S waves are predominantly inhomogeneous in a layered anelastic Earth with seismic travel times, particle-motion orbits, energy speeds, Q, and amplitude characteristics that vary with angle of incidence and hence, travel path through the layers, 2) two types of shear waves exist, one with linear and the other with elliptical particle motions each with different absorption coefficients, and 3) surface waves with amplitude and particle motion characteristics not predicted by elasticity, such as Rayleigh-Type waves with tilted elliptical particle motion orbits and Love-Type waves with superimposed sinusoidal amplitude dependencies that decay exponentially with depth. The general theory provides closed-form analytic solutions for body waves, reflection-refraction problems, response of multiple layers, and surface wave problems valid for any material with a viscoelastic response, including the infinite number of models, derivable from various configurations of springs and dashpots, such as elastic, Voight, Maxwell, and Standard Linear. The theory provides solutions independent of the amount of intrinsic absorption and explicit analytic expressions for physical characteristics of body waves in low-loss media such as the deep Earth. The results explain laboratory and seismic observations, such as travel-time and wide-angle reflection amplitude anomalies, not explained by elasticity or one dimensional Q models. They have important implications for some forward modeling and inverse problems. Theoretical advances and corresponding numerical results as recently compiled (Borcherdt, 2008, Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media, Cambridge University Press) will be reviewed.

  16. Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured viscoelastic matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, M.W.L.; Michels, M.A.J.; Vellinga, W.P.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with rigidity percolation in composite materials consisting of a dispersion of mineral particles in a microstructured viscoelastic matrix. The viscoelastic matrix in this specific case is a hydrocarbon refinery residue. In a set of model random composites the mean interparticle

  17. Numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows with free surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    We present a new methodology to simulate viscoelastic flows with free-surfaces. These simulations are motivated by the modelling of polymers manufacturing techniques, such as extrusion and injection moulding. One of the consequences of viscoelasticity is that polymeric materials have a “memory...

  18. On the Abaqus FEA model of finite viscoelasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Ciambella, Jacopo; Destrade, Michel; Ogden, Ray W.

    2013-01-01

    Predictions of the QLV (Quasi-Linear Viscoelastic) constitutive law are compared with those of the ABAQUS viscoelastic model for two simple motions in order to highlight, in particular, their very different dissipation rates and certain shortcomings of the ABAQUS model.

  19. Transient vibration of thin viscoelastic orthotropic plates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, J.; Valeš, František; Volek, J.; Skočilas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2011), s. 98-107 ISSN 0567-7718. [International Conference on Dynamical Systems - Theory and Applications /10./. Lodz, 07.12.2009-10.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/0946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : transient vibration thin plate * orthotropic * general viscoelastic standard solid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/hn67324178846n4r/

  20. Viscoelastic Analysis of Thermally Stiffening Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Andrew; Rende, Deniz; Senses, Erkan; Akcora, Pinar; Ozisik, Rahmi

    Poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, filled with silica nanoparticles coated with poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, was shown to present thermally stiffening behavior above the glass transition temperature of both PEO and PMMA. In the current study, the viscoelastic beahvior of this nanocomposite system is investigated via nanoindenation experiments to complement on going rheological studies. Results were compared to neat polymers, PEO and PMMA, to understand the effect of coated nanoparticles. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538730.

  1. Pearling Instabilities of a Viscoelastic Thread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblais, A.; Velikov, K. P.; Bonn, D.

    2018-05-01

    Pearling instabilities of slender viscoelastic threads have received much attention, but remain incompletely understood. We study the instabilities in polymer solutions subject to uniaxial elongational flow. Two distinctly different instabilites are observed: beads on a string and blistering. The beads-on-a-string structure arises from a capillary instability whereas the blistering instability has a different origin: it is due to a coupling between stress and polymer concentration. By varying the temperature to change the solution properties we elucidate the interplay between flow and phase separation.

  2. Direct and inverse scattering for viscoelastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammicht, E.; Corones, J.P.; Krueger, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A time domain approach to direct and inverse scattering problems for one-dimensional viscoelastic media is presented. Such media can be characterized as having a constitutive relation between stress and strain which involves the past history of the strain through a memory function, the relaxation modulus. In the approach in this article, the relaxation modulus of a material is shown to be related to the reflection properties of the material. This relation provides a constructive algorithm for direct and inverse scattering problems. A numerical implementation of this algorithm is tested on several problems involving realistic relaxation moduli

  3. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon...... saline, cyclic testing was performed in the pre-yield region at different strain rates, and the elastic response was determined by a stepwise stress relaxation test. The elastic stress-strain response corresponded to a second-order polynomial fit, while the viscous response showed a linear dependence...

  4. Circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schievink, W. I.; Karemaker, J. M.; Hageman, L. M.; van der Werf, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were investigated in a group of 500 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosurgical center. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during stressful events in 42.8% of the patients, during nonstrenuous activities in 34.4%, and during rest or

  5. Correlation between the viscoelastic properties of the gel layer of swollen HPMC matrix tablets and their in vitro drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Rania; Al Baraghthi, Tamadur; Sunoqrot, Suhair

    2016-11-21

    Drug release from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) hydrophilic matrix tablets is controlled by drug diffusion through the gel layer of the matrix-forming polymer upon hydration, matrix erosion or combination of diffusion and erosion mechanisms. In this study, the relationship between viscoelastic properties of the gel layer of swollen intact matrix tablets and drug release was investigated. Two sets of quetiapine fumarate (QF) matrix tablets were prepared using the high viscosity grade HPMC K4M at low (70 mg/tablet) and high (170 mg/tablet) polymer concentrations. Viscoelastic studies using a controlled stress rheometer were performed on swollen matrices following hydration in the dissolution medium for predetermined time intervals. The gel layer of swollen tablets exhibited predominantly elastic behavior. Results from the in vitro release study showed that drug release was strongly influenced by the viscoelastic properties of the gel layer of K4M tablets, which was further corroborated by results from water uptake studies conducted on intact tablets. The results provide evidence that the viscoelastic properties of the gel layer can be exploited to guide the selection of an appropriate matrix-forming polymer, to better understand the rate of drug release from matrix tablets in vitro and to develop hydrophilic controlled-release formulations.

  6. Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David

    2012-01-16

    At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

  7. Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2012-01-01

    At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

  8. A synchronous surround increases the motion strength gain of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-11-12

    Coherent motion detection is greatly enhanced by the synchronous presentation of a static surround (Linares, Motoyoshi, & Nishida, 2012). To further understand this contextual enhancement, here we measured the sensitivity to discriminate motion strength for several pedestal strengths with and without a surround. We found that the surround improved discrimination of low and medium motion strengths, but did not improve or even impaired discrimination of high motion strengths. We used motion strength discriminability to estimate the perceptual response function assuming additive noise and found that the surround increased the motion strength gain, rather than the response gain. Given that eye and body movements continuously introduce transients in the retinal image, it is possible that this strength gain occurs in natural vision.

  9. Measurement of tissue viscoelasticity with ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. F.; Alizad, A.

    2017-02-01

    Tissue properties such as elasticity and viscosity have been shown to be related to such tissue conditions as contraction, edema, fibrosis, and fat content among others. Magnetic Resonance Elastography has shown outstanding ability to measure the elasticity and in some cases the viscosity of tissues, especially in the liver, providing the ability to stage fibrotic liver disease similarly to biopsy. We discuss ultrasound methods of measuring elasticity and viscosity in tissues. Many of these methods are becoming widely available in the extant ultrasound machines distributed throughout the world. Some of the methods to be discussed are in the developmental stage. The advantages of the ultrasound methods are that the imaging instruments are widely available and that many of the viscoelastic measurements can be made during a short addition to the normal ultrasound examination time. In addition, the measurements can be made by ultrasound repetitively and quickly allowing evaluation of dynamic physiologic function in circumstances such as muscle contraction or artery relaxation. Measurement of viscoelastic tissue mechanical properties will become a consistent part of clinical ultrasound examinations in our opinion.

  10. Viscoelasticity of Edam cheese during its ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of the indentation of the ball (10 mm in diameter by the constant speed into blocks of Edam cheese has been conducted. The indentation tests were performed at different speeds (1, 5, 10, 20 and 100 mm/min, and the corresponding force–displacement responses were fitted with an analytical solution to obtain the time-dependent constants and the instantaneous force–displacement response. The measurement has been performed for the cheeses of different stages of their maturity. The dependence of the indentation force on the penetration depth has been evaluated. This dependence can be fitted by a polynom. The indentation force decreases with cheese fat content. It increases with the loading rate. Its value also decreases with the time of the cheese ripening. The recently proposed method for the indenation of the ball into viscoelastic solids has been used for our data analysis. This procedure, which needs the use of the numeric methods, enables to obtain stress relaxation moduli, which describe the viscoelasticity of the tested materials. The obtained moduli describe the stage of the cheese maturity.

  11. Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles in viscoelastic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmer, Hilke, E-mail: h.remmer@tu-bs.de [Institute of Electrical Measurement and Fundamental Electrical Engineering, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Roeben, Eric; Schmidt, Annette M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Universität zu Köln, Köln (Germany); Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank [Institute of Electrical Measurement and Fundamental Electrical Engineering, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    We compare different models for the description of the complex susceptibility of magnetic nanoparticles in an aqueous gelatin solution representing a model system for a Voigt-Kelvin scheme. The analysis of susceptibility spectra with the numerical model by Raikher et al. is compared with the analysis applying a phenomenological, modified Debye model. The fit of the models to the measured data allows one to extract the viscoelastic parameter dynamic viscosity η and shear modulus G. The experimental data were recorded on single-core thermally blocked CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in an aqueous solution with 2.5 wt% gelatin. Whereas the dynamic viscosities obtained by fitting the model – extended by distributions of hydrodynamic diameters and viscosities – agree very well, the derived values for the shear modulus show the same temporal behavior during the gelation process, but vary approximately by a factor of two. To verify the values for viscosity and shear modulus obtained from nanorheology, macrorheological measurements are in progress. - Highlights: • Ac susceptibility spectra of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in aqueous gelatin solution. • Analysis of spectra with different approaches of Voigt-Kelvin model. • Comparison of modified Debye model with numerical model. • Both models provide similar values for viscoelastic parameters.

  12. TIDALLY HEATED TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS: VISCOELASTIC RESPONSE MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Wade G.; O'Connell, Richard J.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal friction in exoplanet systems, driven by orbits that allow for durable nonzero eccentricities at short heliocentric periods, can generate internal heating far in excess of the conditions observed in our own solar system. Secular perturbations or a notional 2:1 resonance between a hot Earth and hot Jupiter can be used as a baseline to consider the thermal evolution of convecting bodies subject to strong viscoelastic tidal heating. We compare results first from simple models using a fixed Quality factor and Love number, and then for three different viscoelastic rheologies: the Maxwell body, the Standard Anelastic Solid (SAS), and the Burgers body. The SAS and Burgers models are shown to alter the potential for extreme tidal heating by introducing the possibility of new equilibria and multiple response peaks. We find that tidal heating tends to exceed radionuclide heating at periods below 10-30 days, and exceed insolation only below 1-2 days. Extreme cases produce enough tidal heat to initiate global-scale partial melting, and an analysis of tidal limiting mechanisms such as advective cooling for earthlike planets is discussed. To explore long-term behaviors, we map equilibria points between convective heat loss and tidal heat input as functions of eccentricity. For the periods and magnitudes discussed, we show that tidal heating, if significant, is generally detrimental to the width of habitable zones.

  13. Polymer engineering science and viscoelasticity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Brinson, Hal F

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a unified mechanics and materials perspective on polymers: both the mathematics of viscoelasticity theory as well as the physical mechanisms behind polymer deformation processes. Introductory material on fundamental mechanics is included to provide a continuous baseline for readers from all disciplines. Introductory material on the chemical and molecular basis of polymers is also included, which is essential to the understanding of the thermomechanical response. This self-contained text covers the viscoelastic characterization of polymers including constitutive modeling, experimental methods, thermal response, and stress and failure analysis. Example problems are provided within the text as well as at the end of each chapter.   New to this edition:   ·         One new chapter on the use of nano-material inclusions for structural polymer applications and applications such as fiber-reinforced polymers and adhesively bonded structures ·         Brings up-to-date polymer pro...

  14. Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic. PMID:26268612

  15. Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-07

    Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic.

  16. Viscoelastic Flow Modelling for Polymer Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Shauvik; Padding, Johan; Peters, Frank; Kuipers, Hans; Multi-scale Modelling of Multi-phase Flows Team

    2015-11-01

    Polymer liquids are used in the oil industry to improve the volumetric sweep and displacement efficiency of oil from a reservoir. Surprisingly, it is not only the viscosity but also the elasticity of the displacing fluid that determine the displacement efficiency. The main aim of our work is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the effect of fluid elasticity, by developing an advanced computer simulation methodology for the flow of non-Newtonian fluids through porous media. We simulate a 3D unsteady viscoelastic flow through a converging diverging geometry of realistic pore dimension using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).The primitive variables velocity, pressure and extra stresses are used in the formulation of models. The viscoelastic stress part is formulated using a FENE-P type of constitutive equation, which can predict both shear and elongational stress properties during this flow. A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach using Finite volume method (FVM) with staggered grid has been applied. A novel second order Immersed boundary method (IBM) has been incorporated to mimic porous media. The effect of rheological parameters on flow characteristics has also been studied. The simulations provide an insight into 3D flow asymmetry at higher Deborah numbers. Micro-Particle Image Velocimetry experiments are carried out to obtain further insights. These simulations present, for the first time, a detailed computational study of the effects of fluid elasticity on the imbibition of an oil phase.

  17. Local linear viscoelasticity of confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J S; Daivis, P J; Todd, B D

    2007-04-14

    In this paper the authors propose a novel method to study the local linear viscoelasticity of fluids confined between two walls. The method is based on the linear constitutive equation and provides details about the real and imaginary parts of the local complex viscosity. They apply the method to a simple atomic fluid undergoing zero mean oscillatory flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The method shows that the viscoelastic properties of the fluid exhibit dramatic spatial changes near the wall-fluid boundary due to the high density in this region. It is also shown that the real part of the viscosity converges to the frequency dependent local shear viscosity sufficiently far away from the wall. This also provides valuable information about the transport properties in the fluid, in general. The viscosity is compared with predictions from the local average density model. The two methods disagree in that the local average density model predicts larger viscosity variations near the wall-fluid boundary than what is observed through the method presented here.

  18. Time dependence of volcano inflation: mass influx or viscoelastic relaxation? Insights from Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, P.

    2017-12-01

    Distinguishing magma chamber pressurization from relaxation of a viscoelastic aureole surrounding the chamber based on geodetic measurements has remained challenging. Elastic models with mass inflow proportional to the pressure difference between the chamber and a deep reservoir predict exponentially decaying flux. For a spherical chamber surrounded by a Maxwell viscoelastic shell with pressure dependent recharge, the surface deformation is the sum of two exponentials (Segall, 2016). GPS displacements following eruptions of Grímsvötn, Iceland in 2004 and 2011 exhibit rapid post-eruptive inflation (time scale of 0.1 yr), followed by inflation with a much longer time constant. Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion with the viscoelastic model shows the GPS time series can be fit with viscosity of 2e16 Pa-s, and a relatively incompressible magma, B = beta_c/ (beta_m + beta_c) > 0.6, where beta_m and beta_c are chamber and magma compressibility. The latter appears to conflict with the ratio of erupted volume to geodetically inferred source volume change, rv 10, obtained for the best fitting spherical (Mogi ) source (Hreinsdóttir, 2014). Since rv = 1/B, this implies a relatively compressible melt, B 0.1. Reexamination of the co-eruptive GPS and tilt data with the more general ellipsoidal model of Cervelli (2013), reveals that the best fitting sources are oblate (b/a 3), deeper, and with larger volume changes, rv 3, relative to spherical models. Oblate magma chambers are consistent with seismic tomography. FEM calculations including free surface effects lead to even larger co-eruptive volume changes, smaller rv and hence larger B. I conclude that the data are consistent with rapid post-eruptive inflation driven by viscoelastic relaxation with a relatively incompressible magma, although other interpretations will be discussed.

  19. Viscoelasticity evaluation of rubber by surface reflection of supersonic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Nobuaki; Suga, Takahiro; Furusawa, Hirokazu; Urabe, Shinichi; Kondo, Takeru; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2006-12-22

    The main characteristic of rubber is a viscoelasticity. So it is important to research the characteristic of the viscoelasticity of the high frequency band for the friction between a rubber material and the hard one with roughness, for instance, the tire and the road. As for the measurement of the viscoelasticity of rubber, DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis) is general. However, some problems are pointed out to the measurement of the high frequency band by DMA. Then, we evaluated the viscoelasticity characteristic by the supersonic wave measurement. However, attenuation of rubber is large, and when the viscoelasticity is measured by the supersonic wave therefore, it is inconvenient and limited in a past method by means of bottom reflection. In this report, we tried the viscoelasticity evaluation by the method of using complex surface reflection coefficient and we compared with the friction coefficient under wide-range friction velocity. As a result, some relationships had been found for two properties. We report the result that character of viscoelasticity of rubber was comparable to friction coefficient.

  20. Interrogating the viscoelastic properties of tissue using viscoelastic response (VISR) ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzo, Mallory Renee

    Affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 newborn males, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic disorders in humans. Boys with DMD suffer progressive loss of muscle strength and function, leading to wheelchair dependence, cardiac and respiratory compromise, and death during young adulthood. There are currently no treatments that can halt or reverse the disease progression, and translating prospective treatments into clinical trials has been delayed by inadequate outcome measures. Current outcome measures, such as functional and muscle strength assessments, lack sensitivity to individual muscles, require subjective effort of the child, and are impacted by normal childhood growth and development. The goal of this research is to develop Viscoelastic Response (VisR) ultrasound which can be used to delineate compositional changes in muscle associated with DMD. In VisR, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is used to produce small, localized displacements within the muscle. Using conventional ultrasound to track the motion, the displacement response of the tissue can be evaluated against a mechanical model. In order to develop signal processing techniques and assess mechanical models, finite element method simulations are used to model the response of a viscoelastic material to ARF excitations. Results are then presented demonstrating VisR differentiation of viscoelastic changes with progressive dystrophic degeneration in a dog model of DMD. Finally, clinical feasibility of VisR imaging is demonstrated in two boys with DMD.

  1. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara K.; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer

    2014-01-01

    labor. MethodsViscoelastic properties of CMPs were investigated with a dynamic oscillatory rheometer using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Main outcome measuresThe rheological variables obtained were as follows: elastic modulus (G), viscous modulus (G......ObjectiveTo characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. DesignExperimental research. SettingDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Population/SampleSpontaneously shed CMPs from 18 healthy women in active...

  2. Thermal convection of viscoelastic shear-thinning fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaalbaki, Bashar; Khayat, Roger E; Ahmed, Zahir U

    2016-01-01

    The Rayleigh–Bénard convection for non-Newtonian fluids possessing both viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviours is examined. The Phan-Thien–Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation is implemented to model the non-Newtonian character of the fluid. It is found that while the shear-thinning and viscoelastic effects could annihilate one another for the steady roll flow, presence of both behaviours restricts the roll stability limit significantly compared to the cases when the fluid is either inelastic shear-thinning or purely viscoelastic with constant viscosity. (paper)

  3. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  4. Water evaporation on highly viscoelastic polymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Gang; Severtson, Steven J

    2012-07-03

    Results are reported for a study on the evaporation of water droplets from a highly viscoelastic acrylic polymer surface. These are contrasted with those collected for the same measurements carried out on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For PDMS, the evaporation process involves the expected multistep process including constant drop area, constant contact angle, and finally a combination of these steps until the liquid is gone. In contrast, water evaporation from the acrylic polymer shows a constant drop area mode throughout. Furthermore, during the evaporation process, the drop area actually expands on the acrylic polymer. The single mode evaporation process is consistent with formation of wetting structures, which cannot be propagated by the capillary forces. Expansion of the drop area is attributed to the influence of the drop capillary pressure. Furthermore, the rate of drop area expansion is shown to be dependent on the thickness of the polymer film.

  5. Viscoelastic characterization of soft biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Vinod Timothy

    Progressive and irreversible retinal diseases are among the primary causes of blindness in the United States, attacking the cells in the eye that transform environmental light into neural signals for the optic pathway. Medical implants designed to restore visual function to afflicted patients can cause mechanical stress and ultimately damage to the host tissues. Research shows that an accurate understanding of the mechanical properties of the biological tissues can reduce damage and lead to designs with improved safety and efficacy. Prior studies on the mechanical properties of biological tissues show characterization of these materials can be affected by environmental, length-scale, time, mounting, stiffness, size, viscoelastic, and methodological conditions. Using porcine sclera tissue, the effects of environmental, time, and mounting conditions are evaluated when using nanoindentation. Quasi-static tests are used to measure reduced modulus during extended exposure to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), as well as the chemical and mechanical analysis of mounting the sample to a solid substrate using cyanoacrylate. The less destructive nature of nanoindentation tests allows for variance of tests within a single sample to be compared to the variance between samples. The results indicate that the environmental, time, and mounting conditions can be controlled for using modified nanoindentation procedures for biological samples and are in line with averages modulus values from previous studies but with increased precision. By using the quasi-static and dynamic characterization capabilities of the nanoindentation setup, the additional stiffness and viscoelastic variables are measured. Different quasi-static control methods were evaluated along with maximum load parameters and produced no significant difference in reported reduced modulus values. Dynamic characterization tests varied frequency and quasi-static load, showing that the agar could be modeled as a linearly

  6. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  7. Algebraic Theory of Linear Viscoelastic Nematodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, Arkady I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. The first one develops algebraic theory of linear anisotropic nematic 'N-operators' build up on the additive group of traceless second rank 3D tensors. These operators have been implicitly used in continual theories of nematic liquid crystals and weakly elastic nematic elastomers. It is shown that there exists a non-commutative, multiplicative group N 6 of N-operators build up on a manifold in 6D space of parameters. Positive N-operators, which in physical applications hold thermodynamic stability constraints, do not generally form a subgroup of group N 6 . A three-parametric, commutative transversal-isotropic subgroup S 3 subset of N 6 of positive symmetric nematic operators is also briefly discussed. The special case of singular, non-negative symmetric N-operators reveals the algebraic structure of nematic soft deformation modes. The second part of the paper develops a theory of linear viscoelastic nematodynamics applicable to liquid crystalline polymer. The viscous and elastic nematic components in theory are described by using the Leslie-Ericksen-Parodi (LEP) approach for viscous nematics and de Gennes free energy for weakly elastic nematic elastomers. The case of applied external magnetic field exemplifies the occurrence of non-symmetric stresses. In spite of multi-(10) parametric character of the theory, the use of nematic operators presents it in a transparent form. When the magnetic field is absent, the theory is simplified for symmetric case with six parameters, and takes an extremely simple, two-parametric form for viscoelastic nematodynamics with possible soft deformation modes. It is shown that the linear nematodynamics is always reducible to the LEP-like equations where the coefficients are changed for linear memory functionals whose parameters are calculated from original viscosities and moduli

  8. Pullman transportation plan : a transportation and access plan for Pullman National Monument and the surrounding neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Pullman Transportation Plan provides a holistic set of recommendations to improve access to and from Pullman National Monument and its surrounding neighborhoods for both visitors and residents. In this plan, we identify short-, medium-, and long-...

  9. Viscoelasticity in Polymers: Phenomenological to Molecular Mathematical Modelling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, H. T; Luke, N. S

    2006-01-01

    We report on two recent advances in the modelling of viscoelastic polymers: (i) a new constitutive model which combines the virtual stick-slip continuum "molecular-based" ideas of Johnson and Stacer with the Rouse bead chain ideas; (ii...

  10. Linear Viscoelasticity, Reptation, Chain Stretching and Constraint Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Schieber, Jay D.; Venerus, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A recently proposed self-consistent reptation model - alreadysuccessful at describing highly nonlinear shearing flows of manytypes using no adjustable parameters - is used here to interpretthe linear viscoelasticity of the same entangled polystyrenesolution. Using standard techniques, a relaxatio...

  11. Experimental characterisation of a novel viscoelastic rectifier design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin; Szabo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A planar microfluidic system with contractions and obstacles is characterized in terms of anisotropic flow resistance due to viscoelastic effects. The working mechanism is illustrated using streak photography, while the diodicity performance is quantified by pressure drop measurements. The point ...

  12. Stagnation point flow and heat transfer for a viscoelastic fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M REZA

    2017-11-09

    Nov 9, 2017 ... MS received 15 August 2016; revised 26 February 2017; accepted 15 March 2017; published online 9 ... surface has several engineering applications within, for ... viscoelastic fluids in several industrial manufacturing pro-.

  13. Large deflection of viscoelastic beams using fractional derivative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahranini, Seyed Masoud Sotoodeh; Eghtesad, Mohammad; Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Farid, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with large deflection of viscoelastic beams using a fractional derivative model. For this purpose, a nonlinear finite element formulation of viscoelastic beams in conjunction with the fractional derivative constitutive equations has been developed. The four-parameter fractional derivative model has been used to describe the constitutive equations. The deflected configuration for a uniform beam with different boundary conditions and loads is presented. The effect of the order of fractional derivative on the large deflection of the cantilever viscoelastic beam, is investigated after 10, 100, and 1000 hours. The main contribution of this paper is finite element implementation for nonlinear analysis of viscoelastic fractional model using the storage of both strain and stress histories. The validity of the present analysis is confirmed by comparing the results with those found in the literature.

  14. Stability of non-linear constitutive formulations for viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Siginer, Dennis A

    2014-01-01

    Stability of Non-linear Constitutive Formulations for Viscoelastic Fluids provides a complete and up-to-date view of the field of constitutive equations for flowing viscoelastic fluids, in particular on their non-linear behavior, the stability of these constitutive equations that is their predictive power, and the impact of these constitutive equations on the dynamics of viscoelastic fluid flow in tubes. This book gives an overall view of the theories and attendant methodologies developed independently of thermodynamic considerations as well as those set within a thermodynamic framework to derive non-linear rheological constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids. Developments in formulating Maxwell-like constitutive differential equations as well as single integral constitutive formulations are discussed in the light of Hadamard and dissipative type of instabilities.

  15. On the stabilization of viscoelastic laminated beams with interfacial slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Muhammad I.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we consider a viscoelastic laminated beam model. This structure is given by two identical uniform layers on top of each other, taking into account that an adhesive of small thickness is bonding the two surfaces and produces an interfacial slip. We use viscoelastic damping with general assumptions on the relaxation function and establish explicit energy decay result from which we can recover the optimal exponential and polynomial rates. Our result generalizes the earlier related results in the literature.

  16. Investigation of transient cavitating flow in viscoelastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keramat, A; Tijsseling, A S; Ahmadi, A

    2010-01-01

    A study on water hammer in viscoelastic pipes when the fluid pressure drops to liquid vapour pressure is performed. Two important concepts including column separation and the effects of retarded strains in the pipe wall on the fluid response have been investigated separately in recent works, but there is some curiosity as to how the results for pressure and discharge are when column separation occurs in a viscoelastic pipe. For pipes made of plastic such as polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), viscoelasticity is a crucial mechanical property which changes the hydraulic and structural transient responses. Based on previous developments in the analysis of water hammer, a model which is capable of analysing column separation in viscoelastic pipes is presented and used for solving the selected case studies. For the column-separation modelling the Discrete Vapour Cavity Model (DVCM) is utilised and the viscoelasticity property of the pipe wall is modelled by Kelvin-Voigt elements. The effects of viscoelasticity play an important role in the column separation phenomenon because it changes the water hammer fundamental frequency and so affects the time of opening or collapse of the cavities. Verification of the implemented computer code is performed for the effects of viscoelasticity and column separation - separately and simultaneously - using experimental results from the literature. In the provided examples the focus is placed on the simultaneous effect of viscoelasticity and column separation on the hydraulic transient response. The final conclusions drawn are that if rectangular grids are utilised the DVCM gives acceptable predictions of the phenomenon and that the pipe wall material's retarded behaviour strongly dampens the pressure spikes caused by column separation.

  17. Estimation of piezoelastic and viscoelastic properties in laminated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araujo, A. L.; Soares, C. M. Mota; Herskovits, J.

    2009-01-01

    An inverse method for material parameter estimation of elastic, piezoelectric and viscoelastic laminated plate structures is presented. The method uses a gradient based optimization technique in order to solve the inverse problem, through minimization of an error functional which expresses...... the difference between experimental free vibration data and corresponding numerical data produced by a finite element model. The complex modulus approach is used to model the viscoelastic material behavior, assuming hysteretic type damping. Applications that illustrate the influence of adhesive material...

  18. Investigation of transient cavitating flow in viscoelastic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramat, A.; Tijsseling, A. S.; Ahmadi, A.

    2010-08-01

    A study on water hammer in viscoelastic pipes when the fluid pressure drops to liquid vapour pressure is performed. Two important concepts including column separation and the effects of retarded strains in the pipe wall on the fluid response have been investigated separately in recent works, but there is some curiosity as to how the results for pressure and discharge are when column separation occurs in a viscoelastic pipe. For pipes made of plastic such as polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), viscoelasticity is a crucial mechanical property which changes the hydraulic and structural transient responses. Based on previous developments in the analysis of water hammer, a model which is capable of analysing column separation in viscoelastic pipes is presented and used for solving the selected case studies. For the column-separation modelling the Discrete Vapour Cavity Model (DVCM) is utilised and the viscoelasticity property of the pipe wall is modelled by Kelvin-Voigt elements. The effects of viscoelasticity play an important role in the column separation phenomenon because it changes the water hammer fundamental frequency and so affects the time of opening or collapse of the cavities. Verification of the implemented computer code is performed for the effects of viscoelasticity and column separation - separately and simultaneously - using experimental results from the literature. In the provided examples the focus is placed on the simultaneous effect of viscoelasticity and column separation on the hydraulic transient response. The final conclusions drawn are that if rectangular grids are utilised the DVCM gives acceptable predictions of the phenomenon and that the pipe wall material's retarded behaviour strongly dampens the pressure spikes caused by column separation.

  19. Modelling water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines: short brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, K.; Firkowski, M.; Zarzycki, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The model of water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines is analyzed. An appropriate mathematical model of water hammer in polymer pipelines is presented. An additional term has been added to continuity equation to describe the retarded deformation of the pipe wall. The mechanical behavior of viscoelastic material is described by generalized Kelvin-Voigt model. The comparison of numerical simulation and experimental data from well known papers is presented. Short discussion about obtained results are given.

  20. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Hybrid Vibration Control under Broadband Excitation and Variable Temperature Using Viscoelastic Neutralizer and Adaptive Feedforward Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. O. Marra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibratory phenomena have always surrounded human life. The need for more knowledge and domain of such phenomena increases more and more, especially in the modern society where the human-machine integration becomes closer day after day. In that context, this work deals with the development and practical implementation of a hybrid (passive-active/adaptive vibration control system over a metallic beam excited by a broadband signal and under variable temperature, between 5 and 35°C. Since temperature variations affect directly and considerably the performance of the passive control system, composed of a viscoelastic dynamic vibration neutralizer (also called a viscoelastic dynamic vibration absorber, the associative strategy of using an active-adaptive vibration control system (based on a feedforward approach with the use of the FXLMS algorithm working together with the passive one has shown to be a good option to compensate the neutralizer loss of performance and generally maintain the extended overall level of vibration control. As an additional gain, the association of both vibration control systems (passive and active-adaptive has improved the attenuation of vibration levels. Some key steps matured over years of research on this experimental setup are presented in this paper.

  3. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  4. Framework for analyzing hyper-viscoelastic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Akash; Siviour, Clive

    2017-06-01

    Hyper-viscoelastic polymers have multiple areas of application including aerospace, biomedicine, and automotive. Their mechanical responses are therefore extremely important to understand, particularly because they exhibit strong rate and temperature dependence, including a low temperature brittle transition. Relationships between the response at various strain rates and temperatures are investigated and a framework developed to predict response at rates where experiments are unfeasible. A master curve of the storage modulus's rate dependence at a reference temperature is constructed using a DMA test of the polymer. A frequency sweep spanning two decades and a temperature range from pre-glass transition to pre-melt is used. A fractional derivative model is fitted to the experimental data, and this model's parameters are used to derive stress-strain relationships at a desired strain rate. Finite element simulations with this constitutive model are used for verification with experimental data. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Air Force Materiel Command, USAF under Award No. FA9550-15-1-0448.

  5. Viscoelastic response of a model endothelial glycocalyx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijenhuis, Nadja; Spaan, Jos A E; Mizuno, Daisuke; Schmidt, Christoph F

    2009-01-01

    Many cells cover themselves with a multifunctional polymer coat, the pericellular matrix (PCM), to mediate mechanical interactions with the environment. A particular PCM, the endothelial glycocalyx (EG), is formed by vascular endothelial cells at their luminal side, forming a mechanical interface between the flowing blood and the endothelial cell layer. The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) hyaluronan (HA) is involved in the main functions of the EG, mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress and molecular sieving. HA, due to its length, is the only GAG in the EG or any other PCM able to form an entangled network. The mechanical functions of the EG are, however, impaired when any one of its components is removed. We here used microrheology to measure the effect of the EG constituents heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, whole blood plasma and albumin on the high-bandwidth mechanical properties of a HA solution. Furthermore, we probed the effect of the hyaldherin aggrecan, a constituent of the PCM of chondrocytes, and very similar to versican (present in the PCM of various cells, and possibly in the EG). We show that components directly interacting with HA (chondroitin sulfate and aggrecan) can increase the viscoelastic shear modulus of the polymer composite

  6. Deformation of extreme viscoelastic metals and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.C.; Ludwigson, M.; Lakes, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    The figure of merit for structural damping and damping layer applications is the product of stiffness E and damping tan δ. For most materials, even practical polymer damping layers, E tan δ is less than 0.6 GPa. We consider several methods to achieve high values of this figure of merit: high damping metals, metal matrix composites and composites containing constituents of negative stiffness. As for high damping metals, damping of polycrystalline zinc was determined and compared with InSn studied earlier. Damping of Zn is less dependent on frequency than that of InSn, so Zn is superior at high frequency. High damping and large stiffness anomalies are possible in viscoelastic composites with inclusions of negative stiffness. Negative stiffness entails a reversal of the usual directional relationship between force and displacement in deformed objects. An isolated object with negative stiffness is unstable, but an inclusion embedded in a composite matrix can be stabilized under some circumstances. Ferroelastic domains in the vicinity of a phase transition can exhibit a region of negative stiffness. Metal matrix composites containing vanadium dioxide were prepared and studied. The concentration of embedded particles was sensitive to the processing method

  7. Effects of a Pseudophysiological Environment on the Elastic and Viscoelastic Properties of Collagen Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghezi, Sébastien; Couet, Frédéric; Chevallier, Pascale; Mantovani, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Vascular tissue engineering focuses on the replacement of diseased small-diameter blood vessels with a diameter less than 6 mm for which adequate substitutes still do not exist. One approach to vascular tissue engineering is to culture vascular cells on a scaffold in a bioreactor. The bioreactor establishes pseudophysiological conditions for culture (medium culture, 37°C, mechanical stimulation). Collagen gels are widely used as scaffolds for tissue regeneration due to their biological properties; however, they exhibit low mechanical properties. Mechanical characterization of these scaffolds requires establishing the conditions of testing in regard to the conditions set in the bioreactor. The effects of different parameters used during mechanical testing on the collagen gels were evaluated in terms of mechanical and viscoelastic properties. Thus, a factorial experiment was adopted, and three relevant factors were considered: temperature (23°C or 37°C), hydration (aqueous saline solution or air), and mechanical preconditioning (with or without). Statistical analyses showed significant effects of these factors on the mechanical properties which were assessed by tensile tests as well as stress relaxation tests. The last tests provide a more consistent understanding of the gels' viscoelastic properties. Therefore, performing mechanical analyses on hydrogels requires setting an adequate environment in terms of temperature and aqueous saline solution as well as choosing the adequate test. PMID:22844285

  8. A viscoelastic-viscoplastic model for short-fibre reinforced polymers with complex fibre orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nciri M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative approach for the modelling of viscous behaviour of short-fibre reinforced composites (SFRC with complex distributions of fibre orientations and for a wide range of strain rates. As an alternative to more complex homogenisation methods, the model is based on an additive decomposition of the state potential for the computation of composite’s macroscopic behaviour. Thus, the composite material is seen as the assembly of a matrix medium and several linear elastic fibre media. The division of short fibres into several families means that complex distributions of orientation or random orientation can be easily modelled. The matrix behaviour is strain-rate sensitive, i.e. viscoelastic and/or viscoplastic. Viscoelastic constitutive laws are based on a generalised linear Maxwell model and the modelling of the viscoplasticity is based on an overstress approach. The model is tested for the case of a polypropylene reinforced with short-glass fibres with distributed orientations and subjected to uniaxial tensile tests, in different loading directions and under different strain rates. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the model over a wide range of strain rates.

