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Sample records for surrounding organ donation

  1. Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  2. [Body donation versus organ donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ria

    2010-01-01

    There appears to be a discrepancy between the oversupply of donated bodies 'for science' in anatomical institutions in the Netherlands and the shortage of donated organs. However, organ donation is not as straightforward as it seems, mainly because of its strict conditions, e.g. with respect to age and the required hospital setting of the dying. Since Dutch body donors are mainly elderly men, their attitudes to their body, death and science should be explored from a generational perspective.

  3. Pre-donation cognitions of potential living organ donors : The development of the Donation Cognition Instrument in potential kidney donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriet; Hooghof, ChristinaW.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Dam, Ruth E.; van der Pant, Karlijn A. M. I.; Berendsen, Elsbeth C. M.; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J. A.; Hoitsma, Andries J.; Hilbrands, Luuk B.; Evers, Andrea W. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This

  4. Pre-donation cognitions of potential living organ donors: the development of the Donation Cognition Instrument in potential kidney donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirken, L.; Middendorp, H. van; Hooghof, C.W.; Sanders, J.F.; Dam, R.E.; Pant, K. van der; Berendsen, E.C.M.; Wellink, H.; Dackus, H.J.A.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Evers, A.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background.: Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This

  5. Consent for organ donation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vincent, A; Logan, L

    2012-01-01

    Summary Improving the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors is a key component of strategies in the UK and other countries to increase the availability of organs for transplantation...

  6. Organ Donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    CHINA’S first voluntary organ donation system is in the midst of its trial run. The program is being tested in 11 pilot regions around the country, having harvested organs from more than 100 donors in this inaugural year. Overseen by the Red Cross Society of China and the country’s Ministry of Health, the system follows cardiac death standards in organ donation

  7. Organ donations after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Logar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.

  8. Incentivizing living organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynowiec, Jessica; Kim, Jennifer; Qazi, Yasir A

    2009-04-01

    The number of organs available for the patients on the transplant waitlist remains at a disproportionate low. All possible methods to curtail this shortage, including providing donors with incentives, have been proposed. This article reviews recent publications addressing the benefits and risks involved in incentivizing living donation. The debate about the ethics, feasibility, and possible models for compensating organ donors has been prominent in recent literature. As certain countries take lead on this initiative, others are cautiously weighing in on the impact implementations of such policies may have on the society, especially on the underprivileged. The shortage of organs has resulted in proposal of strategies that encroach on certain moral and ethical principles. Providing incentives to donors is one such strategy that is likely to receive a lot of attention in the next few years.

  9. National Organ and Tissue Donation Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Nearly 95% of U.S. adults support organ donation. Show your support and sign up today. Sign ... donation statistics Information about Organ, Eye, and Tissue Donation Every day, lives are saved and improved by ...

  10. Communication strategies for organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo

    2008-03-01

    A country, state or hospital may have the latest medical technology and infrastructure as well as qualified professionals for organ transplantation, but unless there is an adequate donor population the waiting lists for transplants will continue to be long and for some patients, hopeless. Public and professional awareness programmes are key factor in the donation process. Social education that explains the life-saving benefits of organ transplantation, the enormous need for organ donation, the concept of brain death and religious teachings related to these issues is vital for creating a conducive environment for the organ transplant co-ordinator or physician soliciting the donation. The education of hospital medical, nursing and administrative personnel is also essential to both miximise opportunities for donation, as well as to prevent loss of potential organs after donor consent. Other target populations are medical examiners or coroners, and police personnel under whose jurisdiction the donations occur, as their co-operation and guidance is necessary for meeting statutory requirements. The involvement of government officials and politicians is also valuable, as their active intervention is essential for the introduction and amendment of rules and laws to promote the donation and transplantation of organs. The present paper describes communication strategies for the development of an efficient education plan that will provide information about organ transplantation, explain the desired outcome, address potential queries, misconceptions or obstacles, and identify potential sources of support.

  11. FAQ: Blood Donation and Organ Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Blood Donation & Organ Transplant Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... giving blood, you should tell your blood center. Donation centers try to ensure that donors who recently ...

  12. Pre-donation cognitions of potential living organ donors: the development of the Donation Cognition Instrument in potential kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriët; Hooghof, Christina W; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Dam, Ruth E; van der Pant, Karlijn A M I; Berendsen, Elsbeth C M; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J A; Hoitsma, Andries J; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Evers, Andrea W M

    2017-03-01

    Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This study developed and validated a questionnaire to assess pre-donation motivations, expectations and worries regarding donation, entitled the Donation Cognition Instrument (DCI). Psychometric properties of the DCI were examined using exploratory factor analysis for scale structure and associations with validated questionnaires for construct validity assessment. From seven Dutch transplantation centres, 719 potential living kidney donors were included. The DCI distinguishes cognitions about donor benefits, recipient benefits, idealistic incentives, gratitude and worries about donation (Cronbach's alpha 0.76-0.81). Scores on pre-donation cognitions differed with regard to gender, age, marital status, religion and donation type. With regard to construct validity, the DCI was moderately correlated with expectations regarding donor's personal well-being and slightly to moderately to health-related quality of life. The DCI is found to be a reliable instrument assessing cognitions surrounding living organ donation, which might add to pre-donation quality of life measures in facilitating psychosocial donor evaluation by healthcare professionals.

  13. Attitudes toward organ donation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tian, Hui; Yin, Hang; Liu, Hang; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation represents an important advance in modern medical science, and it has benefited many patients with organ failure; however, the severe deficiency of organ sources has been a bottleneck that has limited the benefits this technology can bring. The aim of this study was to show the results of a survey on Chinese people's awareness and attitudes toward organ donation. We designed a questionnaire regarding organ donation consisting of 20 short questions, which were distributed to 10 groups. Most of the questions were multiple-choice; the core question related to people's attitudes to organ donation and the development of organ donation. The survey was held in the outpatient hall of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, a commercial district, and four professional colleges. Participants were randomly selected, and answered questions about gender, age, educational background, profession, and study major. In all, 2930 valid responses were received. Male:female ratio was nearly 1:1.2 (mean age 38 years). Over 90.0% of participants knew about organ transplantation and which organs could be transplanted; more than 95.0% knew about organ donation, but the time they had been aware of it varied. Nearly 90.0% of the participants approved of deceased organ donation; 73.0% indicated they would like to donate their organs post mortem. Participants who knew more about organ failure and organ transplantation were more likely to support organ donation. College students were very positive about organ donation, though as they gain professional knowledge their attitudes may change. Altogether, 65.3% of participants approved of living organ donation, which was obviously lower than the figure for deceased organ donation (P organ donation in China, 62.9% of participants indicated that the public's knowledge about organ donation should be increased via the media and various kinds of education. Only 20.0% of the participants believed that legislation was required. We conclude that

  14. Attitudes toward organ donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; TIAN Hui; YIN Hang; LIU Hang; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    Background Organ transplantation represents an important advance in modern medical science,and it has benefited many patients with organ failure; however,the severe deficiency of organ sources has been a bottleneck that has limited the benefits -this technology can bring.The aim of this study was to show the results of a survey on Chinese people's awareness and attitudes toward organ donation.Methods We designed a questionnaire regarding organ donation consisting of 20 short questions,which were distributed to 10 groups.Most of the questions were multiple-choice; the core question related to people's attitudes to organ donation and the development of organ donation.The survey was held in the outpatient hall of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital,a commercial district,and four professional colleges.Participants were randomly selected,and answered questions about gender,age,educational background,profession,and study major.Results In all,2930 valid responses were received.Male:female ratio was nearly 1:1.2 (mean age 38 years).Over 90.0% of participants knew about organ transplantation and which organs could be transplanted; more than 95.0% knew about organ donation,but the time they had been aware of it varied.Nearly 90.0% of the participants approved of deceased organ donation; 73.0% indicated they would like to donate their organs post mortem.Participants who knew more about organ failure and organ transplantation were more likely to support organ donation.College students were very positive about organ donation,though as they gain professional knowledge their attitudes may change.Altogether,65.3% of participants approved of living organ donation,which was obviously lower than the figure for deceased organ donation (P <0.05).In all,85.7% of participants approved of compensation to the deceased donor's family.To promote organ donation in China,62.9% of participants indicated that the public's knowledge about organ donation should be increased via the media

  15. The Latin American population in Spain and organ donation. Attitude toward deceased organ donation and organ donation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; López-Navas, Ana I; Navalón, Juan C; Martínez-Alarcón, Laura; Ayala-García, Marco A; Sebastián-Ruiz, María J; Moya-Faz, Francisco; Garrido, Gregorio; Ramirez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-04-01

    The Latin American (LA) population has similarities with the Spanish population which makes its integration into Spanish society easier. to analyze the attitude toward organ donation among Latin American citizens residing in Spain, to determine the psychosocial variables which affect this attitude, and to examine the correlation between donation rates of LA citizens in Spain and in their countries of origin. A random sample of LA residents in Spain was taken and stratified according to the respondent's nationality (n = 1.314), in the year 2010. Attitude was assessed using a validated questionnaire (PCID-DTO Dr Rios). The survey was self-administered and completed anonymously. Student's t-test, the χ(2) test, and logistic regression analysis. There was a 94% completion rate (n = 1.237). Attitude toward donation was favorable in 60% of cases (n = 745), 12% (n = 145) were against, and 28% (n = 347) were undecided. The following variables were associated with attitude toward donation: sex (P = 0.038), level of formal education (P donation of a family member's organs (P donation with the family (P organ donation and transplantation process (P donation (P organ donation and transplantation (P organ donation (P donation rates in this population group in Spain are higher than those recorded in their countries of origin (55.76 vs. organ donation among LA citizens residing in Spain is slightly worse than that reported in the native Spanish population and is determined by many psychosocial factors. The donation rates of LA citizens in Spain are higher than those in their countries of origin. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  16. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  17. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  18. [Transplant coordinator: organ donation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Guillem, Purificación; Camaño-Puig, Ramón; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Spain is a leader in organ donations although it seems that this number does not increase in the same proportion that the waiting list and it is necessary to decrease the refusal situations, which are ~16%. Analytic study. We review the reports prepared by the coordinators of transplants archived at the hospital La Fe during the period between May 1, 2004 and December 31, 2007, resulting in conceptualization and categorization. Sixty-nine topics were obtained from the point of view of the family and 11 from the point of view of the interviewer. After its conceptualization, codification and classification, we proceeded to create an appropriate text. Certain guidelines may be offered that allow us to standardize the action of transplant coordinators during the interview and to be more effective.

  19. Understanding Australian families' organ donation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neate, S L; Marck, C H; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; McGain, F; Weiland, T J; Hickey, B B; Jelinek, G A

    2015-01-01

    Numbers of deceased organ donors in Australia have increased, but rates of consent to donation remain at around 60%. Increasing family consent is a key target for the Australian Organ and Tissue Authority. Reasons for donation decisions have been reported in the international literature, but little is known of reasons for Australian families' decisions. Potential organ donors in four Melbourne hospitals were identified and 49 participants from 40 families (23 consenting and 17 non-consenting) were interviewed to understand reasons for consent decisions. Themes for consent to organ donation included that: donation was consistent with the deceased's explicit wishes or known values, the desire to help others or self-including themes of altruism, pragmatism, preventing others from being in the same position, consolation received from donation and aspects of the donation conversation and care that led families to believe donation was right for them. Themes for non-consent included: lack of knowledge of wishes; social, cultural and religious beliefs; factors related to the donation process and family exhaustion; and conversation factors where negative events influenced decisions. While reasons for consent were similar to those described in international literature, reasons for non-consent differed in that there was little emphasis on lack of trust of the medical profession, concerns regarding level of care provided to the potential donor, preserving the deceased's body, fears of body invasion or organ allocation fairness.

  20. Causes of family refusal for organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, F; Khoddami-Vishteh, H R; Ghobadi, O; Shafaghi, S; Louyeh, A Rostami; Najafizadeh, K

    2011-03-01

    Family refusal represents a barrier for organ donation together with other cultural and religious factors possible ignorance and clinical obstacles. We performed this retrospective study by phone employing our organ procurement unit database, using a list of families of potential organ donors who had refused organ donation. In 2009, 146 potential organ donor families refused donation. We contacted 81 families. The main reason expressed by there families to justify the refusal to donate the deceased's organs was denial and rejection of brain-death criteria (44.4%). Other causes were believing in a miracle (13.6%); fear about organ trade and unknown organ destination (9.9%); religious beliefs (8.6%); insecutrity about the brain-death diagnosis (6.2%); unstable family mood (6.2%); unknown donor wishes about donation (4.9%); belief in body integrity after death (3.7%); and fear of objection by other family members (2.5%). Our findings showed several reasons for family refusal for organ donation; among the main cause is poor acceptance of brain death. It seems that increasing the knowledge of people about brain death and organizing strategies to confirm brain death for families are necessary to meet the organ shortage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transformation of organ donation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Li; Gao, Xinpu; Wang, Haibo; Zhu, Youhua

    2015-04-01

    The organ donation system in China has far lagged behind international levels. Transformation of this situation began in July 2005. A complete organ donation system that ensures fairness, impartiality, transparency, and respect for life has now been developed. This system is composed of regulations and policies, an organizational structure, operational guidelines, organ procurement organizations, registration of donors and recipients, and an organ allocation system. Since March 2010, pilot trials on donation after circulatory death (DCD) have been carried out. In 4 years, organ donation has started in 25 of 32 provinces in the country. From 2010 to 2013, the ratio of DCD liver transplantation to total case numbers in China rose from 1.38% to 26.1%, whereas for kidney, the ratio were 0.59% and 24.6%, respectively. The total number of DCD in China has accumulated to 1564 cases, and 4243 organs were transplanted. To alleviate the further difficulties of donation, establishment of professional organ procurement organizations in transplant hospitals, legislation of brain death, and promulgation of legal guidelines on DCD will be the main targets of organ donation development in China. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  2. Organ donation, transplantation and religion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliver, Michael; Woywodt, Alexander; Ahmed, Aimun; Saif, Imran

    2011-01-01

    .... These issues may be equally, or even more, important when live donation is discussed. There is good reason to believe that religious concerns play a significant role much more often than clinicians and transplant teams believe...

  3. Organ donation and imminent death: pro position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Paul E

    2017-04-01

    Donation after cardiac death is associated with many problems including ischemic injury, high rates of delayed allograft function, prolonged time to asystole, and frequent organ discard. Imminent death donation (IDD) has been proposed as a separate category of organ donation: distinct from living donation and donation after cardiac death. A protocol for IDD was developed at Rhode Island Hospital and published in the ethics literature. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Ethics Committee reviewed the protocol and stated that IDD was ethically appropriate in some cases. A wider review by a working group within UNOS concluded similarly, but felt that a myriad of policy revisions would be required and were concerned about a possible negative impact on public trust in organ donation. Nonetheless, IDD and other nontraditional strategies continue to be proposed, implemented in other countries and discussed by patients and donor families. This review, on the 'Pro' side of IDD, proposes that the medical community continue to work toward implementing IDD. Donor family's wishes are best met by organ donation, successful outcomes for the recipients, and a dignified death for their loved one. In some cases, IDD is the best strategy to meet these goals.

  4. Public Opinion on Organ Donation After Death and Its Influence on Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng

    2016-08-18

    BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals.

  5. Campaigning for Organ Donation at Mosques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-09-01

    There is a trend of recruiting faith leaders at mosques to overcome religious barriers to organ donation, and to increase donor registration among Muslims. Commentators have suggested that Muslims are not given enough information about organ donation in religious sermons or lectures delivered at mosques. Corrective actions have been recommended, such as funding campaigns to promote organ donation, and increasing the availability of organ donation information at mosques. These actions are recommended despite published literature expressing safety concerns (i.e., do no harm) in living and end-of-life organ donation. Living donors require life-long medical follow-up and treatment for complications that can appear years later. Scientific and medical controversies persist regarding the international guidelines for death determination in end-of-life donation. The medical criteria of death lack validation and can harm donors if surgical procurement is performed without general anesthesia and before biological death. In the moral code of Islam, the prevention of harm holds precedence over beneficence. Moral precepts described in the Quran encourage Muslims to be beneficent, but also to seek knowledge prior to making practical decisions. However, the Quran also contains passages that demand honesty and truthfulness when providing information to those who are seeking knowledge. Currently, information is limited to that which encourages donor registration. Campaigning for organ donation to congregations in mosques should adhere to the moral code of complete, rather than selective, disclosure of information. We recommend as a minimal standard the disclosure of risks, uncertainties, and controversies associated with the organ donation process.

  6. Attitudes toward organ donation among waitlisted transplant patients: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Jonathan; Pei, Kevin Y; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Gan, Geliang; Deng, Yanhong; Mulligan, David C; Davis, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    Organ shortage remains a major barrier to transplantation. While many efforts have focused on educating the general population regarding donation, few studies have examined knowledge regarding donation and donor registration rates among waitlisted candidates. We aimed to determine waitlisted patients' willingness to donate, elucidate attitudes surrounding organ allocation, and identify barriers to donation. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to assess demographics, knowledge regarding organ donation, and attitudes regarding the allocation process. Responses from 225 of 579 (39%) waitlisted patients were collected. Seventy-one respondents (32%) were registered donors, while 64 patients (28%) noted no interest in participating in donation. A total of 19% of respondents felt their medical treatment would change by being a donor, while 86 patients (38%) felt their condition precluded them from donation. Forty patients (18%) felt they should be prioritized on the waitlist if they agreed to donate. A minority of patients (28%) reported discussion of organ donation with their physician. Waitlisted candidates constitute a population of willing, although often unregistered, organ donors. Moreover, many endorse misconceptions regarding the allocation process and their donation eligibility. In a population for which transplantation is not always possible, education is needed regarding organ donation among waitlisted patients, as this may enhance donation rates.

  7. [Organ donation after death in Moroccan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqalli, Imane; Knidiri, Hafssa; Mahoungou, Gael; Aitlahcen, Zineb; Fadili, Wafaa; Laouad, Inass

    2015-07-01

    Morocco stays far behind other countries in the domain of organ donation and transplantation. Improving the knowledge of Moroccan students, about organ donation and transplantation, can be a key factor in the development of transplant activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of students concerning organ donation and transplantation. The opinion survey was conducted in Marrakech city, with four high education structures with a pre-established questionnaire. The survey questions answered four main themes, which are: the evaluation of knowledge, the opinion and attitude of citizen, the explanation of refusal and the propositions to encourage organ donation in Morocco. Hundred percent of surveyed subjects answered the questionnaire. Among them, 40.3% were men. The middle age was 21.5 years. Out of 503 surveyed students, 89.4% were aware of organ transplant in Morocco. A quarter of students believed that removal and transplant acts were realized just in public health establishments, which have the authorization. Two persons out of 3 were able to identify transplantable organs and tissues. More than half accepted to donate their organs after death. The religious reason was in the head list of refusal determinants of organ donation after death, with a prevalence of 39.7%. Young Moroccans have limited knowledge relating to organ donation. The development of this therapy needs to establish an adequate project of information and motivation of general population. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain death and organ donation of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Ramiz Coşkun; Şahin, Şanlıay; Uysal-Yazıcı, Mutlu; Ayar, Ganime; Yakut, Halil İbrahim; Akman, Alkım Öden; Hirfanoğlu, İbrahim Murat; Kalkan, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to define the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcome of patients with brain death, and to emphasize the importance of organ donation from children. Data for the period from September 2009 to October 2012 were collected retrospectively. Twenty children who were diagnosed as brain death were included. Data including demographics, major cause leading to brain death, duration of brain death evaluation, ancillary tests used to confirm brain death, complications and outcome, duration of hospitalization and organ donation were collected for statistical evaluation. The mean age was 6.2 years, and the male/female ratio 1.85. The major cause leading to brain death was most often traumatic brain injury, seen in 11 patients (55%). The mean duration of brain death evaluation was 6.7 and 1.7 days in Centers I and II respectively. The mean duration of hospitalization was 12.5 days. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used in 18 patients (90%). Complications included hyperglycemia in 13 cases and diabetes incipitus in 7 cases (65% and 35%, respectively). Mean duration of survival was 9.8 days. In Center I, one of the patients' parents gave consent to organ donation, while four parents in Center II agreed to organ donation. The study demonstrated that the duration of brain death evaluation was longer in Center I than in Center II (pbrain death and length of stay in the PICU (p>0.05). Early diagnosis of brain death and prompt evaluation of patients by ICU physicians once the diagnosis is taken into consideration will probably yield better organs and reduce costs. Training PICU physicians, nurses and organ donation coordinators, and increasing children's awareness of the need for organ donation via means of public communication may increase families' rate of agreement to organ donation in the future.

  9. Organ donation, policy and legislation: with special reference to the Dutch organ donation act.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Next of kin decisive on organ donation Changing the donor registration systems is not expected to result in more donor organs. We better try to solve the bottlenecks in the donation process within hospitals and to reduce the number of refusals by next of kin, as NIVEL research shows, based on which

  10. Social and cultural aspects of organ donation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K T

    1992-05-01

    In Asian countries, it is more difficult to obtain cadaver kidneys for renal transplantation because of certain socio-cultural beliefs and customs. The issues affecting living related kidney donation are more social than cultural. This is due to the web of family pressures and personal conflicts for both donor and recipient surrounding the donation. Important misconceptions and fears are: fear of death, the belief that removal of organ violates sanctity of decreased, concern about being cut up after death, desire to be buried whole, dislike of idea of kidneys inside another person, wrong concept of brain death, and the idea of donation being against religious conviction. In Singapore, with the introduction of the Human Organ Transplant Act (HOTA) in 1988, the number of cadaveric transplants have increased, including those from the Medical Therapy Act (MTA). HOTA and education have played pivotal roles in bringing about an increased yield of cadaveric kidneys. With the availability of living unrelated donor (LUD) transplants in India, our living related donor (LRD) transplant programme has suffered, because patients would rather buy a kidney from overseas than get a relative to donate one. Patients are also going to China for overseas cadaveric transplants where the kidneys come from executed convicts. People in countries like Hong Kong, Japan and the Philippines share the same Asian tradition of not parting with their organs after death. Muslim countries like Malaysia require the deceased to have earlier pledged his kidneys for donation prior to death before they can be harvested for transplantation at death.

  11. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution.

  12. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  13. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  14. [Blood donation: mechanic solidarity versus organic solidarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereima, Rosane Suely May Rodrigues; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Martini, Jussara Gue; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    The article offers a reflection of blood donation in an hemocenter of Santa Catarina, with a mechanic and organic solidarity approach. It discuss the way of life in contemporary globalization and the cult of speed in a context pervaded by uncertainties and adversities. People live in a fast world, making social interaction difficult, contributing to the weakening of values and attitudes that could improve the quality of life. Considering the difficulties of everyday contemporary society, concerning Brazilian hemotherapy history on blood donation, there is a perception that attitudes and values, such as solidarity, have been modifying in subtle ways with a background of current events. It searches for understanding of blood donation as mechanic and organic solidarity.

  15. Governed financial incentives as an alternative to altruistic organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Ahad J

    2004-12-01

    In 1984, an offensive proposal for kidney sales by a US physician led the National Organ Transplant Act to become a law in the United States. Similar legislation passed in many other countries. An ethical consensus developed around the world that there should be no monetary compensation for transplantable organs, either from living or deceased persons. Unfortunately, the altruistic supply of organs has been much less than adequate, and thousands of patients die each year waiting for organ transplantation. As the altruistic system of organ donation has met with failure, some from the transplant community believe that altruism alone is not enough to satisfy the needs of the thousands of patients on organ transplant waiting lists, and providing some financial incentives or social benefits to organ sources is necessary to increase the number of cadaveric or living organ donations. In this article, the many controversies surrounding altruistic and compensated organ donation systems are discussed. The Iran model for renal transplantation, a compensated and well-regulated living-unrelated donor renal transplantation program that has successfully eliminated a renal transplant waiting list in Iran, is briefly reviewed.

  16. Organ Donation: Don't Let These Myths Confuse You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lifesaver. If you've never considered organ donation or delayed becoming a donor because of possibly ... information, here are answers to some common organ donation myths and concerns. Myth: If I agree to ...

  17. Where are We on Organ Donation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Uludağ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It was aimed to present the acceptance rate of organ donation of cases that were diagnosed with brain death and evaluated in terms of their demographic and clinical properties retrospectively in Adıyaman University Training and Research Hospital. Material and Method: In the intensive care unit of our hospital, cases that were diagnosed with brain death between the dates of January 2008 and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Cases were evaluated in terms of age, sex, cause of brain death, blood groups, donation status, reasons for acceptance or rejection of donation, cardiac arrest, vasopressin treatment, laboratory test results, arterial blood gas values before and after the apnea test, intensive care unit follow-up durations, apnea test, seasonal and annual distribution. Also, potential donors and recipients were analyzed in accordance with their demographic characteristics. Results: The diagnosis of brain death was made in totally 57 cases; of those, 34 (59.6% were men and 23 (40.4% were women. The most common causes for brain death were traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and intracerebral hematoma. Most of the cases had A Rh+ blood type (n=18, 31.5% and the rate of brain death was 4.7 times higher in Rh (+ patients in comparison to Rh (- patients. The rate of incidence of cardiac arrest was 12.3% (n=7, and it was more common in traumatic SAH patients. The rate of receiving vasopressor therapy was 21.1% (n=12, and the mean duration of therapy was 1.3±0.8 days. It was more commonly used in traumatic SAH patients (n=10. The follow-up period was 2.7±3.2 (minimum: 1, maximum: 17 days. Five patients were considered to be organ donors. The most common reason for acceptance of donation was the effect of organ transplantation coordinator during family interviews (n=3, 60%. In total, 4 livers, 5 kidneys and 1 heart transplantation operations were performed to 10 patients. Conclusion: Due to problems in organ donation

  18. Turkish validity and reliability of Organ Donation Attitude Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici Sayin, Yazile

    2016-03-01

    To report the translation and adaptation process from English to Turkish and the psychometric estimates of the validity and reliability of The Organ Donation Attitude Scale Turkish. Its aim (1) is to provide data about and (2) to assess Turkish people's attitudes and volunteerism towards organ donation. Lack of donors is a significant problem for organ transplantation worldwide. Attitudes about organ donation and volunteerism are important factors in the lack of donors. To collect survey data from Turkish participants, a cross-sectional design was used: the classical measurement method. The Organ Donation Attitude Scale was translated from English to Turkish and back-translated into English. The analysis included a total of 892 Turkish participants. The validity of the scale was confirmed by exploratory factor analysis and criterion-relation validity testing. A test-retest procedure was implemented for the reliability of the scale over time. The Organ Donation Attitude Scale consists of three relatively independent components: humanity and moral conviction, fears of medical neglect and fears of bodily mutilation. Internal consistency of these three components resulted in acceptable Cronbach's α levels. Positive correlation occurred between the volunteerism score and positive attitude about organ donation. The correlation between volunteerism score and negative attitude about organ donation was negative. Fears of bodily mutilation were most significantly related to unwillingness to commit to organ donation. The test-retest correlation coefficients proves that the Organ Donation Attitude Scale were reliable over time. The Organ Donation Attitude Scale Turkish version is both a reliable and valid instrument that can be useful in measuring positive and negative attitudes of Turkish people about organ donation. With the Organ Donation Attitude Scale, researchers in Turkey will be able to ascertain important data on volunteerism and attitudes towards organ donation

  19. The national program for deceased organ donation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiefu; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Sheung Tat; Zhao, Baige; Zhang, Zongjiu; Hao, Lina; Huo, Feng; Liu, Yongfeng

    2013-07-15

    China has developed a new national program for deceased-organ donation to address the need for organ transplantation in the country. The program adheres to the World Health Organization (WHO) guiding principles, is compliant with the Declaration of Istanbul, and respects the cultural and social values of the Chinese people. The experience of pilot trials conducted between 2010 and 2012 was evaluated to generate a comprehensive design of a national program of organ donation and transplantation for implementation throughout China. The legal framework for this program was established from a series of legislative steps since 2007. Accountable national committees have been established to oversee activities of organ donation and transplantation across the nation. The Ministry of Health (MOH) has accredited 164 organ transplant hospitals in China, each of which has an organ procurement organization (OPO) to conduct organ donation and organ recovery. National protocols for deceased-organ donation in China include category I (organ donation after brain death), category II (organ donation after circulatory death), and category III (organ donation after brain death followed by circulatory death). The China Organ Transplant Response System (COTRS) has been developed to allocate organs equitably and transparently. Scientific registries have been established to evaluate the performance of transplant centers and OPOs. China is in the process of implementing a new national program for deceased-organ donation. The program includes a unique approach of organ donation, China category III, which will be promulgated throughout China and is intended to gain widespread acceptance of Chinese society.

  20. Organ donation: a significant marketing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Roberta N

    2007-01-01

    Unlike most health care markets, the organ donation market is one where patients are the marketers, prospective donors are the customers, and no payment is allowed in the exchange process. The assumption that altruistic behavior by donors would satisfy the need for organs has proven woefully untrue. As a result, those needing organs have resorted to relying on unwilling or impoverished donors, to having to promote themselves on websites which have achieved success for only small numbers of patients, or to waiting for organs which they may never receive. This remains a still unsolved marketing challenge.

  1. Indian ICU nurses' perceptions of and attitudes towards organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Nagarajaiah; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    Nurses play a significant role in identifying and securing potential organ donors in the clinical environment. Research among Indian nurses related to organ donation is sparse. The present study aimed to investigate nurses' attitudes towards organ donation. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among nurses (n=184) at a tertiary care centre. Data were collected through self-report questionnaire. A majority (81%) of the respondents were 'willing to sign the card' for organ donation; however, only 3.8% (n=7) of them actually 'signed the organ donation card'. There were significant associations found between intentions to sign the organ donation card and gender (x2=5.852; pdonation. Furthermore, nurse administrators must take the initiative to develop guidelines clarifying the role of nurses in the organ donation and transplantation process to promote organ donation and improve rates.

  2. Organ donation after circulatory death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Jonge (Jeroen); M. Kalisvaart (Marit); M. van der Hoeven; J. Epker (Jl); J. de Haan; J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); F. Grüne (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractApproximately 17 million inhabitants live in the Netherlands. The number of potential organ donors in 1999 was the lowest in Europe with only 10 donors per million inhabitants. Medical associations, public health services, health insurance companies and the government had to find common

  3. The challenges of social marketing of organ donation: news and entertainment coverage of donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; Chewning, Lisa V

    2008-01-01

    While great strides have been made in persuading the public to become potential organ donors, actual behavior has not yet caught up with the nearly universally favorable attitudes the public expresses toward donation. This paper explores the issue by situating the social marketing of organ donation against a broader backdrop of entertainment and news media coverage of organ donation. Organ donation storylines are featured on broadcast television in medical and legal dramas, soap operas, and other television serials approximately four times per month (not including most cable networks), and feature storylines that promote myths and fears of the organ donation process. National news and other non-fictionalized coverage of organ donation are even more common, with stories appearing over twenty times a month on average. These stories tend to be one-dimensional and highly sensationalized in their coverage. The marketing of organ donation for entertainment essentially creates a counter-campaign to organ donation, with greater resources and reach than social marketers have access to. Understanding the broader environmental context of organ donation messages highlights the issues faced by social marketing campaigns in persuading the public to become potential donors.

  4. Knowledge Regarding Organ Donation and Willingness to Donate among Health Workers in South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluyombo, R; Fawale, M B; Ojewola, R W; Busari, O A; Ogunmola, O J; Olanrewaju, T O; Akinleye, C A; Oladosu, Y O; Olamoyegun, M A; Gbadegesin, B A; Obajolowo, O O; Soje, M O; Adelaja, A; Ayodele, L M; Ayodele, O E

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation program in developing countries is still significantly dwarfed. Health workers are undeniably important in the success of transplantation. To assess the knowledge and attitude of health workers toward organ donation in South-West Nigeria with a view to explaining reasons for these shortcomings. In a cross-sectional study conducted on 850 health care workers, self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from participants. Of 850 participants, 766 (90.1%) returned their completed questionnaires. The mean±SD age of participants was 36.7±9.2 years. Majority (93.3%) of participants had heard of organ donation; 82.5% had desirable knowledge. Only 29.5% and 39.4% would be willing to donate and counsel potential organ donors, respectively; 36.5% would consider signing organ donation cards. Only 19.4% believed that organ transplantation is often effective and 63.4% believed they were permitted by their religion to donate. Permission by religion (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.3), good knowledge (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 5.7), readiness to sign donation cards (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.8), discuss organ donation (OR 2.7; 95%CI 8.0 to 63.8), and knowing somebody who had donated (OR 2.9) independently influenced willingness to donate organ. There is disparity in knowledge of organ donation and willingness to donate among health care workers. Efforts should be intensified to give comprehensive and appropriate education to health care workers about organ donation to bridge this gap.

  5. Racial disparities in preferences and perceptions regarding organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminoff, Laura A; Burant, Christopher J; Ibrahim, Said A

    2006-09-01

    To identify reasons for lower organ donation rates by African Americans, we examined knowledge and attitudes about brain death, donation, and transplantation and trust in the health care system. Data were collected from 1,283 subjects in Ohio using a random digit dial telephone survey. Items were developed based on focus group results. Willingness-to-donate indicators included a signed donor card and willingness to donate one's own and a loved one's organs. Compared with whites, African-Americans had lower rates of signing a donor card (39.1% vs 64.9%, P donate their own organs (72.6% vs 88.3%, P organs (53.0% vs 66.2%, P organ donor, they won't try to save my life" (38.6% vs 25.9%, P donating organs (45.6% vs 28.0%, P donation system and were more favorable about providing tangible benefits to donor families than white respondents.

  6. Attitudes towards organ donation and relation to wish to donate posthumously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Julius; Shaw, David; Schober, Roger; Abati, Viviana; Immer, Franz F; Comité National du Don d'Organes Cndo

    2017-02-06

    Organs donated for transplantation remain a scarce resource in Switzerland. One of the reasons for this situation is the high percentage of patients or families who refuse to consent to donation. This study aimed to provide an overview of attitudes towards organ donation among Swiss residents, including any intention to donate organs after death, and whether they had already declared their wish and/or communicated it to anyone. A representative poll investigating the attitude of the Swiss population towards deceased organ donation was conducted between 16 and 28 March 2015. Survey data were collected in 1000 structured telephone interviews. Participants consisted of residents aged 15 years and over from all Swiss regions, and covering the German, French and Italian language areas. Of the 1000 survey participants, 92% stated that they have a very positive (58%) or quite positive (33%) attitude towards organ donation, while 6% have a very negative (2%) or quite negative (4%) view. Some 81% of respondents said that they would be willing to donate their organs after death, and 9% expressed a wish not to become a donor. A total of 53% of participants said that they had already communicated or documented whether they wish to donate. Our study highlights the importance of continuing to raise awareness about the importance of communicating wishes, both in written form and to family members, and suggests that more work is needed to reap the benefits of the substantial support for organ donation among the Swiss population.

  7. Attitudes of Medical Students From Different Countries About Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Hulya; Abbasoglu, Osman

    2015-06-15

    Although there have been some case studies that measure the medical students' knowledge and attitude about organ donation, there is no such global survey in the literature. An online questionnaire was prepared to measure the knowledge and attitudes about organ donation. A total of 1541 medical students from 104 different countries responded to the questionnaire. The participants who have received education before were more successful, had a higher self-donation rate, and showed a more-positive attitude toward organ donation than did those who did not receive an education, or a higher self-donation rate, or a more-positive attitude toward organ donation. Opposition against promotion of the organ donation by medical doctors was more widespread among men, preclinical students, African participants, and participants who did not support organ donation. The two most important decisions about increasing the level of organ donation involved in achieving support of the media and the education of the health care workers. Educational programs would improve the knowledge and attitudes of medical students about organ donation and transplantation.

  8. DETERMINANTS OF KNOWLEDGE AND MOTIVATION TOWARDS ORGAN DONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of organs is a global problem in which Asia lags behind the rest of the world. A huge gap exists between patients who need organ transplants and potential donors. The organ donation rate from dead bodies in India is estimated to be a minuscule 0.05 per million people. There are various barriers which prevent people from donating organs to the needy. Socio-cultural barriers are one among them where in lack of awareness and motivation to donate organs are important determinants. OBJECTIVES: 1 To study the determinants of knowledge regarding organ donation and motivation to donate organs in a selected student population in Bellary and 2 To find independent predictors of knowledge levels and motivation towards organ donation. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional survey was conducted in a setting of degree colleges of Bellary city. A stratified random sampling technique was adopted to select the colleges and students within the sections. Information was collected using face to face interviews based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Data were entered into an electronic database and analysis was done to ascertain the determinants of knowledge levels and motivation of organ donation using SPSS version 16.0.1 (SPSS, 2007. RESULTS: In this study 125 students (43% achieved an adequate knowledge score for Organ Donation, The field of education; income group and region from which they hail were found to have a significant association with knowledge scores of organ donation. In this study 125 students (43% people expressed a high motivation to donate. Higher the age group, Perceived allowance of organ donation in religion and the adequate knowledge levels were significantly associated with the motivation to donate. By multi-logistic regression, type of branch chosen in education emerged as significant independent predictor of knowledge status of respondents and higher the age group, adequate knowledge scores and perceived allowance of organ

  9. UK policy initiatives and the effect on increasing organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bethany; Parkin, Matthew Sw

    Organ donation has developed since the Human Tissue Act 1961, and even since the Human Tissue Act 2004, which replaced it. Given the demand for organ transplants, there have been various attempts to increase the number of people on the Organ Donation Register, including awareness campaigns and celebrity endorsement. However, as the UK-wide strategy Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020 indicates, increasing the number of donations will require more than simply increasing the number of registered donors. This article reviews the changes in policies relating to organ donation and the associated issues.

  10. Attitude and awareness towards organ donation in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balwani, Manish R; Gumber, Manoj R; Shah, Pankaj R; Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu V; Engineer, Divyesh P; Gera, Dinesh N; Godhani, Umesh; Shah, Mehin; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2015-05-01

    To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in western India. Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 250; 200 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via face to face interviews based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Ahmedabad, Gujarat state of India. Data entry was made in excel software in codes and analysis was done by SPSS software. About 86% of participants were aware of the term organ donation but knowledge about its various aspects was low. About 48% aware people heard about organ donation through medical fraternity, whereas only about 21% became aware through mass media. About 59% of aware people believed there is a potential danger of donated organs being misused, abused or misappropriated. About 47% of aware people said they would consider donating organs, while only 16% said they would definitely donate irrespective of circumstances. Around 97.67% participants said they would prefer to donate to nonsmokers. About 74.41% participants were unaware about any legislation regarding organ donation. About 77% participants showed their will to donate to mentally sound persons, and 42.04% participants showed their will to donate even physically challenged people. Around 78 participants felt that they would donate organs to persons irrespective of their religion. About 81% of aware people were of the opinion that consent for organ donation after death should be given by family members. None of the interviewed participants had a donor card. Better knowledge and awareness will help in promoting organ donation. Effective campaign needs to be driven to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.

  11. Brazilian Healthcare Professionals: A Study of Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, C; Siqueira, M

    2016-12-01

    Healthcare professionals have a crucial role in organ donation and transplantation processes. Their attitude toward organ donation can affect public opinion and the donation decision made by deceased donors' relatives. The objectives of the study were to analyze the attitude of medical and nursing personnel toward deceased organ donation in two hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the factors that can affect this attitude. A random sample (n = 162) was selected from the population of nurses and physicians in the hospitals analyzed. The sample was stratified by age, sex, marital status, religion, professional category, and educational level. A validated questionnaire addressing psychosocial aspects of organ donation was used to evaluate attitudes. The χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for statistical analysis. Of personnel surveyed, 86.4% (n = 140) were in favor of deceased organ donation, whereas 11.1% (n = 18) were not sure and 2.5% (n = 4) were against. The favorable attitude was related to the following aspects: (1) educational level, (2) having spoken with family members about organ donation, (3) having a chronic disease, (4) favorable attitude of one's family, (5) belief that organ donation can save lives, (6) concerns about body manipulation, illegal trade of organs, and organ donation being against God's will, (7) feeling proud of working with organ donation/transplantation, (8) self-assessment of experience and knowledge in organ donation/transplantation activities (P organ donation is well accepted among the healthcare professionals surveyed, and the attitude is affected by socio-personal variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Consequences of Vagueness in Consent to Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M

    2016-12-28

    In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate will not be fulfilled due to the family's distress. Fourth, the consequent reduction in the number of donated organs leads to avoidable deaths and increased suffering among potential recipients, and distresses them and their families. There are three strategies which could be used to reduce the harmful effects of this vagueness. First, recategorizing the reasons (commonly referred to as 'overrules' under the current system) given by families who refuse donation from registered donors would bring greater clarity to donation discussions. Second, people who wish to donate their organs should be encouraged to discuss their wishes in detail with their families, and to consider recording their wishes in other ways. Finally, the consent system for organ donation could be made more detailed, ensuring both that more information is provided to potential donors and that they have more flexibility in how their intentions are indicated; this last strategy, however, could have the disadvantage of discouraging some potential donors from registering.

  13. Conflict of consent for post mortem organs donation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Oliveira Dantas Maynard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the refinement in surgical, immunogenetic and pharmacotherapeutic techniques fostered by medicine in the last few decades, organ and tissue transplantation has become a real possibility and an essential alternative towards the extension and quality of human life. This study aimed to analyze the consent for post mortem organ and tissue removal in Brazilian law, from the perspective of the authorization of the family. A qualitative methodological approach was adopted, using literature and legislative reviews, and allowing a deeper insight into the meanings, motives, aspirations, beliefs, values and attitudes surrounding the subject. Results showed that, in the current Transplant Act, and in the event of a confrontation between the will of the donor and the family’s wishes, personality rights and the principle of freedom of choice are underestimated at the expense of the prevailing monopoly of the family decision-making process. In view of the organ shortages faced by the country, the solution that is most consentaneous to justice would be to tailor the dispositions of the Transplant Act to those of the Civil Code. It would be suitable to take the existing wording in Article 4 of Law 9,434/97 and to include the duly documented expression of the donor’s will before death. Public awareness and information about the humanitarian nature of organ donation are likewise important as measures aimed at discussing the principle of solidarity for an organ donation policy.

  14. Awareness and Attitudes toward Organ Donation in Rural Puducherry, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajee, K L; Ramachandran, N; Subitha, L

    2016-01-01

    For many of the end-stage organ diseases, organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment. The need for the organ transplantation is higher than the availability. For the transplantation program to be successful, awareness regarding organ donation is needed and people must have a positive attitude toward donating organs. This study aims to assess the awareness and attitudes regarding organ donation among the rural population and to evaluate the sociodemographic factors associated with their awareness. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 people living in 4 villages of Puducherry. Face-to-face interviews were carried out using pretested questionnaire, which included the sociodemographic data. Data were entered into Excel and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Of 360 participants, 88% (317/360) were aware of organ donation. Among these 317 participants, awareness was highest in the age group 18-30 years 98.8% (87/88), male 91% (147/161), higher secondary and above 100% (58/58), and Class 1 socioeconomic status 92% (13/14). Source of awareness about organ donation was primarily through media 83% (263/317). The majority of the participants 88% (281/317) felt that the purpose of organ donation was to save life. Most of the participants 91% (290/317) said that all healthy adults are eligible organ donors and 87% (275/317) of the participants said that monetary benefits could not be accepted for organ donation. Most of the participants 70% (223/317) were willing to donate their organs after death. Among the participants who refused to donate their organs, family refusal 57% (25/44) was the most common reason. This study shows that there is a high level of awareness about organ donation among rural people and most of the participants are willing to donate their organs.

  15. Defining the vital condition for organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamperetti Nereo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The issue of organ donation and of how the donor pool can or should be increased is one with significant practical, ethical and logistic implications. Here we comment on an article advocating a paradigm change in the so-called "dead donor rule". Such change would involve the societal and legal abandonment of the above rule and the introduction of mandated choice. In this commentary, we review some of the problems associated with the proposed changes as well as the problems associated with the current model. We emphasize the continuing problems with the definition of death and the physiological process of dying; we discuss the difficulties associated with a dichotomous view of death; we review the difficulties with non-beating heart donation and emphasize the current limitations of society's understanding of these complex issues. We conclude that public education remains the best approach and that such education should not be merely promotion of a particular ideology but honest debate of what is socially and morally acceptable and appropriate given the changes in vital organ support technology and the need to respect patient autonomy.

  16. An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

  17. Impact of a National Controlled Donation After Circulatory Death (DCD) Program on Organ Donation in the United Kingdom: A 10-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, R; Young, A L; Attia, M A; Lodge, J P A

    2017-05-28

    Organ transplantation is the most successful treatment for some forms of organ failure, yet a lack of organs means many die on the waiting list. In the United Kingdom, the Organ Donation Taskforce was set up to identify barriers to organ donation and in 2008 released its first report (Organ Donation Taskforce Report; ODTR). This study assesses the success since the ODTR and examines the impact of the United Kingdom's controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) program and the controversies surrounding it. There were 12 864 intended donation after brain death (DBD) or DCD donors from April 2004 to March 2014. When the 5 years preceding the ODTR was compared to the 5 years following, intended DCD donors increased 292% (1187 to 4652), and intended DBD donors increased 11% (3327 to 3698). Organs retrieved per intended DBD donor remained static (3.30 to 3.26), whereas there was a decrease in DCD (1.54 to 0.99) due to a large rise in donors who did not proceed to donation (325 to 2464). The majority of DCD donors who proceeded did so within 30 min from time of withdrawal. Our study suggests further work on converting eligible referrals to organ donation and exploring methods of converting DCD to DBD donors. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Organ donation and Islam-challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Adnan

    2012-09-15

    The issue of organ donation in Islam has been debated for decades, with most religious authorities sanctioning both living-organ and deceased-organ donation. However, disquiet among the Islamic community on the compatibility of organ donation with their faith remains, especially in relation to deceased-organ donation. This remains a topical, controversial, and challenging component of organ procurement at both local and international levels. In this article, I will explore Islamic arguments both for and against organ donation, in the context of both living-donor and deceased-donor models. By discussing both practical and philosophical perspectives, the aim is to facilitate discussion on how best to achieve consensus on this issue by driving the debate forward in an open and all-encompassing manner. Although every attempt should be made to achieve consensus among key Muslim opinion makers (individuals, authorities, and institutions), encouraging personalized decision making by intellectual effort should be the goal to achieve genuine informed consent.

  19. Altruism and reward: motivational compatibility in deceased organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voo, Teck Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK. In this article, I cast a sceptical eye on the above Nuffield report's argument that its proposed funeral payment scheme would prompt deceased organ donations that remain altruistic (as defined by and valued the report). Specifically, I illustrate how this scheme may prompt various forms of mixed motivations which would not satisfy the report's definition of altruism. Insofar as the scheme produces an expectation of the reward, it stands diametrical to promoting an 'altruistic perspective'. My minimal goal in this article is to argue that altruism is not motivationally compatible with reward as an incentive for donation. My broader goal is to argue that if a financial reward is used to incentivize organ donation, then we should recognize that the donation system is no longer aiming to promote altruism. Rewarded donation would not be altruistic but it may be ethical given a persistent organ shortage situation.

  20. A Confirmatory Analysis of the Organ Donation Readiness Index: Measuring the Potential for Organ Donations among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Christopher; Tamburlin, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The need for transplant exceeds the number of available organs. Antigen compatible organs are particularly scarce for African Americans because of their proportionately lower rate of donations. This study presents a measure of organ donation readiness. Examination of the factor structure and a test of weak invariance were conducted on…

  1. Public Perception of Cadaver Organ Donation in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A J; Xie, W Z; Luo, J J; Ouyang, W

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to (1) survey public' perception and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) analyze the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to donate. We developed a questionnaire, and conducted the survey with stratified random sampling. Overall, 600 residents, aged ≥18 who resided in Hunan, and 600 undergraduates from 3 universities in Hunan were surveyed randomly. For this study, 1085 valid questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 90.4%. Of the 1085 participants, 581 (53.5%) were students, 504 (46.5%) were residents, and 519 (47.8%) were male and 566 (52.2%) female. The mean accuracy rate was 71.96%, and the students' mean accuracy rate was slightly higher than that of the resident population (73.06% vs 70.68%, respectively). The results showed that 82.2% of public support organ donation, and 53.5% were willing to donate their organs after death. Students scored higher than the residents (88% vs 75.6% and 55.6% vs 51.2%). Nearly 1.8% felt that organ donation was against their religion, 14.9% thought it was important to ensure the integrity of the body, 71.7% agreed that organ donation allowed a positive outcome after a person's death, and 61.5% agreed that organ donation represented a continuation of life, to help families cope with grief. Age and gender were related to attitudes. Public knowledge of organ donation and their attitudes were correlated positively (r = 0.666). Public knowledge of organ donation is poor, biased, and incomplete, and based on television, movies, and communication networks. Positive attitudes toward donation displayed in the surveys were not matched by actual organ donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Premortem interventions in dying children to optimise organ donation: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Joe; Shaw, David

    2016-07-01

    A range of interventions in dying patients can improve both the possibility of successful organ donation and the likely long-term success of transplantation. The ethical and legal issues surrounding such interventions, which most frequently occur in the context of donation after circulatory determination of death, are complex, controversial and many remain unresolved. This is true with adults, but even more so with children, where the issue of organ donation and premortem interventions to facilitate it, are highly sensitive. Essentially, such interventions are being undertaken in dying children who cannot medically benefit from them, though arguments have been advanced that becoming a donor might be in a child's extended best interest. However, certain interventions carry a potential risk, although small, of direct harm and of course overall objections to child donation after circulatory determination of death per se are still expressed in the literature. But, unlike the case in critically ill adults, those giving permission for such interventions are normally able to fully participate in decision-making, and indeed to consent, to both donation and premortem interventions. We review the issue of the use of premortem interventions in dying children to facilitate organ donation, including decision-making and ethical justification. Individual interventions are then considered, including an ethical analyse of their use. Finally, we recommend an approach using a combination of welfare checklist strategy, coupled with the establishment of an agreed zone of parental discretion about individual interventions which might be used in dying children to increase the possibility of successful organ donation.

  3. Organ procurement organizations Internet enrollment for organ donation: Abandoning informed consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheijde Joseph L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Requirements for organ donation after cardiac or imminent death have been introduced to address the transplantable organs shortage in the United States. Organ procurement organizations (OPOs increasingly use the Internet for organ donation consent. Methods An analysis of OPO Web sites available to the public for enrollment and consent for organ donation. The Web sites and consent forms were examined for the minimal information recommended by the United States Department of Health and Human Services for informed consent. Content scores were calculated as percentages of data elements in four information categories: donor knowledge, donor consent reinforcement, donation promotion, and informed consent. Results There were 60 Web sites for organ donation enrollment serving the 52 states. The median percent (10 percentile-90 percentile content scores of the Web sites for donor knowledge, donor consent reinforcement, and donation promotion were 33% (20–47, 79% (57–86, and 75% (50–100, respectively. The informed consent score was 0% (0–33. The content scores for donor knowledge and informed consent were significantly lower than donor consent reinforcement and donation promotion for all Web sites (P Conclusion The Web sites and consent forms for public enrollment in organ donation do not fulfill the necessary requirements for informed consent. The Web sites predominantly provide positive reinforcement and promotional information rather than the transparent disclosure of organ donation process. Independent regulatory oversight is essential to ensure that Internet enrollment for organ donation complies with legal and ethical standards for informed consent.

  4. Using Standardized Patients to Educate Medical Students about Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Anker, Ashley E.; Soriano, Rainier; Friedman, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine participated in an intervention designed to promote knowledge and improved communication skills related to cadaveric organ donation. The intervention required students to interact with a standardized patient for approximately 10 minutes and respond to questions posed about organ donation in a…

  5. Attitudes of health care professionals towards organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalraj R Edwin

    2000-01-01

    The study reveals that there is a poor understanding of the concept of brain death and organ donation even among medical students. It was also observed that they were in-terested in knowing more about the subject of organ do-nation.

  6. Knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation among medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation amongst medical students in Karachi- Pakistan. Methods Data of this cross sectional study was collected by self administered questionnaire from MBBS students of Ziauddin University from 2010 to 2011. Sample size of 158 (83 First years and 75 Fourth years) were selected by convenient sampling and those students who were present and gave consent were included in the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A total of 158 participants from Ziauddin Medical University filled out the questionnaire out of which 83(52.5%) were first years and 75(47.5%) were fourth year medical students. Mean age of sample was 20 ± 1.7. Majority of students were aware about organ donation with print and electronic media as the main source of information. 81.6% agreed that it was ethically correct to donate an organ. In the students’ opinion, most commonly donated organs and tissues were kidney, cornea, blood and platelet. Ideal candidates for donating organ were parents (81%). Regarding list of options for preference to receive an organ, most of the students agreed on young age group patients and persons with family. Willingness to donate was significantly associated with knowledge of allowance of organ donation in religion (P=0.000). Conclusion Both 1st year and 4th year students are aware of Organ Donation, but there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the topic. PMID:24070261

  7. Using Standardized Patients to Educate Medical Students about Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Anker, Ashley E.; Soriano, Rainier; Friedman, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine participated in an intervention designed to promote knowledge and improved communication skills related to cadaveric organ donation. The intervention required students to interact with a standardized patient for approximately 10 minutes and respond to questions posed about organ donation in a…

  8. Attitudes to cadaveric organ donation in Irish preclinical medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Kevin C

    2011-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member\\'s organs in a minority of students. Irish students\\' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members.