  9. Viscoelastic, Spectroscopic, and Microscopic Characterization of Novel Bio-Based Plasticized Poly(vinyl chloride Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Chan Sin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride (PVC is one of the most widely consumed commodity plastics. Nevertheless, the commonly used plasticizers, particularly phthalates, are found to be detrimental to the environment and human health. This study aimed to investigate the ability of an alternative greener material, medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA, a kind of biopolyester and its thermally degraded oligoesters, to act as a compatible bioplasticizer for PVC. In this study, mcl-PHA were synthesized by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 in shake flask fermentation using saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO and subsequently moderately thermodegraded to low molecular weight oligoesters (degPHA. SEM, ATR-FTIR, 1H-NMR, and DMA were conducted to study the film morphology, microstructure, miscibility, and viscoelastic properties of the PVC-PHA and PVC/degPHA binary blends. Increased height and sharpness of tan δmax⁡ peak for all binary blends reveal an increase in chain mobility in the PVC matrix and high miscibility within the system. The PVC-PHA miscibility is possibly due to the presence of specific interactions between chlorines of PVC with the C=O group of PHA as evidenced by spectroscopic analyses. Dynamic viscoelastic measurements also showed that mcl-PHA and their oligoesters could reduce the Tg of PVC, imparting elasticity to the PVC compounds and decreasing the stiffness of PVC.

  10. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic properties. Th...

  11. Viscoelastic properties of doped-ceria under reduced oxygen partial pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teocoli, Francesca; Esposito, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of gadolinium-doped ceria (CGO) powder compacts are characterized during sintering and cooling under reduced oxygen partial pressure and compared with conventional sintering in air. Highly defective doped ceria in reducing conditions shows peculiar viscoelastic...

  12. Bifurcation and chaos of an axially accelerating viscoelastic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaodong; Chen Liqun

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates bifurcation and chaos of an axially accelerating viscoelastic beam. The Kelvin-Voigt model is adopted to constitute the material of the beam. Lagrangian strain is used to account for the beam's geometric nonlinearity. The nonlinear partial-differential equation governing transverse motion of the beam is derived from the Newton second law. The Galerkin method is applied to truncate the governing equation into a set of ordinary differential equations. By use of the Poincare map, the dynamical behavior is identified based on the numerical solutions of the ordinary differential equations. The bifurcation diagrams are presented in the case that the mean axial speed, the amplitude of speed fluctuation and the dynamic viscoelasticity is respectively varied while other parameters are fixed. The Lyapunov exponent is calculated to identify chaos. From numerical simulations, it is indicated that the periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic motions occur in the transverse vibrations of the axially accelerating viscoelastic beam

  13. Lattice Boltzmann model for three-phase viscoelastic fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chiyu; Lei, Wenhai; Wang, Moran

    2018-02-01

    A lattice Boltzmann (LB) framework is developed for simulation of three-phase viscoelastic fluid flows in complex geometries. This model is based on a Rothman-Keller type model for immiscible multiphase flows which ensures mass conservation of each component in porous media even for a high density ratio. To account for the viscoelastic effects, the Maxwell constitutive relation is correctly introduced into the momentum equation, which leads to a modified lattice Boltzmann evolution equation for Maxwell fluids by removing the normal but excess viscous term. Our simulation tests indicate that this excess viscous term may induce significant errors. After three benchmark cases, the displacement processes of oil by dispersed polymer are studied as a typical example of three-phase viscoelastic fluid flow. The results show that increasing either the polymer intrinsic viscosity or the elastic modulus will enhance the oil recovery.

  14. Surface loading of a viscoelastic earth-I. General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Jeroen; Mitrovica, Jerry X.

    1999-06-01

    We present a new normal-mode formalism for computing the response of an aspherical, self-gravitating, linear viscoelastic earth model to an arbitrary surface load. The formalism makes use of recent advances in the theory of the Earth's free oscillations, and is based upon an eigenfunction expansion methodology, rather than the tradi-tional Love-number approach to surface-loading problems. We introduce a surface-load representation theorem analogous to Betti's reciprocity relation in seismology. Taking advantage of this theorem and the biorthogonality of the viscoelastic modes, we determine the complete response to a surface load in the form of a Green's function. We also demonstrate that each viscoelastic mode has its own unique energy partitioning, which can be used to characterize it. In subsequent papers, we apply the theory to spherically symmetric and aspherical earth models.

  15. Viscoelastic Plate Analysis Based on Gâteaux Differential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadıoğlu Fethi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to analyze the quasi-static response of viscoelastic Kirchhoff plates with mixed finite element formulation based on the Gâteaux differential. Although the static response of elastic plate, beam and shell structures is a widely studied topic, there are few studies that exist in the literature pertaining to the analysis of the viscoelastic structural elements especially with complex geometries, loading conditions and constitutive relations. The developed mixed finite element model in transformed Laplace-Carson space has four unknowns as displacement, bending and twisting moments in addition to the dynamic and geometric boundary condition terms. Four-parameter solid model is employed for modelling the viscoelastic behaviour. For transformation of the solutions obtained in the Laplace-Carson domain to the time domain, different numerical inverse transform techniques are employed. The developed solution technique is applied to several quasi-static example problems for the verification of the suggested numerical procedure.

  16. Uniform Decay for Solutions of an Axially Moving Viscoelastic Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleche, Abdelkarim, E-mail: kellecheabdelkarim@gmail.com [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Mathématiques (Algeria); Tatar, Nasser-eddine, E-mail: tatarn@Kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-06-15

    The paper deals with an axially moving viscoelastic structure modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam. The aim is to suppress the transversal displacement (transversal vibrations) that occur during the axial motion of the beam. It is assumed that the beam is moving with a constant axial speed and it is subject to a nonlinear force at the right boundary. We prove that when the axial speed of the beam is smaller than a critical value, the dissipation produced by the viscoelastic material is sufficient to suppress the transversal vibrations. It is shown that the rate of decay of the energy depends on the kernel which arise in the viscoelastic term. We consider a general kernel and notice that solutions cannot decay faster than the kernel.

  17. Analysis of viscoelastic flow in tin phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jaemin; Asida, Yuto; Takebe, Hiromichi

    2011-01-01

    The change of the viscoelastic flow near the imprinting temperature was analyzed by a penetration method with a commercial TMA and the result was compared with thermally-imprinted SnO-P 2 O 5 (SP) and SnO-B 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 (SBP) glass samples by an imprint apparatus. The viscosity of SP glass increases monotonically with increasing SnO content and the specific movement is shown in viscoelastic flow under the optimized thermal imprinting temperature for SP glasses.

  18. Viscoelastic materials with anisotropic rigid particles: stress-deformation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we have derived constitutive equations for the stress tensor of a viscoelastic material with anisotropic rigid particles. We have assumed that the material has fading memory. The expressions are valid for slow and small deformations from equilibrium, and for systems that are nearly

  19. Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic Modelling of the Scratch Response of PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kermouche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at understanding how to model the time-dependent behavior of PMMA during a scratch loading at a constant speed and at middle strain levels. A brief experimental study is first presented, consisting of the analysis of microscratches carried out at various scratching velocities and normal loads. The loading conditions have been chosen in such a way that neither (viscoelasticity nor (viscoplasticity of the PMMA may be neglected a priori. The main analyzed parameter is the tip penetration depth measured during the steady state. Then, a finite element model is used to investigate the potential of classical elastic-viscoplastic constitutive models to reproduce these experimental results. It is mainly shown that these models lead to unsatisfying results. More specifically, it is pointed out here that the time-independent Young modulus used in such models is not suitable. To take into account this feature, a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model based on the connection in series of a viscoelastic part with a viscoplastic part is proposed. It is shown that it leads to more acceptable results, which points out the importance of viscoelasticity in the scratch behavior of solid polymers.

  20. Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dilational viscoelastic properties of fluid interfaces - III mixed surfactant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djabbarah, N.F.; Wasan, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The surface viscosity and elasticity of solutions of mixed surfactants were determined using the longitudinal wave technique combined with tracer particle measurements. The recent analysis of Maru et al., which was restricted to insoluble monolayers and to monolayers adsorbed from a single surfactant solution, has now been extended to multicomponent solutions. This analysis can be used not only to estimate the ''net'' viscoelastic properties at gas-liquid interfaces but also to estimate the composition as well as the intrinsic viscoelastic properties. Furthermore, when accompanied by separate measurements of shear viscoelastic properties, the above analysis can be used for the determination of dilational viscosity and elasticity. Surface viscoelasticity measurements were conducted on aqueous solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium lauryl sulfate-lauryl alcohol. Net surface viscosity and elasticity of sodium lauryl sulfate solutions increased with bulk concentration and reached a maximum at a concentration in the neighborhood of the critical micelle concentration. The presence of small amount of lauryl alcohol caused almost an order of magnitude increase in intrinsic surface viscosity and a similar increase in compositional surface elasticity. A comparison between the values of intrinsic surface viscosity and those of surface shear viscosity indicated that surface dilational viscosity exceeds surface shear viscosity by at least two orders of magnitude. These appear to be the first set of data presented hitherto for the surface dilational properties in addition to surface shear properties for the same mixed surfactant systems.

  2. Understanding the viscoelastic behavior of silica filled rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the understanding the viscoelastic behavior of silica filled Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) using different sizes/surface areas in three different regions of deformation that will be developed in 3 chapters. The characterization of the samples used in this work is described in

  3. Viscoelastic nature of Au nanoparticle–PDMS nanocomposite gels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A stable gel of Au nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposite is prepared by employing the curing agent of PDMS elastomer as a reducing agent for the formation of Au nanoparticles by an in-situ process. The viscoelastic nature of these gels is very sensitive to the Au nanoparticle loading and the ...

  4. Asymptotic Green's function in homogeneous anisotropic viscoelastic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 463, č. 2086 (2007), s. 2689-2707 ISSN 1364-5021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : anisotropy * attenuation * Green's function * viscoelasticity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.523, year: 2007

  5. Cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Hog Lejre, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    Observations are reported in tensile relaxation tests under stretching and retraction on poly-propylene/clay nanocomposites with various contents of filler. A two-phase constitutive model is developed in cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of hybrid nanocomposites. Adjustable parameters in...

  6. Cutting edge science: Laser surgery illuminates viscoelasticity of merotelic kinetochores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Simon; Gachet, Yannick; Tournier, Sylvie

    2016-03-28

    Increasing evidence in eukaryotic cells suggests that mechanical forces are essential for building a robust mitotic apparatus and correcting inappropriate chromosome attachments. In this issue, Cojoc et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol., http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201506011) use laser microsurgery in vivo to measure and study the viscoelastic properties of kinetochores. © 2016 Cabello.

  7. Simulations of flow induced ordering in viscoelastic fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos de Oliveira, I.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we report on simulations of colloidal ordering phenomena in shearthinning viscoelastic fluids under shear flow. Depending on the characteristics of the fluid, the colloids are observed to align in the direction of the flow. These string-like structures remain stable as long as the

  8. Post-seismic relaxation theory on laterally heterogeneous viscoelastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Investigation was carried out into the problem of relaxation of a laterally heterogeneous viscoelastic Earth following an impulsive moment release event. The formal solution utilizes a semi-analytic solution for post-seismic deformation on a laterally homogeneous Earth constructed from viscoelastic normal modes, followed by application of mode coupling theory to derive the response on the aspherical Earth. The solution is constructed in the Laplace transform domain using the correspondence principle and is valid for any linear constitutive relationship between stress and strain. The specific implementation described in this paper is a semi-analytic discretization method which assumes isotropic elastic structure and a Maxwell constitutive relation. It accounts for viscoelastic-gravitational coupling under lateral variations in elastic parameters and viscosity. For a given viscoelastic structure and minimum wavelength scale, the computational effort involved with the numerical algorithm is proportional to the volume of the laterally heterogeneous region. Examples are presented of the calculation of post-seismic relaxation with a shallow, laterally heterogeneous volume following synthetic impulsive seismic events, and they illustrate the potentially large effect of regional 3-D heterogeneities on regional deformation patterns.

  9. Viscoelastic Earthquake Cycle Simulation with Memory Variable Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirahara, K.; Ohtani, M.

    2017-12-01

    There have so far been no EQ (earthquake) cycle simulations, based on RSF (rate and state friction) laws, in viscoelastic media, except for Kato (2002), who simulated cycles on a 2-D vertical strike-slip fault, and showed nearly the same cycles as those in elastic cases. The viscoelasticity could, however, give more effects on large dip-slip EQ cycles. In a boundary element approach, stress is calculated using a hereditary integral of stress relaxation function and slip deficit rate, where we need the past slip rates, leading to huge computational costs. This is a cause for almost no simulations in viscoelastic media. We have investigated the memory variable method utilized in numerical computation of wave propagation in dissipative media (e.g., Moczo and Kristek, 2005). In this method, introducing memory variables satisfying 1st order differential equations, we need no hereditary integrals in stress calculation and the computational costs are the same order of those in elastic cases. Further, Hirahara et al. (2012) developed the iterative memory variable method, referring to Taylor et al. (1970), in EQ cycle simulations in linear viscoelastic media. In this presentation, first, we introduce our method in EQ cycle simulations and show the effect of the linear viscoelasticity on stick-slip cycles in a 1-DOF block-SLS (standard linear solid) model, where the elastic spring of the traditional block-spring model is replaced by SLS element and we pull, in a constant rate, the block obeying RSF law. In this model, the memory variable stands for the displacement of the dash-pot in SLS element. The use of smaller viscosity reduces the recurrence time to a minimum value. The smaller viscosity means the smaller relaxation time, which makes the stress recovery quicker, leading to the smaller recurrence time. Second, we show EQ cycles on a 2-D dip-slip fault with the dip angel of 20 degrees in an elastic layer with thickness of 40 km overriding a Maxwell viscoelastic half

  10. Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender. ... is associated with segregation, marginalization and differentiation between men and women. ... are necessary in the society it should not be mistaken for gender inequality.

  11. Long-wave equivalent viscoelastic solids for porous rocks saturated by two-phase fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. E.; Savioli, G. B.

    2018-04-01

    Seismic waves traveling across fluid-saturated poroelastic materials with mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities induce fluid flow and Biot's slow waves generating energy loss and velocity dispersion. Using Biot's equations of motion to model these type of heterogeneities would require extremely fine meshes. We propose a numerical upscaling procedure to determine the complex and frequency dependent P-wave and shear moduli of an effective viscoelastic medium long-wave equivalent to a poroelastic solid saturated by a two-phase fluid. The two-phase fluid is defined in terms of capillary pressure and relative permeability flow functions. The P-wave and shear effective moduli are determined using harmonic compressibility and shear experiments applied on representative samples of the bulk material. Each experiment is associated with a boundary value problem that is solved using the finite element method. Since a poroelastic solid saturated by a two-phase fluid supports the existence of two slow waves, this upscaling procedure allows to analyze their effect on the mesoscopic-loss mechanism in hydrocarbon reservoir formations. Numerical results show that a two-phase Biot medium model predicts higher attenuation than classic Biot models.

  12. Geometric decomposition of the conformation tensor in viscoelastic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameduddin, Ismail; Meneveau, Charles; Zaki, Tamer A.; Gayme, Dennice F.

    2018-05-01

    This work introduces a mathematical approach to analysing the polymer dynamics in turbulent viscoelastic flows that uses a new geometric decomposition of the conformation tensor, along with associated scalar measures of the polymer fluctuations. The approach circumvents an inherent difficulty in traditional Reynolds decompositions of the conformation tensor: the fluctuating tensor fields are not positive-definite and so do not retain the physical meaning of the tensor. The geometric decomposition of the conformation tensor yields both mean and fluctuating tensor fields that are positive-definite. The fluctuating tensor in the present decomposition has a clear physical interpretation as a polymer deformation relative to the mean configuration. Scalar measures of this fluctuating conformation tensor are developed based on the non-Euclidean geometry of the set of positive-definite tensors. Drag-reduced viscoelastic turbulent channel flow is then used an example case study. The conformation tensor field, obtained using direct numerical simulations, is analysed using the proposed framework.

  13. Viscoelasticity and diffusional properties of colloidal model dispersions

    CERN Document Server

    Naegele, G

    2003-01-01

    We examine linear viscoelastic, and translational and rotational diffusion properties of colloidal model dispersions. Theoretical results are discussed, in comparison with experiments, for monodisperse suspensions of charged and neutral colloidal spheres, and for binary dispersions of differently sized tracer and host particles. The theoretical methods employed comprise a mode-coupling scheme for Brownian particles, and a rooted cluster expansion scheme of tracer diffusion with two- and three-body hydrodynamic interactions included. We analyse in particular the validity of various empirical generalized Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) relations between the (dynamic) shear viscosity and translational/rotational diffusion coefficients. Some of these generalized SED relations are basic to microrheological measurements aimed at characterizing the viscoelasticity of complex fluids on the basis of the diffusional properties of immersed tracer particles.

  14. Viscoelastic analysis of a dental metal-ceramic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özüpek, Şebnem; Ünlü, Utku Cemal

    2012-11-01

    Porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restorations used in prosthetic dentistry contain thermal stresses which develop during the cooling phase after firing. These thermal stresses coupled with the stresses produced by mechanical loads may be the dominant reasons for failures in clinical situations. For an accurate calculation of these stresses, viscoelastic behavior of ceramics at high temperatures should not be ignored. In this study, the finite element technique is used to evaluate the effect of viscoelasticity on stress distributions of a three-point flexure test specimen, which is the current international standard, ISO 9693, to characterize the interfacial bond strength of metal-ceramic restorative systems. Results indicate that the probability of interfacial debonding due to normal tensile stress is higher than that due to shear stress. This conclusion suggests modification of ISO 9693 bond strength definition from one in terms of the shear stress only to that accounting for both normal and shear stresses.

  15. A Galerkin least squares approach to viscoelastic flow.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schunk, Peter Randall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A Galerkin/least-squares stabilization technique is applied to a discrete Elastic Viscous Stress Splitting formulation of for viscoelastic flow. From this, a possible viscoelastic stabilization method is proposed. This method is tested with the flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid past a rigid cylinder, where it is found to produce inaccurate drag coefficients. Furthermore, it fails for relatively low Weissenberg number indicating it is not suited for use as a general algorithm. In addition, a decoupled approach is used as a way separating the constitutive equation from the rest of the system. A Pressure Poisson equation is used when the velocity and pressure are sought to be decoupled, but this fails to produce a solution when inflow/outflow boundaries are considered. However, a coupled pressure-velocity equation with a decoupled constitutive equation is successful for the flow past a rigid cylinder and seems to be suitable as a general-use algorithm.

  16. Viscoelastic behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes into phenolic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Edson Cocchieri; Costa, Michelle Leali; Braga, Carlos Isidoro, E-mail: ebotelho@feg.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia; Burkhart, Thomas [Institut fuer Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH, Kaiserslautern, (Germany); Lauke, Bernd [Leibniz-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multi-functional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. This study focuses on the viscoelastic evaluation of phenolic resin reinforced carbon nanotubes, processed by using two techniques: aqueous-surfactant solution and three roll calender (TRC) process. According to our results a relative small amount of CNTs in a phenolic resin matrix is capable of enhancing the viscoelastic properties significantly and to modify the thermal stability. Also has been observed that when is used TRC process, the incorporation and distribution of CNT into phenolic resin is more effective when compared with aqueous solution dispersion process. (author)

  17. Viscoelasticity and diffusional properties of colloidal model dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naegele, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    We examine linear viscoelastic, and translational and rotational diffusion properties of colloidal model dispersions. Theoretical results are discussed, in comparison with experiments, for monodisperse suspensions of charged and neutral colloidal spheres, and for binary dispersions of differently sized tracer and host particles. The theoretical methods employed comprise a mode-coupling scheme for Brownian particles, and a rooted cluster expansion scheme of tracer diffusion with two- and three-body hydrodynamic interactions included. We analyse in particular the validity of various empirical generalized Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) relations between the (dynamic) shear viscosity and translational/rotational diffusion coefficients. Some of these generalized SED relations are basic to microrheological measurements aimed at characterizing the viscoelasticity of complex fluids on the basis of the diffusional properties of immersed tracer particles

  18. Spatio-temporal dynamics of an active, polar, viscoelastic ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Constitutive equations for a one-dimensional, active, polar, viscoelastic liquid are derived by treating the strain field as a slow hydrodynamic variable. Taking into account the couplings between strain and polarity allowed by symmetry, the hydrodynamics of an active, polar, viscoelastic body include an evolution equation for the polarity field that generalizes the damped Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. Beyond thresholds of the active coupling coefficients between the polarity and the stress or the strain rate, bifurcations of the homogeneous state lead first to stationary waves, then to propagating waves of the strain, stress and polarity fields. I argue that these results are relevant to living matter, and may explain rotating actomyosin rings in cells and mechanical waves in epithelial cell monolayers.

  19. Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Aniruddha, E-mail: anibabun@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rajdaju@rediffmail.com [Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700075 (India); Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata 700006 (India); Bhar, Radhaballav [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Khan, Manoranjan, E-mail: mkhan.ju@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India)

    2017-02-12

    The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through ‘viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation’ in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem. - Highlights: • In weak gravitational field, viscoelastic quantum fluid exhibits symmetry breaking instability. • Gaussian perturbation produces quasi-periodic gravito-acoustic waves into the system. • There exists no chaotic state of the system against long wavelength perturbations.

  20. Thin viscoelastic disc subjected to radial non-stationary loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adámek V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of non-stationary wave phenomena in isotropic viscoelastic solids using analytical approaches is the aim of this paper. Concretely, the problem of a thin homogeneous disc subjected to radial pressure load nonzero on the part of its rim is solved. The external excitation is described by the Heaviside function in time, so the nonstationary state of stress is induced in the disc. Dissipative material behaviour of solid studied is represented by the discrete material model of standard linear viscoelastic solid in the Zener configuration. After the derivation of motion equations final form, the method of integral transforms in combination with the Fourier method is used for finding the problem solution. The solving process results in the derivation of integral transforms of radial and circumferential displacement components. Finally, the type of derived functions singularities and possible methods for their inverse Laplace transform are mentioned.

  1. Helicobacter pylori moves through mucus by reducing mucin viscoelasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Celli, Jonathan P.; Turner, Bradley S.; Afdhal, Nezam H.; Keates, Sarah; Ghiran, Ionita; Kelly, Ciaran P.; Ewoldt, Randy H.; McKinley, Gareth H.; So, Peter; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Bansil, Rama

    2009-01-01

    The ulcer-causing gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is the only bacterium known to colonize the harsh acidic environment of the human stomach. H. pylori survives in acidic conditions by producing urease, which catalyzes hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia thus elevating the pH of its environment. However, the manner in which H. pylori is able to swim through the viscoelastic mucus gel that coats the stomach wall remains poorly understood. Previous rheology studies on gastric mucin, the key...

  2. Tensor Fields for Use in Fractional-Order Viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D.; Diethelm, Kai

    2003-01-01

    To be able to construct viscoelastic material models from fractional0order differentegral equations that are applicable for 3D finite-strain analysis requires definitions for fractional derivatives and integrals for symmetric tensor fields, like stress and strain. We define these fields in the body manifold. We then map them ito spatial fields expressed in terms of an Eulerian or Lagrangian reference frame where most analysts prefer to solve boundary problems.

  3. Global existence result for the generalized Peterlin viscoelastic model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáčová-Medviďová, M.; Mizerová, H.; Nečasová, Šárka; Renardy, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2017), s. 2950-2964 ISSN 0036-1410 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Peterlin viscoelastic equations * global existence * weak solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/16M1068505

  4. Dynamics of beam pair coupled by visco-elastic interlayer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří; Hračov, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2015), s. 127-140 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-41574P; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : double-beam dynamics * visco-elastic interlayer * kinematic damping Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://www.kme.zcu.cz/acm/acm/article/view/292

  5. Viscoelasticity of Brownian Carbon Nanotubes in PDMS Semidilute Regime

    OpenAIRE

    MARCEAU, Sandrine; DUBOIS, Philippe; FULCHIRON, René; CASSAGNAU, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the linear viscoelasticity of diluted suspension of MWNT spread in PDMS. Specifically, we focus our attention on both the CNT relaxation in semidilute conditions and the concept of percolation threshold for such system. Finally, the results, and mainly the concentration dependence of the zero-shear viscosity and mean relaxation time, will be discussed within the Doi−Edwards theory framework on molecular dynamic of rigid rods in a semi...

  6. Exact asymptotic relations for the effective response of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallican, Valentin; Brenner, Renald; Suquet, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    This article addresses the asymptotic response of viscoelastic heterogeneous media in the frequency domain, at high and low frequencies, for different types of elementary linear viscoelastic constituents. By resorting to stationary principles for complex viscoelasticity and adopting a classification of the viscoelastic behaviours based on the nature of their asymptotic regimes, either elastic or viscous, four exact relations are obtained on the overall viscoelastic complex moduli in each case. Two relations are related to the asymptotic uncoupled heterogeneous problems, while the two remaining ones result from the viscoelastic coupling that manifests itself in the transient regime. These results also provide exact conditions on certain integrals in time of the effective relaxation spectrum. This general setting encompasses the results obtained in preceding studies on mixtures of Maxwell constituents [1,2]. xml:lang="fr"

  7. Process-induced viscoelastic stress in composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stango, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has developed in evaluating the stress response of composite laminates which is associated with cooling the material system from the cure temperature to room temperature. This research examines the fundamental nature of time-dependent residual-thermal stresses in composite laminates which are caused by the extreme temperature reduction encountered during the fabrication process. Viscoelastic stress in finite-width, symmetric composite laminates is examined on the basis of a formulation that employs an incremental hereditary integral approach in conjunction with a quasi-three dimensional finite element analysis. A consistent methodology is developed and employed for the characterization of lamina material properties. Special attention is given to the time-dependent stress response at ply-interface locations near the free-edge. In addition, the influence of cooling path on stress history is examined. Recently published material property data for graphite-epoxy lamina is employed in the analysis. Results of the investigation generally indicate that nominal differences between the thermoelastic and viscoelastic solutions are obtained. Slight changes of the final stress state are observed to result when different cooling paths are selected for the temperature history. The methodology employed is demonstrated to result in an accurate, efficient, and consistent approach for the viscoelastic analysis of advanced composite laminates

  8. Effects of viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions on cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan Hajib

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mild but significant inflammation probably attributable to viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions in cataract surgery was recently brought to the notice of the authors, and hence a study of the effects of these solutions available in India, on cell cultures was undertaken. We studied the effects of 6 viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions (2 sodium hyaluronate designated as A and B, and 4 hydroxypropylmethylcellulose designated as C, D, E and F on HeLa, Vero and BHK-21 cell lines in tissue culture microtitre plates using undiluted, 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of the solutions, and in cover slip cultures using undiluted solutions. Phase contrast microscopic examination of the solutions was also done to determine the presence of floating particles. The products D and F produced cytotoxic changes in HeLa cell line and these products also showed the presence of floating particles under phase contrast microscopy. Other products did not have any adverse effects on the cell lines nor did they show floating particles. The viscoelastic ophthalmic pharmaceutical products designated D and F have cytotoxic effects on HeLa cell line which appears to be a useful cell line for testing these products for their toxicity. The presence of particulate materials in products D and F indicates that the methods used for purification of the solution are not effective.

  9. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PRESTRESSED VISCOELASTIC ADHESIVE AREAS UNDER COMBINING LOADINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Murat Enginsoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, mechanical behaviors of adhesive tape VHB 4950 elastomeric material, which is an element of acrylic polymer group and which is in viscoelastic behavior, under different pre-stress conditions and complex forces of different geometric parameters created by combining loadings have been experimentally and numerically investigated. In experimental studies, loading-unloading cyclic tests, one of the different standardized tests for the mechanical characterization of viscoelastic material, have been applied which give the most suitable convergent optimization parameters for the finite element model. Different material models were also investigated by using the data obtained from loading-unloading test results in all numerical models. According to the experimental results, the most suitable material parameters were determined with the Abaqus Parallel Rheological Framework Model (PRF for 4 Yeoh Networks with Bergstrom-Boyce Flow model created in the Mcalibration software for finite element analysis. Subsequently, using these material parameters, finite element analysis was performed as three dimension non-linear viscoelastic with a commercial finite element software Abaqus. The finite element analysis results showed good correlation to the Force (N-Displacement (mm experimental data for maximum load-carrying capacity of structural specimens.

  10. Earthquake response of adjacent structures with viscoelastic and friction dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Miodrag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the seismic response of two adjacent structures connected with a dry friction damper. Each of them consists of a viscoelastic rod and a rigid block, which can slide without friction along the moving base. A simplified earthquake model is used for modeling the horizontal ground motion. Energy dissipation is taken by the presence of the friction damper, which is modeled by the set-valued Coulomb friction law. Deformation of viscoelastic rods during the relative motion of the blocks represents another way of energy dissipation. The constitutive equation of a viscoelastic body is described by the fractional Zener model, which includes fractional derivatives of stress and strain. The problem merges fractional derivatives as non-local operators and theory of set-valued functions as the non-smooth ones. Dynamical behaviour of the problem is governed by a pair of coupled multi-valued differential equations. The posed Cauchy problem is solved by use of the Grünwald-Letnikov numerical scheme. The behaviour of the system is analyzed for different values of system parameters.

  11. Damping Analysis of Cylindrical Composite Structures with Enhanced Viscoelastic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, Mathias; Høgsberg, Jan; Vanwalleghem, Joachim; Filippatos, Angelos; Hoschützky, Stefan; Fotsing, Edith-Roland; Berggreen, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Constrained layer damping treatments are widely used in mechanical structures to damp acoustic noise and mechanical vibrations. A viscoelastic layer is thereby applied to a structure and covered by a stiff constraining layer. When the structure vibrates in a bending mode, the viscoelastic layer is forced to deform in shear mode. Thus, the vibration energy is dissipated as low grade frictional heat. This paper documents the efficiency of passive constrained layer damping treatments for low frequency vibrations of cylindrical composite specimens made of glass fibre-reinforced plastics. Different cross section geometries with shear webs have been investigated in order to study a beneficial effect on the damping characteristics of the cylinder. The viscoelastic damping layers are placed at different locations within the composite cylinder e.g. circumferential and along the neutral plane to evaluate the location-dependent efficiency of constrained layer damping treatments. The results of the study provide a thorough understanding of constrained layer damping treatments and an improved damping design of the cylindrical composite structure. The highest damping is achieved when placing the damping layer in the neutral plane perpendicular to the bending load. The results are based on free decay tests of the composite structure.

  12. Floquet stability analysis of viscoelastic flow over a cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David

    2011-06-01

    A Floquet linear stability analysis has been performed on a viscoelastic cylinder wake. The FENE-P model is used to represent the non-Newtonian fluid, and the analysis is done using a modified version of an existing nonlinear code to compute the linearized initial value problem governing the growth of small perturbations in the wake. By measuring instability growth rates over a wide range of disturbance spanwise wavenumbers α, the effects of viscoelasticity were identified and compared directly to Newtonian results.At a Reynolds number of 300, two unstable bands exist over the range 0. ≤ α≤ 10 for Newtonian flow. For the low α band, associated with the "mode A" wake instability, a monotonic reduction in growth rates is found for increasing polymer extensibility L. For the high α band, associated with the "mode B" instability, first a rise, then a significant decrease to a stable state is found for the instability growth rates as L is increased from L= 10 to L= 30. The mechanism behind this stabilization of both mode A and mode B instabilities is due to the change of the base flow, rather than a direct effect of viscoelasticity on the perturbation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Magnetic and viscoelastic response of elastomers with hard magnetic filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarenko, E Yu; Chertovich, A V; Semisalova, A S; Makarova, L A; Perov, N S; Khokhlov, A R; Stepanov, G V

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic elastomers (MEs) based on a silicone matrix and magnetically hard NdFeB particles have been synthesized and their magnetic and viscoelastic properties have been studied depending on the size and concentration of magnetic particles and the magnetizing field. It has been shown that magnetic particles can rotate in soft polymer matrix under applied magnetic field, this fact leading to some features in both magnetic and viscoelastic properties. In the maximum magnetic field used magnetization of MEs with smaller particles is larger while the coercivity is smaller due to higher mobility of the particles within the polymer matrix. Viscoelastic behavior is characterized by long relaxation times due to restructuring of the magnetic filler under the influence of an applied mechanical force and magnetic interactions. The storage and loss moduli of magnetically hard elastomers grow significantly with magnetizing field. The magnetic response of the magnetized samples depends on the mutual orientation of the external magnetic field and the internal sample magnetization. Due to the particle rotation within the polymer matrix, the loss factor increases abruptly when the magnetic field is turned on in the opposite direction to the sample magnetization, further decreasing with time. Moduli versus field dependences have minimum at non-zero field and are characterized by a high asymmetry with respect to the field direction. (paper)

  14. Floquet stability analysis of viscoelastic flow over a cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, David; Shaqfeh, Eric S.G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2011-01-01

    A Floquet linear stability analysis has been performed on a viscoelastic cylinder wake. The FENE-P model is used to represent the non-Newtonian fluid, and the analysis is done using a modified version of an existing nonlinear code to compute the linearized initial value problem governing the growth of small perturbations in the wake. By measuring instability growth rates over a wide range of disturbance spanwise wavenumbers α, the effects of viscoelasticity were identified and compared directly to Newtonian results.At a Reynolds number of 300, two unstable bands exist over the range 0. ≤ α≤ 10 for Newtonian flow. For the low α band, associated with the "mode A" wake instability, a monotonic reduction in growth rates is found for increasing polymer extensibility L. For the high α band, associated with the "mode B" instability, first a rise, then a significant decrease to a stable state is found for the instability growth rates as L is increased from L= 10 to L= 30. The mechanism behind this stabilization of both mode A and mode B instabilities is due to the change of the base flow, rather than a direct effect of viscoelasticity on the perturbation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Explicit solution for the natural frequency of structures with partial viscoelastic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    The free vibration characteristics of structures with viscoelastic treatment are represented by the complex-valued natural frequencies. The assumed single mode representation associated with the low-frequency stiffness of the viscoelastic treatment is modified by a correction term representing the influence from residual vibration modes. The correction term is eliminated in terms of the corresponding natural frequency associated with the high-frequency stiffness of the viscoelastic treatment,...

  16. Enhancement of Afterimage Colors by Surrounding Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Sato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenting luminance contours surrounding the adapted areas in test phase enhances color afterimages in both duration and color appearance. The presence of surrounding contour is crucial to some color phenomenon such as van Lier's afterimage, but the contour-effect itself has not been seriously examined. In this paper, we compared the contour-effect to color afterimages and to actually colored patches to examine the nature of color information subserving color-aftereffect. In the experiment, observers were adapted for 1 sec to a small colored square (red, green, yellow, or blue presented on a gray background. Then, a test field either with or without surrounding contour was presented. Observers matched the color of a test-patch located near the afterimage to the color of afterimage. It was found that the saturation of negative afterimage was almost doubled by the presence of surrounding contours. There was no effect of luminance contrast or polarity of contours. In contrast, no enhancement of saturation by surrounding contours was observed for actually colored patches even though the colors of patches were equalized to that of afterimage without contours. This dissociation in the contour-effect demonstrates the crucial difference between the color information for aftereffects and for ordinary bottom-up color perception.

  17. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions......: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  18. Viscoelasticity of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse brain studied by Brillouin microspectroscopy and correlative Raman analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mattana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidopathy is one of the most prominent hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the leading cause of dementia worldwide, and is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma. The plaques consist of abnormal deposits mainly composed of an aggregation-prone protein fragment, β-amyloid 1-40/1-42, into the extracellular matrix. Brillouin microspectroscopy is an all-optical contactless technique that is based on the interaction between visible light and longitudinal acoustic waves or phonons, giving access to the viscoelasticity of a sample on a subcellular scale. Here, we describe the first application of micromechanical mapping based on Brillouin scattering spectroscopy to probe the stiffness of individual amyloid plaques in the hippocampal part of the brain of a β-amyloid overexpressing transgenic mouse. Correlative analysis based on Brillouin and Raman microspectroscopy showed that amyloid plaques have a complex structure with a rigid core of β-pleated sheet conformation (β-amyloid protein surrounded by a softer ring-shaped region richer in lipids and other protein conformations. These preliminary results give a new insight into the plaque biophysics and biomechanics, and a valuable contrast mechanism for the study and diagnosis of amyloidopathy.

  19. Finite-Element Modeling of Viscoelastic Cells During High-Frequency Cyclic Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Holdsworth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction refers to the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to local loads and forces. The process of mechanotransduction plays an important role both in maintaining tissue viability and in remodeling to repair damage; moreover, it may be involved in the initiation and progression of diseases such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. An understanding of the mechanisms by which cells respond to surrounding tissue matrices or artificial biomaterials is crucial in regenerative medicine and in influencing cellular differentiation. Recent studies have shown that some cells may be most sensitive to low-amplitude, high-frequency (i.e., 1–100 Hz mechanical stimulation. Advances in finite-element modeling have made it possible to simulate high-frequency mechanical loading of cells. We have developed a viscoelastic finite-element model of an osteoblastic cell (including cytoskeletal actin stress fibers, attached to an elastomeric membrane undergoing cyclic isotropic radial strain with a peak value of 1,000 µstrain. The results indicate that cells experience significant stress and strain amplification when undergoing high-frequency strain, with peak values of cytoplasmic strain five times higher at 45 Hz than at 1 Hz, and peak Von Mises stress in the nucleus increased by a factor of two. Focal stress and strain amplification in cells undergoing high-frequency mechanical stimulation may play an important role in mechanotransduction.

  20. Influence of surrounding medium on metabolic rates in Alpine Newts, Ichthyosaura alpestris, during aquatic phase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kristín, Peter; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2016), s. 145-148 ISSN 0022-1511 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2170 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : seasonal acclimation * terrestrial * respiration Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.911, year: 2016

  1. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings -- 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, G.K.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it

  2. Childhood Suicide and Myths Surrounding It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Dorothea B.

    1994-01-01

    Dispels five misconceptions surrounding the suicide of children: that children under the age of six do not commit suicide; that suicide in latency years is extremely rare; that psychodynamically and developmentally true depression is not possible in childhood; that child cannot understand finality of death; and that children are cognitively and…

  3. Magnetism and rotation effect on surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Dahab, S. M. [Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Abd-Alla, A. M. [SVU, Qena (Egypt); Khan, Aftab [Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic media of higher order under the influence of magnetic field. The general surface wave speeds derived to study the effects of rotation and magnetic field on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed and dispersion relation for the waves has been deduced. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. For order zero our results are well agreement to fibre-reinforced materials. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters, the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. It is observed that in a rotating medium the surface waves are dispersive. Also magnetic effects play a significant roll. It is observed that Love wave remain unaffected in a rotating medium but remain under the influence of magnetic field. Rayleigh waves are affected by rotation and magnetic field whereas Stoneley waves are independent of Maxwell stresses. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium or in the presence of magnetic field of high intensity. Numerical results for particular materials are given and illustrated graphically. The results indicate that the effect of rotation and magnetic field are very pronounced.

  4. Magnetism and rotation effect on surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Dahab, S. M.; Abd-Alla, A. M.; Khan, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic media of higher order under the influence of magnetic field. The general surface wave speeds derived to study the effects of rotation and magnetic field on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed and dispersion relation for the waves has been deduced. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. For order zero our results are well agreement to fibre-reinforced materials. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters, the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. It is observed that in a rotating medium the surface waves are dispersive. Also magnetic effects play a significant roll. It is observed that Love wave remain unaffected in a rotating medium but remain under the influence of magnetic field. Rayleigh waves are affected by rotation and magnetic field whereas Stoneley waves are independent of Maxwell stresses. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium or in the presence of magnetic field of high intensity. Numerical results for particular materials are given and illustrated graphically. The results indicate that the effect of rotation and magnetic field are very pronounced.

  5. Modulating state transition and mechanical properties of viscoelastic resins from maize zein through interactions with plasticizers and co-proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erickson, D.P.; Renzetti, S.; Jurgens, A.; Campanella, O.H.; Hamaker, B.R.

    2014-01-01

    Viscoelastic properties have been observed in maize zein above its glass transition temperature; however, current understanding of how these viscoelastic polymers can be further manipulated for optimal performance is limited. Using resins formed via precipitation from aqueous ethanolic environments,

  6. A viscoelastic deadly fluid in carnivorous pitcher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoel

    2007-11-21

    The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key trapping devices. However, the occurrence of species lacking such epidermal specializations but still effective at trapping insects suggests the possible implication of other mechanisms. Using a combination of insect bioassays, high-speed video and rheological measurements, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is highly viscoelastic and that this physical property is crucial for the retention of insects in its traps. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements. This finding challenges the common classification of Nepenthes pitchers as simple passive traps and is of great adaptive significance for these tropical plants, which are often submitted to high rainfalls and variations in fluid concentration. The viscoelastic trap constitutes a cryptic but potentially widespread adaptation of Nepenthes species and could be a homologous trait shared through common ancestry with the sundew (Drosera) flypaper plants. Such large production of a highly viscoelastic biopolymer fluid in permanent pools is nevertheless unique in the plant kingdom and suggests novel applications for pest control.

  7. A viscoelastic deadly fluid in carnivorous pitcher plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Gaume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key trapping devices. However, the occurrence of species lacking such epidermal specializations but still effective at trapping insects suggests the possible implication of other mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a combination of insect bioassays, high-speed video and rheological measurements, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is highly viscoelastic and that this physical property is crucial for the retention of insects in its traps. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding challenges the common classification of Nepenthes pitchers as simple passive traps and is of great adaptive significance for these tropical plants, which are often submitted to high rainfalls and variations in fluid concentration. The viscoelastic trap constitutes a cryptic but potentially widespread adaptation of Nepenthes species and could be a homologous trait shared through common ancestry with the sundew (Drosera flypaper plants. Such large production of a highly viscoelastic biopolymer fluid in permanent pools is nevertheless unique in the plant kingdom and suggests novel applications for pest control.

  8. Brain viscoelasticity alteration in chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspar-Josche Streitberger

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Viscoelastic properties indicate structural alterations in biological tissues at multiple scales with high sensitivity. Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE is a novel technique that directly visualizes and quantitatively measures biomechanical tissue properties in vivo. MRE recently revealed that early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS is associated with a global decrease of the cerebral mechanical integrity. This study addresses MRE and MR volumetry in chronic-progressive disease courses of MS. METHODS: We determined viscoelastic parameters of the brain parenchyma in 23 MS patients with primary or secondary chronic progressive disease course in comparison to 38 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals by multifrequency MRE, and correlated the results with clinical data, T2 lesion load and brain volume. Two viscoelastic parameters, the shear elasticity μ and the powerlaw exponent α, were deduced according to the springpot model and compared to literature values of relapsing-remitting MS. RESULTS: In chronic-progressive MS patients, μ and α were reduced by 20.5% and 6.1%, respectively, compared to healthy controls. MR volumetry yielded a weaker correlation: Total brain volume loss in MS patients was in the range of 7.5% and 1.7% considering the brain parenchymal fraction. All findings were significant (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic-progressive MS disease courses show a pronounced reduction of the cerebral shear elasticity compared to early relapsing-remitting disease. The powerlaw exponent α decreased only in the chronic-progressive stage of MS, suggesting an alteration in the geometry of the cerebral mechanical network due to chronic neuroinflammation.

  9. Explicit solution for the natural frequency of structures with partial viscoelastic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    The free vibration characteristics of structures with viscoelastic treatment are represented by the complex-valued natural frequencies. The assumed single mode representation associated with the low-frequency stiffness of the viscoelastic treatment is modified by a correction term representing...

  10. Postseismic viscoelastic surface deformation and stress. Part 1: Theoretical considerations, displacement and strain calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    A model of viscoelastic deformations associated with earthquakes is presented. A strike-slip fault is represented by a rectangular dislocation in a viscoelastic layer (lithosphere) lying over a viscoelastic half-space (asthenosphere). Deformations occur on three time scales. The initial response is governed by the instantaneous elastic properties of the earth. A slower response is associated with viscoelastic relaxation of the lithosphere and a yet slower response is due to viscoelastic relaxation of the asthenosphere. The major conceptual contribution is the inclusion of lithospheric viscoelastic properties into a dislocation model of earthquake related deformations and stresses. Numerical calculations using typical fault parameters reveal that the postseismic displacements and strains are small compared to the coseismic ones near the fault, but become significant further away. Moreover, the directional sense of the deformations attributable to the elastic response, the lithospheric viscoelastic softening, and the asthenospheric viscoelastic flow may differ and depend on location and model details. The results and theoretical arguments suggest that the stress changes accompanying lithospheric relaxation may also be in a different sense than and be larger than the strain changes.

  11. Fully coupled heat conduction and deformation analyses of visco-elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran; Muliana, Anastasia Hanifah

    2012-01-01

    the temperature in a viscoelastic body. The rate of stress relaxation (or the rate of creep) and the mechanical and physical properties of visco-elastic materials, such as polymers, vary with temperature. This study aims at understanding the effect of coupling

  12. Influence of fluoride-detergent combinations on the visco-elasticity of adsorbed salivary protein films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeregowda, Deepak H.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    The visco-elasticity of salivary-protein films is related to mouthfeel, lubrication, biofilm formation, and protection against erosion and is influenced by the adsorption of toothpaste components. The thickness and the visco-elasticity of hydrated films (determined using a quartz crystal

  13. Dynamic rheological properties of viscoelastic magnetic fluids in uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Niu Xiaodong; Ye Xiaojiang; Li Mingjun; Iwamoto, Yuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic rheological properties of viscoelastic magnetic fluids in externally applied uniform magnetic fields are investigated by a laboratory-made cone-plate rheometer in this study. In particular, the effects of the magnetic field on the viscoelastic properties (the complex dynamic modulus) of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids are studied. In the investigation, three viscoelastic magnetic fluids are made by mixing a magnetic fluid and a viscoelastic fluid with different mass ratios. As a supplementation to the experimental investigation, a theoretical analysis is also presented. The present study shows that the viscosity and elasticity of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids are significantly influenced by the magnetic field and the concentrations of the magnetic particles in the test fluids. Theoretical analysis qualitatively explains the present findings. - Highlights: ► The dynamic rheological properties of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids in uniform magnetic fields are investigated. ► Both the magnetic field strength and the concentration of the magnetic particles in the fluids have significant effects on the viscosity and elasticity of the viscoelastic magnetic fluids. ► Theoretical prediction and analysis qualitatively explains the present findings.

  14. Fluid-structure interaction with pipe-wall viscoelasticity during water hammer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keramat, A.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Hou, Q.; Ahmadi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) due to water hammer in a pipeline which has viscoelastic wall behaviour is studied. Appropriate governing equations are derived and numerically solved. In the numerical implementation of the hydraulic and structural equations, viscoelasticity is incorporated using

  15. Fluid-structure interaction with pipe-wall viscoelasticity during water hammer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keramat, A.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Hou, Q.; Ahmadi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) due to water hammer in a pipeline which has viscoelastic wall behaviour is studied. Appropriate governing equations are derived and numerically solved. In the numerical implementation of the hydraulic and structural equations, viscoelasticity is incorporated using

  16. Nonlinear viscoelasticity of pre-compressed layered polymeric composite under oscillatory compression

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang

    2018-05-03

    Describing nonlinear viscoelastic properties of polymeric composites when subjected to dynamic loading is essential for development of practical applications of such materials. An efficient and easy method to analyze nonlinear viscoelasticity remains elusive because the dynamic moduli (storage modulus and loss modulus) are not very convenient when the material falls into nonlinear viscoelastic range. In this study, we utilize two methods, Fourier transform and geometrical nonlinear analysis, to quantitatively characterize the nonlinear viscoelasticity of a pre-compressed layered polymeric composite under oscillatory compression. We discuss the influences of pre-compression, dynamic loading, and the inner structure of polymeric composite on the nonlinear viscoelasticity. Furthermore, we reveal the nonlinear viscoelastic mechanism by combining with other experimental results from quasi-static compressive tests and microstructural analysis. From a methodology standpoint, it is proved that both Fourier transform and geometrical nonlinear analysis are efficient tools for analyzing the nonlinear viscoelasticity of a layered polymeric composite. From a material standpoint, we consequently posit that the dynamic nonlinear viscoelasticity of polymeric composites with complicated inner structures can also be well characterized using these methods.

  17. Viscoelastic machine elements elastomers and lubricants in machine systems

    CERN Document Server

    MOORE, D F

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic Machine Elements, which encompass elastomeric elements (rubber-like components), fluidic elements (lubricating squeeze films) and their combinations, are used for absorbing vibration, reducing friction and improving energy use. Examplesinclude pneumatic tyres, oil and lip seals, compliant bearings and races, and thin films. This book sets out to show that these elements can be incorporated in machine analysis, just as in the case of conventional elements (e.g. gears, cogs, chaindrives, bearings). This is achieved by introducing elementary theory and models, by describing new an

  18. Approximation of Viscoelastic Stresses from Newtonian Turbulent Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    birefringence of polyethylene oxide solutions in a four roll mill. J.Poly.Sci.:Poly.Phys.Ed. 14, 1111-1119. Dandridge, A., Meeten , G.H., Layec-Raphalen, M.N...flows. Poly. Comm. 25, 144-146. Metzner, A.B., & Astarita, G . 1967 External flow of viscoelastic materials: fluid property restrictions on the use of...dumbbell model for dilute solutions. Rheol.Acta 23, 151-162. Philippoff, W. 1956 Flow-birefringence and stress. Nature 178 , 811-812. Ryskin, G . 1987a

  19. Viscoelastic behaviour of stabilized polyethylenes irradiated with gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, Lj; Gal, O; Stannett, V T

    1987-01-01

    Two-cycle creep recovery penetration measurements at 150/sup 0/C are used to determine the viscoelastic parameters for irradiated low density and linear low density polyethylenes, pure and with 0.5% antioxidant. The amplitudes and the time factors of each cycle are calculated using the mechanical model expression. From the differences between the creep parameters of the first and the second cycle, the contribution of the nonelastic component is considered. The efficiency of radiation crosslinking of different systems is discussed on the base of the corresponding compliances.

  20. Enhancing the Damping Properties of Viscoelastic Composites by Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Andreassen, Erik; Sigmund, Ole

    Vibrations, if undamped, might be annoying or even dangerous. Most often some kind of damping mechanism is applied in order to limit the vibration level. Vibration insulators, for instance of rubber material, have favorable damping characteristics but lack the structural stiffness often needed...... in engineering structures. Thus, materials or composites with high stiffness and high damping are of great interest to the industry. The inherent compromise between high stiffness and high damping in viscoelastic materials has been treated theoretically [2, 3] and experimentally [1]. It has been shown that high...

  1. Calculation of dynamic stresses in viscoelastic sandwich beams using oma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelayo, F.; Aenlle, M. L.; Ismael, G.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical response of sandwich elements with viscoelastic core is time and temperature dependent. Laminated glass is a sandwich element where the mechanical behavior of the glass layers is usually considered linear-elastic material whereas the core is made of an amorphous thermoplastic which...... data. In simple structures, analytical mode shapes can be used alternatively to the numerical ones. In this paper, the dynamic stresses on the glass layers of a laminated glass beam have estimated using the experimental acceleration responses measured at 7 points of the beam, and the experimental mode...

  2. Viscoelastic dynamic models of resilient elements used in railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbiciak Artur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents selected theoretical aspects concerning viscoelastic dynamic modelling of resilient elements used in railway tracks. In order to characterize the research methodology for resilient mats in railway tracks, German Standards [1-4] are used herein. The main goal of the paper is to demonstrate the procedure of insertion loss calculation for a single degree of freedom truck system containing under-ballast mats. Selected results of certain dynamic characteristics of resilient truck systems (transmissibility, Bode and Nyquist plots etc. are also discussed. The results of calculations visualized in graphs, were obtained by using own applications written in programming language MATLAB.

  3. Viscoelastic reciprocating contacts in presence of finite rough interfaces: A numerical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putignano, Carmine; Carbone, Giuseppe

    2018-05-01

    Viscoelastic reciprocating contacts are crucial in a number of systems, ranging from sealing components to viscoelastic dampers. Roughness plays in these conditions a central role, but no exhaustive assessment in terms of influence on area, separation and friction has been drawn so far. This is due to the huge number of time and space scales involved in the problem. By means of an innovative Boundary Element methodology, which treats the time as a parameter and then requires only to discretize the space domain, we investigate the viscoelastic reciprocating contact mechanics between rough solids. In particular, we consider the alternate contact of a rigid finite-size rough punch over a viscoelastic layer: the importance of the domain finiteness in the determination of the contact area and the contact solution anisotropy is enlightened. Implications on real system may be drawn on this basis. Finally, we focus on the hysteretic cycle related to the viscoelastic tangential forces.

  4. A micromechanical approach to elastic and viscoelastic properties of fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasa Dutra, V.F.; Maghous, S.; Campos Filho, A.; Pacheco, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Some aspects of the constitutive behavior of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) are investigated within a micromechanical framework. Special emphasis is put on the prediction of creep of such materials. The linear elastic behavior is first examined by implementation of a Mori-Tanaka homogenization scheme. The micromechanical predictions for the overall stiffness prove to be very close to finite element solutions obtained from the numerical analysis of a representative elementary volume of FRC modeled as a randomly heterogeneous medium. The validation of the micromechanical concepts based on comparison with a set of experiments, shows remarkable predictive capabilities of the micromechanical representation. The second part of the paper is devoted to non-ageing viscoelasticity of FRC. Adopting a Zener model for the behavior of the concrete matrix and making use of the correspondence principle, the homogenized relaxation moduli are derived analytically. The validity of the model is established by mean of comparison with available experiment measurements of creep strain of steel fiber reinforced concrete under compressive load. Finally, the model predictions are compared to those derived from analytical models formulated within a one-dimensional setting.

  5. A large deformation viscoelastic model for double-network hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yunwei; Lin, Shaoting; Zhao, Xuanhe; Anand, Lallit

    2017-03-01

    We present a large deformation viscoelasticity model for recently synthesized double network hydrogels which consist of a covalently-crosslinked polyacrylamide network with long chains, and an ionically-crosslinked alginate network with short chains. Such double-network gels are highly stretchable and at the same time tough, because when stretched the crosslinks in the ionically-crosslinked alginate network rupture which results in distributed internal microdamage which dissipates a substantial amount of energy, while the configurational entropy of the covalently-crosslinked polyacrylamide network allows the gel to return to its original configuration after deformation. In addition to the large hysteresis during loading and unloading, these double network hydrogels also exhibit a substantial rate-sensitive response during loading, but exhibit almost no rate-sensitivity during unloading. These features of large hysteresis and asymmetric rate-sensitivity are quite different from the response of conventional hydrogels. We limit our attention to modeling the complex viscoelastic response of such hydrogels under isothermal conditions. Our model is restricted in the sense that we have limited our attention to conditions under which one might neglect any diffusion of the water in the hydrogel - as might occur when the gel has a uniform initial value of the concentration of water, and the mobility of the water molecules in the gel is low relative to the time scale of the mechanical deformation. We also do not attempt to model the final fracture of such double-network hydrogels.

  6. Viscoelasticity-based MR elastography of skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klatt, Dieter; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Sack, Ingolf; Braun, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) protocol was developed for studying the viscoelastic properties of human skeletal muscle in different states of contraction. Low-frequency shear vibrations in the range of 25-62.5 Hz were synchronously induced into the femoral muscles of seven volunteers and measured in a cross-sectional view by encoding the fast-transverse shear wave component parallel to the muscle fibers. The so-called springpot model was used for deriving two viscoelastic constants, μ and α, from the dispersion functions of the complex shear modulus in relaxed and in loaded muscle. Representing the shear elasticity parallel to the muscle fibers, μ increased in all volunteers upon contraction from 2.68 ± 0.23 kPa to 3.87 ± 0.50 kPa. Also α varied with load, indicating a change in the geometry of the mechanical network of muscle from relaxation (α = 0.253 ± 0.009) to contraction (α = 0.270 ± 0.009). These results provide a reference for a future assessment of muscular dysfunction using rheological parameters.

  7. Viscoelasticity-based MR elastography of skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Dieter; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2010-11-01

    An in vivo multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) protocol was developed for studying the viscoelastic properties of human skeletal muscle in different states of contraction. Low-frequency shear vibrations in the range of 25-62.5 Hz were synchronously induced into the femoral muscles of seven volunteers and measured in a cross-sectional view by encoding the fast-transverse shear wave component parallel to the muscle fibers. The so-called springpot model was used for deriving two viscoelastic constants, μ and α, from the dispersion functions of the complex shear modulus in relaxed and in loaded muscle. Representing the shear elasticity parallel to the muscle fibers, μ increased in all volunteers upon contraction from 2.68 ± 0.23 kPa to 3.87 ± 0.50 kPa. Also α varied with load, indicating a change in the geometry of the mechanical network of muscle from relaxation (α = 0.253 ± 0.009) to contraction (α = 0.270 ± 0.009). These results provide a reference for a future assessment of muscular dysfunction using rheological parameters.

  8. Viscoelasticity-based MR elastography of skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klatt, Dieter; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Sack, Ingolf [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Braun, Juergen, E-mail: ingolf.sack@charite.d [Institute of Medical Informatics, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-11-07

    An in vivo multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) protocol was developed for studying the viscoelastic properties of human skeletal muscle in different states of contraction. Low-frequency shear vibrations in the range of 25-62.5 Hz were synchronously induced into the femoral muscles of seven volunteers and measured in a cross-sectional view by encoding the fast-transverse shear wave component parallel to the muscle fibers. The so-called springpot model was used for deriving two viscoelastic constants, {mu} and {alpha}, from the dispersion functions of the complex shear modulus in relaxed and in loaded muscle. Representing the shear elasticity parallel to the muscle fibers, {mu} increased in all volunteers upon contraction from 2.68 {+-} 0.23 kPa to 3.87 {+-} 0.50 kPa. Also {alpha} varied with load, indicating a change in the geometry of the mechanical network of muscle from relaxation ({alpha} = 0.253 {+-} 0.009) to contraction ({alpha} = 0.270 {+-} 0.009). These results provide a reference for a future assessment of muscular dysfunction using rheological parameters.

  9. Numerical simulations of rough contacts between viscoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinu, S.; Cerlinca, D.

    2017-08-01

    The durability of the mechanical contact is often plagued by surface-related phenomena like rolling contact fatigue, wear or crack propagation, which are linked to the important gradients of stress arising in the contacting bodies due to interaction at the asperity level. The semi-analytical computational approach adopted in this paper is based on a previously reported algorithm capable of simulating the contact between bodies with arbitrary limiting surfaces and viscoelastic behaviour, which is enhanced and adapted for the contact of real surfaces with microtopography. As steep slopes at the asperity level inevitably lead to localized plastic deformation at the tip of the asperities that are first brought into contact, the viscoelastic behaviour is amended by limiting the maximum value of the pressure on the contact area to that of the material hardness, according to the Tabor equation. In this manner, plasticity is considered in a simplified manner that assures the knowledge of the contact area and of the pressure distribution without estimation of the residual state. The main advantage of this approach is the preservation of the algorithmic complexity, allowing the simulation of very fine meshes capable of capturing particular features of the investigated contacting surface. The newly advanced model is expected to predict the contact specifics of rough surfaces as resulting from various manufacturing processes, thus assisting the design of durable machine elements using elastomers or rubbers.

  10. Innovative design of viscoelastic dampers for seismic mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, an advanced and more reliable design of viscoelastic dampers for seismic mitigation of high-rise buildings is presented. The innovative design of energy-absorbing devices has some advantages, compared to the classical design, as follows: One, the device is directly subjected to shear strains and forces due to story drifts; two, the device can support its own weight during normal operations, and maintain stable for large deformations during earthquakes; three, the device can reduce the responses of a structure to horizontal as well as vertical seismic loadings; and four, the device can also decrease the responses of the floor system of a building. In this study, a ten-story building is given as an example to express the merits obtained from the new system. Comparisons of the building equipped with classical and proposed devices of viscoelastic dampers are carefully studied. Numerical results show that the energy-absorbing capacity of the new device is superior to the classical one, especially for vertical vibrations. (orig.)

  11. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  13. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.

    2007-01-01

    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  14. Determining the Viscosity Coefficient for Viscoelastic Wave Propagation in Rock Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Leilei; Zhu, Wancheng; Li, Shaohua; Guan, Kai

    2018-05-01

    Rocks with microdefects exhibit viscoelastic behavior during stress wave propagation. The viscosity coefficient of the wave can be used to characterize the attenuation as the wave propagates in rock. In this study, a long artificial bar with a readily adjustable viscosity coefficient was fabricated to investigate stress wave attenuation. The viscoelastic behavior of the artificial bar under dynamic loading was investigated, and the initial viscoelastic coefficient was obtained based on the amplitude attenuation of the incident harmonic wave. A one-dimensional wave propagation program was compiled to reproduce the time history of the stress wave measured during the experiments, and the program was well fitted to the Kelvin-Voigt model. The attenuation and dispersion of the stress wave in long artificial viscoelastic bars were quantified to accurately determine the viscoelastic coefficient. Finally, the method used to determine the viscoelastic coefficient of a long artificial bar based on the experiments and numerical simulations was extended to determine the viscoelastic coefficient of a short rock bar. This study provides a new method of determining the viscosity coefficient of rock.

  15. Viscoelasticity of biofilms and their recalcitrance to mechanical and chemical challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brandon W.; He, Yan; Ren, Yijin; Zerdoum, Aidan; Libera, Matthew R.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van Winkelhoff, Arie-Jan; Neut, Danielle; Stoodley, Paul; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    We summarize different studies describing mechanisms through which bacteria in a biofilm mode of growth resist mechanical and chemical challenges. Acknowledging previous microscopic work describing voids and channels in biofilms that govern a biofilms response to such challenges, we advocate a more quantitative approach that builds on the relation between structure and composition of materials with their viscoelastic properties. Biofilms possess features of both viscoelastic solids and liquids, like skin or blood, and stress relaxation of biofilms has been found to be a corollary of their structure and composition, including the EPS matrix and bacterial interactions. Review of the literature on viscoelastic properties of biofilms in ancient and modern environments as well as of infectious biofilms reveals that the viscoelastic properties of a biofilm relate with antimicrobial penetration in a biofilm. In addition, also the removal of biofilm from surfaces appears governed by the viscoelasticity of a biofilm. Herewith, it is established that the viscoelasticity of biofilms, as a corollary of structure and composition, performs a role in their protection against mechanical and chemical challenges. Pathways are discussed to make biofilms more susceptible to antimicrobials by intervening with their viscoelasticity, as a quantifiable expression of their structure and composition. PMID:25725015

  16. Multi-pulse orbits and chaotic dynamics in motion of parametrically excited viscoelastic moving belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Yao Minghui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the Shilnikov type multi-pulse orbits and chaotic dynamics of parametrically excited viscoelastic moving belt are studied in detail. Using Kelvin-type viscoelastic constitutive law, the equations of motion for viscoelastic moving belt with the external damping and parametric excitation are given. The four-dimensional averaged equation under the case of primary parametric resonance is obtained by directly using the method of multiple scales and Galerkin's approach to the partial differential governing equation of viscoelastic moving belt. From the averaged equations obtained here, the theory of normal form is used to give the explicit expressions of normal form with a double zero and a pair of pure imaginary eigenvalues. Based on normal form, the energy-phrase method is employed to analyze the global bifurcations and chaotic dynamics in parametrically excited viscoelastic moving belt. The global bifurcation analysis indicates that there exist the heteroclinic bifurcations and the Silnikov type multi-pulse homoclinic orbits in the averaged equation. The results obtained above mean the existence of the chaos for the Smale horseshoe sense in parametrically excited viscoelastic moving belt. The chaotic motions of viscoelastic moving belts are also found by using numerical simulation. A new phenomenon on the multi-pulse jumping orbits is observed from three-dimensional phase space

  17. Viscoelastic-gravitational deformation by a rectangular thrust fault in a layered earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundle, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Previous papers in this series have been concerned with developing the numerical techniques required for the evaluation of vertical displacements which are the result of thrust faulting in a layered, elastic-gravitational earth model. This paper extends these methods to the calculation of fully time-dependent vertical surface deformation from a rectangular, dipping thrust fault in an elastic-gravitational layer over a viscoelastic-gravitational half space. The elastic-gravitational solutions are used together with the correspondence principle of linear viscoelasticity to give the solution in the Laplace transform domain. The technique used here to invert the displacements into the time domain is the Prony series technique, wherein the transformed solution is fit to the transformed representation of a truncated series of decaying exponentials. Purely viscoelastic results obtained are checked against results found previously using a different inverse transform method, and agreement is excellent. A series of results are obtained for a rectangular, 30 0 dipping thrust fault in an elastic-gravitational layer over viscoelastic-gravitational half space. Time-dependent displacements are calculated out to 50 half space relaxation times tau/sub a/, or 100 Maxwell times 2tau/sub m/ = tau/sub a/. Significant effects due to gravity are shown to exist in the solutions as early as several tau/sub a/. The difference between the purely viscoelastic solution and the viscoelastic-gravitational solutions grows as time progresses. Typically, the solutions with gravity reach an equilibrium value after 10--20 relaxation times, when the purely viscoelastic solutions are still changing significantly. Additionally, the length scaling which was apparent in the purely viscoelastic problem breaks down in the viscoelastic-gravitational problem

  18. Observational evidences of viscoelastic behaviour at low strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, Rosastella; Marcellini, Alberto; Tento, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Theoretical formulations of inhomogeneous waves in low-loss media have been suggested by a number of researchers due to the important role played by anelasticity in changing the characteristics of seismic waves. The Homogeneous Isotropic Linear Viscoelastic Model (HILV) introduced by Borcherdt (2009) is particularly promising because of its mathematical simplicity and the handiness to test the model in real seismograms. We showed that the seismograms of the explosion of a 2nd World War bomb found in Milan recorded by a seismic station at 2 km epicentral distance, exhibit a clear elliptical prograde P wave particle motion (Marcellini and Tento, 2011) as predicted by HILV. We observed a similar P wave prograde elliptical motion analysing a ML 4.8 earthquake occurred on July 17, 2011 in the Po Valley at a 48 km epicentral distance from a seismic station located at Palazzo Te, Mantova (Daminelli et al., 2013). In both cases the stations were situated on the deep quaternary sediments of the Po Valley. Based on measured Vp and Vs and the amplitude of the recorded motion, the strain at the station sites was estimated to be 10-6, 10-7. In this paper we extend the analysis of the previously mentioned seismograms to check the feasibility of HILV application to other types of waves that are particularly relevant in fields such as the engineering seismology. We focus on the S waves (as it is well known HILV predicts the split of S in S type I and S type II) of the seismograms of the earthquake recorded in Mantova and on the Rayleigh waves of the explosion recorded in Milan. The results show that observational evidences of HILV are not as clear as for P waves, probably because of noise or superposition of converted waves. However, once established the validity of HILV by P waves (that is very simple), the whole seismograms can be interpreted following HILV, confirming the relevancy of anelasticity also at low strain. Borcherdt, R.D. (2009) 'Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media

  19. Modelling of Asphalt Concrete Stiffness in the Linear Viscoelastic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Grzegorz; Iwański, Marek

    2017-10-01

    Stiffness modulus is a fundamental parameter used in the modelling of the viscoelastic behaviour of bituminous mixtures. On the basis of the master curve in the linear viscoelasticity range, the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete at different loading times and temperatures can be predicted. This paper discusses the construction of master curves under rheological mathematical models i.e. the sigmoidal function model (MEPDG), the fractional model, and Bahia and co-workers’ model in comparison to the results from mechanistic rheological models i.e. the generalized Huet-Sayegh model, the generalized Maxwell model and the Burgers model. For the purposes of this analysis, the reference asphalt concrete mix (denoted as AC16W) intended for the binder coarse layer and for traffic category KR3 (5×105 controlled strain mode. The fixed strain level was set at 25με to guarantee that the stiffness modulus of the asphalt concrete would be tested in a linear viscoelasticity range. The master curve was formed using the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). The stiffness modulus of asphalt concrete was determined at temperatures 10°C, 20°C and 40°C and at loading times (frequency) of 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20 Hz. The model parameters were fitted to the rheological models using the original programs based on the nonlinear least squares sum method. All the rheological models under analysis were found to be capable of predicting changes in the stiffness modulus of the reference asphalt concrete to satisfactory accuracy. In the cases of the fractional model and the generalized Maxwell model, their accuracy depends on a number of elements in series. The best fit was registered for Bahia and co-workers model, generalized Maxwell model and fractional model. As for predicting the phase angle parameter, the largest discrepancies between experimental and modelled results were obtained using the fractional model. Except the Burgers model, the model matching quality was

  20. Charmonium propagation through a dense medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeliovich B.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of a colourless c̄c dipole propagating with a large momentum through a hot medium originates from two sources, Debye screening (melting, and inelastic collisions with surrounding scattering centres (absorption. The former never terminates completely production of a bound charmonium in heavy ion collisions, even at very high temperatures. The latter, is controlled my the magnitude of the dipole cross section, related to the transport coefficient, which is the rate of transverse momentum broadening in the medium. A novel procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schrödinger equation is developed, which allows to calculate the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. A novel mechanism of charmonium regeneration in a dense medium is proposed.