  9. Should We Be “Nudging” for Cadaveric Organ Donations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2012-01-01

    Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?......Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?...

  10. [Organ donation after euthanasia. Handle with great care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdo, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, organ donation after euthanasia has been a topic of discussion in the Dutch media and scientific literature. Unfortunately, both the articles in question and the media interviews contained several unsubstantiated statements. This article describes the background of organ donation after

  11. Factors relating to consent for organ donation: prospective data on potential organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M R; Dwyer, B M; Hickey, B B; D'Costa, R; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining family consent to organ donation is a significant obstacle to improving further Australian deceased organ donation rates. Currently, neither the consent rates for donors eligible to donate after circulatory death, nor factors that influence decision to decline or consent to donation in general are known in Australia. This study at four university teaching hospitals in Melbourne, Victoria, examined consecutive patients where organ donation was discussed with the family A total of 123 cases were identified; the family consent rate was 52.8%, and 34.1% proceeded to donation. Consent to donation was related to potential donor factors such as country of birth, cultural background in Australia, a non-religious or Christian background and registration on the Australian Organ Donor Register. Family-related factors included being English speaking and having knowledge of the deceased's wishes about organ donation. Family of donation after circulatory death-eligible donors were less likely to consent to donation than the family of donation after brain death-eligible donors, although not reaching statistical significance. Among consented potential donors, those eligible for donation after brain death and with a shorter length of stay were more likely to proceed to donating organs for transplantation. Despite a small sample size, these findings describe current consent and donation rates and associated factors and may assist in improving conversations about organ donation. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Organ donation among Malaysian Muslims: the role of mosques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Raja Ariffin, Raja Noriza; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Abdullah, Nawi; Wan Md Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhdi; Che Soh, Mazlan

    2015-04-13

    Malaysia, a country of Muslim majority, is suffering from a severe organ shortage due to the lack of donors. Mosques are the main gateways into the Muslim community. Hence, it is imperative to explore their role in facilitating organ donation. A self-administered survey was conducted between October and December 2013. We distributed 700 pilot-tested questionnaires to 82 mosques in Kuala Lumpur and its suburbs. The respondents were stratified into 2 groups: the mosque committees and the Muslim Jama'ah (individuals who come regularly to mosque for prayer). Data collected from a survey on 653 Malaysian Muslims reveals that the main factors that hamper organ donation-related activities at the mosques in Malaysia are the lack of experts and financial resources. The level of autonomy of the mosque is also another main issue. The respondents believe that talks and dialogues are the best methods for organ donation campaigns at the mosques. Conclusions We argue that if the mosques are to play a role in imparting knowledge on organ donation, there should be ample opportunity for the mosque committee to choose the content of religious talks held in their community. The mosques in Malaysia are not sufficiently facilitated to channel the information on organ donation to the Muslim community. Providing financial support and expert campaigners are expected to increase organ donation-related activities at the mosques and subsequently could increase awareness regarding organ donations among Malaysian Muslims.

  13. Causes of organ donation refusal in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S M; Gholami, S; Bahador, A; Nikeghbalian, S; Eshraghian, A; Salahi, H; Kazemi, K; Shamsaei, A; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2011-03-01

    Family refusal is an important factor that limits the number of organ donations. Some studies from different centers have reported various reasons for family decisions of organ donation refusal. This study evaluated the reasons for organ donation refusal by family members covered in our organ procurement organization. This cross-sectional study was performed among families of potential organ donors who satisfied brain death criteria as identified between March 2009 and March 2010. Among 125 potential donors 73 (58.4%) families refused donation. Their main reasons were as follows: lack of acceptance of brain death n=26 (35.6%), belief in miracle and patient recovery (n=22; 30.1), fear of gossip regarding sale rather than autonomous organ donation (n=11; 15.1%), and fear about deformation of the donor's body (n=9; 12.3%). Family members play an important role in the final decision for organ donation. The general public should be encouraged to register their donation preferences in the case of brain death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Attitudes and beliefs about deceased organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community in Australia: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Angelique F; Alyami, Ali; Allen, Richard D M; Howard, Kirsten; Craig, Jonathan C; Chadban, Steve J; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison

    2016-01-19

    To describe the beliefs and attitudes to organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community. Arabic-speaking participants were purposively recruited to participate in 6 focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. 53 participants, aged 19-77 years, and originating from 8 countries, participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Participants identified as Christian (73%), Islam (26%), Buddhist (2%) or did not identify with any religion (2%). 6 themes (with subthemes) were identified; religious conviction; invisibility of organ donation; medical suspicion; owning the decision; and reciprocal benefit. Although organ donation is considered a generous life-saving 'gift', representative members of the Arabic-speaking community in Australia were unfamiliar with, unnerved by and sceptical about the donation process. Making positive decisions about organ donation would likely require resolving tensions between respecting family, community and religious values versus their individual autonomy. Providing targeted education about the process and benefits of organ donation within the Arabic community may clarify ambiguities surrounding cultural and religious-based views on organ donation, reduce taboos and suspicion towards donation, and in turn, lead to increased organ donation rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be made by the person before death. Most black ... particular to the concepts of brain-stem death and organ donation, is not .... Reasons why some people were unwilling to donate the .... We thank Research Surveys (Pry) Ltd who assisted in.

  16. Children's opinions about organ donation : a first step to assent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, Marion J.; Geerts, Erwin A. H. M.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Roodbol, Petrie F.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    Background: Parents have to decide about organ donation after the death of their child. Although most parents probably would like to respect their child's intentions, parents often are not aware of their child's wishes. This requires insight into children's opinions about donation. Methods: An

  17. Organ donation for transplantation : a clinical study with emphasis on liver donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruim, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis was the continuing organ shortage. Several factors have been held responsible for this shortage, including refusal of permission for organ donation by the next-of-kin, insufficient recognition of potential organ donors by the medical staff, and -unjustified- discard

  18. Role of Religion in Organ Donation-Development of the United Kingdom Faith and Organ Donation Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, G; Neuberger, J

    2016-04-01

    At a national policy level, the United Kingdom is at the forefront of recognizing the role of faith and its impact on organ donation. This is demonstrated by the recommendations of the Organ Donation Taskforce, National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines on organ donation, All-Party Parliamentary Kidney Group, and National Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Taskforce Alliance. Evidence to date shows that further thought is required to ensure the active engagement of faith communities with organ donation in the UK. The "Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020" strategy was launched in July 2013 by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) in collaboration with the Department of Health and Welsh, Scottish, and Northern Irish governments and seeks to increase the number of people, from all sections of the UK's multiethnic and multifaith population, who consent to and authorize organ donation in their life. NHSBT seeks to work in partnership with faith leaders and this culminated in a Faith and Organ Donation Summit. Faith leaders highlight that there is a need for engagement at both national and local levels concerning organ donation as well as diagnosis and definition of death.

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior of Nigerian Students Toward Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M; Randhawa, G

    2017-10-01

    The Nigerian transplantation program is evolving but is currently over-reliant on living donors. If deceased donation is to be viable in Nigeria, it is important to ascertain the views of the public. The objective of the study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Nigerian international students toward organ donation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Nigerian international students of the University of Bedfordshire through the use of a modified self-administered questionnaire. The participants were recruited by means of purposive sampling. Of the 110 questionnaires distributed, 103 were returned fully completed (response rate = 93.6%). A significant majority (93.2%) of the participants are aware of organ donation, and 76.7% have a good knowledge on the subject. Furthermore, more than half (52.8%) of the participants have a positive attitude toward organ donation, and less than half (42.8%) have favorable behavior toward it. Higher knowledge does not correlate to either positive attitude or behavior, but a positive attitude is correlated with favorable behavior toward donation. The attitudes and behavior of the respondents toward organ donation is not commensurate with the level of knowledge they possess. This highlights the urgent need for well-structured educational programs on deceased organ donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Organ donation in Muslim countries: the case of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Chin-Sieng, Chong; Soo-Kun, Lim; Abdullah, Nawi; Kok-Peng, Ng

    2013-12-09

    The aim of this paper is to look into the factors influencing Malaysian Muslims' decision to become deceased organ donors in Malaysia. We approached 900 Malaysian Muslims and 779 participated in our survey, conducted in Kuala Lumpur and its suburb. We examined their willingness to become donors and the willing donors were asked why they did not pledge to become donors. Non-donors were asked why they refuse to become donors. The survey found the main reason for Malaysian Muslims not pledging their organs was due to their lack of information on organ donation and/or their lack of confidence in the government's ability to properly administer organ donation procedures. Another interesting finding is that religion is not a main deterrent to organ donation. The survey suggests that Malaysia can explore many ways to encourage organ donation without having to resort to the highly controversial financial incentive option. A key to Malaysia's success or failure to increase organ donation rate lies in its ability to persuade its Muslim population (its largest population) to donate organs. This can be done by adopting a segmented, focused, and highly localized form of public education and by leveraging on existing networks involving local religious and community leaders as well as government and non-governmental institutions.

  1. Posthumous organ donation beliefs of college students: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Liu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Despite positive attitudes towards posthumous organ donation, college students are hesitant to become donors because of lack of knowledge/publicity; cultural disdain; and lack of governmental assurance.

  2. New era for organ donation and transplant in China

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    China is establishing a new national system for organ donation and transplantation, based on Chinese cultural and societal norms, that aims to be ethical and sustainable. Haibo Wang talks to Fiona Fleck

  3. Effect of media presentations on willingness to commit to organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Inbal; Kogut, Tehila; Pinchas, Meir; Slovic, Paul

    2017-05-16

    We examine how presentations of organ donation cases in the media may affect people's willingness to sign organ donation commitment cards, donate the organs of a deceased relative, support the transition to an "opt-out" policy, or donate a kidney while alive. We found that providing identifying information about the prospective recipient (whose life was saved by the donation) increased the participants' willingness to commit to organ donation themselves, donate the organs of a deceased relative, or support a transition to an "opt-out" policy. Conversely, identifying the deceased donor tended to induce thoughts of death rather than about saving lives, resulting in fewer participants willing to donate organs or support measures that facilitated organ donation. A study of online news revealed that identification of the donor is significantly more common than identification of the recipient in the coverage of organ donation cases-with possibly adverse effects on the incidence of organ donations.

  4. Psychosocial barriers associated with organ donation in mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Álvarez Del Río, Asunción; Jasso, Kristian; Santillán-Doherty, Patricio

    2017-09-15

    There is a severe shortage of organs for transplantation worldwide and Mexico has one of the lowest organ donation rates. In this study, we explored the psychosocial barriers that prevent posthumous organ donation by Mexicans. We asked 218 adults who were not willing to be donors to complete the sentence "I don't want to donate my organs after death because organ donation is…" The data were analyzed using the Natural Semantic Networks Technique. The most important answers given by the participants were related to mistrust. Older participants and those with limited education gave more answers that reflect misconceptions about organ donation. Many participants acknowledged its benefits, even though they did not want to be donors, especially the youngest and those with a higher education. Mistrust and poor education are problems that urgently need to be addressed in order to increase acceptance of organ donation and transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Policy statement--pediatric organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Pediatric organ donation and organ transplantation can have a significant life-extending benefit to the young recipients of these organs and a high emotional impact on donor and recipient families. Pediatricians, pediatric medical specialists, and pediatric transplant surgeons need to be better acquainted with evolving national strategies that involve organ procurement and organ transplantation to help acquaint families with the benefits and risks of organ donation and transplantation. Efforts of pediatric professionals are needed to shape public policies to provide a system in which procurement, distribution, and cost are fair and equitable to children and adults. Major issues of concern are availability of and access to donor organs; oversight and control of the process; pediatric medical and surgical consultation and continued care throughout the organ-donation and transplantation process; ethical, social, financial, and follow-up issues; insurance-coverage issues; and public awareness of the need for organ donors of all ages.

  6. Role of urgent care staff in organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garside, Marie; Garside, Jules

    2010-10-01

    A detailed review of donation activity since the introduction of an embedded specialist nurse in organ donation (SNOD) in Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust has confirmed the benefits of this role for the identification and referral of potential donors by emergency department (ED) staff. This article argues that, as EDs across the U.K. introduce SNODs, more organs will become available for transplant.

  7. Consent to organ donation part 2: alternative modes of consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2010-01-01

    In the December 2009 issue of British Journal of Community Nursing Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah reviewed the system of consent for non-beating heart organ donation at the centre of the Human Tissue Act 2004. This article considers the benefits and risks of alternative systems of consent being proposed to overcome the United Kingdom's poor organ donation rate that is the worst in Western Europe.

  8. Approaching families for organ donation-intensivists' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, G C; Simes, D; Yuen, K J

    2012-11-01

    In Australia the initial approach to families for organ donation is almost always undertaken by intensivists. There is, however, a paucity of literature on intensivists' views on this approach and how their approach compares with recommendations in published literature on this subject. This study consisted of a survey of the views of intensive care consultants and senior intensive care registrars in the four major teaching hospitals in Perth, Western Australia, on how they approached families for organ donation. The study also includes a review of recently published literature on approaching families for organ donation. The survey results indicate that most intensive care consultants felt adequately trained to approach families for organ donation, but almost half of the group surveyed would prefer a collaborative approach with either a donor co-ordinator or a colleague with additional training on this subject. Despite recommendations in the literature and from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society to determine the registration status of potential donors on the Australian Organ Donation Registry prior to discussions with families, this was not always undertaken. In addition, the benefits of organ donation were not always discussed with families, nor were the reasons for refusal of consent sensitively explored.

  9. EFFECTS OF MESSAGE FRAMING AND EXEMPLARS ON PROMOTING ORGAN DONATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Hung; Chang, Wen-Te

    2015-12-01

    People in many countries are unwilling to donate organs. Drawing on previous research regarding the use of message framing and the theory of exemplification promoting intentions to donate organs, this study examined messaging strategies. This study used a 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design to examine the joint effects of gain/loss frames and statistical/exemplar appeals on the intentions of 189 Taiwanese college students (108 women, 81 men; age range = 19-24 yr., M = 21.6, SD = 2.9) regarding organ donation. Each participant was randomly assigned to read one of four versions of an organ donation promotional message and then to complete a questionnaire. The analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between the two factors. Loss-exemplar messages elicited significantly more positive intentions toward donation than did loss-statistical messages. There was no significant difference between the statistical and exemplar appeals observed under the gain-framed condition. The practical implications of developing effective organ donation promotional materials and the limitations of this study are discussed.

  10. Survey of opinion of secondary school students on organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, F A; Souqiyyeh, M Z; Al-Attar, B; Jaralla, A; Al Swailem, A R

    1996-01-01

    We conducted a survey of opinion of a sample of senior high school students in Saudi Arabia to evaluate their awareness of the importance of organ donation and concept of brain death. There were 839 students from nine schools, 745 males and 94 females. The participants were not primed about these topics before answering the questionnaire, which was answered at school. The study group declared the level of education of the parents. Twenty three percent knew about the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, but 61% could only guess its function. Fifty eight percent could not differentiate between "natural 11 death and brain death and 93% were not aware of how to document it. Elaboration on these questions showed variable explanations. Sixty eight percent agreed to donate organs of relatives in case of brain death, and 91% would donate a kidney to their relatives. However, 38% agreed to donate organs of their own to organ failure patients other then relatives. Thirty five percent knew about the organ donation cards, but only 12% carried them, and only 48% would consent to include the word "donor" on their driving licenses. Forty two percent knew about the opinion of Islamic religion toward organ donation. Thirty one percent agreed to send patients for organ transplantation abroad due to their belief that transplantation technology in Saudi Arabia is lacking, There were no significant differences in the answers according to schools, gender, students of different curricula, having a friend or relative with organ failure, or the level of the education of the parents. This study suggests the great need for education of the new generation about the importance of organ donation and the concept of brain death. We believe that including these topics in the curricula of schools would help disseminating this knowledge to the public in Saudi Arabia.

  11. The Science and Social Necessity of Deceased Organ Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis L. Delmonico

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful deceased organ donation requires a reproducible – consistent (scientific system that evaluates the potential for organ donation and determines objectively whether the national system is achieving its goals. The science of organ donation also pertains to the determination of death. We are a common humanity that dies similarly – a humanity whose ultimate criterion of life resides in the function of the human brain. The recent brain death law of Israel encouragingly enables a determination of death by the loss of neurologic function, but it has become complicated by a practice that may perpetuate societal misperceptions. As a result opportunities for deceased organ donation – to provide for Israelis in need of organ transplants – are being lost. A statured task force of society could be assembled to convey its support for deceased donation to influence society and resolve these misperceptions. The World Health Organization is now calling for each member state to achieve a self-sufficiency in organ donation and transplantation “equitably meeting the transplantation needs of a given population using resources from within that population”. Patients should not be compelled to go to foreign countries for their organs. Israel has been a leader in the development of a model program intended to address transplant tourism. Insurance companies are no longer permitted to provide resources for Israelis to undergo illegal transplants in foreign destinations. The social necessity of a scientifically and medically applied system of deceased organ donation is now evident so that a sufficient number of organs can be available for patients from within the country where they reside.

  12. OPTN/SRTR 2013 Annual Data Report: deceased organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israni, A K; Zaun, D A; Rosendale, J D; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L

    2015-01-01

    The status of deceased organ donation is assessed using metrics such as donation/conversation rate, organ yield, and rate of organs recovered for transplant and not transplanted. These metrics are based on eligible deaths (brain death of a person aged 70 years or younger) as well as on actual donors. The 9132 eligible deaths reported in 2013 represented a slight increase over 2012. The donation/conversion rate was 71.3 eligible donors per 100 eligible deaths, a slight decline from 2012, and varied by donation service area from 50.0 to 87.0. The number of organs recovered per donor, 3.55, also varied by donation service area, from 2.79 to 4.10. The mean number of organs transplanted per donor was 3.08 in 2013, slightly higher than 3.02 in 2012. The mean observed/expected organ yield ratio for kidneys varied from 0.86 to 1.18; for pancreata, from 0.29 to 2.59; for livers, from 0.69 to 1.17; for hearts, from 0.68 to 1.41; and for lungs, from 0.33 to 1.41. The rate of organs recovered for transplant and not transplanted in 2013 for all organs combined was 0.13 per recovered organ, slightly lower than the rate of 0.14 in 2012. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-03-01

    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated.

  14. An Analysis of Organ Donation Policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ghazi; Iftikhar, Sadia

    2016-05-02

    There is currently an organ shortage crisis in the United States. This paper analyzes the magnitude of the problem, the organ procurement programs in other developed countries as compared to the US, and discusses the changes that can be made to address this problem. With the opt-in or explicit-consent method currently practiced in the US, less that one third of the population consents to organ donation. In order to narrow the gap between the demand and supply of organs, steps need to be taken to improve the organ procurement infrastructure. The public needs to be educated about the dire need, the benefits and risks in organ donation, and living vs. deceased donation. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-05.asp, free with no login].

  15. Professional education and hospital development for organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, N; Konaka, S; Kato, O; Ashikari, J

    2012-05-01

    Because of the strict Organ Transplantation Act, only 81 brain dead (BD) organ donations had been performed in Japan for 13 years since 1997. The Act was revised on July 17, 2010, allowing, organs to be donated after BD with consent from the family, if the subject had not denied organ donation previously. This act has lead to an expectation of a 6-7-fold increase in BD donation. The 82 organ procurement coordinators (OPC) in Japan include 32 belonging to the Japanese Organ Network (JOT) and the others to each administrative division. JOT has guideline manuals of standard roles and procedures of OPC during organ procurement from BD and cardiac death donors. To manage the increased organ donations after the revision of the act, we have modified the education system. First, we modified the guideline manuals for OPC to correspond to the revised Transplant Act and governmental guidelines. Second, all OPC gathered in a meeting room to learn the new organ procurement system to deal with the revised Transplant Act and guidelines. Third, a special education program for 2 months was provided for the 10 newcomers. Last, the practical training in each donor case for newcomers was performed by older OPC. Topics of the education program were the revised transplant act and guidelines, family approach to organ donation, BD diagnosis, donor evaluation and management, organ procurement and preservation, allocation system, hospital development and family care. In the future, each OPC will be divided into special categories, such as the donor family OPC, the donor management OPC, and the operating room OPC. Therefore, we need to construct separate special education programs for each category. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Consent systems for post mortem organ donation in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, S.; Janssen, A.; Friele, R.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands, like in many other European countries, there is a considerable shortage of vital organs (hearts, kidneys etc.) for transplantation purposes. While living organ donation is of increasing importance as an alternative source for at least some organs (such as kidneys), the supply is

  17. Barriers toward organ donation in a Danish University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, P; Kousgaard, S J

    2017-03-01

    In Denmark, organ donation-rates are below the average in the western countries. We investigated the donor potential and identified barriers toward organ donation in a Danish university hospital. All patients who died in Aalborg University Hospital in 2012 were retrospectively identified. Patients with a CT- or MRI-proven deadly brain-lesion were eligible for inclusion. Eighty-five patients with deadly brain-lesions were included, and of these 47 patients died in the intensive care unit (ICU). Older age and diagnosis of brain-hemorrhage and infarction were associated with admission to general ward (GW). In 62.4% of the patients the potential of becoming a donor was not identified. No donations occurred from patients dying from intracerebral hemorrhage or brain-infarction although they represented 44.7% of the potential donors. This study reveals a huge, unrecognized donation potential at our hospital. About 30% was lost because they were never admitted to the ICU. After primary admission to the ICU, 15.3% of the potential donors were lost because they were transferred to the GW. In patients who died in the ICU 17.6% of the patients were not evaluated as potential donors. The relatives refused donation in 17.6% of cases. It would be possible to raise the donation rate considerably if patients with donation potential are intubated and admitted to the ICU. When active treatment is considered withdrawn, possibility of organ donation should be evaluated, and the next of kin be approached by experienced staff. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makmor Tumin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ' preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members.We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents' willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire.Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05.Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia.

  19. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Raja Ariffin, Raja Noriza; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Ng, Kok-Peng; Lim, Soo-Kun; Chong, Chin-Sieng

    2014-07-01

    Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ' preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents' willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia.

  20. Attitude towards organ donation in German medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbonssen, Tobias; Settmacher, Utz; Wurst, Christine; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that personal decision making in respect to organ donation is highly dependent on the balance of knowledge, trust, and fear. We wanted to explore the attitude of German medical students towards organ donation and investigate the relationship between knowledge, trust, and fear in this special subgroup. We conducted an online survey utilizing (1) the snowball effect of using Facebook groups and advertisement as well as (2) mailing lists of medical faculties in Germany for distribution. We surveyed 1370 medical students. 75.8 % (N = 988) of the participants stated to carry an organ donor card and allowed their organs to be donated. 1.8 % (N = 23) refused donation. 22.5 % (N = 293) did not carry an organ donor card. Analysis of the "decided" versus the "undecided" group revealed substantial differences regarding transplantation knowledge (mean knowledge score of 4.23 vs. 3.81; P < 0.001), trust in (mean trust score 4.11 vs. 3.39; P < 0.001), and fear of (mean fear score 1.63 vs. 2.22; P < 0.001) organ donation. 45.9 % of the undecided group (N = 134) opted for accessing additional information material. After reading the info material, 22.7 % (N = 29) stated their willingness to sign a donor card, whereas 76.6 % (N = 98) still could not reach a decision. The willingness to potentially act as organ donor was related to the pre-existent knowledge, trust, and fear. Access to information material did promote the decision towards organ donation in a group of previously undecided medical students. This advocates initiating information campaigns even in population groups with strong medical background.

  1. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture

    OpenAIRE

    B.R. Bhengu; H.H.M. Uys

    2004-01-01

    Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual’s dec...

  2. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Cur. (Intensive General Nursing) Knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation. However, the supply of organs does not meet this demand, especially, among the black communities. Literature reviewed associate this imbalance with the few sources of organs, the technique of organ retrieval, discrepancies in the allocation of organs and sociocultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which the...

  3. Attitudes to Cadaveric Organ Donation in Irish Preclinical Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…

  4. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhengu, B R; Uys, H H M

    2004-08-01

    Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual's decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.

  5. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Bhengu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual’s decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.

  6. A sequential decision framework for increasing college students' support for organ donation and organ donor registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W; D'Alessandro, Anthony M; Dahl, Andrew J; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2012-09-01

    Despite the fact that college students support social causes, this age group has underparticipated in organ donor registration. Little research attention has been given to understanding deeper, higher-order relationships between the antecedent attitudes toward and perceptions of organ donation and registration behavior. To test a process model useful for understanding the sequential ordering of information necessary for moving college students along a hierarchical decision-making continuum from awareness to support to organ donor registration. The University of Wisconsin organ procurement organization collaborated with the Collegiate American Marketing Association on a 2-year grant funded by the US Health Resources and Services Administration. A total of 981 association members responded to an online questionnaire. The 5 antecedent measures were awareness of organ donation, need acknowledgment, benefits of organ donation, social support, and concerns about organ donation. The 2 consequence variables were support for organ donation and organ donation registration. Structural equation modeling indicated that 5 of 10 direct antecedent pathways led significantly into organ donation support and registration. The impact of the nonsignificant variables was captured via indirect effects through other decision variables. Model fit statistics were good: the goodness of fit index was .998, the adjusted goodness of fit index was .992, and the root mean square error of approximation was .001. This sequential decision-making model provides insight into the need to enhance the acceptance of organ donation and organ donor registration through a series of communications to move people from awareness to behavior.

  7. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Shroff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on

  8. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Sunil

    2009-07-01

    The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the

  9. Organ Donation and Elective Ventilation: A Necessary Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Organ transplantation is the sole treatment to improve or save the life of patients with final-stage organ failure. The shortage of available organs for transplantation constitutes a universal problem, estimating that 10% of patients on waiting lists die. Brain death is an undesirable result; nevertheless, it has beneficial side-effects since it is the most frequent source of organs for transplantation. However, this phenomenon is relatively uncommon and has a limited potential. One of the options that focuses on increasing organ donation is to admit patients with catastrophic brain injuries (with a high probability of brain death and nontreatable) to the Intensive Care Unit, with the only purpose of donation. To perform elective nontherapeutic ventilation (ENTV), a patient's anticipated willingness to donate organs and/or explicit acceptance by his/her relatives is required. This process should focus exclusively on those patients with catastrophic brain injuries and imminent risk of death which, due to its acute damage, are not considered treatable. This article defends ENTV as an effective strategy to improve donation rate, analyzing its ethical and legal basis. PMID:28182115

  10. Living and deceased organ donation should be financially neutral acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonico, F L; Martin, D; Domínguez-Gil, B; Muller, E; Jha, V; Levin, A; Danovitch, G M; Capron, A M

    2015-05-01

    The supply of organs—particularly kidneys—donated by living and deceased donors falls short of the number of patients added annually to transplant waiting lists in the United States. To remedy this problem, a number of prominent physicians, ethicists, economists and others have mounted a campaign to suspend the prohibitions in the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) on the buying and selling of organs. The argument that providing financial benefits would incentivize enough people to part with a kidney (or a portion of a liver) to clear the waiting lists is flawed. This commentary marshals arguments against the claim that the shortage of donor organs would best be overcome by providing financial incentives for donation. We can increase the number of organs available for transplantation by removing all financial disincentives that deter unpaid living or deceased kidney donation. These disincentives include a range of burdens, such as the costs of travel and lodging for medical evaluation and surgery, lost wages, and the expense of dependent care during the period of organ removal and recuperation. Organ donation should remain an act that is financially neutral for donors, neither imposing financial burdens nor enriching them monetarily. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Intensive care medicine and organ donation: exploring the last frontiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, D; Otero, J

    2015-01-01

    The main, universal problem for transplantation is organ scarcity. The gap between offer and demand grows wider every year and causes many patients in waiting list to die. In Spain, 90% of transplants are done with organs taken from patients deceased in brain death but this has a limited potential. In order to diminish organ shortage, alternative strategies such as donations from living donors, expanded criteria donors or donation after circulatory death, have been developed. Nevertheless, these types of donors also have their limitations and so are not able to satisfy current organ demand. It is necessary to reduce family denial and to raise donation in brain death thus generalizing, among other strategies, non-therapeutic elective ventilation. As intensive care doctors, cornerstone to the national donation programme, we must consolidate our commitment with society and organ transplantation. We must contribute with the values proper to our specialization and try to reach self-sufficiency by rising organ obtainment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Organ donation in adults: a critical care perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citerio, Giuseppe; Cypel, Marcelo; Dobb, Geoff J; Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Frontera, Jennifer A; Greer, David M; Manara, Alex R; Shemie, Sam D; Smith, Martin; Valenza, Franco; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-03-01

    The shortage of organs for transplantation is an important medical and societal problem because transplantation is often the best therapeutic option for end-stage organ failure. We review the potential deceased organ donation pathways in adult ICU practice, i.e. donation after brain death (DBD) and controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD), which follows the planned withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments (WLST) and subsequent confirmation of death using cardiorespiratory criteria. Strategies in the ICU to increase the number of organs available for transplantation are discussed. These include timely identification of the potential organ donor, optimization of the brain-dead donor by aggressive management of the physiological consequence of brain death, implementation of cDCD protocols, and the potential for ex vivo perfusion techniques. Organ donation should be offered as a routine component of the end-of-life care plan of every patient dying in the ICU where appropriate, and intensivists are the key professional in this process.

  13. Kidney organ donation: developing family practice initiatives to reverse inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Myfanwy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney transplantation is associated with greater long term survival rates and improved quality of life compared with dialysis. Continuous growth in the number of patients with kidney failure has not been matched by an increase in the availability of kidneys for transplantation. This leads to long waiting lists, higher treatment costs and negative health outcomes. Discussion Misunderstandings, public uncertainty and issues of trust in the medical system, that limit willingness to be registered as a potential donor, could be addressed by community dissemination of information and new family practice initiatives that respond to individuals' personal beliefs and concerns regarding organ donation and transplantation. Summary Tackling both personal and public inertia on organ donation is important for any community oriented kidney donation campaign.

  14. Public opinion and organ donation suggestions for overcoming barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarovich, Félix

    2005-01-01

    Getting organs for transplantation depends on people's decision; thus, public opinion is essential to finding a solution to this problem. Efforts to improve organ shortage focus on: 1) Living, unrelated donation, 2) increasing marginal donors and 3) proposing economic support for donors. Paradoxically, no initiative has been suggested to modify public opinion towards cadaver donors. Several reasons explain the resistance to donating cadaver organs: Lack of awareness, religious uncertainties, distrust of medicine, hostility to new ideas, and misinformation. Education should be used to reshape public opinion about the use of organs for transplantation. Society should accept that "using" body parts is moral and offers a source of health for everybody. The concept that using cadaver organs implies sharing a source of health might be a social agreement between all members of Society. Suggestions for improving organ shortage include: 1) Society should understand that during one's life one may be just as easily a potential organ receiver as one is an organ donor. 2) Cadaver organs are an irreplaceable source of health. 3) As self-interest is one obstacle to donating cadaver organs, the "concept that allowing the use of our organs after death represents a chance of sharing health for everybody" may be useful for a change of attitude. Even though a poll among transplant professionals supported this suggestion, an international public survey should be carried out to evaluate people's reaction to this message.

  15. Communicating Effectively about Organ Donation: A Randomized Trial of a Behavioral Communication Intervention to Improve Discussions about Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminoff, Laura A; Traino, Heather M; Genderson, Maureen Wilson

    2015-03-01

    Families' refusal to authorize solid organ donation contributes to the organ deficit in the United States. The importance of communication to reducing refusal to requests for solid organ donation at the bedside and thus increasing the supply of transplantable organs cannot be overstated. This research compares two versions of an innovative communication skills training program for Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) request staff, Communicating Effectively About Donation (CEaD), designed to improve the quantity and quality of organ donation discussions with family decision makers (FDM) of deceased patients. We conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial of the CEaD intervention, comparing an online only version of the training (CEaD1) with the online version bolstered with in-person practice and feedback (CEaD2). Survey and interview data were collected from 1,603 FDMs and 273 requesters to assess the impact of both versions of the CEaD on requesters' communication skills and behaviors; the rate of family authorization to solid organ donation were obtained from administrative data provided by 9 OPOs. Results revealed higher rates of authorization for requesters with less tenure (78% to 89%, p organ donation, and the overall quality of the donation experience.

  16. On harm thresholds and living organ donation: must the living donor benefit, on balance, from his donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nicola Jane

    2017-05-19

    For the majority of scholars concerned with the ethics of living organ donation, inflicting moderate harms on competent volunteers in order to save the lives or increase the life chances of others is held to be justifiable provided certain conditions are met. These conditions tend to include one, or more commonly, some combination of the following: (1) The living donor provides valid consent to donation. (2) Living donation produces an overall positive balance of harm-benefit for donors and recipients which cannot be obtained in a less harmful manner. (3) Donation is not liable to cause significant and long-term morbidity to, or the death of, the donor. This paper critically examines the suggestion that these criteria are not sufficient to offer a general account of justified living organ donation in the context of competent volunteers and that key to justified living organ donation is that donors receive sufficient benefits from their donation that these outweigh the harms they suffer. However, although this view-termed here 'The Donor Benefit Standard'-directs welcome attention to the many and complex motives which may underlie living organ donation, this paper ultimately concludes that given the threats this position poses to individual autonomy and the lives of those in need of organ transplants 'The Donor Benefit Standard' should ultimately be rejected.

  17. Comparing the effects of defaults in organ donation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of patients in many parts of the world to benefit from transplantation is limited by growing shortages of transplantable organs. The choice architecture of donation systems is said to play a pivotal role in explaining this gap. In this paper we examine the question how different defaults

  18. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public.

  19. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Registry data analysis shows stabilization of indicators of donor and transplant activity in 2011 after continuous growth within five years, increase in a share of effective donors after brain death and multi-organ explantation, development of thoracic organs transplantation and living related donor kidney transplantation. In the conditions of decentralization of organ donation and transplant programs it is necessary to develop coope- ration between transplant centers and to expand the practice of an interregional exchange of donor organs. The federal law «About bases of health protection of citizens in the Russian Federation», accepted in 2011, creates a legal basis for development and acceptance of the new legislation in the sphere of organ donation and transplantation. 

  20. Awareness and beliefs towards organ donation in chronic kidney disease patients in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balwani, Manish R; Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu; Shah, Pankaj R; Goswami, Jitendra; Ghule, Pravin; Shah, Maulin; Gattani, Vipul; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is a wide discrepancy between demand for and availability of donor organs for organ transplantation. There is no study on awareness about organ donation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in India. Objectives: To study the awareness and beliefs towards organ donation in CKD patients on hemodialysis in western India. Patients and Methods: Authors conducted a cross sectional study among 85 CKD patients to evaluate knowledge about and attitude towards organ donation at a tertiary hospital. Results: Age of respondents ranged from 15 to 75 years. All were aware of term organ donation and cadaver donation. About 47% of people heard about organ donation through hospital or from doctor. Strikingly, radio was not the source of information to any of the respondents, despite radio being one of the most common medium of mass communication. Almost one third of patients were unaware about any legislation regarding organ donation. All respondents felt that organs should go to the needy irrespective of their religion. About 70% feel that medical colleges should make decisions about organ donation in case of unclaimed dead bodies. About 31.76% believe that there is a danger that donated organs could be misused, abused or misappropriated. Conclusion: Our study shows about 31.76% of our participants believe that there is a danger that donated organs could be misused, abused or misappropriated. There seems to be paucity of information and awareness regarding organ donation among CKD patients. Mass media, religious and political leaders may be involved to maximize awareness about organ donation.

  1. Motivations for Deceased Organ Donation Among Volunteers in China: A Qualitative Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhike; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Liu, Jia

    2016-06-09

    BACKGROUND To align with guiding principles on human organ and tissue transplantation published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Red Cross Society of China (RCSC) launched a new nationwide organ donation program in 2010 to recruit organ donation volunteers. Despite severe shortage of donated organs, there is a very low rate of volunteering for organ donation among the Chinese population (only 0.03 donors per million population) in the national program. Motivating organ donation is the key to the success of organ transplantation in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Semi-structured 45- to 60-min interviews were conducted among 34 volunteers. Data analysis was performed with Nvivo 8.0 software. RESULTS Six motivations for organ donation were identified: helping others/altruism, fulfilling long-cherished wishes, reducing the burdens, making the best use of everything, giving back to society, and life extension. Factors affecting the motivation of organ donation among volunteers in China included traditional values, personal experiences, role model effect, family support, and problems in the donation system. Possible strategies to improve organ donation included fostering a scientific concept of the body and death, focusing donation promotion efforts on certain groups, and simplifying the process of organ donation. CONCLUSIONS There are multiple reasons for Chinese people to register for organ donation, with helping others as the central motivation.

  2. Ethical issues in living organ donation: donor autonomy and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spital, A

    2001-07-01

    Despite nearly 50 years of experience with living kidney donation, ethical questions about this practice continue to haunt us today. In this editorial I will address two of them: (1) Given the possibility of limited understanding and coercion, how can we be sure that a person who offers to donate an organ is acting autonomously? and (2) Do people have a right to donate? The universal requirement for informed consent is the traditional method for ensuring that a person is acting autonomously. But, while obtaining fully informed consent is desirable, it may not always be achievable or necessary. When the recipient is very dear to the potential donor, the donor may base his decision primarily on care and concern rather than on a careful weighing of risks and benefits. I will argue that consent that emanates from such deep affection should be considered just as valid as consent that is fully informed. But consent is not enough. There is no absolute right to donate an organ. If there were such a right, then some physician would be obligated to remove an offered organ upon request, regardless of the risks involved. I do not believe that physicians have such an obligation. Physicians are moral agents who are responsible for their actions and for the welfare of their patients. Therefore, while the values and goals of the potential donor should be given great weight during the decision-making process, physicians may justifiably refuse to participate in living organ donation when they believe that the risks for the donor outweigh the benefits.

  3. Organ Donation After Euthanasia in the Netherlands: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, A K S; van Westerloo, D J; Ringers, J

    2016-11-01

    In 2014, there was still a shortage of available organs for transplantation, and 1044 patients were waiting for an organ in the Netherlands. Maximizing the pool of organ donors is part of the solution. In 2001, the Dutch Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act was adopted, legalizing euthanasia under strict conditions. In 2010, 3136 reports were made of euthanasia and assisted suicide; in 2014, 5306 reports were made. Among them were patients with a desire to donate their organs after their deaths. Although a potential source of donor organs, only a few cases of organ donation after active euthanasia have been described. Since 2012, 16 combinations of these procedures have been performed in the Netherlands. The literature mentions 16 Belgian cases between 2005 and 2013. This limited number can be the result of lack of knowledge about this subject among healthcare professionals or because of practical, ethical, and/or legal considerations. Performing this combination has possible advantages, both in number as well as in transplantation outcomes. By describing a recent case in our center, we will try to outline the state of the art in the Netherlands and disseminate knowledge about the possibilities and limitations of organ donation after active euthanasia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Legal framework governing deceased organ donation in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D P T

    2012-01-01

    Laws and policies governing the use of organs for transplantation are evolving rapidly in response to sensitivity to ethical concerns and increasing shortages of transplantable organs. They are necessarily becoming increasingly detailed and complex. Professional practice will be enhanced by clear statements of current provisions, and the debates accompanying their formulation and evolution. This is necessarily a highly selective contribution, with focus on what are perceived to be the most critical items affecting contemporary deceased donation, apart from the meaning of death itself.

  5. Imagining the Impact of Different Consent Systems on Organ Donation: The Decisions of Next of Kin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppen, Remco; Friele, Roland D.; Gevers, Sjef K. M.; Van Der Zee, Jouke

    2010-01-01

    Next of kin play an important role in organ donation. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which explicitness of consent to organ donation by the deceased impacts the likelihood that next of kin will agree to organ donation of the deceased by using hypothetical cases. Results indicate that that people say they are more willing to…

  6. Donor designation: racial and ethnic differences in US nondesignators’ preferred methods for disclosing intent to donate organs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Purnell, Tanjala S; Powe, Neil R; Troll, Misty U; Wang, Nae‐Yuh; LaVeist, Thomas A; Ebony Boulware, L

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in preferred methods of disclosing deceased organ donation intentions among persons not previously designating their organ donation preferences publicly...

  7. Organ donation after assisted suicide: a potential solution to the organ scarcity problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M

    2014-08-15

    Switzerland has low deceased organ donation rates. It is also one of the few countries where assisted suicide is decriminalized in some circumstances. If organs donated by Swiss and foreign citizens assisted in committing suicide in Switzerland were used for transplantation, the country could achieve a surplus of organs. There are several practical problems and ethical and legal objections to this proposal, all of which can be overcome. Organ donation after planned death is a potential solution to the organ scarcity problem in any country that permits assisted dying.

  8. Organ donation among undocumented hispanic immigrants: an assessment of knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baru, Joshua S; Lucas, Brian R; Martinez, Carmen; Brauner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Undocumented immigrants can donate their organs, but lack access to organ transplantation.This challenges foundational principles of organ donation: fairness and informed consent. Little is known about undocumented immigrants' knowledge of barriers to their access to organ transplantation or how this might affect their decision to donate their organs. The study was performed in an urban, university-affiliated, safety-net hospital.We interviewed hospitalized patients who self-identified as undocumented immigrants and were unaware of having any contraindication to organ donation (for example, cancer). We first recorded their demographic characteristics and knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation. We then assessed the effects of informing participants about limits to their access to organ transplants on their willingness to donate. This group of 59 uninsured Hispanic immigrants had adequate knowledge about organ donation. Participants were suspicious about inequality within the medical system, but most were willing to donate their organs (74 percent). Most participants (74 percent) were aware that they would have to pay to receive an organ, but they dramatically underestimated the out-of-pocket expenses.Yet willingness to donate their organs was unaffected by participants being explicitly informed of the low likelihood that they would be able to afford to receive an organ transplant. Despite being well informed about the organ donation system, undocumented Hispanic immigrants underestimate the costs and overestimate their likelihood of receiving an organ. Even when they are given this information, they remain willing to donate their own organs.

  9. An antidote to the emerging two tier organ donation policy in Canada: the Public Cadaveric Organ Donation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, S

    2005-04-01

    In Canada, as in many other countries, there exists an organ procurement/donation crisis. This paper reviews some of the most common kidney procurement and allocation programmes, analyses them in terms of public and private administration, and argues that privately administered living donor models are an inequitable stopgap measure, the good intentions of which are misplaced and opportunistic. Focusing on how to improve the publicly administered equitable cadaveric donation programme, and at the same time offering one possible explanation for its current failure, it is suggested that the simple moral principle of "give and you shall receive", already considered by some, be extended further. This would allow for those who are willing to sign up to be a public cadaveric donor be given a priority for receiving an organ donation should they ever require it. It is argued that this priority may provide the motivation to give that is so far lacking in Canada. This model is called the Public Cadaveric Organ Donation Program.

  10. Investigation and Strategic Analysis of Public Willingness and Attitudes Toward Organ Donation in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Zheng, J; Liu, W; Ding, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, H; Zou, Y; Fu, Y

    2015-10-01

    China officially initiated deceased organ donation in 2010. Much progress has been made since then. However, compared with the developed countries in Europe and America, there is still a large gap. In this study, we investigate the willingness and attitude of the general public in East China and the factors that affect organ donation, and propose specific recommendations for promoting it. A simple and random sample was questioned. The data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 19.0 software, χ(2) test, and logistic regression. A total of 1200 questionnaires were issued; of these, 1105 were recovered, with 1074 effective questionnaires, for an effective rate of 89.5%. Among these, 426 respondents (39.7%) were willing to donate, 529 (49.3%) were in favor of donation but would not donate themselves; and 119 (11.1%) were against donation. Women (P organ donation (P organ donation. Reasons to hinder organ donation included imperfect laws and regulations, distrust on organ allocation, and insufficient promotion by relevant organizations. Much needs to be done to promote organ donation in China; targeted publicity will help to improve the work efficiency of organ donation; improvement of relevant policies and regulations, and establishment of a fair and transparent organ allocation system are key to the development of organ donation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The importance of education in the promotion of organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Ribeiro Morais

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation and human organ donation are controversial issues that have generated much interest and discussion. The lack of clarification and the sensationalist news about organ trafficking contribute to raise questions and render the myths and prejudices permanent.The donation of organs and tissues is seen by society in general, as an act of solidarity and love from the family. However, it requires decision-making at a time of extreme pain and distress, caused by the impact of breaking news of death, the feeling of loss and the unexpected interruption of a life course(1.As the criteria of death are modified, the concept of brain death arises, along with the possibility of using donor organs and tissues. When there is not a good understanding of the organ donation process, the relatives of potential donors feel apprehensive, doubtful and undecided at the time of occurrence, because it is a subject about which there hasn’t been much clarification(1.Brazil has the largest public transplants program in the world, since the government finances 92% of procedures done in the country. However, when we consider the rate of post mortem transplant into the population, Brazil’s results are little expressive(2.Family refusal is a major obstacle to the realization of transplants, and is also identified as major cause for the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation. Families who understand well the diagnosis of brain death are more favorable to organ donation, compared to families who believe that death only occurs after the heart stops. Therefore, the poor level of information, either by the quality of information concerning brain death, either by not having exceeded the barrier of stigmatized fear of organ trading, propagated by the media, drastically reduces the number of patients who are benefited from receiving an organ(3.Although all people are responsible for disseminating information, we must also educate health professionals, since

  12. Organ donation and priority points in Israel: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Muireann; Wright, Linda; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2012-05-27

    Israel's rates of organ donation have been one of the lowest among developed countries. An attempt to change this has led to the introduction of a pioneering new law, the Organ Transplant Act 2008, which came into effect in January 2010 and sets out principles underlying a new policy in relation to the allocation of organs for transplantation. According to this policy, a person can gain priority points by signing a donor card, making a nondirected organ donation during their lifetime, or as a result of a first-degree relative signing a donor card, or consenting to procurement of organs after death. In this opinion piece, we argue that although this approach merits attention for its innovative aspects and its potential benefits, it raises some ethical difficulties. In particular, we discuss some problems of justice and fairness inherent in the system, focusing on inequalities because of the (a) number of relatives one might have, (b) the type of living donation one makes, (c) the potential for strategic behavior, and (d) problems regarding the consent of family members.

  13. Independent organ donor facilities: The future of organ donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    more vasosuppressor support, which can be a study bias. It has been proposed that OPOs should organize "recovery teams" for multiple TCs but most transplant surgeons, in case of marginal donors, would like to inspect the organ prior to starting recipient surgery or would send their own team to harvest organs. According to literature, there are no other independent OFOs in US, probably because there is no need for them, and increasing their numbers would not increase organ donation rate. Considering Europe, we do not have information about the existence of independent OFOs: this may be a consequence of logistical organization and minor distances, as well as the higher concentration of TCs. However, the acceptance of such a procedure from donors' families may be less enthusiastic in Europe than in USA, particularly from minorities. In Italy would not be acceptable that the maintenance of BD donors and more generally the operation of independent OFO would rely on non-physicians, to save costs. Finally it is not clear from the reviewed papers who pay for transportation of the donor's body from the independent OFO back to home, but donor's family should not be charged for these expenses. At least 5 donors were lost during transportation, confirming that moving of BD donors remains a risky procedure. The potential economical and organizative benefits of independent OFOs could be counterweighted by the perceived (by relatives and public opinion) commodification/ reification of BD patients. Anyway, the authors of these papers should be congratulated for their innovative proposal. However, a prospective randomized trial would be needed to draw more definitive conclusions on the real benefits of independent OFOs.

  14. Gender differences in perceptions and attitudes of general population towards organ donation: An Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Sunitha, T S; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada

    2017-01-01

    Globally, shortage of organs available for organ transplantation is a major problem. Studies assessing awareness and attitudes towards organ donation are limited from India. The aim of this study is to assess gender differences in the perceptions and attitude of general population toward organ donation. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among randomly selected patient relatives (n = 193) at the outpatient department of a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Our findings revealed that majority of men than women were aware and in favor of promoting organ donation (χ2 = 10.428, P donate their organs after death (χ2 = 18.080, P organ donation card. There is an urgent need to uncover the myths and misconceptions of the general population toward organ donation. Further, healthcare providers and governmental and nongovernmental agencies should take active initiation in motivating the public to give their consent for organ donation.

  15. Risk Behavior and Reciprocity of Organ Donation Attitudes in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterli, D C M; Lava, S A G; Essig, S; Milosevic, G; Cajöri, G; Uehlinger, D E; Moor, M B

    2015-01-01

    Lack of donor organs remains a major obstacle in organ transplantation. Our aim was to evaluate (1) the association between engaging in high-risk recreational activities and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) the degree of reciprocity between organ acceptance and donation willingness in young men. A 17-item, close-ended survey was offered to male conscripts ages 18 to 26 years in all Swiss military conscription centers. Predictors of organ donation attitudes were assessed in bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. Reciprocity of the intentions to accept and to donate organs was assessed by means of donor card status. In 1559 responses analyzed, neither motorcycling nor practicing extreme sports reached significant association with donor card holder status. Family communication about organ donation, student, or academic profession and living in a Latin linguistic region were predictors of positive organ donation attitudes, whereas residence in a German-speaking region and practicing any religion predicted reluctance. Significantly more respondents were willing to accept than to donate organs, especially among those without family communication concerning organ donation. For the first time, it was shown that high-risk recreational activities do not influence organ donation attitudes. Second, a considerable discrepancy in organ donation reciprocity was identified. We propose that increasing this reciprocity could eventually increase organ donation rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Social media and organ donation: Ethically navigating the next frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M L; Clayville, K A; Fisher, J S; Kuntz, K K; Mysel, H; Purnell, T S; Schaffer, R L; Sherman, L A; Willock, E P; Gordon, E J

    2017-07-25

    As the organ shortage continues to grow, the creation of social media communities by transplant hospitals and the public is rapidly expanding to increase the number of living donors. Social media communities are arranged in myriad ways and without standardization, raising concerns about transplant candidates' and potential donors' autonomy and quality of care. Social media communities magnify and modify extant ethical issues in deceased and living donation related to privacy, confidentiality, professionalism, and informed consent, and increase the potential for undue influence and coercion for potential donors and transplant candidates. Currently, no national ethical guidelines have been developed in the United States regarding the use of social media to foster organ transplantation. We provide an ethical framework to guide transplant stakeholders in using social media for public and patient communication about transplantation and living donation, and offer recommendations for transplant clinical practice and future research. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Organ donation on Web 2.0: content and audience analysis of organ donation videos on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the content of and audience response to organ donation videos on YouTube, a Web 2.0 platform, with framing theory. Positive frames were identified in both video content and audience comments. Analysis revealed a reciprocity relationship between media frames and audience frames. Videos covered content categories such as kidney, liver, organ donation registration process, and youth. Videos were favorably rated. No significant differences were found between videos produced by organizations and individuals in the United States and those produced in other countries. The findings provide insight into how new communication technologies are shaping health communication in ways that differ from traditional media. The implications of Web 2.0, characterized by user-generated content and interactivity, for health communication and health campaign practice are discussed.

  18. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  19. 75 FR 873 - Extramural Support Reimbursement of Travel and Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... and Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... reimbursement for qualifying travel and subsistence expenses related to live organ donation. The existing... that donors incurred or will incur these additional expenses as a result of making living donations...

  20. Primary care physicians' attitudes and practices regarding discussing organ donation with their patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J Daryl; Curtis, J Randall; Allen, Margaret D

    2010-01-01

    Among the general population, discussing organ donation with a primary care provider may be associated with increased willingness to donate. However, the frequency with which primary care providers hold these discussions with their patients has not been reported. Cross-sectional mail and an Internet survey of validated questions regarding organ donation were done. A national sample of 831 primary care physicians. black, and Hispanic physicians were oversampled. Few physicians reported receiving formal training in donation (17%). Only 5% of physicians have donor cards available in their practice, and only 11% have donation information available in their practice. While 30% of physicians reported discussing end-of-life care with their patients, fewer than 4% reported discussing donation with their patients. However, only 36% felt that discussing donation was outside of their scope of practice. In a multivariate regression model, predictors of discussing donation with patients included having received formal education about organ donation (odds ratio [OR], 2.6; p end-of-life care with patients (OR, 12.8; p care physicians reported discussing organ donation with their patients despite the majority agreeing that it was within their scope of practice. Primary care physicians who had received education on the subject or who regularly discuss end-of-life care with their patients were more likely to discuss donation. Efforts to improve donation in the general population should include a focus on understanding and improving communication about organ donation between providers and their patients.

  1. Attitudes of young adults from the UK towards organ donation and transplantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coad, Laura; Carter, Noel; Ling, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    .... A minority of participants was aware of the proposed opt-out system for donation. The results from this study corroborate and extend previous work in that more participants were prepared to receive an organ than donate one...