  1. Drop dynamics on a stretched viscoelastic filament: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Jorge; Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2016-11-01

    Capillary pressure can destabilize a thin liquid filament during breakup into a succession of drops. Besides, the addition of a linear, high molecular weight, flexible and soluble polymer is enough to modify the morphology of this instability. In the time period preceding the breakup, the development of beads-on-a-string structures where drops are connected by thin threads is monitored. The drops dynamics involve drop formation, drop migration and drop coalescence. Experiments using a high-speed camera on stretched bridges of viscoelastic polymeric solutions were conducted for a range of viscosities and polymer concentrations. The rheological properties of the solutions are also quantified through conventional shear rheology and normal stress difference. The overall goal of this experimental investigation is to gain more insight into the formation and time evolution of the drops. The project BIOENGINE is co-financed by the European Union with the European regional development fund and by the Normandie Regional Council.

  2. Sensitive electromechanical sensors using viscoelastic graphene-polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Conor S; Khan, Umar; Ryan, Gavin; Barwich, Sebastian; Charifou, Romina; Harvey, Andrew; Backes, Claudia; Li, Zheling; Ferreira, Mauro S; Möbius, Matthias E; Young, Robert J; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2016-12-09

    Despite its widespread use in nanocomposites, the effect of embedding graphene in highly viscoelastic polymer matrices is not well understood. We added graphene to a lightly cross-linked polysilicone, often encountered as Silly Putty, changing its electromechanical properties substantially. The resulting nanocomposites display unusual electromechanical behavior, such as postdeformation temporal relaxation of electrical resistance and nonmonotonic changes in resistivity with strain. These phenomena are associated with the mobility of the nanosheets in the low-viscosity polymer matrix. By considering both the connectivity and mobility of the nanosheets, we developed a quantitative model that completely describes the electromechanical properties. These nanocomposites are sensitive electromechanical sensors with gauge factors >500 that can measure pulse, blood pressure, and even the impact associated with the footsteps of a small spider. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Crack Tip Parameters for Growing Cracks in Linear Viscoelastic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    In this paper the problem of describing the asymptotic fields around a slowly growing crack in a linearly viscoelastic material is considered. It is shown that for plane mixed mode problems the asymptotic fields must be described by 6 parameters: 2 stress intensity factors and 4 deformation...... intensity factors. In the special case of a constant Poisson ratio only 2 deformation intensity factors are needed. Closed form solutions are given both for a slowly growing crack and for a crack that is suddenly arrested at a point at the crack extension path. Two examples are studied; a stress boundary...... value problem, and a displacement boundary value problem. The results show that the stress intensity factors and the displacement intensity factors do not depend explicitly upon the velocity of the crack tip....

  4. Analytical solution for dynamic pressurization of viscoelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemabadi, S.H.; Etemad, S.Gh.; Thibault, J.; Golkar Naranji, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The flow of simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner model fluid between parallel plates is studied analytically for the case where the upper plate moves at constant velocity. Two forms of the stress coefficient, linear and exponential, are used in the constitutive equation. For the linear stress coefficient, the dimensionless pressure gradient, the velocity profile and the product of friction factor and Reynolds number are obtained for a wide range of flow rate, Deborah number and elongational parameter. The results indicate the strong effects of the viscoelastic parameter on the velocity profile, the extremum of the velocity, and the friction factor. A correlation for the maximum pressure rise in single screw extruders is proposed. For the exponential stress coefficient, only velocity profiles were obtained and compared with velocity profiles obtained with the linear stress coefficient

  5. A frictional contact problem for an electro-viscoelastic body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Sofonea

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model which describes the quasistatic frictional contact between a piezoelectric body and a deformable conductive foundation is studied. A nonlinear electro-viscoelastic constitutive law is used to model the piezoelectric material. Contact is described with the normal compliance condition, a version of Coulomb's law of dry friction, and a regularized electrical conductivity condition. A variational formulation of the model, in the form of a coupled system for the displacements and the electric potential, is derived. The existence of a unique weak solution of the model is established under a smallness assumption on the surface conductance. The proof is based on arguments of evolutionary variational inequalities and fixed points of operators.

  6. Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberte, Lasma [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Baggioli, Matteo [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics, Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois,1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-07-14

    We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a non-zero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.

  7. Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberte, Lasma; Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a non-zero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.

  8. Creep test observation of viscoelastic failure of edible fats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vithanage, C R; Grimson, M J; Wills, P R [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand); Smith, B G, E-mail: cvit002@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Food Science Programmes, Department of Chemistry, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand)

    2011-03-01

    A rheological creep test was used to investigate the viscoelastic failure of five edible fats. Butter, spreadable blend and spread were selected as edible fats because they belong to three different groups according to the Codex Alimentarius. Creep curves were analysed according to the Burger model. Results were fitted to a Weibull distribution representing the strain-dependent lifetime of putative fibres in the material. The Weibull shape and scale (lifetime) parameters were estimated for each substance. A comparison of the rheometric measurements of edible fats demonstrated a clear difference between the three different groups. Taken together the results indicate that butter has a lower threshold for mechanical failure than spreadable blend and spread. The observed behaviour of edible fats can be interpreted using a model in which there are two types of bonds between fat crystals; primary bonds that are strong and break irreversibly, and secondary bonds, which are weaker but break and reform reversibly.

  9. Interaction and deformation of viscoelastic particles: Nonadhesive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attard, Phil

    2001-01-01

    A viscoelastic theory is formulated for the deformation of particles that interact with finite-ranged surface forces. The theory generalizes the static approach based upon classic continuum elasticity theory to account for time-dependent effects, and goes beyond contact theories such as Hertz and that given by Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts by including realistic surface interactions. Common devices used to measure load and deformation are modeled and the theory takes into account the driving velocity of the apparatus and the relaxation time of the material. Nonadhesive particles are modeled by an electric double layer repulsion. Triangular, step, and sinusoidal trajectories are analyzed in a unified treatment of loading and unloading. The load-deformation and the load-contact area curves are shown to be velocity dependent and hysteretic

  10. Damping analysis of cylindrical composite structures with enhanced viscoelastic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Mathias; Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Vanwalleghem, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    is forced to deform in shear mode. Thus, the vibration energy is dissipated as low grade frictional heat. This paper documents the efficiency of passive constrained layer damping treatments for low frequency vibrations of cylindrical composite specimens made of glass fibre-reinforced plastics. Different cross...... section geometries with shear webs have been investigated in order to study a beneficial effect on the damping characteristics of the cylinder. The viscoelastic damping layers are placed at different locations within the composite cylinder e.g. circumferential and along the neutral plane to evaluate...... in the neutral plane perpendicular to the bending load. The results are based on free decay tests of the composite structure....

  11. Viscoelastic and dynamic properties of embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Christine

    Stem cells are often referred to as the ‘holy grail’ of regenerative medicine, because they possessthe ability to develop into any cell type. The use of stem cells within medicine is currently limited bythe effectivity of differentiation and cell reprogramming protocols, making it therefore...... imperative tounderstand stem cells’ differentiation mechanisms better. Studies have shown that mechanical cuescan have an influence on stem cell fate decision. However, in order to understand the reaction of stemcells to mechanical input, one should first investigate and understand the mechanical properties...... ofthe cells themselves. In this thesis, the viscoelastic properties of mouse embryonic stem cells primedeither toward the epiblast (Epi) or the primitive endoderm (PrE) lineage were investigated.Optical tweezers were used to measure the fluctuations of endogenous lipid granules and therebydraw...

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  13. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  14. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  15. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Towards Semantic Understanding of Surrounding Vehicular Maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of multiple low-cost visual sensors to obtain a surround view of the ego-vehicle for semantic understanding. A multi-perspective view will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies (NDS), by automating the task of data reduction of the observed sequences...... into events. A user-centric vision-based framework is presented using a vehicle detector and tracker in each separate perspective. Multi-perspective trajectories are estimated and analyzed to extract 14 different events, including potential dangerous behaviors such as overtakes and cut-ins. The system...... is tested on ten sequences of real-world data collected on U. S. highways. The results show the potential use of multiple low-cost visual sensors for semantic understanding around the ego-vehicle....

  20. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa); Centre for Theoretical Physics, Multidisciplinary Centre for Advanced Research and Studies (MCARS), New Delhi (India); Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2018-02-15

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r{sub h} < r{sub c} allowing the black hole to become thermodynamically stable. (orig.)

  1. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun

    2018-02-01

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r_h

  2. Ionic and viscoelastic mechanisms of a bucky-gel actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruusamäe, Karl; Sugino, Takushi; Asaka, Kinji

    2015-07-01

    Ionic electromechanically active polymers (IEAPs) are considered attractive candidates for soft, miniature, and lightweight actuators. The bucky-gel actuator is a carbonaceous subtype of IEAP that due to its structure (i.e. two highly porous electrodes sandwiching a thin ion-permeable electrolyte layer) and composition (i.e. being composed of soft porous polymer, carbon nanotubes, and ionic liquid) is very similar to an electric double-layer capacitor. In response to the voltage applied between the electrodes of a bucky-gel actuator, the laminar structure bends. The time domain behavior exhibits, however, a phenomenon called the back-relaxation, i.e., after some time the direction of bending is reversed even though voltage remains constant. In spite of the working mechanism of IEAP actuators being generally attributed to the transport of ions within the soft multilayer system, the specific details remain unclear. A so-called two-carrier model proposes that the bending and subsequent back-relaxation are caused by the relocation of two ionic species having different mobilities as they enter and exit the electrode layers. By adopting the two-carrier model for bucky-gel actuators, we see very good agreement between the mathematical representation and the experimental data of the electromechanical behavior. Furthermore, since the bucky-gel actuator is viscoelastic, we propose to use the time domain response of a blocking force as the key parameter related to the inner ionic mechanism. We also introduce a method to estimate the viscoelastic creep compliance function from the time domain responses for curvature and blocking force. This analysis includes four types of bucky-gel actuators of varying composition and structure.

  3. Visco-instability of shear viscoelastic collisional dusty plasma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi-Gharavi, M.; Hajisharifi, K.; Mehidan, H.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the stability of Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscoelastic collisional shear-velocity dusty plasmas is studied, using the framework of a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. Motivated by Banerjee et al.'s work (Banerjee et al., New J. Phys., vol. 12 (12), 2010, p. 123031), employing linear perturbation theory as well as the local approximation method in the inhomogeneous direction, the dispersion relations of the Fourier modes are obtained for Newtonian and non-Newtonian dusty plasma systems in the presence of a dust-neutral friction term. The analysis of the obtained dispersion relation in the non-Newtonian case shows that the inhomogeneous viscosity force depending on the velocity shear profile can be the genesis of a free energy source which leads the shear system to be unstable. Study of the dust-neutral friction effect on the instability of the considered systems using numerical analysis of the dispersion relation in the Newtonian case demonstrates that the maximum growth rate decreases considerably by increasing the collision frequency in the hydrodynamic regime, while this reduction can be neglected in the kinetic regime. Results show a more significant stabilization role of the dust-neutral friction term in the non-Newtonian cases, through decreasing the maximum growth rate at any fixed wavenumber and construction of the instable wavenumber region. The results of the present investigation will greatly contribute to study of the time evolution of viscoelastic laboratory environments with externally applied shear; where in these experiments the dust-neutral friction process can play a considerable role.

  4. Effects of Surrounding Information and Line Length on Text Comprehension from the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess McMullin

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web (Web is becoming a popular medium for transmission of information and online learning. We need to understand how people comprehend information from the Web to design Web sites that maximize the acquisition of information. We examined two features of Web page design that are easily modified by developers, namely line length and the amount of surrounding information, or whitespace. Undergraduate university student participants read text and answered comprehension questions on the Web. Comprehension was affected by whitespace; participants had better comprehension for information surrounded by whitespace than for information surrounded by meaningless information. Participants were not affected by line length. These findings demonstrate that reading from the Web is not the same as reading print and have implications for instructional Web design.

  5. Dependency of plasmon resonance sensitivity of colloidal gold nanoparticles on the identity of surrounding ionic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdel, B.; Aziz, A. Abdul

    2018-03-01

    The plasmon resonance sensitivity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in sodium chloride (NaCl) liquid in near-infrared to the visible spectral region was investigated. The correlation between NaCl concentration and refractive index was analyzed using concentration dependency and Lorenz-Lorenz methods. The first derivative method was applied to the measured absorption spectra to quantitatively evaluate the plasmon resonance sensitivity. To understand the influence of the identity of the surrounding medium on the plasmon resonance sensitivity, experiments were repeated by replacing NaCl with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), followed by phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Experimental results showed that NaCl is the most effective ionic surrounding medium, which gives prominent plasmon resonance response. AuNPs size can have a significant influence on the plasmon resonance sensitivity. For tiny AuNPs (∼10 nm AuNPs), the plasmon resonance is insensitive to the identity of the surrounding medium due to their low cross-section value.

  6. Earthquake sequence simulations of a fault in a viscoelastic material with a spectral boundary integral equation method: The effect of interseismic stress relaxation on a behavior of a rate-weakening patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y.; Noda, H.

    2017-12-01

    produces a series of SSEs in an elastic medium, viscoelasticity causes smaller amplitude of the SSEs or steady-state sliding, consistently with a linear stability analysis. With increasing depth, properties of both the medium and the frictional surface change. Since the former does not promote SSEs, the latter may be the key to generation of SSEs.

  7. Simulations of three-dimensional viscoelastic flows past a circular cylinder at moderate Reynolds numbers

    KAUST Repository

    RICHTER, DAVID; IACCARINO, GIANLUCA; SHAQFEH, ERIC S. G.

    2010-01-01

    The results from a numerical investigation of inertial viscoelastic flow past a circular cylinder are presented which illustrate the significant effect that dilute concentrations of polymer additives have on complex flows. In particular, effects

  8. Refillable and magnetically actuated drug delivery system using pear-shaped viscoelastic membrane

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun; Seo, Young Ho; Pisano, Albert P.

    2014-01-01

    We report a refillable and valveless drug delivery device actuated by an external magnetic field for on-demand drug release to treat localized diseases. The device features a pear-shaped viscoelastic magnetic membrane inducing asymmetrical

  9. Viscoelastic and thermal properties of woven sisal fabric reinforced natural rubber biocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the dynamic mechanical behavior of woven sisal fabric reinforced natural rubber composites. The influence of chemical modification on the viscoelastic properties has also been determined. Moreover, the effect of frequency...

  10. A phenomenological constitutive model for the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of biodegradable polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a constitutive framework for biodegradable polymers that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior under regimes with large deformation. The generalized Maxwell model is used to represent the degraded viscoelastic response of a polymer

  11. Effective properties of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media: Internal variables formulation and extension to ageing behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, J.M.; Masson, R.; Masson, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Laplace-Carson transform classically used for homogenization of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media yields integral formulations of effective behaviours. These are far less convenient than internal variables formulations with respect to computational aspects as well as to theoretical extensions to closely related problems such as ageing viscoelasticity. Noticing that the collocation method is usually adopted to invert the Laplace-Carson transforms, we first remark that this approximation is equivalent to an internal variables formulation which is exact in some specific situations. This result is illustrated for a two-phase composite with phases obeying a compressible Maxwellian behaviour. Next, an incremental formulation allows to extend at each time step the previous general framework to ageing viscoelasticity. Finally, with the help of a creep test of a porous viscoelastic matrix reinforced with elastic inclusions, it is shown that the method yields accurate predictions (comparing to reference results provided by periodic cell finite element computations). (authors)

  12. Micromechanics of transformation fields in ageing linear viscoelastic composites: effects of phase dissolution or precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio, Tulio

    2017-11-01

    Transformation fields, in an affine formulation characterizing mechanical behavior, describe a variety of physical phenomena regardless their origin. Different composites, notably geomaterials, present a viscoelastic behavior, which is, in some cases of industrial interest, ageing, i.e. it evolves independently with respect to time and loading time. Here, a general formulation of the micromechanics of prestressed or prestrained composites in Ageing Linear Viscoelasticity (ALV) is presented. Emphasis is put on the estimation of effective transformation fields in ALV. The result generalizes Ageing Linear Thermo- and Poro-Viscoelasticity and it can be used in approaches coping with a phase transformation. Additionally, the results are extended to the case of locally transforming materials due to non-coupled dissolution and/or precipitation of a given (elastic or viscoelastic) phase. The estimations of locally transforming composites can be made with respect to different morphologies. As an application, estimations of the coefficient of thermal expansion of a hydrating alite paste are presented.

  13. Chaotic convective behavior and stability analysis of a fractional viscoelastic fluids model in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    N'Doye, Ibrahima; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2015-01-01

    , and show the existence of chaos. The behavior and stability analysis of the integer-order and the fractional commensurate and non-commensurate orders of a fractional viscoelastic fluids system, which exhibits chaos, are presented as well.

  14. The creep compliance, the relaxation modulus and the complex compliance of linear viscoelastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a study to obtain the creep compliance, the relaxation modulus and the complex compliance derived from the concept of mechanical resistance for the constitutive equation of a class of linear viscoelastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials

  15. A boundary integral method for a dynamic, transient mode I crack problem with viscoelastic cohesive zone

    KAUST Repository

    Leise, Tanya L.; Walton, Jay R.; Gorb, Yuliya

    2009-01-01

    interpenetration, in contrast to the usual mode I boundary conditions that assume all unloaded crack faces are stress-free. The nonlinear viscoelastic cohesive zone behavior is motivated by dynamic fracture in brittle polymers in which crack propagation

  16. Nonlinear viscoelasticity of pre-compressed layered polymeric composite under oscillatory compression

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang; Tao, Ran; Lubineau, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    remains elusive because the dynamic moduli (storage modulus and loss modulus) are not very convenient when the material falls into nonlinear viscoelastic range. In this study, we utilize two methods, Fourier transform and geometrical nonlinear analysis

  17. Viscoelastic and thermal behavior of structural concrete with reference to containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanou, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    A method of numerical viscoelastic stress analysis is described suitable for concrete structures operating at elevated temperatures. The paper describes how approximate numerical methods of elastic analysis of the finite element type can be extended to incorporate the viscoelastic behavior of structural concrete of the quasi-static type. A new eight parameter viscoelastic model is proposed to represent concrete behavior in the loaded and unloaded stage. The deformational expressions for the proposed viscoelastic analogue are also developed. Finally, as a result of courve-fitting procedures, the evaluation of the creep law coefficients are obtained for creep laws appropriate to a test regime. The proposed method is of general application providing that the properties of concrete are assessed reasonably well. The analytical predictions are compared with experimental results obtained on concrete model specimens loaded for 3 1/2 months, at a temperature of 80 0 C. (author)

  18. Chaotic convective behavior and stability analysis of a fractional viscoelastic fluids model in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    N'Doye, Ibrahima

    2015-05-25

    In this paper, a dynamical fractional viscoelastic fluids convection model in porous media is proposed and its chaotic behavior is studied. A preformed equilibrium points analysis indicates the conditions where chaotic dynamics can be observed, and show the existence of chaos. The behavior and stability analysis of the integer-order and the fractional commensurate and non-commensurate orders of a fractional viscoelastic fluids system, which exhibits chaos, are presented as well.

  19. Theoretical Investigation of Creeping Viscoelastic Flow Transition Around a Rotating Curved Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza, S. E. E.; El-Bakry, Mostafa Y.

    2015-01-01

    The study of creeping motion of viscoelastic fluid around a rotating rigid torus is investigated. The analysis of the problem is performed using a second-order viscoelastic model. The study is carried out in terms of the bipolar toroidal system of coordinates where the toroid is rotating about its axis of symmetry (z-axis). The problem is solved within the frame of slow flow approximation. Therefore, all variables in the governing equations are expanded in a power series of angular velocity. ...

  20. Dynamic assessment of nonlinear typical section aeroviscoelastic systems using fractional derivative-based viscoelastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, T. P.; Marques, Flávio D.; Pereira, Daniel A.; Rade, Domingos A.

    2018-06-01

    Nonlinear aeroelastic systems are prone to the appearance of limit cycle oscillations, bifurcations, and chaos. Such problems are of increasing concern in aircraft design since there is the need to control nonlinear instabilities and improve safety margins, at the same time as aircraft are subjected to increasingly critical operational conditions. On the other hand, in spite of the fact that viscoelastic materials have already been successfully used for the attenuation of undesired vibrations in several types of mechanical systems, a small number of research works have addressed the feasibility of exploring the viscoelastic effect to improve the behavior of nonlinear aeroelastic systems. In this context, the objective of this work is to assess the influence of viscoelastic materials on the aeroelastic features of a three-degrees-of-freedom typical section with hardening structural nonlinearities. The equations of motion are derived accounting for the presence of viscoelastic materials introduced in the resilient elements associated to each degree-of-freedom. A constitutive law based on fractional derivatives is adopted, which allows the modeling of temperature-dependent viscoelastic behavior in time and frequency domains. The unsteady aerodynamic loading is calculated based on the classical linear potential theory for arbitrary airfoil motion. The aeroelastic behavior is investigated through time domain simulations, and subsequent frequency transformations, from which bifurcations are identified from diagrams of limit cycle oscillations amplitudes versus airspeed. The influence of the viscoelastic effect on the aeroelastic behavior, for different values of temperature, is also investigated. The numerical simulations show that viscoelastic damping can increase the flutter speed and reduce the amplitudes of limit cycle oscillations. These results prove the potential that viscoelastic materials have to increase aircraft components safety margins regarding aeroelastic

  1. Aging linear viscoelasticity of matrix-inclusion composite materials featuring ellipsoidal inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    LAVERGNE, Francis; SAB, Karam; SANAHUJA, Julien; BORNERT, Michel; TOULEMONDE, Charles

    2016-01-01

    A multi-scale homogenization scheme is proposed to estimate the time-dependent strains of fiber-reinforced concrete. This material is modeled as an aging linear viscoelastic composite material featuring ellipsoidal inclusions embedded in a viscoelastic cementitious matrix characterized by a time-dependent Poisson's ratio. To this end, the homogenization scheme proposed in Lavergne et al. [1] is adapted to the case of a time-dependent Poisson's ratio and it is successfully validated on a non-a...

  2. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES AND STRESS MODELING FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Patankar, Kshitish A

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, the effect of temperature and humidity on the viscoelastic and fracture properties of proton exchange membranes (PEM) used in fuel cell applications was studied. Understanding and accurately modeling the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive properties of a PEM are important for making hygrothermal stress predictions in the cyclic temperature and humidity environment of operating fuel cells. In this study, Nafion® NRE 211, Gore-Select® 57, and Ion Power® N111...

  3. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  4. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  5. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11739 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11739 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo, 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). The view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses. Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This panorama combines right-eye and left-eye views presented as cylindrical-perspective projections with geometric seam correction.

  6. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Aoudia, A.; Pontevivo, A.; Chimera, G.; Raykova, R.

    2003-02-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea, likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria. (author)

  8. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  9. INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING THE HELIOPAUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical solution, in the limit of very low plasma β-ratio, for the distortion of the interstellar magnetic field surrounding the heliopause. The solution is obtained using a line dipole method that is the integration of point dipole along a semi-infinite line; it represents the magnetic field caused by the presence of the heliopause. The solution allows the variation of the undisturbed magnetic field at any inclination angle. The heliosphere is considered as having blunt-nosed geometry on the upwind side and it asymptotically approaches a cylindrical geometry having an open exit for the continuous outflow of the solar wind on the downwind side. The heliopause is treated as a magnetohydrodynamic tangential discontinuity; the interstellar magnetic field lines at the boundary are tangential to the heliopause. The interstellar magnetic field is substantially distorted due to the presence of the heliopause. The solution shows the draping of the field lines around the heliopause. The magnetic field strength varies substantially near the surface of the heliopause. The effect on the magnetic field due to the presence of the heliopause penetrates very deep into the interstellar space; the depth of penetration is of the same order of magnitude as the scale length of the heliosphere.

  10. A time-domain finite element model reduction method for viscoelastic linear and nonlinear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Gonçalves de Lima

    Full Text Available AbstractMany authors have shown that the effective design of viscoelastic systems can be conveniently carried out by using modern mathematical models to represent the frequency- and temperature-dependent behavior of viscoelastic materials. However, in the quest for design procedures of real-word engineering structures, the large number of exact evaluations of the dynamic responses during iterative procedures, combined with the typically high dimensions of large finite element models, makes the numerical analysis very costly, sometimes unfeasible. It is especially true when the viscoelastic materials are used to reduce vibrations of nonlinear systems. As a matter of fact, which the resolution of the resulting nonlinear equations of motion with frequency- and temperature-dependent viscoelastic damping forces is an interesting, but hard-to-solve problem. Those difficulties motivate the present study, in which a time-domain condensation strategy of viscoelastic systems is addressed, where the viscoelastic behavior is modeled by using a four parameter fractional derivative model. After the discussion of various theoretical aspects, the exact and reduced time responses are calculated for a three-layer sandwich plate by considering nonlinear boundary conditions.

  11. Non-integer viscoelastic constitutive law to model soft biological tissues to in-vivo indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nagehan; Tönük, Ergin

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, derivatives and integrals of non-integer orders are being more commonly used for the description of constitutive behavior of various viscoelastic materials including soft biological tissues. Compared to integer order constitutive relations, non-integer order viscoelastic material models of soft biological tissues are capable of capturing a wider range of viscoelastic behavior obtained from experiments. Although integer order models may yield comparably accurate results, non-integer order material models have less number of parameters to be identified in addition to description of an intermediate material that can monotonically and continuously be adjusted in between an ideal elastic solid and an ideal viscous fluid. In this work, starting with some preliminaries on non-integer (fractional) calculus, the "spring-pot", (intermediate mechanical element between a solid and a fluid), non-integer order three element (Zener) solid model, finally a user-defined large strain non-integer order viscoelastic constitutive model was constructed to be used in finite element simulations. Using the constitutive equation developed, by utilizing inverse finite element method and in vivo indentation experiments, soft tissue material identification was performed. The results indicate that material coefficients obtained from relaxation experiments, when optimized with creep experimental data could simulate relaxation, creep and cyclic loading and unloading experiments accurately. Non-integer calculus viscoelastic constitutive models, having physical interpretation and modeling experimental data accurately is a good alternative to classical phenomenological viscoelastic constitutive equations.

  12. Stress Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic-Plastic Rock-Like Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rock-like materials are composites that can be regarded as a mixture composed of elastic, plastic, and viscous components. They exhibit viscoelastic-plastic behavior under a high-strain-rate loading according to element model theory. This paper presents an analytical solution for stress wave propagation in viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials under a high-strain-rate loading and verifies the solution through an experimental test. A constitutive equation of viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials was first established, and then kinematic and kinetic equations were then solved to derive the analytic solution for stress wave propagation in viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials. An experimental test using the SHPB (Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar for a concrete specimen was conducted to obtain a stress-strain curve under a high-strain-rate loading. Inverse analysis based on differential evolution was conducted to estimate undetermined variables for constitutive equations. Finally, the relationship between the attenuation factor and the strain rate in viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials was investigated. According to the results, the frequency of the stress wave, viscosity coefficient, modulus of elasticity, and density play dominant roles in the attenuation of the stress wave. The attenuation decreases with increasing strain rate, demonstrating strongly strain-dependent attenuation in viscoelastic-plastic rock-like materials.

  13. Concept medium programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program......The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  14. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A McDaniel

    Full Text Available In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales.Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative.Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  15. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  16. Viscoelasticity and pattern formations in stock market indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Güngör; Gündüz, Aydın

    2017-06-01

    The viscoelastic and thermodynamic properties of four stock indices, namely, DJI, Nasdaq-100, Nasdaq-Composite, and S&P were analyzed for a period of 30 years from 1986 to 2015. The asset values (or index) can be placed into Aristotelian `potentiality-actuality' framework by using scattering diagram. Thus, the index values can be transformed into vectorial forms in a scattering diagram, and each vector can be split into its horizontal and vertical components. According to viscoelastic theory, the horizontal component represents the conservative, and the vertical component represents the dissipative behavior. The related storage and the loss modulus of these components are determined and then work-like and heat-like terms are calculated. It is found that the change of storage and loss modulus with Wiener noise (W) exhibit interesting patterns. The loss modulus shows a featherlike pattern, whereas the storage modulus shows figurative man-like pattern. These patterns are formed due to branchings in the system and imply that stock indices do have a kind of `fine-order' which can be detected when the change of modulus values are plotted with respect to Wiener noise. In theoretical calculations it is shown that the tips of the featherlike patterns stay at negative W values, but get closer to W = 0 as the drift in the system increases. The shift of the tip point from W = 0 indicates that the price change involves higher number of positive Wiener number corrections than the negative Wiener. The work-like and heat-like terms also exhibit patterns but with different appearance than modulus patterns. The decisional changes of people are reflected as the arrows in the scattering diagram and the propagation path of these vectors resemble the path of crack propagation. The distribution of the angle between two subsequent vectors shows a peak at 90°, indicating that the path mostly obeys the crack path occurring in hard objects. Entropy mimics the Wiener noise in the evolution

  17. Behavior of fragmentation front in a porous viscoelastic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, M.; Takayama, K.

    2002-12-01

    We are developing laboratory experiments to investigate dynamics of magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions. Fragmentation of such a mixture as magma consisting of viscoelastic melt, bubbles and solid particles, is not known yet, and experiments are necessary to establish a mathematical model. It has been shown that viscoelastic silicone compound (Dow Corning 3179) is a useful analogous material to simulate magma fragmentation. In the previous work, a porous specimen made of the compound was rapidly decompressed and development of brittle fragmentation was observed. However, there were arguments that the experiment was different from actual processes which produce fragments as small as volcanic ash, because in the experiment the specimen was broken into only several pieces. This time, results of the improved experiments are presented. The experimental apparatus is a kind of a vertical shock tube, which mainly consists of a high pressure test section and low pressure chambers. The test section is made of acrylic tube of which inner diameter is 25 mm. The internal phenomenon is recorded by a high-speed video camera. Pressure is measured in the gas above and beneath the specimen by piezoelectric transducers. The specimen is prepared in the following way. First, an acrylic tube filled with the compound is put in a nitrogen tank and kept at 45 bar for more than 8 hours. The compound absorbs the gas and equilibrates with the nitrogen. Next, the tank is decompressed back to the atmospheric pressure slowly. Nitrogen exsolves and bubbles are formed in the compound quite uniformly. Finally, the expanded compound sticking out of both ends of the tube is cut down, and the tube containing the specimen is attached to the shock tube. The specimen is rapidly decompressed by 24, 16, and 8 bars. The high-speed video images demonstrate a sequence of the fragmentation process. We observe propagation of a clear fracture front at 50 m/s for 24 bar of decompression and at

  18. Effective-medium tight-binding model for silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Chetty, N.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1994-01-01

    A method for calculating the total energy of Si systems, which is based on the effective-medium-theory concept of a reference system, is presented. Instead of calculating the energy of an atom in the system of interest, a reference system is introduced where the local surroundings are similar. Th...

  19. Adiabatic supernova expansion into the circumstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, D.L.; Liang, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    We perform one dimensional numerical simulations with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code of the adiabatic expansion of a supernova into the surrounding medium. The early expansion follows Chevalier's analytic self-similar solution until the reverse shock reaches the ejecta core. We follow the expansion as it evolves towards the adiabatic blast wave phase. Some memory of the earlier phases of expansion is retained in the interior even when the outer regions expand as a blast wave. We find the results are sensitive to the initial configuration of the ejecta and to the placement of gridpoints. 6 refs., 2 figs

  20. Indentation analysis of active viscoelastic microplasmodia of P. polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessel, Adrian; Oettmeier, Christina; Wechsler, Klaus; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther

    2018-01-01

    Simple organisms like Physarum polycephalum realize complex behavior, such as shortest path optimization or habituation, via mechanochemical processes rather than by a network of neurons. A full understanding of these phenomena requires detailed investigation of the underlying mechanical properties. To date, micromechanical measurements on P. polycephalum are sparse and lack reproducibility. This prompts study of microplasmodia, a reproducible and homogeneous form of P. polycephalum that resembles the plasmodial ectoplasm responsible for mechanical stability and generation of forces. We combine investigation of ultra-structure and dimension of P. polycephalum with the analysis of data obtained by indentation of microplasmodia, employing a novel nonlinear viscoelastic scaling model that accounts for finite dimension of the sample. We identify the multi-modal distribution of parameters such as Young’s moduls, Poisson’s ratio, and relaxation times associated with viscous processes that cover five orders of magnitude. Results suggest a characterization of microplasmodia as porous, compressible structures that act like elastic solids with high Young’s modulus on short time scales, whereas on long time-scales and upon repeated indentation viscous behavior dominates and the effective modulus is significantly decreased. Furthermore, Young’s modulus is found to oscillate in phase with shape of microplasmodia, emphasizing that modeling P. polycephalum oscillations as a driven oscillator with constant moduli is not practicable.

  1. Visco-Elastic Properties of Sodium Hyaluronate Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicke, Werner-Michael; Meyer, Fabian; Bingöl, Ali Ö.; Lohmann, Derek

    2008-07-01

    Sodium Hyaluronate (NaHA) is a member of the glycosaminoglycans and is present in the human organism as part of the synovial fluid and the vitreous body. HA is mainly commercialized as sodium or potassium salt. It can be extracted from cockscombs or can be produced by bacterial fermentation ensuring a low protein content. Because of its natural origin and toxicological harmlessness, NaHA is used to a great extent for pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. In medical applications, NaHA is already being used as a component of flushing and stabilizing fluids in the treatment of eye cataract and as a surrogate for natural synovial fluid. Another growing domain in the commercial utilization of NaHA is the field of skin care products like dermal fillers or moisturizers. In this spectrum, NaHA is used in dilute over semidilute up to concentrated (0viscoelastic behavior. We therefore present in this contribution the results of a comprehensive investigation of the viscous and elastic material functions of different NaHA samples. This includes, besides shear flow and oscillatory experiments, the performance of rheo-optical measurements in order to determine the elastic component in the range of low shear rates and low concentrations.

  2. Non-contact tensile viscoelastic characterization of microscale biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhui; Hong, Yuan; Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Shaobao; Shi, Qiang; Tang, Deding; Yang, Hui; Genin, Guy M.; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2018-06-01

    Many structures and materials in nature and physiology have important "meso-scale" structures at the micron length-scale whose tensile responses have proven difficult to characterize mechanically. Although techniques such as atomic force microscopy and micro- and nano-identation are mature for compression and indentation testing at the nano-scale, and standard uniaxial and shear rheometry techniques exist for the macroscale, few techniques are applicable for tensile-testing at the micrometre-scale, leaving a gap in our understanding of hierarchical biomaterials. Here, we present a novel magnetic mechanical testing (MMT) system that enables viscoelastic tensile testing at this critical length scale. The MMT system applies non-contact loading, avoiding gripping and surface interaction effects. We demonstrate application of the MMT system to the first analyses of the pure tensile responses of several native and engineered tissue systems at the mesoscale, showing the broad potential of the system for exploring micro- and meso-scale analysis of structured and hierarchical biological systems.

  3. Flapping motion and force generation in a viscoelastic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Thibaud; Lauga, Eric

    2008-12-01

    In a variety of biological situations, swimming cells have to move through complex fluids. Similarly, mucociliary clearance involves the transport of polymeric fluids by beating cilia. Here, we consider the extent to which complex fluids could be exploited for force generation on small scales. We consider a prototypical reciprocal motion (i.e., identical under time-reversal symmetry): the periodic flapping of a tethered semi-infinite plane. In the Newtonian limit, such motion cannot be used for force generation according to Purcell’s scallop theorem. In a polymeric fluid (Oldroyd-B, and its generalization), we show that this is not the case and calculate explicitly the forces on the flapper for small-amplitude sinusoidal motion. Three setups are considered: a flapper near a wall, a flapper in a wedge, and a two-dimensional scalloplike flapper. In all cases, we show that at quadratic order in the oscillation amplitude, the tethered flapping motion induces net forces, but no average flow. Our results demonstrate therefore that the scallop theorem is not valid in polymeric fluids. The reciprocal component of the movement of biological appendages such as cilia can thus generate nontrivial forces in polymeric fluid such as mucus, and normal-stress differences can be exploited as a pure viscoelastic force generation and propulsion method.

  4. Comparative study of viscoelastic properties using virgin yogurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimonte, G.; Nelson, D.; Weaver, S.; Schneider, M.; Flower-Maudlin, E.; Gore, R.; Baumgardner, J.R.; Sahota, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    We describe six different tests used to obtain a consistent set of viscoelastic properties for yogurt. Prior to yield, the shear modulus μ and viscosity η are measured nondestructively using the speed and damping of elastic waves. Although new to foodstuffs, this technique has been applied to diverse materials from metals to the earth's crust. The resultant shear modulus agrees with μ∼E/3 for incompressible materials, where the Young's modulus E is obtained from a stress - strain curve in compression. The tensile yield stress τ o is measured in compression and tension, with good agreement. The conventional vane and cone/plate rheometers measured a shear stress yield τ os ∼τ o /√ (3) , as expected theoretically, but the inferred 'apparent' viscosity from the cone/plate rheometer is much larger than the wave measurement due to the finite yield (τ os ≠0). Finally, we inverted an open container of yogurt for 10 6 s>η/μ and observed no motion. This demonstrates unequivocally that yogurt possesses a finite yield stress rather than a large viscosity. We present a constitutive model with a pre-yield viscosity to describe the damping of the elastic waves and use a simulation code to describe yielding in complex geometry. copyright 1998 Society of Rheology

  5. A Linear Viscoelastic Model Calibration of Sylgard 184.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin Nicholas; Brown, Judith Alice

    2017-04-01

    We calibrate a linear thermoviscoelastic model for solid Sylgard 184 (90-10 formulation), a lightly cross-linked, highly flexible isotropic elastomer for use both in Sierra / Solid Mechanics via the Universal Polymer Model as well as in Sierra / Structural Dynamics (Salinas) for use as an isotropic viscoelastic material. Material inputs for the calibration in both codes are provided. The frequency domain master curve of oscillatory shear was obtained from a report from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). However, because the form of that data is different from the constitutive models in Sierra, we also present the mapping of the LANL data onto Sandia’s constitutive models. Finally, blind predictions of cyclic tension and compression out to moderate strains of 40 and 20% respectively are compared with Sandia’s legacy cure schedule material. Although the strain rate of the data is unknown, the linear thermoviscoelastic model accurately predicts the experiments out to moderate strains for the slower strain rates, which is consistent with the expectation that quasistatic test procedures were likely followed. This good agreement comes despite the different cure schedules between the Sandia and LANL data.

  6. Nonlinear viscoelastic properties of tissue assessed by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkus, Ralph; Bercoff, Jeremy; Tanter, Mickaël; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; El-Khoury, Carl; Servois, Vincent; Tardivon, Anne; Fink, Mathias

    2006-11-01

    A technique to assess qualitatively the presence of higher-order viscoelastic parameters is presented. Low-frequency, monochromatic elastic waves are emitted into the material via an external vibrator. The resulting steady-state motion is detected in real time via an ultra fast ultrasound system using classical, one-dimensional (1-D) ultrasound speckle correlation for motion estimation. Total data acquisition lasts only for about 250 ms. The spectrum of the temporal displacement data at each image point is used for analysis. The presence of nonlinear effects is detected by inspection of the ratio of the second harmonics amplitude with respect to the total amplitude summed up to the second harmonic. Results from a polyacrylamide-based phantom indicate a linear response (i.e., the absence of higher harmonics) for this type of material at 65 Hz mechanical vibration frequency and about 100 microm amplitude. A lesion, artificially created by injection of glutaraldehyde into a beef specimen, shows the development of higher harmonics at the location of injection as a function of time. The presence of upper harmonics is clearly evident at the location of a malignant lesion within a mastectomy.

  7. Superstatistical generalised Langevin equation: non-Gaussian viscoelastic anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślęzak, Jakub; Metzler, Ralf; Magdziarz, Marcin

    2018-02-01

    Recent advances in single particle tracking and supercomputing techniques demonstrate the emergence of normal or anomalous, viscoelastic diffusion in conjunction with non-Gaussian distributions in soft, biological, and active matter systems. We here formulate a stochastic model based on a generalised Langevin equation in which non-Gaussian shapes of the probability density function and normal or anomalous diffusion have a common origin, namely a random parametrisation of the stochastic force. We perform a detailed analysis demonstrating how various types of parameter distributions for the memory kernel result in exponential, power law, or power-log law tails of the memory functions. The studied system is also shown to exhibit a further unusual property: the velocity has a Gaussian one point probability density but non-Gaussian joint distributions. This behaviour is reflected in the relaxation from a Gaussian to a non-Gaussian distribution observed for the position variable. We show that our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulations.

  8. Energy decay of a viscoelastic wave equation with supercritical nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqiu; Rammaha, Mohammad A.; Sakuntasathien, Sawanya

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a study of the asymptotic behavior of the solutions for the history value problem of a viscoelastic wave equation which features a fading memory term as well as a supercritical source term and a frictional damping term: u_{tt}- k(0) Δ u - \\int \\limits _0^{&infty } k'(s) Δ u(t-s) ds +|u_t|^{m-1}u_t =|u|^{p-1}u, { in } Ω × (0,T), u(x,t)=u_0(x,t), \\quad { in } Ω × (-∞,0]), where Ω is a bounded domain in R^3 with a Dirichlét boundary condition and u_0 represents the history value. A suitable notion of a potential well is introduced for the system, and global existence of solutions is justified, provided that the history value u_0 is taken from a subset of the potential well. Also, uniform energy decay rate is obtained which depends on the relaxation kernel -k'(s) as well as the growth rate of the damping term. This manuscript complements our previous work (Guo et al. in J Differ Equ 257:3778-3812, 2014, J Differ Equ 262:1956-1979, 2017) where Hadamard well-posedness and the singularity formulation have been studied for the system. It is worth stressing the special features of the model, namely the source term here has a supercritical growth rate and the memory term accounts to the full past history that goes back to -∞.

  9. Viscoelastic capillary flow: the case of whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rabaud

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of spontaneous capillary flow of Newtonian fluids is well-known and can be predicted by the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal (LWR law. However a wide variety of viscoelastic fluids such as alginate, xanthan and blood, does not exhibit the same Newtonian behavior.In this work we consider the Herschel-Bulkley (HB rheological model and Navier-Stokes equation to derive a generic expression that predicts the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluids. The Herschel-Bulkley rheological model encompasses a wide variety of fluids, including the Power-law fluids (also called Ostwald fluids, the Bingham fluids and the Newtonian fluids. It will be shown that the proposed equation reduces to the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal law for Newtonian fluids and to the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney (WRM law for power-law fluids. Although HB model cannot reduce to Casson’s law, which is often used to model whole blood rheology, HB model can fit the whole blood rheology with the same accuracy.Our generalized expression for the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluid was used to accurately fit capillary flow of whole blood. The capillary filling of a cylindrical microchannel by whole blood was monitored. The blood first exhibited a Newtonian behavior, then after 7 cm low shear stress and rouleaux formation made LWR fails to fit the data: the blood could not be considered as Newtonian anymore. This non-Newtonian behavior was successfully fit by the proposed equation.

  10. Structural characterization and viscoelastic constitutive modeling of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Vincent R; Tang, Yizhe; Zhao, Shiteng; Yang, Wen; Meyers, Marc A

    2017-04-15

    A fascinating material, skin has a tensile response which exhibits an extended toe region of minimal stress up to nominal strains that, in some species, exceed 1, followed by significant stiffening until a roughly linear region. The large toe region has been attributed to its unique structure, consisting of a network of curved collagen fibers. Investigation of the structure of rabbit skin reveals that it consists of layers of wavy fibers, each one with a characteristic orientation. Additionally, the existence of two preferred layer orientations is suggested based on the results of small angle X-ray scattering. These observations are used to construct a viscoelastic model consisting of collagen in two orientations, which leads to an in-plane anisotropic response. The structure-based model presented incorporates the elastic straightening and stretching of fibrils, their rotation towards the tensile axis, and the viscous effects which occur in the matrix of the skin due to interfibrillar and interlamellar sliding. The model is shown to effectively capture key features which dictate the mechanical response of skin. Examination by transmission and scanning electron microscopy of rabbit dermis enabled the identification of the key elements in its structure. The organization of collagen fibrils into flat fibers was identified and incorporated into a constitutive model that reproduces the mechanical response of skin. This enhanced quantitative predictive capability can be used in the design of synthetic skin and skin-like structures. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of shells of revolution under arbitrary loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.W.; Arbaki-Kanjoori, F.

    1975-01-01

    The requirement of some structural components such as propulsion systems and gas turbines to operate at high temperatures and pressures make the accurate evaluation of the creep phenomenon exigent (in fast breeder reactor for example). For the expected increases in operating temperatures and pressures, it becomes necessary to perform a thorough analysis of integral structural components of nuclear power plants throughout their life span. Since a large class of structures operating at elevated temperatures are composed of rotationally symmetric shells, a solution technique can be developed which involves the numerical integration of the governing shell equations. This method has been successfully applied to the static and dynamic analysis of thin elastic shells of revolution and for some cases of inelastic material behavior. It has been shown to render solutions efficiently and accurately, usually with only a fraction of computer time and storage requirements and data manipulation that is required for other numerical schemes such as the finite element method. Furthermore, the numerical integration method allows more flexibility for varying the integration step lengths than does the finite difference method and can provide uniform accuracy throughout the analysis. For nonlinear viscoelastic behavior the numerical integration technique is expected to provide similar efficiency to that obtained for the elastic problems. The computer program developed can accept time variation of material properties. Since a single form for the material constitutive law cannot encompass all materials, provisions are made so that the analysis of a very large class of material behavior can be accomplished

  12. Kinetic study and thermal decomposition behavior of viscoelastic memory foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, María A.; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal degradation has been studied under three different atmospheres. • Pyrolysis and combustion kinetic models have been proposed. • Evolved products under different atmospheres have been analyzed by TG-FTIR and TG-MS. - Abstract: A systematic investigation of the thermal decomposition of viscoelastic memory foam (VMF) was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to obtain the kinetic parameters, and thermogravimetric analysis coupled to Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometry (TGA-FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis coupled to Mass Spectrometry (TGA-MS) to obtain detailed information of evolved products on pyrolysis and oxidative degradations. Two consecutive nth-order reactions were employed to correlate the experimental data from dynamic and isothermal runs performed at three different heating rates (5, 10 and 20 K/min) under an inert atmosphere. On the other hand, for the kinetic study of the oxidative decomposition, the data from combustion (synthetic air) and poor oxygen combustion (N_2:O_2 = 9:1) runs, at three heating rates and under dynamic and isothermal conditions, were correlated simultaneously. A kinetic model consisting of three consecutive reactions presented a really good correlation in all runs. TGA-FTIR analysis showed that the main gases released during the pyrolysis of VMF were determined as ether and aliphatic hydrocarbons, whereas in combustion apart from the previous gases, aldehydes, amines and CO_2 have also been detected as the main gases. These results were confirmed by the TGA-MS.

  13. A mathematical theorem on the onset of Couple-Stress fluid permeated with suspended dust particles saturating a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of suspended particles on thermal convection in Couple-Stress fluid saturating a porous medium is considered. By applying linear stability theory and normal mode analysis method, a mathematical theorem is derived which states that the viscoelastic thermal convection at marginal state, cannot manifest as stationary convection if the thermal Rayleigh number R, the medium permeability parameter Pl, the couple-stress parameter F and suspended particles parameter B, satisfy the inequality

  14. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  15. The Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Lequeux, James

    2005-01-01

    Describing interstellar matter in our galaxy in all of its various forms, this book also considers the physical and chemical processes that are occurring within this matter. The first seven chapters present the various components making up the interstellar matter and detail the ways that we are able to study them. The following seven chapters are devoted to the physical, chemical and dynamical processes that control the behaviour of interstellar matter. These include the instabilities and cloud collapse processes that lead to the formation of stars. The last chapter summarizes the transformations that can occur between the different phases of the interstellar medium. Emphasizing methods over results, "The Interstellar Medium" is written for graduate students, for young astronomers, and also for any researchers who have developed an interest in the interstellar medium.

  16. Optical recording medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriech, A.; Bivol, V.; Tridukh, G.; Tsiuleanu, D.

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates of the micro- and optoelectronics, computer engineering ,in particular, to tjhe optical information media and may be used in hilography. Summary of the invention consists in that the optical image recording medium, containing a dielectric substrates, onto one surface of which there are placed in series a transparent electricity conducting layer, a photo sensitive recording layer of chalcogenic glass and a thin film electrode of aluminium, is provided with an optically transparent protective layer, applied into the thin film electrode. The result of the invention consists in excluding the dependence of chemical processes course into the medium upon environmental conditions

  17. Influence of carbon nanotubes on the buckling of microtubule bundles in viscoelastic cytoplasm using nonlocal strain gradient theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farajpour

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are a new class of microtubule-stabilizing agents since they interact with protein microtubules in living cells, interfering with cell division and inducing apoptosis. In the present work, a modified beam model is developed to investigate the effect of carbon nanotubes on the buckling of microtubule bundles in living cell. A realistic interaction model is employed using recent experimental data on the carbon nanotube-stabilized microtubules. Small scale and surface effects are taken into account applying the nonlocal strain gradient theory and surface elasticity theory. Pasternak model is used to describe the normal and shearing effects of enclosing filament matrix on the buckling behavior of the system. An exact solution is obtained for the buckling growth rates of the mixed bundle in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm. The present results are compared with those reported in the open literature for single microtubules and an excellent agreement is found. Finally, the effects of different parameters such as the size, chirality, position and surface energy of carbon nanotubes on the buckling growth rates of microtubule bundles are studied. It is found that the buckling growth rate may increase or decrease by adding carbon nanotubes, depending on the diameter and chirality of carbon nanotubes. Keywords: Microtubules, Carbon nanotubes, Buckling, Size effects

  18. Mechanics of the Delayed Fracture of Viscoelastic Bodies with Cracks: Theory and Experiment (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies on the deformation and delayed fracture of viscoelastic bodies due to slow subcritical crack growth are reviewed. The focus of this review is on studies of subcritical growth of cracks with well-developed fracture process zones, the conditions that lead to their critical development, and all stages of slow crack growth from initiation to the onset of catastrophic growth. Models, criteria, and methods used to study the delayed fracture of viscoelastic bodies with through and internal cracks are analyzed. Experimental studies of the fracture process zones in polymers using physical and mechanical methods as well as theoretical studies of these zones using fracture mesomechanics models that take into account the structural and rheological features of polymers are reviewed. Particular attention is given to crack growth in anisotropic media, the effect of the aging of viscoelastic materials on their delayed fracture, safe external loads that do not cause cracks to propagate, the mechanism of multiple-flaw fracture of viscoelastic bodies with several cracks and, especially, processes causing cracks to coalesce into a main crack, which may result in a break of the body. Methods and results of solving two- and three-dimensional problems of the mechanics of delayed fracture of aging and non-aging viscoelastic bodies with cracks under constant and variable external loads, wedging, and biaxial loads are given

  19. Quantitative sonoelastography for the in vivo assessment of skeletal muscle viscoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Kneezel, Timothy; Castaneda, Benjamin; Parker, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    A novel quantitative sonoelastography technique for assessing the viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscle tissue was developed. Slowly propagating shear wave interference patterns (termed crawling waves) were generated using a two-source configuration vibrating normal to the surface. Theoretical models predict crawling wave displacement fields, which were validated through phantom studies. In experiments, a viscoelastic model was fit to dispersive shear wave speed sonoelastographic data using nonlinear least-squares techniques to determine frequency-independent shear modulus and viscosity estimates. Shear modulus estimates derived using the viscoelastic model were in agreement with that obtained by mechanical testing on phantom samples. Preliminary sonoelastographic data acquired in healthy human skeletal muscles confirm that high-quality quantitative elasticity data can be acquired in vivo. Studies on relaxed muscle indicate discernible differences in both shear modulus and viscosity estimates between different skeletal muscle groups. Investigations into the dynamic viscoelastic properties of (healthy) human skeletal muscles revealed that voluntarily contracted muscles exhibit considerable increases in both shear modulus and viscosity estimates as compared to the relaxed state. Overall, preliminary results are encouraging and quantitative sonoelastography may prove clinically feasible for in vivo characterization of the dynamic viscoelastic properties of human skeletal muscle

  20. An Image-Based Finite Element Approach for Simulating Viscoelastic Response of Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image-based micromechanical modeling approach to predict the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture. An improved image analysis technique based on the OTSU thresholding operation was employed to reduce the beam hardening effect in X-ray CT images. We developed a voxel-based 3D digital reconstruction model of asphalt mixture with the CT images after being processed. In this 3D model, the aggregate phase and air void were considered as elastic materials while the asphalt mastic phase was considered as linear viscoelastic material. The viscoelastic constitutive model of asphalt mastic was implemented in a finite element code using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT. An experimental procedure for determining the parameters of the viscoelastic constitutive model at a given temperature was proposed. To examine the capability of the model and the accuracy of the parameter, comparisons between the numerical predictions and the observed laboratory results of bending and compression tests were conducted. Finally, the verified digital sample of asphalt mixture was used to predict the asphalt mixture viscoelastic behavior under dynamic loading and creep-recovery loading. Simulation results showed that the presented image-based digital sample may be appropriate for predicting the mechanical behavior of asphalt mixture when all the mechanical properties for different phases became available.

  1. An Indentation Technique for Nanoscale Dynamic Viscoelastic Measurements at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiping

    2012-08-01

    Determination of nano/micro-scale viscoelasticity is very important to understand the local rheological behavior and degradation phenomena of multifunctional polymer blend materials. This article reviews research results concerning the development of indentation techniques for making nanoscale dynamic viscoelastic measurements at elevated temperature. In the last decade, we have achieved breakthroughs in noise floor reduction in air and thermal load drift/noise reduction at high temperature before taking on the challenge of nanoscale viscoelastic measurements. A high-temperature indentation technique has been developed that facilitates viscoelastic measurements up to 200 °C in air and 500 °C in a vacuum. During the last year, two viscoelastic measurement methods have been developed by making a breakthrough in suppressing the contact area change at high temperature. One is a sharp-pointed time-dependent nanoindentation technique for microscale application and the other is a spherical time-dependent nanoindentation technique for nanoscale application. In the near future, we expect to lower the thermal load drift and load noise floor even more substantially.

  2. Finite element reduction strategy for composite sandwich plates with viscoelastic layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amaro Diacenco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials have been regarded as a convenient strategy in various types of engineering systems such as aeronautical and space structures, as well as architecture and light industry products due to their advantages over the traditional engineering materials, such as their high strength/stiffness relation characteristics and their anti-corrosion properties. This paper is devoted to the finite element modeling of composite laminated structures incorporating viscoelastic materials to the problem of vibration attenuation. However, the typically high dimension of large finite element models of composite structures incorporating viscoelastic materials makes the numerical processes sometimes unfeasible. Within this context, emphasis is placed on a general condensation strategy specially adapted for the case of viscoelastically damped structures, in which a constant (frequency- and temperature-independent reduction basis to be enriched by static residues associated to the applied loads and the viscoelastic forces is used. After presenting the theoretical foundations, the numerical applications of composite plates treated by viscoelastic materials are addressed, and the main features of the methodology are discussed.

  3. Finite element reduction strategy for composite sandwich plates with viscoelastic layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amaro Diacenco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials have been regarded as a convenient strategy in various types of engineering systems such as aeronautical and space structures, as well as architecture and light industry products due to their advantages over the traditional engineering materials, such as their high strength/stiffness relation characteristics and their anti-corrosion properties. This paper is devoted to the finite element modeling of composite laminated structures incorporating viscoelastic materials to the problem of vibration attenuation. However, the typically high dimension of large finite element models of composite structures incorporating viscoelastic materials makes the numerical processes sometimes unfeasible. Within this context, emphasis is placed on a general condensation strategy specially adapted for the case of viscoelastically damped structures, in which a constant (frequency- and temperature-independent reduction basis to be enriched by static residues associated to the applied loads and the viscoelastic forces is used. After presenting the theoretical foundations, the numerical applications of composite plates treated by viscoelastic materials are addressed, and the main features of the methodology are discussed.

  4. The development and validation of a numerical integration method for non-linear viscoelastic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Nicole L.; Puttlitz, Christian M.

    2018-01-01

    Compelling evidence that many biological soft tissues display both strain- and time-dependent behavior has led to the development of fully non-linear viscoelastic modeling techniques to represent the tissue’s mechanical response under dynamic conditions. Since the current stress state of a viscoelastic material is dependent on all previous loading events, numerical analyses are complicated by the requirement of computing and storing the stress at each step throughout the load history. This requirement quickly becomes computationally expensive, and in some cases intractable, for finite element models. Therefore, we have developed a strain-dependent numerical integration approach for capturing non-linear viscoelasticity that enables calculation of the current stress from a strain-dependent history state variable stored from the preceding time step only, which improves both fitting efficiency and computational tractability. This methodology was validated based on its ability to recover non-linear viscoelastic coefficients from simulated stress-relaxation (six strain levels) and dynamic cyclic (three frequencies) experimental stress-strain data. The model successfully fit each data set with average errors in recovered coefficients of 0.3% for stress-relaxation fits and 0.1% for cyclic. The results support the use of the presented methodology to develop linear or non-linear viscoelastic models from stress-relaxation or cyclic experimental data of biological soft tissues. PMID:29293558

  5. Simulating Seismic Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic Media with an Irregular Free Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingyi; Zhao, Zhencong; Lan, Haiqiang; Liu, Fuping

    2018-05-01

    In seismic numerical simulations of wave propagation, it is very important for us to consider surface topography and attenuation, which both have large effects (e.g., wave diffractions, conversion, amplitude/phase change) on seismic imaging and inversion. An irregular free surface provides significant information for interpreting the characteristics of seismic wave propagation in areas with rugged or rapidly varying topography, and viscoelastic media are a better representation of the earth's properties than acoustic/elastic media. In this study, we develop an approach for seismic wavefield simulation in 2D viscoelastic isotropic media with an irregular free surface. Based on the boundary-conforming grid method, the 2D time-domain second-order viscoelastic isotropic equations and irregular free surface boundary conditions are transferred from a Cartesian coordinate system to a curvilinear coordinate system. Finite difference operators with second-order accuracy are applied to discretize the viscoelastic wave equations and the irregular free surface in the curvilinear coordinate system. In addition, we select the convolutional perfectly matched layer boundary condition in order to effectively suppress artificial reflections from the edges of the model. The snapshot and seismogram results from numerical tests show that our algorithm successfully simulates seismic wavefields (e.g., P-wave, Rayleigh wave and converted waves) in viscoelastic isotropic media with an irregular free surface.

  6. Fluid-structure interaction with pipe-wall viscoelasticity during water hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramat, A.; Tijsseling, A. S.; Hou, Q.; Ahmadi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) due to water hammer in a pipeline which has viscoelastic wall behaviour is studied. Appropriate governing equations are derived and numerically solved. In the numerical implementation of the hydraulic and structural equations, viscoelasticity is incorporated using the Kelvin-Voigt mechanical model. The equations are solved by two different approaches, namely the Method of Characteristics-Finite Element Method (MOC-FEM) and full MOC. In both approaches two important effects of FSI in fluid-filled pipes, namely Poisson and junction coupling, are taken into account. The study proposes a more comprehensive model for studying fluid transients in pipelines as compared to previous works, which take into account either FSI or viscoelasticity. To verify the proposed mathematical model and its numerical solutions, the following problems are investigated: axial vibration of a viscoelastic bar subjected to a step uniaxial loading, FSI in an elastic pipe, and hydraulic transients in a pressurised polyethylene pipe without FSI. The results of each case are checked with available exact and experimental results. Then, to study the simultaneous effects of FSI and viscoelasticity, which is the new element of the present research, one problem is solved by the two different numerical approaches. Both numerical methods give the same results, thus confirming the correctness of the solutions.

  7. Roentgen contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamborski, C.

    1989-01-01

    The patent deals with a roentgen contrast medium containing a perfluorinebrominealkylether of the formula C m F 2m+1 OC n F 2n Br dispersed in water, preferentially in the presence of a non-ionic dispersing agent such as a fluorinated amidoaminoxide. 2 tabs

  8. Radon in geological medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  9. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  10. Rutting Prediction in Asphalt Pavement Based on Viscoelastic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahi Mohammed Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutting is one of the most disturbing failures on the asphalt roads due to the interrupting it is caused to the drivers. Predicting of asphalt pavement rutting is essential tool leads to better asphalt mixture design. This work describes a method of predicting the behaviour of various asphalt pavement mixes and linking these to an accelerated performance testing. The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model based on viscoplastic theory for simulating the laboratory testing of asphalt mixes in Hamburg Wheel Rut Tester (HWRT for rutting. The creep parameters C1, C2 and C3 are developed from the triaxial repeated load creep test at 50°C and at a frequency of 1 Hz and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’ s ratio determined at the same temperature. Viscoelastic model (creep model is adopted using a FE simulator (ANSYS in order to calculate the rutting for various mixes under a uniform loading pressure of 500 kPa. An eight-node with a three Degrees of Freedom (UX, UY, and UZ Element is used for the simulation. The creep model developed for HWRT tester was verified by comparing the predicted rut depths with the measured one and by comparing the rut depth with ABAQUS result from literature. Reasonable agreement can be obtained between the predicted rut depths and the measured one. Moreover, it is found that creep model parameter C1 and C3 have a strong relationship with rutting. It was clear that the parameter C1 strongly influences rutting than the parameter C3. Finally, it can be concluded that creep model based on finite element method can be used as an effective tool to analyse rutting of asphalt pavements.

  11. Interfacial aspects in the production of advanced viscoelastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The integrity and morphology of the interfacial junction often dictate the mechanical and thermal response of multiphase engineering materials. The production of materials with synergistic properties requires the effective generation and consolidation of material interfaces. The paper examines this theme in viscoelastic systems, comprising polymer alloys, reactive composites, electrical insulation and reinforced commodity polymers. Processing protocol is identified through TEM/SEM for the nylon/ABS composite material that alloys optimum utilization of reactive comptabilizers. Comparative results show that both reactive and miscibility are crucial for a compatibilizer to provide sufficient dispersion and adequate interfacial adhesion between the two phases. In discrete system, interfacial coupling is normally accomplished by bonding agents which form chemical bridges across the particle-matrix interface. A recent technique, however, utilizer a lateral modulus gradient across the material interface to increase fracture energy (Mechanical approach), Micro morphology of a convectional composite sans bonding agent is compared with the latter modified via the mechanical approach, Cryo-fracture surfaces of these composites reveal good particle-matrix adhesion in the modified composite, as opposed to visible particle pull-out observed in the other composite. A third approach toward interfacial coupling relies on the suitable modification of the particle surface to promote interaction between the particle and the polymer chains. This strategy is examined with particular reference to electoral cable sheathing and synthetic window profile, by using composite particles produced in the author's processing facility. ESCA spectrum of these particles is discussed, along with impact and TGA/DTA data for the modified PVC/EPDM composites. The impact strength of rigid PVC improved over a range of temperature, including the important region of zero degree centigrade and below. TGGA

  12. Viscoelastic properties of graphene-based epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Fierro, Annalisa; Rosolia, Salvatore; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Lafdi, Khalid; Guadagno, Liberata

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the viscoelastic properties of an epoxy resin filled with graphene-based nanoparticles have been investigated in the liquid state, before curing, by means of a rotational rheometer equipped with a parallel plate geometry. Exfoliated graphite was prepared using traditional acid intercalation followed by a sudden treatment at high temperature (900°C). The percentage of exfoliated graphite was found to be 56%. The epoxy matrix was prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional precursor with a reactive diluent which produces a significant decrease in the viscosity of the epoxy precursor so that the dispersion step of nanofillers in the matrix can easily occur. The hardener agent, the 4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), was added at a stoichiometric concentration with respect to all the epoxy rings. The inclusion of the partially exfoliated graphite (pEG) in the formulated epoxy mixture significantly modifies the rheological behaviour of the mixture itself. The epoxy mixture, indeed, shows a Newtonian behaviour while, at 3 wt % pEG content, the complex viscosity of the nanocomposite clearly shows a shear thinning behaviour with η* values much higher at the lower frequencies. The increase in complex viscosity with the increasing of the partially exfoliated graphite content was mostly caused by a dramatic increase in the storage modulus. All the graphene-based epoxy mixtures were cured by a two-stage curing cycles: a first isothermal stage was carried out at the lower temperature of 125°C for 1 hour while the second isothermal stage was performed at the higher temperature of 200°C for 3 hours. The mechanical properties of the cured nanocomposites show high values in the storage modulus and glass transition temperature.

  13. MHD free convection flow of a visco-elastic (Kuvshiniski type dusty gas through a semi infinite plate moving with velocity decreasing exponentially with time and radiative heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the study of MHD free convective flow of a visco-elastic (Kuvshinski type dusty gas through a porous medium induced by the motion of a semi-infinite flat plate under the influence of radiative heat transfer moving with velocity decreasing exponentially with time. The expressions for velocity distribution of a dusty gas and dust particles, concentration profile and temperature field are obtained. The effect of Schmidt number (Sc, Magnetic field parameter (M and Radiation parameter (N on velocity distribution of dusty gas and dust particles, concentration and temperature distribution are discussed graphically.

  14. Design and numerical implementation of a 3-D non-linear viscoelastic constitutive model for brain tissue during impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, D.W.A.; Peters, G.W.M.; Bovendeerd, P.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Finite Element (FE) head models are often used to understand mechanical response of the head and its contents during impact loading in the head. CurrentFE models do not account for non-linear viscoelastic material behavior of brain tissue. We developed a new non-linear viscoelastic material model

  15. Viscoelastic property tuning for reducing noise radiated by switched-reluctance machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millithaler, Pierre; Dupont, Jean-Baptiste; Ouisse, Morvan; Sadoulet-Reboul, Émeline; Bouhaddi, Noureddine

    2017-10-01

    Switched-reluctance motors (SRM) present major acoustic drawbacks that hinder their use for electric vehicles in spite of widely-acknowledged robustness and low manufacturing costs. Unlike other types of electric machines, a SRM stator is completely encapsulated/potted with a viscoelastic resin. By taking advantage of the high damping capacity that a viscoelastic material has in certain temperature and frequency ranges, this article proposes a tuning methodology for reducing the noise emitted by a SRM in operation. After introducing the aspects the tuning process will focus on, the article details a concrete application consisting in computing representative electromagnetic excitations and then the structural response of the stator including equivalent radiated power levels. An optimised viscoelastic material is determined, with which the peak radiated levels are reduced up to 10 dB in comparison to the initial state. This methodology is implementable for concrete industrial applications as it only relies on common commercial finite-element solvers.

  16. Identifying Mechanical Properties of Viscoelastic Materials in Time Domain Using the Fractional Zener Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Delowski Ciniello

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper aims at presenting a methodology for characterizing viscoelastic materials in time domain, taking into account the fractional Zener constitutive model and the influence of temperature through Williams, Landel, and Ferry’s model. To that effect, a set of points obtained experimentally through uniaxial tensile tests with different constant strain rates is considered. The approach is based on the minimization of the quadratic relative distance between the experimental stress-strain curves and the corresponding ones given by the theoretical model. In order to avoid the local minima in the process of optimization, a hybrid technique based on genetic algorithms and non-linear programming techniques is used. The methodology is applied in the characterization of two different commercial viscoelastic materials. The results indicate that the proposed methodology is effective in identifying thermorheologically simple viscoelastic materials.

  17. Stationary responses of a Rayleigh viscoelastic system with zero barrier impacts under external random excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Xiangrong

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to deal with the stationary responses of a Rayleigh viscoelastic system with zero barrier impacts under external random excitation. First, the original stochastic viscoelastic system is converted to an equivalent stochastic system without viscoelastic terms by approximately adding the equivalent stiffness and damping. Relying on the means of non-smooth transformation of state variables, the above system is replaced by a new system without an impact term. Then, the stationary probability density functions of the system are observed analytically through stochastic averaging method. By considering the effects of the biquadratic nonlinear damping coefficient and the noise intensity on the system responses, the effectiveness of the theoretical method is tested by comparing the analytical results with those generated from Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, it does deserve attention that some system parameters can induce the occurrence of stochastic P-bifurcation.