  2. Organ Donation European Quality System: ODEQUS project methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyalich, M; Guasch, X; Gomez, M P; Páez, G; Teixeira, L

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the number of organ donors among hospitals cannot be explained only by the number of intensive care unit beds used or neurologic patients treated. The figures obtained are influenced by the organizational structure of the donation process and how efficient it is. The Organ Donation European Quality System (ODEQUS) is a 3-year project (from October 2010 to September 2013) co-financed by the European Agency for Health and Consumers (EAHC20091108) which aims to define a methodology to evaluate organ procurement performance at the hospital level. ODEQUS's specific objectives are to identify quality criteria and to develop quality indicators in three types of organ donation (after brain death, after cardiac death, and living donation). Those tools will be useful for hospitals' self-assessment as well as for developing an international auditing model. A consortium has been established involving 14 associated partners from Austria, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, as well as five collaborating partners from Greece, Hungary, Malta, Slovenia, and Turkey. The project has been established in three steps: 1) Design of a survey about the use of quality tools in a wide sample of European hospitals; 2) Development of quality criteria and quality indicators by the project experts. The main fields considered have been organizational structures, clinical procedures, and outcomes; and 3) Elaboration of an evaluation system to test the quality indicators in 11 European hospitals. Two types of training have been designed and performed: one concerns the development of quality criteria and quality indicators, whereas another is focused on how to use evaluation tools. Following this methodology, the project has so far identified 131 quality criteria and developed 31 quality indicators. Currently, the quality indicators are being tested in 11 selected hospitals.

  3. Where do human organs come from? Trends of generalized and restricted altruism in organ donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Hagai

    2011-11-01

    The supply of human organs for transplantation is undergoing a dramatic transformation. Using data from 30 countries for the years 1995-2007, this paper suggests that organ supply today is more dependent on direct donations than on the collective organ pool. This trend is analyzed by studying different modes of altruism: "generalized altruism" relates to the procurement of organs through a one-for-all collectivized system of donations whereas "restricted altruism" relates to one-to-one donations with organs considered personal gifts. The data suggest that transplants are becoming less and less social goods and more and more personal gifts. This trend is documented and discussed in light of the linkage that social scientists hypothesize between altruism and social solidarity. Whereas altruism is conceived as generating social solidarity, the rise in direct organ donations restricts the effect of altruism to one-to-one interactions rather than one-for-all giving.

  4. Awareness and attitudes towards organ donation among medical students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayedalamin, Zaid; Imran, Muhammad; Almutairi, Osama; Lamfon, Mohammed; Alnawwar, Majd; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2017-04-01

    To assess awareness and attitude of medical students about organ donation. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and comprised medical students. The participants were asked about their religious and other beliefs towards organ donation, their reasons for not donating organs, and their personal opinions about organ donation through a questionnaire. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Of the 481 participants, 250(52%) were females, and 231(48%) were males. The overall mean age was 21.36±1.63 years. Besides, 437(90.9%) students knew what organ donation means, 433(90%) supported organ donation, and 90(18.7%) knew someone who had donated an organ. Moreover, 245(50.9%) participants were willing to donate their organ to their family alone, 198(41.2%) were willing to donate to any deserving patient while 439(91.3%) rejected that religion precluded organ donation, and 354(73.6%) did not know about the grafting of organs from a man to a woman and vice versa. Awareness and attitude towards organ donation were not up to the mark among the participants.

  5. Attitudes toward organ donation among personnel from the University Hospital of Rabat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayou, Kaoutar; Kouam, Nada; Miara, H; Raoundi, O; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Benamar, Loubna; Bayahia, Rabiaa; Rhou, Hakima

    2016-01-01

    The medical staff could play a major role in promoting for organ donation. The aim of our study was to assess the attitudes of the medical staff toward organ donation. It is a prospective study conducted over a period of six months. A questionnaire was distributed and explained to the medical staff in our institute. Fifteen questions were designed to include four main themes: sociodemographic information, attitude toward organ donation, perceived knowledge about organ donation, and reasons for refusal or acceptance of organ donation. Among the 245 respondents, 36.3% had prior knowledge about organ transplantation, 31.8% knew about the law of organ donation, 43.2% had already donated blood sometimes, 65.7% expressed their consent to organ donation during their lifetime, and 82.8% expressed their agreement to donation after their death. The grounds for refusal were generally: a misunderstanding of risks, desire for respect of corpse. The religious and the ethical motive were present too as a ground for decision making. The medical staff is the key for organ donation. To promote organ transplantation, personnel should be well informed about ethical, moral, and religious dimensions of organ donation and transplantation.

  6. An assessment of advance relatives approach for brain death organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, Carine; Baumann, Antoine; Gregoire, Hélène; Laviale, Corinne; Audibert, Gérard; Ducrocq, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Advance announcement of forthcoming brain death has developed to enable intensivists and organ procurement organisation coordinators to more appropriately, and separately from each other, explain to relatives brain death and the subsequent post-mortem organ donation opportunity. Research aim: The aim was to assess how potentially involved healthcare professionals perceived ethical issues surrounding the strategy of advance approach. A multi-centre opinion survey using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in the six-member hospitals of the publicly funded East of France regional organ and tissue procurement network called 'Prélor'. The study population comprised 460 physicians and nurses in the Neurosurgical, Surgical and Medical Intensive Care Units, the Stroke Units and the Emergency Departments. Ethical considerations: The project was approved by the board of the Lorraine University Diploma in Medical Ethics and the Prélor Network administrators. A slight majority of 53.5% of respondents had previously participated in an advance relatives approach: 83% of the physicians and 42% of the nurses. A majority of healthcare professionals (68%) think that the main justification for advance relatives approach is the comprehensive care of the dying patient and the research of his or her most likely opinion (74%). The misunderstanding of the related issues by relatives is an obstacle for 47% of healthcare professionals and 51% think that the answer given by the relatives regarding the most likely opinion of the person regarding post-mortem organ donation really corresponds to the person opinion in only 50% of the cases or less. Time given by advance approach should be employed to help and enable relatives to authentically bear the values and interests of the potential donor in the post-mortem organ donation discussion. Nurses' attendance of advance relatives approach seems necessary to enable them to optimally support the families facing death and

  7. Transparency and accountability in mass media campaigns about organ donation: a response to Morgan and Feeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2013-11-01

    We respond to Morgan and Feeley's critique on our article "Mass Media in Organ Donation: Managing Conflicting Messages and Interests." We noted that Morgan and Feeley agree with the position that the primary aims of media campaigns are: "to educate the general public about organ donation process" and "help individuals make informed decisions" about organ donation. For those reasons, the educational messages in media campaigns should not be restricted to "information from pilot work or focus groups" but should include evidence-based facts resulting from a comprehensive literature research. We consider the controversial aspects about organ donation to be relevant, if not necessary, educational materials that must be disclosed in media campaigns to comply with the legal and moral requirements of informed consent. With that perspective in mind, we address the validity of Morgan and Feeley's claim that media campaigns have no need for informing the public about the controversial nature of death determination in organ donation. Scientific evidence has proven that the criteria for death determination are inconsistent with the Uniform Determination of Death Act and therefore potentially harmful to donors. The decision by campaign designers to use the statutory definition of death without disclosing the current controversies surrounding that definition does not contribute to improved informed decision making. We argue that if Morgan and Feeley accept the important role of media campaigns to enhance informed decision making, then critical controversies should be disclosed. In support of that premise, we will outline: (1) the wide-spread scientific challenges to brain death as a concept of death; (2) the influence of the donor registry and team-huddling on the medical care of potential donors; (3) the use of authorization rather than informed consent for donor registration; (4) the contemporary religious controversy; and (5) the effects of training desk clerks as organ

  8. Organ and tissue donation: what do high school students know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cristina de Lemos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To know the opinion of senior high school students in publicand private schools on the process of donating and transplanting organsand tissues, and their desire to be donors. Methods: A descriptive crosssectionalstudy, conducted from 2004 to 2005, on the opinion/knowledgeof senior high school students in public and private schools in the VilaMariana region of the city of São Paulo, on the process of organ and tissuedonation and transplantation. The convenience sample was made up of140 (81% students from two private schools and 167 (51% studentsfrom a public school. The project was approved by the Research EthicsCommittee of the UNIFESP. Results: Data showed that 163 (53.1%students believe that donation is by presumed consent and 147 (47.9%that consider that it occurs by informed consent. Of the public schoolstudents, 120 (71.9% believe that transplants are public and free ofcharge in Brazil versus 94 (67.1% of the students from private schools.Students know that donations may be made by living or dead donors(121 - 86.4% private schools versus 113 – 67.7% public school. Wehighlight that 22 (15.7% of the private school students and 16 (9.6%of those from the public school believe that the commerce of organs isallowed in Brazil. As to intentions of being a donor, 108 (77.1% of theprivate school students declared themselves organ and tissue donorsversus 106 (63.5% from the public school, and 63 (59.4% from thepublic versus 61 (56.5% from the private schools have already informedtheir families. Conclusion: There was no difference in knowledge andopinion among the students from the public and private schools as toaspects regarding donation and transplantation.

  9. Effects of a Video on Organ Donation Consent Among Primary Care Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J Daryl; Sullivan, Catherine; Albert, Jeffrey M; Cedeño, Maria; Patrick, Bridget; Pencak, Julie; Wong, Kristine A; Allen, Margaret D; Kimble, Linda; Mekesa, Heather; Bowen, Gordon; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2016-08-01

    Low organ donation rates remain a major barrier to organ transplantation. We aimed to determine the effect of a video and patient cueing on organ donation consent among patients meeting with their primary care provider. This was a randomized controlled trial between February 2013 and May 2014. The waiting rooms of 18 primary care clinics of a medical system in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. The study included 915 patients over 15.5 years of age who had not previously consented to organ donation. Just prior to their clinical encounter, intervention patients (n = 456) watched a 5-minute organ donation video on iPads and then choose a question regarding organ donation to ask their provider. Control patients (n = 459) visited their provider per usual routine. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who consented for organ donation. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients who discussed organ donation with their provider and the proportion who were satisfied with the time spent with their provider during the clinical encounter. Intervention patients were more likely than control patients to consent to donate organs (22 % vs. 15 %, OR 1.50, 95%CI 1.10-2.13). Intervention patients were also more likely to have donation discussions with their provider (77 % vs. 18 %, OR 15.1, 95%CI 11.1-20.6). Intervention and control patients were similarly satisfied with the time they spent with their provider (83 % vs. 86 %, OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.61-1.25). How the observed increases in organ donation consent might translate into a greater organ supply is unclear. Watching a brief video regarding organ donation and being cued to ask a primary care provider a question about donation resulted in more organ donation discussions and an increase in organ donation consent. Satisfaction with the time spent during the clinical encounter was not affected. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01697137.

  10. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

    2013-12-16

    In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China.

  11. Organ donation and utilization in the United States, 1999-2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, A S; Messersmith, E E; Ratner, L E; Kochik, R; Baliga, P K; Ojo, A O

    2010-01-01

    Despite the Organ Donation Breakthrough Collaborative's work to engage the transplant community and the suggested positive impact from these efforts, availability of transplanted organs over the past...

  12. Does organ donation legislation affect individuals' willingness to donate their own or their relative's organs? Evidence from European Union survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa-Font Joan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining adequately high organ donation rates proves essential to offering patients all appropriate and available treatment options. However, the act of donation is in itself an individual decision that requires a depth of understanding that interacts with the social setting and the institutional framework into which an individual is embedded. This study contributes to understanding factors driving organ donation rates by examining how country regulation, individuals' awareness of regulatory setting, social interactions and socio-demographic determinants influence individuals' willingness to donate their own organs or those of a relative. Methods We draw representative data from the Eurobarometer survey 58.2 undertaken in 2002 with respondents throughout the European Union to capture heterogeneity in institutional setting. We use logistic regression techniques to estimate the determinants of willingness to donate one's own organs and those of a deceased relative. We employ interaction terms to examine the relationship between institutional setting and respondent's awareness of organ donation legislation in their country. Results Our findings indicate that individuals are more likely to donate their organs than to consent to the donation of a relative's organs. Both decisions are affected by regulation (presumed consent, awareness of regulation and social interactions such as the ability to count on others in case of a serious problem (reciprocity. Furthermore, education (more educated, age (younger, expressing some sort of political affiliation determine willingness to donate one's own organs and consent to the donation of those of a relative. Conclusion This study confirms and develops further previous research findings that presumed consent organ donation policy positively affects the willingness of individuals to donate their own organs and those of relative by highlighting the importance of awareness of this regulation

  13. A Jurisprudential Study on Blood and Organ Donation after Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Mohaghegh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation and blood donation are the only way of life for many patients. They are considered as philanthropic methods and important indices for social obligation and participation. The issue of blood and organ donation of a person sentenced to death has close relation with the principles of Islamic jurisprudence. It is a lawful act for a Muslim to transplant by using his organs or the organs of animals and alive corpse of non-Muslim (provided that his life will not be in danger or he is satisfied in order to treat himself or to keep his life. But it is not a lawful act to use corpse of a Muslim except in emergencies so that it can save the life of another Muslim. According to religious and legal regulations, amputation of an alive human in order to transplant the amputated organ to his body or another persons` body is a lawful act provided that the donor of organ is satisfied or it is impossible to prepare an organ from other sources or transplantation is done wisely without any possibility of general breakdown or death. Execution of death penalty through organ donation is a new but influential issue to keep human life and health. Legitimacy of using this method requires exploring among jurisprudential decisions and thoughts. Famous Shi`as jurists believe that the method of execution of death penalty is not relevant and it should be done so that the least amount of suffering imposed on the body of malefactor. On the contrary, some other jurists believe that equivalence and resemblance in method of executing the judgment is depended on the committed crimes. These jurists believe that corporal integrity of the murderer will be fully authorized in the hands of blood avengers after commission of crime and they are fully authorized in execution of death penalty with regards to characteristics of committed crime. By accepting the viewpoint of these famous jurists, the necessity of equivalence and resemblance in circumstances of punishment

  14. Organ donation quality control in Abruzzo region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzanese, I; Maccarone, D; Caniglia, L; Pisani, F; Laurenzi, C; Famulari, A

    2006-05-01

    Abruzzo is a region in central Italy with a population of 1,262,392. Within this region there are 13 hospitals with intensive care units, four of which have neurosurgical units. The Regional Centre for Transplants in L'Aquila is notified of encephalic deaths in hospitals in Abruzzo and Molise and coordinates organ retrieval and transplantation. Organ donation is a process that involves a whole series of professionals who, operating in a sequential manner in each hospital, make possible the use of a cadaveric organ to give life to a person or improve the quality of life of a patient on a waiting list. Quality control procedures were introduced in 2001 and involve all of the hospitals in the region with intensive care units. The system for quality control was computerized in 2004 and is used in the four hospitals with neurosurgical units (type A hospitals) and in the 13 hospitals without (type B hospitals); the different types of deaths (cause of death, age, etc) are also analyzed with this system. One of the aims of this system is to discover the theoretical donation capacity, taking as benchmark values those resulting from the regional average and those published in international literature, and noting any shortcomings. It has emerged that donor identification is well organized and efficient and this is thanks to a concerted effort that has been made to overcome technical and organizational problems connected to donor detection and donor maintenance during the 6 hours of legal observation. The high percentage of opposition to organ removal, despite the fall registered in the first half of this year (2005), is still above the national average and still remains a critical point in the organ donation process.

  15. Breakdown in the Organ Donation Process and Its Effect on Organ Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Razdan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examines the effect of breakdown in the organ donation process on the availability of transplantable organs. A process breakdown is defined as a deviation from the organ donation protocol that may jeopardize organ recovery. Methods. A retrospective analysis of donation-eligible decedents was conducted using data from an independent organ procurement organization. Adjusted effect of process breakdown on organs transplanted from an eligible decedent was examined using multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression. Results. An eligible decedent is four times more likely to become an organ donor when there is no process breakdown (adjusted OR: 4.01; 95% CI: 1.6838, 9.6414; P<0.01 even after controlling for the decedent’s age, gender, race, and whether or not a decedent had joined the state donor registry. However once the eligible decedent becomes a donor, whether or not there was a process breakdown does not affect the number of transplantable organs yielded. Overall, for every process breakdown occurring in the care of an eligible decedent, one less organ is available for transplant. Decedent’s age is a strong predictor of likelihood of donation and the number of organs transplanted from a donor. Conclusion. Eliminating breakdowns in the donation process can potentially increase the number of organs available for transplant but some organs will still be lost.

  16. Factors influencing the family consent rate for organ donation in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, W; Allen, J; Manara, A R; Murphy, P G; Gardiner, D; Poppitt, E

    2016-09-01

    The refusal rate for organ donation in the UK is 42%, among the highest in Europe. We extracted data on every family approach for donation in UK ICUs or Emergency Departments between 1st April 2012 and 30th September 2013, and performed multiple logistic regression to identify modifiable factors associated with consent. Complete data were available for 4703 of 4899 approaches during the study period. Consent for donation after brain death was 68.9%, and for donation after circulatory death 56.5% (p donation in the approach were strongly associated with consent (p donation after circulatory death than for donation after brain death, even after accounting for the impact of prior knowledge of patients' wishes. Involvement of the specialist nurse in the approach, encouraging family discussions about donation wishes and promotion of the organ donor register are key strategies to increase UK consent rates, and are supported by this study.

  17. Effect of Organ Scandal on Corneal Donation Rate and Organ Donors at a German University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Daniel; Petersen, Peter; Yoeruek, Efdal; Thaler, Sebastian; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Tobias

    2017-07-11

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an organ transplantation scandal on the rate of corneal donations and organ donors at the University Hospital Tübingen. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from all hospital deaths from January 2012 to December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Each deceased patient was considered as a potential corneal donor. The corneal donor procurement was handled by an ophthalmic resident on a full-time basis with standard used unchanged set of procedures. Each patient who died due to cerebral complications was considered as a potential organ donor. During the two-year period, a German transplantation scandal occurred at the end of 2012 and received worldwide attention. The rates of corneal donation and organ donation in 2012 and 2013 were examined and evaluated. RESULTS Among the 1685 deceased patients, approval for corneal donation was received in 220 cases (13.1%): 124 cases (15.0%) in 2012 and 96 cases (11.2%) in 2013. This corresponds to a decline of 23%. The leading causes of nonfulfillment of corneal donations were refusal to donation: 401 cases (48.4%) in 2012 and 445 cases (52.0%) in 2013; and medical contraindications: 201 cases (24.2%) in 2012 and 212 cases (24.8%) in 2013. During the two-year period, consent for organ donation was obtained in 25 cases (1.5%): 15 cases (1.8%) in 2012 and 10 cases (1.2%) in 2013. The number of realized organ donors was 20 cases (1.2%): 12 cases (1.4%) in 2012 and 8 cases (0.9%) in 2013. This corresponds to a decline of 33%. CONCLUSIONS After a transplantation scandal, the number of realized corneal donors and realized organ donors decreased significantly. It seems that increasing professional performance is very important to gaining trust inside and outside the hospital and improving corneal and organ donation rate.

  18. Knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: a community-based study comparing rural and urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghanim, Saad Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural respondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counterparts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents' source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ donation and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this significant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.

  19. Regional Differences in Communication Process and Outcomes of Requests for Solid Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traino, H M; Molisani, A J; Siminoff, L A

    2016-12-16

    Although federal mandate prohibits the allocation of solid organs for transplantation based on "accidents of geography," geographic variation of transplantable organs is well documented. This study explores regional differences in communication in requests for organ donation. Administrative data from nine partnering organ procurement organizations and interview data from 1339 family decision makers (FDMs) were compared across eight geographically distinct US donor service areas (DSAs). Authorization for organ donation ranged from 60.4% to 98.1% across DSAs. FDMs from the three regions with the lowest authorization rates reported the lowest levels of satisfaction with the time spent discussing donation and with the request process, discussion of the least donation-related topics, the highest levels of pressure to donate, and the least comfort with the donation decision. Organ procurement organization region predicted authorization (odds ratios ranged from 8.14 to 0.24), as did time spent discussing donation (OR = 2.11), the number of donation-related topics discussed (OR = 1.14), and requesters' communication skill (OR = 1.14). Standardized training for organ donation request staff is needed to ensure the highest quality communication during requests, optimize rates of family authorization to donation in all regions, and increase the supply of organs available for transplantation.

  20. Physician perceptions about living organ donation in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S; Bromberg, M B; Gibson, S B

    2017-09-01

    Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) have expressed desire to become living organ donors but are unable to do so with current organ donation policies. Our objective is to assess ALS patient's interest in organ donation, and perceived concerns of this practice by ALS neurologists. An electronic survey was administered to ALS neurologists across the United States regarding living organ donation in ALS patients prior to respiratory failure. 52 complete responses were received from 121 invites. 67% (35/52) of neurologists expressed no concerns about living organ donation in ALS patients, and 33% had concerns. The concerns related to respiratory failure, anesthesia exposure and renal dysfunction. With their concerns addressed, 71% of neurologists reported that they would endorse living organ donation. 49% of neurologists reported being asked by a patient for information regarding living organ donation. ALS neurologists felt that 22.8% of ALS patients (median 19%) would be interested in learning more about organ donation, while only 6% of neurologists broach this subject with their patients. Our results indicate that 1 in every 4 ALS patients may be interested in exploring options for living organ donation, and this topic is not routinely addressed by ALS clinics. These results indicate an unexplored area of patient interest. To honor a patient's wishes to donate, the transplant community will have to accommodate living organ donation from terminally ill patients, and address neurologist concerns. Such a practice could benefit two groups of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: a community-based study comparing rural and urban populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghanim Saad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents′ source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.

  2. Organ donation education initiatives: A report of the Donor Management Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michetti, Christopher P; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Malinoski, Darren; Wright, Charles; Swanson, LeAnn

    2016-10-01

    It is essential that hospitals and health professionals establish systems to facilitate patients' organ donation wishes. Donation education has been neither standardized nor systematic, and resources related to donation processes have not been widely accessible. This report describes 2 free, publicly available educational resources about the organ donation process created to advance the mission of basic education and improve donation processes within hospitals and health care systems. Members of the Donor Management Task Force of the Organ Donation and Transplantation Alliance (the Alliance) and the Health Resources and Services Administration of the US Department of Health and Human Services convened annually in person and by teleconferencing during the year to develop 2 educational vehicles on organ donation. Two educational products were developed: the Organ Donation Toolbox, an online repository of documents and resources covering all aspects of the donation process, and the Educational Training Video that reviews the basic foundations of a successful hospital donation system. There is a need for more research and education about the process of organ donation as it relates to the medical and psychosocial care of patients and families before the end of life. The educational products described can help fill this critical need. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Family Initiated Discussions About Organ Donation at the Time of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R.; Cornell, Danielle L.; Krouse, Jennifer; Howard, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Some family members initiate organ donation discussions before being approached by donor coordinators or healthcare providers. We examined differences between families that did versus did not initiate organ donation discussions and factors predicting donation consent among those families that self-initiated the discussion. Next-of-kin of donor-eligible individuals (147 donors, 138 non-donors) from one organ procurement organization completed a telephone interview. Seventy-three families (25.6%) first mentioned organ donation, and 54 (74%) of them consented to donation. Several characteristics of the deceased and next-of-kin were associated with whether family members initiated the donation discussion with donation coordinators or healthcare providers. Also, family mention of donation was more likely to yield consent when the deceased was younger (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.92, 0.99), next-of-kin was a registered donor (OR = 3.86, CI = 2.84, 6.76), and when family was more satisfied with the healthcare team (OR = 1.20, CI = 1.04, 1.39). Knowing the deceased’s donation intentions and being exposed to positive organ donation messages are more likely to trigger families to raise donation with providers. OPOs and healthcare providers should work collaboratively to develop strategies for how best to respond to families who initiate this conversation. PMID:19788451

  4. Organ donation agency: A discourse analysis of correspondence between donor and organ recipient families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasiński, Dariusz; Sque, Magi

    2016-11-01

    Studies about the psychosocial issues concerning organ donation and transplantation tend to focus on the experiences of donor or recipient families. Little is known about the part played by correspondence exchanged between these two groups; in particular how they perceive the agency of organ donation. This is the first analysis to address the representation of the act of donation from the viewpoint of both donor and recipient families through interrogation of archived correspondence data, using linguistic techniques. The data was drawn from a collection of letters, from four USA organ procurement organisations, exchanged between donor and transplant recipient families. Donor families consistently linguistically ascribed agency and accountability for donation to the person who died, the donor. For the recipient families, on the other hand, the 'giver' was mainly implied, ambiguous or ascribed to the donor family.

  5. Organ donation after circulatory death in a university teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiropoulos, S; Treasure, E; Silvester, W; Opdam, H; Warrillow, S J; Jones, D

    2016-07-01

    Although organ transplantation is well established for end-stage organ failure, many patients die on waiting lists due to insufficient donor numbers. Recently, there has been renewed interest in donation after circulatory death (DCD). In a retrospective observational study we reviewed the screening of patients considered for DCD between March 2007 and December 2012 in our hospital. Overall, 148 patients were screened, 17 of whom were transferred from other hospitals. Ninety-three patients were excluded (53 immediately and 40 after review by donation staff). The 55 DCD patients were younger than those excluded (P=0.007) and they died from hypoxic brain injury (43.6%), intraparenchymal haemorrhage (21.8%) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (14.5%). Antemortem heparin administration and bronchoscopy occurred in 50/53 (94.3%) and 22/55 (40%) of cases, respectively. Forty-eight patients died within 90 minutes and proceeded to donation surgery. Associations with not dying in 90 minutes included spontaneous ventilation mode (P=0.022), absence of noradrenaline infusion (P=0.051) and higher PaO2:FiO2 ratio (P=0.052). The number of brain dead donors did not decrease over the study period. The time interval between admission and death was longer for DCD than for the 45 brain dead donors (5 [3-11] versus 2 [2-3] days; P<0.001), and 95 additional patients received organ transplants due to DCD. Introducing a DCD program can increase potential organ donors without reducing brain dead donors. Antemortem investigations appear to be acceptable to relatives when included in the consent process.

  6. Intellectuality and attitudes of clergy about organ donation in Turkey: metasynthesis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykas, A; Uslu, A; Doğan, S M

    2015-05-01

    In Turkey, donation rates remained low despite the efforts of the Religious Affairs Supreme Council. We sought to determine theological perspectives and behaviors of clergy and theology students toward organ donation. We conducted a systematic review and metaanalysis of observational studies. There were 2154 participants. Eighty-two percent stated Islam allows organ donation. Nineteen had organ donation card (donate organs themselves, 56% lacked sufficient knowledge. Twenty percent referred to school education and periodicals as the source of information. Sixty-nine percent were act as opinion leaders for organ donation. In curriculums of the Faculties of Theology, organ donation as a separate topic has not been found. No articles regarding organ donation have been published in theology journals in their 60-year publication history. A discrepancy exists between the resolutions of the Board of Religious Affairs and attitudes of clergy toward organ donation in Turkey. Theology faculties seem not to pay specific attention to this issue. The Directorate of Religious Affairs and the faculty of theology should meet at a common point immediately in terms of training programs and continuing education with strict audit in context of organ transplantation and donation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of knowledge and religion on organ donation as seen by immigrants in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupic, Ferid; Sayed-Noor, Arkan S; Fatahi, Nabi

    2016-08-08

    Transplantation of organs is one of the most successful medical advances of the past 60 years and transplantation is the treatment of choice for severe organ failure worldwide. Despite this situation, and the general acknowledgement of organ donation as a global priority, demand for organs outstrips supply in virtually every country in the world. The aim of the study was to elucidate factors that influence immigrant's decisions regarding organ donation. Data were collected through three group interviews using open-ended questions and qualitative content analysis. 32 participants, 16 men and 16 women from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, Lebanon and Kosovo participated in focus group interviews (FGI). Analysis of the collected data resulted in two main categories: 'Information about organ donation' and 'Religious aspects of organ donation and a number of subcategories'. Some of the influencing factors concerning organ donation were mainly related to limited information from society as well as limited information from healthcare professionals. Religious aspects, fear and prejudices about organ donation were other factors that mentioned by participants as hamper regarding organ donation. In order to improve immigrants' attitude towards organ donation, information about this issue and identification of the hampering factors, particularly culturally related factors such as the religious aspect, is essential. In this context, different intervention studies are needed to increase monitories groups' attitude towards organ donations. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Awareness and beliefs towards organ donation in chronic kidney disease patients in western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwani Manish R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a wide discrepancy between demand for and availability of donor organs for organ transplantation. There is no study on awareness about organ donation in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients in India. Objectives: To study the awareness and beliefs towards organ donation in CKD patients on hemodialysis in western India. Patients and Methods: Authors conducted a cross sectional study among 85 CKD patients to evaluate knowledge about and attitude towards organ donation at a tertiary hospital. Results: Age of respondents ranged from 15 to 75 years. All were aware of term organ donation and cadaver donation. About 47% of people heard about organ donation through hospital or from doctor. Strikingly, radio was not the source of information to any of the respondents, despite radio being one of the most common medium of mass communication. Almost one third of patients were unaware about any legislation regarding organ donation. All respondents felt that organs should go to the needy irrespective of their religion. About 70% feel that medical colleges should make decisions about organ donation in case of unclaimed dead bodies. About 31.76% believe that there is a danger that donated organs could be misused, abused or misappropriated. Conclusion: Our study shows about 31.76% of our participants believe that there is a danger that donated organs could be misused, abused or misappropriated. There seems to be paucity of information and awareness regarding organ donation among CKD patients. Mass media, religious and political leaders may be involved to maximize awareness about organ donation.

  9. Factors limiting deceased organ donation: focus groups' perspective from culturally diverse community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2010-06-01

    In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.

  10. [Results of a survey on organ donation and transplantation in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda-Romero, Luz Consuelo; García-García, Guillermo; Aguirre-Jaúregui, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate knowledge of and disposition towards organ and tissue donation for transplantation among the adult population of metropolitan Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. A survey was conducted by personal interview with street-recruited persons over 18 years of age using a 29-item questionnaire. Metropolitan Guadalajara was divided into four municipalities and a proportional number of interviews was assigned to each one based on number of inhabitants, socio-economic stratum, age and gender. Four hundred individuals were interviewed. Approximately 80% knew about organ donation and 65% knew that it was legal; however, only 24% had discussed the topic with their relatives. Seventy-one percent did not know how to donate organs and only 25% knew about organ donor cards. On the other hand, 66% were willing to donate, 16.5% would not donate and 17% were undecided. Bodily mutilation was the main reason (40%) given to not donate. 89% would authorize organ donation from a deceased relative, assuming the relative had previously expressed the desire to donate; on the contrary, only 29% would give such an authorization without their relative's prior consent. Finally, 65% considered the driver's license an adequate mean to express their desire to donate and 50% considered the information the mass media disseminated on the subject to be insufficient. The majority of the metropolitan Guadalajara population knew about organ donation and would be willing to donate their organs. However, a high percentage did not know how to donate and considered the information disseminated on the subject insufficient. An on-going mass media campaign could resolve this matter and hopefully increase organ donation among this population.

  11. Factors Associated With Medical and Nursing Students’ Willingness to Donate Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Tang, Li Yoong; Chong, Mei Chan; Mohd Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Abdullah, Nurhidayah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Malaysia suffers from a chronic shortage of human organs for transplantation. Medical and nursing students (MaNS) are future health professionals and thus their attitude toward organ donation is vital for driving national donation rates. This study investigates MaNS’ willingness to donate organs upon death and the factors influencing their willingness. A cross-sectional design was used with a sample of 500 students (264 medical and 236 nursing) at the University of Malaya. A self-administrated questionnaire was used. The responses were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. Of all respondents, 278 (55.6%) were willing to donate organs upon death, while the remaining 222 (44.4%) were unwilling to donate. Only 44 (8.8%) had donor cards. The multiple logistic regression revealed that the minorities ethnic group was more willing to donate organs than Malay respondents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.98, P = 0.010). In addition, medical students were more willing to donate than nursing students (aOR = 2.53, P = 0.000). Respondents who have a family member with a donor card were more willing to donate than respondents who do not (aOR = 3.48, P = 0.006). MaNS who believed that their religion permits deceased donation were more willing to donate than their counterparts (aOR = 4.96, P = 0.000). Household income and sex were not significant predictors of MaNS’ willingness to donate organs upon death. MaNS have moderate willingness, but low commitment toward deceased organ donation. Strategies for improving MaNS’ attitude should better educate them on organ donation, targeting the most the Malay and nursing students, and should consider the influence of family attitude and religious permissibility on MaNS’ willingness. PMID:27015207

  12. Factors Associated With Medical and Nursing Students' Willingness to Donate Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Tang, Li Yoong; Chong, Mei Chan; Mohd Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Abdullah, Nurhidayah

    2016-03-01

    Malaysia suffers from a chronic shortage of human organs for transplantation. Medical and nursing students (MaNS) are future health professionals and thus their attitude toward organ donation is vital for driving national donation rates. This study investigates MaNS' willingness to donate organs upon death and the factors influencing their willingness. A cross-sectional design was used with a sample of 500 students (264 medical and 236 nursing) at the University of Malaya. A self-administrated questionnaire was used. The responses were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. Of all respondents, 278 (55.6%) were willing to donate organs upon death, while the remaining 222 (44.4%) were unwilling to donate. Only 44 (8.8%) had donor cards. The multiple logistic regression revealed that the minorities ethnic group was more willing to donate organs than Malay respondents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.98, P = 0.010). In addition, medical students were more willing to donate than nursing students (aOR = 2.53, P = 0.000). Respondents who have a family member with a donor card were more willing to donate than respondents who do not (aOR = 3.48, P = 0.006). MaNS who believed that their religion permits deceased donation were more willing to donate than their counterparts (aOR = 4.96, P = 0.000). Household income and sex were not significant predictors of MaNS' willingness to donate organs upon death. MaNS have moderate willingness, but low commitment toward deceased organ donation. Strategies for improving MaNS' attitude should better educate them on organ donation, targeting the most the Malay and nursing students, and should consider the influence of family attitude and religious permissibility on MaNS' willingness.

  13. Deceased organ donation for transplantation: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlanda, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation saves thousands of lives every year but the shortage of donors is a major limiting factor to increase transplantation rates. To allow more patients to be transplanted before they die on the wait-list an increase in the number of donors is necessary. Patients with devastating irreversible brain injury, if medically suitable, are potential deceased donors and strategies are needed to successfully convert them into actual donors. Multiple steps in the process of deceased organ donation can be targeted to increase the number of organs suitable for transplant. In this review, after describing this process, we discuss current challenges and potential strategies to expand the pool of deceased donors. PMID:27683626

  14. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.

  15. Relationships between Islamic religiosity and attitude toward deceased organ donation among American Muslims: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Zaganjor, Hatidza

    2014-06-27

    Religion-rooted beliefs and values are often cited as barriers to organ donation among Muslims. Yet how Islamic religiosity relates to organ donation attitude among Muslims is less studied. Using a community based participatory research approach, we recruited adults from mosque communities to self-administer a questionnaire assessing levels of Islamic religiosity, attitude toward deceased organ donation, and sociodemographic descriptors. Of the 97 respondents, there were nearly equal numbers of men and women. Over a third were Arab American (n=36), and nearly a quarter were either South Asian (n=23) or African American (n=25). Respondents viewing difficulties in life as punishment from God had a decreased odds of believing deceased organ donation to be justified (OR 0.85, Preligiosity, such as intrinsic religiosity, positive religious coping and one related to following Islamic ethical guidelines, were not associated with organ donation attitude. Arab Muslims were more likely to believe deceased organ donation to be justified than South Asian or African Americans (OR 7.06, Preligiosity or adherence to Islamic ethics do not appear to associate with negative attitudes toward deceased organ donation. Negative religious coping appears, however, to be related to lower rates of believing deceased organ donation to be justified. Future studies with larger samples that incorporate additional measures of religiosity can further clarify relationships between religiosity and organ donation attitude among Muslim communities.

  16. Mass media, online social network, and organ donation: old mistakes and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykas, A; Uslu, A; Şimşek, C

    2015-05-01

    Contrary to TV programs projecting awareness about organ donation in society, concrete evidence exists about adverse influence of negative broadcasts on organ donation rates. We sought to determine the effect of mass media on public opinion toward organ donation and the efficacy of public campaigns and novel social media attempts on donation rates. We conducted a systematic review of relevant literature and national campaign results. Hoaxes about brain death and organ transplantation adversely affect organ donation rates in both Western and Eastern societies. Scientifically controversial and exaggerated press conferences and institutional advertisements create mistrust in doctors, thus reducing organ donation. The overall effect of public education campaigns in promoting organ donation is a temporary 5% gain. Increments in organ donation rates is expected with novel applications of social media (Facebook effect). Communication, based on mutual trust, must be established between medicine and the media. Continuing education programs with regard to public awareness on organ donation should be conducted over social media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Truthfulness in transplantation: non-heart-beating organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Michael

    2007-08-24

    The current practice of organ transplantation has been criticized on several fronts. The philosophical and scientific foundations for brain death criteria have been crumbling. In addition, donation after cardiac death, or non-heartbeating-organ donation (NHBD) has been attacked on grounds that it mistreats the dying patient and uses that patient only as a means to an end for someone else's benefit.Verheijde, Rady, and McGregor attack the deception involved in NHBD, arguing that the donors are not dead and that potential donors and their families should be told that is the case. Thus, they propose abandoning the dead donor rule and allowing NHBD with strict rules concerning adequate informed consent. Such honesty about NHBD should be welcomed.However, NHBD violates a fundamental end of medicine, nonmaleficience, "do no harm." Physicians should not be harming or killing patients, even if it is for the benefit of others. Thus, although Verheijde and his colleages should be congratulated for calling for truthfulness about NHBD, they do not go far enough and call for an elimination of such an unethical procedure from the practice of medicine.

  18. Truthfulness in transplantation: non-heart-beating organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potts Michael

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current practice of organ transplantation has been criticized on several fronts. The philosophical and scientific foundations for brain death criteria have been crumbling. In addition, donation after cardiac death, or non-heartbeating-organ donation (NHBD has been attacked on grounds that it mistreats the dying patient and uses that patient only as a means to an end for someone else's benefit. Verheijde, Rady, and McGregor attack the deception involved in NHBD, arguing that the donors are not dead and that potential donors and their families should be told that is the case. Thus, they propose abandoning the dead donor rule and allowing NHBD with strict rules concerning adequate informed consent. Such honesty about NHBD should be welcomed. However, NHBD violates a fundamental end of medicine, nonmaleficience, "do no harm." Physicians should not be harming or killing patients, even if it is for the benefit of others. Thus, although Verheijde and his colleages should be congratulated for calling for truthfulness about NHBD, they do not go far enough and call for an elimination of such an unethical procedure from the practice of medicine.

  19. The principles of gift law and the regulation of organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Alexandra K

    2011-04-01

    The principles of gift law establish a consistent international legal understanding of consent to donation under a range of regulatory systems. Gift law as the primary legal principle is important to both the foundation of systems that prevent organ sales and the consideration of strategies to increase organ donation for transplantation. © 2011 The Author. Transplant International © 2011 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  20. The role of affect in attitudes toward organ donation and donor-relevant decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van de; Manstead, A.S.R.; Pligt, J. van der; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    We argue that affect plays a vital role in attitudes toward organ donation and that reluctance to become an organ donor is likely to be related to the experience of affective ambivalence. Assessing the affect associated with organ donation could help to predict donor-relevant decisions. Results of a

  1. The effect of education on the attitude of medical students towards organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunz, Sonia; Juntermanns, Benjamin; Heuer, Matthias; Frühauf, Nils R; Paul, Andreas; Kaiser, Gernot M

    2012-01-01

    The persisting shortage of organs for transplantation could be reduced by increasing the willingness to donate organs. An appropriate education and a positive attitude of medical students and future physicians towards organ donation may have a positive impact on the attitudes of the general public. During the summer semester 2010 we conducted a voluntary educational intervention study concerning organ donation among medical students in the course of the main surgery lecture at the University of Essen, Germany. The survey comprised 94 questionnaires. At the beginning of the lecture there were 67% of organ donor card carriers among the students. An additional 20% imagined they might carry an organ donor card in the future. 37% needed more information regarding organ donation. After the lecture 13% were still not willing to carry an organ donor card in the future. 18% of the students required further information. 42% of the students rated their attitude towards organ donation to be influenced positively by the lecture, 57% of the students stated there was no influence. One student documented a negative influence by the lecture towards organ donation. Well-directed interventions are needed to sensitize young adults to the topic of organ donation. Better understanding of medical students and future physicians in the field of organ donation will help them to become disseminators for this important topic in our society.

  2. Organ donation and pre-emptive kidney transplantation: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that pre-emptive transplants have several clinical advantages. However, pre-emptive transplants raise a number of ethical issues. Pre-emptive transplants from living donors offer distinctly greater benefits than those from deceased donors and some pre-emptive transplantation programmes actively encourage living organ donations. Moreover, the offer of a pre-emptive transplant to a patient who is not yet on dialysis unquestionably penalises patients already on dialysis who may have been on the waiting list for a long time. Therefore preemptive transplants give rise to conflicts between justice and utility. Several factors should be considered: health conditions, clinical urgency, probability of imminent worsening of a patient's clinical condition, the future chances of finding a matching organ, and others. From the various values at stake, ethical issues are analysed in search of an acceptable synthesis.

  3. Development of a scale to measure African American attitudes toward organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnicow, Ken; Andrews, Ann M; Zhang, Nanhua; Chapman, Remonia; Beach, Denise K; Langford, Aisha T; Goodwin, Nancy; Magee, John C

    2012-04-01

    African American attitudes toward organ donation differ from other racial and ethnic groups. However, existing measures of organ donation attitudes do not adequately address ethnic identity and cultural factors. We examined the psychometric properties of a new 18-item organ donation scale among 1225 members of 21 African American churches in Southeast Michigan. We identified three factors: (1) Barriers; (2) Family/Race Benefits; and (3) Altruism. More positive donation attitudes on each subscale were observed for individuals who reported being enrolled as a donor. Among individuals not enrolled, higher scores were observed on scales two and three for those with stronger intentions to enroll.

  4. Consent on cadaveric organ donation in Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation often presents the only way for efficient treatment of various diseases. According to current legal regulations, in order to use an organ of a deceased person for transplantation, it is necessary that the decedent gave written consent ("opting out model" before death. Under certain circumstances, that consent could be given by close relatives of the decedent, in case that the decedent had not previously explicitly declared that he was against it. These legal regulations do not ensure efficient allocation of scarce goods but they create great social costs. If a legislator accepted "opting in model", the basic assumption for efficient allocation and increase of social welfare would be provided. The first part of the paper presents the legal framework for organ donation in the Republic of Serbia. The problem of insufficient supply of organs is elaborated in the second part. The third part of the paper contains attempts to increase the level of supply of organs through the promotion of transplantation. In the fourth part of the paper, the effects of different legal solutions are compared, and those are opt-in and opt-out models. The fifth section offers an analysis of criminal-law protection in the area of organ transplantation and its effects on potential organ donors.

  5. The organ donor family members' perception of stressful situations during the organ donation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what the individual organ/tissue donor family members appraised as most stressful during the anticipation, confrontation and post-confrontation stages of the organ-donation process. The Lazarus and Folkman stress and coping theory guided the development and interpretation of the study. Family members who had lost a loved one suddenly and consented to donation in 1988 were interviewed. Data were analysed by means of content analysis. Findings showed that family members appraised different types of stressful situations during the three stages. The most frequently reported stressful situations centred around the threat of losing a loved one, confirmation of brain death, failure of the health professionals to identify the loved one as a potential donor and to approach the family regarding organ donation, and adjusting to the many changes associated with the loss. Significantly, five families requested donation, while two readily consented when approached. All family members reported that organ donation had helped with their grief. The findings of this study contribute to the development of knowledge required to guide nursing interventions to provide sensitive care to donors and their families.

  6. Attitudes and behaviors regarding organ donation: a study on officials of religion in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güden, Emel; Cetinkaya, Fevziye; Naçar, Melis

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the attitudes and behaviors of religious scholars regarding organ donation and transplantation. In this study, 540 officials working in the Department of Religious Affairs in Kayseri, Turkey, were included. Overall, 86.6% response rate (n = 468) was achieved. Although a majority of the officials of religion in this study stated that they believed in the importance of organ donation (90.8%), the rate of considering donation (57.9%) and the donation rate (1.1%) were found to be substantially low. There is a difference between the employment status and willingness to donate organs. The rate of willingness to donate was significantly high in men than women. And also was high in imams and preachers. Regarding the sources of information, the majority of the respondents (70.0%) cited mass media. Overall, 15.3% cited school education and 42.0% religious publications. The most common question (83.1%) that was asked was "whether or not organ donation was suitable for Muslim religious". Our study revealed that although the research groups have positive ideas about organ donation and transplantation, their role was low in informing and motivating people about organ donation and transplantation.

  7. Organ Donation in Switzerland - An Analysis of Factors Associated with Consent Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Isabelle; Immer, Franz F.; Jüni, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Switzerland has a low post mortem organ donation rate. Here we examine variables that are associated with the consent of the deceased’s next of kin (NOK) for organ donation, which is a prerequisite for donation in Switzerland. Methods and Analysis During one year, we registered information from NOK of all deceased patients in Swiss intensive care units, who were approached for consent to organ donation. We collected data on patient demographics, characteristics of NOK, factors related to the request process and to the clinical setting. We analyzed the association of collected predictors with consent rate using univariable logistic regression models; predictors with p-values donation, and respecting personal values and cultural differences, could be of importance for increasing donation rates. Additional measures are needed to address the pronounced differences in consent rates between language regions. PMID:25208215

  8. Voluntary organ donation system adapted to Chinese cultural values and social reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian

    2015-04-01

    Organ donation and transplant systems have unique characteristics based on the local culture and socioeconomic context. China's transplant and organ donation systems developed without regulatory oversight until 2006 when regulation and policy were developed and then implemented over the next several years. Most recently, the pilot project of establishing a voluntary citizen-based deceased donor program was established. The pilot program addressed the legal, financial, and cultural barriers to organ donation in China. The pilot program has evolved into a national program. Significantly, it established a uniquely Chinese donor classification system. The Chinese donor classification system recognizes donation after brain death (category I), donation after circulatory death (category II), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (category III). Through August 2014, the system has identified 2326 donors and provided 6416 organs that have been allocated though a transparent organ allocation system. The estimated number of donors in 2014 is 1147. As China's attitudes toward organ donation have matured and evolved and as China, as a nation, is taking its place on the world stage, it is recognizing that its past practice of using organs from executed prisoners is not sustainable. It is time to recognize that the efforts to regulate transplantation and provide voluntary citizen-based deceased organ donation have been successful and that China should use this system to provide organs for all transplants in every province and hospital in China. At the national organ transplant congress on October 30, 2014, the Chairman of the China's national organ donation and transplantation committee, Jeifu Huang required all hospitals to stop using organs from executed prisoners immediately and the civilian organ donation will be sole source for organ transplant in China starting January 2015. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. [Organ and tissue donation and transplantation: three health care centers' attitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Sáenz, Elda Karina; Narváez-Navarro, Ángel Gustavo; Hernández-López, Ana Cecilia; Saucedo, Judith Bello; Ruiz-Cantú, Griselda; Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Guevara-Martínez, María Del Carmen; Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda Elsa; Pérez-Rodríguez, Edelmiro; Hernández-Guedea, Marco Antonio; Zapata-Chavira, Homero; Guevara-Charles, Asdrúbal; Perales-Quintana, Marlene Marisol; Escobedo-Villarreal, Miguel Mariano

    To assess the knowledge and attitude towards organ donation within health professionals in different institutions of Nuevo Leon. A prospective, open, observational, descriptive study of parallel groups, through application of a survey formulated by the Hospital Universitario (HU) "Dr. José Eleuterio González". We applied 208 surveys in the HU (n = 100) and other institutions like IMSS, ISSTE (n = 108). From all the participants, 86% had a positive attitude towards organ donation, associated to a higher education, and information regarding organ donation received by other health professionals. Though having a positive attitude toward organ donation, 14% of health professionals don't support it due to being afraid of not receiving medical assistance, knowing their status of donators, religious reasons, and fear of organ trafficking. Our study shows that, even within the health professionals, there is a need for information regarding organ donation. A well-instructed health professional shows a higher interest in organ donation; this could have a positive impact in the attitude of the population toward organ donation, as well as in the obtainment of organs inside the medical institutions.

  10. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs.

  11. Click to "like" organ donation: the use of online media to promote organ donor registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanone, Michael; Anker, Ashley E; Evans, Melanie; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2012-06-01

    Efforts to promote organ donation have traditionally relied on mass-mediated or interpersonal communication to promote donor registration. Despite its popularity, the use of online media has yet to be carefully evaluated as a platform to promote organ donation. To describe results of an intervention to promote donor registration that relies solely on online media to communicate to target audiences. For 3 years, 6 campaigns were implemented in 3 different online media formats. Online media formats included (1) traditional online advertising, (2) student seeders' social networking sites campaigns, and (3) challenge campaigns. Online media campaigns primarily targeted college-aged individuals.Intervention-Each campaign directed individuals to the dedicated project website, where they could access educational material about donation and request a donor registration card. Unique website visitors, webpages viewed per site visit, time spent on site, and organ donor cards requested/received were tracked in relation to each online media format. Traditional online advertising offered greater message exposure but failed to result in a higher proportion of website visitors who registered their donation intentions. Use of student seeders (ie, motivated students who promote donation by using social networking sites) and challenge campaigns resulted in greater attention to the project website, donor card requests, and subsequent returns. Additional research is recommended to reveal the effect of combining 2 or more varying online media formats within a single campaign.

  12. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Lawan, Umar M; Abubakar, Mustapha; Adamu, Bappa

    2014-01-01

    Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF) requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6%) reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88), marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1), religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10) and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35) were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%), children (21.3%), spouses (14.6%) and other relatives (13.4%). Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%), moral obligation (21.4%) and compassion (11.9%), among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.

  13. PERCEPTIONS OF MEDICAL STUDENTS IN A GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE TOWARDS ORGAN DONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : Organ transplantation is considered one of the greatest advances of modern science that has given many patients a renewed lease of life. Assessing the medical student’s knowledge, attitude and perception regarding organ donation is very importan t for future organ supply as they are the future doctors who needs to motivate the public to pledge their organs for donation. AIM & OBJECTIVES : 1 To study the knowledge and attitude of the medical students towards organ donation. 2 To understand the per ceptions of medical students regarding organ donation. STUDY DESIGN : A cross sectional study of descriptive nature. STUDY SETTING : Study was conducted at Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. METHODS AND MATERIAL S : The study was done among 123 medical stu dents of 9 th semester using a semi - structured questionnaire. Knowledge was assessed by giving score to the responses. Those obtaining a score of 50% or above were considered as having adequate knowledge. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Data was entered in MS excel and analysed using SPSS student version 21 . RESULTS : Overall 56 % of students were found to have adequate knowledge. Around one fourth of the study population knew about the various organs which can be donated (26% and about t he minimum duration of organ survival (27.6%. Around 48.8% students showed positive attitude towards organ donation and wanted to donate their organs. CONCLUSION : It has been found in the study about the gaps in the knowledge levels of medical students ab out organ donation. These findings draw attention to a need to review medical school curricula to ensure that they contain sufficient teaching on organ donation, with a focus on information needed by physicians to maximize donation rates. This can be utili zed as a strategy for the shortage of donor organs for transplantation

  14. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubairu Iliyasu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6% reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05. Most respondents, 303 (79.1%, were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88, marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1, religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10 and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35 were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%, children (21.3%, spouses (14.6% and other relatives (13.4%. Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%, moral obligation (21.4% and compassion (11.9%, among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.

  15. 38 CFR 1.485a - Eye, organ and tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye, organ and tissue donation. 1.485a Section 1.485a Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.485a Eye, organ and tissue donation. A...

  16. Attitude Toward Death, Fear of Being Declared Dead Too Soon, and Donation of Organs After Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessing, Dick J.; Elffers, Henk

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.…

  17. Elective ventilation for organ donation: law, policy and public ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, John

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines questions concerning elective ventilation, contextualised within English law and policy. It presents the general debate with reference both to the Exeter Protocol on elective ventilation, and the considerable developments in legal principle since the time that that protocol was declared to be unlawful. I distinguish different aspects of what might be labelled elective ventilation policies under the following four headings: 'basic elective ventilation'; 'epistemically complex elective ventilation'; 'practically complex elective ventilation'; and 'epistemically and practically complex elective ventilation'. I give a legal analysis of each. In concluding remarks on their potential practical viability, I emphasise the importance not just of ascertaining the legal and ethical acceptability of these and other forms of elective ventilation, but also of assessing their professional and political acceptability. This importance relates both to the successful implementation of the individual practices, and to guarding against possible harmful effects in the wider efforts to increase the rates of posthumous organ donation.

  18. [Determination of brain death in organ donation: is EEG required?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanje, Erwin J O; Epker, Jelle L; de Groot, Yorick J; Wijdicks, Eelco F M; van der Jagt, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The determination of brain death is a prerequisite of multiple organ donation in ventilated patients in the ICU. The criteria for brain death differ internationally. In some countries, brain stem death is equivalent to brain death. In others, including the Netherlands, in addition to the determination of brain stem death, an EEG must also be carried out to rule out cortex activity according to the criteria of "whole brain death". However, this does not prove that there is complete failure of all brain functions; indeed, EEG does not examine the subcortical brain. The Dutch Health Board has established that brain death is ruled out by rest activity in the cortex, but not by persistent subcortical activity. This is conceptually incorrect. The criteria for brain stem death fit better in practice than the criteria for whole brain death. Taking an EEG should therefore no longer be an obligation in establishing brain death, as is the case in many other countries.

  19. Conductivity Modifications of Graphene by Electron Donative Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masujima, Hiroaki; Mori, Takehiko; Hayamizu, Yuhei

    2017-03-01

    Graphene has been studied for the application of transparent electrodes in flexible electrical devices with semiconductor organics. Control of the charge carrier density in graphene is crucial to reduce the contact resistance between graphene and the active layer of organic semiconductor. Chemical doping of graphene is an approach to change the carrier density, where the adsorbed organic molecules donate or accept electrons form graphene. While various acceptor organic molecules have been demonstrated so far, investigation about donor molecules is still poor. In this work, we have investigated doping effect in graphene field-effect transistors functionalized by organic donor molecules such as dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF), hexamethyltetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF), 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN), and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD). Based on conductivity measurements of graphene transistors, the former three molecules do not have any significant effect to graphene transistors. However, TMPD shows effective n-type doping. The doping effect has a correlation with the level of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of each molecule, where TMPD has the highest HOMO level.

  20. Organ donation as an outcome of traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest: A cost evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Katie M; Brown, Joshua B; Harbrecht, Brian G; Muldoon, Susan B; Miller, Keith R; Benns, Matthew V; Smith, Jason W; Baker, Christopher E; Franklin, Glen A

    2016-05-01

    Survival after traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest (TCPA) is rare and requires significant resource expenditure. Organ donation as an outcome of TCPA resuscitation has not yet been included in a cost analysis. The aims of this study were to identify variables associated with survival and organ donation after TCPA, and to estimate the cost of achieving these outcomes. We hypothesized that the inclusion of organ donation as a potential outcome would make TCPA resuscitation more cost-effective. Adult patients who required resuscitation for TCPA at a level I trauma center were retrospectively reviewed over 36 months. Data were obtained from medical records, hospital accounting records, and the local organ procurement agency. Outcomes included survival to discharge, neurologic function, and organ donor eligibility. An individual-level state-transition cost-effectiveness model was used to evaluate the cost of TCPA resuscitation with and without organ donation included as an outcome. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated to determine additional cost per life saved when organ donation is included. Over the study period, 8,932 subjects were evaluated. Traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest occurred in 237 patients (3%). The mortality rate was 97%. Variables associated with survival included emergency department disposition to the operating room (p organ donation with a procurement rate of 2%. Organ donor eligibility was associated with arrest after arrival to the emergency department (p donation was $538,000. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $76,816 per additional life saved including donation as an outcome. The decision to pursue resuscitation should continue to be based on the presence of signs of life, especially pupil reactivity and duration of arrest. If the primary objective is survival, organ procurement will be maximized without conflict of interest. Early fresh frozen plasma transfusion may increase successful organ donation. The financial burden

  1. Clinicians' Perception and Experience of Organ Donation From Brain-Dead Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Duranteau, Jacques; Montlahuc, Claire; Charpentier, Julien; Martin-Lefevre, Laurent; Joseph, Liliane; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Fieux, Fabienne; Renault, Anne; Thuong, Marie; Chevret, Sylvie; Azoulay, Elie

    2017-09-01

    ICU clinicians are primarily involved in organ donation after brain death of ICU patients. Their perceptions of organ donation may affect outcomes. Our objective was to describe ICU clinician's perceptions and experience of organ donation. Cross-sectional study among physicians and nurses (90 ICUs in France). We used factorial correspondence analysis to describe categories of clinicians regarding their perceptions and experience of organ donation. Factors associated with a positive (motivating) or negative (stressful) experiences were studied using multivariate logistic regression. Physicians and nurses. Three thousand three hundred twenty-five clinicians working in 77 ICUs returned questionnaires. Professionals who experienced organ donation as motivating were younger (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.32-0.53; p organ donors (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.56-2.35; p organ donation was not a priority in their ICU (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.55-0.84), and more likely to have participated in meetings of transplant coordinators with relatives (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.37-2.14; p organ donation was stressful were older (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.34-2.54; p organ donation as emotionally complex (odds ratio, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.52-2.21; p organ donation versus professional activity (odds ratio, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.92-5.53; p organ donors (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.09-2.04). Significant differences exist among ICU clinician's perceptions of organ donation. Whether these differences affect family experience and consent rates deserves investigation.

  2. Organ donation in the Philippines: should the dead do more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Leonardo D

    2014-01-01

    This paper asks whether the Philippines should focus on ways of dealing with end-stage renal disease by getting more transplantable kidneys from the dead. Would it be more ethical to put the burden to donate on the dead (who have already lost their chance to consent) than on the living (who can consent)? Given the risks involved in undergoing nephrectomy and the lack of benefits arising from the procedure to donors, the dead should be the first to put their kidneys on the line. In the Philippines, unfortunately, living donors have had to bear the greater burden in this regard. Starting with a brief account of developments surrounding the impact of the Declaration of Istanbul on the situation in the Philippines as well as in other countries, the paper examines what the living have been expected to do, what they have actually done, and what lessons the experience with living donors offers for the understanding of cadaver transplants. The paper then looks at possible ways of increasing the sources of kidneys for transplantation and asks if these ways could be implemented successfully and ethically in the Philippines.

  3. [Organ donation after active euthanasia in a patient with a neurodegenerative disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Gert; Giezeman, Ariane; Ultee, Fred; Hamers, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    In countries where active euthanasia by a physician is allowed under law - Belgium and the Netherlands - physicians are sometimes confronted with patients who want to donate organs after active euthanasia has been performed. This combination of procedures has been reported in Belgium, and this article is the first description of such a case in the Netherlands. It concerns a patient with a neurodegenerative disease who donated organs after euthanasia. The combination of two complex and controversial procedures - active euthanasia and organ donation - raises important ethical, legal and practical issues. It is suggested that with a thorough preparation and a strict separation of both procedures, organ donation after active euthanasia can strengthen patient autonomy and increase the number of donated organs.

  4. Ethics Guide Recommendations for Organ-Donation-Focused Physicians: Endorsed by the Canadian Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemie, Sam D; Simpson, Christy; Blackmer, Jeff; MacDonald, Shavaun; Dhanani, Sonny; Torrance, Sylvia; Byrne, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Donation physicians are specialists with expertise in organ and tissue donation and have been recognized internationally as a key contributor to improving organ and tissue donation services. Subsequent to a 2011 Canadian Critical Care Society-Canadian Blood Services consultation, the donation physician role has been gradually implemented in Canada. These professionals are generally intensive care unit physicians with an enhanced focus and expertise in organ/tissue donation. They must manage the dual obligation of caring for dying patients and their families while providing and/or improving organ donation services. In anticipation of actual, potential or perceived ethical challenges with the role, Canadian Blood Services in partnership with the Canadian Medical Association organized the development of an evidence-informed consensus process of donation experts and bioethicists to produce an ethics guide. This guide includes overarching principles and benefits of the DP role, and recommendations in regard to communication with families, role disclosure, consent discussions, interprofessional conflicts, conscientious objection, death determination, donation specific clinical practices in neurological determination of death and donation after circulatory death, end-of-life care, performance metrics, resources and remuneration. Although this report is intended to inform donation physician practices, it is recognized that the recommendations may have applicability to other professionals (eg, physicians in intensive care, emergency medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, pulmonology) who may also participate in the end-of-life care of potential donors in various clinical settings. It is hoped that this guidance will assist practitioners and their sponsoring organizations in preserving their duty of care, protecting the interests of dying patients, and fulfilling best practices for organ and tissue donation.

  5. Incentivizing Authorization for Deceased Organ Donation With Organ Allocation Priority: The First 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, A; Kessler, J B; Ashkenazi, T; Roth, A E; Lavee, J

    2016-09-01

    The allocation system of donor organs for transplantation may affect their scarcity. In 2008, Israel's Parliament passed the Organ Transplantation Law, which grants priority on waiting lists for transplants to candidates who are first-degree relatives of deceased organ donors or who previously registered as organ donors themselves. Several public campaigns have advertised the existence of the law since November 2010. We evaluated the effect of the law using all deceased donation requests made in Israel during the period 1998-2015. We use logistic regression to compare the authorization rates of the donors' next of kin in the periods before (1998-2010) and after (2011-2015) the public was made aware of the law. The authorization rate for donation in the period after awareness was substantially higher (55.1% vs. 45.0%, odds ratio [OR] 1.43, p = 0.0003) and reached an all-time high rate of 60.2% in 2015. This increase was mainly due to an increase in the authorization rate of next of kin of unregistered donors (51.1% vs. 42.2%). We also found that the likelihood of next-of-kin authorization for donation was approximately twice as high when the deceased relative was a registered donor rather than unregistered (89.4% vs. 44.6%, OR 14.27, p organ donation. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Analysis of knowledge of the general population and health professionals on organ donation after cardiac death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenko, Ramon Correa; Nisihara, Renato; Yokoi, Douglas Shun; Candido, Vinícius de Mello; Galina, Ismael; Moriguchi, Rafael Massayuki; Ceulemans, Nico; Salvalaggio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the knowledge and acceptance of the public and professionals working in intensive care units regarding organ donation after cardiac death. Methods The three hospitals with the most brain death notifications in Curitiba were selected, and two groups of respondents were established for application of the same questionnaire: the general public (i.e., visitors of patients in intensive care units) and health professionals working in the same intensive care unit. The questionnaire contained questions concerning demographics, intention to donate organs and knowledge of current legislation regarding brain death and donation after cardiac death. Results In total, 543 questionnaires were collected, including 442 from family members and 101 from health professionals. There was a predominance of women and Catholics in both groups. More females intended to donate. Health professionals performed better in the knowledge comparison. The intention to donate organs was significantly higher in the health professionals group (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the intention to donate in terms of education level or income. There was a greater acceptance of donation after uncontrolled cardiac death among Catholics than among evangelicals (p < 0.001). Conclusion Most of the general population intended to donate, with greater intentions expressed by females. Education and income did not affect the decision. The type of transplant that used a donation after uncontrolled cardiac death was not well accepted in the study population, indicating the need for more clarification for its use in our setting. PMID:27626950

  7. Metaphors of organ donation, social representations of the body and the opt-out system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, Mary Anne

    2009-11-01

    Organ donation is the only available treatment for end-stage failure of organs such as liver, lung, and heart and therefore increasing the number of organ donors is a priority for most countries. One measure that could be taken by a country to increase the number of organ transplants is to introduce the opt-out system of organ donation. Public opinion is divided on this issue and policy makers need to tread with caution before introducing legislation. This paper proposes that understanding the social representations the public has of organ donation is important in taking the right policy decisions. We propose here that an in-depth study of the views held by people on the issue is essential in this regard and that this can best be done by investigating the metaphors people use to describe organ donation, interpreted within the theory of social representation. In this study, the social representations of organ donation were investigated through five focus groups with 57 participants living in Malta. Analysis of the transcriptions of these focus groups yielded pertinent issues related to organ donation. Moreover, metaphors of organ donations and how these were related to social representations of the body and attitudes towards the opt-out system are discussed. It is being suggested that these findings could be of relevance to the present discussion on the opt-out system in the UK and in other countries.

  8. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives.FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.

  9. Knowledge and Opinions of Deceased Organ Donation Among Middle and High School Students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J; Choi, D; Park, Y

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents are an important target group for organ donation education. As yet, little is known about the attitude of Korean adolescents toward deceased organ donation, or the factors related to their decision. In this study, we explored the knowledge and opinions of deceased organ donation among middle and high school students in Korea. A self-reported survey was conducted among middle and high school students in Seoul, Korea. The questionnaire assessed knowledge, personal experience, and opinions of organ donation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine significant factors associated with willingness to become an organ donor. Of the 323 students, 161 (49.8%) were willing to be a deceased donor, and the other 162 (50.2%) were unwilling or unsure. Neither level of knowledge nor experience of recent public information on organ donation affected students' decisions. Instead, a cohesive family environment and family discussion were strong predictors of the willingness of Korean middle and high school students to be an organ donor. A donation education program that promotes family communication and discussion about organ donation could increase willingness to be an organ donor among Korean adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge and Attitude of Iranian Physicians towards Organ and Tissue Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani Nadoushan, M; Nozary Heshmati, B; Shabanzadeh Pirsaraee, A; Salmani Nodoushan, I; Jafari Nadoushan, R; Yazdi, F

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage organ failure, which increases the importance of organ procurement. It seems that the attitude towards organ donation and transplantation affects people's satisfaction. Moreover, health care personnel, especially physicians, should be familiar with transplantation rules and standards. It seems that understanding the knowledge and attitude of this group can affect the transplantation center policies. To assess knowledge and attitude of a group of Iranian physicians towards organ and tissue donation. In a cross-sectional study, 560 Iranian physicians including nephrologists, urologists and internists were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire containing their demographics, knowledge and attitude towards organ and tissue donation and transplantation. Of 560 participants, 435 (78%) agreed with organ donation after death and 285 (51%) agreed with living kidney donation. The most common reason provided by those who agreed with donation was "helping people" whereas the most common cause of disagreement was "to honor the body." Only 32 (6%) physicians had no knowledge about transplantation rules. Complete awareness about theoretical basis and financial issues of transplantation was observed in 265 (47%) and 221 (40%) participants, respectively. Physicians had a good attitude towards organ and tissue transplantation although less than half of them had knowledge of transplantation rules and its theoretical basis and financial issues; therefore, additional awareness and education of physicians is needed in all areas of the organ donation process in Iran.

  11. Process and barriers to organ donation and causes of brain death in northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Abdollah; Khaleghi, Ebrahim; Vakilzadeh, Ali Khorsand; Afzalaghaee, Monavar

    2017-02-01

    Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for some diseases. However, the need for cadaveric organ donation has either plateaued or is on a decreasing trend in some countries, especially in developed ones. In this study, we aimed to identify the barriers to organ donation in brain dead patients, who were referred to the organ procurement organizations (OPO) in northeast Iran. In this cross-sectional study during 2006 to 2013, data were collected from medical records of brain dead patients. Demographic information, cause of brain death, the process of obtaining informed consent, and the reasons for declining organ donation were obtained from the OPO records. The data were analyzed using chi-square test by SPSS 13 software. Of 1034 brain dead patients, 751 cases (72.6%) were eligible for organ donation, and, ultimately, 344 cases underwent organ donation. The rate of organ donation increased during the course of the study; medical and legal reasons as well as family refusal to authorize donation were the main barriers to the process. Based on the pattern of mortality, the need for living donors in developing countries, such as Iran and other countries in the Mediterranean region, can be reduced by improving the quality of healthcare, efficient identification of brain death, and obtaining consent with appropriate strategies.

  12. Testing the Utility of a Modified Organ Donation Model among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dana H. Z.; Perryman, Jennie P.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Amaral, Sandra; Jacob Arriola, Kimberly R.

    2011-01-01

    African Americans are overrepresented on the organ transplant waiting list because they are disproportionately impacted by certain health conditions that potentially warrant a life-saving transplant. While the African American need for transplantation is considerably high, organ and tissue donation rates are comparatively low, resulting in African Americans spending more than twice the amount of time on the national transplant waiting list as compared to people of other racial/ethnic backgrounds. There are a multitude of factors that contribute to the reluctance expressed by African Americans with respect to organ donation. This study proposes the use of an adaptation of the Organ Donation Model to explore the ways in which knowledge, trust in the donation/allocation process, and religious beliefs impact African American donation decision making. Bivariate and path analyses demonstrated that alignment with religious beliefs was the greatest driving factor with respect to attitudes towards donation; attitudes were significantly associated with donation intentions; and knowledge is directly associated with intentions to serve as a potential deceased organ donor. The significance of these variables speaks to the importance of their inclusion in a model that focuses on the African American population and offers new direction for more effective donation education efforts. PMID:21698439

  13. Outcomes of organ donation in brain-dead patient's families: Ethical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Shamsi; Rahimi, Abolfazl; Khaleghi, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    The families of brain-dead patients have a significant role in the process of decision making for organ donation. Organ donation is a traumatic experience. The ethical responsibility of healthcare systems respecting organ donation is far beyond the phase of decision making for donation. The principles of donation-related ethics require healthcare providers and organ procurement organizations to respect donor families and protect them against any probable harm. Given the difficult and traumatic nature of donation-related experience, understanding the outcomes of donation appears crucial. The aim of this study was to explore the outcomes of organ donation for the families of brain-dead patients. This was a qualitative descriptive study to which a purposeful sample of 19 donor family members were recruited. Data were collected through holding in-depth semi-structured interviews with the participants. Data analysis was performed by following the qualitative content analysis approach developed by Elo and Kyngäs. The main category of the data was "Decision to organ donation: a challenge from conflict to transcendence." This main category consisted of 10 subcategories and 3 general categories. The general categories were "challenging outcomes," "reassuring outcomes," and "transcending outcomes." Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the regional ethical review board. The ethical principles of informed consent, confidentiality, and non-identification were used. Donor families experience different challenges which range from conflict and doubtfulness to confidence, satisfaction, and transcendence. Healthcare providers and organ procurers should not discontinue care and support provision to donor families after obtaining their consent to donate because the post-decision phase is also associated with different complexities and difficulties with which donor families may not be able to cope effectively. In order to help donor families achieve positive outcomes from

  14. Evaluation of the Motivation to Consent to and to Refuse Organ Donation Among Participants of Educational Meetings Concerning Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaniak, I; Wilczek-Rużyczka, E; Wierzbicki, K; Sadowski, J; Kapelak, B; Przybyłowski, P

    2016-06-01

    Improvement of the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors is a key component of strategies applied in many countries aiming to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. Attitudes toward living and posthumous donation are favorable. Research shows that the outlook on organ donation and the degree of the willingness to become an organ donor are associated with a wide range of variables. The main objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the willingness to donate organs and the reasons for refusing consent. The study included 191 participants (135 female and 56 male) aged 16 to 61 years (mean age 26.86 ± 12.88). A cross-sectional study was conducted during educational meetings concerning organ donation that was addressed to students, teachers, and nurses. Survey tools included the Individual Questionnaire: Study of attitudes toward transplantation, consisting of 26 closed questions (with the consent of the Statistical Office in Krakow). In all, 97.4% of the respondents accepted transplantation from living donors, and 95.8% accepted deceased donations. Of the respondents, 78.5% agreed to posthumous life-saving organ donation. There was a significant difference between the respondents' sex, age, social group, place of living, and the reasons for their willingness to donate organs both posthumously and during their lifetime, as well as reasons for refusal. Our findings showed that the study group in general had favorable views on treatment involving transplantation and declared willingness to make a posthumous organ donation. These views vary depending on demographic variables. The education on the subject of organ and tissue donation has a positive impact on donation and transplantation rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Living organ donation practices in Europe - results from an online survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennerling, Annette; Loven, Charlotte; Dor, Frank J. M. F.; Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Duerinckx, Nathalie; Frunza, Mihaela; Pascalev, Assya; Zuidema, Willij; Weimar, Willem; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, living organ donation (LOD) is increasingly accepted as a valuable solution to overcome the organ shortage. However, considerable differences exist between European countries regarding frequency, practices and acceptance of donorrecipient relations. As a response, the Coordination Action

  16. Expanding the donor pool: regional variation in pediatric organ donation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godown, Justin; McKane, Meghann; Wujcik, Kari; Mettler, Bret A; Dodd, Debra A

    2016-12-01

    There are limited published data on pediatric organ donation rates. The aim of this study was to describe the trends in pediatric organ donation over time and to assess the regional variation in pediatric deceased organ donation. OPTN data were utilized to assess the trends in pediatric organ donation over time. The number of deceased pediatric organ donors was indexed using regional mortality data obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and compared across UNOS regions and two different eras. The number of pediatric deceased organ donors has declined in the recent era, largely driven by fewer adolescent donors. For all age groups, there is significant regional variation in organ donation rates, with identifiable high- and low-performing regions. Expansion of the donor pool may be possible by optimizing organ donation in regions demonstrating lower recruitment of pediatric donors. Using the region with the highest donation rate for each age group as the gold standard, we estimate a potential 24% increase in the number of donors if all regions performed comparably, equating to 215 new pediatric donors annually.

  17. The impact of an organ donation registration information program for high school students in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubsaet, A; Brug, J; Nijkamp, M D; Candel, M J J M; van Hooff, J P; van den Borne, H W

    2005-04-01

    In 1998, a new organ donor registration system was implemented in the Netherlands to increase the number of potential donors. A high school education program was developed to prepare adolescents to make an informed decision about organ donation. A post-test only randomised controlled trial was conducted in 39 high schools including 2868 students. Students within schools were randomly allocated to either attend the organ donation education program or not. The impact of the program on students' intention to register their organ donation preference (and determinants thereof) were analysed using multivariate multileveling modelling (MlwiN). The results show that students who were exposed to the education program had more favourable registration intentions (B = .40), were more often willing to be donors (OR = 1.45), and had greater knowledge about (B = 3.84) and more positive social outcome expectations (B = .09) and self-efficacy regarding organ donation registration (B=.22). Lastly, they experienced significantly less negative outcome expectations related to organ donation registration (B = -.15). Students' evaluation of the school-based education program was favourable. The present organ donation registration program proved to be effective in changing determinants of organ donation registration, and a large-scale implementation in the Dutch high school curriculum is planned.

  18. The View of Religious Officials on Organ Donation and Transplantation in the Zeytinburnu District of Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, Merve; Dalar, Levent; Yildirimoglu, Huseyin; Sayar, Adnan; Altin, Sedat

    2015-12-01

    One of the obstacles to organ donation and transplantation in Turkey is that of religious beliefs and, at this point, religious officials constitute a key aspect of this problem. Positive or negative viewpoints held by religious officials regarding organ donation and transplantation are influential in guiding the public. This descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of describing religious officials' viewpoints on this subject. To determine the opinions of 40 religious officials from among the imams and muezzins working in Zeytinburnu District Mufti (Religious Officials Superior) Station who participated in a normal meeting in April and who fully completed the survey. A 27-question survey form was used that consisted of open-ended and closed questions, 5 of which were on socio-demographic characteristics, 13 on viewpoints on organ donation and transplantation, and 9 on the Islamic viewpoint regarding organ donation and transplantation. For the analysis of the results, Student's t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used. It was found that all of the religious officials believed in the importance of organ donation, 80 % considered donating their organs, and 5 % had made an organ donation. Of the religious officials who had not donated organs, 35 % gave an answer that there was no specific reason and 27.5 % stated that they had never considered the subject. While the number of those stating that they would donate the organs of a close associate who had died, 77.5 % of them who did not want to donate gave as their reason the idea that if it were him, he would perhaps not want to give his organs after death. Of the religious officials questioned, 92.5 % asserted that the religion of Islam looked positively on organ donation and transplantation, 55 % stated that the knowledge of religious officials in the country was inadequate regarding this subject, and 65 % said that for interest in organ donation to increase, religious officials should make speeches and raise

  19. Incentives for Organ Donation : Proposed Standards for an Internationally Acceptable System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matas, Arthur J.; Satel, Sally; Munn, Stephen; Richards, Janet Radcliffe; Tan-Alora, Angeles; Ambagtsheer, Frederike J. A. E.; Asis, Micheal D. H.; Baloloy, Leo; Cole, Edward; Crippin, Jeff; Cronin, David; Daar, Abdallah S.; Eason, James; Fine, Richard; Florman, Sander; Freeman, Richard; Fung, John; Gaertner, Wulf; Gaston, Robert; Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Ghods, Ahad; Goodwin, Michelle; Gutmann, Thomas; Hakim, Nadey; Hippen, Benjamin; Huilgol, Ajit; Kam, Igal; Lamban, Arlene; Land, Walter; Langnas, Alan; Lesaca, Reynaldo; Levy, Gary; Liquette, RoseMarie; Marks, William H.; Miller, Charles; Ona, Enrique; Pamugas, Glenda; Paraiso, Antonio; Peters, Thomas G.; Price, David; Randhawa, Gurch; Reed, Alan; Rigg, Keith; Serrano, Dennis; Sollinger, Hans; Sundar, Sankaran; Teperman, Lewis; van Dijk, Gert; Weimar, Willem; Danguilan, Romina

    2012-01-01

    Incentives for organ donation, currently prohibited in most countries, may increase donation and save lives. Discussion of incentives has focused on two areas: (1) whether or not there are ethical principles that justify the current prohibition and (2) whether incentives would do more good than harm

  20. Incentives for Organ Donation : Proposed Standards for an Internationally Acceptable System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matas, Arthur J.; Satel, Sally; Munn, Stephen; Richards, Janet Radcliffe; Tan-Alora, Angeles; Ambagtsheer, Frederike J. A. E.; Asis, Micheal D. H.; Baloloy, Leo; Cole, Edward; Crippin, Jeff; Cronin, David; Daar, Abdallah S.; Eason, James; Fine, Richard; Florman, Sander; Freeman, Richard; Fung, John; Gaertner, Wulf; Gaston, Robert; Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Ghods, Ahad; Goodwin, Michelle; Gutmann, Thomas; Hakim, Nadey; Hippen, Benjamin; Huilgol, Ajit; Kam, Igal; Lamban, Arlene; Land, Walter; Langnas, Alan; Lesaca, Reynaldo; Levy, Gary; Liquette, RoseMarie; Marks, William H.; Miller, Charles; Ona, Enrique; Pamugas, Glenda; Paraiso, Antonio; Peters, Thomas G.; Price, David; Randhawa, Gurch; Reed, Alan; Rigg, Keith; Serrano, Dennis; Sollinger, Hans; Sundar, Sankaran; Teperman, Lewis; van Dijk, Gert; Weimar, Willem; Danguilan, Romina

    Incentives for organ donation, currently prohibited in most countries, may increase donation and save lives. Discussion of incentives has focused on two areas: (1) whether or not there are ethical principles that justify the current prohibition and (2) whether incentives would do more good than

  1. "Project ACTS": An Intervention to Increase Organ and Tissue Donation Intentions among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Kimberly; Robinson, Dana H.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Perryman, Jennie P.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of "Project ACTS: About Choices in Transplantation and Sharing," which was developed to increase readiness for organ and tissue donation among African American adults. Nine churches (N = 425 participants) were randomly assigned to receive donation education materials currently available to consumers…

  2. Attitude of Healthcare Professionals: A Major Limiting Factor in Organ Donation from Brain-Dead Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kosieradzki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public attitude toward deceased donor organ recovery in Poland is quite positive, with only 15% opposing to donation of their own organs, yet actual donation rate is only 16/pmp. Moreover, donation rate varies greatly (from 5 to 28 pmp in different regions of the country. To identify the barriers of organ donation, we surveyed 587 physicians involved in brain death diagnosis from regions with low (LDR and high donation rates (HDR. Physicians from LDR were twice more reluctant to start diagnostic procedure when clinical signs of brain death were present (14% versus 5.5% physicians from HDR who would not diagnose death, resp.. Twenty-five percent of LDR physicians (as opposed to 12% of physicians from HDR would either continue with intensive therapy or confirm brain death and limit to the so-called minimal therapy. Only 32% of LDR physicians would proceed with brain death diagnosis regardless of organ donation, compared to 67% in HDR. When donation was not an option, mechanical ventilation would be continued more often in LDR regions (43% versus 26.7%; P<0.01. In conclusion, low donation activity seems to be mostly due to medical staff attitude.

  3. Randomised, Double Blind, Controlled Trial of the Provision of Information about the Benefits of Organ Donation during a Family Donation Conversation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve John Philpot

    Full Text Available It is unclear how much information should be provided to families of potential organ donors about the benefits of organ donation. Whilst this information is material to the donation decision, it may also be perceived as coercive.Randomised, double blind, controlled trial in which community members watched one of two videos of a simulated organ donation conversation that differed only in the amount of information provided about the benefits of donation. Participants then completed a questionnaire about the adequacy of the information provided and the degree to which they felt the doctor was trying to convince the family member to say yes to donation.There was a wide variability in what participants considered was the "right" amount of information about organ donation. Those who watched the conversation that included information about the benefits of donation were more likely to feel that the information provided to the family was sufficient. They were more likely to report that the doctor was trying to convince the family member to say yes to donation, yet were no more likely to feel uncomfortable or to feel that the doctor was uncaring or cared more about transplant recipients than he did for the patient and their family.This study suggests that community members are comfortable with health care staff providing information to family members that may be influential in supporting them to give consent for donation.

  4. Randomised, Double Blind, Controlled Trial of the Provision of Information about the Benefits of Organ Donation during a Family Donation Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Steve John; Aranha, Sarah; Pilcher, David V; Bailey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how much information should be provided to families of potential organ donors about the benefits of organ donation. Whilst this information is material to the donation decision, it may also be perceived as coercive. Randomised, double blind, controlled trial in which community members watched one of two videos of a simulated organ donation conversation that differed only in the amount of information provided about the benefits of donation. Participants then completed a questionnaire about the adequacy of the information provided and the degree to which they felt the doctor was trying to convince the family member to say yes to donation. There was a wide variability in what participants considered was the "right" amount of information about organ donation. Those who watched the conversation that included information about the benefits of donation were more likely to feel that the information provided to the family was sufficient. They were more likely to report that the doctor was trying to convince the family member to say yes to donation, yet were no more likely to feel uncomfortable or to feel that the doctor was uncaring or cared more about transplant recipients than he did for the patient and their family. This study suggests that community members are comfortable with health care staff providing information to family members that may be influential in supporting them to give consent for donation.

  5. Altruism or solidarity? The motives for organ donation and two proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Ben

    2012-09-01

    Proposals for increasing organ donation are often rejected as incompatible with altruistic motivation on the part of donors. This paper questions, on conceptual grounds, whether most organ donors really are altruistic. If we distinguish between altruism and solidarity--a more restricted form of other-concern, limited to members of a particular group--then most organ donors exhibit solidarity, rather than altruism. If organ donation really must be altruistic, then we have reasons to worry about the motives of existing donors. However, I argue that altruism is not necessary, because organ donation supplies important goods, whatever the motivation, and we can reject certain dubious motivations, such as financial profit, without insisting on altruism. Once solidaristic donation is accepted, certain reforms for increasing donation rates seem permissible. This paper considers two proposals. Firstly, it has been suggested that registered donors should receive priority for transplants. While this proposal appears based on a solidaristic norm of reciprocity, it is argued that such a scheme would be undesirable, since non-donors may contribute to society in other ways. The second proposal is that donors should be able to direct their organs towards recipients that they feel solidarity with. This is often held to be inconsistent with altruistic motivation, but most donation is not entirely undirected in the first place (for instance, donor organs usually go to co-nationals). While allowing directed donation would create a number of practical problems, such as preventing discrimination, there appears to be no reason in principle to reject it.

  6. Preliminary Analysis of Competency Assessment of Organ Donation Coordinators in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A; Xie, W; Luo, J; Deng, X

    The organ donation coordinator is indispensable in the process of organ donation and transplantation. The competency of coordinators is closely related to the organ donation rate. 1) To construct a competency assessment system for organ donation coordinators; and 2) to evaluate the competency level of coordinators in Hunan province. We constructed the competency model framework for coordinators based on the McClelland competency model and then extracted and screened the competency indicators by interview and Delphi methods. Next, we determined the weight of the indicators by an analytic hierarchy process method. Finally, we evaluated the competency level of 42 coordinators in Hunan province with the use of our assessment system. 1) We constructed the competency evaluation system for organ donation coordinators, which included 6 dimensions and 21 competency indicators. 2) The average competency score of 42 coordinators was 79.43 ± 8.51. Five coordinators were at qualified level (11.9%), 18 at moderate level (42.9%), 12 at good level (25.6%), and 7 at excellent level (16.7%). 1) This competency evaluation system for organ donation coordinators will provide scientific evidence for human resource management in health institutions. 2) The organ donation coordinators in Hunan were qualified, but their number was insufficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Can education alter attitudes, behaviour and knowledge about organ donation? A pretest–post-test study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Donal; Pierscionek, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective The emergence of evidence suggests that student nurses commonly exhibit concerns about their lack of knowledge of organ donation and transplantation. Formal training about organ donation has been shown to positively influence attitude, encourage communication and registration behaviours and improve knowledge about donor eligibility and brain death. The focus of this study was to determine the attitude and behaviour of student nurses and to assess their level of knowledge about organ donation after a programme of study. Design A quantitative questionnaire was completed before and after participation in a programme of study using a pretest–post-test design. Setting Participants were recruited from a University based in Northern Ireland during the period from February to April 2011. Participants 100 preregistration nurses (female : male=96 : 4) aged 18–50 years (mean (SD) 24.3 (6.0) years) were recruited. Results Participants’ knowledge improved over the programme of study with regard to the suitability of organs that can be donated after death, methods available to register organ donation intentions, organ donation laws, concept of brain death and the likelihood of recovery after brain death. Changes in attitude postintervention were also observed in relation to participants’ willingness to accept an informed system of consent and with regard to participants’ actual discussion behaviour. Conclusions The results provide support for the introduction of a programme that helps inform student nurses about important aspects of organ donation. PMID:24381257

  8. How organ donation is represented in newspaper articles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Vincent, Donald

    2007-01-01

    A media agenda setting study was conducted to examine how newspaper stories frame the topic of organ and tissue donation. Seven hundred fifteen stories on organ and tissue donation from 20 newspapers dated 2002 or 2003 were content-analyzed for valence (i.e., positive, negative, or neutral toward organ donation) and topic (e.g., living donation, transplant process, celebrity donor/recipient). The 20 newspapers were chosen by circulation and electronic access of database. Four of the top 5 and 13 of the top 20 circulating newspapers were included and several combinations of search terms were used to identify relevant articles. Results indicate that the majority of articles were either positive (57%) or neutral (29%) regarding the topic of organ donation. The 4 most common topics covered in news articles included: (a) posttransplantation health and welfare, (b) information on the shortage of organ donors, (c) living donation, and (d) information about the transplantation process. Kidneys (n = 204) and hearts (n = 120) were the 2 most commonly mentioned organs in the sample of articles. Results are discussed and how news articles may shape laypersons' attitudes and intentions regarding organ donation is considered.

  9. Changing Metrics of Organ Procurement Organization Performance in Order to Increase Organ Donation Rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D; Kallan, M J; Fu, L; Ciccarone, M; Ramirez, J; Rosenberg, P; Arnold, J; Segal, G; Moritsugu, K P; Nathan, H; Hasz, R; Abt, P L

    2017-07-20

    The shortage of deceased-donor organs is compounded by donation metrics that fail to account for the total pool of possible donors, leading to ambiguous donor statistics. We sought to assess potential metrics of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) utilizing data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009-2012 and State Inpatient Databases (SIDs) from 2008-2014. A possible donor was defined as a ventilated inpatient death ≤75 years of age, without multi-organ system failure, sepsis, or cancer, whose cause of death was consistent with organ donation. These estimates were compared to patient-level data from chart review from two large OPOs. Among 2,907,658 inpatient deaths from 2009-2012, 96,028 (3.3%) were a "possible deceased-organ donor." The two proposed metrics of OPO performance were: (1) donation percentage (percentage of possible deceased-donors who become actual donors; range: 20.0-57.0%); and (2) organs transplanted per possible donor (range: 0.52-1.74). These metrics allow for comparisons of OPO performance and geographic-level donation rates, and identify areas in greatest need of interventions to improve donation rates. We demonstrate that administrative data can be used to identify possible deceased donors in the US and could be a data source for CMS to implement new OPO performance metrics in a standardized fashion. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Deceased Donor Organs: What Can Be Done to Raise Donation Rates Using Evidence From Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, R; Manikam, R; Chandrasekaran, S K; Naghavi, N; Mubarik, S; Mustafa, R; Pushparajan, S

    2016-05-01

    Organ donation rates have continued to fall seriously short of needs worldwide, with the lowest rates recorded among developing economies. This study seeks to analyze evidence from a developing economy to explore the usefulness of social psychological theory to solve the problem. The study deployed a large survey (n = 10 412) using a convenience sampling procedure targeted at increasing the number of Malaysians registered with the Ministry of Health, Malaysia who are willing to donate organs upon death. Structural equation modeling was deployed to estimate simultaneously the relative influence of cognitive and noncognitive variables on willingness to donate deceased organs. The cognitive factors of donation perception, socioeconomic status and financial incentives, and the noncognitive factors of demography and fear showed a high statistically significant (1%) relationship with willingness to donate organs after death. While financial incentives were significant, cash rewards showed the least impact. Donation perception showed the highest impact, which shows that the development of effective pedagogic programs with simultaneous improvements to the quality of services provided by medical personnel engaged in retrieving and transplanting deceased donor organs can help raise organ donation rates. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Preferences for Policy Options for Deceased Organ Donation for Transplantation: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kirsten; Jan, Stephen; Rose, John M; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison; Chadban, Steven; Allen, Richard D; Cass, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Despite broad public support for organ donation, there is a chronic shortage of deceased donor organs. We sought to identify community preferences for features of organ donation policies. A discrete choice study was conducted using an online panel of Australian community respondents older than 18 years. Respondents were presented with scenarios comparing a "new" policy to the current policy. Tradeoffs between 8 policy aspects were quantified using mixed logit and latent class models: registration system, extent of donor family involvement, ease of registration, frequency of confirmation of intent, direct payment, and funeral expense reimbursement, priority for donor's family, and formal recognition of donation. There were 2005 respondents (mean, 44.6 years). We found a strong preference for a new policy. Overall, respondents favored a policy that included: some involvement of the donor's family in the final decision, simple registration processes, less frequent reconfirmation of donation intent, direct payment or funeral expense reimbursement, and formal recognition of donation. However, there was significant preference heterogeneity across respondents, with various respondent groups valuing policy mechanisms differently. Respondents who viewed policy change negatively were also those who would be unlikely to be organ donors anyway, because they tended to hold negative views toward organ donation. Our results suggest that the Australian community are open to alternative organ donation policies including changes to: registration systems, family involvement, and financial and nonfinancial mechanisms. Future policy discussions should not be limited by preconceived notions of what is acceptable to the community, rather informed by actual community values and preferences.

  12. Organ donation video messaging: differential appeal, emotional valence, and behavioral intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Fleishman, A; Vishnevsky, T; Fitzpatrick, S; Boger, M

    2014-10-01

    Video narratives increasingly are used to draw the public's attention to the need for more registered organ donors. We assessed the differential impact of donation messaging videos on appeal, emotional valence, and organ donation intentions in 781 non-registered adults. Participants watched six videos (four personal narratives, one informational video without personal narrative, and one unrelated to donation) with or without sound (subtitled), randomly sequenced to minimize order effects. We assessed appeal, emotional valence, readiness to register as organ donors, and donation information-seeking behavior. Compared to other video types, one featuring a pediatric transplant recipient (with or without sound) showed more favorable appeal (p organ donor willingness (p donation website after viewing all six videos. Minority race (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.20, 3.13, p = 0.006), positive change in organ donor readiness (OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.14, 0.48, p donation website. Brief, one-min videos can have a very dramatic and positive impact on willingness to consider donation and behavioral intentions to register as an organ donor. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Tax policy as a lifeline: encouraging blood and organ donation through tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamon, Joseph B

    2008-01-01

    This article, the second concerning the organ donation crisis, proposes the use of tax policy to encourage blood and organ donation. After critiquing the ethical and logistical problems posed by other commercial and non-commercial solutions, the author demonstrates how tax credits can be used as an effective and ethical solution to address the shortage of donors. The author also offers two model statutes that provide guidance as to how a nonrefundable tax credit for blood and organ donation might operate in the tax code.

  14. The Effect of State Policies on Organ Donation and Transplantation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Paula; Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Vijayan, Anitha; Wellen, Jason R; Martin, Erika G

    2015-08-01

    Shortages in transplantable solid organs remain a critical public health challenge in the United States. During the past 2 decades, all states have implemented policies to increase organ supply, although their effectiveness is unknown. To determine the effects on organ donation and transplantation rates of state policies to provide incentives for volunteer donation. Using a quasi-experimental design and difference-in-differences regression analyses, we estimated the effect of policies in all 50 states and the District of Columbia on organ donors per capita and the number of transplantations from January 1, 1988, to December 31, 2010. Analyses were also stratified by type of donor (living vs deceased). Data were derived from the United Network for Organ Sharing. All data collection occurred between July 7 and September 27, 2013. Policies of interest were the presence of first-person consent laws, donor registries, dedicated revenue streams for donor recruitment activities, population education programs, paid leave for donation, and tax incentives. Information on states' passage of various policies was obtained from primary legislative and legal sources. The number of organ donors and transplantations per state, per year, during the study period. From 1988 to 2010, the number of states passing at least 1 donation-related policy increased from 7 (14%) to 50 (100%). First-person consent laws, donor registries, public education, paid leave, and tax incentives had no robust, significant association with either donation rates or number of transplants. The establishment of revenue policies, in which individuals contribute to a protected state fund for donation promotion activities, was associated with a 5.3% increase in the absolute number of transplants (95% CI, 0.57%-10.1%; P = .03). These associations were driven by a 4.9% increase in organ donations (95% CI, 0.97%-8.7%; P = .01) and an 8.0% increase in transplants (95% CI, 3.1%-12.9%; P = .001) from

  15. Organ Donation Attitudes and Practices among African Americans: An Adapted Measurement Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ann M; Zhang, Nanhua; Buechley, Caitlin; Chapman, Remonia; Guillen, Jennifer L; Magee, John C; Resnicow, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the psychometric properties and correlates of a measure of organ donation attitudes and practices for African Americans. We surveyed 736 members from 14 alumni chapters of historically African American sororities and fraternities in Michigan. We constructed subscales and compared subscale values with two variables related to donation status: 1) enrollment status in the state donor registry, and 2) intentions for future enrollment. Psychometric analyses indicated our measure tapped four distinct domains of attitudes concerning donation. The four subscales identified-General Benefits, Race Benefits, General Barriers, and Disparity Barriers-had good psychometric properties. For all four scales the more positive the attitudes toward donation held by the respondent, the more likely they were to report having signed up to be an organ donor. An understanding of attitudes toward donation may help development of effective culturally sensitive intervention messages targeting the African American community.

  16. [Living organ donation vs. cadaveric donation - study of liver transplanted children and their families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, K H; Hofmann, C; Sander, K; Edsen, S; Burdelski, M; Koch, U; Rogiers, X

    2001-12-01

    There is only scarce information on the quality of life of child recipients of liver transplants and their families. Particularly children with a living related graft and their families never have been compared to children who received a cadaveric graft and their families. We investigated the following issues in our study: How do parents and children from participating families rate their strain, their quality of life and their relationships within their family? Do families with a living - related donor differ from those with a cadaveric donor? What do living donors and their partners think about the donation retrospectively? The study was conducted with 106 participants from 50 families (42 mothers, 40 fathers, and 24 children older than 6 years). In 20 of these families, a living transplantation had been performed. Participants were interviewed and asked to fill out several questionnaires. School-aged children with a liver transplant show good social integration among their peers and in school. The child's disease, however, has a great impact on the family. Family members show a reduction in social contact, and an increase in marital crises, and problematic relations amongst siblings. Families in which a cadaveric graft was performed, are less satisfied with life, and show more symptoms of exhaustion. Every family studied possessed or acquired - a high degree of internal or external coping resources. Living - related donors tried hard to obtain an understanding of the medical context. The partner, rather than the donor himself, feels anxious before the donation. The limited time available for the decision to donate is not perceived by the donors to be critical. Ten percent of living donors feel "a little" that their health is affected. The decision to donate is supported "strongly" or "very strongly" by the partners in 80 % of the cases. A possible strain on the child through the expectation of gratitude by the donor is stated by 20 %. All of the donors agree

  17. Intensive care practices in brain death diagnosis and organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, D; Valentín, M O; Escalante, J L; Sanmartín, A; Perez-Basterrechea, M; de Gea, J; Martín, M; Velasco, J; Pont, T; Masnou, N; de la Calle, B; Marcelo, B; Lebrón, M; Pérez, J M; Burgos, M; Gimeno, R; Kot, P; Yus, S; Sancho, I; Zabalegui, A; Arroyo, M; Miñambres, E; Elizalde, J; Montejo, J C; Domínguez-Gil, B; Matesanz, R

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a multicentre study of 1844 patients from 42 Spanish intensive care units, and analysed the clinical characteristics of brain death, the use of ancillary testing, and the clinical decisions taken after the diagnosis of brain death. The main cause of brain death was intracerebral haemorrhage (769/1844, 42%), followed by traumatic brain injury (343/1844, 19%) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (257/1844, 14%). The diagnosis of brain death was made rapidly (50% in the first 24 h). Of those patients who went on to die, the Glasgow Coma Scale on admission was ≤ 8/15 in 1146/1261 (91%) of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage, traumatic brain injury or anoxic encephalopathy; the Hunt and Hess Scale was 4-5 in 207/251 (83%) of patients following subarachnoid haemorrhage; and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was ≥ 15 in 114/129 (89%) of patients with strokes. Brain death was diagnosed exclusively by clinical examination in 92/1844 (5%) of cases. Electroencephalography was the most frequently used ancillary test (1303/1752, 70.7%), followed by transcranial Doppler (652/1752, 37%). Organ donation took place in 70% of patients (1291/1844), with medical unsuitability (267/553, 48%) and family refusal (244/553, 13%) the main reasons for loss of potential donors. All life-sustaining measures were withdrawn in 413/553 of non-donors (75%).

  18. Asking the difficult questions: message strategies used by organ procurement coordinators in requesting familial consent to organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Ashley E; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2011-07-01

    The present study provides an in-depth examination of the messages used by organ procurement coordinators (OPCs) in shaping familial requests for organ donation. OPCs (N = 102), recruited from a national sample of 16 organ procurement organizations, participated in a structured interview designed to uncover the communication strategies used in obtaining familial consent for donation. Analysis of interviews indicates OPCs' messages cover 4 domain areas. Specifically, OPCs report use of messages intended to (a) provide education, (b) discuss the benefits to donation, (c) learn about potential donor families, and (d) persuade families to engage in donation. Within the 4 domain areas, OPCs report use of 15 specific messages (e.g., "positively framing the donor," "social proof," "discuss the benefit of donation to grieving") in requesting consent. The present study provides a detailed examination of strategies and offers recommendations for using message strategies to explore the effectiveness of the consent process from the perspective of OPCs in approaching donor families.

  19. Identification of strategies to facilitate organ donation among African Americans using the nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jayme E; Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard; Mannon, Roslyn B; Gaston, Robert; Segev, Dorry L; Mannon, Elinor C; Martin, Michelle Y

    2015-02-06

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by ESRD, but few receive a living donor kidney transplant. Surveys assessing attitudes toward donation have shown that African Americans are less likely to express a willingness to donate their own organs. Studies aimed at understanding factors that may facilitate the willingness of African Americans to become organ donors are needed. A novel formative research method was used (the nominal group technique) to identify and prioritize strategies for facilitating increases in organ donation among church-attending African Americans. Four nominal group technique panel interviews were convened (three community and one clergy). Each community panel represented a distinct local church; the clergy panel represented five distinct faith-based denominations. Before nominal group technique interviews, participants completed a questionnaire that assessed willingness to become a donor; 28 African-American adults (≥19 years old) participated in the study. In total, 66.7% of participants identified knowledge- or education-related strategies as most important strategies in facilitating willingness to become an organ donor, a view that was even more pronounced among clergy. Three of four nominal group technique panels rated a knowledge-based strategy as the most important and included strategies, such as information on donor involvement and donation-related risks; 29.6% of participants indicated that they disagreed with deceased donation, and 37% of participants disagreed with living donation. Community participants' reservations about becoming an organ donor were similar for living (38.1%) and deceased (33.4%) donation; in contrast, clergy participants were more likely to express reservations about living donation (33.3% versus 16.7%). These data indicate a greater opposition to living donation compared with donation after one's death among African Americans and suggest that improving knowledge about organ donation, particularly

  20. Altruistic, cognitive and attitudinal determinants of organ donation intention in Egypt: a social marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Mohamed M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of various altruistic, cognitive, and attitudinal factors on the organ donation intention in Egypt. Using a large sample, a conceptual model has been developed. The findings from the structural equation model confirm the influence of the respondents' altruistic values, perceived benefits and risks, and knowledge on their attitudes towards organ donation. Respondents' attitudes towards organ donation, in turn, are also found to affect their organ donation intention. One of the other important findings suggests that on a declarative level, more and more individuals in Egypt express their concern over the shortage of available organs and declare their willingness to contribute somehow to alleviate the problem. However, in reality this concern may not be manifested consistently.

  1. Attitudes and beliefs about deceased organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community in Australia: a focus group study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ralph, Angelique F; Alyami, Ali; Allen, Richard D M; Howard, Kirsten; Craig, Jonathan C; Chadban, Steve J; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison

    2016-01-01

    ...; and reciprocal benefit. Although organ donation is considered a generous life-saving 'gift', representative members of the Arabic-speaking community in Australia were unfamiliar with, unnerved by and sceptical about the donation process...

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Taimur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000 and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038. 70/198 (35.3% people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.

  3. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Organ Donation among Relatives of Patients Referred to the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Pouraghaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organ donation is one of the surviving procedures which can increase the life expectancy of end-stage patients. Inappropriate beliefs and attitude of individuals to organ donation, their poor knowledge, and the socio-economic level are one of the most important barriers for organ donation. Therefore, here knowledge and attitude levels among relatives of trauma patients regarding organ donation were evaluated. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on relatives of trauma patients referred to the emergency department of Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, through 2013 to 2014. The questionnaire included parts of demographic data and socio-economic situations as well as status of knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation. A score between 0-7 was belonged to each person based on his/her level of knowledge. Attitude level had a score between 0-12. Chi- square, Fisher, and Mann–Whitney U test were performed to assess the relation between demographic variables and the level of knowledge and attitude. P<0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: 79 persons (57.1% male with the mean age of 31.3±11.3 years were evaluated. 57 (73.1% of subjects agreed with organ transplant. The main causes of disagreement among relatives regarding organ donation were dissatisfaction of the donor's relatives (25% and religious issues (15%. 49 (62.02% studied people had inappropriate attitude and 27 (34.2% ones had good knowledge. male gender (OR=5.87; 95%CI: 3.32-8.42; p=0.001 and self-employed job (OR=7.78; 95%CI: 4.64-10.92; p=0.001 are independent factors associated with poor knowledge about organ donation. Self-employed job (OR=3.86; 95%CI: 1.41-6.11; p=0.009 and poor knowledge (OR=15.3; 95%CI: 9.03-21.57; p<0.001 were related to inappropriate attitude toward organ donation. Conclusion: The present study showed that 73.1% of participants agreed with organ donation. The major causes of disagreements were dissatisfaction of other relatives

  4. How can nurses support relatives of a dying patient with the organ donation option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Leanne; Koulouglioti, Christina

    2016-07-01

    The UK Department of Health in 2008 established the Organ Donation Taskforce to improve organ donation within the UK. Knowing how nurses can best support families during this time is important to maintain best practice. The purpose of the literature review was to summarise evidence related to nursing support for a dying patient's family with the option of organ donation. The (a) Allied Medical Education Database (AMED), (b) British Nursing Index (BNI), (c) Cochrane Library, (d) Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), (e) NHS Evidence, and (f) PubMed were searched during January to May 2013 using the key words: organ donation, nurse, support, organ donor, family. A total of 23 articles were critiqued to synthesise available evidence over 25 years. Primary sources addressing deceased organ donors, their families and nurses, written in English, in peer reviewed journals over the last 25 years and conducted internationally were included. Articles related to consent, attitudes towards donation and physicians' views were excluded. Two major themes emerged: (a) clarity of communication and understanding of information and (b) the nurse's competency. This study adds to the topic by addressing support needed by a family. Correct information given to a family clearly, sensitively and in a professional manner can accommodate relatives' understanding why their loved one is in a critical condition, which can help them accept death and therefore consider the option of organ donation. Nurses must acquire through regular training specific skills and knowledge in order to practice efficiently and adhere to the needs of a dying patient's family. By incorporating organ donation as a norm in end-of-life care, bereavement needs can be addressed in addition to improving organ donation rates. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  5. Living Organ Donation and Informed Consent in the United States: Strategies to Improve the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Macey L; Gross, Jed Adam

    2017-03-01

    About 6,000 individuals participate in the U.S. transplant system as a living organ donor each year. Organ donation (most commonly a kidney or part of liver) by living individuals is a unique procedure, where healthy patients undergo a major surgical operation without any direct functional benefit to themselves. In this article, the authors explore how the ideal of informed consent guides education and evaluation for living organ donation. The authors posit that informed consent for living organ donation is a process. Though the steps in this process are partially standardized through national health policy, they can be improved through institutional structures at the local, transplant center-level. Effective structures and practices aimed at supporting and promoting comprehensive informed consent provide more opportunities for candidates to ask questions about the risks and benefits of living donation and to opt out voluntarily Additionally, these practices could enable new ways of measuring knowledge and improving the consent process.