  18. Pressure drop and heat transfer in viscoelastic duct flow - A new look

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, M.; Hartnett, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Asymptotic friction factors and heat transfer j-factors for turbulent duct flow of viscoelastic fluids are viewed from a new reference - the extended laminar flow results which exhibit the lowest possible friction and heat transfer. This analysis suggests that the presence of elasticity laminarizes the flow. A simple model which takes account of the reinforced fluid structure resulting from the presence of macromolecular polymer chains is introduced to explain the decrease in the turbulence level associated with viscoelastic fluids. A major feature of the proposed model is that a viscoelastic fluid has a nonuniform and nonisotropic viscosity, which in a duct flow produced non-homogeneous turbulent fluctuations. The observed decrease in friction factor and heat transfer, as well as the large increases in critical Reynolds number and hydrodynamic and thermal entrance lengths are consistent with the model

  19. Coefficient of restitution in fractional viscoelastic compliant impacts using fractional Chebyshev collocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, Arman; Butcher, Eric A.; Nazari, Morad

    2017-02-01

    Compliant impacts can be modeled using linear viscoelastic constitutive models. While such impact models for realistic viscoelastic materials using integer order derivatives of force and displacement usually require a large number of parameters, compliant impact models obtained using fractional calculus, however, can be advantageous since such models use fewer parameters and successfully capture the hereditary property. In this paper, we introduce the fractional Chebyshev collocation (FCC) method as an approximation tool for numerical simulation of several linear fractional viscoelastic compliant impact models in which the overall coefficient of restitution for the impact is studied as a function of the fractional model parameters for the first time. Other relevant impact characteristics such as hysteresis curves, impact force gradient, penetration and separation depths are also studied.

  20. Influence of viscoelastic property on laser-generated surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongxiang; Zhang Shuyi; Xu Baiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Taking account of the viscoelasticity of materials, the pulsed laser generation of surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems has been investigated quantitatively by using the finite element method. The displacement spectra of the surface acoustic waves have been calculated in frequency domain for different coating-substrate systems, in which the viscoelastic properties of the coatings and substrates are considered separately. Meanwhile, the temporal displacement waveforms have been obtained by applying inverse fast Fourier transforms. The numerical results of the normal surface displacements are presented for different configurations: a single plate, a slow coating on a fast substrate, and a fast coating on a slow substrate. The influences of the viscoelastic properties of the coating and the substrate on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves have been studied. In addition, the influence of the coating thickness on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves has been also investigated in detail.

  1. Effect of viscoelastic and dielectric relaxing matrix on ferroelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jayendiran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on evaluating the time-dependent non-linear ferroelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites under pure uni-axial compressive stress loading condition. An experimental setup is developed to study the influence of high-stress levels on the stress-strain and stress-polarization behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites. The electro-elastic effective properties of 1-3 piezocomposites are measured experimentally based on IEEE standard and compared with the proposed numerical model using finite-element software ABAQUS. The time-dependent effective properties are evaluated using viscoelastic model and it is incorporated into a 3D micromechanical model to predict the viscoelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites under mechanical loading. The simulated results are compared with the viscoelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites obtained from experiments.

  2. Theoretical study of two-dimensional phononic crystals with viscoelasticity based on fractional derivative models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaozong; Yu Dianlong; Zhao Honggang; Wen Jihong; Wen Xisen

    2008-01-01

    Wave propagation in two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) with viscoelasticity is investigated using a finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method. The viscoelasticity is evaluated using the Kelvin-Voigt model with fractional derivatives (FDs) so that both the dispersion and dissipation are considered. Numerical approximation of FDs is integrated into the FDTD scheme to simulate wave propagation in such PCs. All the constituent materials are treated as isotropic and homogeneous. The gaps are substantially displaced and widened and the attenuation is noticeably enhanced due to the dispersion and dissipation of host material and the complicated multiple scattering between scatterers. These results indicate that the viscoelasticity of the damping host has significant influence on wave propagation in PCs and should be considered

  3. Growth and decay of weak disturbances in visco-elastic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, M.; Rai, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    In non-linear mathematical models of the arterial circulation, the visco-elasticity of the vessel walls has generally been neglected or only taken into account in a highly approximate manner. The object of the present paper is to provide a mathematical model for the propagation of weak disturbances in visco-elastic arteries. A differential equation governing the growth and decay of the waves has been obtained and solved analytically. It is observed that compressive pulses may grow into shock waves. A mathematical model which is based on geometrical and mechanical properties of arteries admits disturbances in the propagating pulses which are not observed in human beings under normal physiological conditions. It is also predicted that visco-elasticity delays the shock wave formation in the model. The shock wave may appear in periphery in the case of aortic insufficiency due to increased pressure at the root of aorta. The corresponding predictions are in much better agreement with in vivo measurements

  4. Accurate evaluation of viscoelasticity of radial artery wall during flow-mediated dilation in ultrasound measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasumasa; Taki, Hirofumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, the viscoelasticity of the radial artery wall was estimated to diagnose endothelial dysfunction using a high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasound device. In the present study, we employed a commercial ultrasound device (7.5 MHz) and estimated the viscoelasticity using arterial pressure and diameter, both of which were measured at the same position. In a phantom experiment, the proposed method successfully estimated the elasticity and viscosity of the phantom with errors of 1.8 and 30.3%, respectively. In an in vivo measurement, the transient change in the viscoelasticity was measured for three healthy subjects during flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The proposed method revealed the softening of the arterial wall originating from the FMD reaction within 100 s after avascularization. These results indicate the high performance of the proposed method in evaluating vascular endothelial function just after avascularization, where the function is difficult to be estimated by a conventional FMD measurement.

  5. Pseudospectral modeling and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Chen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is one of the most widely used techniques in environmental and engineering geophysics to determine shear-wave velocities and dynamic properties, which is based on the elastic layered system theory. Wave propagation in the Earth, however, has been recognized as viscoelastic and the propagation of Rayleigh waves presents substantial differences in viscoelastic media as compared with elastic media. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out numerical simulation and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media to better understand Rayleigh-wave behaviors in the real world. We apply a pseudospectral method to the calculation of the spatial derivatives using a Chebyshev difference operator in the vertical direction and a Fourier difference operator in the horizontal direction based on the velocity-stress elastodynamic equations and relations of linear viscoelastic solids. This approach stretches the spatial discrete grid to have a minimum grid size near the free surface so that high accuracy and resolution are achieved at the free surface, which allows an effective incorporation of the free surface boundary conditions since the Chebyshev method is nonperiodic. We first use an elastic homogeneous half-space model to demonstrate the accuracy of the pseudospectral method comparing with the analytical solution, and verify the correctness of the numerical modeling results for a viscoelastic half-space comparing the phase velocities of Rayleigh wave between the theoretical values and the dispersive image generated by high-resolution linear Radon transform. We then simulate three types of two-layer models to analyze dispersive-energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media is relatively higher than in elastic media and the fundamental mode increases by 10-16% when the frequency is above 10. Hz due to the velocity dispersion of P

  6. Fully coupled heat conduction and deformation analyses of visco-elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-04-21

    Visco-elastic materials are known for their capability of dissipating energy. This energy is converted into heat and thus changes the temperature of the materials. In addition to the dissipation effect, an external thermal stimulus can also alter the temperature in a viscoelastic body. The rate of stress relaxation (or the rate of creep) and the mechanical and physical properties of visco-elastic materials, such as polymers, vary with temperature. This study aims at understanding the effect of coupling between the thermal and mechanical response that is attributed to the dissipation of energy, heat conduction, and temperature-dependent material parameters on the overall response of visco-elastic solids. The non-linearly viscoelastic constitutive model proposed by Schapery (Further development of a thermodynamic constitutive theory: stress formulation, 1969,Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 1:209-240, 1997) is used and modified to incorporate temperature- and stress-dependent material properties. This study also formulates a non-linear energy equation along with a dissipation function based on the Gibbs potential of Schapery (Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 1:209-240, 1997). A numerical algorithm is formulated for analyzing a fully coupled thermo-visco-elastic response and implemented it in a general finite-element (FE) code. The non-linear stress- and temperature-dependent material parameters are found to have significant effects on the coupled thermo-visco-elastic response of polymers considered in this study. In order to obtain a realistic temperature field within the polymer visco-elastic bodies undergoing a non-uniform heat generation, the role of heat conduction cannot be ignored. © Springer Science+Business Media, B. V. 2012.

  7. Effect of a viscoelastic target on the impact response of a flat-nosed projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu; Yang, Jialing; Liu, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Taylor impact is a widely used strategy in which a flat-nosed projectile is fired onto a rigid anvil directly to determine the dynamic strength of rod specimens. Nowadays, the rigid anvil is often replaced by an output target bar to ensure the accuracy of measurement via recording strain signals in the output bar. For testing the dynamic strength of low-density materials, a low-impedance target bar, which exhibits viscoelastic characteristics is often employed. In this paper, an extended Taylor model is proposed to improve the idealization of treating the target bar as perfectly rigid material in the classic Taylor model, and the viscoelastic effect of the target bar is incorporated. The viscoelastic target bar is depicted by two elastic springs and one dashpot. Based on the plastic shock wave theory in the flat-nosed projectile associated with the viscoelastic wave analysis in the target bar, the viscoelastic effect of the target bar on the impact response of the flat-nosed projectile is investigated. The finite element simulation is also carried out to verify the theoretical model, and good agreement is found. The present theoretical model is also called the Taylor-cylinder Hopkinson impact, which provides a more accurate way to identify the dynamic material parameters. The dynamic responses of the present model are further compared with previous elastic and rigid target bar models. It is found that the viscoelastic effect of the target bar should be taken into consideration in the Taylor-cylinder Hopkinson impact test for low-impedance materials.

  8. Concept medium program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The present essays is an attempt to dertermine the architecural project of the 21st century in realation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of society as its program. This attempt adopts the internal point of view of an architect in describing a modern architectural...... project within the framework: concept - program, these notions being concieved as spatial representations primarily and immediately "given" to architecture....

  9. Ex-Vivo Cow Skin Viscoelastic Effect for Tribological Aspects in Endoprosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhi, K. A.; Tudor, A.; Hussein, E. K.; Wahad, H.; Chisiu, G.

    2018-01-01

    The viscoelastic behavior of ex-vivo cow skin was experimentally studied by applied load from different indenter types (circle, square and triangle, all types have the same area) for different times (10 sec, 30 sec, and 60 sec). The viscoelastic tests were carried out using a UMT series (UMT-II, CETR Corporation). The experimental results collected at different operating conditions showed that the cow skin has a higher reaction against the triangle indenter compared to the other shapes. Whereas the hysteresis of cow skin was lower at low applied load time and it's increased when the time increased.

  10. Neuro-adaptive control in beating heart surgery based on the viscoelastic tissue model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Rezakhani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of 3D heart motion in beating heart surgery is resolved by proposing a parallel force-motion controller. Motion controller is designed based on neuro-adaptive approach to compensate 3D heart motion and deal with uncertainity in dynamic parameters, while an implicit force control is implemented by considering a viscoelastic tissue model. Stability analysis is proved through Lypanov’s stability theory and Barballet’s lemma. Simulation results, for D2M2 robot, which is done in nominal case and viscoelastic parameter mismatches demonstrate the robust performance of the controller.

  11. Estimation of viscoelastic parameters in Prony series from shear wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae-Wook; Hong, Jung-Wuk, E-mail: j.hong@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: jwhong@alum.mit.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 291 Deahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyoung-Ki; Choi, Kiwan [Health and Medical Equipment, Samsung Electronics, 1003 Daechi-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-280 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-21

    When acquiring accurate ultrasonic images, we must precisely estimate the mechanical properties of the soft tissue. This study investigates and estimates the viscoelastic properties of the tissue by analyzing shear waves generated through an acoustic radiation force. The shear waves are sourced from a localized pushing force acting for a certain duration, and the generated waves travel horizontally. The wave velocities depend on the mechanical properties of the tissue such as the shear modulus and viscoelastic properties; therefore, we can inversely calculate the properties of the tissue through parametric studies.

  12. Changes in the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread containing rice porridge during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ling; Sugiyama, Junichi; Shibata, Mario; Kokawa, Mito; Fujita, Kaori; Tsuta, Mizuki; Nabetani, Hiroshi; Araki, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rice porridge on the texture and viscoelastic properties of bread during storage. Three types of bread, wheat flour bread, 15% rice flour bread, and 15% rice porridge bread, were prepared. After baking and storing the bread for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h at room temperature, we measured the texture and viscoelastic properties of the bread crumbs by texture profile analysis (TPA) and creep test. The 15% rice porridge bread showed a significantly higher specific volume and maintained softer crumbs than the other two types (pbread crumbs during storage.

  13. Lame problem for a multilayer viscoelastic hollow ball with regard to inhomogeneous aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, Z. A.; Mirzoyan, S. Y.; Gasparyan, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Determination of characteristics of the stress strain state of compound viscoelastic bodies is of both theoretical and practical interest. In the present paper, the Lamé problem is investigated for an uneven-aged multilayer viscoelastic hollow ball in the framework of N. Kh. Arutyunyan’s theory of creep of nonhomogeneously aging bodies [1, 2]. Solving this problem reduces to solving an inhomogeneous finite-difference equation of second order that contains operators with coordinates of time and space. The obtained formulas allow one to determine the required contact stresses and other mechanical characteristics of the problem related to uneven age of contacting balls.

  14. Experimental study and constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the human prolapsed vaginal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Estefania; Calvo, B; Martínez, M A; Martins, P; Mascarenhas, T; Jorge, R M N; Ferreira, A; Doblaré, M

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic mechanical properties of vaginal tissue are investigated. Using previous results of the authors on the mechanical properties of biological soft tissues and newly experimental data from uniaxial tension tests, a new model for the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the human vaginal tissue is proposed. The structural model seems to be sufficiently accurate to guarantee its application to prediction of reliable stress distributions, and is suitable for finite element computations. The obtained results may be helpful in the design of surgical procedures with autologous tissue or prostheses.

  15. Effect of rheological characteristics and technology of application of a viscoelastic separator on its displacing ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnibidin, V N

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of industrial tests of the displacing ability of a viscoelastic separator, obtained by mixing a clay suspension and an aqueous solution of polyacrylamide. It is established that the displacing ability of the viscoelastic separator is determined mainly by the value of the final normal stresses sigma /SUB f/ . The greatest effect from the use of this separator is achieved with sigma /SUB f/ of at least 600 dyne/cm/sup 2/ and a rate of movement of not more than 0.5 m/sec.

  16. Modeling moisture absorption kinetics of barley grain using viscoelastic model and neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kamali

    2015-09-01

    Network (ANN as an important artificial intelligent method comparable to human brain capabilities is applied to train and store data in the form of weighted networks (Dayhoff, 1990. This method has superiority to many ordinary statistical and model making methods. In comparison to linear regression models, ANN does not require placing estimated values around mean values and for this reason it retains actual variations in the data being analyzed. Prediction by using trained ANN enables the researchers to decrease or increase input and output variables.Therefore, it is possible to produce a multivariate model with an output even more than the objectives deemed necessary (Heristev, 1998. The goal of this research was to predict instant moisture content of three barley varieties (Reyhan3, Fajr and MB862 during the soaking process under three temperature levels (10, 20 and 45 ◦C using two conventional ANN methods of multilayer perceptron (MLP and radial basis function (RBF in comparison with viscoelastic mathematical model and reporting the results. Materials and method: Barley varieties were collected from the Isfahan Province Agriculture Organization grain depository and were cleaned and the debris were separated before the experiments. The selected grains were sorted to three groups of small, medium and large grains sizes. To exclude the effect of grain size during moisture absorption, the medium size grains were used. The moisture content of the grains was determined based on the ASAE S352.2 DEC97 (ASAE, 1999 which were %8.23, %8.62 and %8.89 on a dry basis for Reyhan3, Fajr and MB862, respectively with no significant difference at %5 probability level (p>0.05. Experiments were conducted under three temperatures (10, 20 and 45 ◦C in the refrigerator, at room temperature and in the oven, respectively for each variety. In each experiment, 10 medium size grains were selected randomly and weighed with an AND laboratory scale model Gf-400 (made in Japan and placed in foam

  17. An X-ray study of the supernova remnant G20.0-0.2 and its surroundings

    OpenAIRE

    Petriella, Alberto; Paron, Sergio; Giacani, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We study the supernova remnant G20.0-0.2 and its surroundings in order to look for the high energy counterpart of the radio nebula and to find evidence of interaction between the shock front and the interstellar medium. Methods. We used Chandra archival observations to analyze the X-ray emission from the supernova remnant. The surrounding gas was investigated using data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey, the VLA Galactic Plane Survey, the Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey E...

  18. Formulation and solutions of fractional continuously variable order mass–spring–damper systems controlled by viscoelastic and viscous–viscoelastic dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saha Ray

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the formulation and a new approach to find analytic solutions for fractional continuously variable order dynamic models, namely, fractional continuously variable order mass–spring–damper systems. Here, we use the viscoelastic and viscous–viscoelastic dampers for describing the damping nature of the oscillating systems, where the order of fractional derivative varies continuously. Here, we handle the continuous changing nature of fractional order derivative for dynamic systems, which has not been studied yet. By successive recursive method, here we find the solution of fractional continuously variable order mass–spring–damper systems and then obtain closed-form solutions. We then present and discuss the solutions obtained in the cases with continuously variable order of damping for oscillator through graphical plots.

  19. HIV behavioural surveillance among refugees and surrounding host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used a standardised behavioural surveillance survey (BSS), modified to be directly relevant to populations in conflict and post-conflict settings as well as to their surrounding host populations, to survey the populations of a refugee settlement in south-western Uganda and its surrounding area. Two-stage probability ...

  20. Investigation of the readout electronics of DELPHI surround muon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khovanskij, N.; Krumshtejn, Z.; Ol'shevskij, A.; Sadovskij, A.; Sedykh, Yu.; Molnar, J.; Sicho, P.; Tomsa, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of the readout electronics of the DELPHI surround muon chambers with various AMPLEX chips (AMPLEX 16 and AMPLEX-SICAL) are presented. This electronics is studied in a cosmic rays test of the real surround muon chamber model. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Stimulus size dependence of hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian Johannes; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround induces a change in the perceived hue of a stimulus. This shift in hue depends on the chromatic difference between the stimulus and the surround. We investigated how chromatic induction varies with stimulus size and whether the size dependence depends on the surround hue. Subjects performed asymmetric matching of color stimuli with different sizes in surrounds of different chromaticities. Generally, induced hue shifts decreased with increasing stimulus size. This decrease was quantitatively different for different surround hues. However, when size effects were normalized to an overall induction strength, the chromatic specificity was largely reduced. The separability of inducer chromaticity and stimulus size suggests that these effects are mediated by different neural mechanisms.

  2. Rotational effect on Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher and fraction orders with voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Alla, A. M.; Abo-Dahab, S. M. [Taif University, Taif (Egypt); Khan, Aftab [COMSATS, Chakshahzad (Pakistan)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we investigated the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic anisotropic media of a higher order and fraction orders of nth order including time rate of strain with voids. The general surface wave speed is derived to study the effect of rotation and voids on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. In order zero our results are well agreeing with classical results. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters and voids the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material medium. It is observed that Love wave remains unaffected with respect to rotation and voids. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically.

  3. Rotational effect on Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher and fraction orders with voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Alla, A. M.; Abo-Dahab, S. M.; Khan, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic anisotropic media of a higher order and fraction orders of nth order including time rate of strain with voids. The general surface wave speed is derived to study the effect of rotation and voids on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. In order zero our results are well agreeing with classical results. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters and voids the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material medium. It is observed that Love wave remains unaffected with respect to rotation and voids. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically.

  4. [Interrelations between plant communities and environmental factors of wetlands and surrounding lands in mid- and lower reaches of Tarim River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruifeng; Zhou, Huarong; Qian, Yibing; Zhang, Jianjun

    2006-06-01

    A total of 16 quadrants of wetlands and surrounding lands in the mid- and lower reaches of Tarim River were surveyed, and the data about the characteristics of plant communities and environmental factors were collected and counted. By using PCA (principal component analysis) ordination and regression procedure, the distribution patterns of plant communities and the relationships between the characteristics of plant community structure and environmental factors were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of the plant communities was closely related to soil moisture, salt, and nutrient contents. The accumulative contribution rate of soil moisture and salt contents in the first principal component accounted for 35.70%, and that of soil nutrient content in the second principal component reached 25.97%. There were 4 types of habitats for the plant community distribution, i. e., fenny--light salt--medium nutrient, moist--medium salt--medium nutrient, mesophytic--medium salt--low nutrient, and medium xerophytic-heavy salt--low nutrient. Along these habitats, swamp vegetation, meadow vegetation, riparian sparse forest, halophytic desert, and salinized shrub were distributed. In the wetlands and surrounding lands of mid- and lower reaches of Tarim River, the ecological dominance of the plant communities was markedly and unitary-linearly correlated with the compound gradient of soil moisture and salt contents. The relationships between species diversity, ecological dominance, and compound gradient of soil moisture and salt contents were significantly accorded to binary-linear regression model.

  5. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors.

  6. Alteration of brain viscoelasticity after shunt treatment in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freimann, Florian Baptist; Sprung, Christian [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Neurosurgical Department, Berlin (Germany); Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Klatt, Dieter; Sack, Ingolf [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Lin, Kui; McLaughlin, Joyce [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Mathematics Department, Troy, NY (United States); Braun, Juergen [Charite - University Medicine Campus Benjamin Franklin, Institute of Medical Informatics, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) represents a chronic neurological disorder with increasing incidence. The symptoms of NPH may be relieved by surgically implanting a ventriculoperitoneal shunt to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid. However, the pathogenesis of NPH is not yet fully elucidated, and the clinical response of shunt treatment is hard to predict. According to current theories of NPH, altered mechanical properties of brain tissue seem to play an important role. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a unique method for measuring in vivo brain mechanics. In this study cerebral MRE was applied to test the viscoelastic properties of the brain in 20 patients with primary (N = 14) and secondary (N = 6) NPH prior and after (91 {+-} 16 days) shunt placement. Viscoelastic parameters were derived from the complex modulus according to the rheological springpot model. This model provided two independent parameters {mu} and {alpha}, related to the inherent rigidity and topology of the mechanical network of brain tissue. The viscoelastic parameters {mu} and {alpha} were found to be decreased with -25% and -10%, respectively, compared to age-matched controls (P < 0.001). Interestingly, {alpha} increased after shunt placement (P < 0.001) to almost normal values whereas {mu} remained symptomatically low. The results indicate the fundamental role of altered viscoelastic properties of brain tissue during disease progression and tissue repair in NPH. Clinical improvement in NPH is associated with an increasing complexity of the mechanical network whose inherent strength, however, remains degraded. (orig.)

  7. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  8. Lagrangian Finite Element Method for 3D Time-Dependent Viscoelastic Flow Computations using Integral Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2000-01-01

    The 3D-LIM has as yet been used to simulate the following two three-dimensional problems. First, the method has been used to simulete for viscoelastic end-plate instability that occurs under certain conditions in the transient filament stretching apparatus for pressure sensitive adhesives (polyme...

  9. Mechanochemical pattern formation in simple models of active viscoelastic fluids and solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sergio; Radszuweit, Markus; Engel, Harald; Bär, Markus

    2017-11-01

    The cytoskeleton of the organism Physarum polycephalum is a prominent example of a complex active viscoelastic material wherein stresses induce flows along the organism as a result of the action of molecular motors and their regulation by calcium ions. Experiments in Physarum polycephalum have revealed a rich variety of mechanochemical patterns including standing, traveling and rotating waves that arise from instabilities of spatially homogeneous states without gradients in stresses and resulting flows. Herein, we investigate simple models where an active stress induced by molecular motors is coupled to a model describing the passive viscoelastic properties of the cellular material. Specifically, two models for viscoelastic fluids (Maxwell and Jeffrey model) and two models for viscoelastic solids (Kelvin-Voigt and Standard model) are investigated. Our focus is on the analysis of the conditions that cause destabilization of spatially homogeneous states and the related onset of mechano-chemical waves and patterns. We carry out linear stability analyses and numerical simulations in one spatial dimension for different models. In general, sufficiently strong activity leads to waves and patterns. The primary instability is stationary for all active fluids considered, whereas all active solids have an oscillatory primary instability. All instabilities found are of long-wavelength nature reflecting the conservation of the total calcium concentration in the models studied.

  10. The Modeling of Viscoelastic Circular Plates for Use as Waveguide Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    oncituoe Security Ciasstircation) X THE MODELING OF VISCOELASTIC CIRCULAR PLATES FOR USE AS WAVEGUIDE ABSORBERS C 12 PERSONAL AUTmO ?S) -Hettema...33mvU3dT’U Figure 67. Experimental Jmainiey Part ot the Driving Point Jmpedancs of a 6 in Radius Elastic Plate, With and Without aaker and Mount Conecon, In

  11. Viscoelastic Properties of Extracellular Polymeric Substances Can Strongly Affect Their Washing Efficiency from Reverse Osmosis Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando Chavez, Diana Lila; Nejidat, Ali; Herzberg, Moshe

    2016-09-06

    The role of the viscoelastic properties of biofouling layers in their removal from the membrane was studied. Model fouling layers of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) originated from microbial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 differentially expressing the Psl polysaccharide were used for controlled washing experiments of fouled RO membranes. In parallel, adsorption experiments and viscoelastic modeling of the EPS layers were conducted in a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). During the washing stage, as shear rate was elevated, significant differences in permeate flux recovery between the three different EPS layers were observed. According to the amount of organic carbon remained on the membrane after washing, the magnitude of Psl production provides elevated resistance of the EPS layer to shear stress. The highest flux recovery during the washing stage was observed for the EPS with no Psl. Psl was shown to elevate the layer's shear modulus and shear viscosity but had no effect on the EPS adhesion to the polyamide surface. We conclude that EPS retain on the membrane as a result of the layer viscoelastic properties. These results highlight an important relation between washing efficiency of fouling layers from membranes and their viscoelastic properties, in addition to their adhesion properties.

  12. Effect of long-time immersion of soft denture liners in water on viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Naohiko; Yamaki, Chisato; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Oki, Meiko; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2017-09-26

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-time immersion of soft denture liners in 37°C water on viscoelastic properties. Six silicone-based and two acrylic resin-based soft denture liners were selected. Cylindrical specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 6 months. Viscoelastic properties, which were instantaneous and delayed elastic displacements, viscous flow, and residual displacement, were determined using a creep meter, and analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's comparison (α=0.05). Viscoelastic properties and their time-dependent changes were varied among materials examined. The observed viscoelastic properties of three from six silicone-based liners did not significantly change after 6-month immersion, but those of two acrylic resin-based liners significantly changed with the increase of immersion time. However, the sum of initial instantaneous elastic displacement and delayed elastic displacement of two acrylic resin-based liners during 6-month immersion changed less than 10%, which might indicate clinically sufficient elastic performance.

  13. Role of viscoelasticity in instability in plane shear flow over a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lence in boundary layer flow over deformable surfaces as found by pioneering experiments of ... supports a viscous fluid layer of thickness around 300 μm to 1000 μm in a parallel-plate rheome- ter. ... applications are viscoelastic. ... In the absence of inertia, the Newtonian fluid flow over a flat rigid surface is always stable,.

  14. Formation of beads-on-a-string structures during break-up of viscoelastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep P.; Appathurai, Santosh; Harris, Michael T.; Pasquali, Matteo; McKinley, Gareth H.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2010-08-01

    Break-up of viscoelastic filaments is pervasive in both nature and technology. If a filament is formed by placing a drop of saliva between a thumb and forefinger and is stretched, the filament's morphology close to break-up corresponds to beads of several sizes interconnected by slender threads. Although there is general agreement that formation of such beads-on-a-string (BOAS) structures occurs only for viscoelastic fluids, the underlying physics remains unclear and controversial. The physics leading to the formation of BOAS structures is probed by numerical simulation. Computations reveal that viscoelasticity alone does not give rise to a small, satellite bead between two much larger main beads but that inertia is required for its formation. Viscoelasticity, however, enhances the growth of the bead and delays pinch-off, which leads to a relatively long-lived beaded structure. We also show for the first time theoretically that yet smaller, sub-satellite beads can also form as seen in experiments.

  15. Stress-based viscoelastic master curve construction of model tire tread compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.; Dierkes, W.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.; Tolpekina, T.; Schultz, S.; Gögelein, C.; Wrana, C.; Gil-Negrete, Nere; Asier, Alonso

    2013-01-01

    One of the important aspects in the development of new tire compounds is the correlation between the dynamic mechanical properties of the rubber, measured on laboratory scale, and the actual tire performance. In order to predict wet traction, the viscoelastic behavior of the rubber materials at high

  16. A phenomenological constitutive model for the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of biodegradable polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-11-09

    We formulate a constitutive framework for biodegradable polymers that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior under regimes with large deformation. The generalized Maxwell model is used to represent the degraded viscoelastic response of a polymer. The large-deformation, time-dependent behavior of viscoelastic solids is described using an Ogden-type hyperviscoelastic model. A deformation-induced degradation mechanism is assumed in which a scalar field depicts the local state of the degradation, which is responsible for the changes in the material\\'s properties. The degradation process introduces another timescale (the intrinsic material clock) and an entropy production mechanism. Examples of the degradation of a polymer under various loading conditions, including creep, relaxation and cyclic loading, are presented. Results from parametric studies to determine the effects of various parameters on the process of degradation are reported. Finally, degradation of an annular cylinder subjected to pressure is also presented to mimic the effects of viscoelastic arterial walls (the outer cylinder) on the degradation response of a biodegradable stent (the inner cylinder). A general contact analysis is performed. As the stiffness of the biodegradable stent decreases, stress reduction in the stented viscoelastic arterial wall is observed. The integration of the proposed constitutive model with finite element software could help a designer to predict the time-dependent response of a biodegradable stent exhibiting finite deformation and under complex mechanical loading conditions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  17. A numerical method for reorientation of rotating tidally deformed viscoelastic bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Existing approaches for simulating the true polar wander (TPW) of a viscoelastic body can be divided into three categories: (i) a linear dynamic approach which uses the linearized Liouville equation (e.g., Wu and Peltier (1984) and Mitrovica et al. (2005)); (ii) a nonlinear dynamic approach which

  18. Development of probabilistic fatigue curve for asphalt concrete based on viscoelastic continuum damage mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to its roots in fundamental thermodynamic framework, continuum damage approach is popular for modeling asphalt concrete behavior. Currently used continuum damage models use mixture averaged values for model parameters and assume deterministic damage process. On the other hand, significant scatter is found in fatigue data generated even under extremely controlled laboratory testing conditions. Thus, currently used continuum damage models fail to account the scatter observed in fatigue data. This paper illustrates a novel approach for probabilistic fatigue life prediction based on viscoelastic continuum damage approach. Several specimens were tested for their viscoelastic properties and damage properties under uniaxial mode of loading. The data thus generated were analyzed using viscoelastic continuum damage mechanics principles to predict fatigue life. Weibull (2 parameter, 3 parameter and lognormal distributions were fit to fatigue life predicted using viscoelastic continuum damage approach. It was observed that fatigue damage could be best-described using Weibull distribution when compared to lognormal distribution. Due to its flexibility, 3-parameter Weibull distribution was found to fit better than 2-parameter Weibull distribution. Further, significant differences were found between probabilistic fatigue curves developed in this research and traditional deterministic fatigue curve. The proposed methodology combines advantages of continuum damage mechanics as well as probabilistic approaches. These probabilistic fatigue curves can be conveniently used for reliability based pavement design. Keywords: Probabilistic fatigue curve, Continuum damage mechanics, Weibull distribution, Lognormal distribution

  19. Simulations of three-dimensional viscoelastic flows past a circular cylinder at moderate Reynolds numbers

    KAUST Repository

    RICHTER, DAVID

    2010-03-29

    The results from a numerical investigation of inertial viscoelastic flow past a circular cylinder are presented which illustrate the significant effect that dilute concentrations of polymer additives have on complex flows. In particular, effects of polymer extensibility are studied as well as the role of viscoelasticity during three-dimensional cylinder wake transition. Simulations at two distinct Reynolds numbers (Re = 100 and Re = 300) revealed dramatic differences based on the choice of the polymer extensibility (L2 in the FENE-P model), as well as a stabilizing tendency of viscoelasticity. For the Re = 100 case, attention was focused on the effects of increasing polymer extensibility, which included a lengthening of the recirculation region immediately behind the cylinder and a sharp increase in average drag when compared to both the low extensibility and Newtonian cases. For Re = 300, a suppression of the three-dimensional Newtonian mode B instability was observed. This effect is more pronounced for higher polymer extensibilities where all three-dimensional structure is eliminated, and mechanisms for this stabilization are described in the context of roll-up instability inhibition in a viscoelastic shear layer. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  20. Global existence and uniqueness result for the diffusive Peterlin viscoelastic model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medviďová-Lukáčová, M.; Mizerová, H.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, June (2015), s. 154-170 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Peterlin viscoelastic model * existence * uniqueness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X1500070X

  1. Shear Rheology of a Suspension of Deformable Solids in Viscoelastic Fluid via Immersed Boundary Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Christopher; Shaqfeh, Eric

    2017-11-01

    The simulation of fluids with suspended deformable solids is important to the design of microfluidic devices with soft particles and the examination of blood flow in complex channels. The fluids in these applications are often viscoelastic, motivating the development of a high-fidelity simulation tool with general constitutive model implementations for both the viscoelastic fluid and deformable solid. The Immersed Finite Element Method (IFEM) presented by Zhang et al. (2007) allows for distinct fluid and solid grids to be utilized reducing the need for costly re-meshing when particles translate. We discuss a modified version of the IFEM that allows for the simulation of deformable particles in viscoelastic flows. This simulation tool is validated for simple Newtonian shear flows with elastic particles that obey a Neo-Hookean Law. The tool is used to further explore the rheology of a dilute suspension of Neo-Hookean particles in a Giesekus fluid. The results show that dilute suspensions of soft particles have viscosities that decrease as the Capillary number becomes higher in both the case of a Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid. A discussion of multiple particle results will be included. NSF CBET-1066263 and 1066334.

  2. A finite element modeling of a multifunctional hybrid composite beam with viscoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    The multifunctional hybrid composite structure studied here consists of a ceramic outer layer capable of withstanding high temperatures, a functionally graded ceramic layer combining shape memory alloy (SMA) properties of NiTi together with Ti2AlC (called Graded Ceramic/Metal Composite, or GCMeC), and a high temperature sensor patch, followed by a polymer matrix composite laced with vascular cooling channels all held together with various epoxies. Due to the recoverable nature of SMA and adhesive properties of Ti2AlC, the damping behavior of the GCMeC is largely viscoelastic. This paper presents a finite element formulation for this multifunctional hybrid structure with embedded viscoelastic material. In order to implement the viscoelastic model into the finite element formulation, a second order three parameter Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method is used to describe the viscoelastic behavior. Considering the parameter identification, a strategy to estimate the fractional order of the time derivative and the relaxation time is outlined. The curve-fitting aspects of both GHM and ADF show good agreement with experimental data obtained from dynamic mechanics analysis. The performance of the finite element of the layered multifunctional beam is verified through experimental model analysis.