  6. Prothrombin complex concentrate use in coagulopathy of lethal brain injuries increases organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; Hays, Daniel; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Wynne, Julie; O' Keeffe, Terence; Green, Donald J; Friese, Randall S; Gruessner, Rainer; Rhee, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Coagulopathy is a defined barrier for organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. The purpose of this study was to document our experience with the use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to facilitate organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. We performed a 4-year retrospective analysis of all patients with devastating gunshot wounds to the brain. The data were analyzed for demographics, change in international normalized ratio (INR), and subsequent organ donation. The primary end point was organ donation. Eighty-eight patients with lethal traumatic brain injury were identified from the trauma registry of whom 13 were coagulopathic at the time of admission (mean INR 2.2 ± 0.8). Of these 13 patients, 10 patients received PCC in an effort to reverse their coagulopathy. Mean INR before PCC administration was 2.01 ± 0.7 and 1.1 ± 0.7 after administration (P brain injuries.

  7. Attitude and Impact Factors Toward Organ Transplantation and Donation Among Transplantation Nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J-F; Wang, C-Y; He, G-P; Ming, Y-Z; Wan, Q-Q; Liu, J; Gong, L-N; Liu, L-F

    Health workers' awareness and knowledge of transplantation medicine can improve people's sensitivity and reduce their degree of opposition to donations. The medical literature contains numerous examples of attitudes toward organ transplantation and donation aimed at university students or medical staff members, but rarely for transplantation nurses. The purposes of the study were to investigate the attitudes toward organ transplantation and donation among transplantation nurses and to explore the impact factors. The study was conducted in 37 transplantation surgery wards in 22 hospitals using cross-sectional approach. SPSS (International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, New York, USA) 7.0 software was used to analysis descriptive and inferential statistics for data. Five hundred thirty-six effective questionnaires were received and the effective rate was 89.33%. Nurses' mean age was 28.40 years with a mean service length of 6.54 years. Among these nurses, 66.6% and 78.0% were willing to accept organ transplantation surgery for themselves and their relatives, respectively. Of these nurses, 33.4% would donate their organs after death; whereas 39.9% were uncertain. Only 38.2% were willing to register in the national organ donation system. Of these nurses, 28.2% were willing to sign the organ donation consent forms when their relatives became potential organ donors, and 45.7% were uncertain. Eight independent variables that affected nurses' attitudes toward donating their organs from most to least significant were: ratio of nurse to bed, title, employment form, age, length of service, position, monthly income, and the highest educational degree earned. Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant correlation among nurses' attitudes toward organ transplantation, organ donation, and online registration. The attitude toward donation and transplantation in the hospitals was not too optimistic, and an improvement in the training regarding transplantation and

  8. Ethical and policy issues surrounding the donation of cryopreserved and fresh embryos for human embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cynthia B

    2009-06-01

    The use of human embryos in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research raises significant ethical and policy issues associated with their donation. Recent research conducted in several countries assesses the percent of persons with cryopreserved and fresh supernumerary embryos willing to donate them for research, their reasons for considering this option, and the concerns they raise about its personal import. Such research provides new insights into rising ethical and policy questions associated with embryo donation for hESC research that should be addressed. In response to such questions, it is argued here that consent to the donation of supernumerary embryos for hESC research should be sought in two or three stages, depending on whether fresh or frozen embryos are at issue, in order to provide patients and their partners with sufficient time and information before they make a final decision. In addition, steps should be taken to support the voluntariness of their decisions by having personnel other than the treating reproductive specialist or stem cell investigators solicit their consent. Prospective embryo donors should also be given a choice about the uses to which hESCs derived from their donated embryos will be put in order to honor their ethical convictions and ensure that there are sufficient embryos for this research. The well-being and rights of those who donate embryos for this research require the sort of support and protection that can be provided by an ethical and policy framework that allows hESC investigations to move forward according to standards that are transparent and that resound with public values.

  9. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Organ Donation among Relatives of Patients Referred to the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouraghaei, Mahboob; Tagizadieh, Mohammad; Tagizadieh, Ali; Moharamzadeh, Payman; Esfahanian, Samaneh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous

    2015-01-01

    Organ donation is one of the surviving procedures, which can increase the life expectancy of end-stage patients. Inappropriate beliefs and attitude of individuals to organ donation, their poor knowledge, and the socio-economic level are one of the most important barriers for organ donation. Therefore, here knowledge and attitude levels among relatives of trauma patients regarding organ donation were evaluated. This cross-sectional study was done on relatives of trauma patients referred to the emergency department of Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, through 2013 to 2014. The questionnaire included parts of demographic data and socio-economic situations as well as status of knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation. A score between 0-7 was belonged to each person based on his/her level of knowledge. Attitude level had a score between 0-12. Chi- square, Fisher, and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to assess the relation between demographic variables and the level of knowledge and attitude. Porgan transplant. The main causes of disagreement among relatives regarding organ donation were dissatisfaction of the donor's relatives (25%) and religious issues (15%). 49 (62.02%) studied people had inappropriate attitude and 27 (34.2%) ones had good knowledge. male gender (OR=5.87; 95%CI: 3.32-8.42; p=0.001) and self-employed job (OR=7.78; 95%CI: 4.64-10.92; p=0.001) are independent factors associated with poor knowledge about organ donation. Self-employed job (OR=3.86; 95%CI: 1.41-6.11; p=0.009) and poor knowledge (OR=15.3; 95%CI: 9.03-21.57; porgan donation. The present study showed that 73.1% of participants agreed with organ donation. The major causes of disagreements were dissatisfaction of other relatives and religious beliefs. 62.0% of the studied people had positive view regarding organ donation and 34.2% of them well informed about. The most important causative factors for poor knowledge in this context were male gender and self-employed occupation. In addition

  10. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumin, Xie; Woo, Stephanie Mu-Lian; Lei, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People’s Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People’s Republic of China. PMID:24368880

  11. Organ donation by capital prisoners in China: reflections in Confucian ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxu; Wang, Xueliang

    2010-04-01

    This article discusses the practice and development of organ donation by capital prisoners in China. It analyzes the issue of informed consent regarding organ donation from capital prisoners in light of Confucian ethics and expounds the point that under the influence of Confucianism, China is a country that attaches great importance to the role of the family in practicing informed consent in various areas, the area of organ donation from capital prisoners included. It argues that a proper form of organ donation from capital prisoners can be justified within the Confucian moral context in which the proper interests of capital prisoners and their families, the benefit of organ receptors, and a rightful order of society should all be appropriately considered. From the Confucian perspective, the act of donating organs from a capital prisoner must be decided by both the prisoner and his/her family (i.e., each side should hold a veto power), whereas such donation, in the proper circumstance protected by a rightful procedure, should be appreciated as a morally praiseworthy act of the prisoner who is willing to make the final effort to repent and correct his/her evil conduct and to leave something good to the world.

  12. Effect of Interviews Done by Intensive Care Physicians on Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtan, D; Arslantas, M K; Dincer, P C; Altun, G T; Bilgili, B; Ucar, F B; Bozoklar, C A; Ayanoglu, H O

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we examined the correspondence between intensive care unit physicians and the relatives of potential brain-dead donors regarding the decision to donate or the reasons for refusing organ donation. A total of 12 consecutive cases of potential brain-dead patients treated in intensive care units of Marmara University Pendik Education and Research Hospital in 2013 were evaluated. For each of the cases, the Potential Donor Questionnaire, and Family Notification, Brain Death Criteria Fulfilment and Organ Donation Conversation Questionnaires were used to collect the required data. Statistically, descriptive analyses were performed. We concluded that honestly, regularly, and sufficiently informed relatives of the potential brain-dead donor more readily donate organs, with a positive contribution from the intensive care physician.

  13. Delayed Referral Results in Missed Opportunities for Organ Donation After Circulatory Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmpotic, Kristina; Payne, Clare; Isenor, Cynthia; Dhanani, Sonny

    2017-06-01

    Rates of organ donation and transplantation have steadily increased in the United States and Canada over the past decade, largely attributable to a notable increase in donation after circulatory death. However, the number of patients awaiting solid organ transplantation continues to remain much higher than the number of organs transplanted each year. The objective of this study was to determine the potential to increase donation rates further by identifying gaps in the well-established donation after circulatory death process in Ontario. Retrospective cohort study. Provincial organ procurement organization. Patients who died in designated donation hospitals within the province of Ontario, Canada between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2015. None. Of 1,407 patient deaths following planned withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy, 54.0% (n = 760) were medically suitable for donation after circulatory death. In 438 cases where next of kin was approached, consent rates reached 47.5%. A total of 119 patients became actual organ donors. Only 66.2% (n = 503) of suitable patients were appropriately referred, resulting in 251 missed potential donors whose next of kin could not be approached regarding organ donation because referral occurred after initiation of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy or not at all. The number of medically suitable patients who die within 2 hours of planned withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy is nearly six times higher than the number of actual organ donors, with the greatest loss of potential due to delayed referral until at the time of or after planned withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. Intensive care teams are not meeting their ethical responsibility to recognize impending death and appropriately refer potential organ donors to the local organ procurement organization. In cases where patients had previously registered their consent decision, they were denied a healthcare right.

  14. Knowledge and attitudes toward brain death and organ donation in Bojnurd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Sima Sadat; Nikbakht, Shima; Jouybari, Leila; Abadi, Mehdi Hares; Davoodi, Davood; Azizi, Tooba Hoseini; Yahyaei, Sepideh

    2017-07-01

    Organ donation in Iran is common. Bojnurd (North Khorasan, Iran) is a multi-ethnic city, and people with different religions and cultures live together and that could be associated with their behavior and attitude towards health-related issues. So far, no study has taken place on brain death and organ donation in the province of North Khorasan. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of citizens of Bojnurd toward brain death and organ donation. This cross-sectional study was conducted from March to September 2014, on 380 Bojnurd citizens who were selected through multi-stage sampling. The tool was a researcher-made questionnaire in three parts (demographic information, awareness and attitude surveys), containing 10 questions on awareness and 18 questions on attitude. The questionnaire validity and reliability were confirmed by content validity and Cronbach's alpha (0.76). The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16, using Chi-square, independent-samples t-test, and Spearman correlation coefficient. Significance level was set at porgan donation was moderate and the attitude toward organ donation in the majority (74.1%) was poor. In people with poor attitudes, awareness was also lower, and this was statistically significant (p=0.047). the attitude towards organ donation was negative in the majority of the citizens. In order to correct the beliefs, develop positive attitude and increase citizens' knowledge, public education is essential.

  15. A Comparison of the Request Process and Outcomes in Adult and Pediatric Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminoff, Laura A.; Molisani, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although existing studies suggest that factors affecting families’ decisions regarding pediatric organ donation mirror those for adult patients, health professionals working in this area maintain that pediatric and adult decision-makers differ in significant ways. This study compared the request process, experiences, and authorization decisions between family decision-makers (FDMs) of adult and pediatric donors and nondonors. METHODS: Perceptions of the donation request were collected via telephone interviews with 1601 FDMs approached by staff from 9 US organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Authorization regarding donation (ie, authorized/refused) was obtained from FDM reports and verified by using OPO records. Tests of association were used to estimate differences between FDMs of adult and pediatric patients. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify variables predicting FDM authorization. RESULTS: FDMs of children were significantly more likely to authorize donation than were FDMs of adults (89.7% vs 83.2%; χ2 = 6.2, P = .01). Differences were found between pediatric and adult families’ initial feelings toward donation, donation-related topics discussed, communication behaviors and techniques used, perceptions of the request, and receipt and preference of grief information. The likelihood of FDM authorization increased with the number of topics discussed and communication skills employed during requests. Authorization was not predicted by patient age (ie, adult versus pediatric). CONCLUSIONS: FDMs of children are willing to donate and experience no more psychological distress from the request for donation than do FDMs of adults. Communication emerged as a critical factor of family authorization, reinforcing its importance in requests for donation. PMID:26034251

  16. Organ and tissue donation: a trustwide perspective or critical care concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elding, Christine; Scholes, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Organ donation has become an accepted practice within the critical care setting; however, tissue donation is seldom considered within the ICU environment and even less in other hospital departments. This study describes the results from an early base line audit performed as the first stage in a larger action research project following the implementation of the Donor Liaison Scheme in an NHS trust. It was designed to assess the current level of knowledge, confidence and value system staff have, working in all areas of the hospital setting in relation to organ and tissue donation. The results from this audit highlight key areas for practice development across all areas of this NHS trust. Many healthcare professionals working within this trust are unaware that donation can be considered. The respondents identified a lack of knowledge and confidence to be able to identify and discuss the options of donation with a family, yet the majority believe strongly that a person's wishes should be respected after death. People who have signed on the NHS ODR anticipate that healthcare professionals will access the ODR and support their family in following through their wishes; therefore, all healthcare professionals should receive education on donation issues as an integral part of bereavement and end of life decision training. Education strategies that adopt an experiential approach should be developed in order to create confidence in healthcare professionals to offer choice in donation options

  17. From motivation to acceptability: a survey of public attitudes towards organ donation in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M B; Skovgaard, Lea Larsen; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well enough to avoid risking public support for organ transplantation. We conducted the study in Denmark because there have been significant developments in public attitudes to organ donation in this country. In the 1990s, Denmark was a country with very low public support for organ donation and Denmark was the last country in Europe to introduce brain death as a legal criterion of death, whereas today Eurobarometer surveys rate Denmark as one of the European countries with the highest support for deceased organ donation from brain dead donors. We conducted a telephone survey in Denmark (N = 1195). A questionnaire was developed on the basis of preceding qualitative studies and pilot testing and included reuse of one item from earlier surveys to facilitate historical comparison. The analysis of the data was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and focused on descriptive statistics. A clear majority of 91.9 % are positive or very positive towards organ donation; 85.8 % like the idea of their body being used after their death, 85.0 % is willing to donate their own organs, 82.1 % to donate their tissue and only 2.3 % find that too much has been done to promote organ donation. There is limited support for monetary incentives for organ donation (5.8 %) and presumed consent (30.4 %), while a majority (63.9 %) supports making it mandatory to register a personal decision. Religious self-identification has limited impact on attitudes. We can identify a shift over the past three decades from marked opposition to organ transplantation to strong support as well as a pattern in the contemporary public attitudes, which can help explain what is central to public acceptability: self

  18. A pilot programme of organ donation after cardiac death in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian

    2012-03-03

    China's aims are to develop an ethical and sustainable organ transplantation system for the Chinese people and to be accepted as a responsible member of the international transplantation community. In 2007, China implemented the Regulation on Human Organ Transplantation, which was the first step towards the establishment of a voluntary organ donation system. Although progress has been made, several ethical and legal issues associated with transplantation in China remain, including the use of organs from executed prisoners, organ scarcity, the illegal organ trade, and transplantation tourism. In this Health Policy article we outline the standards used to define cardiac death in China and a legal and procedural framework for an organ donation system based on voluntary donation after cardiac death that adheres to both China's social and cultural principles and international transplantation standards.

  19. Life and Death Decisions: Using School-Based Health Education to Facilitate Family Discussion about Organ and Tissue Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Deborah P.; Tamburlin, Judith A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Simon, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Public education that encourages family discussions about organ and tissue donation can enhance understanding, facilitate a donor's wishes and increase the numbers of donations. Action research methods were used to explore the impact of a student-initiated family discussion about donation. Most discussions were positive; only 7% middle school and…

  20. Prospective audit to evaluate the potential of the coronial system to increase solid organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twamley, Huw; Haigh, Andrew; Williment, Claire; Hudson, Cara; Whitney, Julie; Neuberger, James

    2016-07-08

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that organ donation from deceased donors referred to the Coroner/Procurator Fiscal (PF) could be increased if all followed best practice. The aim of this prospective audit was to establish how referrals affected organ donation and to develop evidence-based guidelines to ensure that organ donation can be facilitated safely without interfering in the Coroner/PF's investigative process. Prospective audit. All acute National Health Service Hospitals in the UK where deceased organ donation was considered. 1437 deceased patients who met the eligibility criteria for organ donation and were referred to Coroner/PF. Number of cases where permission for transplantation was given, number of organs where permission was refused and number of organs which might have been transplanted if all had followed best practice. Full permission for organ retrieval was given in 87% cases and partial permission in 9%. However, if full permission had been given where no autopsy was performed or restrictions seemed unjustified, up to 77 organs (22 lungs, 22 kidneys, 9 pancreases, 9 livers, 8 hearts and 7 small bowels) could have been available for transplant. Coroners/PFs and their officers show strong support for transplantation but improvement in practice could result in a small but significant increase in life-saving and life-enhancing transplants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Organ donation after brain death in India: A trained intensivist is the key to success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayanand Palaniswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ donation after brain death in India is gaining momentum but only in a few states. Tamil Nadu is leading in the country in this regard. Certain cities have performed well compared to Chennai′s results. A single tertiary hospital performed 28 donations in a 17 months period with a team of an intensivist and a transplant coordinator. An intensivist needs training and interest in this noble cause. There is no formal training program in this noble cause for doctors in India. A structured formal training needs to be introduced and made mandatory for the doctors in intensive care to make this donation process a successful program.

  2. Community Preferences for the Allocation &Donation of Organs - The PAraDOx Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irving Michelle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is the treatment of choice for people with severe organ failure. However, demand substantially exceeds supply of suitable organs; consequently many people wait months, or years to receive an organ. Reasons for the chronic shortage of deceased organ donations are unclear; there appears to be no lack of 'in principle' public support for organ donation. Methods/Design The PAraDOx Study examines community preferences for organ donation policy in Australia. The aims are to 1 determine which factors influence decisions by individuals to offer their organs for donation and 2 determine the criteria by which the community deems the allocation of donor organs to be fair and equitable. Qualitative and quantitative methods will be used to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. Focus group participants from the general community, aged between 18-80, will be purposively sampled to ensure a variety of cultural backgrounds and views on organ donation. Each focus group will include a ranking exercise using a modified nominal group technique. Focus groups of organ recipients, their families, and individuals on a transplant waiting list will also be conducted. Using the qualitative work, a discrete choice study will be designed to quantitatively assess community preferences. Discrete choice methods are based on the premise that goods and services can be described in terms of a number of separate attributes. Respondents are presented with a series of choices where levels of attributes are varied, and a mathematical function is estimated to describe numerically the value respondents attach to different options. Two community surveys will be conducted in approximately 1000 respondents each to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. A mixed logit model will be used; model results will be expressed as parameter estimates (β and the odds of choosing one option over an alternative

  3. Knowledge and attitude towards organ donation among adult population in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sandeep; Binsaleem, Saud; Al-Homrani, Mohammed; Al-Juhayim, Abdullaziz; Al-Harbi, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite the advanced medical science and technology, shortage of organs had led to a growing gap between the demand for organs and the number of donors. With a limited number of studies on the subject and based on those findings, the public knowledge and attitudes must be assessed to understand more clearly that why many people are opposing donating their organs in Saudi Arabia. The objective of our study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the adult population toward organ donation in Saudi Arabia. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study where the information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was distributed in both King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, and data gathered analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0). There were a total of 403 respondents. Nearly 35.6% did not have the knowledge that organ donation is legal in the KSA. Almost 97% did not know where to go if they want to become donors. All of who were willing to donate, the most common reason was to save someone's life (92.7%). Body distortion (39%) and fear of health complications (35%) were the most common causes people opposed donation. It was suggested that, in order to increase the awareness for organ donation, the important role of health workers and hospital displays should be immediately addressed and public lectures should be held on regular basis. Information regarding organ donation should be incorporated with clear messages in various mass media.

  4. Knowledge and attitude towards organ donation among adult population in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite the advanced medical science and technology, shortage of organs had led to a growing gap between the demand for organs and the number of donors. With a limited number of studies on the subject and based on those findings, the public knowledge and attitudes must be assessed to understand more clearly that why many people are opposing donating their organs in Saudi Arabia. The objective of our study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the adult population toward organ donation in Saudi Arabia. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study where the information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was distributed in both King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, and data gathered analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. There were a total of 403 respondents. Nearly 35.6% did not have the knowledge that organ donation is legal in the KSA. Almost 97% did not know where to go if they want to become donors. All of who were willing to donate, the most common reason was to save someone′s life (92.7%. Body distortion (39% and fear of health complications (35% were the most common causes people opposed donation. It was suggested that, in order to increase the awareness for organ donation, the important role of health workers and hospital displays should be immediately addressed and public lectures should be held on regular basis. Information regarding organ donation should be incorporated with clear messages in various mass media.

  5. Attitudes and behaviours of students from the faculty of theology regarding organ donation: a study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naçar, M; Cetinkaya, F; Baykan, Z; Poyrazoğlu, S

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of students from the Faculty of Theology of Erciyes University regarding organ donation. This study comprising all students (n = 264) showed that 51.6% of subjects to the kidney is an organ that may be donated; other organs were less known. 16.5% of the students thought that organ donation is not in accord with Islamic beliefs; 22.0% thought that it is permitted in Islam for Muslims to donate to non-Muslims, and 23.6% were willing to accept organs from non-Muslims. 23.6% of the students were willing to donate their organs, whereas 57.3% were undecided. None of the students had an organ donation card. Among students who did not consider donation or were undecided, 16.5% stated that it was "religiously inappropriate" and 13.3% stated that they did not "approve the loss of body integrity." Students declared that they had little knowledge regarding organ/tissue donation: 67.9% about the religious aspect, 78.9% about the legal aspect, and 80.5% about the scientific aspect. Only 24.6% of the group noted school education as their source of information, with 51.2% stating that they had been questioned about organ donation by society. With this study, we concluded that the student's knowledge regarding organ donation was not sufficient.

  6. Stimulus for organ donation: a survey of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Crist, K; Roberts, J P; Freeman, R B; Merion, R M; Reed, A I

    2009-09-01

    Federal legislation has been proposed to modify the National Organ Transplant Act in a way that would permit government-regulated strategies, including financial incentives, to be implemented and evaluated. The Council and Ethics Committee of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons conducted a brief web-based survey of its members' (n = 449, 41.6% response rate) views on acceptable or unacceptable strategies to increase organ donation. The majority of the membership supports reimbursement for funeral expenses, an income tax credit on the final return of a deceased donor and an income tax credit for registering as an organ donor as strategies for increasing deceased donation. Payment for lost wages, guaranteed health insurance and an income tax credit are strategies most strongly supported by the membership to increase living donation. For both deceased and living donation, the membership is mostly opposed to cash payments to donors, their estates or to next-of-kin. There is strong support for a government-regulated trial to evaluate the potential benefits and harms of financial incentives for both deceased and living donation. Overall, there is strong support within the ASTS membership for changes to NOTA that would permit the implementation and careful evaluation of indirect, government-regulated strategies to increase organ donation.

  7. Attitudes and beliefs on organ donation among students in a university in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohsen, Shahd S; Alobaishy, Somaya M; Alghammas, Nada I; Albulayhi, Shumukh K; Alrashid, Sarah M; Aljamal, Randah Y; Alotaibi, Maram M; Dandash, Khadiga

    2016-05-01

    Thousands of people with end-stage organ disease and organ failures die waiting for donations. Although, Saudi Arabia has an active center for organ transplantation, the number of donors is still low. The study focus was the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of university students toward organ donation, because the youth are agents of change in their communities and could help to promote organ donation.   This study had a cross-sectional design and included randomly selected 195 students (97 males and 98 females) between the ages of 19-25 in Qassim University between January and March 2013. A 23-question self-administrated questionnaire in both Arabic and English was completed. The questionnaire was pre-tested on 10 students for validity and reliability. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 13.  The primary source of students' knowledge on organ donation was television (61.5%). Most students (85.1%) believed that there is low public awareness regarding the subject. However, 37.4% of the students agreed to donate in the future and 68.2% would donate for a relative. One-third of students knew about organ donation cards, but none have signed them. The main reason for refusal was fear of side effects (51.8%). Half of the students (48.7%) think there are misconceptions of the Islamic perspective, as a result there are fewer donors. Medical students showed significantly higher knowledge about organ donation cards and the effectiveness of transplantation as a treatment compared to non-medical students.   College students have little knowledge on the benefits of organ donations. Further, religious misconceptions and accessibility of donor cards are barriers to donations. Public health promotion campaigns could address religious beliefs while a systematic intervention should be put in place to make donor registration more available. A nationwide study with a larger sample size

  8. Deceased Organ Donation Registration and Familial Consent among Chinese and South Asians in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alvin Ho-ting; McArthur, Eric; Maclean, Janet; Isenor, Cynthia; Prakash, Versha; Kim, S. Joseph; Knoll, Greg; Shah, Baiju; Garg, Amit X.

    2015-01-01

    Objective For various reasons, people of Chinese (China, Hong Kong or Taiwan) and South Asian (Indian subcontinent) ancestry (the two largest ethnic minority groups in Ontario, Canada) may be less likely to register for deceased organ donation than the general public, and their families may be less likely to consent for deceased organ donation at the time of death. Methods We conducted two population-based studies: (1) a cross-sectional study of deceased organ donor registration as of May 2013, and (2) a cohort study of the steps in proceeding with deceased organ donation for patients who died in hospital from October 2008 to December 2012. Results A total of 49 938 of 559 714 Chinese individuals (8.9%) and 47 774 of 374 291 South Asians (12.8%) were registered for deceased organ donation, proportions lower than the general public (2 676 260 of 10 548 249 (25.4%). Among the 168 703 Ontarians who died in a hospital, the families of 33 of 81 Chinese (40.1%; 95% CI: 30.7%-51.6%) and 39 of 72 South Asian individuals (54.2%; 95% CI: 42.7-65.2%) consented for deceased organ donation, proportions lower than the general public (68.3%; 95% CI: 66.4%-70.0%). Conclusions In Ontario, Canada Chinese and South Asian individuals are less likely to register and their families are less likely to consent to deceased organ donation compared to the remaining general public. There is an opportunity to build support for organ and tissue donation in these two large ethnic communities in Canada. PMID:26230320

  9. Helping With All Your Heart: Realistic Heart Stimulus and Compliance With an Organ Donation Request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Céline; Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Pictures and images are important aspects in fundraising advertising and could generate more donations. In two experimental studies, we examined the effect of various pictures of hearts on compliance with a request for organ donations. The solicitor wore a white tee shirt where various forms of hearts were printed: symbolic versus realistic (first experiment), none versus symbolic versus realistic (second experiment). Results showed that more compliance was found in the realistic heart experimental condition whereas the symbolic heart form had no significant effect.

  10. Knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation among medical students and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffner, Elke S; Windisch, Wolfram; Freidel, Klaus; Breitenfeldt, Kristin; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

    2004-06-15

    There is a discrepancy between demand and supply of donor organs for kidney transplantation. Health care providers can influence the willingness to donate or hold an organ donor card. It is unclear how educated current and future health care professionals are about organ donation and what constitutes their attitude toward this topic. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1136 medical students and physicians to evaluate the knowledge about and attitude toward organ donation and transplantation at a large academic medical center in Germany. The authors used a 28-item questionnaire that included items on knowledge, attitude, and demographics. Only 8% of the respondents felt sufficiently prepared for approaching relatives of potential organ donors. Knowledge about and attitude toward organ donation were highly associated with increasing level of medical education. In multivariate analyses, knowledge (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.25), attitude (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04), and level of education (OR for preclinical students, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.20-0.76 compared with physicians) were significantly associated with the likelihood of holding an organ donor card, whereas age, gender, and personal experience with renal replacement therapy were not. Higher medical education is associated with greater knowledge about and a more positive attitude toward organ donation. Health care professionals with a higher education level are more likely to hold an organ donor card and also feel more comfortable in approaching relatives of potential organ donors. Educating health care professionals about the organ donation process appears to be an important factor in maximizing the benefits from the limited organ donor pool.

  11. Organ Donation in Brazil: Analysis of Governmental Campaigns Under the Perspective of Social Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Benedito Oliveira Rezende

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Focus on Social Marketing: An analysis of the governmental campaigns about donation of organs in Brazil. Currently in Brazil the demand of organ donation is higher than the offer of them. Although the relevant legislation, which is identified in the country is a high demand of people waiting for a compatible organ donor and , on the other hand, a low supply of possible potential donors. Before this situation, the following research has as an objective to analyze the perspective of donors and potential organ donors in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil concerning social marketing strategies used by the government. To do so, a research in quantitative and qualitative approach was done. The data in the quantitative part was collected directly through a survey done with 412 individuals and for the qualitative part, 23 semi-structured interviews with people directly involved in the process of organ donation were held. The results indicate that one of the main factors which interfere negatively in the intention of donating organs is related to safety matters. It emphasizes, still, a low perception concerning the efficiency of social marketing campaigns towards organ donation. Yet, according to the interviewees , such campaigns should merge calls negative and positive in order to provide individuals in addition to the emotional awareness , emotional or cognitive imbalances.

  12. Attitudes of the Third-Year Nursing Students Toward Organ Donation: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpınar Söylemez, B; Ordin, Y S

    2017-10-01

    Health professionals can affect attitudes toward organ donation in society; therefore, priority should be given to exploration of attitudes of nursing students as important prospective members of the health profession. The goal of this study was to assess nursing students' attitudes and volunteerism toward organ donation. This descriptive study was performed on 240 third-year nursing students in Turkey between February 2016 and April 2016. Purposive sampling and a cross-sectional survey were used. Data were collected by using the Organ Donation Attitudes Scale, a valid and reliable instrument for determining attitudes toward organ donation in Turkey. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, and ratio), and correlation analyses were used. The mean age of the students, more than one half of whom were female (84.83%), was 21.63 ± 1.19 years. The students achieved mean scores of 105.84 ± 12.61 and 45.91 ± 15.74 for positive and negative items, respectively, on the Organ Donation Attitudes Scale. The positive items focus on humanity and moral conviction, and the negative items focus on fears of medical neglect and fears of bodily mutilation. The mean scores for humanity and moral conviction, fears of medical neglect, and fears of bodily mutilation were 105.84 ± 12.61, 22.58 ± 9.25, and 23.32 ± 8.66. The students displayed positive attitudes toward organ donation and volunteerism. They may have humanitarian and charitable feelings about organ donation but hesitate to commit because of their fear of bodily mutilation and fears of medical neglect. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Organ donation as transition work: policy discourse and clinical practice in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, K.T.; Avezaat, C.J.J.; Friele, R.D.; IJzermans, J.N.; Bal, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of patients become eligible for organ transplants. In the Netherlands, at the level of policy discourse, growing waiting lists are often referred to as a persistent “shortage” of organs, producing a “public health crisis.” In this way, organ donation is presented as an ethical,

  14. Modifiable factors influencing relatives' decision to offer organ donation: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkin, Arabella L; Robertson, Laura C; Barber, Vicki S; Young, J Duncan

    2009-04-21

    To identify modifiable factors that influence relatives' decision to allow organ donation. Systematic review. Medline, Embase, and CINAHL, without language restriction, searched to April 2008. Review methods Three authors independently assessed the eligibility of the identified studies. We excluded studies that examined only factors affecting consent that could not be altered, such as donor ethnicity. We extracted quantitative results to an electronic database. For data synthesis, we summarised the results of studies comparing similar themes. We included 20 observational studies and audits. There were no randomised controlled trials. The main factors associated with reduced rates of refusal were the provision of adequate information on the process of organ donation and its benefits; high quality of care of potential organ donors; ensuring relatives had a clear understanding of brain stem death; separating the request for organ donation from notification that the patient had died; making the request in a private setting; and using trained and experienced individuals to make the request. Limited evidence suggests that there are modifiable factors in the process of requests for organ donation, in particular the skills of the individual making the request and the timing of this conversation, that might have a significant impact on rates of consent. Targeting these factors might have a greater and more immediate effect on the number of organs for donation than legislative or other long term strategies.

  15. Perceptions about organ donation among African American, Hispanic, and white high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L; Lavoie, Nicole R; Scott, Allison M; Bosch, Dave; Morgan, Susan E

    2012-07-01

    We applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) to better understand perceptions of organ donation among African American, Hispanic, and White high school students. We conducted 14 focus groups with 18-year-old students to identify strategies to reach this audience when promoting the First-Person Consent Registry (FPCR) for organ donation. We found that African American, Hispanic, and White high school students are largely unaware of the need for organ donors, and are unfamiliar with how to join the FPCR. Participants identified more barriers to joining the FPCR than benefits. Two aspects of self-efficacy emerged related to joining the FPCR: decisional and task efficacy. Overall, few differences were found with respect to organ donation myths across the three ethnic groups. The results are discussed, with an emphasis on how the findings compare and contrast with previous organ donation research. We focus on message design and dissemination strategies for practitioners targeting 18-year-old high school students with organ donation promotional materials.

  16. Promoting organ donation to Hispanics: the role of the media and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frates, Janice; Bohrer, Gloria Garcia; Thomas, David

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of a paid media advertising campaign employing Spanish language, culturally sensitive television and radio spots airing on major Hispanic stations in southern California. An advertising tracking study with a baseline and three postintervention telephone surveys was conducted from 2001 through 2003 among 500 randomly selected self-identified, primarily Spanish language dominant adult Hispanics. Measures of organ donation attitudes and behaviors (decision and declared intent to donate organs) improved significantly (P fear that medical personnel might withhold care from identified organ donors, suggesting lack of knowledge and distrust of the health care system. Few respondents talked to health care professionals or contacted the organ procurement agency for information either before or after the campaign. Findings from this study indicate a need for ongoing public education in the Hispanic community about organ transplantation and donation. Health professionals need to become more engaged in encouraging Hispanic patients to learn about organ transplantation and donation, and to inform their families that they have made the personal decision to donate.

  17. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Organ Donation among Indian Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhar, K; Doshi, D; Srikanth Reddy, B; Kulkarni, S; Padma Reddy, M; Sruthi Reddy, S

    2016-01-01

    Of the overall 9.5 million deaths annually in India, nearly 100,000 are due to organ failure. To save and extend lives, organ donation and organ transplantation have become the only hope. Health care professionals (HCPs) are a key element in facilitating cadaveric organ donation process. To assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding organ donation among undergraduate dental students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 298 undergraduate dental students of the Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hyderabad, India. A 27-item self-administered questionnaire, which assessed the levels of knowledge (Q1-13), positive attitude (Q14-24) and practice habits (Q25-27) regarding organ donation with dichotomous scale (Yes/No). As compared to males, females reported better mean±SD scores in knowledge (8.22±1.51) and practice (0.91±0.8); higher mean±SD attitude scores (8.55±1.56) were reported among males (porgan donation and transplantation.

  18. An Exploratory Study on University Students' Perceptions of Posthumous Organ Donation Base on the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Hung; Chow, Amy Yin Man

    2017-08-01

    In view of the general support for organ donation but low registration rate in Hong Kong, the present research attempted to understand the attitude-behavior inconsistency by identifying the underlying beliefs for organ donation through employing the theory of reasoned action. A qualitative approach using semi-structured focus groups was adopted and 19 students from three universities in Hong Kong participated; 10 constructs were identified: attitude, subjective norm, helping, continuation, contribution, body intact, distrust to the medical system, indifference to organ donation, negative affect, and family burden. Findings suggested that their attitudes toward organ donation were of both the cognitive and affective nature; subjective norm of family, friends, and people they respect were identified as influential to students' views on organ donation. The study provided insight in promoting organ donation, that the cognitive concerns about keeping the body intact, and the negative affects introduced should also be addressed.

  19. The impact of social, cognitive and attitudinal dimensions on college students' support for organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A M; Peltier, J W; Dahl, A J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how college students can be social support catalysts for organ donation and how social, cognitive and attitudinal dimensions impact organ donor registration. A total of 317 people participated in the exploratory portion of the project and a total of 1800 responses were obtained from an online survey to members of a national student organization. The findings show that perceptions of the benefits of organ donation and altruistic motives had the greatest impact on the support for organ donation while respondents' knowledge about how to register to be an organ donor was the dominant dimension for donor registration status. Social-based communications had the next greatest impact for both support and donor registration. Based on the findings, an 18-month social media campaign was launched with the student organization that had 20 421 website visitors, 4473 Facebook members, 1189 YouTube video submissions with 164 000 views, motivated 19 623 people to go to a state's organ donor registration page, and had 9000 documented organ donor registrations. Within the student organization, organ donor registration increased by 28%. On the basis of these project results, Donate Life America and other sponsors have provided funding for two additional years. ©Copyright 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in Malaysia's multi-ethnic society: a baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's organ and tissue donation rates are among the lowest in the world. The study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in the diverse ethnic communities in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional, population-based, computer-assisted telephone interview exploring multi-ethnic participants' knowledge, attitudes, practices and behavioral on deceased organ donation and transplantation was conducted from February to April 2009. Although only 5.5% of the total participants (N = 1174) reported that they have registered to be organ donor, a further 35.2% of those who have not register for organ donation indicated willingness to donate their own. Significant socio-demographic disparities with respect to knowledge and attitudes scores were observed. In particular, Malays (20.7%) indicated lower willingness to donate organs compared to the Chinese (36.6%) and Indians (51.4%) (p donate one's own organ was associated with knowledge score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-1.22), attitude score (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05-1.31), secondary school education (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.05-2.02), and Malay ethnicity (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.03-0.94). Findings assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach out the diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities with cultural-specific information about organ donation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Toward Organ Donation Among Social Media Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, W M; Bin Abdulqader, S A; Aldayel, S S; Alfardan, A W; Alzaidy, N I

    2016-09-01

    Organ transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage organ diseases. The demand for organs has exceeded the available supply, which becomes a major obstacle worldwide. Identifying the factors affecting this gap will help in overcoming this obstacle. The purpose of the work was to study the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of organ donation and to determine the knowledge of brain death among social media users. A cross-sectional study was conducted among social media users living in Saudi Arabia. A pre-designed self-administrated questionnaire was distributed online randomly on social media networks in 2015. Of the total 1368 participants, only 913 met the criteria. Most respondents were between 18 and 29 years of age (61.2%) and living in the central region of Saudi Arabia (64.5%). The majority of respondents received their information from television (57%) and social media (50%) networks; 46.4% of respondents knew that the religious fatwa allowed organ donation; 51% of respondents were willing to donate their organs; 46.5% considered the brain-dead to be deceased, whereas 37.7% considered it a coma; 33.3% did not know if someone who was brain-dead would ever wake up; on the other hand, 323 (35.4%) said yes. Our study showed that the vast majority of our sample had enough information about organ donation. On the contrary, they had minimal knowledge about brain death. Moreover, a fair percentage of the participants had positive attitudes toward organ donation. Also, the media had a significant effect on the information about organ donation and brain death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Egalitarian and maximin theories of justice: directed donation of organs for transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, R M

    1998-08-01

    It is common to interpret Rawls's maximin theory of justice as egalitarian. Compared to utilitarian theories, this may be true. However, in special cases practices that distribute resources so as to benefit the worst off actually increase the inequality between the worst off and some who are better off. In these cases the Rawlsian maximin parts company with what is here called true egalitarianism. A policy question requiring a distinction between maximin and "true egalitarian" allocations has arisen in the arena of organ transplantation. This case is examined here as a venue for differentiating maximin and true egalitarian theories. Directed donation is the name given to donations of organs restricted to a particular social group. For example, the family of a member of the Ku Klux Klan donated his organs on the provision that they go only to members of the Caucasian race. While such donations appear to be discriminatory, if certain plausible assumptions are made, they satisfy the maximin criterion. They selectively advantage the recipient of the organs without harming anyone (assuming the organs would otherwise go unused). Moreover, everyone who is lower on the waiting list (who, thereby, could be considered worse off) is advantaged by moving up on the waiting list. This paper examines how maximin and more truly egalitarian theories handle this case arguing that, to the extent that directed donation is unethical, the best account of that conclusion is that an egalitarian principle of justice is to be preferred to the maximin.

  3. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  4. Organ donation after circulatory determination of death: lessons and unresolved controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, James F

    2008-01-01

    This article responds to the four pieces in this special symposium of the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics on uncontrolled organ donation following circulatory death (uDCD). The response will focus on lessons and debates about the kinds of consent necessary and sufficient for temporary organ preservation in the context of DCD and for organ donation itself; on conflicts of obligation, loyalty, and interest in DCD and ways to address those conflicts; and on benefit, cost, risk assessments of uDCD programs, including measures to achieve a more favorable balance of benefits, costs, and risks.

  5. Increasing organ donation via changes in the default choice or allocation rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danyang; Hawley, Zackary; Schnier, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    This research utilizes a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative public policies targeted at increasing the rate of deceased donor organ donation. The experiment includes treatments across different default choices and organ allocation rules inspired by the donor registration systems applied in different countries. Our results indicate that the opt-out with priority rule system generates the largest increase in organ donation relative to an opt-in only program. However, sizeable gains are achievable using either a priority rule or opt-out program separately, with the opt-out rule generating approximately 80% of the benefits achieved under a priority rule program. PMID:24135615

  6. Points mean prizes: priority points, preferential status and directed organ donation in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2014-02-24

    The introduction of Israel's new Organ Transplantation Act in 2010 has enabled the development of a unique priority point system aimed at motivating individual's to donate their organ. The priority point system rewards those who are willing to donate an organ with preferential status and an increased chance of receiving a donor organ, should they come to be in need of one. Preliminary evidence suggests it has considerable public support among Israelis, who appear willing to redress the challenge posed by those who are willing to accept an organ but not willing to donate. Since the Act's introduction Israel has witnessed record numbers signing donor cards and there has been a significant increase in the actual numbers of transplants.One aspect of the new Israeli system that has hitherto not much been considered is its tendency towards a communitarian model of organ donation and the implications this change in emphasis may have for the existing 'opt-in' model based upon autonomy and consent. Gil Siegel draws our attention to this aspect when he sets out his defence of a proposal he refers to as 'directed organ donation to other registered donors', which encourages community responsibility without affecting the established commitment to consent and individual freedom.This commentary provides a brief overview of the new Act and its priority point system. It also examines Siegel's proposal and considers the implications it may have for equity and justice, personal choice and dispositional authority. It is argued that although the proposal brings with it several inevitable hurdles for policy makers these are not insurmountable. Rather, its extraordinary potential to save life and avoid suffering should prompt urgent action at policy level. If such a scheme was successfully implemented in Israel it would represent a landmark change in organ donation and allocation policy, and set an example from which we all could learn.

  7. Willingness toward organ and body donation among anatomy professors and students in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Garza, Alejandro; Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Zarate-Garza, Pablo Patricio; Esparza-Hernández, Claudia Nallely; Gutierrez-de la O, Jorge; de la Fuente-Villarreal, David; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2017-06-02

    Most anatomists agree that cadaver dissection serves as a superior teaching tool in human anatomy education. However, attitudes toward body donation vary widely between different individuals. A questionnaire was developed to determine the attitudes toward body and organ donation among those who learn the most from cadavers: medical students, medical student teaching assistants, medical students involved in research, and anatomy professors. A cross-sectional, prospective study was designed in which the questionnaire was distributed among first-year human anatomy students before undertaking cadaver dissection at the beginning of the semester, and then again after a commemoration service at the end of the course. The questionnaire items included demographic data, as well as questions designed to characterize participants' attitudes regarding body/organ donation from strangers, family members, and whether participants would consider such practices with their own bodies. Out of a total of 517 students enrolled in the Human Anatomy course in the Medical School at the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico during January to June 2016, 95% responded to the first (491) and second (490) surveys. Participants' opinions on their own organ donation was similar before and after exposure to cadaver dissection, with between 87% and 81% in favor of such practices, and only 3% against it, in both surveys. Participants' willingness to donate their own bodies, as well as those of family members, increased, while reluctance regarding such practices decreased by half (P donation (74.9%), with 18.8% undecided. Low opposition toward organ and body donation remains prevalent among both anatomists and physicians in training in Mexico. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Balancing hope and despair at the end of life: The contribution of organ and tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wendy; Sque, Magi

    2016-04-01

    Concern for the grieving family can moderate the intentions of critical care staff to advocate deceased organ and tissue donation. Conversely, benevolent actions may provoke distress through missed opportunities to save or transform lives. This article provides insight into the perceived benefits of organ and tissue donation for grieving families who experienced end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. Data were collected via semistructured, face-to-face or telephone interviews with 43 participants from 31 donor families. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and subjected to qualitative content analysis. The study findings affirmed the importance of person-centered end-of-life care. Donor families shared examples of good-quality care and communication that contained the hallmarks of compassion, respect, dignity, and choice. We uncovered a trajectory of hope and despair in which the option of organ and tissue donation appeared to give meaning to the life and death of the deceased person and was comforting to some families in their bereavement. Our study findings underlined the significance of donation decision making for grieving families. Organ and tissue donation has the potential to balance hope and despair at the end of life when the wishes of the dying, deceased, and bereaved are fulfilled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Do Family Members of Dialysis Patients Have a Positive Attitude Toward Organ Donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Zakaria, Roza Hazli; Satar, NurulHuda Mohd; Ng, Kok Peng; Lim, Soo Kun

    2015-12-22

    Malaysia, which currently uses the informed consent system (ICS), is suffering from a severe shortage of organs for transplantation. Family members of dialysis patients (FMDPs) are expected to have a positive attitude toward deceased organ donation (DOD) because they have a close relative in need of a kidney donation. This study explores FMDPs' attitude toward DOD under the ICS and the presumed consent system (PCS). The attitude of 350 FMDPs toward DOD under the ICS and PCS were sought between June and October 2013 in 3 dialysis institutions in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Under the ICS, 6.6% of respondents were registered donors, 6.6% were ready to register at the time of the survey, 38.6% were willing to donate but not ready to register at the time of the survey, and 48.2% were unwilling to donate organs upon death. If the PCS were implemented, 57.7% of respondents (28.7% of the willing donors and 88.7% of the unwilling respondents) stated that they would officially object to organ donation. FMDPs' attitude toward DOD is not more positive or significantly better than that of the general public (based on earlier studies). The PCS may increase the number of donors, but it may also worsen the attitude of FMDPs toward DOD. Strategies aiming to promote DOD in Malaysia should be revised, and should perhaps be focused on enhancing trust of the medical system.

  10. Knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals toward organ donation and transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Alsaied

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify and assess the level of knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals (HCP in Qatar toward organ donation and transplantation, this cross-sectional study was carried out from October 2007 to February 2008 in the Accident and Emergency Departments and Intensive Care Units of the hospitals of the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC. A representative sample of 585 HCP working in the hospitals of the HMC was approached and 418 staff gave consent to participate in the study (71.5%. 36.8% were physicians, 48.6% nurses and 14.6% Emergency Medical Service (EMS technicians. Of the surveyed HCP, 40.7% were males and 59.3% were females. Majority of the staff were in the age group of 30-39 years (58.6%. More than half of the physicians (59.7% and technicians (57.4% assumed that organs can be bought and sold in the State of Qatar. Most of the physicians (76.6% and nurses (75.9% knew that brain-dead persons are eligible for organ donation, whereas only 57.4% of the EMS technicians thought so. Majority of the HCP supported organ donation; physicians (89.0%, nurses (82.3% and technicians (70.5%. The attitude of the physicians (24.0% and nurses (20.2% to donate a kidney to a family member was very poor compared with the attitude of the technicians (44.3%. Although the HCP support organ donation (83%, more than half of the physicians (51.3%, nurses (61.6% and technicians (54.1% wanted to be buried with all their organs intact. The findings, although they give cause for hope, suggest that there is much work yet to be done before organ donation and transplantation can become fully accepted by the medical community in Qatar.

  11. Knowledge and attitude towards organ donation among adult population in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Agrawal; Saud Binsaleem; Mohammed Al-Homrani; Abdullaziz Al-Juhayim; Abdullah Al-Harbi

    2017-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite the advanced medical science and technology, shortage of organs had led to a growing gap between the demand for organs and the number of donors. With a limited number of studies on the subject and based on those findings, the public knowledge and attitudes must be assessed to understand more clearly that why many people are opposing donating their organs in Saudi Arabia. The objective of our stu...

  12. From hesitation to appreciation: the transformation of a single, local donation-nurse project into an established organ-donation service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllström Krekula, Linda; Malenicka, Silvia; Nydahl, Anders; Tibell, Annika

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the transition from a local project to promote organ donation to a permanent county-based donation service inspired by the Spanish model. To address the problem of declining donation rates, a project with one donation-specialized nurse (DOSS) was initiated at a single neuro-intensive care unit. This project was later expanded into a permanent on-call service consisting of seven DOSSes, covering a large urban county. During the different periods (before, during project and during permanent service), the DOSS function's effect on donation rates was significant, and the number of eligible donors that became actual donors increased from 37% to 73% and 74%, respectively. The effect on family vetoes was as prominent with a decrease from 34% to 8% and 14%. The staff appreciation of the DOSS function was also evident during the periods; all areas included in the questionnaire (family care, donor care and staff support) have improved greatly owing to the DOSS. The transition from a single, local donation-nurse project, to an on-call service with several DOSSes covering a large urban county was a success considering the donation rates as well as the staff's appreciation. Hence, organizational models from abroad can be adjusted and successfully adopted.

  13. Improving cadaveric organ donation rates in kidney and liver transplantation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vathsala, A

    2004-09-01

    In the year 2001, cadaveric kidney and liver transplant rates (CadTx) in countries with well-established transplant programs such as the United States and Spain ranged from 51 to 61.9 and 18.7 to 31.3 per million population (pmp), respectively. However, overall kidney and liver transplant rates in Asia are significantly lower at 4.3 and 0.3 pmp, respectively. Improving CadTx rates to meet the needs of organ failure patients poses several unique challenges in Asia. Across Asia, there is a wide disparity in prehospital emergency services and intensive care facilities that allow victims of cerebrovascular accident or trauma to be sent to hospitals for optimal management. Identification of the brain-dead victim in an intensive care setting, donor referral to an organ procurement coordinator/network, making the request for organ donation, and obtaining consent for organ donation from the family are other critical issues that impact on successful cadaveric donation. While affirmative legislation regarding organ donation is existent in most Asian countries, religious, ethnic, and cultural influences on concepts of death and the sanctity of the human body remain major barriers to obtaining consent for cadaveric donation. Although there are no overt objections to CadTx among the major religions of Asia, perceptions to the contrary largely limit consent for organ donation from potential donor families. Development of transportation and communication networks, public and donor hospital education programs, legislative initiatives such as presumed consent, and establishment of effective organ procurement practices are all key initiatives that will improve CadTx rates. Broadening donor criteria as with the use of expanded criteria donors, including non-heart-beating and older donors, may further improve cadaveric donation rates by as much as 20%. Finally, ethical transplant practices that prohibit trade in organs will promote an environment conducive to cadaveric donation

  14. Neonatal and pediatric organ donation: ethical perspectives and implications for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Ashok Sarnaik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The lifesaving processes of organ donation and transplantation in neonatology and pediatrics carry important ethical considerations. The medical community must balance the principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice to ensure the best interest of the potential donor and to provide equitable benefit to society. Accordingly, the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN has established procedures for the ethical allocation of organs depending on several donor-specific and recipient-specific factors. To maximize the availability of transplantable organs and opportunities for dying patients and families to donate, the US government has mandated that hospitals refer potential donors in a timely manner. Expedient investigation and diagnosis of brain death where applicable are also crucial, especially in neonates. Empowering trained individuals from organ procurement organizations to discuss organ donation with families has also increased rates of consent. Other efforts to increase organ supply include recovery from donors who die by circulatory criteria (DCDD in addition to donation after brain death (DBD, and from neonates born with immediately lethal conditions such as anencephaly. Ethical considerations in DCDD compared to DBD include a potential conflict of interest between the dying patient and others who may benefit from the organs, and the precision of the declaration of death of the donor. Most clinicians and ethicists believe in the appropriateness of the Dead Donor Rule, which states that vital organs should only be recovered from people who have died. The medical community can maximize the interests of organ donors and recipients by observing the Dead Donor Rule and acknowledging the ethical considerations in organ donation.

  15. Neonatal and Pediatric Organ Donation: Ethical Perspectives and Implications for Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnaik, Ajit A.

    2015-01-01

    The lifesaving processes of organ donation and transplantation in neonatology and pediatrics carry important ethical considerations. The medical community must balance the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice to ensure the best interest of the potential donor and to provide equitable benefit to society. Accordingly, the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) has established procedures for the ethical allocation of organs depending on several donor-specific and recipient-specific factors. To maximize the availability of transplantable organs and opportunities for dying patients and families to donate, the US government has mandated that hospitals refer potential donors in a timely manner. Expedient investigation and diagnosis of brain death where applicable are also crucial, especially in neonates. Empowering trained individuals from organ procurement organizations to discuss organ donation with families has also increased rates of consent. Other efforts to increase organ supply include recovery from donors who die by circulatory criteria (DCDD) in addition to donation after brain death (DBD), and from neonates born with immediately lethal conditions such as anencephaly. Ethical considerations in DCDD compared to DBD include a potential conflict of interest between the dying patient and others who may benefit from the organs, and the precision of the declaration of death of the donor. Most clinicians and ethicists believe in the appropriateness of the Dead Donor Rule, which states that vital organs should only be recovered from people who have died. The medical community can maximize the interests of organ donors and recipients by observing the Dead Donor Rule and acknowledging the ethical considerations in organ donation. PMID:26636051

  16. Neonatal and Pediatric Organ Donation: Ethical Perspectives and Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnaik, Ajit A

    2015-01-01

    The lifesaving processes of organ donation and transplantation in neonatology and pediatrics carry important ethical considerations. The medical community must balance the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice to ensure the best interest of the potential donor and to provide equitable benefit to society. Accordingly, the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) has established procedures for the ethical allocation of organs depending on several donor-specific and recipient-specific factors. To maximize the availability of transplantable organs and opportunities for dying patients and families to donate, the US government has mandated that hospitals refer potential donors in a timely manner. Expedient investigation and diagnosis of brain death where applicable are also crucial, especially in neonates. Empowering trained individuals from organ procurement organizations to discuss organ donation with families has also increased rates of consent. Other efforts to increase organ supply include recovery from donors who die by circulatory criteria (DCDD) in addition to donation after brain death (DBD), and from neonates born with immediately lethal conditions such as anencephaly. Ethical considerations in DCDD compared to DBD include a potential conflict of interest between the dying patient and others who may benefit from the organs, and the precision of the declaration of death of the donor. Most clinicians and ethicists believe in the appropriateness of the Dead Donor Rule, which states that vital organs should only be recovered from people who have died. The medical community can maximize the interests of organ donors and recipients by observing the Dead Donor Rule and acknowledging the ethical considerations in organ donation.

  17. Family communication patterns moderate the relationship between psychological reactance and willingness to talk about organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Allison M; Quick, Brian L

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research has investigated how psychological reactance affects individuals' responses to health promotion messages, but little is known about how family processes might moderate the reactance process. In this study, 301 participants were exposed to a persuasive message about organ donation. The moderating role of family communication patterns in the reactance process was tested using hierarchical regression. We found that family conversation orientation had a direct effect on willingness to talk with family members about being an organ donor and that family conformity orientation and family conversation orientation each interacted with reactance to predict willingness to communicate with family about donation. Theoretically, these results extend psychological reactance theory by considering how interpersonal factors affect the reactance process. Practically, the findings suggest that for optimal impact, family processes should be considered in the design of messages promoting organ donation.

  18. Can I Donate My Organs If I've Had Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and After Treatment Be Healthy After Treatment Can I Donate My Organs if I’ve Had Cancer? Many cancer survivors want to ... procurement agency and the organ recipient. What if I’m not sure if my medical condition allows ...

  19. [Disposition for organ donation: analysis of a survey and trial of 974 respondents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, M; Remmer, N; Radünz, S; Frühauf, N R; Canbay, A; Paul, A; Kaiser, G M

    2013-12-01

    Due to the lack of donor organs many patients cannot be helped in time with the necessary transplantation in Germany. At the same time, there is an organ donor potential that is not being exploited. A high refusal rate with a low rate of organ donor card holders remains problematic. The objective of this study was to collect the rate of holders of organ donor cards in a collective and to evaluate the collective according to other attributes in the context of a targeted trial. In 2009, a three-part questionnaire including an educational text regarding the topic of "organ donation" was sent out to the employees of the Sparkasse Essen (a savings bank). Altogether, 974 out of 1480 (65.8 %) completely answered questionnaires were evaluated. 21.3 % of the respondents had an organ donor card at the time the survey was carried out. A statistically significant association between gender (p value, 0.0438), age (p value, 0.0267) and the possession of a donor card could be determined. 22.1 % of the respondents who participated in sports regularly or donated blood (p value, donate organs". In the framework of this trial, besides data analysis, also fundamental information on "organ donation" could be conveyed. After all, 95.3 % of the respondents have read the information material and hence document the success of the study. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Increasing Donation Opportunities for Vascularized Composite Allografts: An Analysis of Worldwide Donor Registries and Procurement Organization Web Content (VOLAR Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Katrina A

    2016-08-19

    There are 40 vascularized composite allotransplant programs across 5 continents served by 31 organ procurement organizations (or equivalent). The organizations' websites inform about organ and tissue donation. This research explored worldwide educational efforts on vascularized composite allograft (VCAG) donation via their corporate websites as well as options within donor registries and donor card systems to indicate a VCAG donation preference. Of these, 13 (41.9%) of 31 had VCAG content and 7 (22.6%) of 31 offered a mechanism for individuals to voice a preference about VCAG donation through an opt in donor registry or card or an opt out registry. In North America, the only donor registration/card system that facilitated VCAG donation is in Mexico. The resistance to consent for VACG donation is likely due to poor public education and the personal nature of face, hand, uterus, and penile allografts. Efforts to reduce this resistance can begin with the assistance of website content, registries, and donor cards.

  1. [Efficiency indicators to assess the organ donation and transplantation process: systematic review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Marina Martins; Araujo, Claudia Affonso; de Aguiar Roza, Bartira; Schirmer, Janine

    2016-08-01

    To search the literature and identify indicators used to monitor and control the organ donation and transplantation process and to group these indicators into categories. In November 2014, a systematic review of the literature was carried out in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), EBSCO, Emerald, Proquest, Science Direct, and Web of Science. The following search terms (and the corresponding terms in Brazilian Portuguese) were employed: "efficiency," "indicators," "organ donation," "tissue and organ procurement," and "organ transplantation." Of the 344 articles retrieved, 23 original articles published between 1992 and 2013 were selected and reviewed for analysis of efficiency indicators. The review revealed 117 efficiency indicators, which were grouped according to similarity of content and divided into three categories: 1) 71 indicators related to organ donation, covering mortality statistics, communication of brain death, clinical status of donors and exclusion of donors for medical reasons, attitude of families, confirmation of donations, and extraction of organs and tissues; 2) 22 indicators related to organ transplantation, covering the surgical procedure per se and post-transplantation follow-up; and 3) 24 indicators related to the demand for organs and the resources of hospitals involved in the process. Even if organ transplantation is a recent phenomenon, the high number of efficiency indicators described in the literature suggests that scholars interested in this field have been searching for ways to measure performance. However, there is little standardization of the indicators used. Also, most indicators focus on the donation step, suggesting gaps in the measurement of efficiency at others points in the process. Additional indicators are needed to monitor important stages, such as organ distribution (for example, organ loss indicators) and post-transplantation aspects (for example, survival and quality of life).

  2. Intimacy or utility? Organ donation and the choice between palliation and ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Organ donation after brain death provides the most important source for deceased organs for transplantation, both because of the number of potential organ donors that it makes available and also because of the unparalleled viability of the organs retrieved. Analysis of worldwide deceased organ donation rates demonstrates that all countries with high deceased organ donation rates (>20 donors per million population per year) have high brain death rates (>40 brain deaths per million population per year). This analysis makes it clear that countries striving to increase their deceased organ donor rates to world leading levels must increase the rates of donation after brain death. For countries with end-of-life care strategies that stress palliation, advance care planning and treatment withdrawal for the terminally ill, the adoption of initiatives to meaningfully raise deceased donor rates will require increasing the rate at which brain death is diagnosed. This poses a difficult, and perhaps intractable, medical, ethical and sociocultural challenge as the changes that would be required to increase rates of brain death would mean conjugating an intimate clinical and cultural focus on the dying patient with the notion of how this person's death might be best managed to be of benefit to others. PMID:23714404

  3. Facebook as a medium for promoting statement of intent for organ donation: 5-years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Michał; Klikowicz, Paweł

    2015-03-12

    The number of potential registered organ donors does not cover the actual demand in most developed countries. Therefore, methods increasing awareness and interest in organ donation, including modern tools of social marketing, are being researched worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present our 5-year experiences with a Facebook networking campaign - the Dawca.pl Club. The mission of the campaign is to raise awareness and educate Polish society on tissue, cell, and organ transplants, to increase public acceptance for transplants as a treatment method, and to increase the number of voluntary donors signing consents for organ donation. The project is based on the idea of creating a community promoting transplantation, focused around the Dawca.pl Club. At present the club has over 48,000 registered members - people who declared willingness to donate their organs after death. We present a description of members of this social networking service, the possibilities of using it to promote transplants and organ donation, and the efficacy of selected schemes for creating and publishing content on Facebook. The example of Dawca.pl shows that 2-way relations, spread over time, are required for social media to effectively engage and exert influence in a chosen sphere of public health and medicine. Unfortunately, at this time it is difficult to assess how such campaigns, apart from raising social awareness and acceptance, will affect the number of transplantations of organs from living and deceased donors.

  4. Organ and tissue donation in migrants: advanced course for cross-cultural mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, R; Guermani, A; Grosso, M; Fossarello, L; Fontaneto, C; Casciola, A; Donadio, P P

    2013-09-01

    Between 2004 and 2010 in Piedmont (Italy Northern Region) 1556 brain-death situations were reported, including 113 (7.3%) in migrants as potential organ and tissue donors. The health staff often has to face migrants, who show great cultural differences and language difficulties. The Molinette Hospital Customer Care Service, the Piedmont Regional Tissue and Organ Procurement Coordination Agency (RPC), and the Cross-Cultural Mediators Association (CMA) organized a special course for intercultural mediators, to decrease misunderstandings between the health staff and the migrants' families and to improve professional communication. In 2011, 28 cultural-linguistic mediators representing different groups of migrants in Piemonte took part in a specific course. Over a 5 month period they were informed about emotional and communicative aspects, proper to the moment of death, as well as organ donation as an intercultural field, the professional role of the mediator, the clinical and forensic aspects of brain death and donation, and the psychological aspects of organ donation. The course was organized by cultural-linguistic mediators of the CMA, the staff of the RPC and the teachers at Turin University. The list of the 21 mediators who passed the final exam was given to organ and tissue donation hospital co-ordinators in Piedmont, so that if necessary, they could obtain the cooperation of these qualified people.

  5. A Revised Iranian Model of Organ Donation as an Answer to the Current Organ Shortage Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Bastani, Bahar

    2015-09-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Six decades of success in the field of transplantation have made it possible to save thousands of lives every year. Unfortunately, in recent years success has been overshadowed by an ever-growing shortage of organs. In the United States, there are currently more than 100 000 patients waiting for kidneys. However, the supply of kidneys (combined cadaveric and live donations) has stagnated around 17 000 per year. The ever-widening gap between demand and supply has resulted in an illegal black market and unethical transplant tourism of global proportions. While we believe there is much room to improve the Iranian model of regulated incentivized live kidney donation, with some significant revisions, the Iranian Model could serve as an example for how other countries could make significant strides to lessening their own organ shortage crises.

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of Canadian First Nations people toward organ donation and transplantation: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Sara N; Jhangri, Gian S

    2014-11-01

    Organ donation and transplantation rates are low for aboriginal people in Canada, despite a high demand. An explanatory mixed-methods design was used to describe knowledge of and preferences for organ donation and transplantation among First Nations people and identify factors that may influence these preferences. We recruited on- and off-reservation First Nations adults. A 45-item survey was administered to 198 participants, of whom 21 were assessed further with a qualitative interview using a multiple case study approach. In an iterative process, themes were identified from qualitative data using critical realism as the theoretical framework. Critical realism is an approach that describes the interface between natural and social worlds to explain human behavior. Although 83% of participants were in favor of transplantation, only 38% were willing to donate their organs after death, 44% had not thought about organ donation, and 14% did not believe it was important. Only 18.7% of participants reported that their cultural beliefs influenced their views on organ donation and transplantation. In the multivariable analysis, the only factors associated with willingness to donate organs were higher education and considering organ donation important. Four themes emerged from qualitative data: importance of traditional beliefs, recognition of need due to the epidemic of diabetes among Canadian aboriginal people, reconciliation between traditional beliefs and need, and general apathy in the community. Cultural, socioeconomic, and political diversity exist between and within aboriginal groups. Findings may not be generalizable to other aboriginal communities. Willingness to donate organs was lower in these First Nations participants compared to the general population. Education to address knowledge deficits, emphasize the negative impact of organ failure on the community, and contextualize organ donation within the older traditional native beliefs to help First Nations people

  7. Decision-making regarding organ donation in Korean adults: A grounded-theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Kwon, Young Mi; Kim, Jung A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the hidden patterns of behavior leading toward the decision to donate organs. Thirteen registrants at the Association for Organ Sharing in Korea were recruited. Data were collected using in-depth interview and the interview transcripts were analyzed using Glaserian grounded-theory methodology. The main problem of participants was "body attachment" and the core category (management process) was determined to be "pursuing life." The theme consisted of four phases, which were: "hesitating," "investigating," "releasing," and "re-discovering. " Therefore, to increase organ donations, it is important to find a strategy that will create positive attitudes about organ donation through education and public relations. These results explain and provide a deeper understanding of the main problem that Korean people have about organ donation and their management of decision-making processes. These findings can help care providers to facilitate the decision-making process and respond to public needs while taking into account the sociocultural context within which decisions are made. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. The Negative Impact of Death Anxiety on Self-Efficacy and Willingness to Donate Organs among Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2009-01-01

    Chinese people are consistently reported to be less likely to commit to posthumous organ donation than the Westerners. This study aims at investigating how death anxiety may hinder them from expressing their willingness to donate organs. Among 290 Hong Kong Chinese adults (age greater than or equal 25 years), a higher level of death anxiety was…

  9. Religion, altruism, knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: a survey among a sample of Israeli college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that religiosity level, religion, altruism, knowledge, attitudes toward organ donation and registration status are related to future organ donation. The current study examines this association in a multicultural society such as Israel, which had not been studied so far. A convenience sample of 563 students was included in this cross-sectional study. Data about the study measures were collected by a structured and valid questionnaire. Results showed that willingness to donate was positively related to altruism level, positive attitudes toward organ donation and donor registration. However, level of knowledge had no impact on willingness. Finally, while Christian students were more willing to donate organs than students of other religions, religiosity was negatively associated with willingness to donate organs. These results suggest that positive attitudes, a signed organ donor card and a high level of altruism may ultimately translate into an act of donation in the future. Religion and religiosity level are still barriers to future organ donations in a multicultural society such as Israel.

  10. An online explorative study towards parents' opinions about organ donation : from individual decisions to family discussions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, Marion J.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Roodbol, Petrie F.; van de Wiel, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental decisions about organ donation by their child are influenced by many factors. One of these factors may be a previous discussion under non-crisis circumstances. The question then arises whether parents have thought about this topic for themselves and discussed it with each other

  11. A Televised Entertainment-Education Drama to Promote Positive Discussion about Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Georges E.; Rintamaki, Lance S.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates pathways between the exposure to an entertainment-education (E-E) television drama called "Three Rivers" and positive discussion of organ donation among viewers of the drama in the United States. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an online advertising for a period of one week. Survey participants…

  12. Recommendations for further improvement of the deceased organ donation process in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, Pieter; Ferdinande, Patrick; Hoste, Eric; Vanhaecht, Kris; Rogiers, Xavier; Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Deynse, Dominique; Ledoux, Didier; Vandewoude, Koenraad; Vogelaers, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Belgium has achieved high deceased organ donation rates but according to the medical record data in the Donor Action database, deceased potential donors are still missed along the pathway. Between 2010 and 2014, 12.9 ± 3.3% of the potential donors after brain death (DBD) and 24.6 ± 1.8% of the potential donors after circulatory (DCD) death were not identified. Conversion rates of 41.7 ± 2.1% for DBD and 7.9 ± 0.9% for DCD indicate room for further improvement. We identify and discuss different issues in the monitoring of donation activities, practices and outcomes; donor pool; legislation on deceased organ donation; registration; financial reimbursement; educational and training programs; donor detection and practice clinical guidance. The overall aim of this position paper, elaborated by a Belgian expert panel, is to provide recommendations for further improvement of the deceased organ donation process up to organ procurement in Belgium.

  13. An online explorative study towards parents' opinions about organ donation : from individual decisions to family discussions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, Marion J.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Roodbol, Petrie F.; van de Wiel, Harry

    Background: Parental decisions about organ donation by their child are influenced by many factors. One of these factors may be a previous discussion under non-crisis circumstances. The question then arises whether parents have thought about this topic for themselves and discussed it with each other

  14. A Televised Entertainment-Education Drama to Promote Positive Discussion about Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Georges E.; Rintamaki, Lance S.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates pathways between the exposure to an entertainment-education (E-E) television drama called "Three Rivers" and positive discussion of organ donation among viewers of the drama in the United States. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an online advertising for a period of one week. Survey participants…

  15. An online explorative study towards parents' opinions about organ donation : from individual decisions to family discussions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, Marion J.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Roodbol, Petrie F.; van de Wiel, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental decisions about organ donation by their child are influenced by many factors. One of these factors may be a previous discussion under non-crisis circumstances. The question then arises whether parents have thought about this topic for themselves and discussed it with each other

  16. Willingness to Participate in Organ Donation among Black Seventh-Day Adventist College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Malcolm; Cort, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors studied a group of black and white Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) college students (N = 334) to compare the power of religious socialization with racial socialization. Methods: The authors compared the levels of willingness to donate organs between black and nonblack students in an availability sample. Results:…

  17. Preliminary marked increase in the national organ donation rate in Israel following implementation of a new organ transplantation law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, J; Ashkenazi, T; Stoler, A; Cohen, J; Beyar, R

    2013-03-01

    Israel's organ donation rate has always been among the lowest in Western countries. In 2008 two new laws relevant to organ transplantation were introduced. The Brain-Respiratory Death Law defines the precise circumstances and mechanisms to determine brain death. The Organ Transplantation Law bans reimbursing transplant tourism involving organ trade, grants prioritization in organ allocation to candidates who are registered donors and removes disincentives for living donation by providing modest insurance reimbursement and social supportive services. The preliminary impact of the gradual introduction and implementation of these laws has been witnessed in 2011. Compared to previous years, in 2011 there was a significant increase in the number of deceased organ donors directly related to an increase in organ donation rate (from 7.8 to 11.4 donors per million population), in parallel to a significant increase in the number of new registered donors. In addition the number of kidney transplantations from living donors significantly increased in parallel to a significant decrease in the number of kidney transplantations performed abroad (from 155 in 2006 to 35 in 2011). The new laws have significantly increased both deceased and living organ donation while sharply decreasing transplant tourism. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Somatic survival and organ donation among brain-dead patients in the state of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Saibu; Thomas, Merlin; Ibrahim, Wanis H; Abdussalam, Ahmed; Chandra, Prem; Ali, Husain Shabbir; Raza, Tasleem

    2016-10-31

    The Qatari law, as in many other countries, uses brain death as the main criteria for organ donation and cessation of medical support. By contrast, most of the public in Qatar do not agree with the limitation or withdrawal of medical care until the time of cardiac death. The current study aims to examine the duration of somatic survival after brain death, organ donation rate in brain-dead patients as well as review the underlying etiologies and level of support provided in the state of Qatar. This is a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with brain death over a 10-year period conducted at the largest tertiary center in Qatar (Hamad General Hospital). Among the 53 patients who were diagnosed with brain death during the study period, the median and mean somatic survivals of brain-dead patients in the current study were 3 and 4.5 days respectively. The most common etiology was intracranial hemorrhage (45.3 %) followed by ischemic stroke (17 %). Ischemic stroke patients had a median survival of 11 days. Organ donation was accepted by only two families (6.6 %) of the 30 brain dead patients deemed suitable for organ donation. The average somatic survival of brain-dead patients is less than one week irrespective of supportive measures provided. Organ donation rate was extremely low among brain-dead patients in Qatar. Improved public education may lead to significant improvement in resource utilization as well as organ transplant donors and should be a major target area of future health care policies.

  19. Incentives for organ donation: proposed standards for an internationally acceptable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Arthur J; Satel, Sally; Munn, Stephen; Richards, Janet Radcliffe; Tan-Alora, Angeles; Ambagtsheer, Frederike J A E; Asis, Micheal D H; Baloloy, Leo; Cole, Edward; Crippin, Jeff; Cronin, David; Daar, Abdallah S; Eason, James; Fine, Richard; Florman, Sander; Freeman, Richard; Fung, John; Gaertner, Wulf; Gaston, Robert; Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Ghods, Ahad; Goodwin, Michelle; Gutmann, Thomas; Hakim, Nadey; Hippen, Benjamin; Huilgol, Ajit; Kam, Igal; Lamban, Arlene; Land, Walter; Langnas, Alan; Lesaca, Reynaldo; Levy, Gary; Liquette, RoseMarie; Marks, William H; Miller, Charles; Ona, Enrique; Pamugas, Glenda; Paraiso, Antonio; Peters, Thomas G; Price, David; Randhawa, Gurch; Reed, Alan; Rigg, Keith; Serrano, Dennis; Sollinger, Hans; Sundar, Sankaran; Teperman, Lewis; van Dijk, Gert; Weimar, Willem; Danguilan, Romina

    2012-02-01

    Incentives for organ donation, currently prohibited in most countries, may increase donation and save lives. Discussion of incentives has focused on two areas: (1) whether or not there are ethical principles that justify the current prohibition and (2) whether incentives would do more good than harm. We herein address the second concern and propose for discussion standards and guidelines for an acceptable system of incentives for donation. We believe that if systems based on these guidelines were developed, harms would be no greater than those to today's conventional donors. Ultimately, until there are trials of incentives, the question of benefits and harms cannot be satisfactorily answered. © 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Should commercial organ donation be legalized in Germany? An ethical discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, F; Winkler, U; Mayer, J; Stracke, S

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated the arguments pro and con concerning kidney sales from a German perspective. At present, we see social, medical, and ethical reasons why organ selling should not be legalized in Germany. Legalization of organ selling would weaken the principle of solidarity within the German health system. Conversely, profit making will undermine the principle of social justice. Within the present social system in Germany, there is no economic pressure to sell an organ to save life, and there is no medical need to buy a kidney. Also, there exists the risk that opening the market for organ sales will de-motivate potential directed organ donors. Relatives would have more doubts about giving their consent to donate organs of their deceased. Moreover, the historical experience with the "action T4" of the Nazi regime sensitized German society for the categorical imperative set forth by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), namely that man is not a means, but an end to himself. By selling one's kidney, the donor uses himself as a means and as an instrument for the end result of gaining money. With directed organ donation, the welfare of the recipient is the end result. The pending reform of the German health system needs a more communitarian sense, which will be eroded should organs be sold and no longer donated as gifts. Germany's special historical experience and a deeply embedded consent toward ethical values give reason for the prohibition of organ selling in Germany.

  1. Potential donor families' experiences of organ and tissue donation-related communication, processes and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; Hickey, B B; Radford, S T; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the experiences of families of potential organ and tissue donors eligible for donation after circulatory death or brain death. Forty-nine family members of potential donors from four Melbourne hospitals were interviewed to assess their experiences of communication, processes and the outcomes of donation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Families expressed a range of perspectives on themes of communication, hospital processes and care, the processes of consent and donation and reflected on decisions and outcomes. They expressed satisfaction overall with communication when receiving bad news, discussing death and donation. Honest and frank communication and being kept up-to-date and prepared for potential outcomes were important aspects for families, especially those of post circulatory death donors. Participants reported high levels of trust in healthcare professionals and satisfaction with the level of care received. Many donor families indicated the process was lengthy and stressful, but not significantly enough to adversely affect their satisfaction with the outcome. Both the decision itself and knowing others' lives had been saved provided them with consolation. No consenting families, and only some non-consenting families, regretted their decisions. Many expressed they would benefit from a follow-up opportunity to ask questions and clarify possible misunderstandings. Overall, while experiences varied, Australian families valued frank communication, trusted health professionals, were satisfied with the care their family member received and with donation processes, despite some apparent difficulties. Family satisfaction, infrequently assessed, is an important outcome and these findings may assist education for Australian organ donation professionals.

  2. Legal Issues Related to Donation of Organs, Tissues and Cells of Human Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mironov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific developments, positive changes in attitude of the man and the new legal framework allow the donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin. In this context it is necessary to clarifywhether the donation covered by the special law is, legally, one and the same as that covered by the Romanian Civil Code in force and qualified the successor’s right to accept or reject late withdrawals for transplantation. The right to life and physical integrity is personal patrimony; it is a subjective civil right that has no economic content and it cannot be measured in money. Consequently, the content of these rights can not be expressed in money, the property does not belong to their owner. Given the above view, "the right of disposal" to donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin is an attribute of ownership, right to life and physical integrity, as a personal right that is an intimate attribute patrimonial related to the person’s right to dispose of his body as it wishes, within the law. Addressing these issues it is necessary to clarify the legal consequences of donating organs, tissues and cells of human origin, considering that medical activities are becoming more numerous.

  3. Ethics, organ donation and tax: a reply to Quigley and Taylor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2012-08-01

    A national opt-out system of post-mortem donation of scarce organs is preferable to an opt-in system. Unfortunately, the former system is not always feasible, and so in a recent JME article we canvassed the possibility of offering people a tax break for opting-in as a way of increasing the number of organs available for donation under an opt-in regime. Muireann Quigley and James Stacey Taylor criticize our proposal. Roughly, Quigley argues that our proposal is costly and, hence, is unlikely to be implemented, while Taylor contests our response to a Titmuss-style objection to our scheme. In response to Quigley, we note that our proposal's main attraction lies in gains not reflected in the figures presented by Quigley and that the mere fact that it is costly does not imply that it is unfeasible. In response to Taylor, we offer some textual evidence in support of our interpretation of Taylor and responds to his favoured interpretation of the Titmuss-style objection that many people seem to want to donate to charities even if they can deduct their donations from their income tax. Finally, we show why our views do not commit us to endorsing a free organ-market.

  4. Should we allow organ donation euthanasia? Alternatives for maximizing the number and quality of organs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Savulescu, Julian

    2012-01-01

    There are not enough solid organs available to meet the needs of patients with organ failure. Thousands of patients every year die on the waiting lists for transplantation. Yet there is one currently available, underutilized, potential source of organs. Many patients die in intensive care following withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment whose organs could be used to save the lives of others. At present the majority of these organs go to waste. In this paper we consider and evaluate a range of ways to improve the number and quality of organs available from this group of patients. Changes to consent arrangements (for example conscription of organs after death) or changes to organ donation practice could dramatically increase the numbers of organs available, though they would conflict with currently accepted norms governing transplantation. We argue that one alternative, Organ Donation Euthanasia, would be a rational improvement over current practice regarding withdrawal of life support. It would give individuals the greatest chance of being able to help others with their organs after death. It would increase patient autonomy. It would reduce the chance of suffering during the dying process. We argue that patients should be given the choice of whether and how they would like to donate their organs in the event of withdrawal of life support in intensive care. Continuing current transplantation practice comes at the cost of death and prolonged organ failure. We should seriously consider all of the alternatives.

  5. SHOULD WE ALLOW ORGAN DONATION EUTHANASIA? ALTERNATIVES FOR MAXIMIZING THE NUMBER AND QUALITY OF ORGANS FOR TRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Savulescu, Julian

    2012-01-01

    There are not enough solid organs available to meet the needs of patients with organ failure. Thousands of patients every year die on the waiting lists for transplantation. Yet there is one currently available, underutilized, potential source of organs. Many patients die in intensive care following withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment whose organs could be used to save the lives of others. At present the majority of these organs go to waste. In this paper we consider and evaluate a range of ways to improve the number and quality of organs available from this group of patients. Changes to consent arrangements (for example conscription of organs after death) or changes to organ donation practice could dramatically increase the numbers of organs available, though they would conflict with currently accepted norms governing transplantation. We argue that one alternative, Organ Donation Euthanasia, would be a rational improvement over current practice regarding withdrawal of life support. It would give individuals the greatest chance of being able to help others with their organs after death. It would increase patient autonomy. It would reduce the chance of suffering during the dying process. We argue that patients should be given the choice of whether and how they would like to donate their organs in the event of withdrawal of life support in intensive care. Continuing current transplantation practice comes at the cost of death and prolonged organ failure. We should seriously consider all of the alternatives. PMID:20459428

  6. Current attitudes toward organ donation after cardiac death in northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiaoming; Liu Linjuan; Xiang Heli; Ding Chenguang; Ren Li; Xue Wujun

    2014-01-01

    Background People's attitude toward organ donation after cardiac death (DCD) has not come to an agreement in different countries and regions.Influenced by the local culture in China for thousands of years,the general public has different ideas about this issue.The purpose of this study was to investigate the current attitudes trend and characteristics of transplantation with organs donated after cardiac death in northwest China.Methods This largest single-center cohort study was performed by an interview or by telephone using a questionnaire.The family members of potential DCD donors were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital,medical college of Xi'an Jiaotong University located in a metropolitan area of northwest China.The 12-item attitude questionnaire was specifically developed from the literature review with coordinator,physician,and donor's family feedback.The participants were asked to rate the queries on a 5-point Likert intensity scale.Results The 174 participants included 56 (32.2%) women and 118 (67.8%) men.Most people were aged between 41 and 50 years (n=63,36.2%),31 and 40 years (n=59,33.9%),and less than 30 years (n=36,20.7%).The top five attitudes of participants were the best person to suggest organ donation to a family was ranked as the DCD coordinator of Red Cross Organization (RCO,n=160,92%),donor is a hero (n=143,82.2%),honor to be a donor's family member (n=136,78.2%),improved relationship with colleagues (n=124,71.3%),and with recipient after donation (n=123,70.7%).The best person to suggest organ donation to a family was ranked as the coordinator of RCO (n=160,92%),doctor unrelated to transplantation (n=104,59.8%),social worker (n=36,20.7%),and doctor related to transplantation (n=25,14.4%).The top two reasons for non-consent to donation were that the family insisted on intact body after patient death and did not want to have surgery again (n=51,41.5%),and feared that they would be misunderstood by neighbors

  7. Organ donation and transplantation in Mexico. A transplantation health professionals’ perspective

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    Luis Eduardo Hernández-Ibarra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to explore organ donation and transplantation in Mexico from the point of view of transplantation health professionals. Materials and methods. A qualitative study was carried out. Twenty six organ transplantation health professionals from seven states of Mexico participated. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted mainly in hospital settings. Critical discourse analysis was performed. Results. According to participants, living organ transplantation offers benefits for recipients as well as for donors. Several factors influence the field of transplantation negatively, among them the scarcity of resources that impedes the incorporation of new health personnel, as well as conflicts between transplantation teams with diverse health professionals and authorities. Conclusion. Besides increasing economic resources, transplantation health personnel should be sensitized to find solutions in order to avoid conflicts with different health professionals. Studies on organ donation and transplants also should include other social actors’ viewpoint.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of policies aimed at increasing organ donation: the case of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, J; Harrison, R; Atal, R; Larraín, L

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present an economic evaluation of policies aimed at increasing deceased organ donation in Chile, a developing country that has low donation rates; it had 5.4 donors per million people (pmp) in 2010. Expert opinions of leading participants in donation and transplantation were analyzed, resulting in a set of local policies aimed at increasing donation rates. Using previous results of reported cost savings of increasing kidney transplantation in Chile, we estimated the net benefits of these policies, as a function of additional donors. The main problem of the Chilean system seems to be the low capability to identify potential donors and a deficit in intensive care unit (ICU) beds. Among considered policies central to increase donation are the following: increasing human and capital resources dedicated to identifying potential donors, providing ICU beds from private centers, and developing an online information system that facilitates procurement coordination and the evaluation of performance at each hospital. Our results show that there is a linear relationship between cost savings and incremental donors pmp. For example, if these policies are capable of elevating donation rates in Chile by 6 donors pmp net estimated cost savings are approximately US $1.9 million. Likewise, considering the effect on patients' quality of life, savings would amount to around $15.0 million dollars per year. Our estimates suggest that these policies have a large cost-saving potential. In fact, considering implementation costs, cost reduction is positive after 4 additional donors pmp, and increasing afterward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Altruism, gift giving and reciprocity in organ donation: a review of cultural perspectives and challenges of the concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, C; Randhawa, G

    2014-10-01

    Living and deceased organ donation are couched in altruism and gift discourse and this article reviews explores cultural views towards these concepts. Altruism and egoism theories and gift and reciprocity theories are outlined from a social exchange theory perspective to highlight the key differences between altruism and the gift and the wider implications of reciprocation. The notion of altruism as a selfless act without expectation or want for repayment juxtaposed with the Maussian gift where there are the obligations to give, receive and reciprocate. Lay perspectives of altruism and the gift in organ donation are outlined and illustrate that there are differences in motivations to donate in different programmes of living donation and for families who decide to donate their relative's organs. These motivations reflect cultural views of altruism and the gift and perceptions of the body and death.

  10. Making the case for directed organ donation to registered donors in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2014-01-23

    The number of deceased donor organ donations in Israel is lower than average when compared to other Western World countries. To address the organ gap, the 2008 Organ Transplantation Law provides new interventions, including important incentives to donors (and their families). The most notable of these was granting priority to registered donors (i.e., people on the waiting list who signed a donor card). The current study presents the normative arguments as well as the first documentation of public attitudes in Israel towards another possible incentive - allowing individuals to influence the allocation of their organs by permitting them to designate, to direct their donated organs [DD] to other registered donors, instead of the current allocation based primarily on medical criteria. A structured phone survey of 695 Israelis was conducted during Feb-March 2012. The sample is representative of the Israeli society in terms of age mix and gender, with adequate representation of the Arab and ultra-orthodox Jewish subgroups. Among all Israelis, 68% stated a willingness to donate their organs, but only 16% reported to have already signed a donor card. 85% stated their interest in receiving an organ if the need arises. Overall, 64% of respondents felt that DD to a group of others who have registered as donors is justified, and the rate was remarkably higher in the Arab group (84%), and lower in the religious and ultraorthodox Jewish groups (52% and 50% respectively). The majority of the Israeli public supports organ donation and its proven benefits. Thus, organ recovery policy should be grounded in a strong communitarian strategy as we all stand to benefit from cooperation. However, current legislation and practices are modeled on individual disposition based on an opt-in legal framework. DD allows personal choices of to-be donors that might interfere with social interests, principles, and values such as equal access to care (i.e. organs) or justice. However, based on the

  11. International multicenter opinion study: administrative personnel from Spanish and Mexican health centers faced with human organ donation for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A; Ayala-García, M A; Sebastián, M J; Martínez-Alarcón, L; González, B; Ramírez, E J; Muñoz, G; Camacho, A; Rodríguez, J S; Martínez, M A; Nieto, A; Ramis, G; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2010-10-01

    Administrative personnel from healthcare centers are an important opinion group given their direct relationship to patients and the general public. The objective of this study was to analyze the attitudes of administrative personnel in Spanish and Mexican healthcare centers toward various kinds of donation. A random selection of 418 administrative staff from 32 primary care centers and 9 hospitals in Spain and Mexico ("Proyecto Donante, Murcia") used a validated questionnaire to explore attitudes. Most (76%) respondents favored deceased donation. Mexican workers had the most favorable attitude (Ppersonal experience of organ donation and transplantation (ODT), attitude toward living donation, attitude toward the donation of a family member's organs, discussion of ODT, partner's attitude toward ODT, participation in pro-social activities, and variables related to attitudes toward the body. Most respondents (89%) favored related living kidney donation (LKD) and 87% favored living liver donation (LLD). Mexican respondents showed the most favorable attitudes (Ppersonal experience of ODT, belief that a transplant is needed, willingness to accept a living organ, family discussion about ODT, partner's attitude about the matter, and respondent's awareness of the view of his or her religion toward ODT. Attitudes toward deceased organ donation were not favorable among administrative personnel from Spanish compared with Mexican centers, although attitudes toward LKD and LLD were favorable in both countries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethical controversies at end of life after traumatic brain injury: defining death and organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souter, Michael; Van Norman, Gail

    2010-09-01

    Death is more than a mere biological occurrence. It has important legal, medical, and social ramifications that make it imperative that those who are responsible for determination of death be accurate and above suspicion. The medical and legal definitions of death have evolved to include consideration of such concepts as loss of integration of the whole organism, loss of autonomy, and loss of personhood. Development of the concept of brain death coincided with advances in medical technology that facilitated artificial ventilation and organ transplantation. More recently, the process of "timed" death with subsequent organ donation (controlled donation after cardiac death transplantation) has raised controversial questions having to do with the limits of treatments that facilitate organ transplant but might hasten death, and the duration of cardiac arrest necessary for declaration of death and the commencement of organ procurement. In this review, we discuss the background and ethical ramifications of the concepts of brain death, and of controversies involved in controlled donation after cardiac death organ transplantation.

  13. Consenting options for posthumous organ donation: presumed consent and incentives are not favored

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Posthumous organ procurement is hindered by the consenting process. Several consenting systems have been proposed. There is limited information on public relative attitudes towards various consenting systems, especially in Middle Eastern/Islamic countries. Methods We surveyed 698 Saudi Adults attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital. Preference and perception of norm regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation were explored. Participants ranked (1, most agreeable) the following, randomly-presented, options from 1 to 11: no-organ-donation, presumed consent, informed consent by donor-only, informed consent by donor-or-surrogate, and mandatory choice; the last three options ± medical or financial incentive. Results Mean(SD) age was 32(9) year, 27% were males, 50% were patients’ companions, 60% had ≥ college education, and 20% and 32%, respectively, knew an organ donor or recipient. Mandated choice was among the top three choices for preference of 54% of respondents, with an overall median[25%,75%] ranking score of 3[2,6], and was preferred over donor-or-surrogate informed consent (4[2,7], p organ donation (11[7,11] vs. 11[6,11], respectively, p = 0.002). Compared to females, males more perceived donor-or-surrogate informed consent as the norm (3[1,6] vs. 5[3,7], p organ donor or recipient. Conclusions We conclude that: 1) most respondents were in favor of posthumous organ donation, 2) mandated choice system was the most preferred and presumed consent system was the least preferred, 3) there was no difference between preference and perception of norm in consenting systems ranking, and 4) financial (especially in females) and medical (especially in males) incentives reduced preference. PMID:23173834

  14. Transcendental Spirituality and Acquaintance With the Activities of the Domestic National Transplant Center as Factors Shaping Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Semyon; Ashkenazi, Tamar; Amara, Muhammad; Peles Bortz, Anat

    2017-06-01

    Organ donation has been shown to be perceived as inappropriate by religiously observant individuals. The impact of spirituality level on attitudes toward organ donation has not been broadly explored. To explore the contribution of ethnicity, spirituality, level of religious observance, and acquaintance with the activities of the Israel National Transplant Center (INTC) to forming attitudes toward organ donation among Jews and Muslim Arabs in Israel. A descriptive cross-sectional survey. Three hundred five (65.2%) Jewish and 163 (34.8%) Muslim Arab respondents living in Israel. Jewish respondents had more positive attitudes toward organ donation than Muslim Arabs. Muslim Arabs had a higher mean spirituality score than Jews. Gender, age, ethnicity, level of religious observance, education, 4 spirituality dimensions, and acquaintance with the activities of the INTC explained 41.5% of the variance in attitudes to organ donation. Transcendental spirituality, acquaintance with the activities of the INTC, and level of religious observance had the highest contribution to explaining attitudes to organ donation, while gender and age had a low contribution. Ethnicity, education, and the 3 other spirituality dimensions were not found to have a significant contribution. A multifaceted approach to improving attitudes toward organ donation among Jews and Muslim Arabs in Israel is important.

  15. Tacitly consenting to donate one’s organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. den Hartogh

    2011-01-01

    The common objection to opt-out systems of postmortal organ procurement is that they allow removal of a deceased person's organs without their actual consent. However, under certain conditions it is possible for ‘silence’—failure to register any objection—conventionally and/or legally to count as ge

  16. The history of organ donation and transplantation in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Ahad J

    2014-03-01

    The first kidney transplant in Iran was performed in 1967, and this was the first organ transplant in countries that are current members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. In 1988, in response to the long waiting list at the Iranian Ministry of Health for kidney transplant, a state-regulated living-unrelated donor kidney transplant program was adopted. By 1999, the kidney transplant waiting list in Iran was eliminated. In 1989, a fatwa (religious approval) from the Supreme Religious Leader was obtained that recognized brain death and allowed deceased-donor organ transplant. Subsequently, transplant centers began performing deceased-donor kidney, liver, and heart transplants. In 2000, the Brain Death and Organ Transplantation Act was passed by the Iranian parliament, legalizing deceased-donor organ transplant. The transplant team at Shiraz began performing more deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants and became a successful deceased-donor organ transplant model in the country. By the end of 2012, there were 34166 kidney (including 4436 deceased-donor) and 2021 liver (including 1788 deceased-donor), 482 heart, 147 pancreas, 63 lung, and several intestine and multiorgan transplants performed in Iran. In 2011, there were 2771 solid-organ transplants performed in Iran (37 transplants per million population), and Iran ranked as number 33 among the 50 most active countries worldwide. In 2011 and 2012, Iran was ahead of all country members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation in performing deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants.

  17. Organ donation and culture: a comparison of Asian American and European American beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, D L; Cheung, A H S

    2000-02-01

    The well-known gap between organ-donor supply and demand in the United States is particularly acute for Asian Americans. Lower participation in organ donation programs by Asian Americans has been hypothesized as one explanation for this observation. This study finds that, relative to European Americans, Asian Americans hold more negative attitudes toward and participate less frequently in a large, urban organ-donor program. The study also hypothesizes and test possible reasons for subcultural differences in attitudes toward donation. Two cultural belief constructs hypothesized to more strongly predict Asian American attitudes and behaviors appear to impact both groups equally. Reasons for these results along with public policy implications and future research directions are discussed.

  18. Increasing organ donation via changes in the default choice or allocation rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danyang; Hawley, Zackary; Schnier, Kurt

    2013-12-01

    This research utilizes a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative public policies targeted at increasing the rate of deceased donor organ donation. The experiment includes treatments across different default choices and organ allocation rules inspired by the donor registration systems applied in different countries. Our results indicate that the opt-out with priority rule system generates the largest increase in organ donation relative to an opt-in only program. However, sizeable gains are achievable using either a priority rule or opt-out program separately, with the opt-out rule generating approximately 80% of the benefits achieved under a priority rule program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. End-of-life practices in patients with devastating brain injury in Spain: implications for organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Gil, B; Coll, E; Pont, T; Lebrón, M; Miñambres, E; Coronil, A; Quindós, B; Herrero, J E; Liébanas, C; Marcelo, B; Sanmartín, A M; Matesanz, R

    2017-04-01

    To describe end-of-life care practices relevant to organ donation in patients with devastating brain injury in Spain. A multicenter prospective study of a retrospective cohort. 1 November 2014 to 30 April 2015. Sixty-eight hospitals authorized for organ procurement. Patients dying from devastating brain injury (possible donors). Age: 1 month-85 years. Type of care, donation after brain death, donation after circulatory death, intubation/ventilation, referral to the donor coordinator. A total of 1,970 possible donors were identified, of which half received active treatment in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) until brain death (27%), cardiac arrest (5%) or the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy (19%). Of the rest, 10% were admitted to the ICU to facilitate organ donation, while 39% were not admitted to the ICU. Of those patients who evolved to a brain death condition (n=695), most transitioned to actual donation (n=446; 64%). Of those who died following the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy (n=537), 45 (8%) were converted into actual donation after circulatory death donors. The lack of a dedicated donation after circulatory death program was the main reason for non-donation. Thirty-seven percent of the possible donors were not intubated/ventilated at death, mainly because the professional in charge did not consider donation alter discarding therapeutic intubation. Thirty-six percent of the possible donors were never referred to the donor coordinator. Although deceased donation is optimized in Spain, there are still opportunities for improvement in the identification of possible donors outside the ICU and in the consideration of donation after circulatory death in patients who die following the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. Guide for Psychological Care of Patients and Families in the Organ Donation and Transplantation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplants are an expression of the scientific and technological development reached by sciences up to the present, especially in the field of medicine. For a transplant to occur there must be a donation (donor and reception (recipient and the act of donating reflects all the subjectivity of human beings, marked by the culture, environment, education, beliefs, ethical dilemmas and attitudes. This explains why the psychologist is an essential part of the multidisciplinary team. This guide define the steps, psychological techniques for diagnosis and psychological intervention, ethical aspects and other elements of interest to ensure the quality of psychological care in the context of organ donation and transplantation. To achieve this objective, we consulted the existing scientific literature on the subject, including guidelines of the World Health Organization, and the document was created by using the best references found in the review. The guide is a tool to guide the work of the psychologists who are part of the multidisciplinary teams involved in the acquisition and transplant of organs and it is consistent with the guidelines of the World Health Organization and experiences of Cuba and other countries.

  1. Advance statement of consent from patients with primary CNS tumours to organ donation and elective ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Umang Jash

    2013-03-01

    A deficit in the number of organs available for transplantation persists even with an increase in donation rates. One possible choice of donor for organs that appears under-referred and/or unaccepted is patients with primary brain tumours. In spite of advances in the treatment of high-grade primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours, the prognosis remains dire. A working group on organs from donors with primary CNS tumours showed that the risk of transmission is small and outweighs the benefits of waiting for a normal donor, in survival and organ life-years, with caveats. This paper explores the possibility that, if information on organ donation were made available to patients and their families with knowledge of their inevitable fate, perhaps some will choose to donate. It would be explained that to achieve this, elective ventilation would be performed in their final moments. This would obviate the consent question because of an advance statement. It is accepted that these are sensitive matters and there will be logistic issues. This will need discussion with the public and other professionals, but it could increase the number of donors and can be extrapolated to encompass other primary CNS tumours.

  2. How does the general public view posthumous organ donation? A meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Joshua D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many individuals are unwilling to become posthumous organ donors, resulting in a disparity between the supply and demand for organ transplants. A meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature was therefore conducted to determine how the general public views posthumous organ donation. Methods Three online databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus were searched for articles published between January 1990 and May 2008 using the following search terms: organ donation, qualitative, interview. Eligibility criteria were: examination of beliefs about posthumous organ donation; utilization of a qualitative research design; and publication in an English peer-reviewed journal. Exclusion criteria were examining how health professionals or family members of organ donors viewed posthumous organ donation. Grounded theory was used to identify the beliefs emerging from this literature. Thematically-related beliefs were then grouped to form themes. Results 27 articles from 24 studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The major themes identified were: religion, death, altruism, personal relevance, the body, the family, medical professionals, and transplant recipients. An altruistic motivation to help others emerged as the most commonly identified motivator for becoming an organ donor, although feeling a sense of solidarity with the broader community and believing that donated organs are put to good use may be important preconditions for the emergence of this motivation. The two most commonly identified barriers were the need to maintain bodily integrity to safeguard progression into the afterlife and the unethical recovery of organs by medical professionals. The influence of stakeholder groups on willingness to become an organ donor was also found to vary by the level of control that each stakeholder group exerted over the donation recovery process and their perceived conflict of interest in wanting organ donation to proceed. Conclusions

  3. The influence of socioeconomic and demographic variables on willingness to donate cadaveric human organs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Manikam, Rishya; Chandarsekaran, Sankara K; Thangiah, Govindamal; Puspharajan, Saravanan; Swaminathan, Dasan

    2014-11-01

    The growing shortage in human organs has raised serious concerns. To address this problem, we examine in this article the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors, and respondents' willingness to donate cadaveric organs using a large survey of Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above.A convenience sampling method was used to extract information from a total of 10,350 participants from Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur over the period of April 2, 2013 to February 29, 2014. In addition to analyzing the data using incidence of willingness to donate by demographic and socioeconomic factors, we carried out logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio of respondents' willingness to become cadaveric organ donors controlling for age.About less than a third of the participants pledged to donate their organs upon death with women (35.6%) showing a higher incidence compared with men (33.2%). The Chinese (35.7%) and Malays (35.0%) pledged to contribute more than the Indians (31.6%) and the logistic regressions show that Malays (adjusted odds ration [OR] = 1.18) and Chinese (adjusted OR = 1.21) are more likely to donate than Indians (reference group). The results by religion were significant among Muslims and Hindus but not Buddhists. The likelihood of Muslims donating was the lowest (adjusted OR = 0.26). Income was also highly significant but the relationship with willingness to donate was negative. Against tertiary education, all other occupations were significant. However, the respondents with primary education enjoyed the highest adjusted OR (5.46) whereas that of secondary (0.48) and higher secondary (0.83) education was low. Among occupations (against supervisory, clerical, and direct workers), it was significant only among the unemployed and managers with adjusted OR of 1.50 and 1.58, respectively.Sex, education, ethnicity, religion, and income are important demographic and socioeconomic influences on the likelihood of Malaysians willing to become

  4. The Influence of Socioeconomic and Demographic Variables on Willingness to Donate Cadaveric Human Organs in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Manikam, Rishya; Chandarsekaran, Sankara K.; Thangiah, Govindamal; Puspharajan, Saravanan; Swaminathan, Dasan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The growing shortage in human organs has raised serious concerns. To address this problem, we examine in this article the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors, and respondents’ willingness to donate cadaveric organs using a large survey of Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above. A convenience sampling method was used to extract information from a total of 10,350 participants from Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur over the period of April 2, 2013 to February 29, 2014. In addition to analyzing the data using incidence of willingness to donate by demographic and socioeconomic factors, we carried out logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio of respondents’ willingness to become cadaveric organ donors controlling for age. About less than a third of the participants pledged to donate their organs upon death with women (35.6%) showing a higher incidence compared with men (33.2%). The Chinese (35.7%) and Malays (35.0%) pledged to contribute more than the Indians (31.6%) and the logistic regressions show that Malays (adjusted odds ration [OR] = 1.18) and Chinese (adjusted OR = 1.21) are more likely to donate than Indians (reference group). The results by religion were significant among Muslims and Hindus but not Buddhists. The likelihood of Muslims donating was the lowest (adjusted OR = 0.26). Income was also highly significant but the relationship with willingness to donate was negative. Against tertiary education, all other occupations were significant. However, the respondents with primary education enjoyed the highest adjusted OR (5.46) whereas that of secondary (0.48) and higher secondary (0.83) education was low. Among occupations (against supervisory, clerical, and direct workers), it was significant only among the unemployed and managers with adjusted OR of 1.50 and 1.58, respectively. Sex, education, ethnicity, religion, and income are important demographic and socioeconomic influences on the likelihood of

  5. Intra-hospital organ and tissue donation coordination project: cost-effectiveness and social benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa Silva e; Moura, Luciana Carvalho; Leite, Renata Fabiana; Oliveira, Priscilla Caroliny de; Schirmer, Janine; Roza, Bartira De' Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the viability of a professional specialist in intra-hospital committees of organ and tissue donation for transplantation.METHODS Epidemiological, retrospective and cross-sectional study (2003-2011 and 2008-2012), which was performed using organ donation for transplants data in the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Nine hospitals were evaluated (hospitals 1 to 9). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the differences in the number of brain death referrals and actual donors (dependent variables) after the professional specialist started work (independent variable) at the intra-hospital committee of organ and tissue donation for transplantation. To evaluate the hospital invoicing, the hourly wage of the doctor and registered nurse, according to the legislation of the Consolidation of Labor Laws, were calculated, as were the investment return and the time elapsed to do so.RESULTS Following the nursing specialist commencement on the committee, brain death referrals and the number of actual donors increased at hospital 2 (4.17 and 1.52, respectively). At hospital 7, the number of actual donors also increased from 0.005 to 1.54. In addition, after the nurse started working, hospital revenues increased by 190.0% (ranging 40.0% to 1.955%). The monthly cost for the nurse working 20 hours was US$397.97 while the doctor would cost US$3,526.67. The return on investment was 275% over the short term (0.36 years).CONCLUSIONS This paper showed that including a professional specialist in intra-hospital committees for organ and tissue donation for transplantation proved to be cost-effective. Further economic research in the area could contribute to the efficient public policy implementation of this organ and tissue harvesting model.

  6. Intra-hospital organ and tissue donation coordination project: cost-effectiveness and social benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Silva e Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the viability of a professional specialist in intra-hospital committees of organ and tissue donation for transplantation.METHODS Epidemiological, retrospective and cross-sectional study (2003-2011 and 2008-2012, which was performed using organ donation for transplants data in the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Nine hospitals were evaluated (hospitals 1 to 9. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the differences in the number of brain death referrals and actual donors (dependent variables after the professional specialist started work (independent variable at the intra-hospital committee of organ and tissue donation for transplantation. To evaluate the hospital invoicing, the hourly wage of the doctor and registered nurse, according to the legislation of the Consolidation of Labor Laws, were calculated, as were the investment return and the time elapsed to do so.RESULTS Following the nursing specialist commencement on the committee, brain death referrals and the number of actual donors increased at hospital 2 (4.17 and 1.52, respectively. At hospital 7, the number of actual donors also increased from 0.005 to 1.54. In addition, after the nurse started working, hospital revenues increased by 190.0% (ranging 40.0% to 1.955%. The monthly cost for the nurse working 20 hours was US$397.97 while the doctor would cost US$3,526.67. The return on investment was 275% over the short term (0.36 years.CONCLUSIONS This paper showed that including a professional specialist in intra-hospital committees for organ and tissue donation for transplantation proved to be cost-effective. Further economic research in the area could contribute to the efficient public policy implementation of this organ and tissue harvesting model.

  7. Perceptions of the gift relationship in organ and tissue donation: Views of intensivists and donor and recipient coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rhonda

    2010-02-01

    The international literature on organ donation and transplantation has drawn attention to the popularity of "gift of life" discourse among pro-donation advocates, transplantation specialists, and within organisations lobbying for improved donation rates to promote the benefits of organ donation among members of the general public. In Aotearoa/New Zealand, gift of life discourse is robust. Aside from attempts to elicit altruism by promoting tissue donation in the public domain, gift terminology separates the act of donation from that of commerce and the commodification of body tissues. In distancing donation from commodification and the potential to degrade and exploit human beings, it is assumed that gift discourse transmits the positive message that donation is a noble and morally worthy act. Recent sociological research has shown that assumptions of the gift as one-way and altruistic do not necessarily align with people's perceptions and experience of donating body tissues, and that the vocabulary used to describe these acts is often at variance with reality. This article draws on interview data with 15 critical care specialists (intensivists) and donor and recipient coordinators, examining their perceptions of the relevance of gift discourse and its applicability in the context of deceased donation in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The data indicate several problems with gift rhetoric to describe the situations health professionals encounter. In sum, gift terminology tends to downplay the sacrifice involved in tissue donation generally, as well as depoliticising the exchange relations of tissue transfer in contemporary consumer culture and in the global context. This raises questions about the underlying ethics of language choice and what, if anything, empirical accounts of tissue transfer can contribute to ethical debates. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Should gratitude be a requirement for access to live organ donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Monica; Lamuela-Naulin, Monique; Bollondi, Catherine; Flores Menendez, Paola; Hurst, Samia A

    2017-03-29

    Gratitude is both expected and problematic in live organ donation. Are there grounds to require it, and to forbid access to live donor transplantation to a recipient who fails to signal that he feels any form of gratitude? Recipient gratitude is not currently required for organ donation, but it is expected and may be a moral requirement. Despite this, we argue that making it a condition for live organ transplantation would be unjustified. It would constitute a problematic and disproportionate punishment for perceived immoral behaviour on the part of the recipient. It would also bar the donor from positive aspects of organ donation that remain even in the absence of recipient gratitude. A potential recipient's lack of gratitude should be explored as a possible symptom of other morally problematic issues and integrated into the information provided to the potential donor. Recognition of the donor's gift and gratitude for it may also need to be expressed in part by others. This last aspect is relevant even in cases where the recipient feels and expresses gratitude. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. [Healthcare professionals' perceptions of Islamic beliefs and traditions as barriers to organ donation and transplantation in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidouni, Nouhad; Briones-Vozmediano, Érica; Garrido Clemente, Pilar; Gil González, Diana

    The aim of this study is to explore healthcare professionals' perception of the influence of Islamic beliefs and traditions concerning organ donation and transplants in Algeria. Exploratory qualitative study using individual semi-structured interviews of 17 healthcare professionals (9 men, 8 women) of different specialties in a University hospital in Algiers (Algeria). Qualitative content analysis of transcripts was performed using the computer software ATLAS.ti 5. Healthcare professionals believe that religious beliefs do not affect living donation but say they have a negative impact on donation of cadaveric organs due to the existence of myths derived from the Islamic religion and lack of knowledge of the Algerian population about the positioning of religious leaders in relation to organ donation and transplantation. There is confusion among the Algerian population on the position of Islam around organ donation and transplantation, mainly to the detriment of the rate of cadaveric donation. Collaboration between the health sector and religious leaders to raise public awareness could improve the willingness of the population to donate organs after death. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. COMmunication with Families regarding ORgan and Tissue donation after death in intensive care (COMFORT): protocol for an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Julie E; Herkes, Robert G; Perry, Lin; Elliott, Rosalind M; Aneman, Anders; Brieva, Jorge L; Cavazzoni, Elena; Cheng, Andrew T H; O'Leary, Michael J; Seppelt, Ian M; Gebski, Val

    2017-01-17

    Discussing deceased organ donation can be difficult not only for families but for health professionals who initiate and manage the conversations. It is well recognised that the methods of communication and communication skills of health professionals are key influences on decisions made by families regarding organ donation. This multicentre study is being performed in nine intensive care units with follow-up conducted by the Organ and Tissue Donation Service in New South Wales (NSW) Australia. The control condition is pre-intervention usual practice for at least six months before each site implements the intervention. The COMFORT intervention consists of six elements: family conversations regarding offers for organ donation to be led by a "designated requester"; family offers for donation are deferred to the designated requester; the offer of donation is separated from the end-of-life discussion that death is inevitable; it takes place within a structured family donation conversation using a "balanced" approach. Designated requesters may be intensivists, critical care nurses or social workers prepared by attending the three-day national "Family Donation Conversation" workshops, and the half-day NSW Simulation Program. The design is pre-post intervention to compare rates of family consent for organ donation six months before and under the intervention. Each ICU crosses from using the control to intervention condition after the site initiation visit. The primary endpoint is the consent rate for deceased organ donation calculated from 140 eligible next of kin families. Secondary endpoints are health professionals' adherence rates to core elements of the intervention; identification of predictors of family donation decision; and the proportion of families who regret their final donation decision at 90 days. The pragmatic design of this study may identify 'what works' in usual clinical settings when requesting organ donation in critical care areas, both in terms of

  11. A Smartphone App for Increasing Live Organ Donation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K Kumar; E A King; A D Muzaale; J M Konel; K A Bramstedt; A B Massie; D L Segev; A M Cameron

    2016-01-01

    .... In collaboration with Facebook leadership (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, CA), we developed a mobile application--an app--that enables waitlisted candidates to create a Facebook post about their experience with organ failure and their need for a live donor...

  12. The current status and future perspectives of organ donation in Japan: learning from the systems in other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    The revised Organ Transplant Law came into effect in Japan in July 2010. The law allows for organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, with family consent from subjects who had not previously rejected organ donation. Nevertheless, the number of cadaveric organ donations has not increased as expected. The Spanish Model is widely known as the most successful system in the field of organ donation. The system includes an earlier referral of possible donors to the transplant coordination teams, a new family-based approach and care methods, and the development of additional training courses aimed at specific groups of professionals, which are supported by their corresponding societies. South Korea, a country which neighbors Japan, has recently succeeded in increasing the rates of organ donation by introducing several systems, such as incentive programs, an organ procurement organization, a donor registry, and a system to facilitate potential donor referral. In this review, we present the current status of organ donation in Japan and also explore various factors that may help to improve the country's low donation rate based on the experiences of other developed countries.

  13. A study on the development of public campaign messages for organ donation promotion in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hye-Jin

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to find an effective method of expressing a message in public service ads by investigating whether or not a message framing type affects the outcome. Specifically, the study looks into the effects of messaging on organ donation by identifying how the type of message framing (positive vs. negative) and appeal type (rational vs. emotional) affect the attitude and behavioural intention of the consumer. The individual characteristics of each subject such as altruistic mind, level of self-monitoring and issue involvement were selected as intermediate variables that may affect the impact of a message. The study therefore tries to establish a proposition that can be used to generate an effective promotional message on organ donation in a systematic way.

  14. Intra-Hospital Committee for Donation of Organs and Tissues for Transplant: ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Cappellaro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate ethical aspects involved in the donation, collection and transplantation of organs and tissues through the experiences of workers in an intra-hospital committee for donation of organs and tissues for transplant. Exploratory qualitative research developed with eleven health workers. Data collection was performed at a university hospital in Pelotas, RS, Brazil, in the period of January-March 2010, through interviews. Data analysis resulted in the following categories: understanding of brain death diagnosis as an ethical issue; and, ethical issues experienced by workers in the relationship established with the family. It was concluded that such situations instigate workers to reflect on their attitudes, values, and their role as a health team member and protector of lives.

  15. Elective ventilation to facilitate organ donation in infants with anencephaly: perinatal professionals' views and an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Alisa; Scales, Angie; Brierley, Joe

    2016-05-01

    Following the elective ventilation and referral for organ donation of an infant with anencephaly, we sought local perinatal professionals' views of this practice. Anonymous online survey: demographics, ethical viewpoints and potential public/maternal perceptions (standard 5-part Likert scale and free text). 49 replies (38 female): 4 obstetricians, 14 neonatologists, 6 foetal clinicians, 23 nurses, 1 anaesthetist and 1 reproductive specialist. 0.5-33 years (average 12). Twenty-one had experience of anencephalic delivery, and 10 reported pregnancy continued for religious reasons. (i) 73% thought anencephalic donation acceptable, of which 64% supported elective ventilation, 20% neutral and 16% disagreed. (ii) Provision of treatments not in infant's strict best interest to facilitate donation: 22% strongly agreed, 36% agreed, 33% neutral and 9% disagreed. (iii) Accept ventilation to permit donation if societal benefit: 53% agreed, 33% neutral and 13% disagreed. (iv) Public opinion: 59% disagreed anencephalic donation would harm public opinion about donation and 19% agreed. We found a supportive local environment for donation in the setting of anencephaly, including support for elective ventilation. Given this, and our ethical analysis, we recommend provision of organ donation information as part of palliative care counselling for women carrying a foetus with a condition likely to be fatal in infancy. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nurses' attitudes and knowledge regarding organ and tissue donation and transplantation in a provincial hospital: A descriptive and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomero, Maria Del Mar; Jiménez-Herrera, María F; Rasero, Maria José; Sandiumenge, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    The attitudes and knowledge of nursing personnel regarding organ and tissue donation can influence the decision to donate. This study aimed to determine these two factors among nurses at a district hospital in Barcelona, Spain. A survey was carried out using a 35 item questionnaire. Results were subjected to descriptive and comparative statistical analyses using bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine the relation between demographic data and attitudes toward donation. The completion rate was 68.2%, with 98.6% of those responding stating that they were in favor of organ donation. The respondents were unsure as to whether the criteria for inclusion in transplant waiting lists were appropriate (57.5%), whereas 72.2% agreed that brain death is equivalent to death. The bivariate analysis revealed a significant association between a positive attitude toward donation and working on permanent night shift no religious beliefs. Attitudes toward donation among nurses were generally positive; a negative attitude, although attitudes towards donation among the nurses participating in the study were generally positive, it should be pointed out that when a negative attitude does exist this affects significant aspects such as belief in the diagnosis of brain death or the criteria for inclusion on the waiting list, amongst others, which reflects that specific training in donation focused on nurses continues to be needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Mass media campaigns and organ donation: managing conflicting messages and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2012-05-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed

  18. Brain death organ donation potential and life support therapy limitation in neurocritical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, M A; Pont, T; Sandiumenge, A; Oliver, E; Gener, J; Badía, M; Mestre, J; Muñoz, E; Esquirol, X; Llauradó, M; Twose, J; Quintana, S

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the profile, incidence of life support therapy limitation (LSTL) and donation potential in neurocritical patients. A multicenter prospective study was carried out. Nine hospitals authorized for organ harvesting for transplantation. All patients consecutively admitted to the hospital with GCS < 8 during a 6-month period were followed-up until discharge or day 30 of hospital stay. Demographic data, cause of coma, clinical status upon admission and outcome were analyzed. LSTL, brain death (BD) and organ donation incidence were recorded. A total of 549 patients were included, with a mean age of 59.0 ± 14.5 years. The cause of coma was cerebral hemorrhage in 27.0% of the cases.LSTL was applied in 176 patients (32.1%). In 78 cases LSTL consisted of avoiding ICU admission. Age, the presence of contraindications, and specific causes of coma were associated to LSTL. A total of 58.1% of the patients died (n=319). One-hundred and thirty-three developed BD (24.2%), and 56.4% of these became organ donors (n=75). The presence of edema and mid-line shift on the CT scan, and transplant coordinator evaluation were associated to BD. LSTL was associated to a no-BD outcome. Early LSTL (first 4 days) was applied in 9 patients under 80 years of age, with no medical contraindications for donation and a GCS ≤ 4 who finally died in asystole. LSTL is a frequent practice in neurocritical patients. In almost one-half of the cases, LSTL consisted of avoiding admission to the ICU, and on several occasions the donation potential was not evaluated by the transplant coordinator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. An international comparison of the effect of policy shifts to organ donation following cardiocirculatory death (DCD on donation rates after brain death (DBD and transplantation rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aric Bendorf

    Full Text Available During the past decade an increasing number of countries have adopted policies that emphasize donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD in an attempt to address the widening gap between the demand for transplantable organs and the availability of organs from donation after brain death (DBD donors. In order to examine how these policy shifts have affected overall deceased organ donor (DD and DBD rates, we analyzed deceased donation rates from 82 countries from 2000-2010. On average, overall DD, DBD and DCD rates have increased over time, with the proportion of DCD increasing 0.3% per year (p = 0.01. Countries with higher DCD rates have, on average, lower DBD rates. For every one-per million population (pmp increase in the DCD rate, the average DBD rate decreased by 1.02 pmp (95% CI: 0.73, 1.32; p<0.0001. We also found that the number of organs transplanted per donor was significantly lower in DCD when compared to DBD donors with 1.51 less transplants per DCD compared to DBD (95% CI: 1.23, 1.79; p<0.001. Whilst the results do not infer a causal relationship between increased DCD and decreased DBD rates, the significant correlation between higher DCD and lower DBD rates coupled with the reduced number of organs transplanted per DCD donor suggests that a national policy focus on DCD may lead to an overall reduction in the number of transplants performed.

  20. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2014 7th REPORT OF NATIONAL REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the organization and development of organ donation and transplantation in the Russian Federation according to 2014. Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics of years, between certain regions of the Russian Federation, the transplantation centers, and also with data of the international registers is made. Results. According to the Register in 2014 in the Russian Federation functioned 36 centers of kidney transplantation, 14 centers of liver transplantation and 9 centers of heart transplantation. The waiting list of kidney transplantation in 2014 included 4636 potential recipients that makes 16% of total number of the patients 29 000 receiving dialysis. The rate of donor activity in 2014 made 3.2 per million population (pmp. Efficiency of donor programs in 2014 continued to increase: the share of effective donors after brain death in 2014 increased to 77.2%, the share of multiorgan explantation made 50.5%, average number of organs received from one effective donor made 2.6. In 2014 the rate of kidney transplantation made 7.0 pmp, the rate of liver transplantation made 2.1 pmp and the rate of heart transplantation made 1.1 pmp. In the Russian Federation the number of transplantations of liver and heart continues to increase. The significant contribution to development of the organ donation and transplantation brings the Moscow region in which 11 centers of transplantation function and nearly a half from all kidney transplantations and more than 65% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out. Conclusion. In theRussian Federation the potential for further development of the transplantology remains. In particular, at the expense of increase in the efficiency of regional donation programs, introduction of technologies, expansion of the practices of multiorgan donation and transplantations of

  1. 器官捐献与供体维护%Organ donation and donor maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春华; 陈雪霞; 谢文锋; 陈丽; 郑东华; 丁玉伟

    2013-01-01

    Global donor shortage has become a key factors affecting the organ transplantion.Here ww briefly review the donor classification and status quo at home and abroad,especially the donation after brain death (DBD) and donation after cardiac death (DCD) and their problems,solutions,brain death pathophysiological changes,problems and solutions in maintenance of brain death.We hope that in this article,there would be some new insight of human organ donation and progression of the development of transplantation in our nation.%全球性的供体的短缺已成为影响器官移植的瓶颈,该文对器官捐献的分类和国内外现状、特别是对心脏死亡器官捐献(DCD)和脑死亡器官捐献(DBD)的国内外现状及存在的问题、解决对策,对DBD供体的病理生理变化、维护中存在的问题及维护方法做了一个简要的综述,希望能为我国的人体器官捐献开展和器官移植事业的顺利发展带来一点帮助.

  2. Factors affecting the deceased organ donation rate in the Chinese community: an audit of hospital medical records in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C Y; Pong, M L; Au Yeung, S F; Chau, K F

    2016-12-01

    The number of actual donors per million population is the most commonly used metric to measure organ donation rates worldwide. It is deemed inadequate, however, because it does not take into account the potential donor pool. The aim of this study was to determine the true potential for solid organ donation from deceased brain-dead donors and the reasons for non-donation from potential donors in the Chinese community. Medical records of all hospital deaths between 1 January and 31 December 2014 at a large regional hospital in Hong Kong were reviewed. Those who were on mechanical ventilation with documented brain injury and aged ≤75 years were classified as possible organ donors. The reasons why some potential organ donors did not become utilised organ donors were recorded and evaluated. Among 3659 patient deaths, 121 were classified as possible organ donors. The mean age of the possible organ donors was 59.4 years and 72.7% of them were male. The majority (88%) were from non-intensive care units. Of the 121 possible organ donors, 108 were classified as potential organ donors after excluding 13 unlikely to fulfil brain death criteria. Finally 11 patients became actual organ donors with an overall conversion rate of 10%. Reasons for non-donation included medical contra-indication (46%), failure to identify and inform organ donation coordinators (14%), failure of donor maintenance (11%), brain death diagnosis not established (18%), and refusal by relatives (11%). It is possible to increase the organ donation rate considerably by action at different stages of the donation process. Ongoing accurate audit of current practice is necessary.

  3. Psychological conflicts between relatives during the long-term course after successful living organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif-Higer, G; Wandel, E; Otto, G; Galle, P R; Beutel, M E

    2008-05-01

    The German transplantation law prefers living organ donation between close relatives and spouses, which is assumed to guarantee unequivocal altruistic motivation. Since 2001, 68 recipient-donor-pairs, who aspired to have a renal or liver transplantation, underwent a systematic psychosomatic evaluation. Meanwhile, 43 transplantations were performed including 34 renal and 9 liver cases. Seventeen recipient-donor-pairs were readministered evaluations by the department of psychosomatic medicine after 1 to 6 years after transplantation for long-term follow-up. In 10 cases of medically successful transplantation, we identified severe conflicts between donor, recipient, and next-of-kin. Major conflicts are presented by case vignettes regarding deterioration of a previously conflicted marriage, noncompliance of the recipient due to a marital stalemate, and family conflict revolving around refusal to donate. Based on these findings, concise assessments of donor-recipient-pairs are recommended regardless of family relationships. Particular attention must be paid to signs of conflict both before and after transplantation.

  4. Information needs, preferred educational messages and channel of delivery, and opinion on strategies to promote organ donation: a multicultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2010-10-01

    This study assessed the information needs, preferred educational messages and channels of delivery, as well as opinions on strategies to promote organ donation. It aimed to provide insight into a culturally sensitive public education campaign to encourage organ donation in diverse ethnic communities in Asia, namely the Malays, Chinese and Indians. A total of 17 focus group discussions with 105 participants were conducted between September and December 2008. The participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, who were recruited through convenient sampling in the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Across ethnic groups, there was a general concern about the mistreatment of the deceased's body in the organ procurement process. The Chinese and Indian participants wanted assurance that the body would be treated with respect and care. The Muslims wanted assurance that the handling of a Muslim's body would follow the rules and regulations of the Islamic faith. The most important information requested by the Muslim participants was whether cadaveric donation is permissible in Islam. A lack of national public education and promotion of organ donation was noted. All the three ethnic groups, especially the Malays, required community and religious leaders for support, encouragement and involvement, as sociocultural influences play a significant role in the willingness to donate organs. The pronounced ethnic differences in information needs suggest that culturally sensitive public educational messages are required. Organ donation and transplantation organisations should work closely with community and religious organisations to address the sociocultural barriers identified.

  5. Inhaled nitric oxide for the brain dead donor with neurogenic pulmonary edema during anesthesia for organ donation: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sun; Lee, A-Ran; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, An Suk; Park, Soon Eun; Cho, Young Woo

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) in brain dead organ donors occurring after an acute central nervous system insult threatens organ preservation of potential organ donors and the outcome of organ donation. Hence the active and immediate management of NPE is critical. In this case, a 50-year-old male was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for organ donation. He was hypoxic due to NPE induced by spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage. Protective ventilatory management, intermittent recruitment maneuvers, and supportive treatment were maintained in the ICU and the operating room (OR). Despite this management, the hypoxemia worsened after the OR admission. So inhaled nitric oxide (NO) therapy was performed during the operation, and the hypoxic phenomena showed remarkable improvement. The organ retrieval was successfully completed. Therefore, NO inhalation can be helpful in the improvement of hypoxemia caused by NPE in brain dead organ donors during anesthesia for the organ donation. PMID:25237451

  6. An international comparison of the effect of policy shifts to organ donation following cardiocirculatory death (DCD) on donation rates after brain death (DBD) and transplantation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendorf, Aric; Kelly, Patrick J; Kerridge, Ian H; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Myerson, Brian; Stewart, Cameron; Pussell, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade an increasing number of countries have adopted policies that emphasize donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) in an attempt to address the widening gap between the demand for transplantable organs and the availability of organs from donation after brain death (DBD) donors. In order to examine how these policy shifts have affected overall deceased organ donor (DD) and DBD rates, we analyzed deceased donation rates from 82 countries from 2000-2010. On average, overall DD, DBD and DCD rates have increased over time, with the proportion of DCD increasing 0.3% per year (p = 0.01). Countries with higher DCD rates have, on average, lower DBD rates. For every one-per million population (pmp) increase in the DCD rate, the average DBD rate decreased by 1.02 pmp (95% CI: 0.73, 1.32; pDBD donors with 1.51 less transplants per DCD compared to DBD (95% CI: 1.23, 1.79; pDBD rates, the significant correlation between higher DCD and lower DBD rates coupled with the reduced number of organs transplanted per DCD donor suggests that a national policy focus on DCD may lead to an overall reduction in the number of transplants performed.

  7. Beliefs and barriers for organ donation and influence of educational intervention on dental students: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Patthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many developmental disorders or accidents leave the victims crippled resulting in vision loss and fatal damages to the vital organs. At such point of time, organ donation remains the only ray of hope. However, there exists very little awareness among the masses regarding the same. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and, belief on/toward organ donation and the impact of an educational intervention among the Dental undergraduate students of a Dental College of Modinagar, India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire and intervention based survey was carried out. All the students from B.D.S 1 st year to internship and patients who attended screening/treatment camps organized by the Department of Public Health Dentistry were included for the study. A 11-item structured questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, and beliefs regarding organ donation was used. This was followed by an educational intervention for the college students. Immediately after this session, the same questionnaire was again distributed and collected. Chi-square test was used to analyze the statistical difference. Results: The overall level of knowledge and beliefs about the concept of organ donation in the two groups was similar before the intervention was provided. After the intervention for B.D.S students, a significant improvement in the level of knowledge and attitude was observed. About 74.6% of students in contrast to 42.3% of the patients realized the significance of organ (P < 0.0001 and 72.4% of the patients and 63.4% of students considered organ donation against their religious beliefs. About 65.6% of the students post interventions were willing to educate the masses about significance of organ donation. Conclusion: A significant knowledge gap exists amongst the dental undergraduates and the general population for organ donation. The positive influence of educational intervention emphasizes the need of an intervention to bring positive changes

  8. "Why throw away something useful?": Attitudes and opinions of people treated for bipolar disorder and their relatives on organ and tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoan, Carolina S; Garcia, Lucas F; Rodrigues, Aline A; Patusco, Lucas M; Atz, Mariana V; Kapczinski, Flavio; Goldim, José R; Magalhães, Pedro V S

    2017-03-01

    In regard to mental illness, brain donation is essential for the biological investigation of central pathology. Nevertheless, little is known about the thoughts of people with mental disorders on tissue donation for research. Here, our objective was to understand the attitudes and opinions of people treated for bipolar disorder and their relatives regarding donation in general, and particularly donation for research. This is a qualitative study that used in-depth interviews to determine the thoughts of participants regarding tissue donation for research. Theoretical sampling was used as a recruitment method. Grounded theory was used as a framework for content analyses of the interviews. A semi-structured interview guide was applied with the topics: donation in general; donation for research; mental health and body organs; opinion regarding donation; feelings aroused by the topic. Although all participants were aware of organ donation for transplant, they were surprised that tissue could be donated for research. Nevertheless, once they understood the concept they were usually in favor of the idea. Although participants demonstrated a general lack of knowledge on donation for research, they were willing to learn more and viewed it as a good thing, with altruistic reasons often cited as a motive for donation. We speculate that bridging this knowledge gap may be a fundamental step towards a more ethical postmortem tissue donation process.

  9. Organization and Development of Bone Marrow Donation and Transplantation in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Jagoda; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Czerwiński, Jarosław; Kosmala, Karolina; Łęczycka, Anna; Malanowski, Piotr; Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, Jolanta; Małkowski, Piotr; Danielewicz, Roman

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes bone marrow donation and transplantation in Poland in terms of its history, current state, and information on the quality control system. Based on data gathered from the informatics systems of the Polish Central Unrelated Potential Bone Marrow Donor and Cord Blood Registry and the Polish transplant registries, as well as World Marrow Donor Association statistics, we performed an overview study to collect and compare numbers on hematopoietic stem cells donations and transplantations in Poland in the years 2010-2014. In the last 5 years, the number of registered potential hematopoietic stem cells donors in Poland increased by more than 4 times, from about 146,000 to over 750,000. During the same period, the number of patients qualified to hematopoietic stem cells transplantation from unrelated donor increased from 557 in 2010 to 817 in 2014. We observed a striking change in the percentage of transplantations performed in Polish centers using material collected from national donors--from 24% to 60%. This shift was also evident in the number of search procedures closed with acceptation of Polish donors--from 27% in 2010 to 58% in 2014. Another consequence of Polish registry growth is the increasing number of donations from Polish donors for international patients. Between 2010 and 2014, the percent of donation for non-national patient increased from 33% to 76%, placing Poland in 6th place in the ranking of the HSC "exporters" worldwide. Growth of transplantation rates involves standardization process, which is a natural way of development for national organizations in the field of HSCT because of its international character.

  10. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2012 (V report of National Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of a condition and prospects of organ donation and transplantation development in Russia in the form of the National Registry is carried out under the auspices of the Profile commission on transplantology of Minis- try of Health of Russia and the Russian Transplant Society. According to the registry in 2012 the indicator of do- nor activity decreased, but the indicator of transplant activity remained at the level of the last years. Decrease the number of deceased donors managed to be compensated by means of increase of efficiency of donor programs: by increase of the number of donors after brain death and multi-organ explantation, by increase in average of the organs received from one deceased donor. In 2012 the number of transplantations of heart and liver increased. The main funding mechanism for organs transplantation in Russia is the state task to the transplant centers (fede- ral financing, its role increases. For increase of stability of donor providing it is necessary to continue to develop legal base in the organ donation and transplantation sphere. 

  11. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2013 6th report of National Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Gautier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the state and prospects of the development of organ donation and transplantation in the Russian Federation according to 2013. Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics of years, between certain regions of the Russian Federation, the transplantation centers, and also with data of the international registers is made. Results. According to the register in 2013 in the Russian Federation functioned 35 centers of kidney transplantation, 15 centers of liver transplantation and 10 centers of heart transplantation. The waiting list of kidney transplantation included more than 4000 potential recipients that makes 15–16% of total number of the patients receiving dialysis. The rate of donor activity made 2,9 per million population (pmp. Effi ciency of donor programs continues to increase: the share of effective donors after brain death in 2013 increased to 72,4%, the share of multiorgan explantation increased to 52,9%, average number of organs received from one effective donor made 2,6. The rate of kidney transplantation made 6,5 pmp, the rate of liver transplantation made 1,9 pmp; the rate of heart transplantation made 1,1 pmp. In the Russian Federation the number of transplantations of liver and heart continues to increase. The signifi cant contribution to development of the organ donation and transplantation brings the Moscow region in which 11 centers of transplantation function and nearly a half of all kidney transplantations and 70% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out. In 2013 Ministry of Health of Russia continued development of the new federal law «On donation of human organs and their transplantation». Under the auspices of the Russian Transplant Society 11 clinical guidelines about organ donation and transplantation were developed and approved. Together with earlier approved

  12. Saudi Nursing and Medical Student's Knowledge and Attitude toward Organ Donation- A Comparative Cross-Sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Farrukh

    2016-04-01

    Proper awareness among health professionals about organ donation is important for increasing organ procurement. Personal commitment and attitude of nurses are imperative as they have key role in identifying potential donors. The aim of this study was to compare prevailing knowledge and attitude of undergraduate female Saudi nursing and medical students' toward organ donation. A cross sectional questionnaire using 29 item were filled by nursing (n=46) and medical (n=63) students' at University of Dammam (KSA) during academic year 2014-15, to check and compare their knowledge and attitude about organ donation. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics; chi square test and bivariate analysis to find out correlation. Level of knowledge of nursing group were significantly lower (p=0.000) than medical group while no significant difference in attitude score (p=0.591) between the two groups were found. Major source of knowledge for nursing was media (65.2%) and college/university for medical (50.8%) group. Both groups chose "anyone in need" as preferred recipients' upon donation (nursing 60.3% and medical 52.2%) and opted "anyone" as donor in case of recipient (nursing 52.2% and medical 49.2%). The results indicate positive correlation between level of knowledge and attitude toward organ donation. Nursing students have low knowledge toward organ donation as compared to medical students although they shows positive attitude toward this issue. This study ascertains the need of an effective educational program for nursing students of Saudi Arabia to improve their knowledge regarding organ donation and to raise organ procurement.

  13. Survey of the Knowledge of Brainstem Death and Attitude Toward Organ Donation Among Relations of Neurosurgical Patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, T B; Oshola, H A; Adebayo, B O

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a developing field in Nigeria, and availability of organs for donation would be a determining factor of the success of the transplant programs. Patients with brainstem death (BSD) are a major source of organs for transplantation. The level of knowledge of BSD as well as attitudes toward organ donation are very important determinants of people's willingness or otherwise to donate organs. We conducted a survey of relations of our in-service neurosurgical patients to assess their knowledge of brainstem death and attitude toward organ donation. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind among the growing Nigerian neurosurgery patient and patient-relations population. Convenience sampling of randomly selected relations of neurosurgical patients on admission using interviewer-administered questionnaires was performed. Demographic information and information about brainstem death, attitude toward brainstem death, knowledge of organ donation, and attitude toward organ donation were obtained. The study comprised 127 respondents with a mean age of 36 years (range, 19-72). The majority of the respondents (87, 62.4%) were Christians, 122 (96.1%) were Yorubas, and 66 (52.0%) were women. Eighty-five (66.9%) of the respondents had at least a secondary level of education, and 77 (60.6%) were of low socioeconomic status. Twenty-eight (22.2%) of the respondents had heard of brainstem death. Twenty-six (92.9%) of those who had heard of brainstem death believed that the brain could die long before life finally ceases. One hundred twenty-five (98.4%) of the respondents believed that death only occurs when both breathing and heartbeat stop, and 107 (83.6%) would agree with the physician on a diagnosis of brainstem death in the relation. Sixty-five (51.2%) would want such patients put on a ventilator, and, of these, 43 (66.2%) would want such patients on the ventilator in hope that he or she may recover. One hundred twelve (88.2%) of the relations were

  14. Increasing organ donation via anticipated regret (INORDAR: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Carroll Ronan E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the world there is an insufficient supply of donor organs to meet the demand for organ transplantations. This paper presents a protocol for a randomised controlled trial, testing whether a simple, theory-based anticipated regret manipulation leads to a significant increase in posthumous organ donor registrations. Methods We will use a between-groups, prospective randomised controlled design. A random sample of 14,520 members of the adult Scottish general public will be contacted via post. These participants will be randomly allocated into 1 of the 4 conditions. The no questionnaire control (NQC group will simply receive a letter and donor registration form. The questionnaire control (QC arm will receive a questionnaire measuring their emotions and non-cognitive affective attitudes towards organ donation. The theory of planned behavior (TPB group will complete the emotions and affective attitudes questionnaire plus additional items assessing their cognitive attitudes towards organ donation, perceived control over registration and how they think significant others view this action. Finally, the anticipated regret (AR group will complete the same indices as the TPB group, plus two additional anticipated regret items. These items will assess the extent to which the participant anticipates regret for not registering as an organ donor in the near future. The outcome variable will be NHS Blood and Transplant verified registrations as an organ donor within 6 months of receiving our postal intervention. Discussion This study will assess whether simply asking people to reflect on the extent to which they may anticipate regret for not registering as an organ donor increases organ donor registration 6 months later. If successful, this simple and easy to administer theory-based intervention has the potential to save lives and money for the NHS by reducing the number of people receiving treatments such as dialysis. This

  15. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2015. 8th report of National Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the organization and development of the organ donation and transplantation in theRussian Federationaccording to 2015.Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics by years, between certain regions of theRussian Federation, the transplantation centers is done.Results. According to the register in2015 inthe Russian Federation 36 centers of renal transplantation, 17 centers of liver transplantation and 10 centers of heart transplantation were functioning. The waiting list of kidney transplantation in 2015 included 4167 potential recipients that make 13% of the total number of the patients (31 500 receiving a dialysis. The rate of donor activity in 2015 made 3.0 pmp. Efficiency of donor programs in 2015 continues to increase: the share of multiorgan retrievals made 57.8%, average number of organs, received from one effective donor, made 2.7. In 2015 the rate of kidney transplantation made 6.5 pmp; the rate of liver transplantation made 2.2 pmp; the rate of heart transplantation made 1.2 pmp. The number of transplantations of liver and heart in theRussian Federationcontinues to increase. The number of transplantations of kidney remains approximately at one level in the range of 950–1050.Moscowcapital region continues to be the center of stability and development of the organ donation and transplantation in the country, in which 10 centers of transplantation are functioning and nearly a half from all kidney transplantations and more than 65% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out.Conclusion. The potential for further development of the transplantation care in theRussian Federationcontinues to persist. In particular, at the expense of increasing efficiency of regional donation programs, expanding practices of multiorgan recuperation and transplantations of extrarenal organs, through

  16. An analysis of the quality indicators of the organ donation process in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Luciana Carvalho; de Oliveira, Priscilla Caroliny; dos Santos, Juliana Guareschi; Paglione, Heloisa Barboza; do Nascimento Neto, Jose Maria; dos Santos, Roberta Cristina Cardoso; de Oliveira Marcos, Marli Cristina; Carneiro, André Ramos; Moreira, Felipe Alves; Correa Calado, Dayana Aparecida Martins; Leite, Renata Fabiana; de Aguiar Roza, Bartira; de Oliveira Salvalaggio, Paolo Rogerio; de Matos, Ana Cristina Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have investigated whether quality initiatives in the process of organ donation yield better results of the organ donation process. To analyze whether the indicators of the organ donation process in Brazilian hospitals meet the standards established by the Organ Donation European Quality System (ODEQUS). We evaluated the quality of the organ donation in a selected group of Brazilian hospitals served by the Nucleus of Organ Procurement (NOP) using standards of the ODEQUS. Structural and process indicators had 100% conformity. Indicators of results showed a family consent rate of 61% (29% lower than ODEQUS goal); a conversion rate of potential donors to effective donors of 47% (28% below the goal); and a 12% rate of sudden cardiac arrest (higher than the quality limit). Our findings highlight the importance for the development of quality initiatives in identifying gaps and weaknesses in the process that should be corrected or even restructured, therefore maximizing the number of donors and organs transplanted. Hospitals that participate in the NOP process met 61% of the quality indicators proposed by ODEQUS. Identification of potential donors, family consent, conversion, and sudden cardiac arrest rates are areas that did not conform to ODEQUS standard and revealed a great opportunity for improvement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. comparative study on effective factors on consent to organ donation among families of brain death victims in Isfahan, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshte Zamani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the previous studies, several social, cultural, and organizational factors are involved in the decision of families of brain death victims for organ donation. The present study was performed to determine the effective factors in the decision of organ donation among families of brain death victims. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study data were gathered through a self-made questionnaire. The reliability of questionnaire was determined by calculating Cronbach’s alpha (0.81 and the face and content validity were studied and approved by a number of experts. Statistical population included all family members of brain death victims in Isfahan/Iran during 2012-2013. They were divided into two groups of with and without consent to organ donation. The whole population was considered as the study sample. Data analysis were done through SPSS using independent T-test, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests. Results: According to the present study, age and marital status of the victims have no effect on their families’ consent to organ donation (P> 0.05; but sex, duration of hospitalization in the emergency department, having organ donation card ,and personal opinion of the brain death victim showed significant relationship with consent to organ donation (P< 0.05. Conclusion: Since the rate of awareness, knowledge, and attitude of family members are effective in their decision for organ donation, improving cultural backgrounds required for this decision and increasing awareness and knowledge of people can improve the attitude of people in this regard and facilitate the acceptance of family members

  18. Medical students' education on organ donation and its evaluation during six consecutive years: results of a voluntary, anonymous educational intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunz, Sonia; Benkö, Tamás; Stern, Sabrina; Saner, Fuat H; Paul, Andreas; Kaiser, Gernot M

    2015-03-12

    One of the main reasons for organ shortage is insufficient education on organ donation. Knowledgeable medical students could share the information with friends and families resulting in a positive attitude to organ donation of the general public. During six consecutive years (2009 to 2014), we conducted a voluntary, anonymous educational intervention study on organ donation among fourth year medical students in the course of the main surgery lecture at the University of Essen, Germany. Questionnaires of 383 students were analyzed. Prior to the specific lecture on organ donation, 64% of the students carried a signed organ donor card with the intention to donate. Further information regarding organ donation was required by 37% of the students. The request for further information was statistically significantly higher among students without a donor card compared to organ donor card carriers (P organ donation and improves their attitude to organ donation. Continued training on organ donation will help medical students to become disseminators for this important topic in our society.

  19. Evaluation of a Hockey Deceased Organ Donation Awareness Campaign: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Kyla L.; McKenzie, Susan; Cherry, Cindy; McArthur, Eric; Li, Alvin H.; McCallum, Megan K.; Kim, S. Joseph; Prakash, Versha; Knoll, Gregory A.; Garg, Amit X.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Kidney Foundation of Canada developed a pilot campaign to educate persons attending junior hockey league games in London, Ontario, Canada, on deceased organ donation. Objective: To evaluate the impact of a hockey campaign on the number of new organ and tissue donor registrants. Design: Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting: Residents of London, Ontario. Patients: We included 255 476 individuals eligible to register for organ donation with a London, Ontario postal code. Measurements: We compared the number of new deceased organ donor registrants in London, Ontario, during the campaign period (March 12 to April 16, 2015) with 3 different time periods (December 30, 2014 to February 3, 2015; February 4 to March 11, 2015; April 17 to May 22, 2015). We also compared registration rates in London with 2 Ontario cities (Kitchener-Waterloo and Hamilton) matching in a 1:1 ratio on age, sex, and income quintile. Methods: To compare registrations across time periods, we used binomial regression with an identity link function and generalized estimating equations with an independence correlation structure. We used modified Poisson regression to compare registration rates between cities. Results: During the campaign period, there were slightly more registrations (1218 registered of 252 832 unregistered individuals [0.48%]) compared with an earlier time period (risk difference: 0.09%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05%-0.12%). However, there was no significant difference compared with 2 time periods immediately before and after the campaign. London had slightly more registrations during the campaign period compared with the matched city of Hamilton (1180 registered of 236 582 unregistered individuals [0.50%] vs 490 registered of 236 582 unregistered individuals [0.21%]; risk ratio: 2.41; 95% CI: 2.17-2.68). The registration rate in London did not significantly differ from Kitchener-Waterloo. Limitations: Unable to conclude whether the minor increase

  20. The core of after death care in relation to organ donation - a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Anna; Flodén, Anne; Lennerling, Annette; Karlsson, Veronika; Nilsson, Madeleine; Fridh, Isabell

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how intensive and critical care nurses experience and deal with after death care i.e. the period from notification of a possible brain dead person, and thereby a possible organ donor, to the time of post-mortem farewell. Grounded theory, based on Charmaz' framework, was used to explore what characterises the ICU-nurses concerns during the process of after death and how they handle it. Data was collected from open-ended interviews. The core category: achieving a basis for organ donation through dignified and respectful care of the deceased person and the close relatives highlights the main concern of the 29 informants. This concern is categorised into four main areas: safeguarding the dignity of the deceased person, respecting the relatives, dignified and respectful care, enabling a dignified farewell. After death care requires the provision of intense, technical, medical and nursing interventions to enable organ donation from a deceased person. It is achieved by extensive nursing efforts to preserve and safeguard the dignity of and respect for the deceased person and the close relatives, within an atmosphere of peace and tranquillity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Making a case for controlled organ donation after cardiac death: the story of Italy's first experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergano, Marco; Magavern, Emma; Baroncelli, Francesca; Frisenda, Valeria; Fonsato, Alessia; Artusio, Diego; Castioni, Carlo Alberto; De Piero, Maria Elena; Abelli, Massimo; Ticozzelli, Elena; Livigni, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) is a valuable option for the procurement of organs for transplantation. In Italy, organ procurement after controlled DCD is legally and ethically conceivable within the current legislative framework. However, although formal impediments do not exist, the health care team is faced with many obstacles that may hinder the implementation of such programs. We report the case of Italy's first controlled DCD, specifically discussing the role of the patient's family in the shared decision-making process. In our case, the death of the patient subsequent to the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies was consistent with the patient's wishes, showing respect for his dignity and honoring his autonomy, as expressed to his family previously. By making donation possible, the medical team was able to fulfill the family's last request on behalf of the patient. This case should stimulate deliberation regarding the potential to shorten the 20-minute no-touch period currently in place in Italy. Such an action would not have injured this patient and would certainly have increased the quality of the procured organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of Organ Donation Information Campaigns in Germany: A Facebook Based Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbonssen, Tobias; Settmacher, Utz; Wurst, Christine; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta

    2015-07-28

    The German transplantation system is in a crisis due to a lack of donor organs. Information campaigns are one of the main approaches to increase organ donation rates. Since 2012, German health insurance funds are obliged by law to inform their members about organ donation. We raised the hypothesis: The willingness to sign a donor card rises due to the subsequent increase of specific knowledge by receiving the information material of the health insurance funds. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of information campaigns on the specific knowledge and the willingness to donate organs. We conducted an online survey based on recruitment via Facebook groups, advertisements using the snowball effect, and on mailing lists of medical faculties in Germany. Besides the demographic data, the willingness to hold an organ donor card was investigated. Specific knowledge regarding transplantation was explored using five factual questions resulting in a specific knowledge score. We recruited a total of 2484 participants, of which 32.7% (300/917) had received information material. Mean age was 29.9 (SD 11.0, median 26.0). There were 65.81% (1594/2422) of the participants that were female. The mean knowledge score was 3.28 of a possible 5.00 (SD 1.1, median 3.0). Holding a donor card was associated with specific knowledge (P<.001), but not with the general education level (P=.155). Receiving information material was related to holding a donor card (P<.001), but not to a relevant increase in specific knowledge (difference in mean knowledge score 3.20 to 3.48, P=.006). The specific knowledge score and the percentage of organ donor card holders showed a linear association (P<.001). The information campaign was not associated with a relevant increase in specific knowledge, but with an increased rate in organ donor card holders. This effect is most likely related to the feeling of being informed, together with an easy access to the organ donor card.

  3. Organ and tissue donation in clinical settings: a systematic review of the impact of interventions aimed at health professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In countries where presumed consent for organ donation does not apply, health professionals (HP) are key players for identifying donors and obtaining their consent. This systematic review was designed to verify the efficacy of interventions aimed at HPs to promote organ and tissue donation in clinical settings. CINAHL (1982 to 2012), COCHRANE LIBRARY, EMBASE (1974 to 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to 2012), PsycINFO (1960 to 2012), and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses were searched for papers published in French or English until September 2012. Studies were considered if they met the following criteria: aimed at improving HPs’ practices regarding the donation process or at increasing donation rates; HPs working in clinical settings; and interventions with a control group or pre-post assessments. Intervention behavioral change techniques were analyzed using a validated taxonomy. A risk ratio was computed for each study having a control group. A total of 15 studies were identified, of which only 5 had a control group. Interventions were either educational, organizational or a combination of both, and had a weak theoretical basis. The most common behavior change technique was providing instruction. Two sets of interventions showed a significant risk ratio. However, most studies did not report the information needed to compute their efficacy. Therefore, interventions aimed at improving the donation process or at increasing donation rates should be based on sound theoretical frameworks. They would benefit from more rigorous evaluation methods to ensure good knowledge translation and appropriate organizational decisions to improve professional practices. PMID:24628967

  4. Expanding the Donor Pool Through Intensive Care to Facilitate Organ Donation: Results of a Spanish Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Coll, Elisabeth; Elizalde, José; Herrero, Jaime E; Pont, Teresa; Quindós, Brígida; Marcelo, Bella; Bodí, María A; Martínez, Adolfo; Nebra, Agustín; Guerrero, Francisco; Manciño, José M; Galán, Juan; Lebrón, Miguel; Miñambres, Eduardo; Matesanz, Rafael

    2017-08-01

    Intensive Care to facilitate Organ Donation (ICOD) may help to increase the donor pool. We describe the Spanish experience with ICOD. Achieving Comprehensive Coordination in Organ Donation (ACCORD)-Spain consisted of an audit of the donation pathway from patients who died as a result of a devastating brain injury (possible donors) in 68 hospitals during November 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015. We focused on possible donors whose families were interviewed to discuss organ donation once intensive care with a therapeutic purpose was deemed futile and brain death (BD) was a likely outcome. Of the 1970 possible donors in ACCORD-Spain, in 257, the family was interviewed once the decision had been made not to intubate/ventilate (n = 105), with the patient under intubation/ventilation outside of the intensive care unit (n = 59), or with the patient intubated/ventilated within the intensive care unit (n = 93).Consent to ICOD was obtained in 174 cases. Consent was higher when the donor coordinator participated in the interview (odds ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-4.11; P = 0.003). One hundred thirty-one patients developed BD, of whom 117 transitioned to actual donation after BD. Of the 35 patients who did not develop BD, 2 transitioned to actual donation after circulatory death. Sixteen patients subject to ICOD were finally medically unsuitable organ donors.ICOD contributed to 24% of the 491 actual donors registered in ACCORD-Spain. Despite the complexity of the interview, the majority of families consented to ICOD. Estimating the probability of BD and assessing medical suitability are additional challenges of the practice. ICOD represents a clear opportunity to increase the donor pool and ensures organ donation is posed at every end-of-life care pathway.

  5. Rates of organ donation in a UK tertiary cardiac arrest centre following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Olivia V; Thomas, Matthew J C; Hadfield, John; O'Higgins, Fran; Mitchell, Claire; Rooney, Kieron D

    2016-04-01

    To ascertain the rate of successful organ donation (OD) within patients who sustained an out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with initial return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital admission, but whom subsequently do not survive to hospital discharge. A retrospective audit of ambulance service and hospital databases from January 2010 to January 2015 was undertaken in a United Kingdom tertiary-referral regional cardiac arrest centre. Crude denominator data for cardiac arrests was obtained from the regional ambulance service; the ICU database was interrogated for OHCA patient admissions and outcomes. Patients who died were cross-referenced against the local Organ Donation service database. Five hundred and fourteen {514} patients were admitted to ICU following OHCA over this five year period. Two hundred and forty-one {241} patients (47%) survived to hospital discharge and 273 (53%) died of whom 106 (39%) were referred to a Specialist Nurse for Organ Donation (SNOD). The conversion rate after the family was approached was 64%. Twenty-eight {28} patients proceeded to donation and 25 patients (24%) successfully donated at least one organ. On average, a patient proceeding to donation provided 1.9 organs. A proactive, systematic approach to OD in OHCA patients can provide a good conversion rate and substantial number of donors. Most donations occur after death from circulatory criteria. There is a positive socio-economic benefit with nearly £4m in savings to the health service within the next 5 years potentially being realised during this period by liberating patients from dialysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Nudge, nudge or shove, shove-the right way for nudges to increase the supply of donated cadaver organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Kyle Powys; Selinger, Evan; Caplan, Arthur L; Sadowski, Jathan

    2012-01-01

    Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein (2008) contend that mandated choice is the most practical nudge for increasing organ donation. We argue that they are wrong, and their mistake results from failing to appreciate how perceptions of meaning can influence people's responses to nudges. We favor a policy of default to donation that is subject to immediate family veto power, includes options for people to opt out (and be educated on how to do so), and emphasizes the role of organ procurement organizations and in-house transplant donation coordinators creating better environments for increasing the supply of organs and tissues obtained from cadavers. This policy will provide better opportunities for offering nudges in contexts where in-house coordinators work with families. We conclude by arguing that nudges can be introduced ethically and effectively into these contexts only if nudge designers collaborate with in-house coordinators and stakeholders.

  7. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  8. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  9. Entrevista familiar e consentimento Family approach and consent for organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana H. Rech

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Desde que o transplante de órgãos firmou-se como o tratamento de escolha para muitas doenças em estágio final, a escassez de órgãos vem se tornando um problema progressivamente maior, à medida que pacientes acumulam-se nas listas de espera. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar questões relativas à melhor prática de abordagem da família do doador e como esses e outros aspectos referentes ao processo de doação podem interferir nas taxas de consentimento CONTEÚDO: A despeito do crescente aumento de doadores vivos, o doador cadavérico com morte encefálica continua sendo a principal fonte de órgãos para transplante e a única fonte significativa de órgãos extra-renais. Alguns fatores têm sido identificados como empecilhos no processo de doação, dos quais os maiores são a não-identificação do paciente em morte encefálica, o manuseio inadequado do doador e a recusa da família em doar os órgãos. Aumentar as taxas de consentimento para doação parece ser, no momento, o melhor instrumento para diminuir o problema da escassez de órgãos. CONCLUSÕES: Muitos aspectos estão envolvidos na decisão de uma família em doar os órgãos de seus familiares. Técnicas especiais de abordagem e profissionais bem treinados em entrevista familiar influenciam nas taxas de consentimento.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Since organ transplantation has become the treatment of choice for several end-stage diseases, organ shortage is the most important barrier for the procedures and waiting lists are increasing out of proportion. The objective of this study was to review the best practices concerning family referral and how these issues and others aspects of the donation process can influence consent rates. CONTENTS: Despite the growing number of live donors, the brain death donor continuous to be the major source of organs for transplantation and the only source of extra-renal organs. Many problems have been identified

  10. Educational Web-Based Intervention for High School Students to Increase Knowledge and Promote Positive Attitudes toward Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Amiram D.; Merion, Robert M.; Couper, Mick P.; Jones, Eleanor G.; Dong, Yihui

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 490 high school students from 81 schools in Michigan participated in an experiment in which they were randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental Web site. The experimental Web site provided exposure to educational material about the process of organ donation and organ transplantation. The control Web site provided…

  11. Spanish-Latin American multicenter study of attitudes toward organ donation among personnel from hospital healthcare centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; López-Navas, Ana; Ayala-García, Marco Antonio; Sebastián, María José; Abdo-Cuza, Anselmo; Alán, Jeannina; Martínez-Alarcón, Laura; Ramírez, Ector Jaime; Muñoz, Gerardo; Suárez-López, Juliette; Castellanos, Roberto; Ramírez, Ricardo; González, Beatriz; Martínez, Miguel Angel; Díaz, Ernesto; Ramírez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Hospital personnel are a group which has an influence on the opinion of the rest of the population about healthcare matters. Any unfavorable attitude of this group would be an obstacle to an increase in organ donation. To analyze the attitude of hospital workers toward the donation of one's own organs in Spanish and Latin American hospitals and to determine the factors affecting this attitude. Eleven hospitals from the "International Collaborative Donor Project" were selected, 3 in Spain, 5 in Mexico, 2 in Cuba and one in Costa Rica. A random sample was stratified by the type of service and job category. Attitude toward donation and transplantation was assessed using a validated survey. The questionnaire was completed anonymously and was self-administered. Student's t-test, the χ2 test and logistic regression analysis. Of the 2,785 workers surveyed, 822 were from Spain, 1,595 from Mexico, 202 from Cuba and 166 from Costa Rica and 79% (n=2,191) were in favor of deceased organ donation. According to country, 94% (n=189) of Cubans were in favor, compared to 82% (n=1,313) of the Mexicans, 73% (n=121) of the Costa Ricans and 69% (n=568) of the Spanish (P<.001). In the multivariate analysis, the following variables had the most specific weight: 1) originating from Cuba (odds ratio=8.196; P<.001); 2) being a physician (OR= 2.544; P<.001); 3) performing a job related to transplantation (OR = 1.610; P=.005); 4) having discussed the subject of donation and transplantation within the family (OR= 3.690; P<.001); 5) having a partner with a favorable attitude toward donation and transplantation (OR= 3.289; P<.001); 6) a respondent's belief that his or her religion is in favor of donation and transplantation (OR= 3.021; P=.001); 7) not being concerned about the possible mutilation of the body after donation (OR= 2.994; P<.001); 8) the preference for other options apart from burial for treating the body after death (OR= 2.770; P<.001); and 9) acceptance of carrying out an autopsy

  12. Estimation of Specific Effective Energy of Surrounding Organs with Prostate as the Source Organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lim, Chang Seon; Whang, Joo Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Konyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The incidence of prostate cancer has increased rapidly due to such as aging population and western dietary habits and it is the fifth most common cancer among male cancers and the most common cancer in urinary system. Prostate cancer is treated in various ways, but suitable treatments are selected case by case instead of particularly superior treatments chosen. One of them is cancer treatment via irradiation and it is widely available because of its simplicity and outstanding effectiveness; however compromised local selectivity inevitably results in side effects in surrounding tissues like bladder, urethra and rectum. These tough problems have been able to be solved since mid-1980s when radioisotope seeds such as {sup 1}'2{sup 5}I or {sup 103}Pd which could be implanted in the body were produced, and now much less invasive brachytherapy is widely used in the US and Europe. But there is a lack of investigations related to this therapy in Korea. In the present study, we intend to estimate specific effective energy of prostate and surrounding organs using {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd and thus provide basic data of radiation exposure assessments during prostate brachytherapy.

  13. Health content analysis of organ donation and transplantation news on Turkish television channels and in Turkish print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, M Yavuz; Hekimoglu, D; Ersoy, K; Sozen, F; Haberal, M

    2010-01-01

    The media affects individuals' behaviors, especially by means of news and advertisements. In this study, we evaluated health content of organ donation and transplantation news in the printed media and on television programs for a 1-year period in Turkey. We examined 2449 news items in 230 newspapers and magazines; 1179 news programs on 45 television channels, all concerning organ donation and transplantation. The news obtained from the Media Pursuit Center were transferred to an electronic file to evaluate the format and content of the news. Nine variables were examined about the scope and the formal characteristics of the news: the publication name, its type, the province, the date, the headline, the title length, the presence of a photograph, or its kind, the news size, and the page number. In the content analysis of the news, we also examined 9 variables: the topic, the message of the headline, the property of the words in the title, the identification of photographs in the news, the age, gender of actors in the news, as well as donor or recipient. In a summary, print media and television channels, failed to show sufficient information about organ donation and transplantation. The percentage of news about organ donation and transplantation was small and mostly negative items in the media. On television channels, sufficient place was not given to organ donation and transplantation. The news in printed media and on television channels was not about motivated or altruistic behavior. The pattern of organ donation and transplantation news is important in terms of perception and comment by the public. Furthermore it directly affects the perception of the news by the reader.

  14. Time trends in organ donation after neurologic determination of death: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Andreas H.; Baht, Ryan; Doig, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The cause of brain injury may influence the number of organs that can be procured and transplanted with donation following neurologic determination of death. We investigated whether the distribution of causes responsible for neurologic death has changed over time and, if so, whether this has had an impact on organ quality, transplantation rates and recipient outcomes. Methods: We performed a cohort study involving consecutive brain-dead organ donors in southern Alberta between 2003 and 2014. For each donor, we determined last available measures of organ injury and number of organs transplanted, and compared these variables for various causes of neurologic death. We compared trends to national Canadian data for 2000-2013 (2000-2011 for Quebec). Results: There were 226 brain-dead organ donors over the study period, of whom 100 (44.2%) had anoxic brain injury, 63 (27.9%) had stroke, and 51 (22.6%) had traumatic brain injury. The relative proportion of donors with traumatic brain injury decreased over time (> 30% in 2003-2005 v. 6%-23% in 2012-2014) (p = 0.004), whereas that with anoxic brain injury increased (14%-37% v. 46%-80%, respectively) (p brain-dead donors with traumatic brain injury decreased from 4.4 to less than 3 per million population between 2000 and 2013, and that with anoxic brain injury increased from 1.1 to 3.1 per million. Donors with anoxic brain injury had higher concentrations of creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and troponin T, and lower PaO2/FIO2 and urine output than donors with other diagnoses. The average number of organs transplanted per donor was 3.6 with anoxic brain injury versus 4.5 with traumatic brain injury or stroke (p = 0.002). Interpretation: Anoxic brain injury has become a leading cause of organ donation after neurologic determination of death in Canada. Organs from donors with anoxic brain injury have a greater degree of injury, and fewer are transplanted. These findings have implications for availability of

  15. Individual and family consent to organ and tissue donation: is the current position coherent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, T M

    2005-10-01

    The current position on the deceased's consent and the family's consent to organ and tissue donation from the dead is a double veto-each has the power to withhold and override the other's desire to donate. This paper raises, and to some extent answers, questions about the coherence of the double veto. It can be coherently defended in two ways: if it has the best effects and if the deceased has only negative rights of veto. Whether the double veto has better effects than other policies requires empirical investigation, which is not undertaken here. As for rights, the paper shows that it is entirely possible that individuals have a negative right of veto but no positive right to compel acceptance of their offers. Thus if intensivists and transplant teams turn down the deceased's offer, they do not thereby violate the deceased's right. This leaves it open whether non-rights based reasons-such as avoiding bad publicity or distress -require intensivists and transplant teams to turn down or accept the deceased's offer. This, however, is beyond the scope of this paper. The current position may or may not be wrong, but it is at least coherent.

  16. Analysis of the Science and Technology Narrative within Organ Donation and Transplantation Coverage in Canadian Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cheung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ failure is one cause of death. Advancements in scientific research and technological development made organ transplantation possible and continue to find better ways to substitute failed organs with other organs of biological origin or artificial organs. Media, including newspapers, are one source of information for the public. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent and how science and technology research and development are covered in the organ transplantation and organ donation (ODOT coverage of n = 300 Canadian newspapers, including the two Canadian newspapers with national reach (The Globe and Mail, National Post. The study generated qualitative and quantitative data addressing the following issues: (1 which scientific and technological developments are mentioned in the ODOT coverage; and (2 what issues are mentioned in the coverage of scientific and technological advancements linked to ODOT. We found little to no coverage of many technological and scientific advancements evident in academic and grey literature covering ODOT, and we found little engagement with social and ethical issues already raised about these advancements in the literature. The only area we found to be covered to a broader extent was xenotransplantation, although the coverage stopped after 2002. We argue that the newspaper coverage of ODOT under reports scientific and technological advancements related to ODOT and the issues these advancements might raise.

  17. Intentions of becoming a living organ donor among Hispanics: a theory-based approach exploring differences between living and nonliving organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D; Dominick, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This research examines perceptions concerning living (n = 1,253) and nonliving (n = 1,259) organ donation among Hispanic adults, a group considerably less likely than the general population to become donors. Measures are derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and Vested Interest Theory (Crano, 1983, 1997). A substantial percentage of respondents reported positive attitudes and high personal stake concerning organ donation. Mean differences in norms, attitudes, intentions, and assumed immediacy of payoff were found between living and nonliving donor groups, suggesting that these two donation formats are dissimilar and should be examined independently. Accordingly, separate hierarchical multiple regression models were estimated for living and nonliving donation. Analyses supported both theoretical frameworks: Constructs associated with Planned Behavior and Vested Interest independently contributed to donor intentions. The implications of these results, and our recommendations for future health campaigns, are presented in light of these theoretical models.

  18. Enforcement of presumed-consent policy and willingness to donate organs as identified in the European Union Survey: the role of legislation in reinforcing ideology in pluralistic societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Friederich-Murray, Catherine

    2009-04-01

    To increase the supply of transplantable organs, some European Union (EU) countries have begun implementing and enforcing presumed consent policies for organ donation. Mossialos and colleagues performed an analysis of samples of citizens in 15 EU countries and found that legislation, enforcement, and awareness of presumed consent policies for organ donation increase people's willingness to donate their own organs and those of a deceased relative. The authors concluded that, in countries with enforced presumed consent, citizens are willing to donate because they accept organ donation as an ideology. This ideology originates in the thinking that organ donation is an implicit communal contract i.e., a mechanism by which individuals pay back society for the inclusion and social support that they have already experienced and hope to experience in the future. Acceptance of this ideology enhances people's willingness to donate organs and the efficiency in pursuing this collective action, thus, paving the way toward increased paternalism in society. We highlight some potential biases that may have been incorporated in the survey design and in Mossialos et al.'s conclusions, including (1) how the survey questions were constructed, (2) whether sufficient information was communicated about organ procurement practices in heart-beating and non-heart-beating donation before participants responded to the survey, and (3) whether respondents' knowledge about donation legislation can be equated with understanding of processes involved in organ donation. We address the consequences of using legislative authority to enforce the ideology of organ donation, thereby superseding the varying moral values, beliefs, and attitudes about human life and culture that are inherent in multicultural societies.

  19. Limiting financial disincentives in live organ donation: a rational solution to the kidney shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, R S; Danovitch, G M; Epstein, R A; Kahn, J P; Matas, A J; Schnitzler, M A

    2006-11-01

    Availability of kidney transplantation is limited by an inadequate supply of organs, with no apparent remedy on the immediate horizon and increasing reliance on living donors (LDs). While some have advocated financial remuneration to stimulate donation, the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA) of 1984 expressly forbids the offer of 'valuable consideration.' However, recent developments indicate some fluidity in the definition of valuable consideration while evolving international standards highlight deficiencies (particularly regarding long-term care and follow-up) in the current American system. Recognizing that substantial financial and physical disincentives exist for LDs, we propose a policy change that offers the potential to enhance organ availability as well as address concerns regarding long-term care. Donors assume much greater risk than is widely acknowledged, risk that can be approximated for the purpose of determining appropriate compensation. Our proposal offsets donor risk via a package of specific benefits (life insurance, health insurance and a small amount of cash) to minimize hazard and ensure donor interests are protected after as well as before nephrectomy. It will fund medical follow-up and enable data collection so that long-term risk can be accurately assessed. The proposal should be cost effective with only a small increase in the number of LDs, and the net benefit will become greater if removal of disincentives stimulates even further growth. As importantly, by directly linking compensation to risk, we believe it preserves the essence of kidney donation as a gift, consistent with NOTA and implementable in the United States without altering current legal statutes.

  20. Cultural carrying capacity: Organ donation advocacy, discursive framing, and social media engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, Christopher A

    2016-09-01

    Social media sites such as Facebook have become a powerful tool for public health outreach because they enable advocacy organizations to influence the rapidly increasing number of people who frequent these forums. Yet the very open-ness of social media sites creates fierce competition for public attention. The vast majority of social media messages provoke little or no reaction because of the sheer volume of information that confronts the typical social media user each day. In this article, I present a theory of the "cultural carrying capacity" of social media messaging campaigns. I argue that advocacy organizations inspire more endorsements, comments, and shares by social media users if they diversify the discursive content of their messages. Yet too much diversification creates large, disconnected audiences that lack the sense of shared purpose necessary to sustain an online movement. To evaluate this theory, I created a Facebook application that collects social media posts produced by forty-two organ donation advocacy organizations over 1.5 years, as well as supplemental information about the organization, its audience, and the broader social context in which they interact. Time series models provide strong evidence for my theory net of demographic characteristics of social media users, the resources and tactics of each organization, and broader external factors. I conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for public health, cultural sociology, and the nascent field of computational social science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The "spare parts person"? Conceptions of the human body and their implications for public attitudes towards organ donation and organ sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweda, Mark; Schicktanz, Silke

    2009-02-18

    The increasing debate on financial incentives for organ donation raises concerns about a "commodification of the human body". Philosophical-ethical stances on this development depend on assumptions concerning the body and how people think about it. In our qualitative empirical study we analyze public attitudes towards organ donation in their specific relation to conceptions of the human body in four European countries (Cyprus, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden). This approach aims at a more context-sensitive picture of what "commodification of the body" can mean in concrete clinical decisions concerning organ donation. We find that moral intuitions concerning organ donation are rooted in various conceptions of the human body and its relation to the self: a) the body as a mechanical object owned by the self, b) the body as a part of a higher order embodying the self, and c) the body as a hierarchy of organs constitutive of the self. The language of commodification is much too simple to capture what is at stake in everyday life intuitions about organ donation and organ sale. We discuss how the plurality of underlying body-self conceptions can be taken into account in the ethical debate, pointing out consequences for an anthropologically informed approach and for a liberal perspective.

  2. Increasing Dutch adolescents' willingness to register their organ donation preference: the effectiveness of an education programma delivered by kidney transplantation patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Borne, B. van den; Dijker, A.J.; Ryckman, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the effects of an educational programme about organ donation delivered by (ex-)patients with a successfully transplanted donor kidney on the willingness of adolescents to register their organ donation preference. METHODS: A total of 319 secondary school students were

  3. Increasing Dutch adolescents' willingness to register their organ donation preference: the effectiveness of an education programma delivered by kidney transplantation patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Borne, B. van den; Dijker, A.J.; Ryckman, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the effects of an educational programme about organ donation delivered by (ex-)patients with a successfully transplanted donor kidney on the willingness of adolescents to register their organ donation preference. METHODS: A total of 319 secondary school students were

  4. Factor analysis of sources of information on organ donation and transplantation in journalism students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ríos, A; Ramis, G; López-Navas, A; Febrero, B; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2013-01-01

    Journalists and the information they disseminate are essential to promote health and organ donation and transplantation (ODT). The attitude of journalism students toward ODT could influence public opinion and help promote this treatment option. The aim of this study was to determine the media through which journalism students receive information on ODT and to analyze the association between the sources of information and psychosocial variables. We surveyed journalism students (n = 129) recruited in compulsory classes. A validated psychosocial questionnaire (self-administered, anonymous) about ODT was used. Student t test and χ(2) test were applied. Questionnaire completion rate was 98% (n = 126). The medium with the greatest incidence on students was television (TV), followed by press and magazines/books. In the factor analysis to determine the impact of the information by its source, the first factor was talks with friends and family; the second was shared by hoardings/publicity posters, health professionals, and college/school; and the third was TV and radio. In the factor analysis between information sources and psychosocial variables, the associations were between information about organ donation transmitted by friends and family and having spoken about ODT with them; by TV, radio, and hoardings and not having spoken in the family; and by TV/radio and the father's and mother's opinion about ODT. The medium with the greatest incidence on students is TV, and the medium with the greatest impact on broadcasting information was conversations with friends, family, and health professionals. This could be useful for society, because they should be provided with clear and concise information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Donor education campaigns since the introduction of the Dutch organ donation act: increased cohesion between campaigns has paid off.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppen, R.; Friele, R.D.; Gevers, S.K.M.; Zee, J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Governments utilize special policy measures to increase and maintain positive attitudes among their citizens towards consent registration and organ donation. Little has been published on these national strategies. Some studies report on the impact of single policy measures shortly after their implem

  6. The impact of generalized and institutional trust on donating to activist, leisure, and interest organizations: Individual and contextual effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.B.; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we answer the question as to what extent donating to activist, interest, and leisure organizations is affected by both individual and national levels of generalized and institutional trust. We use the European Social Survey 2002 to estimate multilevel random intercept models, based on

  7. Parental Grief Following the Brain Death of a Child: Does Consent or Refusal to Organ Donation Affect Their Grief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Thalia; Papadatou, Danai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the grieving process of parents who were faced with the dilemma of donating organs and tissues of their underage brain dead child, and to explore the impact of their decision on their grief process. A grounded theory methodology was adopted and a semi-structured interview was conducted with 11 bereaved…

  8. The Impact and Evaluation of Two School-Based Interventions on Intention to Register an Organ Donation Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubsaet, A.; Brug, J.; Kitslaar, J.; Van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the impact and evaluation of two intervention components--a video with group discussion and an interactive computer-tailored program--in order to encourage adolescents to register their organ donation preference. Studies were conducted in school during regular school hours. The video with group discussion in class had a…

  9. Process Evaluation of a School-Based Education Program about Organ Donation and Registration, and the Intention for Continuance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubsaet, A.; Reinaerts, E. B. M.; Brug, J.; van Hooff, J. P.; van den Borne, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the process evaluation of an organ donation education program for high school students aged 15-18 years of which the effectiveness was established. The program consisted of three components: a video with group discussion, an interactive computer-tailored program and a registration training session. A cross-sectional survey was…

  10. Parental Grief Following the Brain Death of a Child: Does Consent or Refusal to Organ Donation Affect Their Grief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Thalia; Papadatou, Danai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the grieving process of parents who were faced with the dilemma of donating organs and tissues of their underage brain dead child, and to explore the impact of their decision on their grief process. A grounded theory methodology was adopted and a semi-structured interview was conducted with 11 bereaved…

  11. Key factors in paediatric organ and tissue donation : an overview of literature in a chronological working model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, Marion J.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Roodbol, Petrie F.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing shortage of size-matched organs and tissues for children. Although examples of substandard care are reported in the literature, there is no overview of the paediatric donation process. The aim of the study is to gain insight into the chain of events, practices and procedures in pa

  12. [Eligibility to a Maastricht III - type organ donation according to the protocol proposed by the French organ procurement organization (Agence de la biomedicine) among patients in a medico surgical intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocas, E; Rolando, S; Bronchard, R; Fender, F; Guérineau, C; Bruyère, M

    2014-12-01

    Because of graft shortages, an experimental programme of organ donation after Maastricht 3-type circulatory death (M3) has been proposed by the French organ procurement organization (Agence de la biomedicine: ABM). The aim of the study was to estimate how many potential patients were eligible for an M3-type organ donation, amongst deceased patients who have had life-support withdrawn. We conducted a retrospective study looking at the notes of deceased patients in a French general intensive care unit (ICU), where organ donation is arranged in DBD donors. Over the year 2013, 1475 patients were admitted in ICU and 215 died. One hundred and one patients were brain-injured and 26 of them died following a decision to withdrawn life-support and without contraindication to organ donation. Among them, 2 patients (8%) met the criteria for the French M3-type organ donation protocol. A 12.5% increase in organ donation activity of our team and five organ transplantations could have been considered. If M3 organ donation is considered, a significant increase in transplantation would be expected. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge and attitude of donor cardholders toward organ and tissue donation and transplantation in an Iranian tissue bank: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, B; Aghayan, S H; Goodarzi, P; Razavi, S H E; Jafarian, A; Larijani, B; Khalooghi, K; Charmchi, E; Arjmand, F

    2009-09-01

    Cadaveric organ shortage is the most important obstacle to more widespread provision of transplants. Many factors influence the donation rate: social factors, religion, familial relations, and especially knowledge and attitudes toward organ and tissue donation and transplantation. Increasing public awareness can reform the incorrect beliefs and myths about donation and transplantation. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes of donor cardholders toward organ and tissue donation as well as transplantation. This case-control study was performed in 2006 among 178 donor cardholders and the same number of a control group who completed a questionnaire including 23 questions and demographic information. Knowledge and attitude among the cardholder was significantly greater than the control group (P media can increase the rate of consent for organ and tissue donation and transplantation.

  14. Attitudes toward financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent among next-of-kin who consented vs. refused organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Cornell, Danielle L; Howard, Richard J

    2006-05-15

    Financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent are strategies designed to increase organ donation rates. Surveys designed to assess attitudes toward these initiatives have been conducted with the general public, transplant patients, and transplant professionals. To assess attitudes toward financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent and to identify multivariate predictors of such attitudes, we conducted telephone interviews with 561 family members who had recently been asked for consent to donate the organs of a deceased family member (348 donors, 213 nondonors). Financial incentives would have made a difference in the donation decision for 54% of nondonors (vs. 46% of donors, P=0.02), and a higher percentage of nondonors would themselves become donors if financial incentives were available (P=0.03). Donors had significantly more favorable attitudes toward donor authorization (Pdonation was unnecessary when the deceased documented their donation intention, and 24% favored a presumed consent law with an opting out provision. Of the three initiatives, donor authorization is likely supported by more donor and nondonor families than either financial incentives or presumed consent. Public education efforts should aim to better inform the public regarding existing and proposed donor authorization legislation and its benefits for registered organ donors and their families.

  15. 11 CFR 300.11 - Prohibitions on fundraising for and donating to certain tax-exempt organizations (2 U.S.C 441i(d)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibitions on fundraising for and donating to certain tax-exempt organizations (2 U.S.C 441i(d)). 300.11 Section 300.11 Federal Elections FEDERAL... Party Committees § 300.11 Prohibitions on fundraising for and donating to certain...

  16. ICU Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Towards their Role in the Organ Donation Process from Brain-Dead Patients and Factors Influencing it in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumian Hoseini, S. T.; Manzari, Z.; Khaleghi, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, ICU nurses play a significant role in the care of brain-dead patients and their families. Therefore, their knowledge, attitude and practice towards this issue are extremely important to the success of organ donation. Objective: To assess ICU nurses’ knowledge, attitude and practice towards their role in the organ donation process from brain-dead patients and factors influencing it in Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional analytical study, 90 ICU nurses working in Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences were selected through a stratified random sampling. Data were collected from the participants by a questionnaire included demographic information, and factors influencing the nurses knowledge, attitude, and practice towards their roles in the organ donation process. Results: 90 nurses participated in this study. 70% of the research subjects had spoken with their own families about organ donation; 20% had organ donation cards. The mean±SD score of nurses’ knowledge was 49.13±9.6, attitude 21.49±14.32, and practice was 3.66±6.04. 80% of nurses had a mean knowledge about their roles in the organ donation process; 82% agreed with their roles in this process, and 97% showed weak practice in this regard. Conclusion: Nurses did not have adequate knowledge, attitude, and practice towards their role in organ donation process. It is suggested to include nursing courses on the organ donation process and organ transplantation as well as educational programs to acquaint nurses with their roles in the organ donation process. PMID:26306156

  17. ICU Nurses' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Towards their Role in the Organ Donation Process from Brain-Dead Patients and Factors Influencing it in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumian Hoseini, S T; Manzari, Z; Khaleghi, I

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, ICU nurses play a significant role in the care of brain-dead patients and their families. Therefore, their knowledge, attitude and practice towards this issue are extremely important to the success of organ donation. To assess ICU nurses' knowledge, attitude and practice towards their role in the organ donation process from brain-dead patients and factors influencing it in Iran. In a cross-sectional analytical study, 90 ICU nurses working in Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences were selected through a stratified random sampling. Data were collected from the participants by a questionnaire included demographic information, and factors influencing the nurses knowledge, attitude, and practice towards their roles in the organ donation process. 90 nurses participated in this study. 70% of the research subjects had spoken with their own families about organ donation; 20% had organ donation cards. The mean±SD score of nurses' knowledge was 49.13±9.6, attitude 21.49±14.32, and practice was 3.66±6.04. 80% of nurses had a mean knowledge about their roles in the organ donation process; 82% agreed with their roles in this process, and 97% showed weak practice in this regard. Nurses did not have adequate knowledge, attitude, and practice towards their role in organ donation process. It is suggested to include nursing courses on the organ donation process and organ transplantation as well as educational programs to acquaint nurses with their roles in the organ donation process.

  18. The importance of education in the promotion of organ donation - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p253

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Ribeiro Morais

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation and human organ donation are controversial issues that have generated much interest and discussion. The lack of clarification and the sensationalist news about organ trafficking contribute to raise questions and render the myths and prejudices permanent.The donation of organs and tissues is seen by society in general, as an act of solidarity and love from the family. However, it requires decision-making at a time of extreme pain and distress, caused by the impact of breaking news of death, the feeling of loss and the unexpected interruption of a life course(1.As the criteria of death are modified, the concept of brain death arises, along with the possibility of using donor organs and tissues. When there is not a good understanding of the organ donation process, the relatives of potential donors feel apprehensive, doubtful and undecided at the time of occurrence, because it is a subject about which there hasn’t been much clarification(1.Brazil has the largest public transplants program in the world, since the government finances 92% of procedures done in the country. However, when we consider the rate of post mortem transplant into the population, Brazil’s results are little expressive(2.Family refusal is a major obstacle to the realization of transplants, and is also identified as major cause for the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation. Families who understand well the diagnosis of brain death are more favorable to organ donation, compared to families who believe that death only occurs after the heart stops. Therefore, the poor level of information, either by the quality of information concerning brain death, either by not having exceeded the barrier of stigmatized fear of organ trading, propagated by the media, drastically reduces the number of patients who are benefited from receiving an organ(3.Although all people are responsible for disseminating information, we must also educate health professionals, since

  19. Admission to Intensive Care for Palliative Care or Potential Organ Donation: Demographics, Circumstances, Outcomes, and Resource Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Andrew; Kolt, Gali; Anderson, David; Mitropoulos, Joanna; Pilcher, David

    2017-08-11

    To describe the characteristics, circumstances, change over time, resource use, and outcomes of patients admitted to ICUs in Australia and New Zealand for the purposes of "palliative care of a dying patient" or "potential organ donation," and compare with actively managed ICU patients. A retrospective study of data from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database and a nested cohort analysis of a single center. One hundred seventy-seven ICUs in Australia and New Zealand and a nested analysis of one university-affiliated hospital ICU in Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Three thousand seven hundred "palliative care of a dying patient" and 1,115 "potential organ donation" patients from 2007 to 2016. The nested cohort included 192 patients. No interventions. Data extracted included patient demographics, diagnoses, length of stay, circumstances, and outcome of admission. ICU admissions for "palliative care of a dying patient" and "potential organ donation" increased from 179 in 2007 to 551 in 2016 and from 44 in 2007 to 174 in 2016 in each respective group, though only the "potential organ donation" cohort showed an increase in proportion of total ICU admissions. Lengths of stay in ICU were a mean of 33.8 hours (median, 17.5; interquartile range, 6.4-38.8) and 44.7 hours (26.6; 16.0-44.6), respectively, compared with 74.2 hours (41.5; 21.7-77.0) in actively managed patients. Hospital mortality was 86.6% and 95.9%, respectively. In the nested cohort of 192 patients, facilitating family discussions about goals of treatment and organ donation represented the most common reason for ICU admission. Patients admitted to ICU to manage end-of-life care represent a small proportion of overall ICU admissions, with an increasing proportion of "potential organ donation" admissions. They have shorter ICU lengths of stay than actively managed patients, suggesting resource use for these patients is not disproportionate.This is an open-access article

  20. Attitudes and beliefs within the Sikh community regarding organ donation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C; Sim, J; Reid, N; Jackson, S; West, N

    1996-07-01

    The current shortage of organs for transplantation is a matter of considerable concern in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Whilst issues of histocompatibility create particular problems in this respect for the Asian population in the U.K., it is sometimes suggested that there is also a resistance to the idea of organ transplantation among this community. To explore this issue, a small-scale interview study was conducted in Coventry among members of the Sikh community. A judgemental sample of 22 individuals, from different strata of the local Sikh community, were interviewed either in one-to-one interviews or in a focus group. These interviews had two broad aims: to determine the prevailing attitudes towards organ transplantation, and to gauge the impact and acceptability of the current Department of Health campaign literature. It was found that, whilst there were a number of misgivings to do with notions of mutilation and reincarnation, and anxieties as to technical or clinical aspects of the transplantation process, the prevailing view was supportive of transplantation, and organ donation was seen as a highly appropriate means of exhibiting the altruistic tradition within Sikhism. Such barriers that exist to the idea of transplantation seem to have more to do with knowledge and understanding than with cultural or religious factors. Concerning the campaign literature, informants identified a number of shortcomings, and indicated ways in which the impact of the leaflets and posters might be enhanced. Although the generalizability of these findings is limited, and despite possible threats to the validity of the data collected, this study has produced findings with significant implications for future policy in this area.

  1. Communication as a predictor of willingness to donate one's organs: an addition to the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffres, Leo W; Carroll, Jeanine A; Rubenking, Bridget E; Amschlinger, Joe

    2008-12-01

    Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action has been used by many researchers, particularly in regard to health communication, to predict behavioral intentions and behavior. According to that theory, one's intention is the best predictor that one will engage in a behavior, and attitudes and social norms predict behavioral intentions. Other researchers have added different variables to the postulates of attitudes and social norms that Fishbein and Ajzen maintain are the best predictors of behavioral intention. Here we draw on data from a 2006 telephone survey (N = 420) gauging the awareness of an organ donation campaign in Northeast Ohio to examine the impact of communication on people's intentions. The current study supports the hypothesis that those who communicate with others are more likely to express a greater willingness to become an organ donor, but it expands the range of communication contexts. With demographics and attitudes toward organ donation controlled for, this study shows that communication with others about organ donation increases the willingness of individuals to have favorable attitudes about being an organ donor.

  2. Removing financial barriers to organ and bone marrow donation: the effect of leave and tax legislation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario; Stith, Sarah S

    2014-01-01

    Many U.S. states have passed legislation providing leave to organ and bone marrow donors and/or tax benefits for live and deceased organ and bone marrow donations and to employers of donors. We exploit cross-state variation in the timing of such legislation to analyze its impact on organ donations by living and deceased persons, on measures of the quality of the transplants, and on the number of bone marrow donations. We find that these provisions do not have a significant impact on the quantity of organs donated. The leave laws, however, do have a positive impact on bone marrow donations, and the effect increases with the size of the population of beneficiaries and with the generosity of the legislative provisions. Our results suggest that this legislation works for moderately invasive procedures such as bone marrow donation, but these incentives may be too low for organ donation, which is riskier and more burdensome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The ethics of organ transplantation reconsidered: paid organ donation and the use of executed prisoners as donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J S; Hoffenberg, R

    1999-02-01

    We examine the arguments for and against the practice of paid organ donation and the use of judicially executed prisoners as seen in a world context. Although Western opinion is almost universally against both practices, we seek to establish that this has arisen largely from justification of an initial revulsion against both and not from reasoned ethical debate. In examining the most commonly cited arguments against these practices, we demonstrate that this revulsion arises mainly from the abuses to which both processes have been subjected, rather than the acts themselves, together with opposition to a death penalty. At the moment and for some future time, in the absence or shortage of dialysis in large parts of the developing world, transplanted organs represent the only means of treating end-stage renal failure. Thus, a clear ethical conflict arises as to whether greater harm or good is done by allowing individuals to die or adopting strategies for obtaining organs that raise ethical problems. We call for continued reasoned ethical debate on both issues, rather than accepting that the argument is already over.

  4. The critical pathway for deceased donation : reportable uniformity in the approach to deceased donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Delmonico, Francis L.; Shaheen, Faissal A. M.; Matesanz, Rafael; O'Connor, Kevin; Minina, Marina; Muller, Elmi; Young, Kimberly; Manyalich, Marti; Chapman, Jeremy; Kirste, Guenter; Al-Mousawi, Mustafa; Coene, Leen; Garcia, Valter Duro; Gautier, Serguei; Hasegawa, Tomonori; Jha, Vivekanand; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Chen, Zhonghua Klaus; Loty, Bernard; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Nathan, Howard M.; Ploeg, Rutger; Reznik, Oleg; Rosendale, John D.; Tibell, Annika; Tsoulfas, George; Vathsala, Anantharaman; Noel, Luc

    2011-01-01

    P>The critical pathway of deceased donation provides a systematic approach to the organ donation process, considering both donation after cardiac death than donation after brain death. The pathway provides a tool for assessing the potential of deceased donation and for the prospective identification

  5. Opinion Toward Living Liver Donation of Hospital Personnel From Units Related to Organ Donation and Transplantation: A Multicenter Study From Spain and Latin-America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Antonio; Lopez Navas, Ana; Ayala Garcia, Marco Antonio; Sebastian, Jose; Abdo Cuza, Anselmo; Martinez Alarcon, Laura; Ramirez, Ector Jaime; Munoz, Gerardo; Palacios, Gerardo; Suarez Lopez, Juliette; Castellanos, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Martinez, Miguel Angel; Diaz, Ernesto; Ramirez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hospital personnel of services related to donation and transplantation process play a fundamental role in the development of transplantation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the attitude toward living liver donation (LLD) among hospital personnel from services related to donation and transplantation in hospital centers in Spain and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Eight hospitals within the “International Donor Collaborative Project” were selected, three in Spain, three in Mexico and two in Cuba. The study was performed in transplant-related services, using a randomized sample, which was stratified by the type of service and job category. Results: In total, 878 workers were surveyed of which 82% (n = 720) were in favor of related LLD, 10% (n = 90) were against and 8% (n = 68) undecided. Attitudes toward related LLD were more favorable in the following groups: the Latin Americans (86% in favor vs. 77% among the Spanish; P = 0.007); younger people (37 vs. 40 years, P = 0.002); those in favor of either deceased donation (P < 0.001) or living kidney donation (P < 0.001); those who believed that they might need a transplant in the future (P < 0.001); those who would accept a liver from a living donor (P < 0.001); those who discussed the subject of donation and transplantation with their families (P = 0.040); and those whose partner was in favor of donation and transplantation (P = 0.044). Conclusions: Personnel from donation and transplantation-related units had a favorable attitude toward LLD. This attitude was not affected by psychosocial factors, although it was influenced by factors directly and indirectly related to the donation and transplantation process. PMID:25737727

  6. Secondary school teachers' assessment of the introduction of an educational program about organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; Febrero, B; López-Navas, A; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Sánchez, J; Guzmán, D; Ramis, G; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2011-01-01

    It is essential to provide information about organ donation and transplantation (ODT) to encourage school pupils to have favorable attitudes toward this matter in the future. The role of the teacher is crucial in this respect. The objective of this study was to determine acceptance by secondary school teachers of an educational program about ODT. A random sample of secondary school teachers was taken from 10 secondary schools in the southeast of Spain. A total of 288 teachers were surveyed using a questionnaire that assessed the following; (1) acceptance of the educational program; (2) who should carry it out; and (3) some psychosocial variables related to ODT. Of the 288 secondary teachers surveyed, 283 of them responded to the acceptance of an educational program on ODT. Approximately half (54%) of the respondents believed that it would be appropriate to introduce an educational program about ODT in secondary schools, 22% believed that there were currently other more important educational considerations, 20% had doubts, and 4% believed that it would not be useful. The vast majority (71%) believed that a collaborator from the Regional Transplant Team would be the best person to carry out the program followed by any teacher (11%) or a teacher of ethics (9%). The remaining 9% were not sure. There was greater acceptance of an educational program about ODT among teachers who had a favorable attitude toward the matter (P = .003). An educational program about ODT in secondary education was not equally accepted by all teachers. Most teachers believed that the program should be delivered by the Transplant Coordination Center rather than teachers themselves. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An investigation into the factors effective in the consent of families with brain-dead patients candidates for organ donation in Isfahan, Iran in 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajooei, Maryam Khalifehsoltani; Zamani, Fereshteh; Mehr, Asieh Maghami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that, with regard to social, cultural, and institutional contexts, several factors affect family decision-making on organ donation. This study aimed to investigate the effective factors in organ donation by family members with brain-dead patients. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-comparative study in which a researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect data. The reliability of the questionnaire was obtained as 0.81 using Cronbach's alpha. The study sample consisted of 85 members of families with brain-dead patients in Isfahan, Iran in 2012–13. The collected data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0, and the level of significance was considered as brain death did not have any effect on their families consent, whereas factors such as gender, duration of hospitalization, having an organ donation card, personal view of the brain-dead patient, and the number of patient's children had a significant relationship with the consent on organ donation. In addition, the care and treatment team were effective in family decisions regarding organ donation. Conclusions: In general, the necessary culture and increasing the population awareness and their knowledge can be a positive step in this regard and may bring about an easy and rapid acceptance of organ donation by the involved families. PMID:28194201

  8. An investigation into the factors effective in the consent of families with brain-dead patients candidates for organ donation in Isfahan, Iran in 2012-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajooei, Maryam Khalifehsoltani; Zamani, Fereshteh; Mehr, Asieh Maghami

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that, with regard to social, cultural, and institutional contexts, several factors affect family decision-making on organ donation. This study aimed to investigate the effective factors in organ donation by family members with brain-dead patients. This was a descriptive-comparative study in which a researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect data. The reliability of the questionnaire was obtained as 0.81 using Cronbach's alpha. The study sample consisted of 85 members of families with brain-dead patients in Isfahan, Iran in 2012-13. The collected data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0, and the level of significance was considered as factors such as age, marital status, level of education, and cause of brain death did not have any effect on their families consent, whereas factors such as gender, duration of hospitalization, having an organ donation card, personal view of the brain-dead patient, and the number of patient's children had a significant relationship with the consent on organ donation. In addition, the care and treatment team were effective in family decisions regarding organ donation. In general, the necessary culture and increasing the population awareness and their knowledge can be a positive step in this regard and may bring about an easy and rapid acceptance of organ donation by the involved families.

  9. [Myths about organ donation on health personnel, potential recipients and relatives of potential donors in a peruvian hospital: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rázuri, Katherine; Ballena-López, José; León-Jiménez, Franco

    2016-03-01

    To explore the myths regarding organ donation at a national hospital in Lambayeque, Peru during 2014. A qualitative-phenomenological study was performed using 24 unstructured in-depht interview of health personnel, potential recipients and relatives of potential donors. Sampling was intentional opinion-based, completed by theoretical saturation in each group. An interview guide was used, which was assessed by five experts, and data triangulation was performed. Twenty-three interviewees (95,8%) reported a favorable attitude towards organ donation. On their National Identification Document, thirteen (54,2%) had marked "no" for donation. The myths were: age or illness can preclude donation; that the recipient may experience the donor's behaviours and lives in it; brain death is undestood as the immobility of the body and a reversible state; religions do not accept organ donation because it affects physical integrity and resurrection; and that there are preferences on the organ donor waiting list and that organ trafficking taxes place. Myths explored in this study involved religious, socio-cultural, psychological and ethical misperceptions. The apparent lack of knowledge of the brain death diagnosis is the starting point of the donation process. Therefore, the presence of a hospital coordinator, the role of spiritual leaders and the correct information provided by media would be key parts to dispell these myths.

  10. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  11. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  12. Differences in willingness to donate cadaveric organ between young donor families and adult donor families: evidence from the Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-zhao; YE Qi-fa; LIU Wei; SHAO Ming-jie; WAN Qi-quan; LI Cui-ying; LUO Ai-jing

    2013-01-01

    Background The Red Cross of China and Ministry of Health jointly started a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2010.The purpose of this qualitative study were to compare the consent rate of organ donation between young donor families and adult donor families; to explore and determine factors associated with differences in willingness to donate organs between them.Research objective was to provide a rationale for further preparation of professionals involved in this sensitive work.Methods Between March 2010 and June 2012,24 young deceased patients including donors and non-donors and 96 potential adult donors were collected,and consent rates of young donors' families and adult donors' families were calculated.A X2 test analysis to compare the consent rates of the two groups was conducted.We studied through semistructured interviews 15 parents of young donors and 15 relatives of old donors who were interviewed for petition of consent.Data collection and analysis of the overall study were performed according to the grounded theory methodology.Factors that influenced the families' decisions were identified and classified.We found the differences in willingness to donate organs between the two groups.Results The consent rate of young donor families was 66.67%,while the consent rate of adult donor families was 26.04%.Young donor families easily consented to organ donation than adult donor families (P<0.005).The donors' families had been affected by various factors throughout the process of deciding to give consent for donation.The findings led to the formulation of an empirically based model of interlinking categories that influence families' decision-making process in organ donation.These factors are grouped into five main categories:(1) personal factors,(2) conditions of organ request,(3) interpersonal factors,(4) ethical factors,and (5) traditional views.The funeral tradition influenced the young

  13. Organizing the Donation of Convalescent Plasma for a Therapeutic Clinical Trial on Ebola Virus Disease: The Experience in Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamou, Alexandre; Haba, Nyankoye Yves; Mari-Saez, Almudena; Gallian, Pierre; Ronse, Maya; Jacobs, Jan; Camara, Bienvenu Salim; Kadio, Kadio Jean-Jacques Olivier; Guemou, Achille; Kolie, Jean Pe; De Crop, Maaike; Chavarin, Patricia; Jacquot, Chantal; Lazaygues, Catherine; De Weggheleire, Anja; Lynen, Lutgarde; van Griensven, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Although convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion was prioritized among potential Ebola treatments by the World Health Organization, there were concerns on the feasibility of its implementation. We report on the successful organization of donor mobilization and plasma collection as part of the Ebola-Tx clinical trial from November 2014 to July 2015 in Conakry, Guinea. Project implementation registers, tools and reports, mission reports, and minutes of research team meetings were used to reconstruct the sequence of events on how donor mobilization was organized, plasmapheresis was set up, and how effective this approach was in collecting CP. An initial needs assessment of the Guinean National Blood Transfusion Center resulted in targeted training of staff on site, resulting in autonomy and independent production of CP within 3 months. The Conakry Ebola Survivors Association played a direct role in donor mobilization and organization of CP donations. A total of 98 Ebola survivors were screened for plasma donation, of which 84 were found eligible for plasmapheresis. Of these, 26 (30.9%) were excluded. The remaining 58 donors made a total of 90 donations, corresponding to 50.9 L of CP. This sufficed to treat the 99 eligible patients enrolled in the trial. Within a poor resource emergency context, transfusion capacity could be rapidly improved through the strengthening of local capacities and gradual transfer of skills coupled with active involvement of Ebola survivors. However, large-scale plasma collection or multisite studies may require further adaptations of both strategy and logistics. The Ebola-Tx trial was funded by the European Union and others. PMID:27430546

  14. Organizing the Donation of Convalescent Plasma for a Therapeutic Clinical Trial on Ebola Virus Disease: The Experience in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamou, Alexandre; Haba, Nyankoye Yves; Mari-Saez, Almudena; Gallian, Pierre; Ronse, Maya; Jacobs, Jan; Camara, Bienvenu Salim; Kadio, Kadio Jean-Jacques Olivier; Guemou, Achille; Kolie, Jean Pe; Crop, Maaike De; Chavarin, Patricia; Jacquot, Chantal; Lazaygues, Catherine; Weggheleire, Anja De; Lynen, Lutgarde; van Griensven, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Although convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion was prioritized among potential Ebola treatments by the World Health Organization, there were concerns on the feasibility of its implementation. We report on the successful organization of donor mobilization and plasma collection as part of the Ebola-Tx clinical trial from November 2014 to July 2015 in Conakry, Guinea. Project implementation registers, tools and reports, mission reports, and minutes of research team meetings were used to reconstruct the sequence of events on how donor mobilization was organized, plasmapheresis was set up, and how effective this approach was in collecting CP. An initial needs assessment of the Guinean National Blood Transfusion Center resulted in targeted training of staff on site, resulting in autonomy and independent production of CP within 3 months. The Conakry Ebola Survivors Association played a direct role in donor mobilization and organization of CP donations. A total of 98 Ebola survivors were screened for plasma donation, of which 84 were found eligible for plasmapheresis. Of these, 26 (30.9%) were excluded. The remaining 58 donors made a total of 90 donations, corresponding to 50.9 L of CP. This sufficed to treat the 99 eligible patients enrolled in the trial. Within a poor resource emergency context, transfusion capacity could be rapidly improved through the strengthening of local capacities and gradual transfer of skills coupled with active involvement of Ebola survivors. However, large-scale plasma collection or multisite studies may require further adaptations of both strategy and logistics. The Ebola-Tx trial was funded by the European Union and others.

  15. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  16. Presumed consent for organ preservation in uncontrolled donation after cardiac death in the United States: a public policy with serious consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rady Mohamed Y

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organ donation after cessation of circulation and respiration, both controlled and uncontrolled, has been proposed by the Institute of Medicine as a way to increase opportunities for organ procurement. Despite claims to the contrary, both forms of controlled and uncontrolled donation after cardiac death raise significant ethical and legal issues. Identified causes for concern include absence of agreement on criteria for the declaration of death, nonexistence of universal guidelines for duration before stopping resuscitation efforts and techniques, and assumption of presumed intent to donate for the purpose of initiating temporary organ-preservation interventions when no expressed consent to donate is present. From a legal point of view, not having scientifically valid criteria of cessation of circulation and respiration for declaring death could lead to a conclusion that organ procurement itself is the proximate cause of death. Although the revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act of 2006 provides broad immunity to those involved in organ-procurement activities, courts have yet to provide an opinion on whether persons can be held liable for injuries arising from the determination of death itself. Preserving organs in uncontrolled donation after cardiac death requires the administration of life-support systems such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. These life-support systems can lead to return of signs of life that, in turn, have to be deliberately suppressed by the administration of pharmacological agents. Finally, allowing temporary organ-preservation interventions without expressed consent is inherently a violation of the principle of respect for a person's autonomy. Proponents of organ donation from uncontrolled donation after cardiac death, on the other hand, claim that these nonconsensual interventions enhance respect for autonomy by allowing people, through surrogate decision making, to execute their right to donate organs

  17. The First 2 Years of Activity of a Specialized Organ Procurement Center: Report of an Innovative Approach to Improve Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolais, P; Durand, P; Charbonney, E; Serri, K; Lagacé, A-M; Bernard, F; Albert, M

    2016-11-22

    The number of patients requiring organ transplants continues to outgrow the number of organs donated each year. In an attempt to improve the organ donation process and increase the number of organs available, we created a specialized multidisciplinary team within a specialized organ procurement center (OPC) with dedicated intensive care unit (ICU) beds and operating rooms. The OPC was staffed with ICU nurses, operating room nurses, organ donor management ICU physicians, and multidisciplinary staff. All organ donors within a designated geographic area were transferred to and managed within the OPC. During the first 2 years of operation, 126 patients were referred to the OPC. The OPC was in use for a total of 3527 h and involved 253 health workers. We retrieved 173 kidneys, 95 lungs, 68 livers, 37 hearts, and 13 pancreases for a total of 386 organs offered for transplantation. This translates to a total of 124.6 persons transplanted per million population, which compares most favorably to recently published numbers in developed countries. The OPC clearly demonstrates potential to increase the number of deceased donor organs available for transplant. Further studies are warranted to better understand the exact influence of the different components of the OPC on organ procurement.

  18. Pecuniary and Non-Pecuniary Incentives to Increase the Rate of Organ Donations from the Living: A Moral Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Y. Barilan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the morality of schemes of payment to live donors/sellers of organs for transplantation. Following empirical and historical evidence, it is argued that consent to sell organs is substantially different from consent to ordinary business transactions and that legalization of exchanges of organs with financial benefits deviates significantly from the scope of liberal toleration and liberal conceptions of human rights. Although altruistic giving is commendable, it is immoral for society to benefit from them without conferring to the donors benefits such as health and nursing insurance for life. Non-alienable and non-fungible benefits of this kind are moral as incentives to organ donation/giving.

  19. Impact of an Educational Intervention on Increasing the Knowledge and Changing the Attitude and Beliefs towards Organ Donation among Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadurg, Umesh Yamanappa; Gupta, Akash

    2014-05-01

    Organ transplantation saves thousands of lives worldwide. Organ transplantation is a boon to the medical profession, as it helps in saving the lives of many diseased people. Globally, the prevalence of knowledge on organ donation was found to range from 60% to 85%, on using different knowledge variables. Knowledge, attitude and actions are interrelated and previous studies have shown that culture and religion were important external influences which affected the decision making process. So, students require further information on the organ donation process and they need opportunities to examine their own beliefs and attitudes, which can be addressed through educational interventions. Purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude and belief on/towards organ donation and the impact of an educational intervention on them. An educational interventional study with pre structured questions being administered to study subjects. In the present study, a total of 70 students consented to participate and all the 70 attended the pre-test and post-test after the classroom teaching. Among the 70 participants, 35(50%) were males and 35(50%) were females. A majority of the subjects were Hindus 64(91.4%) and only 3(4.30%) were Muslims. Sixty seven (95.7%) of the students had heard of the term, 'organ donation'. Most common reason given by the participants for organ donation was that it was done to save someone's life [61 (87.11%)]. Among the 70 study subjects, only 19(27.10%) knew about the organs that could be donated, whose number increased to 56(80%) after providing the educational intervention. The difference which was observed in their knowledge before and after providing the educational intervention was found to be statistically significant (t= 39.315, porgan donation was poor. Thiry one(444.3%) subjects were unaware about the existence of laws which were related to organ donation and its process. The study emphasizes the need of an intervention which

  20. The organ preservation and enhancement of donation success ratio effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in circulatory unstable brain death donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoli; Chen, Zhiquan; Nasralla, David; Zeng, Xianpeng; Yang, Jing; Ye, Shaojun; Zhang, Yi; Peng, Guizhu; Wang, Yanfeng; Ye, Qifa

    2016-10-01

    Between 2010 and 2013, we recorded 66 cases of failed organ donation after brain death (DBD) due to the excessive use of the vasoactive drugs resulting in impaired hepatic and/or renal function. To investigate the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in donor management, ECMO was used to provide support for DBD donors with circulatory and/or respiratory failure from 2013 to 2015. A retrospective cohort study between circulatory non-stable DBD with vasoactive drugs (DBD-drug) and circulatory non-stable DBD with ECMO (DBD-ECMO) was designed to compare the transplant outcomes. A total of 19 brain death donors were supported by ECMO. The incidence rate of post-transplant liver primary non-function (PNF) was 10% (two of 20) in DBD-drug group and zero in DBD-ECMO group. Kidney function indicators, including creatinine clearance and urine production, were significantly better in DBD-ECMO group, as well as the kidney delayed graft function (DGF) rate was found to be decreased by the use of ECMO in our study. Donation success rate increased steadily from 47.8% in 2011 to 84.6% in 2014 after the ECMO intervention. The use of ECMO in assisting circulatory and respiratory function of DBD can reduce liver and kidney injury from vasoactive drugs, thereby improving organ quality and reducing the organ discard rates.

  1. The moral code in Islam and organ donation in Western countries: reinterpreting religious scriptures to meet utilitarian medical objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2014-06-02

    End-of-life organ donation is controversial in Islam. The controversy stems from: (1) scientifically flawed medical criteria of death determination; (2) invasive perimortem procedures for preserving transplantable organs; and (3) incomplete disclosure of information to consenting donors and families. Data from a survey of Muslims residing in Western countries have shown that the interpretation of religious scriptures and advice of faith leaders were major barriers to willingness for organ donation. Transplant advocates have proposed corrective interventions: (1) reinterpreting religious scriptures, (2) reeducating faith leaders, and (3) utilizing media campaigns to overcome religious barriers in Muslim communities. This proposal disregards the intensifying scientific, legal, and ethical controversies in Western societies about the medical criteria of death determination in donors. It would also violate the dignity and inviolability of human life which are pertinent values incorporated in the Islamic moral code. Reinterpreting religious scriptures to serve the utilitarian objectives of a controversial end-of-life practice, perceived to be socially desirable, transgresses the Islamic moral code. It may also have deleterious practical consequences, as donors can suffer harm before death. The negative normative consequences of utilitarian secular moral reasoning reset the Islamic moral code upholding the sanctity and dignity of human life.

  2. Ocean-atmosphere exchange of organic carbon and CO2 surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Halpern, S.; Calleja, M. Ll.; Dachs, J.; Del Vento, S.; Pastor, M.; Palmer, M.; Agustí, S.; Duarte, C. M.

    2014-05-01

    Exchangeable organic carbon (OC) dynamics and CO2 fluxes in the Antarctic Peninsula during austral summer were highly variable, but the region appeared to be a net sink for OC and nearly in balance for CO2. Surface exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC) measurements had a 43 ± 3 (standard error, hereafter SE) μmol C L-1 overall mean and represented around 66% of surface non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Antarctic waters, while the mean concentration of the gaseous fraction of organic carbon (GOC H-1) was 46 ± 3 SE μmol C L-1. There was a tendency towards low fugacity of dissolved CO2 (fCO2-w) in waters with high chlorophyll a (Chl a) content and high fCO2-w in areas with high krill densities. However, such relationships were not found for EDOC. The depth profiles of EDOC were also quite variable and occasionally followed Chl a profiles. The diel cycles of EDOC showed two distinct peaks, in the middle of the day and the middle of the short austral dark period, concurrent with solar radiation maxima and krill night migration patterns. However, no evident diel pattern for GOC H-1 or CO2 was observed. The pool of exchangeable OC is an important and active compartment of the carbon budget surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula and adds to previous studies highlighting its importance in the redistribution of carbon in marine environments.

  3. Benefits of Transplant Procurement Management (TPM) specialized training on professional competence development and career evolutions of health care workers in organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istrate, Melania G; Harrison, Tyler R; Valero, Ricard; Morgan, Susan E; Páez, Gloria; Zhou, Quan; Rébék-Nagy, Gábor; Manyalich, Martí

    2015-04-01

    Training on organ donation and transplantation is relevant for transplantation improvement. This study aimed at investigating the perceived benefits of Transplant Procurement Management training programs on professional competence development and career evolutions of health care workers in organ donation and transplantation. An online survey was developed in 5 languages (Spanish, English, Italian, French, and Portuguese) and its link was emailed to 6839 individuals. They were asked to forward it to other professionals in organ donation and transplantation. The link was also shared on Facebook and at relevant congresses. Two research questions on the perceived influence of specialized training programs were identified. A total of 1102 participants (16.1%) took the survey; 87% reported participating in Transplant Procurement Management training programs, of which 95% selected Transplant Procurement Management courses as the most influential training they had participated in. For research question one, 98% reported influence on knowledge (score 4.5 [out of 5]), 93% on technical (4.2) and communication skills (4.1), 89% on attitude toward organ donation and transplantation (4.1), 92% on motivation to work (4.2), 91% on desire to innovate (4.0), 87% and 79% on ability to change organ donation and trans plantation practices (3.9) and policies (3.5). For research question 2, main and interaction effects for position at the time of training and type of training were reported. Transplant Procurement Management training programs had positive perceived effects.

  4. Theoretical Investigation of the Optical Spectra of Organic Compounds in Natural Surrounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomogaev, V. A.; Artyukhov, V. Ya.

    2016-08-01

    The hybrid multiscale approximation based on molecular dynamics, quantum mechanics, and statistical theory is used to generate profiles of electronic vibrational absorption and fluorescence bands of some organic compounds and biological objects whose photophysical properties specifically depend on external conditions. A temperature dependence of the spectrum width and intensity of transition to the long-wavelength band of benzene surrounded by cyclohexane molecules is demonstrated. Statistical broadband absorption spectra for estradiol in ethanol, hexane, and dimethyl sulfoxide have been obtained and analyzed at room temperature together with a wide spectrum of transitions to numerous excited states of Trp-cage miniprotein. The absorption and emission spectra of 9-cyan anthracene have been generated under various thermodynamic conditions. This allows changes in the spectral profile with increasing temperatures and pressure to be detected. A dependence of the tryptophan spectra on the protein microsurrounding is investigated. The possibility of charge transfer from tryptophan residue to the eupatorin molecule trapped by human serum albumin is analyzed. Spectral properties and charge transfer from the excited donor to acceptor states are calculated using the polarizable embedding approach for modeling of surrounding protein structure.

  5. Primum Non Nocere: Organ Donation After Electrocution and Transplantation of Electricity-Damaged Livers: Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgakis, E; Tedeschi, M; Bonaccorsi-Riani, E; Korshandi, S E; Vilca-Melendez, H; Heaton, N

    2016-10-01

    Liver transplantation remains the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage liver disease. However, allograft availability continues to be a problem, and extending the criteria for organ acceptance is key. Deceased donors after electrical accident