  3. Microscale characterization of the viscoelastic properties of hydrogel biomaterials using dual-mode ultrasound elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaowei; Stegemann, Jan P; Deng, Cheri X

    2016-05-01

    Characterization of the microscale mechanical properties of biomaterials is a key challenge in the field of mechanobiology. Dual-mode ultrasound elastography (DUE) uses high frequency focused ultrasound to induce compression in a sample, combined with interleaved ultrasound imaging to measure the resulting deformation. This technique can be used to non-invasively perform creep testing on hydrogel biomaterials to characterize their viscoelastic properties. DUE was applied to a range of hydrogel constructs consisting of either hydroxyapatite (HA)-doped agarose, HA-collagen, HA-fibrin, or preosteoblast-seeded collagen constructs. DUE provided spatial and temporal mapping of local and bulk displacements and strains at high resolution. Hydrogel materials exhibited characteristic creep behavior, and the maximum strain and residual strain were both material- and concentration-dependent. Burger's viscoelastic model was used to extract characteristic parameters describing material behavior. Increased protein concentration resulted in greater stiffness and viscosity, but did not affect the viscoelastic time constant of acellular constructs. Collagen constructs exhibited significantly higher modulus and viscosity than fibrin constructs. Cell-seeded collagen constructs became stiffer with altered mechanical behavior as they developed over time. Importantly, DUE also provides insight into the spatial variation of viscoelastic properties at sub-millimeter resolution, allowing interrogation of the interior of constructs. DUE presents a novel technique for non-invasively characterizing hydrogel materials at the microscale, and therefore may have unique utility in the study of mechanobiology and the characterization of hydrogel biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acoustic radiation force induced resonance elastography of coagulating blood: theoretical viscoelasticity modeling and ex vivo experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Manish; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Destrempes, François; Chayer, Boris; Kazemirad, Siavash; Cloutier, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Deep vein thrombosis is a common vascular disease that can lead to pulmonary embolism and death. The early diagnosis and clot age staging are important parameters for reliable therapy planning. This article presents an acoustic radiation force induced resonance elastography method for the viscoelastic characterization of clotting blood. The physical concept of this method relies on the mechanical resonance of the blood clot occurring at specific frequencies. Resonances are induced by focusing ultrasound beams inside the sample under investigation. Coupled to an analytical model of wave scattering, the ability of the proposed method to characterize the viscoelasticity of a mimicked venous thrombosis in the acute phase is demonstrated. Experiments with a gelatin-agar inclusion sample of known viscoelasticity are performed for validation and establishment of the proof of concept. In addition, an inversion method is applied in vitro for the kinetic monitoring of the blood coagulation process of six human blood samples obtained from two volunteers. The computed elasticity and viscosity values of blood samples at the end of the 90 min kinetics were estimated at 411  ±  71 Pa and 0.25  ±  0.03 Pa · s for volunteer #1, and 387  ±  35 Pa and 0.23  ±  0.02 Pa · s for volunteer #2, respectively. The proposed method allowed reproducible time-varying thrombus viscoelastic measurements from samples having physiological dimensions.

  5. Alteration of brain viscoelasticity after shunt treatment in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freimann, Florian Baptist; Sprung, Christian; Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Klatt, Dieter; Sack, Ingolf; Lin, Kui; McLaughlin, Joyce; Braun, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) represents a chronic neurological disorder with increasing incidence. The symptoms of NPH may be relieved by surgically implanting a ventriculoperitoneal shunt to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid. However, the pathogenesis of NPH is not yet fully elucidated, and the clinical response of shunt treatment is hard to predict. According to current theories of NPH, altered mechanical properties of brain tissue seem to play an important role. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a unique method for measuring in vivo brain mechanics. In this study cerebral MRE was applied to test the viscoelastic properties of the brain in 20 patients with primary (N = 14) and secondary (N = 6) NPH prior and after (91 ± 16 days) shunt placement. Viscoelastic parameters were derived from the complex modulus according to the rheological springpot model. This model provided two independent parameters μ and α, related to the inherent rigidity and topology of the mechanical network of brain tissue. The viscoelastic parameters μ and α were found to be decreased with -25% and -10%, respectively, compared to age-matched controls (P < 0.001). Interestingly, α increased after shunt placement (P < 0.001) to almost normal values whereas μ remained symptomatically low. The results indicate the fundamental role of altered viscoelastic properties of brain tissue during disease progression and tissue repair in NPH. Clinical improvement in NPH is associated with an increasing complexity of the mechanical network whose inherent strength, however, remains degraded. (orig.)

  6. Viscoelastic properties of poly(butylene succinate)-co-adipate) nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Al-Thabaiti, SA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available and melt-state viscoelastic properties of neat PBSA and various nanocomposites were studied in detail. The dynamic mechanical studies demonstrated an increase in the storage modulus of PBSA matrix with organoclay loading. Melt-state rheological properties...

  7. A semigroup approach to equations with infinite delay and application to a problem of viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renardy, M.

    1981-10-01

    A semigroup approach to differential-delay equations is developed which seems more suitable for certain partial integro-differential equations than the standard theory. On a formal level, it is demonstrated that the stretching of filaments of viscoelastic liquids can be described by an equation of this form.

  8. Combining adhesive contact mechanics with a viscoelastic material model to probe local material properties by AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganser, Christian; Czibula, Caterina; Tscharnuter, Daniel; Schöberl, Thomas; Teichert, Christian; Hirn, Ulrich

    2017-12-20

    Viscoelastic properties are often measured using probe based techniques such as nanoindentation (NI) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Rarely, however, are these methods verified. In this article, we present a method that combines contact mechanics with a viscoelastic model (VEM) composed of springs and dashpots. We further show how to use this model to determine viscoelastic properties from creep curves recorded by a probe based technique. We focus on using the standard linear solid model and the generalized Maxwell model of order 2. The method operates in the range of 0.01 Hz to 1 Hz. Our approach is suitable for rough surfaces by providing a defined contact area using plastic pre-deformation of the material. The very same procedure is used to evaluate AFM based measurements as well as NI measurements performed on polymer samples made from poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate. The results of these measurements are then compared to those obtained by tensile creep tests also performed on the same samples. It is found that the tensile test results differ considerably from the results obtained by AFM and NI methods. The similarity between the AFM results and NI results suggests that the proposed method is capable of yielding results comparable to NI but with the advantage of the imaging possibilities of AFM. Furthermore, all three methods allowed a clear distinction between PC and PMMA by means of their respective viscoelastic properties.

  9. Viscoelastic damped response of cross-ply laminated shallow spherical shells subjected to various impulsive loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahan, Mehmet Fatih

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic damped response of cross-ply laminated shallow spherical shells is investigated numerically in a transformed Laplace space. In the proposed approach, the governing differential equations of cross-ply laminated shallow spherical shell are derived using the dynamic version of the principle of virtual displacements. Following this, the Laplace transform is employed in the transient analysis of viscoelastic laminated shell problem. Also, damping can be incorporated with ease in the transformed domain. The transformed time-independent equations in spatial coordinate are solved numerically by Gauss elimination. Numerical inverse transformation of the results into the real domain are operated by the modified Durbin transform method. Verification of the presented method is carried out by comparing the results with those obtained by the Newmark method and ANSYS finite element software. Furthermore, the developed solution approach is applied to problems with several impulsive loads. The novelty of the present study lies in the fact that a combination of the Navier method and Laplace transform is employed in the analysis of cross-ply laminated shallow spherical viscoelastic shells. The numerical sample results have proved that the presented method constitutes a highly accurate and efficient solution, which can be easily applied to the laminated viscoelastic shell problems.

  10. Finite element formulation of viscoelastic sandwich beams using fractional derivative operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galucio, A. C.; Deü, J.-F.; Ohayon, R.

    This paper presents a finite element formulation for transient dynamic analysis of sandwich beams with embedded viscoelastic material using fractional derivative constitutive equations. The sandwich configuration is composed of a viscoelastic core (based on Timoshenko theory) sandwiched between elastic faces (based on Euler-Bernoulli assumptions). The viscoelastic model used to describe the behavior of the core is a four-parameter fractional derivative model. Concerning the parameter identification, a strategy to estimate the fractional order of the time derivative and the relaxation time is outlined. Curve-fitting aspects are focused, showing a good agreement with experimental data. In order to implement the viscoelastic model into the finite element formulation, the Grünwald definition of the fractional operator is employed. To solve the equation of motion, a direct time integration method based on the implicit Newmark scheme is used. One of the particularities of the proposed algorithm lies in the storage of displacement history only, reducing considerably the numerical efforts related to the non-locality of fractional operators. After validations, numerical applications are presented in order to analyze truncation effects (fading memory phenomena) and solution convergence aspects.

  11. Measuring cell viscoelastic properties using a force-spectrometer: influence of protein-cytoplasm interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Duperray, Alain; Leyrat, Anne; Verdier, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Cell adhesive and rheological properties play a very important role in cell transmigration through the endothelial barrier, in particular in the case of inflammation (leukocytes) or cancer metastasis (cancer cells). In order to characterize cell viscoelastic properties, we have designed a force spectrometer (AFM) which can stretch cells thereby allowing measurement of their rheological properties. This custom-made force spectrometer allows two different visualizations, one lateral and one from below. It allows investigation of the effects of rheology involved during cell stretching. To test the ability of our system to characterize such viscoelastic properties, ICAM-1 transfected CHO cells were analyzed. Two forms of ICAM-1 were tested; wild type ICAM-1, which can interact with the cytoskeleton, and a mutant form which lacks the cytoplasmic domain, and is unable to associate with the cytoskeleton. Stretching experiments carried out on these cells show the formation of long filaments. Using a previous model of filament elongation, we could determine the viscoelastic properties of a single cell. As expected, different viscoelastic components were found between the wild type and the mutant, which reveal that the presence of interactions between ICAM-1 and the cytoskeleton increases the stiffness of the cell.

  12. A micro-macro constitutive model for finite-deformation viscoelasticity of elastomers with nonlinear viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying; Khayat, Roger E.

    2018-01-01

    Elastomers are known to exhibit viscoelastic behavior under deformation, which is linked to the diffusion processes of the highly mobile and flexible polymer chains. Inspired by the theories of polymer dynamics, a micro-macro constitutive model is developed to study the viscoelastic behaviors and the relaxation process of elastomeric materials under large deformation, in which the material parameters all have a microscopic foundation or a microstructural justification. The proposed model incorporates the nonlinear material viscosity into the continuum finite-deformation viscoelasticity theories which represent the polymer networks of elastomers with an elastic ground network and a few viscous subnetworks. The developed modeling framework is capable of adopting most of strain energy density functions for hyperelastic materials and thermodynamics evolution laws of viscoelastic solids. The modeling capacity of the framework is outlined by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data of three commonly used elastomeric materials, namely, VHB4910, HNBR50 and carbon black (CB) filled elastomers. The comparison shows that the stress responses and some typical behaviors of filled and unfilled elastomers can be quantitatively predicted by the model with suitable strain energy density functions. Particularly, the strain-softening effect of elastomers could be explained by the deformation-dependent (nonlinear) viscosity of the polymer chains. The presented modeling framework is expected to be useful as a modeling platform for further study on the performance of different type of elastomeric materials.

  13. Nonlinear dynamic analysis and state space representation of a manipulator under viscoelastic material conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar, H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the VoigtKelvin constitutive model, nonlinear dynamic modelling and state space representation of a viscoelastic beam acting as a flexible robotic manipulator is investigated. Complete nonlinear dynamic modelling of a viscoelastic beam without premature linearisation of dynamic equations is developed. The adopted method is capable of reproducing nonlinear dynamic effects, such as beam stiffening due to centrifugal and Coriolis forces induced by rotation of the joints. Structural damping effects on the models dynamic behaviour are also shown. A reliable model for a viscoelastic beam is subsequently presented. The governing equations of motion are derived using Hamiltons principle, and using the finite difference method, nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations. For the purpose of flexible manipulator control, the standard form of state space equations for the viscoelastic link and the actuator is obtained. Simulation results indicate substantial improvements in dynamic behaviour, and a parameter sensitivity study is carried out to investigate the effect of structural damping on the vibration amplitude.

  14. Properties of Love waves in a piezoelectric layered structure with a viscoelastic guiding layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Lijun; Lu, Yanyan; He, Shitang

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical method is developed for analyzing Love waves in a structure with a viscoelastic guiding layer bounded on a piezoelectric substrate. The dispersion equation previously derived for piezoelectric Love waves propagating in the layered structure with an elastic layer is adopted for analyzing a structure with a viscoelastic layer. A Maxwell–Weichert model is introduced to describe the shear stiffness of a polymeric material. Newton’s method is employed for the numerical calculation. The dispersion equation for piezoelectric–elastic Love waves is proved suitable for solving a structure with a viscoelastic layer on a piezoelectric substrate. The theoretical results indicate that the propagation velocity of the Love wave is mainly decided by the shear stiffness of the guiding layer, whereas the propagation loss is approximately proportional to its viscosity. A detailed experimental study was conducted on a Love wave delay line fabricated on an ST-90° X quartz substrate and overlaid with various thicknesses of SU-8 guiding layers. A tail-raising caused by the viscosity of the guiding layer existed in both the calculated and the measured propagation velocities. The calculated insertion loss of the Love wave delay lines was in good agreement with the measured results. The method and the results presented in this paper are beneficial to the design of Love wave sensors with a viscoelastic guiding layer. (paper)

  15. Trefoil factor peptide 3 is positively correlated with the viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara Kjær; Samson, Mie Hesselund; Becher, Naja

    2017-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug are considered essential for the occlusion of the cervical canal and thereby for protection against ascending infections during pregnancy. Factors controlling this property are virtually unknown. This study explores a possible role of trefoil...

  16. Experimental validation of viscous and viscoelastic simulations of micro injection molding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gava, Alberto; Tosello, Guido; Lucchetta, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The effects of two different rheological models used in the simulation of the micro injection molding (µIM) process are investigated. The Cross-WLF viscous model and the Giesekus viscoelastic model are selected and their performance evaluated using 3D models implemented on two different...

  17. The viscoelastic characterization of polymer materials exposed to the low-Earth orbit environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strganac, T.; Letton, A.

    1992-01-01

    Recent accomplishments in our research efforts have included the successful measurement of the thermal mechanical properties of polymer materials exposed to the low-earth orbit environment. In particular, viscoelastic properties were recorded using the Rheometrics Solids Analyzer (RSA 2). Dynamic moduli (E', the storage component of the elastic modulus, and E'', the loss component of the elastic modulus) were recorded over three decades of frequency (0.1 to 100 rad/sec) for temperatures ranging from -150 to 150 C. Although this temperature range extends beyond the typical use range of the materials, measurements in this region are necessary in the development of complete viscoelastic constitutive models. The experimental results were used to provide the stress relaxation and creep compliance performance characteristics through viscoelastic correspondence principles. Our results quantify the differences between exposed and control polymer specimens. The characterization is specifically designed to elucidate a constitutive model that accurately predicts the change in behavior of these materials due to exposure. The constitutive model for viscoelastic behavior reflects the level of strain, the rate of strain, and the history of strain as well as the thermal history of the material

  18. Influence of the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system on the energetically optimum breathing frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J H; Milic-Emili, J

    1993-01-01

    We hypothesized that the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system should have significant implications for the energetically optimal frequency of breathing, in view of the fact that these properties cause marked dependencies of overall system resistance and elastance on frequency. To test our hypothesis we simulated two models of canine and human respiratory system mechanics during sinusoidal breathing and calculated the inspiratory work (WI) and pressure-time integral (PTI) per minute under both resting and exercise conditions. The two models were a two-compartment viscoelastic model and a single-compartment model. Requiring minute alveolar ventilation to be fixed, we found that both models predicted almost identical optimum breathing frequencies. The calculated PTI was very insensitive to increases in breathing frequency above the optimal frequencies, while WI was found to increase slowly with frequency above its optimum. In contrast, both WI and PTI increased sharply as frequency decreased below their respective optima. A sensitivity analysis showed that the model predictions were very insensitive to the elastance and resistance values chosen to characterize tissue viscoelasticity. We conclude that the WI criterion for choosing the frequency of breathing is compatible with observations in nature, whereas the optimal frequency predictions of the PTI are rather too high. Both criteria allow for a fairly wide margin of choice in frequency above the optimum values without incurring excessive additional energy expenditure. Furthermore, contrary to our expectations, the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system tissues do not pose a noticeable problem to the respiratory controller in terms of energy expenditure.

  19. Stick-slip behaviour of a viscoelastic flat sliding along a rigid indenter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budi Setiyana, Budi; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.; Schipper, Dirk Jan

    2016-01-01

    The sliding contact of soft material surface due to a rigid indenter is different from metal and some other polymers. A stick-slip motion is more frequently obtained than a smooth motion. By modeling the soft material as low damping viscoelastic material, this study proposes an analytical model to

  20. Ultra-high temperature chirped fiber Bragg gratings produced by gradient stretching of viscoelastic silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaorui; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin

    2013-12-15

    By applying a suitable quadratic temperature distribution at a temperature within the viscoelastic softening region for silica, a regenerated chirped grating with bandwidth of 9.8 nm is produced from a uniform grating using post strain-tuning under load. Simulated and experimental results are in good agreement.

  1. Relaxation of fibrils in blends with one viscoelastic component: Bulk and confined conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinaels, R.M.; Moldenaers, P.

    2010-01-01

    Using a counter rotating parallel plate shear flow cell, shape relaxation of fibrils in a quiescent matrix is studied microscopically. Both the effects of geometrical confinement and component viscoelasticity are systematically explored. By applying a supercritical shear flow for varying amounts of

  2. Calculation of viscoelastic properties of edible films: application of three models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANDRA Prabir K.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic properties of edible films can provide information at the structural level of the biopolymers used. The objective of this work was to test three simple models of linear viscoelastic theory (Maxwell, Generalized Maxwell with two units in parallel, and Burgers using the results of stress relaxation tests in edible films of myofibrillar proteins of Nile Tilapia. The films were elaborated according to a casting technique and pre-conditioned at 58% relative humidity and 22ºC for 4 days. The testing sample (15mm x 118mm was submitted to tests of stress relaxation in an equipment of physical measurements, TA.XT2i. The deformation, imposed to the sample, was 1%, guaranteeing the permanency in the domain of the linear viscoelasticity. The models were fitted to experimental data (stress x time by nonlinear regression. The Generalized Maxwell model with two units in parallel and the Burgers model represented the relaxation curves of stress satisfactorily. The viscoelastic properties varied in a way that they were less dependent on the thickness of the films.

  3. Lagrangian viscoelastic flow computations using a generalized molecular stress function model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2002-01-01

    A new finite element technique for the numerical simulation of 3D time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluid is presented. The technique is based on a Lagrangian kinematics description of the fluid flow. It represents a further development of the 3D Lagrangian integral method (3D-LIM) from a Rivlin...

  4. Propagation of cracks and damage in non aging linear viscoelastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    Most of France's energy is nuclear. The reactor building comprises a internal and external containment. The internal containment is prestressed to limit the flow of leakage in the internal-external space. The prestress decreases during time by the creep of concrete. It may propagate the cracks by the accidental internal pressure. So we define two research problems: propagation of macro-cracks in viscoelastic structure; effective behavior of micro-cracked viscoelastic material. Firstly, we develop a Burger viscoelastic model of concrete with two approaches: numerical and analytical. Then we solve the problem of single cracks in developing thermodynamically the concept of energy release rate. In the third part we develop a viscoelastic model to study the effective behavior of micro-cracked materials in the case without propagation. The problem of propagation of microcracks is then studied by a numerical approach based on the 'representative pattern morphology'. These studies are finally applied to solve the problems of crack propagation and damage of containment under accidental internal pressure. (authors)

  5. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  6. Calcination of Rod-like Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals with an Anti-sintering Agent Surrounding the Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, M.; Furuzono, T.

    2007-01-01

    Sintering-free nanocrystals of calcined hydroxyapatite (HAp) having a rod-like morphology were fabricated by calcination at 800 deg. C for 1 h with an anti-sintering agent surrounding original HAp particles and the agent was subsequently removed after calcination. The original HAp particles having a rod-like morphology with a size ranging from 30 to 80 nm (short axis) and 300 to 500 nm (long axis) were prepared by wet chemical process, and poly(acrylic acid, calcium salt) (PAA-Ca) was used as the anti-sintering agent. In the case of calcination without additives, the mean size of HAp crystals dispersed in an ethanol medium increased by about 4 times and the specific surface area of the crystals exhibited a 25% decrease compared to those of the original HAp particles because of calcination-induced sintering among the crystals. On the other hand, the HAp crystals calcined with the anti-sintering agent, PAA-Ca, could be dispersed in an ethanol medium at the same size as the original particles, and they preserved the specific surface area after calcination. These results indicate that PAA-Ca and/or its thermally decomposed product, CaO, surrounded the HAp particles and protected them against calcination-induced sintering during calcination. The HAp crystals calcined with PAA-Ca showed high crystallinity, and no other calcium phosphate phases could be detected after washing with water

  7. Normal age-related viscoelastic properties of chondrons and chondrocytes isolated from rabbit knee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Wang-ping; SUN Zhen-wei; LI Qi; LI Chun-jiang; WANG Li; CHEN Wei-yi; Jennifer Tickner; ZHENG Ming-hao; WEI Xiao-chun

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanical microenvironment of the chondrocytes plays an important role in cartilage homeostasis and in the health of the joint.The pericellular matrix,cellular membrane of the chondrocytes,and their cytoskeletal structures are key elements in the mechanical environment.The aims of this study are to measure the viscoelastic properties of isolated chondrons and chondrocytes from rabbit knee cartilage using micropipette aspiration and to determine the effect of aging on these properties.Methods Three age groups of rabbit knees were evaluated:(1) young (2 months,n=10);(2) adult (8 months,n=10);and (3) old (31 months,n=10).Chondrocytes were isolated from the right knee cartilage and chondrons were isolated from left knees using enzymatic methods.Micropipette aspiration combined with a standard linear viscoelastic solid model was used to quantify changes in the viscoelastic properties of chondrons and chondrocytes within 2 hours of isolation.The morphology and structure of isolated chondrons were evaluated by optical microscope using hematoxylin and eosin staining and collagen-6 immunofluorescence staining.Results In response to an applied constant 0.3-0.4 kPa of negative pressure,all chondrocytes exhibited standard linear viscoelastic solid properties.Model predictions of the creep data showed that the average equilibrium modulus (E∞),instantaneous modulus (E0).and apparent viscosity (μ) of old chondrocytes was significantly lower than the young and adult chondrocytes (P<0.001);however,no difference was found between young and adult chondrocytes (P>0.05).The adult and old chondrons generally possessed a thicker pericellular matrix (PCM) with more enclosed cells.The young and adult chondrons exhibited the same viscoelastic creep behavior under a greater applied pressure (1.0-1.1kPa) without the deformation seen in the old chondrons.The viscoelastic properties (E∞,E0,and u) of young and adult chondrons were significantly greater than that observed

  8. Quantitative characterization of viscoelastic behavior in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo animal tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Maccabi

    Full Text Available Viscoelasticity of soft tissue is often related to pathology, and therefore, has become an important diagnostic indicator in the clinical assessment of suspect tissue. Surgeons, particularly within head and neck subsites, typically use palpation techniques for intra-operative tumor detection. This detection method, however, is highly subjective and often fails to detect small or deep abnormalities. Vibroacoustography (VA and similar methods have previously been used to distinguish tissue with high-contrast, but a firm understanding of the main contrast mechanism has yet to be verified. The contributions of tissue mechanical properties in VA images have been difficult to verify given the limited literature on viscoelastic properties of various normal and diseased tissue. This paper aims to investigate viscoelasticity theory and present a detailed description of viscoelastic experimental results obtained in tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs and ex vivo tissues to verify the main contrast mechanism in VA and similar imaging modalities. A spherical-tip micro-indentation technique was employed with the Hertzian model to acquire absolute, quantitative, point measurements of the elastic modulus (E, long term shear modulus (η, and time constant (τ in homogeneous TMPs and ex vivo tissue in rat liver and porcine liver and gallbladder. Viscoelastic differences observed between porcine liver and gallbladder tissue suggest that imaging modalities which utilize the mechanical properties of tissue as a primary contrast mechanism can potentially be used to quantitatively differentiate between proximate organs in a clinical setting. These results may facilitate more accurate tissue modeling and add information not currently available to the field of systems characterization and biomedical research.

  9. Quantitative characterization of viscoelastic behavior in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Shin, Andrew; Namiri, Nikan K; Bajwa, Neha; St John, Maie; Taylor, Zachary D; Grundfest, Warren; Saddik, George N

    2018-01-01

    Viscoelasticity of soft tissue is often related to pathology, and therefore, has become an important diagnostic indicator in the clinical assessment of suspect tissue. Surgeons, particularly within head and neck subsites, typically use palpation techniques for intra-operative tumor detection. This detection method, however, is highly subjective and often fails to detect small or deep abnormalities. Vibroacoustography (VA) and similar methods have previously been used to distinguish tissue with high-contrast, but a firm understanding of the main contrast mechanism has yet to be verified. The contributions of tissue mechanical properties in VA images have been difficult to verify given the limited literature on viscoelastic properties of various normal and diseased tissue. This paper aims to investigate viscoelasticity theory and present a detailed description of viscoelastic experimental results obtained in tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs) and ex vivo tissues to verify the main contrast mechanism in VA and similar imaging modalities. A spherical-tip micro-indentation technique was employed with the Hertzian model to acquire absolute, quantitative, point measurements of the elastic modulus (E), long term shear modulus (η), and time constant (τ) in homogeneous TMPs and ex vivo tissue in rat liver and porcine liver and gallbladder. Viscoelastic differences observed between porcine liver and gallbladder tissue suggest that imaging modalities which utilize the mechanical properties of tissue as a primary contrast mechanism can potentially be used to quantitatively differentiate between proximate organs in a clinical setting. These results may facilitate more accurate tissue modeling and add information not currently available to the field of systems characterization and biomedical research.

  10. Sensitivity kernels for viscoelastic loading based on adjoint methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, David; Tromp, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) allow for inferences to be made about mantle viscosity, ice sheet history and other related parameters. Typically, this inverse problem can be formulated as minimizing the misfit between the given observations and a corresponding set of synthetic data. When the number of parameters is large, solution of such optimization problems can be computationally challenging. A practical, albeit non-ideal, solution is to use gradient-based optimization. Although the gradient of the misfit required in such methods could be calculated approximately using finite differences, the necessary computation time grows linearly with the number of model parameters, and so this is often infeasible. A far better approach is to apply the `adjoint method', which allows the exact gradient to be calculated from a single solution of the forward problem, along with one solution of the associated adjoint problem. As a first step towards applying the adjoint method to the GIA inverse problem, we consider its application to a simpler viscoelastic loading problem in which gravitationally self-consistent ocean loading is neglected. The earth model considered is non-rotating, self-gravitating, compressible, hydrostatically pre-stressed, laterally heterogeneous and possesses a Maxwell solid rheology. We determine adjoint equations and Fréchet kernels for this problem based on a Lagrange multiplier method. Given an objective functional J defined in terms of the surface deformation fields, we show that its first-order perturbation can be written δ J = int _{MS}K_{η }δ ln η dV +int _{t0}^{t1}int _{partial M}K_{dot{σ }} δ dot{σ } dS dt, where δ ln η = δη/η denotes relative viscosity variations in solid regions MS, dV is the volume element, δ dot{σ } is the perturbation to the time derivative of the surface load which is defined on the earth model's surface ∂M and for times [t0, t1] and dS is the surface element on ∂M. The `viscosity

  11. Attenuation and Shock Waves in Linear Hereditary Viscoelastic Media; Strick-Mainardi, Jeffreys-Lomnitz-Strick and Andrade Creep Compliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyga, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    Dispersion, attenuation and wavefronts in a class of linear viscoelastic media proposed by Strick and Mainardi (Geophys J R Astr Soc 69:415-429, 1982) and a related class of models due to Lomnitz, Jeffreys and Strick are studied by a new method due to the author. Unlike the previously studied explicit models of relaxation modulus or creep compliance, these two classes support propagation of discontinuities. Due to an extension made by Strick, either of these two classes of models comprise both viscoelastic solids and fluids. We also discuss the Andrade viscoelastic media. The Andrade media do not support discontinuity waves and exhibit the pedestal effect.

  12. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  13. Contamination of nebulisers and surrounding air at the bedside of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An air sampler was used to collect air samples from the surrounding bedside environment. .... individualised resealable plastic bags and stored upside down in a cooler .... conventional and mesh technology nebulisers used at home by adults.

  14. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  15. Numerical investigation of heating of a gold nanoparticle and the surrounding microenvironment by nanosecond laser pulses for nanomedicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassaroli, E; Li, K C P; O' Neill, B E [Department of Radiology, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX, 77030 (United States)], E-mail: beoneill@tmhs.org

    2009-09-21

    We have modeled, by finite element analysis, the process of heating of a spherical gold nanoparticle by nanosecond laser pulses and of heat transfer between the particle and the surrounding medium, with no mass transfer. In our analysis, we have included thermal conductivity changes, vapor formation, and changes of the dielectric properties as a function of temperature. We have shown that such changes significantly affect the temperature reached by the particle and surrounding microenvironment and therefore the thermal and dielectric properties of the medium need to be known for a correct determination of the temperature elevation. We have shown that for sufficiently low intensity and long pulses, it is possible to establish a quasi-steady temperature profile in the medium with no vapor formation. As the intensity is increased, a phase-change with vapor formation takes place around the gold nanoparticle. As phase-transition starts, an additional increase in the intensity does not significantly increase the temperature of the gold nanoparticle and surrounding environment. The temperature starts to rise again above a given intensity threshold which is particle and environment dependent. The aim of this study is to provide useful insights for the development of molecular targeting of gold nanoparticles for applications such as remote drug release of therapeutics and photothermal cancer therapy.

  16. Numerical investigation of heating of a gold nanoparticle and the surrounding microenvironment by nanosecond laser pulses for nanomedicine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassaroli, E; Li, K C P; O'Neill, B E

    2009-01-01

    We have modeled, by finite element analysis, the process of heating of a spherical gold nanoparticle by nanosecond laser pulses and of heat transfer between the particle and the surrounding medium, with no mass transfer. In our analysis, we have included thermal conductivity changes, vapor formation, and changes of the dielectric properties as a function of temperature. We have shown that such changes significantly affect the temperature reached by the particle and surrounding microenvironment and therefore the thermal and dielectric properties of the medium need to be known for a correct determination of the temperature elevation. We have shown that for sufficiently low intensity and long pulses, it is possible to establish a quasi-steady temperature profile in the medium with no vapor formation. As the intensity is increased, a phase-change with vapor formation takes place around the gold nanoparticle. As phase-transition starts, an additional increase in the intensity does not significantly increase the temperature of the gold nanoparticle and surrounding environment. The temperature starts to rise again above a given intensity threshold which is particle and environment dependent. The aim of this study is to provide useful insights for the development of molecular targeting of gold nanoparticles for applications such as remote drug release of therapeutics and photothermal cancer therapy.

  17. Computation as Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance

    2017-01-01

    Artists increasingly utilize computational tools to generate art works. Computational approaches to art making open up new ways of thinking about agency in interactive art because they invite participation and allow for unpredictable outcomes. Computational art is closely linked...... to the participatory turn in visual art, wherein spectators physically participate in visual art works. Unlike purely physical methods of interaction, computer assisted interactivity affords artists and spectators more nuanced control of artistic outcomes. Interactive art brings together human bodies, computer code......, and nonliving objects to create emergent art works. Computation is more than just a tool for artists, it is a medium for investigating new aesthetic possibilities for choreography and composition. We illustrate this potential through two artistic projects: an improvisational dance performance between a human...

  18. Spiegel. Medium. Kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    of this kind as the marks of a meta-complex of method out of which new models of the image continually arise. The waxing intangibility of proliferating images be they of the mind, in dreams, through gestures, and the equally rampant growth of microstructuring in allocations of knowledge lay a challenge before...... to research. As a void in the apprehension of the world, the mirror obtained a scholarly perspective and the more so in areas beyond its own qualities as a medium, i.e. in images and metaphor, the paradigms of all research looking to image and text. This investigation sets out to comprehend paradoxes......, and space (albeit no expanse) is there to consider the methodological pros and cons of such a selective approach. Even in this synopsis, it has to be and can be stated that what makes for the affinities between psychological, literary and image-research approaches in research on the mirror is the shared...

  19. The diffuse interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Donald P.

    1990-01-01

    The last 20 years of the efforts to understand the diffuse ISM are reviewed, with recent changes of fundamental aspects being highlighted. Attention is given to the interstellar pressure and its components, the weight of the ISM, the midplane pressure contributions, and pressure contributions at 1 kpc. What velocity dispersions, cosmic ray pressure, and magnetic field pressure that can be expected for a gas in a high magnetic field environment is addressed. The intercloud medium is described, with reference to the work of Cox and Slavin (1989). Various caveats are discussed and a number of areas for future investigation are identified. Steps that could be taken toward a successful phase segregation model are discussed.

  20. Monitoring program of surrounding of the NPP SE-EBO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobis, L.; Kostial, J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper dealt with monitoring program of radiation control of surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, which has the aim: (1) to ensure the control of influence of work of the NPP Bohunice on the environment in their surrounding; (2) to ensure the back-ground for regular brief of control and supervisory organs about condition of the environment in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice; (3) to maintain the expected technical level of control of the NPP Bohunice and to exploit optimally the technical means; (4) to solicit permanently the data about the radioactivity of environment in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice for forming of files of the data; (5) to exploit purposefully the technical equipment, technical workers and to maintain their in permanent emergency and technical eligibility for the case of the breakdown; (6) to obtain permanently the files of the values for qualification of the reference levels. This program of monitoring includes the radiation control of surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, in the time of normal work of power-station's blocks, inclusively of all types of trouble-shooting and repairer works in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, up to distance 20 km from power-station. The monitoring includes: outlets from the NPP Bohunice, monitoring of radiation characteristics in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, (aerosols, fall-outs, soil), the links of food chains: (grass and fodder, milk, agriculture products), hydrosphere in surrounding (surface waters, drink water, bores of radiation control in complex of the NPP Bohunice, components of the hydrosphere), measurement of radiation from external sources (measurement of the dose rates, measurement of the doses [sk

  1. Chromatic induction from surrounding stimuli under perceptual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Koji; Kuriki, Ichiro; Tokunaga, Rumi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    The appearance of colors can be affected by their spatiotemporal context. The shift in color appearance according to the surrounding colors is called color induction or chromatic induction; in particular, the shift in opponent color of the surround is called chromatic contrast. To investigate whether chromatic induction occurs even when the chromatic surround is imperceptible, we measured chromatic induction during interocular suppression. A multicolor or uniform color field was presented as the surround stimulus, and a colored continuous flash suppression (CFS) stimulus was presented to the dominant eye of each subject. The subjects were asked to report the appearance of the test field only when the stationary surround stimulus is invisible by interocular suppression with CFS. The resulting shifts in color appearance due to chromatic induction were significant even under the conditions of interocular suppression for all surround stimuli. The magnitude of chromatic induction differed with the surround conditions, and this difference was preserved regardless of the viewing conditions. The chromatic induction effect was reduced by CFS, in proportion to the magnitude of chromatic induction under natural (i.e., no-CFS) viewing conditions. According to an analysis with linear model fitting, we revealed the presence of at least two kinds of subprocesses for chromatic induction that reside at higher and lower levels than the site of interocular suppression. One mechanism yields different degrees of chromatic induction based on the complexity of the surround, which is unaffected by interocular suppression, while the other mechanism changes its output with interocular suppression acting as a gain control. Our results imply that the total chromatic induction effect is achieved via a linear summation of outputs from mechanisms that reside at different levels of visual processing.

  2. Use of high-temperature, high-torque rheometry to study the viscoelastic properties of coal during carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M.C.; Duffy, J.J.; Snape, C.E.; Steel, K.M. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    When coal is heated in the absence of oxygen it softens at approximately 400 degrees C, becomes viscoelastic, and volatiles are driven off. With further heating, the viscous mass reaches a minimum viscosity in the range of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} Pa s and then begins to resolidify. A high-torque, high-temperature, controlled-strain rheometer with parallel plates has been used to study the theology during this process. Under shear, the viscosity of the softening mass decreases with increasing shear rate. During resolidification, the viscosity increases as C-C bond formation and physical interactions gives rise to an aromatic network, but, under shear, the network breaks apart and flows. This is viewed as a yielding of the structure. The higher the shear rate, the earlier the yielding occurs, such that if the shear rate is low enough, the structure is able to build. Also, further into resolidification lower shear rates are able to break the structure. It is proposed that resolidification occurs through the formation of aromatic clusters that grow and become crosslinked by non-covalent interactions. As the clusters grow, the amount of liquid surrounding them decreases and it is thought that the non-covalent interactions between clusters and liquid could decrease and the ability of growing clusters to move past each other increases, which would explain the weakening of the structure under shear. This work is part of a program of work aimed at attaining a greater understanding of microstructural changes taking place during carbonization for different coals, in order to understand the mechanisms that give rise to good quality cokes and coke oven problems such as excessive wall pressure.

  3. Fundamental Problems in the Operation of the Automotive Parts Industry Small and Medium Businesses in Bangkok and Surrounding Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    P. Thepnarintra

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) investigate operation conditions of SME automotive part industry in Bangkok and vicinity and 2) to compare operation problem levels of SME automotive part industry in Bangkok and vicinity according to the sizes of the enterprises. Samples in this study included 196 entrepreneurs of SME automotive part industry in Bangkok and vicinity derived from simple random sampling and calculation from R. V. Krejcie and D. W. Morgan's tables. Res...

  4. Material movement of medium surrounding an underground nuclear explosion; Mouvement materiel du milieu environnant une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrini, C; Garnier, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The results of measurements of the mechanical effects in the, intermediate zone around underground nuclear explosions in Sahara granite are presented. After a description of the main characteristics of the equipment used, the laws drawn up using experimental results for the acceleration, the velocity, and the material displacement are presented. These laws are compared to those published in other countries for nuclear tests in granite, in tuff and in alluvial deposits. (authors) [French] Les resultats de mesures d'effets mecaniques en zone intermediaire autour d'essais nucleaires souterrains dans le granite du Sahara sont exposes. Apres avoir decrit, dans leurs grandes lignes, les materiels utilises, on presente les lois etablies avec les resultats experimentaux pour l'acceleration, la vitesse et le deplacement materiel. Ces lois sont comparees a celles publiees a l'etranger pour des essais nucleaires dans le granite, le tuf et les alluvions. (auteur)

  5. [Medium energy meson research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    The activities of this group are primarily concerned with experiments using the Crystal Barrel Detector. This detector is installed and operating at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. QCD, the modem theory of the strong interaction, is reasonably well understood at high energies, but unfortunately, low-energy QCD is still not well understood, and is far from being adequately tested. The Crystal Barrel experiments are designed to provide some of the tests. The basic line of research involves meson spectroscopy, analyses bearing on the quark and/or gluon content of nuclear states, and the exploration of mechanisms and rules which govern p bar p annihilation dynamics. The Crystal Barrel Detector detects and identifies charged and neutral particles with a geometric acceptance close to 100%. The principal component of the detector is an array of 1,380 CsI(TI) crystals. These crystals surround a Jet Drift Chamber (JDC), located in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field, which measures the momentum and dE/dx of charged particles. One of the very interesting physics goals of the detector is a search for exotic mesonic states -- glueballs and hybrids. Annihilation at rest will be studied with both liquid and gaseous hydrogen targets. The gaseous target offers the possibility of triggering on atomic L-shell X rays so that specific initial angular momentum states can be studied.These topics as well as other related topics are discussed in this report

  6. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  7. Aero-servo-viscoelasticity theory: Lifting surfaces, plates, velocity transients, flutter, and instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, Craig G.

    Modern flight vehicles are fabricated from composite materials resulting in flexible structures that behave differently from the more traditional elastic metal structures. Composite materials offer a number of advantages compared to metals, such as improved strength to mass ratio, and intentional material property anisotropy. Flexible aircraft structures date from the Wright brothers' first aircraft with fabric covered wooden frames. The flexibility of the structure was used to warp the lifting surface for flight control, a concept that has reappeared as aircraft morphing. These early structures occasionally exhibited undesirable characteristics during flight such as interactions between the empennage and the aft fuselage, or control problems with the elevators. The research to discover the cause and correction of these undesirable characteristics formed the first foray into the field of aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity is the intersection and interaction between aerodynamics, elasticity, and inertia or dynamics. Aeroelasticity is well suited for metal aircraft, but requires expansion to improve its applicability to composite vehicles. The first is a change from elasticity to viscoelasticity to more accurately capture the solid mechanics of the composite material. The second change is to include control systems. While the inclusion of control systems in aeroelasticity lead to aero-servo-elasticity, more control possibilities exist for a viscoelastic composite material. As an example, during the lay-up of carbon-epoxy plies, piezoelectric control patches are inserted between different plies to give a variety of control options. The expanded field is called aero-servo-viscoelasticity. The phenomena of interest in aero-servo-viscoelasticity are best classified according to the type of structure considered, either a lifting surface or a panel, and the type of dynamic stability present. For both types of structures, the governing equations are integral

  8. Growth and setting of gas bubbles in a viscoelastic matrix imaged by X-ray microtomography: the evolution of cellular structures in fermenting wheat flour dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbin-Orger, A; Babin, P; Boller, E; Chaunier, L; Chiron, H; Della Valle, G; Dendievel, R; Réguerre, A L; Salvo, L

    2015-05-07

    X-ray tomography is a relevant technique for the dynamic follow-up of gas bubbles in an opaque viscoelastic matrix, especially using image analysis. It has been applied here to pieces of fermenting wheat flour dough of various compositions, at two different voxel sizes (15 and 5 μm). The resulting evolution of the main cellular features shows that the creation of cellular structures follows two regimes that are defined by a characteristic time of connectivity, tc [30 and 80 min]: first (t ≤ tc), bubbles grow freely and then (t ≥ tc) they become connected since the percolation of the gas phase is limited by liquid films. During the first regime, bubbles can be tracked and the local strain rate can be measured. Its values (10(-4)-5 × 10(-4) s(-1)) are in agreement with those computed from dough viscosity and internal gas pressure, both of which depend on the composition. For higher porosity, P = 0.64 in our case, and thus occurring in the second regime, different cellular structures are obtained and XRT images show deformed gas cells that display complex shapes. The comparison of these images with confocal laser scanning microscopy images suggests the presence of liquid films that separate these cells. The dough can therefore be seen as a three-phase medium: viscoelastic matrix/gas cell/liquid phase. The contributions of the different levels of matter organization can be integrated by defining a capillary number (C = 0.1-1) that makes it possible to predict the macroscopic dough behavior.

  9. Theoretical study of the flow in a fluid damper containing high viscosity silicone oil: Effects of shear-thinning and viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakos, Alexandros; Dimakopoulos, Yannis; Tsamopoulos, John

    2018-03-01

    The flow inside a fluid damper where a piston reciprocates sinusoidally inside an outer casing containing high-viscosity silicone oil is simulated using a finite volume method, at various excitation frequencies. The oil is modeled by the Carreau-Yasuda (CY) and Phan-Thien and Tanner (PTT) constitutive equations. Both models account for shear-thinning, but only the PTT model accounts for elasticity. The CY and other generalised Newtonian models have been previously used in theoretical studies of fluid dampers, but the present study is the first to perform full two-dimensional (axisymmetric) simulations employing a viscoelastic constitutive equation. It is found that the CY and PTT predictions are similar when the excitation frequency is low, but at medium and higher frequencies, the CY model fails to describe important phenomena that are predicted by the PTT model and observed in experimental studies found in the literature, such as the hysteresis of the force-displacement and force-velocity loops. Elastic effects are quantified by applying a decomposition of the damper force into elastic and viscous components, inspired from large amplitude oscillatory shear theory. The CY model also overestimates the damper force relative to the PTT model because it underpredicts the flow development length inside the piston-cylinder gap. It is thus concluded that (a) fluid elasticity must be accounted for and (b) theoretical approaches that rely on the assumption of one-dimensional flow in the piston-cylinder gap are of limited accuracy, even if they account for fluid viscoelasticity. The consequences of using lower-viscosity silicone oil are also briefly examined.

  10. Shock-induced thermal wave propagation and response analysis of a viscoelastic thin plate under transient heating loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenlin; Guo, Huili; Tian, Xiaogeng

    2018-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the thermal shock analysis for viscoelastic materials under transient heating loads. The governing coupled equations with time-delay parameter and nonlocal scale parameter are derived based on the generalized thermo-viscoelasticity theory. The problem of a thin plate composed of viscoelastic material, subjected to a sudden temperature rise at the boundary plane, is solved by employing Laplace transformation techniques. The transient responses, i.e. temperature, displacement, stresses, heat flux as well as strain, are obtained and discussed. The effects of time-delay and nonlocal scale parameter on the transient responses are analyzed and discussed. It can be observed that: the propagation of thermal wave is dynamically smoothed and changed with the variation of time-delay; while the displacement, strain, and stress can be rapidly reduced by nonlocal scale parameter, which can be viewed as an important indicator for predicting the stiffness softening behavior for viscoelastic materials.

  11. A nonlocal strain gradient model for dynamic deformation of orthotropic viscoelastic graphene sheets under time harmonic thermal load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Ahmed F.; Sobhy, Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    This work presents a nonlocal strain gradient theory for the dynamic deformation response of a single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) on a viscoelastic foundation and subjected to a time harmonic thermal load for various boundary conditions. Material of graphene sheets is presumed to be orthotropic and viscoelastic. The viscoelastic foundation is modeled as Kelvin-Voigt's pattern. Based on the two-unknown plate theory, the motion equations are obtained from the dynamic version of the virtual work principle. The nonlocal strain gradient theory is established from Eringen nonlocal and strain gradient theories, therefore, it contains two material scale parameters, which are nonlocal parameter and gradient coefficient. These scale parameters have two different effects on the graphene sheets. The obtained deflection is compared with that predicted in the literature. Additional numerical examples are introduced to illustrate the influences of the two length scale coefficients and other parameters on the dynamic deformation of the viscoelastic graphene sheets.

  12. Dominant role of wormlike micelles in temperature-responsive viscoelastic properties of their mixtures with polymeric chains

    KAUST Repository

    Molchanov, Vyacheslav S.; Philippova, Olga E.

    2013-01-01

    Temperature effects on the rheological properties of viscoelastic solutions containing entangled wormlike micelles of potassium oleate and hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide were studied in a wide range of polymer concentrations. A very

  13. Physico-chemical and viscoelastic properties of high pressure homogenized lemon peel fiber fraction suspensions obtained after sequential pectin extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, K.L.D.D.; Panozzo, A.; Moelants, K.; Debon, S.J.J.; Desmet, C.; Cardinaels, R.M.; Moldenaers, P.; Wallecan, J.; Hendrickx, M.E.G.

    2017-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of high pressure homogenized lemon peel cell wall fiber suspensions, obtained after sequential selective pectin extraction, were investigated in the current study. For comparison, a general pectin extraction was additionally performed on lemon peel under acid thermal

  14. Moorfields technique of donor cornea mounting for femtosecond-assisted keratoplasty: use of viscoelastic in the artificial anterior chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovieno, Alfonso; Chowdhury, Vivek; Stevens, Julian D; Maurino, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Appropriate mounting and cutting of the donor sclero-corneal cap is often cumbersome during femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty. The authors describe a technique for donor cornea femtosecond laser cutting using ophthalmic viscoelastic devices. The donor sclero-corneal cap is mounted on the artificial anterior chamber using a dispersive ophthalmic viscoelastic device instead of saline solution. The chances of artificial anterior chamber pressure loss, inadequate applanation, and fluid leaks are consistently reduced with the use of dispersive ophthalmic viscoelastic devices. The speed of donor femtosecond laser cutting is increased. The viscosity and elasticity of dispersive ophthalmic viscoelastic devices greatly assist the procedure with regard to ease of applanation, corneal endothelium protection, and decreased distortion of the applanated cornea. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies of viscoelastic effects on the performance of soft piezoelectric nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Zhiren; Fang, Lichen; Guo, Shu; Erturun, Ugur; Zhu, Zeyu; West, James E; Ghosh, Somnath; Kang, Sung Hoon

    2017-09-28

    Piezoelectric composite (p-NC) made of a polymeric matrix and piezoelectric nanoparticles with conductive additives is an attractive material for many applications. As the matrix of p-NC is made of viscoelastic materials, both elastic and viscous characteristics of the matrix are expected to contribute to the piezoelectric response of p-NC. However, there is limited understanding of how viscoelasticity influences the piezoelectric performance of p-NC. Here we combined analytical and numerical analyses with experimental studies to investigate effects of viscoelasticity on piezoelectric performance of p-NC. The viscoelastic properties of synthesized p-NCs were controlled by changing the ratio between monomer and cross-linker of the polymer matrix. We found good agreement between our analytical models and experimental results for both quasi-static and dynamic loadings. It is found that, under quasi-static loading conditions, the piezoelectric coefficients (d 33 ) of the specimen with the lowest Young's modulus (∼0.45 MPa at 5% strain) were ∼120 pC N -1 , while the one with the highest Young's modulus (∼1.3 MPa at 5% strain) were ∼62 pC N -1 . The results suggest that softer matrices enhance the energy harvesting performance because they can result in larger deformation for a given load. Moreover, from our theoretical analysis and experiments under dynamic loading conditions, we found the viscous modulus of a matrix is also important for piezoelectric performance. For instance, at 40 Hz and 50 Hz the storage moduli of the softest specimen were ∼0.625 MPa and ∼0.485 MPa, while the loss moduli were ∼0.108 MPa and ∼0.151 MPa, respectively. As piezocomposites with less viscous loss can transfer mechanical energy to piezoelectric particles more efficiently, the dynamic piezoelectric coefficient (d' 33 ) measured at 40 Hz (∼53 pC N -1 ) was larger than that at 50 Hz (∼47 pC N -1 ) though it has a larger storage modulus. As an application of our findings

  16. Influence of a Viscoelastic Insole on Foot, Knee and Back Pain among Members of the United States Army Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    Attenuation of spinal transients at heel strike using viscoelastic heel insoles: an in vivo study. Preventive Medicine. 2004;39:351-354. 30...2009 – March 2010 A-4 35. Bender JA, Pierson JK, Kaplan HM, Johnson AJ. Factors affecting the occurrence of knee injuries . Journal of the...EPIDEMIOLOGICAL REPORT NO. 12-HF-97G010-09 INFLUENCE OF A VISCOELASTIC INSOLE ON FOOT, KNEE AND BACK PAIN AMONG MEMBERS

  17. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    -depth understanding of the mechanism regulating blood flow and perfusion is necessary if we are to come up with new ideas for intervention and treatment. Method: From fresh born placentas stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end...... and was left untouched in the other end. Then using wire myography they were investigated in terms of contractility and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results: Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue...... compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries with surrounding tissue, when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion: The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi...

  18. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    . Materials and methods. From fresh born placentas, stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end and was left untouched in the other end.Then, using wire myography, they were investigated in terms of contractility...... and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results. Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries...... with surrounding tissue when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion. The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi arteries' sensitivity and force development in a suppressive way. This implicates a new aspect of blood flow regulation...

  19. Surrounding rock stress analysis of underground high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengang; Wang Ju; Wang Guangdi

    2006-01-01

    During decay of nuclear waste, enormous energy was released, which results in temperature change of surrounding rock of depository. Thermal stress was produced because thermal expansion of rock was controlled. Internal structure of surrounding rock was damaged and strength of rock was weakened. So, variation of stress was a dynamic process with the variation of temperature. BeiShan region of Gansu province was determined to be the depository field in the future, it is essential to make research on granite in this region. In the process of experiment, basic physical parameters of granite were analyzed preliminary with MTS. Long range temperature and stress filed was simulated considering the damage effect of surrounding rock, and rules of temperature and stress was achieved. (authors)

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF VISCOELASTICITY ON VELOCITY-DEPENDENT RESTITUTIONS IN THE OBLIQUE IMPACT OF SPHERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Willert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the oblique impact of linear-viscoelastic spheres by numerical models based on the Method of Dimensionality Reduction and the Boundary Element Method. Thereby we assume quasi-stationarity, the validity of the half-space hypothesis, short impact times and Amontons-Coulomb friction with a constant coefficient for both static and kinetic friction. As under these assumptions both methods are equivalent, their results differ only within the margin of a numerical error. The solution of the impact problem written in proper dimensionless variables will only depend on the two parameters necessary to describe the elastic problem and a sufficient set of variables to describe the influence of viscoelastic material behaviour; in the case of a standard solid this corresponds to two additional variables. The full solution of the impact problem is finally determined by comprehensive parameter studies and partly approximated by simple analytic expressions.

  1. Prediction of viscoelastic behavior of blood flow in plaque deposited capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solangi, M.A.; Shah, B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the viscoelastic behaviour of blood over low value of elasticity, to analyse the influence of inertia in the presence of elasticity. For viscoelastic fluids shear-thinning and strain-softening PTT (phan- Thien/tanner) constitutive model is employed to identify the influence of elasticity. The computational method adopted is based on a finite element semi-implicit time stepping Taylor-Galerkin/pressure-correction scheme. Simulations are conducted via atherosclerotic vessels along with various percentages of deposition at distinct values of Reynolds numbers. The numerical simulations are performed for recirculation flow structure and development of recirculation length to investigate the impact of atherosclerosis on partially blocked plaque deposited vessels. (author)

  2. Numerical design and test on an assembled structure of a bolted joint with viscoelastic damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Chaima; Balmes, Etienne; Guskov, Mikhail

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical assemblies are subjected to many dynamic loads and modifications are often needed to achieve acceptable vibration levels. While modifications on mass and stiffness are well mastered, damping modifications are still considered difficult to design. The paper presents a case study on the design of a bolted connection containing a viscoelastic damping layer. The notion of junction coupling level is introduced to ensure that sufficient energy is present in the joints to allow damping. Static performance is then addressed and it is shown that localization of metallic contact can be used to meet objectives, while allowing the presence of viscoelastic materials. Numerical prediction of damping then illustrates difficulties in optimizing for robustness. Modal test results of three configurations of an assembled structure, inspired by aeronautic fuselages, are then compared to analyze the performance of the design. While validity of the approach is confirmed, the effect of geometric imperfections is shown and stresses the need for robust design.

  3. Linear Viscoelasticity of Spherical SiO 2 Nanoparticle-Tethered Poly(butyl acrylate) Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Vivek; Pietrasik, Joanna; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2010-01-01

    The melt state linear viscoelastic properties of spherical silica nanoparticles with grafted poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains of varying molecular weight were probed using linear small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements and complementary linear stress relaxation measurements. While the pure silica-tethered-polymer hybrids with no added homopolymer exhibit solid-like response, addition of matched molecular weight free matrix homopolymer chains to this hybrid, at low concentrations of added homopolymer, maintains the solid-like response with a lowered modulus that can be factored into a silica concentration dependence and a molecular weight dependence. While the silica concentration dependence of the modulus is strong, the dependence on molecular weight is weak. On the other hand, increasing the amount of added homopolymer changes the viscoelastic response to that of a liquid with a relaxation time that scales exponentially with hybrid concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Numerical and experimental investigation of leaks in viscoelastic pressurized pipe flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meniconi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the analysis concerning the importance in numerical models of unsteady friction and viscoelasticity to transients in plastic pipes with an external flow due to a leak. In fact recently such a benchmarking analysis has been executed for the cases of a constant diameter pipe (Duan et al., 2010, a pipe with a partially closed in-line valve (Meniconi et al., 2012a, and a pipe with cross-section changes in series (Meniconi et al., 2012b. Tests are based on laboratory experiments carried out at the Water Engineering Laboratory (WEL of the University of Perugia, Italy, and the use of different numerical models. The results show that it is crucial to take into account the viscoelasticity to simulate the main characteristics of the examined transients.

  5. Linear Viscoelasticity of Spherical SiO 2 Nanoparticle-Tethered Poly(butyl acrylate) Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Vivek

    2010-12-01

    The melt state linear viscoelastic properties of spherical silica nanoparticles with grafted poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains of varying molecular weight were probed using linear small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements and complementary linear stress relaxation measurements. While the pure silica-tethered-polymer hybrids with no added homopolymer exhibit solid-like response, addition of matched molecular weight free matrix homopolymer chains to this hybrid, at low concentrations of added homopolymer, maintains the solid-like response with a lowered modulus that can be factored into a silica concentration dependence and a molecular weight dependence. While the silica concentration dependence of the modulus is strong, the dependence on molecular weight is weak. On the other hand, increasing the amount of added homopolymer changes the viscoelastic response to that of a liquid with a relaxation time that scales exponentially with hybrid concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Research on the relationship between viscoelasticity and shock isolation performance of warp knitted spacer fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin JIANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Warp-knitted spacer fabric which is commonly used in impact protection is selected as test materials to study the relationship between viscoelasticity and the performance of shock isolation. A damping test platform is built to test different specifications of warp-knitted spacer fabric including compression elastic modulus, damping ratio and the residual impact load under different impact speed. Experimental results show that there is no clear correlation between the shock isolation performance and the viscidity or the elasticity. Accordingly, viscosity-to-elasticity ratio is proposed to characterize the relationship between viscoelasticity and shock isolation performance, and it is found that appropriate viscosity-to-elasticity ratio within a certain range can help to achieve better shock isolation performance.

  7. A New Method to Simulate Free Surface Flows for Viscoelastic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free surface flows arise in a variety of engineering applications. To predict the dynamic characteristics of such problems, specific numerical methods are required to accurately capture the shape of free surface. This paper proposed a new method which combined the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE technique with the Finite Volume Method (FVM to simulate the time-dependent viscoelastic free surface flows. Based on an open source CFD toolbox called OpenFOAM, we designed an ALE-FVM free surface simulation platform. In the meantime, the die-swell flow had been investigated with our proposed platform to make a further analysis of free surface phenomenon. The results validated the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method for free surface simulation in both Newtonian fluid and viscoelastic fluid.

  8. Measurement of Viscoelastic Properties of Condensed Matter using Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwel, Marco L. H.; Latta, Peter; Matwiy, Brendon; Sboto-Frankenstein, Uta; Gervai, Patricia; Tomanek, Boguslaw

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a phase contrast technique that provides a non-invasive means of evaluating the viscoelastic properties of soft condensed matter. This has a profound bio-medical significance as it allows for the virtual palpation of areas of the body usually not accessible to the hands of a medical practitioner, such as the brain. Applications of MRE are not restricted to bio-medical applications, however, the viscoelastic properties of prepackaged food products can also non-invasively be determined. Here we describe the design and use of a modular MRE acoustic actuator that can be used for experiments ranging from the human brain to pre-packaged food products. The unique feature of the used actuator design is its simplicity and flexibility, which allows easy reconfiguration.

  9. A New Hybrid Viscoelastic Soft Tissue Model based on Meshless Method for Haptic Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yidong; Wu, Dongmei; Yan, Zhiyuan; Du, Zhijiang

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid soft tissue model that consists of a multilayer structure and many spheres for surgical simulation system based on meshless. To improve accuracy of the model, tension is added to the three-parameter viscoelastic structure that connects the two spheres. By using haptic device, the three-parameter viscoelastic model (TPM) produces accurate deformationand also has better stress-strain, stress relaxation and creep properties. Stress relaxation and creep formulas have been obtained by mathematical formula derivation. Comparing with the experimental results of the real pig liver which were reported by Evren et al. and Amy et al., the curve lines of stress-strain, stress relaxation and creep of TPM are close to the experimental data of the real liver. Simulated results show that TPM has better real-time, stability and accuracy. PMID:24339837

  10. 3D force control for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery based on viscoelastic tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Moreira, Pedro; Zemiti, Nabil; Poignet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Current cardiac surgery faces the challenging problem of heart beating motion even with the help of mechanical stabilizer which makes delicate operation on the heart surface difficult. Motion compensation methods for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery have been proposed recently in literature, but research on force control for such kind of surgery has hardly been reported. Moreover, the viscoelasticity property of the interaction between organ tissue and robotic instrument further complicates the force control design which is much easier in other applications by assuming the interaction model to be elastic (industry, stiff object manipulation, etc.). In this work, we present a three-dimensional force control method for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery taking into consideration of the viscoelastic interaction property. Performance studies based on our D2M2 robot and 3D heart beating motion information obtained through Da Vinci™ system are provided.

  11. Use of a viscoelastic model for the seismic response of base-isolated buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Due to recent developments in elastomer technology, seismic isolation using elastomer bearings is rapidly becoming an acceptable design tool to enhance structural seismic margins and to protect people and equipment from earthquake damage. With proper design of isolators, high-energy seismic input motions are transformed into low-frequency, low energy harmonic motions and the accelerations acting on the isolated building are significantly reduced. Several alternatives exist for the modeling of the isolators. This study is concerned with the use of a viscoelastic model to predict the seismic response of base-isolated buildings. The in-house finite element computer code has been modified to incorporate a viscoelastic spring element, and several simulations are performed. Then, the computed results have been compared with the corresponding observed data recorded at the test facility

  12. On the modelling of electro-viscoelastic response of electrostrictive polyurethane elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ask, A; Menzel, A; Ristinmaa, M

    2010-01-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) deform under electric fields. This effect in fact generates various new fields of engineering applications of high technological interest. As an advantage, EAP may undergo deformations much larger than those capable by electroactive ceramics-however, to the price of acting at comparatively low forces. As common for polymers, EAP exhibit time-dependent material behaviour. The model proposed in this contribution, on the one hand, captures these electro-viscoelastic effects and, on the other hand, also nicely fits into iterative finite element formulations in order to simulate general boundary value problems. While the deformation itself as well as the electric potential are introduced as global degrees of freedom, the internal variables accounting for the viscous response are incorporated at the so-called local integration point level. Apart form calibrating the model against experimental data, a simple coupled finite element example is studied to show the applicability of the finite deformation electro-viscoelastic formulation proposed.

  13. Viscoelastic behaviour and static fatigue strength of glass/epoxy composites. Influence of hydrothermal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateauminois, Antoine

    1991-01-01

    As ageing strength of composites appears to be one of the main criteria of their durability, this research thesis addresses the hydrothermal ageing of unidirectional glass/epoxy composites used for load-bearing structures. After having presented the used materials (epoxy matrix, reinforcement, composite elaboration), the author present the experimental techniques: viscoelastic analysis, three-point bend static fatigue test, coupled gravimetry and calorimetry, and thermogravimetry. In the next parts, the author reports the study of water sorption processes (bibliographical study, experimental study of water sorption kinetics, experimental study of interfacial diffusion within the composite), the study of plasticizing phenomena (methodology of study of plasticizing phenomena, study of the modifications of the linear viscoelastic behaviour in the glass transition region and at room temperature, relationship between plasticizing and fatigue mechanical properties by fracture studies), and the study of irreversible degradation and damage mechanisms

  14. Characterizing viscoelasticity of unhydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract suspensions: Towards development of injectable therapeutics formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Brian; Mahajan, Gautam; Kothapalli, Chandrasekhar

    2017-08-01

    Exogenous delivery of cartilage extract is being explored as a promising candidate for knee arthritis treatment as it biomimics native cartilage tissue characteristics. In this study, we report on the rheological characterization of aqueous suspensions constituted from a powdered form of unhydrolyzed chicken sternum extract. The effect of particle size (as-received vs. milled), suspension fluid (water vs. PBS), and temperature (37°C vs. 4°C), on the viscoelastic properties of the sternum extract based particulate suspensions were evaluated. Results showed that these suspensions exhibit shear-thinning characteristics as shear rate (γ̇) increases, while viscosity (η), storage (G'), and loss (G″) moduli of the suspensions increased with increasing particulate loading (ϕ: 2.5-10wt%). Reducing the as-received particle size by milling decreased G', G, and η of the suspensions and increased the influence of ϕ on these properties, possibly due to improved particle packing. Replacing water with PBS had no significant effect on the rheological properties, but temperature reduction from 37°C to 4°C increased G', G", and η of the suspensions and lowered the impact of powder loading on viscoelastic properties. The suspension's time-dependent response was typical of viscoelastic materials, characterized by an asymptotical approach to a final stress (stress relaxation) or strain (creep). Results were fit to a power-law model for creep, a general relaxation model for exponential decay in stress, Carreau-Yasuda models for flow curves, and a two-parameter Liu model to identify the maximum powder loading (ϕ m ). Among the various forces involved in particle-particle interactions within these suspensions, electrostatic forces appeared to dominate the most. Such characterization of the viscoelastic nature of these suspensions would help in formulating stable injectable cartilage extract based therapeutics for in vivo applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Viscosity and viscoelasticity of two-phase systems having diffuse interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The equilibrium stability criterion for diffuse interfaces in a two-component solution with a miscibility gap requires that the interdiffusion flux vanish. If the system is continuously deformed, convective fluxes disrupt the equilibrium in the interface regions and induce a counter diffusive flux, which is dissipative and contributes to the apparent viscosity of the mixture. Chemical free energy is recoverably stored, causing viscoelastic phenomena. Both effects are significant.

  16. Quantitative determination of optical trapping strength and viscoelastic moduli inside living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, Josep; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Richardson, Andrew C; Reihani, S Nader S; Oddershede, Lene B

    2013-01-01

    With the success of in vitro single-molecule force measurements obtained in recent years, the next step is to perform quantitative force measurements inside a living cell. Optical traps have proven excellent tools for manipulation, also in vivo, where they can be essentially non-invasive under correct wavelength and exposure conditions. It is a pre-requisite for in vivo quantitative force measurements that a precise and reliable force calibration of the tweezers is performed. There are well-established calibration protocols in purely viscous environments; however, as the cellular cytoplasm is viscoelastic, it would be incorrect to use a calibration procedure relying on a viscous environment. Here we demonstrate a method to perform a correct force calibration inside a living cell. This method (theoretically proposed in Fischer and Berg-Sørensen (2007 J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9 S239)) takes into account the viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm and relies on a combination of active and passive recordings of the motion of the cytoplasmic object of interest. The calibration procedure allows us to extract absolute values for the viscoelastic moduli of the living cell cytoplasm as well as the force constant describing the optical trap, thus paving the way for quantitative force measurements inside the living cell. Here, we determine both the spring constant of the optical trap and the elastic contribution from the cytoplasm, influencing the motion of naturally occurring tracer particles. The viscoelastic moduli that we find are of the same order of magnitude as moduli found in other cell types by alternative methods. (paper)

  17. Asymptotic behaviors of solutions for viscoelastic wave equation with space-time dependent damping term

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a viscoelastic wave equation with an absorbing term and space-time dependent damping term. Based on the weighted energy method, and by assuming that the kernel decaying exponentially, we obtain the L2 decay rates of the solutions. More precisely, we show that the decay rates are the same as those obtained in Lin et al. (2010) [15] for the semilinear wave equation with absorption term. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  18. On the viscoelastic characterization of the Jeffreys-Lomnitz law of creep

    OpenAIRE

    Mainardi, Francesco; Spada, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    In 1958 Jeffreys proposed a power law of creep, generalizing the logarithmic law earlier introduced by Lomnitz, to broaden the geophysical applications to fluid-like materials including igneous rocks. This generalized law, however, can be applied also to solid-like viscoelastic materials. We revisit the Jeffreys-Lomnitz law of creep by allowing its power law exponent $\\alpha$, usually limited to the range [0,1] to all negative values. This is consistent with the linear theory of viscoelastici...

  19. Velocity, attenuation, and quality factor in anisotropic viscoelastic media: A perturbation approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2008), D63-D73 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/2182; GA AV ČR IAA300120801 Grant - others:EC(XE) MTKI-CT-2004-517242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : wave propagation * anisotropic viscoelastic media * Q-factor Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.349, year: 2008

  20. Evaluating the Significance of Viscoelasticity in Diagnosing Early-Stage Liver Fibrosis with Transient Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingxin; Zhai, Fei; Cheng, Jun; He, Qiong; Luo, Jianwen; Yang, Xueping; Shao, Jinhua; Xing, Huichun

    2017-01-01

    Transient elastography quantifies the propagation of a mechanically generated shear wave within a soft tissue, which can be used to characterize the elasticity and viscosity parameters of the tissue. The aim of our study was to combine numerical simulation and clinical assessment to define a viscoelastic index of liver tissue to improve the quality of early diagnosis of liver fibrosis. This is clinically relevant, as early fibrosis is reversible. We developed an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model of the liver to evaluate the effects of different viscoelastic values on the propagation characteristics of the shear wave. The diagnostic value of the identified viscoelastic index was verified against the clinical data of 99 patients who had undergone biopsy and routine blood tests for staging of liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and the shear wave attenuation fitting coefficient (AFC) were calculated from the ultrasound data obtained by performing transient elastography. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to evaluate the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of LSM and AFC. Compared to LSM, the AFC provided a higher diagnostic accuracy to differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis, namely F1 and F2 stages, with an overall specificity of 81.48%, sensitivity of 83.33% and diagnostic accuracy of 81.82%. AFC was influenced by the level of LSM, ALT. However, there are no correlation between AFC and Age, BMI, TBIL or DBIL. Quantification of the viscoelasticity of liver tissue provides reliable measurement to identify and differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis.