WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding nonurban regions

  1. Regional bankfull-channel dimensions of non-urban wadeable streams in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    During floods, damage to properties and community infrastructure may result from inundation and the processes of erosion. The damages imparted by erosion are collectively termed the fluvial erosion hazard (FEH), and the Indiana Silver Jackets Multi-agency Hazard Mitigation Taskforce is supporting a program to build tools that will assist Indiana property owners and communities with FEH-mitigation efforts. As part of that program, regional channel-dimension relations are identified for non-urban wadeable streams in Indiana. With a site-selection process that targeted the three largest physiographic regions of the state, field work was completed to measure channel-dimension and channel-geometry characteristics across Indiana. In total, 82 sites were identified for data collection; 25 in the Northern Moraine and Lake region, 31 in the Central Till Plain region, and 26 in the Southern Hills and Lowlands region. Following well established methods, for each data-collection site, effort was applied to identify bankfull stage, determine bankfull-channel dimensions, and document channel-geometry characteristics that allowed for determinations of channel classification. In this report, regional bankfull-channel dimension results are presented as a combination of plots and regression equations that identify the relations between drainage area and the bankfull-channel dimensions of width, mean depth, and cross-sectional area. This investigation found that the channel-dimension data support independent relations for each of the three physiographic regions noted above. Furthermore, these relations show that, for any given drainage area, northern Indiana channels have the smallest predicted dimensions, southern Indiana channels have the largest predicted dimensions, and central Indiana channels are intermediate in their predicted dimensions. When considering the suite of variables that influence bankfull-channel dimensions, it appears that contrasting runoff characteristics

  2. Rotation of the Warm Molecular Gas Surrounding Ultracompact HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular line and 1.4 mm continuum observations towards five massive star forming regions at arcsecond resolution using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We find that the warm molecular gas surrounding each HII region (as traced by SO_2 and OCS) appears to be undergoing bulk rotation. From the molecular line emission and thermal component of the continuum emission, we independently derived gas masses for each region which are consistent with each other. From the free-free component of the continuum emission we estimate the minimum stellar mass required to power the HII region and find that this mass, when added to the derived gas mass, is a significant fraction of the dynamical mass for that region.

  3. IRIS Observation of a Sunspot and the Surrounding Plage Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIAN, H.; DeLuca, E. E.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Weber, M.; Saar, S.; Golub, L.; Testa, P.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's IRIS mission is providing high-cadence and high-resolution observations of the solar transition region and chromosphere. We present preliminary results from IRIS observation of a sunspot and the surrounding plage region. The major findings in this observation can be summarized as following: (1) The slit jaw images in the filters of 1400Å and 1330Å reveal the presence of many rapidly evolving fibril-like structures in the transition region for the first time. These thin and long structures mainly reside in the plage region. They could be strands of low-lying cool transition region loops or the transition region counterpart of chromospheric spicules. (2) The C II and Mg II line profiles are almost Gaussian in the sunspot umbra and clearly exhibit a deep reversal at the line center in the plage region, suggesting a greatly reduced opacity in the sunspot atmosphere. (3) Bidirectional jets are frequently occurring mainly in the plage region immediately outside the sunspot throughout the observation. Triple or double Gaussian fit to the line profiles of Si IV suggests a velocity as high as 100 km/s. These velocity values are of the same order of the Alfven speed in the transition region. (4)Three-minute oscillation is clearly present in the sunspot umbra. The oscillation is identified in not only the slit jaw images of 2796Å, 1400Å and 1330Å, but also in spectra of the bright Mg II, C II and Si IV lines. Strong non-linearity is clearly seen in the intensity and Doppler shift oscillations. Interestingly, the obvious increase of the line width only occurs at the times of largest blue shift. The correlated change of the intensity and Doppler shift suggests an upward propagating magneto-acoustic shock wave.

  4. Instability of Magnetized Ionization Fronts Surrounding H II Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    An ionization front (IF) surrounding an H II region is a sharp interface where a cold neutral gas makes transition to a warm ionized phase by absorbing UV photons from central stars. We investigate the instability of a plane-parallel D-type IF threaded by parallel magnetic fields, by neglecting the effects of recombination within the ionized gas. We find that weak D-type IFs always have the post-IF magnetosonic Mach number $\\mathcal{M}_{\\rm M2} \\leq 1$. For such fronts, magnetic fields increase the maximum propagation speed of the IFs, while reducing the expansion factor $\\alpha$ by a factor of $1+1/(2\\beta_1)$ compared to the unmagnetized case, with $\\beta_1$ denoting the plasma beta in the pre-IF region. IFs become unstable to distortional perturbations due to gas expansion across the fronts, exactly analogous to the Darrieus-Landau instability of ablation fronts in terrestrial flames. The growth rate of the IF instability is proportional linearly to the perturbation wavenumber as well as the upstream flow ...

  5. Representing the egocentric auditory space: relationships of surrounding region concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Marcella C; Hermann, Thomas; Schack, Thomas; Bläsing, Bettina

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the representation of azimuthal directions of sound sources under two different conditions. In the first experiment, we examined the participants' mental representation of sound source directions via similarity judgments. Auditory stimuli originating from sixteen loudspeakers positioned equidistantly around the participant were presented in pairs, with the first stimulus serving as the anchor, and thereby providing the context for the second stimulus. For each pair of stimuli, participants had to rate the sound source directions as either similar or dissimilar. In the second experiment, the same participants categorized single sound source directions using verbal direction labels (front, back, left, right, and combinations of any two of these). In both experiments, the directions within the front and back regions were more distinctively categorized than those on the sides, and the sides' categories included more directions than those of the front or back. Furthermore, we found evidence that the left-right decision comprises the basic differentiation of the surrounding regions. These findings illustrate what seem to be central features of the representation of directions in auditory space.

  6. Hurricane Dennis Aerial Photography: Draft Image Mosaics of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Dennis made landfall. The regions photographed range from...

  7. Regional model simulation of the hydrometeorological effects of the Fucino Lake on the surrounding region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tomassetti

    Full Text Available The drainage of the Fucino Lake of central Italy was completed in 1873, and this possibly caused significant climatic changes over the Fucino basin. In this paper we discuss a set of short-term triple-nested regional model simulations of the meteorological effects of the Fucino Lake on the surrounding region. We find that the model simulates realistic lake-breeze circulations and their response to background winds. The simulations indicate that the lake affects the temperature of the surrounding basin in all seasons and precipitation in the cold season, when cyclonic perturbations move across the region. Some effects of the lake also extend over areas quite far from the Fucino basin. Our results support the hypothesis that the drainage of the lake might have significantly affected the climate of the lake basin. However, longer simulations and further development in some aspects of the model are needed, in order to provide a more statistically robust evaluation of the simulated lake-effects.

    Key words. Hydrology (anthropogenic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; mesoscale meteorology

  8. Urbanization signatures in strong versus weak precipitation over the Pearl River Delta metropolitan regions of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Weibiao; Chen Sheng; Wen Zhiping; Wang Baomin [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen Guixing; Sha Weimin [Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Luo Cong; Feng Yerong, E-mail: eeslwb@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Guangzhou Central Meteorological observatory, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2011-07-15

    We assess the issues of urban effects on the precipitation over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) metropolitan regions of China. The spatial and temporal variations of strong versus weak precipitation over the PRD and surrounding nonurban areas are investigated. The results show that the urbanization signatures in strong precipitation are significantly different from those in weak precipitation over the urban areas. The PRD experiences more strong precipitation but less weak precipitation compared to surrounding nonurban regions. In addition, the strong precipitation over the PRD displays a pronounced seasonal variation. The seasonality of weak precipitation, however, is much weaker over the PRD compared to the surrounding nonurban regions. Moreover, a strengthening in the precipitation intensity, a reduction in the rainfall frequency and an increase in the convective precipitation as well as the afternoon precipitation are found over the urban areas, which are probably associated with the abundance in strong precipitation and the deficit in weak precipitation over the PRD.

  9. Temporal and geographic shifts in urban and nonurban cocaine-related fatal overdoses in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Milloy, M-J; Wood, Evan; Galea, Sandro; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Illicit drug overdose is a leading cause of premature mortality. We sought to examine fatal overdose trends from 2001 to 2005 in urban and nonurban areas of British Columbia, Canada. We conducted a review of all provincial coroner files in which drug overdose was the cause of death between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2005. We compared cocaine and non-cocaine-related overdoses and examined temporal changes in cocaine-related mortality rates in urban and nonurban areas. Multilevel mixed effects models were used to determine the independent risk factors for cocaine-related death. Spatial analyses were conducted to identify clusters of these cases. During the study period, 904 illicit drug overdoses were recorded, including 369 (40.8%) in nonurban areas and 532 (58.9%) related to cocaine consumption. In a multilevel model, we observed a significant interaction (p = .010) between population density and year, indicating a considerable and differential increase in the likelihood of cocaine-related deaths in nonurban areas. Cocaine-related deaths were clustered in the southeast region of the province. Cocaine-related overdoses in nonurban areas should be a public health concern. Evidence-based interventions to reduce the risks associated with cocaine consumption and reach drug users in nonurban settings are needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stresses and Shear Fracture Zone of Jinshazhou Tunnel Surrounding Rock in Rich Water Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-jie; LOU Xiao-ming

    2008-01-01

    Field evidence has shown that large-scale and unstable discontinuous planes in the rock mass surrounding tunnels in rich water region are probably generated after excavation. The tunnel surrounding rock was divided into three zones, including elastic zone, plastic damage zone and shear fracture zone fof assessing the stability of the tunnel surrounding rock. By local hydrogeology, the stresses of surrounding rock of Jinshazhou circular tunnel was analyzed and the stress solutions on the elastic and plastic damage zones were obtained by applying the theories of fluid-solid coupling and elasto-plastic damage mechanics. The shear fracture zone generated by joints was studied and its range was determined by using Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. Finally, the correctness of the theoretical results was validated by comparing the scopes of shear fracture zones calculated in this paper with those from literature.

  11. Community Services Programs in Non-Urban Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Wally

    Responsibilities of nonurban community colleges can appropriately embrace such activities and programs as short courses, workshops, seminars, conferences, civic action programs, paraprofessional training, counseling, career retraining, and other community oriented programs. These colleges and the communities they serve have special…

  12. Climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems in metropolitan Chicago and its surrounding, multi-state region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica J. Hellmann; Knute J. Nadelhoffer; Louis R. Iverson; Lewis H. Ziska; Stephen N. Matthews; Philip Myers; Anantha M. Prasad; Matthew P. Peters

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the potential impacts of warming temperatures and changing precipitation on plants, wildlife, invasive species, pests, and agricultural ecosystems across the multi-state region centered on Chicago, Illinois. We examine a geographic area that captures much of Lake Michigan, including a complex mosaic of urbanization and agriculture surrounding...

  13. High-Resolution Regional Phase Attenuation Models of the Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    Mayeda, W. R. Walter, L. Malagnini, and W. S. Phillips, Regional Attenuation in Northern California: A Comparison of Five 1D Q Methods, Bull. Seism ...regional phase amplitude tomography, Seism . Res. Lett., 80, p. 360, 2009. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 49 Priestley, K

  14. Micromorphology and chemistry of airborne particles in Brussels during agriculture working periods in surrounding region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstraeten, P; Lénelle, Y; Meurrens, A; Carati, D; Brenig, L; Offer, Z Y; Zaady, E

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of our research was to compare the airborne particle micromorphology and chemistry in the Brussels environment during agriculture working periods in the surrounding farming region. We used specific methods and instrumentation that are adapted to the climate peculiarities of the Brussels region, the period of investigations (12 months) and the proposed objectives. For the agricultural works we defined the following six periods: before sowing, sowing, after sowing, before harvest, harvest and after harvest. The results indicate a possible temporal correlation between agricultural work periods and airborne particle concentration, micromorphology and chemistry in the Brabant-Brussels region. For wheat and corn plant-growth periods, the average particle size, defined as the area obtained by a planar projection of the particulate, showed important variations in time. For sugar beet and endive, the average area size variations are less important. The roughness and sphericity parameters for the growth periods of the four different plants also showed significant differences. Many of the larger particulates (> 10 microm) are aggregates of even finer particles coated with many still finer ones. The airborne particle chemistry averages (atomic percentage At%), showed that three constituents (Si, S and Fe) dominate all the samples (except for particles 3-10 microm in size, which contain a relatively large percentage of Al). Applying similar investigation methods to study the correlations between airborne particle dynamics in urban zones and the agriculture working periods in their surrounding regions could be of interest to better understand the complexity of the PM problematic.

  15. Enhanced Acoustic Emission in Relation to the Acoustic Halo Surrounding Active Region 11429

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Chris S; Leka, K D

    2015-01-01

    The use of acoustic holography in the high-frequency $p$-mode spectrum can resolve the source distributions of enhanced acoustic emissions within halo structures surrounding active regions. In doing so, statistical methods can then be applied to ascertain relationships with the magnetic field. This is the focus of this study. The mechanism responsible for the detected enhancement of acoustic sources around solar active regions has not yet been explained. Furthermore the relationship between the magnetic field and enhanced acoustic emission has not yet been comprehensively examined. We have used vector magnetograms from the \\Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to image the magnetic-field properties in the halo. We have studied the acoustic morphology of an active region, with a complex halo and "glories," and we have linked some acoustic properties to the magnetic-field configuration. In particular, we find that acoustic sources are significantly enhanced in reg...

  16. Hurricane Dennis Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Dennis made landfall. The regions photographed range from...

  17. Hurricane Ivan Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Ivan made landfall. The regions photographed range from Gulf...

  18. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  19. Kinetic signatures of the region surrounding the X line in asymmetric (magnetopause) reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, M. A.; Phan, T. D.; Haggerty, C. C.; Fujimoto, M.; Drake, J. F.; Malakit, K.; Cassak, P. A.; Swisdak, M.

    2016-05-01

    Kinetic particle-in-cell simulations are used to identify signatures of the electron diffusion region (EDR) and its surroundings during asymmetric magnetic reconnection. A "shoulder" in the sunward pointing normal electric field (EN > 0) at the reconnection magnetic field reversal is a good indicator of the EDR and is caused by magnetosheath electron meandering orbits in the vicinity of the X line. Earthward of the X line, electrons accelerated by EN form strong currents and crescent-shaped distribution functions in the plane perpendicular to B. Just downstream of the X line, parallel electric fields create field-aligned crescent electron distribution functions. In the immediate upstream magnetosheath, magnetic field strength, plasma density, and perpendicular electron temperatures are lower than the asymptotic state. In the magnetosphere inflow region, magnetosheath ions intrude resulting in an Earthward pointing electric field and parallel heating of magnetospheric particles. Many of the above properties persist with a guide field of at least unity.

  20. High-resolution elevation mapping of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Andrew G.; Fernandez-Diaz, Juan C.; Obryk, Maciej; Levy, Joseph; Gooseff, Michael; Van Horn, David J.; Morin, Paul; Shrestha, Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    We present detailed surface elevation measurements for the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica derived from aerial lidar surveys flown in the austral summer of 2014-2015 as part of an effort to understand geomorphic changes over the past decade. Lidar return density varied from 2 to > 10 returns m-2 with an average of about 5 returns m-2. Vertical and horizontal accuracies are estimated to be 7 and 3 cm, respectively. In addition to our intended targets, other ad hoc regions were also surveyed including the Pegasus flight facility and two regions on Ross Island, McMurdo Station, Scott Base (and surroundings), and the coastal margin between Cape Royds and Cape Evans. These data are included in this report and data release. The combined data are freely available at https://doi.org/10.5069/G9D50JX3" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5069/G9D50JX3.

  1. Kinetic signatures of the region surrounding the X-line in asymmetric (magnetopause) reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, M A; Haggerty, C C; Fujimoto, M; Drake, J F; Malakit, K; Cassak, P A; Swisdak, M

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic particle-in-cell simulations are used to identify signatures of the electron diffusion region (EDR) and its surroundings during asymmetric magnetic reconnection. A "shoulder" in the sunward pointing normal electric field (EN > 0) at the reconnection magnetic field reversal is a good indicator of the EDR, and is caused by magnetosheath electron meandering orbits in the vicinity of the x-line. Earthward of the X-line, electrons accelerated by EN form strong currents and crescent-shaped distribution functions in the plane perpendicular to B. Just downstream of the X-line, parallel electric fields create field-aligned crescent electron distribution functions. In the immediate upstream magnetosheath, magnetic field strength, plasma density, and perpendicular electron temperatures are lower than the asymptotic state. In the magnetosphere inflow region, magnetosheath ions intrude resulting in an Earthward pointing electric field and parallel heating of magnetospheric particles. Many of the above properties p...

  2. Multifractal analysis of earthquakes in Kumaun Himalaya and its surrounding region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N S Roy; S K Mondal

    2012-08-01

    Himalayan seismicity is related to continuing northward convergence of Indian plate against Eurasian plate. Earthquakes in this region are mainly caused due to release of elastic strain energy. The Himalayan region can be attributed to highly complex geodynamic process and therefore is best suited for multifractal seismicity analysis. Fractal analysis of earthquakes (mb ≥ 3.5) occurred during 1973–2008 led to the detection of a clustering pattern in the narrow time span. This clustering was identified in three windows of 50 events each having low spatial correlation fractal dimension () value 0.836, 0.946 and 0.285 which were mainly during the span of 1998 to 2005. This clustering may be considered as an indication of a highly stressed region. The Guttenberg Richter -value was determined for the same subsets considered for the estimation. Based on the fractal clustering pattern of events, we conclude that the clustered events are indicative of a highly stressed region of weak zone from where the rupture propagation eventually may nucleate as a strong earthquake. Multifractal analysis gave some understanding of the heterogeneity of fractal structure of the seismicity and existence of complex interconnected structure of the Himalayan thrust systems. The present analysis indicates an impending strong earthquake, which might help in better hazard mitigation for the Kumaun Himalaya and its surrounding region.

  3. Conserving Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and surrounding grasslands: evaluating effects on amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Neau, Jordan L.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of viable and genetically diverse populations of amphibians in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States depends on upland as well as wetland over-wintering and landscape level habitat features. Prairie pothole wetlands provide important amphibian breeding habitat while grasslands surrounding these wetlands provide foraging habitat for adults, overwintering habitat for some species, and important connectivity among breeding wetlands. Grasslands surrounding wetlands were found to be especially important for wood frogs and northern leopard frogs, while croplands dominated habitat utilized by Great Plains toads and Woodhouse’s toads. Habitat suitability mapping highlighted (1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for four of five anuran species encountered; (2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the northern leopard frog and wood frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and (3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of northern leopard frog and wood frog habitat. Currently, there are approximately 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares, ha) of habitat in the PPR identified as suitable for amphibians. WRP and CRP wetland and grassland habitats accounted for approximately 1.9 million acres (0.75 million ha) or 26 percent of this total area. Continued loss of amphibian habitat resulting from an ongoing trend of returning PPR conservation lands to crop production, will likely have significant negative effects on the region’s ability to maintain amphibian biodiversity. Conversely, increases in conservation wetlands and surrounding grasslands on the PPR landscape have great potential to positively influence the region’s amphibian populations.

  4. Variation in initiation condition of debris flows in the mountain regions surrounding Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Yu-jie; Du, Cui; Wang, Yun-qi; Li, Yun-peng

    2016-11-01

    Debris flows in the mountain regions surrounding Beijing have been occurring for a long time and have resulted in great economic losses. In this study, 23 rainstorm events, surficial sediments, and debris flow deposits were analyzed to quantify the area's rainfall threshold and to investigate how such conditions may be used to predict debris flow in this region. Rainfall threshold of intensity-duration (I-D) functions after vegetation recovery was higher than before recovery and also higher than I-D levels in other regions where debris flows are closely associated with runoff. Field investigations revealed that surficial sediments were characterized by coarse-grained sediments and that debris flow deposits lacked fine particles. Local debris flows can be triggered by runoff; however, no single standard equation is used to predict the conditions that lead to runoff-triggered debris flow; and commonly used equations give different values. Here, we propose an empirical function that takes into account peak discharge per width and particle diameter. This model should be verified with further investigations so that it can be used as a reference to analyze the conditions that lead to debris flow in the study area. Finally, debris flows may have been related to occasional storms in the study area, which has been experiencing substantially increased temperatures and decreased annual precipitation. This work provides important information about the conditions that initiated debris flow in the Beijing mountain regions in the last few decades.

  5. Physical mapping and YAC contig analysis of the region surrounding Xist on the mouse X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, E; Simmler, M C; Larin, Z; Rougeulle, C; Courtier, B; Lehrach, H; Avner, P

    1993-03-01

    The Xist sequence has been proposed as a potential candidate for the X-inactivation center based both on its localization within the candidate region for the X-inactivation center in man and mouse and on its unique pattern of expression from the inactive X chromosome. We have cloned 550 kb of DNA surrounding the mouse Xist sequence in contiguously overlapping YAC clones and have developed a long-range restriction map that spans almost 1 Mb of this region and includes this YAC contig. The detailed restriction map we have established provides a framework for the identification of expressed sequences other than Xist that may equally exhibit unusual expression characteristics associated with X inactivation. The presence of possible structural or methylation differences within this region between the active and inactive X chromosomes has been investigated through comparative analysis of male and female genomic DNA, and we report here the identification of certain CpG-containing restriction sites around Xist that have an interesting differential methylation status on the inactive and active X chromosomes.

  6. Functional Connectivity of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus and Surrounding Region in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulu, Samu; Thevathasan, Wesley; Hyam, Jonathan A.; Foltynie, Tom; Limousin, Patricia; Bogdanovic, Marko; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu Z.; Friston, Karl; Brown, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus and surrounding region (PPNR) is a novel treatment strategy for gait freezing in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, clinical results have been variable, in part because of the paucity of functional information that might help guide selection of the optimal surgical target. In this study, we use simultaneous magnetoencephalography and local field recordings from the PPNR in seven PD patients, to characterize functional connectivity with distant brain areas at rest. The PPNR was preferentially coupled to brainstem and cingulate regions in the alpha frequency (8–12 Hz) band and to the medial motor strip and neighboring areas in the beta (18–33 Hz) band. The distribution of coupling also depended on the vertical distance of the electrode from the pontomesencephalic line: most effects being greatest in the middle PPNR, which may correspond to the caudal pars dissipata of the pedunculopontine nucleus. These observations confirm the crucial position of the PPNR as a functional node between cortical areas such as the cingulate/ medial motor strip and other brainstem nuclei, particularly in the dorsal pons. In particular they suggest a special role for the middle PPNR as this has the greatest functional connectivity with other brain regions. PMID:28316456

  7. Helium Ionization in the Diffuse Ionized Gas Surrounding UCH ii Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anish Roshi, D.; Churchwell, E.; Anderson, L. D.

    2017-04-01

    We present measurements of the singly ionized helium-to-hydrogen ratio ({n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+}) toward diffuse gas surrounding three ultracompact H ii (UCH ii) regions: G10.15-0.34, G23.46-0.20, and G29.96-0.02. We observe radio recombination lines of hydrogen and helium near 5 GHz using the GBT to measure the {n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+} ratio. The measurements are motivated by the low helium ionization observed in the warm ionized medium and in the inner Galaxy diffuse ionized regions. Our data indicate that the helium is not uniformly ionized in the three observed sources. Helium lines are not detected toward a few observed positions in sources G10.15-0.34 and G23.46-0.20, and the upper limits of the {n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+} ratio obtained are 0.03 and 0.05, respectively. The selected sources harbor stars of type O6 or hotter as indicated by helium line detection toward the bright radio continuum emission from the sources with mean {n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+} value 0.06 ± 0.02. Our data thus show that helium in diffuse gas located a few parsecs away from the young massive stars embedded in the observed regions is not fully ionized. We investigate the origin of the nonuniform helium ionization and rule out the possibilities (a) that the helium is doubly ionized in the observed regions and (b) that the low {n}{{He}+}/{n}{{{H}}+} values are due to additional hydrogen ionizing radiation produced by accreting low-mass stars. We find that selective absorption of ionizing photons by dust can result in low helium ionization but needs further investigation to develop a self-consistent model for dust in H ii regions.

  8. Stability control of surrounding rocks for a coal roadway in a deep tectonic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Tongqiang; Wang Xiangyu; Zhang Zhigao

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively control the deformation and failure of surrounding rocks in a coal roadway in a deep tectonic region, the deformation and failure mechanism and stability control mechanism were stud-ied. With such methods as numerical simulation and field testing, the distribution law of the displace-ment, stress and plastic zone in the surrounding rocks was analyzed. The deformation and failure mechanisms of coal roadways in deep tectonic areas were revealed:under high tectonic stress, two sides will slide along the roof or floor;while the plastic zone of the two sides will extend along the roof or floor, leading to more serious deformation and failure in the corner of two sides and the bolt supporting the corners is readily cut off by the shear force or tension force. Aimed at controlling the large slippage defor-mation of the two sides, serious deformation and failure in the corners of the two sides and massive bolt breakage, a ‘controlling and yielding coupling support’ control technology is proposed. Firstly, bolts which do not pass through the bedding plane should be used in the corners of the roadway, allowing the two sides to have some degree of sliding to achieve the purpose of ‘yielding’ support, and which avoid breakage of the bolts in the corner. After yielding support, bolts in the corner of the roadway and which pass through the bedding plane should be used to control the deformation and failure of the coal in the corner. ‘Controlling and yielding coupling support’ technology has been successfully applied in engineering practice, and the stability of deep coal roadway has been greatly improved.

  9. The Emission Nebula Sh 2-174: A Radio Investigation of the Surrounding Region

    CERN Document Server

    Ransom, R R; Geisbuesch, J; Reich, W; Landecker, T L

    2014-01-01

    Sh 2-174 is believed to be either a planetary nebula (PN) or ionized, ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present in this paper 1420 MHz polarization, 1420 MHz total intensity (Stokes-I), and neutral hydrogen (HI) images of the region around Sh 2-174. The radio images address not only the nature of the object, but also the history of the relationship between Sh 2-174 and its surrounding environment. The HI images show that Sh 2-174 sits presently at the center of a 1.2 deg x 0.4 deg cloud. The Stokes-I image shows thermal emission peaks coincident with the R-band optical nebula, as well as low-surface-brightness emission from an ionized "halo" around Sh 2-174 and from an ionized "plateau" extending southeast from the cloud. The polarization images reveal Faraday-rotation structures along the projected trajectory of Sh 2-174, including a high-contrast structure with "arms" that run precisely along the eastern edge of the HI cloud and a wide central region which merges with the downstream edge of Sh 2-174. Th...

  10. Model of health? Distributed preparedness and multi-agency interventions surrounding UK regional airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Adam; Bell, Morag; Budd, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The liberalisation of the European aviation sector has multiplied paths of entry into the United Kingdom (UK) for the international traveller. These changing mobilities necessitate a reconceptualisation of the border as a series of potentially vulnerable nodes occurring within, and extending beyond, national boundaries. In this paper, we consider the border through the lens of port health, the collective term for various sanitary operations enacted at international transport terminals. In the UK, a critical player in the oversight of port health is the Health Protection Agency (HPA), which became a non-Departmental public body in 2005. A major part of port health is preparedness, a set of techniques aimed at managing, and responding to, emergencies of public health concern. More recently, certain jurisdictions have embarked on public health preparedness work across a number of different geographical scales. Using methods pioneered by the military, this form of 'distributed preparedness' is of increased interest to social science and medical scholars. With reference to case studies conducted in localities surrounding two UK regional airports following the 2009-10 H1N1 influenza pandemic, we consider the extent to which distributed preparedness as a concept and a set of practices can inform current debates - in the UK, and beyond - concerning interventions at the border 'within'.

  11. A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Greece and the surrounding region including site-specific considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mäntyniemi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A probabilistic approach was applied to map the seismic hazard in Greece and the surrounding region. The procedure does not require any specification of seismic sources or/and seismic zones and allows for the use of the whole seismological record, comprising both historical and instrumental data, available for the region of interest. The new seismic hazard map prepared for Greece and its vicinity specifies a 10% probability of exceedance of the given Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA values for shallow seismicity and intermediate soil conditions for an exposure time of 50 years. When preparing the map, the new PGA attenuation relation given by Margaris et al. (2001 was employed. The new map shows a spatial distribution of the seismic hazard that corresponds well with the features of shallow seismicity within the examined region. It depicts the level of seismic hazard in which the exceedance of the PGA value of 0.25 g may be expected to occur within limited areas. The highest estimated levels of seismic hazard inside the territory of Greece are found in the Northern Sporades Islands, where PGA values in excess of 0.50 g are reached at individual sites, and in the Zante Island in Western Greece, where PGA values in the range of 0.35 g to 0.40 g are obtained at more numerous localities. High values are also observed in the sea between the Karpathos and Rhodes islands, near the Island of Amorgos (Cyclades Archipelago and in the Southwestern Peloponnesus. The levels of seismic hazard at the sites of seven Greek cities (Athens, Jannena, Kalamata, Kozani, Larisa, Rhodes and Thessaloniki were also estimated in terms of probabilities that a given PGA value will be exceeded at least once during a time interval of 1, 50 and 100 years at those sites. These probabilities were based on the maximum horizontal PGA values obtained by applying the design earthquake procedure, and the respective median values obtained were 0.24 g for Athens, 0.28 g

  12. Magnetic properties of cherts from the Basque-Cantabrian basin and surrounding regions: archeological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cruz Larrasoaña

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the first rock magnetic study of archeologically-relevant chert samples from the Basque-Cantabrian basin (BCB and surrounding regions, which was conducted in order to test the usefulness of non-destructive magnetic properties for assessing chert quality, distinguishing source areas, and identifying heated samples in the archeological record. Our results indicate that the studied BCB cherts are diamagnetic and have very low amounts of magnetic minerals. The only exception is the chert of Artxilondo, which has a mean positive magnetic susceptibility associated with larger concentrations of magnetic minerals. But even in this case, the magnetic susceptibility is within the lower range of other archeologically-relevant cherts elsewhere, which indicates that the studied BCB cherts can be considered as flint. The similar mean values for all magnetic properties, along with their associated large standard deviations, indicates that rock magnetic methods are of limited use for sourcing different types of flint except in some specific contexts involving the Artxilondo flint. With regards to the identification of chert heating in the archeological record, our results indicate only a minor magnetic enhancement of BCB natural flint samples upon heating, which we attribute to the low amount of non-silica impurities. In any case, the diamagnetic behavior of most BCB natural flints, along with the local use only of the Artxilondo type, suggests that any flint tool within the core of the BCB with positive magnetic susceptibility values is likely to have been subjected to heating for improving its knapping properties. Further studies are necessary to better identify the type, origin and grain size of magnetic minerals in BCB natural flints, and to apply non-destructive magnetic properties to flint tools in order to identify the use of heat treatment in the BCB archeological record.

  13. Analysis of land surface parameters and turbulence characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinjun; Xu, Xiangde; Liu, Huizhi; Li, Yueqing; Li, Yaohui; Hu, Zeyong; Gao, Xiaoqing; Ma, Yaoming; Sun, Jihua; Lenschow, Donald H.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Zhou, Mingyu; Bian, Xindi; Zhao, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Based on the results from 11 flux sites during the third Tibetan Plateau (TP) Experiment (TIPEX III), land surface parameters and the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer over the TP and surrounding region are analyzed. Monin-Obukhov similarity theory has been used to calculate the aerodynamic roughness length z0m and the excess resistance to heat transfer kB- 1 = ln(z0m/z0h), and the factors that cause variations of z0m and kB- 1 are investigated. The main drivers for the diurnal variations of surface albedo (α) at different sites are solar elevation, solar radiation, and soil moisture. The eddy correlation method is utilized to inversely calculate bulk transfer coefficients for momentum (CD) and heat (CH) at different sites. The relationships between CD and CH and the wind speed at 10 m follow a power law for unstable stratification. For stable stratification, both CD and CH increase with increasing wind speed when wind speed is less than 5 m/s. Diurnal variations of turbulent fluxes are compared at different sites, and the relationships between turbulent fluxes and other variables are analyzed. Wind speed variance normalized by the friction velocity (σu/u*, σv/u*, σw/u*) for neutral stratification (Cu1, Cv1, Cw1), and temperature and humidity variance normalized by a temperature and humidity scale (σT/T*, σq/q*) under free convection (z/L < -0.1) (CT, Cq) are fitted with similarity relations. The differences in similarity constants (Cu1, Cv1, Cw1, CT, Cq) at different sites are discussed. For stable stratification, cases are divided into weakly stable conditions and intermittent turbulence, and the critical values for these two states are determined. Shear and buoyancy terms in the turbulence kinetic energy equation for different stratifications are analyzed.

  14. Hurricane Gustav Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Gustav made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  15. Hurricane Ike Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Ike made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  16. Changes in intensity of the regional Hadley cell in Indian Ocean and its impacts on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana Carolina Vasques; Aímola, Luis; Ambrizzi, Tércio; de Oliveira, Cristiano Prestrelo

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of changes in the intensity of the regional Hadley Cell (HC) in the Indian Ocean (HCIO) on its surrounding regions are investigated during the period 1979-2013. A strengthening of the HCIO and the Indian monsoon (IM) is found during austral winter (JJA) and spring (SON) seasons. This is associated with the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. A La Niña signal started to form in JJA over the equatorial Pacific region, and in SON, it was completely developed. Significant positive SST anomalies are seen over the western Pacific and western Indian Ocean around 10°S in JJA, associated with positive temperature anomalies in the south of China, in the north of the Maritime Continent, and in the southeastern coast of Africa. In SON, they are observed over the western Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean around the equator, associated with positive temperature anomalies observed on a great part of the Maritime Continent and southeastern Atlantic Ocean. Positive rainfall anomalies are seen mainly over the south of India, south of China, Maritime Continent, and eastern coast of Australia. In SON, the connection monsoon-ENSO-Hadley is stronger, because of a series of positive feedbacks that reinforce the initial connection. SST gradients explain much of the variability in the intensity of the HCIO and, especially, of the IM. However, other factors also seem to come into play in determining the changes of the HCIO intensity, whereas the SST changes have a dominant influence on the IM.

  17. Characterizing Factors Associated with Built-Up Land Expansion in Urban and Non-Urban Areas from a Morphological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, built-up land expansion patterns and the associated factors were characterized in urban and non-urban areas across the Wen-Tai region of eastern China. Fractal dimension can be used as a reliable indicator of the complexity of built-up land form, and the increasing trend of fractal dimension indicated a more complex, dispersed pattern of built-up land in urban areas. Spatial regression models were quantitatively implemented to identify the indicators influencing the variation of fractal dimensions. Our findings suggested that the fractal dimension of built-up land forms was positively correlated to the patch density and elevation when built-up land expansion was more concentrated. Both landscape shape index and Gross Domestic Product (GDP were positively correlated with fractal dimension in urban areas, and total edge, edge density, and connective index had impacts on fractal dimension in non-urban areas. Slope and agricultural population also showed an influence on fractal dimension. This study provided a new way for urban studies in interpreting the complex interactions between fractal dimension and related factors. The combined approach of fractal dimension and spatial analysis can provide the government planners with valuable information that can be efficiently used to realize the influences of land use policies in urban and non-urban areas.

  18. THE EMISSION NEBULA Sh 2-174: A RADIO INVESTIGATION OF THE SURROUNDING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, R. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Okanagan College, 583 Duncan Avenue West, Penticton, BC V2A 8E1 (Canada); Kothes, R.; Geisbuesch, J.; Landecker, T. L. [National Research Council Herzberg, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, BC V2A 6J9 (Canada); Reich, W., E-mail: RRansom@okanagan.bc.ca [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    Sh 2-174 is believed to be either a planetary nebula (PN) or ionized, ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present in this paper 1420 MHz polarization, 1420 MHz total intensity (Stokes-I), and neutral hydrogen (H I) images of the region around Sh 2-174. The radio images address not only the nature of the object, but also the history of the relationship between Sh 2-174 and its surrounding environment. The H I images show that Sh 2-174 sits presently at the center of a ∼1.°2 × ∼0.°4 cloud (with peak hydrogen density n {sub H} = 4 ± 2 cm{sup –3}). The Stokes-I image shows thermal-emission peaks (with electron densities n{sub e} = 11 ± 3 cm{sup –3}) coincident with the R-band optical nebula, as well as low-surface-brightness emission from an ionized ''halo'' around Sh 2-174 and from an ionized ''plateau'' extending southeast from the cloud. The polarization images reveal Faraday-rotation structures along the projected trajectory of Sh 2-174, including a high-contrast structure with ''arms'' that run precisely along the eastern edge of the H I cloud and a wide central region that merges with the downstream edge of Sh 2-174. The high-contrast structure is consistent with an ionized tail that has both early-epoch (before Sh 2-174 entered the cloud) and present-epoch (after Sh 2-174 entered the cloud) components. Furthermore, our rotation-measure analysis indicates that the ISM magnetic field is deflected at the leading edge of Sh 2-174. The downstream tail and upstream field deflection point to a PN-ISM interaction. Our estimated space velocity for the host white dwarf (GD 561) demonstrates that Sh 2-174 entered the cloud ∼27,000 yr ago, and gives a PN-ISM interaction timescale ≲ 2.0 × 10{sup 5} yr. We estimate an ambient magnetic field in the cloud of 11 ± 3 μG.

  19. The impact of a massive star cluster on its surrounding matter in the Antennae overlap region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C. N.; Boulanger, F.

    2017-04-01

    Super star clusters (SSCs), likely the progenitors of globular clusters, are one of the most extreme forms of star formation. Understanding how SSCs form is an observational challenge. Theoretical studies establish that, to form such clusters, the dynamical timescale of their parent clouds has to be shorter than the timescale of the disruption of their parent clouds by stellar feedback. However, due to insufficient observational support, it is still unclear how feedback from SSCs acts on the matter surrounding them. Studying feedback in SSCs is essential to understanding how such clusters form. Based on ALMA and VLT observations, we study this process in a SSC in the overlap region of the Antennae galaxies (22 Mpc), a spectacular example of a burst of star formation triggered by the encounter of two galaxies. We analyze a unique massive ( 107M⊙) and young (1-3.5 Myr) SSC, still associated with compact molecular and ionized gas emission, which suggest that it may still be embedded in its parent molecular cloud. The cluster has two CO velocity components, a low-velocity one spatially associated with the cluster, and a high-velocity one distributed in a bubble-like shape around the cluster. Our results on the low-velocity component suggest that this gas did not participate in the formation of the SSC. We propose that most of the parent cloud has already been blown away, accelerated at the early stages of the SSC evolution by radiation pressure, in a timescale 1 Myr. The high-velocity component may trace outflowing molecular gas from the parent cloud. Supporting evidence is found in shock-heated H2 gas and escaping Brγ gas associated with this component. The low-velocity component may be gas that was near the SSC when it formed but not part of its parent cloud or clumps that migrated from the SGMC environment. This gas would be dispersed by stellar winds and supernova explosions. The existing data is inconclusive as to whether or not the cluster is bound and will

  20. Populations of Transcarpathia and Bukovina on the genetic landscape of surrounding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Utevska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The territory of present-day Ukraine is subdivided into some regions with specific demographic and politic history. Nevertheless, the corresponding subdivision in genetic structure is not revealed in previous investigations: populations of Ukrainians under study were genetically homogeneous on SNP markers of Y chromosome. In the current investigation we studied the Y-chromosomal genetic structure of Transcarpathia and Bukovina populations. Several factors exist to expect the genetic specificity of these populations. Both ones are placed in the Carpathian foothills, at the south-western border of the Ukrainian area. During the last millennium these territories were the parts of different states and were open for ethnically diverse migrations. It was revealed that the major Y chromosomal haplogroups in Transcarpathia population were R1a1a1*(М198, I2a (Р37.2, R1a1a1g (М458, E1b1b1a1 (M78. The major haplogroups in Bukovina population were I2a (Р37.2, R1a1a1*(М198, R1a1a1g (М458, R1b1b2 (М269, E1b1b1a1 (M78, I1 (М253. The Bukovina population differs from the typical Ukrainian population by higher frequency of I2a (Р37.2 and lower frequency of R1a1a1*(М198. Moreover, this is the only population among ones studied in Ukraine where the most frequent haplogroup is I2a (Р37.2 but not R1a1a1*(М198. Such a deviation can be caused by possible mixing with neighbouring southern groups, and Carpathian mountains were not a border for exchange in this case. Interestingly, the haplogroup N1c (M178 is not revealed in Transcarpathia at all, obviously due to the mountain barrier. It was revealed by principal component analysis that Ukrainians from Transcarpathia and Bukovina despite some specific peculiarities are more similar to other Ukrainian populations than to the surrounding ethnic groups such as Poles, Slovaks, Hungarians, Romanians, Moldavians and Gagauzes. Ukrainians of Transcarpathia and Bukovina form the entire genetic continuum with the whole

  1. Geologic map of Oldonyo Lengai (Oldoinyo Lengai) Volcano and surroundings, Arusha Region, United Republic of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Magigita, Masota M.; Kwelwa, Shimba

    2013-01-01

    The geology of Oldonyo Lengai volcano and the southernmost Lake Natron basin, Tanzania, is presented on this geologic map at scale 1:50,000. The map sheet can be downloaded in pdf format for online viewing or ready to print (48 inches by 36 inches). A 65-page explanatory pamphlet describes the geologic history of the area. Its goal is to place the new findings into the framework of previous investigations while highlighting gaps in knowledge. In this way questions are raised and challenges proposed to future workers. The southernmost Lake Natron basin is located along the East African rift zone in northern Tanzania. Exposed strata provide a history of volcanism, sedimentation, and faulting that spans 2 million years. It is here where Oldonyo Lengai, Tanzania’s most active volcano of the past several thousand years, built its edifice. Six new radiometric ages, by the 40Ar/39Ar method, and 48 new geochemical analyses from Oldonyo Lengai and surrounding volcanic features deepen our understanding of the area. Those who prefer the convenience and access offered by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) may download an electronic database, suitable for most GIS software applications. The GIS database is in a Transverse Mercator projection, zone 36, New (1960) Arc datum. The database includes layers for hypsography (topography), hydrography, and infrastructure such as roads and trails.

  2. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates....... Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were...

  3. [Analysis on Regional Characteristics of Air Quality Index and Weather Situation in Beijing and Its Surrounding Cities During the APEC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-xian; Lu, Jun-rong; Wang, Ning; Li, Wen-tao; Gao, Wen-kang; Su, Bu-da

    2015-11-01

    Analysis on the revolution and regional characteristics of air quality by hourly monitored readings from 1 to 15 November 2014 released by Environmental Monitoring Station of China and research of the impacts of weather situation and meteorological elements released by China Meteorological Administration towards air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) indicated that: (1) The air quality was good because of the implementation of mitigation measures, while the Air Quality Index (AQI) increased along with the termination of mitigation measures. Thus it can be seen that mitigation measures made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities. (2) Affected by thermal inversion layer, AQI of Beijing and its surrounding cities increased quickly during the initial of the implemental of reducing measures which proved that pollutants would accumulate in the context of unfavourable weather, hence the influence of weather situation towards air quality could not be ignored. (3) Although affected by thermal inversion layer, the concentration of pollutants of Beijing was not accumulated to a high degree at the end period of reducing measures, while Tianjin, Tangshan, Baoding and Xingtai suffered from moderate and severe pollution at the same time which further illustrated that the implementation of mitigation measures have made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality in Beijing during APEC.

  4. A high-resolution map of the chromosomal region surrounding the nude gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, C.C.; Griffith, J.; Morahan, G. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria (Australia)

    1995-03-20

    The nude mutation produces the apparently disparate phenotypes of hairlessness and congenital thymic aplasia. These pleiotropic defects are the result of a single, autosomal recessive mutation that was previously mapped to a 9-cM region of murine chromosome 11 bounded by loci encoding the acetylcholine receptor P subunit and myeloperoxidase. In this study, exclusion mapping of a panel of congenic nude strains was used to place the nude locus between the microsatellite loci D11Nds1 and D11Mit8. The relative distance from nude to each of these loci was determined by analyzing a large segregating cross. Thus, nude lies 1.4 cM distal to D11Nds1 and is 0.5 cM proximal to D11Mit8. Mice that carried recombinational breakpoints between D11Nds1 and D11Mit8 were further analyzed at the loci Evi-2 and D11Mit34, which placed nu 0.2 cM proximal to these markers. D11Nds1 and Evi-2/D11Mit34 thus define the new proximal and distal boundaries, respectively, for the nu interval. We also report the typing of the above microsatellite markers in the AKXD, AKXL, BXD, CXB, and BXH recombinant inbred strains, which confirmed the relative order and separation of loci in this region. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Revision of the tsunami catalogue affecting Turkish coasts and surrounding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Altinok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The coasts of Turkey have been hit by tsunamis in the past. The first national earthquake-tsunami catalogues were compiled in the early 1980s while the most up-to-date tsunami catalogues are mainly the products of recent European projects. The EU projects GITEC and GITEC-TWO (Genesis and Impact of Tsunamis on the European Coasts and TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region have added important contributions in establishing and developing unified criteria for tsunami parameterisation, standards for the quality of the data, the data format and the database general architecture. On the basis of these new aspects and based on recent marine geophysical data, tsunamigenic earthquakes, tsunami intensities and their reliability have been revised. The current version of the database contains 134 events, most of which have affected the Turkish coasts seriously during the last 3500 years. The reliability index of 76 events was "probable" and "definite", so that they could be used for assessment of the risk along the Turkish coastal region and for implementation of prevention policies.

  6. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y;

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates....... Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were......Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to de-termine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat...

  7. Regional seabed geology and engineering considerations for Hibernia and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, G.V.; Moran, K.; Lewis, C.F.M.; Fader, G.B.J.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution single-channel airgun (0.16 l) seismic reflection profiles and information from industry and government boreholes show the near-surface stratigraphy to be dominated by a sequence of shallow, seaward-dipping, parallel reflections which are interpreted to have resulted from progradation and aggradation on the continental shelf. At least locally at the Hibernia site, the upper parallel reflection sequence has complex, internal lenticular reflections and dense interbedded sands, silty-clayey sands and minor gravel and cobbles. Zones of clinoform reflections are interbedded within the sequence. Four (4) potential seabed constraints to offshore development are described: (1) nearfield sediment transport around seabed installations, (2) liquefaction of seabed foundation sediments as a result of seismic loading, (3) seafloor iceberg scouring, and (4) site-specific and regional geological variability of foundation sediments and their physical properties. (author)

  8. A Variable-resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M E

    2005-03-21

    This paper presents the results of a large-scale study of surface wave dispersion performed across Eurasia and North Africa. Improvements were made to previous surface wave work by enlarging the study region, increasing path density, improving spatial resolution, and expanding the period range. This study expands the coverage area northwards and eastwards relative to a previous dispersion analysis, which covered only North Africa and the Middle East. We have significantly increased the number of seismograms examined and group velocity measurements made. We have now made good quality dispersion measurements for about 30,000 Rayleigh wave and 20,000 Love wave paths, and have incorporated measurements from several other researchers into the study. A conjugate gradient method was employed for the group velocity tomography, which improved the inversion from the previous study by adopting a variable smoothness. This technique allows us to go to higher resolution where the data allow without producing artifacts. The current results include both Love and Rayleigh wave inversions across the region for periods from 7 to 100 seconds at 1{sup o} resolution. Short period group velocities are sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Caspian Sea, West Siberian Platform, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Bengal, Tarim Basin, and Persian Gulf. Intermediate periods are sensitive to differences in crustal thickness, such as those between oceanic and continental crust or along orogenic zones and continental plateaus. At longer periods, fast velocities are consistently found beneath cratons while slow upper mantle velocities occur along rift systems, subduction zones, and collision zones such as the Tethys Belt. We have compared the group velocities at various periods with features such as sediment thickness, topographic height, crustal thickness, proximity to plate boundaries, lithospheric age and lithospheric thickness, and find significant

  9. Late Pleistocene to Holocene Volcanism in the Lassen Domefield and Surrounding Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynne, M. A.; Robinson, J. E.; Nathenson, M.; Muffler, L. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC) marks the southernmost limit of active volcanism in the Cascade Range. Prior to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Lassen Peak was the last volcano in the conterminous U.S. to erupt. Three eruptions in the last 1,100 years, (Chaos Crags, 1,103 × 13 years B.P.; Cinder Cone, 1666; and Lassen Peak 1914-1917) plus the most vigorous hydrothermal system in the Cascades, attest to an active magmatic system beneath LVC. We recently completed a modern volcano-hazards assessment of the Lassen segment of the Cascade arc that is based primarily on the recently published geologic map of Lassen Volcanic National Park (Clynne and Muffler, 2010; available at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/sim2899). The Lassen segment covers 75 linear km of arc from near the southern boundary of Lassen Volcanic National Park north to the Pit River. We define hazard zones for mafic and silicic tephra fall, mafic and silicic lava flows, pyroclastic flows and surges, and lahars and associated floods (Clynne et. al., 2012; available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2012/5176/a/). In the Lassen segment, volcanism occurs on two scales. Distributed mafic to intermediate calc-alkaline volcanism builds cinder cones and small shield volcanoes with intervening tholeiitic lava flows. Over time, these deposits coalesce to form a broad platform of volcanic material. In the last 100,000 years, at least 58 eruptions of regional volcanoes took place, and at least 40 more eruptions are only slightly older. Most are located in a few zones associated with regional faulting. The annual probability of eruption of a regional volcano is 0.00065 (0.065%), which corresponds to an average recurrence interval of 1,550 years. Although several eruptions occurred around the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, none are demonstrably Holocene (pyroclastic flows and/or domes, and 7 hybrid andesite lava flows and tephra. Their volumes range from very small (0.0006 km3) to significant (4.7 km3). The

  10. Diversity of Microorganisms Isolated from the Soil Sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang, Yu Liu, Yonggang Yin, Haojie Jin, Shouxian Wang, Feng Xu, Shuang Zhao, Xiaoli Geng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to determine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacterial isolates were divided into two monophyletic clusters which had significant hits to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were present in C. rutilus habitat. This was the first reported examination of the microbiological ecology of C. rutilus.

  11. Evaluation of stream water quality in Atlanta, Georgia, and the surrounding region (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Kandell, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    A water-quality index (WQI) was developed from historical data (1986-1995) for streams in the Atlanta Region and augmented with 'new' and generally more comprehensive biweekly data on four small urban streams, representing an industrial area, a developed medium-density residential area and developing and developed low-density residential areas. Parameter WQIs were derived from percentile ranks of individual water-quality parameter values for each site by normalizing the constituent ranks for values from all sites in the area for a base period, i.e. 1990-1995. WQIs were developed primarily for nutrient-related parameters due to data availability. Site WQIs, which were computed by averaging the parameter WQIs, range from 0.2 (good quality) to 0.8 (poor quality), and increased downstream of known nutrient sources. Also, annual site WQI decreases from 1986 to 1995 at most long-term monitoring sites. Annual site WQI for individual parameters correlated with annual hydrological characteristics, particularly runoff, precipitation quantity, and water yield, reflecting the effect of dilution on parameter values. The WQIs of the four small urban streams were evaluated for the core-nutrient-related parameters, parameters for specific dissolved trace metal concentrations and sediment characteristics, and a species diversity index for the macro-invertebrate taxa. The site WQI for the core-nutrient-related parameters used in the retrospective analysis was, as expected, the worst for the industrial area and the best for the low-density residential areas. However, macro-invertebrate data indicate that although the species at the medium-density residential site were diverse, the taxa at the site were for species tolerant of degraded water quality. Furthermore, although a species-diversity index indicates no substantial difference between the two low-density residential areas, the number for macro-invertebrates for the developing area was much less than that for the developed area

  12. Mercury accumulation in snow on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and surrounding region, southeast Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susong, D.D.; Abbott, M.L.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Snow was sampled and analyzed for total mercury (THg) on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and surrounding region prior to the start-up of a large (9-11 g/h) gaseous mercury emission source. The objective was to determine the effects of the source on local and regional atmospheric deposition of mercury. Snow samples collected from 48 points on a polar grid near the source had THg concentrations that ranged from 4.71 to 27.26 ng/L; snow collected from regional background sites had THg concentrations that ranged from 0.89 to 16.61 ng/L. Grid samples had higher concentrations than the regional background sites, which was unexpected because the source was not operating yet. Emission of Hg from soils is a possible source of Hg in snow on the INEEL. Evidence from Hg profiles in snow and from unfiltered/filtered split samples supports this hypothesis. Ongoing work on the INEEL is investigating Hg fluxes from soils and snow.

  13. Cometary water-group ions in the region surrounding Comet Giacobini-Zinner - Distribution functions and bulk parameter estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, K.; Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Richardson, I. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1991-01-01

    The bulk parameters (number density and thermal energy density) of cometary water-group ions in the region surrounding Comet Giacobini-Zinner have been derived using data from the EPAS instrument on the ICE spacecraft. The derivation is based on the assumption that the pick-up ion distribution function is isotropic in the frame of the bulk flow, an approximation which has previously been shown to be reasonable within about 400,000 km of the comet nucleus along the spacecraft trajectory. The transition between the pick-up and mass-loaded regions occurs at the cometary shock, which was traversed at a cometocentric distance of about 100,000 km along the spacecraft track. Examination of the ion distribution functions in this region, transformed to the bulk flow frame, indicates the occurrence of a flattened distribution in the vicinity of the local pick-up speed, and a steeply falling tail at speeds above, which may be approximated as an exponential in ion speed.

  14. 12-Digit Watershed Boundary Data 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and Surrounding States (NAT_HYDROLOGY.HUC12_NRCS_REG2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 12 digit Hydrologic Units (HUCs) for EPA Region 2 and surrounding states (Northeastern states, parts of the Great Lakes, Puerto Rico and the USVI) downloaded from...

  15. Community Support as a Moderator of Postdisaster Mental Health Symptoms in Urban and Nonurban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jenny S.; Price, Matthew; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between disaster exposure, community support, and mental health outcomes in urban and nonurban participants of Galveston and Chambers counties after Hurricane Ike. The moderating effect of community support was evaluated as a protective factor relative to postdisaster mental health. Methods A representative population-based sample of 157 urban and 714 nonurban adults were interviewed 12 to 17 months after the hurricane about their mental health functioning, disaster exposure, and perceptions of community support. A series of multiple regressions demonstrated that disaster exposure was associated with mental health outcomes for both groups. The strength of the association varied across population samples. Results Community support moderated the association between interpersonal effects of the disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression outcomes in nonurban participants and the association between property damage and PTSD in urban participants. Conclusions Community support played a larger role in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms associated with the interpersonal effects of a disaster in the nonurban sample only. Communities may play a more beneficial role in the recovery process in nonurban areas that have elevated levels of injury or death attributed to a disaster. PMID:24274123

  16. Crustal structure beneath the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon and surrounding regions from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Kevin C.; Fouch, Matthew J.; James, David E.; Carlson, Richard W.

    2011-02-01

    We analyze teleseismic P-to-S receiver functions to image crustal structure beneath the High Lava Plains (HLP) of eastern Oregon and surrounding regions. Coverage from 206 broadband seismic stations provides the first opportunity to resolve variations in crustal composition, thickness, and heterogeneity on scales of a few km in depth and tens of km laterally across the HLP region. We utilize both H - κ stacking and a new Gaussian-weighted common conversion point stacking technique. We find crust that is ≥40 km thick beneath the Cascades, Idaho Batholith, and Owyhee Plateau and thinner (˜31 km) crust beneath the HLP and northern Great Basin. Low Poisson's ratios of ˜0.240 characterize the granitic crust beneath the Idaho Batholith, while the Owyhee Plateau exhibits values of ˜0.270, typical of average continental crust. The Owyhee Plateau is a thick simple crustal block with distinct edges at depth. The western HLP exhibits high average values of 0.304, typical for regions of widespread basaltic volcanism. Combined with other geological and geophysical observations, the areas of abnormally high Poisson's ratios (˜0.320) and low-velocity zones in the crust beneath north-central and southern Oregon are consistent with the presence of partial melt on either side of the HLP trend, suggesting a central zone where crustal melts have drained to the surface, perhaps enabled by the Brothers Fault Zone. Thicker crust and an anomalous N-S band of low Poisson's ratios (˜0.252) skirting the Steens Mountain escarpment is consistent with residuum from a midcrustal magma source of the massive flood basalts, supporting the view of extensive mafic underplating and intraplating of the crust from Cenozoic volcanism.

  17. Visual Responsiveness of Neurons in the Secondary Somatosensory Area and its Surrounding Parietal Operculum Regions in Awake Macaque Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihara, Sayaka; Taoka, Miki; Tanaka, Michio; Iriki, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Previous neurophysiological studies performed in macaque monkeys have shown that the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) is essentially engaged in the processing of somatosensory information and no other sensory input has been reported. In contrast, recent human brain-imaging studies have revealed the effects of visual and auditory stimuli on SII activity, which suggest multisensory integration in the human SII. To determine whether multisensory responses of the SII also exist in nonhuman primates, we recorded single-unit activity in response to visual and auditory stimuli from the SII and surrounding regions in 8 hemispheres from 6 awake monkeys. Among 1157 recorded neurons, 306 neurons responded to visual stimuli. These visual neurons usually responded to rather complex stimuli, such as stimulation of the peripersonal space (40.5%), observation of human action (29.1%), and moving-object stimulation outside the monkey's reach (23.9%). We occasionally applied auditory stimuli to visual neurons and found 10 auditory-responsive neurons that exhibited somatosensory responses. The visual neurons were distributed continuously along the lateral sulcus covering the entire SII, along with other somatosensory neurons. These results highlight the need to investigate novel functional roles-other than somesthetic sensory processing-of the SII.

  18. Characterization of particulate air pollution in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.C.; Hoek, G.; Harssema, H.; Brunekreef, B.

    1998-01-01

    During the winters of 1992/1993, 1993/1994 and 1994/1995 a monitoring study was performed in three urban and three non-urban areas in the Netherlands. PM10, black smoke (BS), sulfate, nitrate, ammonium (non-organic secondary aerosols, ''NOSA'') and aerosol acidity were measured on a daily basis in b

  19. Higher smoking prevalence in urban compared to non-urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idris, Berlian I; Giskes, Katrina; Borrell, Carme

    2007-01-01

    We investigated differences in smoking prevalence between urban and non-urban area of residence in six Western European countries (Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Germany, Italy and Spain), and smoking prevalence trends over the period 1985-2000. In most countries, smoking prevalence was highest in urb...

  20. Physical activity of youth in non-urban parks: an observation-based assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J.M. Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Public parks play an important role in healthy, active living, but the extent to which parks influence the physical activity (PA) of diverse youth outside of urban areas has not been adequately explored. This study used systematic behavioural observations to examine demographic factors and environmental attributes associated with youth PA in non-urban state parks of...

  1. Analyzing the Implications of Climate Data on the Rainfall Frequency Spectrum: Case Study of Knoxville, Tennessee and Surrounding Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Linda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parish, Esther S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Modeled daily precipitation values are used to determine changes in percentile rainfall event depths, for planning and mitigation of stormwater runoff, over past (1980-2005) and future (2025-2050) periods for Knoxville, Tennessee and the surrounding area.

  2. The Role Of The Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ) On Horizontal Stress (SH) Orientations In Northern Germany And Surrounding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, P. T.; Hettel, S.; Fleckenstein, P.

    most previous studies. Modelling the TESZ as a frictional fault resulted in a very poor fit across much of central Europe. Modelling the TESZ as a locked structure yields a good fit for most of Europe and locates the SH fan within the study region. Altering the position of the tip of the locked section of the TESZ exerts a first order influence on the location of the isostatic point. Thus it is possible to derive a bestfit estimate for the location of the tip of the locked section of the TESZ by comparing the predicted and insitu SH orientations. The best fit of the SH orientation data for N. Germany and the surrounding area was obtained for a model with varying elasticity and a TESZ that was locked between the Moesian platform in the south, NW, to mid way along the NNW striking section, offshore of Denmark. The bestfit location of the northern tip of the locked TESZ may coincide with the southern limit of present day activity on the TESZ, which is presumed to continue into the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.

  3. Perceived annoyance from environmental odors and association with atmospheric ammonia levels in non-urban residential communities: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanes-Vidal Victoria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Odor exposure is an environmental stressor that is responsible of many citizens complains about air pollution in non-urban areas. However, information about the exposure-response relation is scarce. One of the main challenges is to identify a measurable compound that can be related with odor annoyance responses. We investigated the association between regional and temporal variation of ammonia (NH3 concentrations in five Danish non-urban regions and environmental odor annoyance as perceived by the local residents. Methods A cross-sectional study where NH3 concentration was obtained from the national air quality monitoring program and from emission-dispersion modelling, and odor pollution perception from questionnaires. The exposure-response model was a sigmoid model. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the model constants after equation transformations. The model was validated using leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV statistical method. Results About 45% of the respondents were annoyed by odor pollution at their residential areas. The perceived odor was characterized by all respondents as animal waste odor. The exposure-annoyance sigmoid model showed that the prevalence of odor annoyance was significantly associated with NH3 concentrations (measured and estimated at the local air quality monitoring stations (p 2 = 0.99; and p 2 = 0.93; respectively. Prediction errors were below 5.1% and 20% respectively. The seasonal pattern of odor perception was associated with the seasonal variation in NH3 concentrations (p 2 = 0.68. Conclusion The results suggest that atmospheric NH3 levels at local air quality stations could be used as indicators of prevalence of odor annoyance in non-urban residential communities.

  4. Climatology and trend of wind power resources in China and its surrounding regions: a revisit using Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman

    2015-01-01

    The mean climatology, seasonal and interannual variability and trend of wind speeds at the hub height (80 m) of modern wind turbines over China and its surrounding regions are revisited using 33-year (1979–2011) wind data from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) that has many improvements including higher spatial resolution over previous global reanalysis...

  5. Chapter B: Regional Geologic Setting of Late Cenozoic Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits, Great Basin and Surrounding Region: Overview and Plans for Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater diatomite deposits are present in all of the Western United States, including the Great Basin and surrounding regions. These deposits are important domestic sources of diatomite, and a better understanding of their formation and geologic settings may aid diatomite exploration and land-use management. Diatomite deposits in the Great Basin are the products of two stages: (1) formation in Late Cenozoic lacustrine basins and (2) preservation after formation. Processes that favored long-lived diatom activity and diatomite formation range in decreasing scale from global to local. The most important global process was climate, which became increasingly cool and dry from 15 Ma to the present. Regional processes included tectonic setting and volcanism, which varied considerably both spatially and temporally in the Great Basin region. Local processes included basin formation, sedimentation, hydrology, and rates of processes, including diatom growth and accumulation; basin morphology and nutrient and silica sources were important for robust activity of different diatom genera. Only optimum combinations of these processes led to the formation of large diatomite deposits, and less than optimum combinations resulted in lakebeds that contained little to no diatomite. Postdepositional processes can destroy, conceal, or preserve a diatomite deposit. These processes, which most commonly are local in scale, include uplift, with related erosion and changes in hydrology; burial beneath sedimentary deposits or volcanic flows and tuffs; and alteration during diagenesis and hydrothermal activity. Some sedimentary basins that may have contained diatomite deposits have largely been destroyed or significantly modified, whereas others, such as those in western Nevada, have been sufficiently preserved along with their contained diatomite deposits. Future research on freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States and Great Basin region should concentrate on the regional

  6. Determining Arsenic Distribution in Urban Soils: A Comparison with Nonurban Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tait Chirenje

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many challenges in the determination of arsenic background concentrations in soils. However, these challenges are magnified when those determinations are carried out on urban soils. Irrespective of this, it is important to correctly identify and understand the extent of pollution in order to provide efficient preventative, remedial actions and cost-effective management of contaminated areas. This review paper discusses the factors that make the determination of arsenic background concentrations in urban areas different from similar determinations in nonurban areas. It also proposes solutions, where applicable, that are based on experience in determining arsenic background concentrations in both urban and nonurban areas in Florida, and from other studies in the literature. Urban soils are considerably different from nonurban areas because they have significant human disturbance, making them more difficult to study. They are characterized by high spatial and temporal variability, compaction, and modified chemical and physical characteristics. These differences have to be addressed during site selection, sample collection, and statistical analyses when determining arsenic distribution.

  7. Residential mobility and trajectories of adiposity among adolescents in urban and non-urban neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Antwan

    2015-04-01

    Using data from the 1994-2008 National Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (Add Health), this research examines the relationship between residential mobility and weight gain over time among urban and non-urban young adults. It is theorized that changes in residence act as a barrier to achieving an active lifestyle, which would increase an individual's body mass index (BMI) over time. Relying on linear mixed-effects growth curve models, the results indicate that mobility is protective against weight gain over time after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. For young adults who are residentially stable in urban neighborhoods, increases in physical activity are associated with a linear decline in BMI. In non-urban areas where respondents are residentially mobile, body weight does not fluctuate as sedentary behavior increases. However, in those areas, weight increases as sedentary behavior increases for those who did not move. Overall, the results suggest that the effect of mobility on weight gain is partially due to the kind of health behaviors that one engages in as well as whether or not one lives in an urban area. Policies geared toward relocating residents (such as Moving to Opportunity), and neighborhood processes that can lead individuals to change residences (such as foreclosures or gentrification) may have adverse health effects depending on whether they are occurring in urban or non-urban areas.

  8. The Armutlu Network: an investigation into the seismotectonic setting of Armutlu–Yalova–Gemlik and the surrounding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Grosser

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Armutlu Peninsula is in the Marmara Region of Turkey, located at the western end of the 1999 Kocaeli rupture. Armutlu peninsula is believed to be adjacent to the Intra-Pontide Suture Zone, or even to be a part of it. This zone has a key role for the understanding of the neo-tectonic features of this region and the interactions between high seismicity with high thermal activity and neo-tectonic faults that have originated through the ongoing movement of the two branches north and south of Armutlu. A horst and graben structure appears in this region, whereby the Armutlu Peninsula represents a horst between two branches of the North Anatolian Fault System, which results in a complex dextral zone. To understand the relationships among the micro-earthquake activity, the hydrothermal activity, and the tectonic structure of the region, the Armutlu Network (ARNET was installed. ARNET aims to monitor the chronological evolution of the seismicity, and to investigate the deformation of the Armutlu Peninsula, and possible interactions between seismic waves and pore-pressure variations in the geothermal systems. The Armutlu–Yalova–Gemlik region has a very complicated tectonic structure, and it has scattered micro-earthquake activity. The upper part of the crust includes a low-velocity zone that conforms to present tectonic activity and the brittle deformed metamorphic rocks. Recent seismic activity has been confined to Gemlik Bay, and the Yalova–Termal region. Therefore, special attention is needed to monitor the seismic activity in these regions, to understand the likely and forthcoming larger event(s in the Marmara Region. We believe that this region will have an important role in our understanding of the formation of the next larger earthquake at the western extension of the North Anatolian Fault system.

  9. Organization and expression of genes in the genomic region surrounding the glutamine synthetase gene Gln1 from Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykjaer, T; Danielsen, D; She, Q

    1997-01-01

    a segment carrying two apparently non-functional, fragmented copia-like retroelements, dRtp1 and dRtp2, was identified. Sequence similarity to reverse transcriptase- and RNaseH-coding regions defined the defective retro-elements dRtp1 and dRtp2 within this segment. Terminal repeats were not found but three...

  10. Mapping of the chromosome 1p36 region surrounding the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, P.; Gere, S.; Wolpert, C. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. Although CMT2 is clinically indistinguishable from CMT1, the two forms can be differentiated by pathological and neurophysiological methods. We have established one locus, CMT2A on chromosome 1p36, and have established genetic heterogeneity. This locus maps to the region of the deletions associated with neuroblastoma. We have now identified an additional 11 CMT2 families. Three families are linked to chromosome 1p36 while six families are excluded from this region. Another six families are currently under analysis and collection. To date the CMT2A families represent one third of those CMT2 families examined. We have established a microdissection library of the 1p36 region which is currently being characterized for microsatellite repeats and STSs using standard hybridization techniques and a modified degenerate primer method. In addition, new markers (D1S253, D1S450, D1S489, D1S503, GATA27E04, and GATA4H04) placed in this region are being mapped using critical recombinants in the CEPH reference pedigrees. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to confirm mapping. A YAC contig is being assembled from the CEPH megabase library using STSs to isolate key YACs which are extended by vectorette end clone and Alu-PCR. These findings suggest that the CMT2 phenotype is secondary to at least two different genes and demonstrates further heterogeneity in the CMT phenotype.

  11. Beyond the Obvious: Tensions and Volitions Surrounding the Contributions of Universities to Regional Development and Innovation1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinheiro, Rómulo; Benneworth, Paul; Jones, Glen A.; Carmo Farinha, Luis M.; Ferreira, Joao J.M.; Lawton Smith, Helen; Bagchi-Sen, Sharmistha

    2015-01-01

    There is a general tendency amongst policy and certain academic circles to assume that universities are simple strategic actors capable and willing to respond to a well-articulated set of regional demands. In reality, however, universities are extremely complex organizations that operate in highly i

  12. Observation of nighttime nitrous acid (HONO) formation at a non-urban site during PRIDE-PRD2004 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hang; Cheng, Ya Fang; Cheng, Peng; Zhang, Yuan Hang; Dong, Shuofei; Zeng, Li Min; Wang, Xuesong; Slanina, Jacob; Shao, Min; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    Though the importance of HONO as an OH precursor has been recognized for years, its chemical formation pathway is still not well understood. This inhibited the simulations of HONO and observation-based formation rates provided an alternative for the air quality models. However, HONO formation rate derived from certain period may be significantly influenced by uncertainties in transport and emission processes. In this study the use of large sample and scaling methods were recommended in the calculation of HONO formation rate. During the Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over Pear River Delta (PRIDE-PRD2004), good correlations between HONO and NO2 were found supporting the involvement of NO2 in HONO formation. An average NO2-to-HONO nighttime conversion rate CHONO of 1.6%h-1 was derived at a non-urban site Xinken. This conversion rate was comparable to other field measurements and could not be explained by gas phase reactions only. If assumed that HONO was formed only on the ground surface, the observed conversion rate could be explained by the reactions of NO2 on ground surfaces only if three deposited NO2 lead to one HONO released. The emission factor of HONO and its sampling interferences during the measurements were also evaluated in this article.

  13. Probing the cosmic ray mass composition in the knee region through TeV secondary particle fluxes from solar surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Prabir; Bijay, Biplab; Sarkar, Samir K.; Bhadra, Arunava

    2017-03-01

    The possibility of estimating the mass composition of primary cosmic rays above the knee of their energy spectrum through the study of high-energy gamma rays, muons, and neutrinos produced in the interactions of cosmic rays with solar ambient matter and radiation is explored. It is found that the theoretical fluxes of TeV gamma rays, muons, and neutrinos from a region around 15° of the Sun are sensitive to a mass composition of cosmic rays in the PeV energy range. The experimental prospects for the detection of such TeV gamma rays/neutrinos by future experiments are discussed.

  14. Regional Lithological Mapping Using ASTER-TIR Data: Case Study for the Tibetan Plateau and the Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Ninomiya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogical indices the Quartz Index (QI, Carbonate Index (CI and Mafic Index (MI for ASTER multispectral thermal infrared (TIR data were applied to various geological materials for regional lithological mapping on the Tibetan Plateau. Many lithological and structural features are not currently well understood in the central Tibetan Plateau, including the distribution of mafic-ultramafic rocks related to the suture zones, the quartzose and carbonate sedimentary rocks accreted to the Eurasian continent, and sulfate layers related to the Tethys and neo-Tethys geological setting. These rock types can now be mapped with the interpretation of the processed ASTER TIR images described in this paper. A methodology is described for the processing of ASTER TIR data applied to a very wide region of the Tibetan Plateau. The geometrical and radiometric performance of the processed images is discussed, and the advantages of using ortho-rectified data are shown. The challenges of using ASTER data with a small footprint in addition to selecting an appropriate subset of scenes are also examined. ASTER scenes possess a narrow swath width when compared to LANDSAT data (60 km vs. 185 km, respectively. Furthermore, the ASTER data archive is vast, consisting of approximately three million images. These details can present an added level of complexity during an image processing workflow. Finally, geological interpretations made on the maps of the indices are compared with prior geological field studies. The results from the investigations suggest that the indices perform well in the classification of quartzose rocks based on the carbonate and mafic mineral content, in addition to the granitic rocks based on the feldspar content.

  15. The impact of circulation patterns on regional transport pathways and air quality over Beijing and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the air pollution characteristics of synoptic-scale circulation in the Beijing megacity, and provided holistic evaluation of the impacts of circulation patterns on air quality during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. Nine weather circulation types (CTs were objectively identified over the North China region during 2000–2009, using obliquely rotated T-mode principal component analysis (PCA. The resulting CTs were examined in relation to the local meteorology, regional transport pathways, and air quality parameters, respectively. The FLEXPART-WRF model was used to calculate 48-h backward plume trajectories for each CT. Nine CTs were characterized, with distinct local meteorology and air mass origins. CT 1 (high to the west with a strong pressure gradient was characterized by a northwestern origin, with the smallest local and southeasterly air mass sources, and CT 6 (high to the northwest had air mass sources mostly from the north and east. In contrast, CTs 5, 8, and 9 (unique, high to the east, and low to the northwest, respectively were characterized by southern and southeastern trajectories, which indicated a greater influence of high pollutant emission sources. In turn, poor air quality in Beijing (high loadings of PM10, BC, SO2, NO2, O3, AOD, and low visibility was associated with these CTs. Good air quality in Beijing was associated with CTs 1 and 6. The average visibilities (with ±1 σ in Beijing for CTs 1 and 6 during 2000–2009 were 18.5 ± 8.3 km and 14.3 ± 8.5 km, respectively. In contrast, poor visibility values of 6.0 ± 3.5 km, 6.6 ± 3.7 km, and 6.7 ± 3.6 km were found in CTs 5, 8, and 9, respectively. The mean concentrations of PM10 for CTs 1, 6, 5, 8, and 9 during 2005–2009 were 90.3 ± 76.3 μg m−3, 111.7 ± 89.6 μg m−3, 173.4 ± 105.8 μg m−3, 158.4 ± 90.0 μg m−3, and 151.2 ± 93.1 μg m

  16. The Third Pole Environment Programme (TPE): A new base for the processes study of atmospheric physics and environment over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, with the most prominent and complicated terrain on the globe and an elevation of more than 4000 m on average above sea leave (msl), is often called the "Third Pole" due to its significance parallel with Antarctica and the Arctic. The exchange of energy, water vapor and some greenhouse gases between land surface and atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding regions play an important role in the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is a major component of both the energy and water cycles of the global climate system. Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and some international organizations, a Third Pole Environment (TPE) Research Platform (TPEP) is now implementing over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding region. The background of the establishment of the TPEP, the establishing and monitoring plan of long-term scale (5-10 years) of the TPEP will be shown firstly. Then the preliminary observational analysis results, such as the characteristics of land surface heat fluxes, CO2 flux and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning (diurnal variation, inter-monthly variation and vertical variation etc), aerosol optical properties between southern and northern sides of the Himalayas, the characteristics of atmospheric and soil variables, the structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and the turbulent characteristics have also been shown in this study.

  17. 一种自适应空间邻域的显著图获取方法研究%Salient region detection using adaptive circular spatial surround

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海洋; 何东健

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the situation of low accuracy of image retrieval in complex backgrounds,this paper proposed a retrieval scheme based on adaptive circular spatial surround.Considering the concentric structure of the human eye reception field,it adopted circular spatial surround.Then it calculated the salient values of pixels in that surround through weights generated by a two-dimensional normal distribution.Finally,it employed a simple threshold segmentation process on the saliency to generate a binary image.Experiments were carried out on 2 natural image sets.The results show that,compared with three state-of-the-art salient region detection methods,the proposed method gives improved accuracy in acquiring the saliency.%针对复杂背景下显著图提取精准度不高的问题,提出了一套基于自适应空间邻域的获取方案.该方案考虑人眼神经元感受野的同心圆结构,计算自适应圆形空间邻域;然后结合二维正态分布的显著权值计算空间邻域内每个像素点的显著值,获取图像的显著图,再利用简单的阈值分割算法提取二值图像;最后通过在两个自然图像集进行实验,并与三种经典算法进行比较.实验结果表明,该方法可以在复杂背景下有效地获取精确的显著图.

  18. A convection-conduction model for analysis of the freeze-thaw conditions in the surrounding rock wall of a tunnel in permafrost regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春雄; 吴紫汪; 朱林楠

    1999-01-01

    Based on the analyses of fundamental meteorological and hydrogeological conditions at the site of a tunnel in the cold regions, a combined convection-conduction model for air flow in the tunnel and temperature field in the surrounding has been constructed. Using the model, the air temperature distribution in the Xiluoqi No. 2 Tunnel has been simulated numerically. The simulated results are in agreement with the data observed. Then, based on the in situ conditions of air temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind force, hydrogeology and engineering geology, the air-temperature relationship between the temperature on the surface of the tunnel wall and the air temperature at the entry and exit of the tunnel has been obtained, and the freeze-thaw conditions at the Dabanshan Tunnel which is now under construction is predicted.

  19. Use of a culture independent method to analyze the diversity of soil fungi surrounding Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Shouxian; Yin, Yonggang

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale cultivation of Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. In addition, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, determining the natural habitat of its fruiting body is important. The present study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus...... habitat to facilitate its large-scale cultivation. A culture-independent molecular approach—a powerful technology for microbiological ecology studies—was used to investigate the diversity of soil fungal communities in samples surrounding C. rutilus from the Beijing region of China. Metagenomic DNA...... was isolated from soil samples collected around C. rutilus, and an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene library was constructed. Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction products were digested with HinfI, HaeIII, MspI, TaqI, or MboI. Clones were selected and sequenced based on their restriction fragment...

  20. 2D DEM analyses for T-M coupling effects of extreme temperatures on surrounding rock-supporting system of a tunnel in cold region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉军; 杨朝帅; 王永刚

    2013-01-01

    Taking the Kunlunshan Tunnel on Qinghai Tibet Railway as an engineering background, the curved wall-inverted arch lining of the tunnel was simplified into the straight wall-umbrella arch one, and the fractured rock mass with developed joints was treated as a discrete medium in the calculation. Using the UDEC code, the numerical simulations for thermo-mechanical coupling processes in the surrounding rock mass-supporting system were carried out aiming at the conditions of mean temperature, extreme highest temperature and extreme lowest temperature in one year. The distributions and changes of stresses, displacements, plastic zones, temperatures in the rock mass of near field, as well as the loading states in the model-building concrete and bolting were investigated and compared for these three computation cases. The results show that compared with the case of mean temperature, the ranges, where the temperatures of surrounding rock mass change obviously, are 6.0 m and 6.5 m, respectively, for the cases of extreme highest temperature and extreme lowest temperature; the displacements of tunnel are raised by 3.2 9.3 and 5.7 12.7 times, and the thicknesses of plastic zones reach 1.5 2.5 m and 2.0 4.5 m for case 2 and 3, respectively; the extreme temperatures of air have strong effects on the stress, deformation and failure states of supporting structure of tunnel in cold region, and the influence degree of extreme lowest temperature is the highest.

  1. Cryptic diversity in metropolis: confirmation of a new leopard frog species (Anura: Ranidae from New York City and surrounding Atlantic coast regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A Feinberg

    Full Text Available We describe a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. This species is morphologically similar to two largely parapatric eastern congeners, Rana sphenocephala and R. pipiens. We primarily use bioacoustic and molecular data to characterize the new species, but also examine other lines of evidence. This discovery is unexpected in one of the largest and most densely populated urban parts of the world. It also demonstrates that new vertebrate species can still be found periodically even in well-studied locales rarely associated with undocumented biodiversity. The new species typically occurs in expansive open-canopied wetlands interspersed with upland patches, but centuries of loss and impact to these habitats give some cause for conservation concern. Other concerns include regional extirpations, fragmented extant populations, and a restricted overall geographic distribution. We assign a type locality within New York City and report a narrow and largely coastal lowland distribution from central Connecticut to northern New Jersey (based on genetic data and south to North Carolina (based on call data.

  2. Cryptic diversity in metropolis: confirmation of a new leopard frog species (Anura: Ranidae) from New York City and surrounding Atlantic coast regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Jeremy A; Newman, Catherine E; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Schlesinger, Matthew D; Zarate, Brian; Curry, Brian R; Shaffer, H Bradley; Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. This species is morphologically similar to two largely parapatric eastern congeners, Rana sphenocephala and R. pipiens. We primarily use bioacoustic and molecular data to characterize the new species, but also examine other lines of evidence. This discovery is unexpected in one of the largest and most densely populated urban parts of the world. It also demonstrates that new vertebrate species can still be found periodically even in well-studied locales rarely associated with undocumented biodiversity. The new species typically occurs in expansive open-canopied wetlands interspersed with upland patches, but centuries of loss and impact to these habitats give some cause for conservation concern. Other concerns include regional extirpations, fragmented extant populations, and a restricted overall geographic distribution. We assign a type locality within New York City and report a narrow and largely coastal lowland distribution from central Connecticut to northern New Jersey (based on genetic data) and south to North Carolina (based on call data).

  3. Determining Robust Impacts of Land-Use-Induced Land Cover Changes on Surface Temperature over China and surrounding regions: Results from the First Set of LUCID Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zheng; Guo, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    The project Land-Use and Climate, Identification of Robust Impacts (LUCID) was designed to address the robustness of biogeophysical impacts of historical land use-land cover change (LULCC). LUCID used seven atmosphere-land models with a common experimental design to explore those impacts of LULCC that are robust and consistent across the climate models. The biogeophysical impacts of LULCC were also compared to the impact of elevated greenhouse gases and resulting changes in sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent (hereafter SST/CO2). Focusing the analysis on China and surrounding regions, the climate models involved in LUCID show, however, significant differences in the magnitude and the seasonal partitioning of the temperature change. The LULCC-induced cooling is directed by decreases in absorbed solar radiation, but its amplitude is 30 to 50% smaller than the one that would be expected from the sole radiative changes. This results from direct impacts on the total turbulent energy flux (related to changes in land-cover properties other than albedo, such as evapotranspiration efficiency or surface roughness) that decreases at all seasons, and thereby induces a relative warming in all models. The magnitude of those processes varies significantly from model to model, resulting on different climate responses to LULCC.

  4. The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate interactions and active tectonics of the Anatolian plate and surrounding regions in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoz, M. Nafi; Reilinger, Robert

    1992-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the consequences of the Arabian plate convergence against Eurasia and its effects on the tectonics of Anatolia and surrounding regions of the eastern Mediterranean. A primary source of information is time rates of change of baseline lengths and relative heights determined by repeated SLR measurements. These SLR observations are augmented by a network of GPS stations in Anatolia, Aegea, and Greece, established and twice surveyed since 1988. The existing SLR and GPS networks provide the spatial resolution necessary to reveal the details of ongoing tectonic processes in this area of continental collision. The effort has involved examining the state of stress in the lithosphere and relative plate motions as revealed by these space based geodetic measurements, seismicity, and earthquake mechanisms as well as the aseismic deformations of the plates from conventional geodetic data and geological evidence. These observations are used to constrain theoretical calculations of the relative effects of: (1) the push of the Arabian plate; (2) high topography of Eastern Anatolia; (3) the geometry and properties of African-Eurasian plate boundary; (4) subduction under the Hellenic Arc and southwestern Turkey; and (5) internal deformation and rotation of the Anatolian plate.

  5. GIS and Remote Sensing based zonation map for volcaniclastic debris flow susceptibility: a case study from area surrounding the Vesuvius (Campania Region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marina; Spinetti, Claudia; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    The volcanic areas affected by pyroclastic deposits and significant hillslopes can be considered zone with high proneness for triggering volcaniclastic debris flows. In fact, in presence of heavy and/or persistent rainfall, loose pyroclastic covers can be remobilized and generate volcaniclastic flows causing disastrous effects. The most important volcanoclastic debris flow in the Campania Region (Italy) has been the Sarno-Quindici event occurred on May 5-6, 1998 that caused the death of more than 150 people and relevant damages to villages at the foot of the Apennine Mountains in the circumvesuvian area. In order to improve the volcaniclastic flow hazard zonation in the area surrounding the Vesuvius volcano, we propose a methodological approach based on remote sensing analyses combined with morphometric study derived from a Digital Elevation Model having a spatial resolution of 10 meters to identify the drainage basins potentially more prone to generate volcaniclastic flows. The satellite high-medium resolution data will be used to derive the land cover mapping. The elaborations will be performed in the GIS environment and the combination of identified drainage basins with the land cover classes will provide the map classifying the areas according to different degree of susceptibility for triggering debris flows.

  6. Sources of Black Carbon Aerosols in South Asia and Surrounding Regions During the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Nair, V. S.; Pfister, G.; Babu, S. S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Krishnamoorthy, K.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    The dominant sources of black carbon (BC) in South Asia and surrounding regions are inferred during March-May 2006 (Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)) by introducing BC tracers in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry. Model results show that ICARB measurements were fairly well representative of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal during the pre-monsoon season. The model reproduced well the magnitude, temporal and spatial variability of BC concentrations observed during the ICARB ship-cruise. Average and standard deviation (representing the spatial and temporal variability) in observed and modeled BC mass concentrations along the ship-track are estimated as 755±734 ng m-3 and 732±913 ng m-3 respectively, where the standard deviation represents the spatial and temporal variability in the region. Average modeled values at most of the inland stations were also found to fall within the range of observed values. Results show that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively, accounted for 70% and 28% of the BC mass concentration in South Asia. BC emissions from residential (49%) and industrial (37%) sectors appear to be the major anthropogenic sources, except in the Himalayas where vehicular emissions dominate. We find that, while all parts of continental India contributed to anthropogenic BC over Bay of Bengal, contribution over the Arabian Sea came mostly from southern Peninsula. We also show that long-range transport of anthropogenic emissions contribute up to 30% of BC concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that it is important to consider non-local sources along with the local emissions while designing strategies for mitigating BC emissions.

  7. Urban and non-urban differences in community living and participation among individuals with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Salzer, Mark S

    2017-03-01

    Despite a wealth of studies examining the relationship between urbanicity (i.e., living in an urban area) and psychological distress, there is a paucity of research examining the relationship between urbanicity, community living, and community participation of adults with serious mental illnesses. This study addresses this knowledge gap by assessing urban and non-urban differences in community participation, sense of community, mental health stigma, and perceptions of the neighborhood environment among individuals with serious mental illnesses living independently throughout the United States. A total of 300 individuals with serious mental illnesses recruited from 21 outpatient mental health service organizations in 15 states completed a phone survey about their community living and participation experiences. Urbanicity was examined at two spatial scales (block group and county), and independent-samples t-tests were employed to assess urban and non-urban differences in community living and participation variables. Levels of community participation and perceptions of neighborhood quality and crime were higher in urban block groups; sense of community was higher in urban counties; and perceptions of mental health stigma were higher in non-urban counties. Results inform the methodological literature on best practices for assessing urbanicity, as well as interventions aimed at increasing community participation and improving aspects of the built and social environment that affect individuals who experience mental health distress.

  8. Non-urban area ownership structure. Case study of Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Agnieszka; Janus, Jaroslaw; Bożek, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    The study shows a possible way of analyzing the diversity of ownership forms in non-urban areas, with particular focus on land co-ownership. The data in cadastral databases was processed with the use of the relational model which applied information on the geometry of areal spatial objects and descriptive attributes. The paper presents also the results of the analysis of Nowy Sącz District with the area of 1.550 sq.km and containing approximately 200.000 parcels. The area is representative for many countries in Central and Eastern Europe, where unfavorable land fragmentation indices and complex ownership structures complicate investing processes and development of rural areas what results in progressive degradation of agricultural and cultural landscape. The results indicate that the co-ownership phenomenon affects 13% of parcels in the study area. However, it varies greatly depending on the village and ranges from 3 to 67% of total parcels number. Suggested methods of analyzing the ownership structure are of universal character. In spite of this, when used during analyses conducted in other countries, certain modifications are required. It is mainly caused by the differences in cadastral data models used in those countries.

  9. Non-urban area ownership structure. Case study of Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glowacka Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study shows a possible way of analyzing the diversity of ownership forms in non-urban areas, with particular focus on land co-ownership. The data in cadastral databases was processed with the use of the relational model which applied information on the geometry of areal spatial objects and descriptive attributes. The paper presents also the results of the analysis of Nowy Sącz District with the area of 1.550 sq.km and containing approximately 200.000 parcels. The area is representative for many countries in Central and Eastern Europe, where unfavorable land fragmentation indices and complex ownership structures complicate investing processes and development of rural areas what results in progressive degradation of agricultural and cultural landscape. The results indicate that the co-ownership phenomenon affects 13% of parcels in the study area. However, it varies greatly depending on the village and ranges from 3 to 67% of total parcels number. Suggested methods of analyzing the ownership structure are of universal character. In spite of this, when used during analyses conducted in other countries, certain modifications are required. It is mainly caused by the differences in cadastral data models used in those countries.

  10. Analyzing the Implications of Climate Data on Plant Hardiness Zones for Green Infrastructure Planning: Case Study of Knoxville, Tennessee and Surrounding Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Linda M [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL

    2016-07-01

    Downscaled climate data for Knoxville, Tennessee and the surrounding region were used to investigate future changing Plant Hardiness Zones due to climate change. The methodology used is the same as the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), well-known for their creation of the standard Plant Hardiness Zone map used by gardeners and planners. USDA data were calculated from observed daily data for 1976–2005. The modeled climate data for the past is daily data from 1980-2005 and the future data is projected for 2025–2050. The average of all the modeled annual extreme minimums for each time period of interest was calculated. Each 1 km raster cell was placed into zone categories based on temperature, using the same criteria and categories of the USDA. The individual models vary between suggesting little change to the Plant Hardiness Zones to suggesting Knoxville moves into the next two Hardiness Zones. But overall, the models suggest moving into the next warmer Zone. USDA currently has the Knoxville area categorized as Zone 7a. None of the Zones calculated from the climate data models placed Knoxville in Zone 7a for the similar time period. The models placed Knoxville in a cooler Hardiness Zone and projected the area to increase to Zone 7. The modeled temperature data appears to be slightly cooler than the actual temperature data and this may explain the zone discrepancy. However, overall Knoxville is projected to increase to the next warmer Zone. As the modeled data has Knoxville, overall, moving from Zone 6 to Zone 7, it can be inferred that Knoxville, Tennessee may increase from their current Zone 7 to Zone 8.

  11. Processing the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and the surrounding area by the cellular neural network: application to the southwestern Marmara region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, D.

    2007-04-01

    An image processing technique called the cellular neural network (CNN) approach is used in this study to locate geological features giving rise to gravity anomalies such as faults or the boundary of two geologic zones. CNN is a stochastic image processing technique based on template optimization using the neighborhood relationships of cells. These cells can be characterized by a functional block diagram that is typical of neural network theory. The functionality of CNN is described in its entirety by a number of small matrices (A, B and I) called the cloning template. CNN can also be considered to be a nonlinear convolution of these matrices. This template describes the strength of the nearest neighbor interconnections in the network. The recurrent perceptron learning algorithm (RPLA) is used in optimization of cloning template. The CNN and standard Canny algorithms were first tested on two sets of synthetic gravity data with the aim of checking the reliability of the proposed approach. The CNN method was compared with classical derivative techniques by applying the cross-correlation method (CC) to the same anomaly map as this latter approach can detect some features that are difficult to identify on the Bouguer anomaly maps. This approach was then applied to the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and its surrounding area, in Turkey. Structural features in the area between Bandirma, Biga, Yenice and Gonen in the southwest Marmara region are investigated by applying the CNN and CC to the Bouguer anomaly map. Faults identified by these algorithms are generally in accordance with previously mapped surface faults. These examples show that the geologic boundaries can be detected from Bouguer anomaly maps using the cloning template approach. A visual evaluation of the outputs of the CNN and CC approaches is carried out, and the results are compared with each other. This approach provides quantitative solutions based on just a few assumptions, which makes the method more

  12. Seismotectonics of the Antalya Basin and surrounding regions in eastern Mediterranean from 8 to 28 December 2013 Mw 5.0-5.8 earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgün, Ethem; Kalafat, Doğan; Kekovalı, Kıvanç

    2016-05-01

    surrounding regions. Positive lobes with stress of more than 0.4 bars are obtained for two mainshocks, indicating that these values are large enough to increase the Coulomb stress failure towards NE-SW and NW-SE directions, respectively.

  13. Spatio-temporal expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in and surrounding a region of rat frontal lobe damaged with a sharp instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixian He; Zhijun Zhang; Yulin Dong; Guangming Lü; Ting Wang; Hengjian Ni

    2009-01-01

    NOS mRNA and iNOS protein expression after damage, iNOS was mainly found in neural cells at 3 and 6 hours, in macrophages at 12 and 24 hours, and in glial cells at 72 and 120 hours after damage. iNOS-positive cells were few in and surrounding the damaged region at 168 hours. There were a few iNOS-positive neural cells in the rat frontal lobe cortex in the sham operation group.CONCLUSION: Neurons, macrophages and glial cells can express iNOS following rat frontal lobe damage caused by a sharp instrument. The levels of iNOS expression, and the cell types expressing iNOS, change with time.

  14. Assessing the readiness and training needs of non-urban physicians in public health emergency and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Mas, Francisco Soto; Jacobson, Holly; Papenfuss, Richard; Nkhoma, Ella T; Zoretic, James

    2005-01-01

    Emergency readiness has become a public health priority for United States communities after the 9/11 attacks. Communities that have a less developed public health infrastructure are challenged to organize preparedness and response efforts and to ensure that health care providers are capable of caring for victims of terrorist acts. A survey was used to assess non-urban physicians' prior experience with and self-confidence in treating, and preferred training needs for responding to chemical, biologic, radiologic, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) cases. Data were collected through a mailed and Web-based survey. Although the response rate was calculated at 30%, approximately one third of the surveys were not able to be delivered. Most respondents reported never having seen or treated CBRNE-inflicted cases and were not confident in their ability to diagnose or treat CBRNE cases, but many were willing to participate in a state-led response plan. Almost half of the individuals had not participated in any related training but expressed interest in receiving training in small group workshops or through CD-ROM. These results provide potential direction for strategic preparedness planning for non-urban health care providers.

  15. Environmental perception and education for teachers and students in the surroundings of the Ecological Reserve of Caetés, Metropolitan Region of Recife, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves Alves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental perception studies have been included in management projects that seek nature conservation. The main objective of this work was to eva¬luate students’ and teachers’ environmental perceptions regarding a natural protected area (Caetés Ecological Station that is situated in the surroundings of their schools, in order to support an program aimed at its conser¬vation, which is a requisite to assure the conservation of that protected area. In the first stage of the study, stu¬dents were asked to write essays and to draw mental maps about their place of residence. In contrast, teachers answered a questionnaire about environmental issues related to their teaching experience. In the second stage, teachers attended a lecture and were guided by the authors on a tour around the ecological station. Students’ essays and drawings showed a manifest content of unveiled conscience, not necessarily linked to the presence of a protected area in their neighborhood. In their answers to the questionnaires, the teachers demonstrated little knowledge and interaction regarding the ecological station. However, after the lecture-and-tour activity, the teachers suggested that the political pedagogical project of their schools should include environmental educa¬tion activities at the Caetés Ecological Station. There was a cognitive change among the teachers, since they demonstrated the intention of seeking a deeper and closer relationship with the local ecological station.

  16. Living and care arrangements of non-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in the context of HIV and AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preez, du C.J.

    2011-01-01

     

    In non-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, very few households escape the impacts of HIV and AIDS, either the direct impacts as a result of illness and death, or the indirect impacts through providing care and support to family, friends and neighbours. HIV and AIDS becomes part of the con

  17. Living and care arrangements of non-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in the context of HIV and AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preez, du C.J.

    2011-01-01

     

    In non-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, very few households escape the impacts of HIV and AIDS, either the direct impacts as a result of illness and death, or the indirect impacts through providing care and support to family, friends and neighbours. HIV and AIDS becomes part of the con

  18. Living and care arrangements of non-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in the context of HIV and AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preez, du C.J.

    2011-01-01

     

    In non-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, very few households escape the impacts of HIV and AIDS, either the direct impacts as a result of illness and death, or the indirect impacts through providing care and support to family, friends and neighbours. HIV and AIDS becomes part of the

  19. Analysis of Performance Differences among Students in Urban and Non-urban Centers Based on Compulsory Secondary Education Special Awards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Chao-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes how the teaching-learning contexts (urban and non-urban of four provinces and their different towns influence the school performance of Galician students who apply for the compulsory secondary education (ESO, in Spanish special award. The sample is of 1,212 students who have finished the 4th level of ESO with an average score greater than or equal to 9 between 2008 and 2012. For such purpose, we made a comparative analysis using independent samples with Levene’s test through the SPSS V. 22.0.0.0 statistical package. The results indicate that, out of the 12 scores (Galician, Spanish, foreign language, Mathematics and Social Sciences, Geography and History and a test to choose from different options (Physics and Chemistry, Biology and Geology, Latin, Music, Technology and Arts, students from urban schools get better results in 10 of them (83.33%, with significant differences in 6 subjects.

  20. Chemical compositions of precipitation at three non-urban sites of Hebei Province, North China: Influence of terrestrial sources on ionic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Xu, Zhifang; Liu, Wenjing; Zhao, Tong; Zhang, Xuan; Jiang, Hao; Yu, Chong; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Xiaode

    2016-11-01

    Studies on precipitation chemistry were carried out from April to October in 2008 at three non-urban sites in North China. A total of 122 rainwater samples were collected, and all the samples were analyzed for pH, EC and major ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, K+, Na+, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, and NH4+). The predominant ions in the precipitation were SO42 -, NO3- and Ca2 + at all sampling sites. The low VWM pH value (5.29) reflected the increasing air pollution in this region. But there was still more than 60% of the total precipitation had a pH value higher than 6.0, indicating the considerable neutralizing effects of alkaline aerosols in northern China. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of major ions and pH values showed obvious seasonal differences, the precipitation had higher pH values and VWM concentrations of major ions in dry season. This is mainly attributed to the different sources of air masses in different seasons and the dilution effect on suspended particles. According to the equivalent ratio of [nssCa2 + + NH4+] / [nssSO42- + NO3-] and the results of neutralization factors, the strong acid neutralization was mainly brought about by Ca2 + followed by NH4+ and Mg2 +. Using Na as an indicator of marine origin, the proportions of sea salt and non-sea-salt were estimated from elemental ratios. Combining with the results of correlation analysis, the main acidic ions (SO42 - and NO3-) and NH4+ were mainly derived from anthropogenic activities, and Ca2 + and Mg2 + mostly originated from terrestrial sources. In general, the results reflect that terrestrial source was an important source of major cations in rainwater and strongly influenced the precipitation chemistry, especially in dry season.

  1. Distribution of tetracycline resistance genes and AmpC β-lactamase genes in representative non-urban sewage plants and correlations with treatment processes and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Bin; Hou, Mao-Yu; Li, Ya-Fei; Huang, Lu; Ruan, Jing-Jing; Zheng, Li; Qiao, Qing-Xia; Du, Qing-Ping

    2017-03-01

    The mixed development of livestock breeding and industry in non-urban zones is a very general phenomenon in China. Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in non-urban sewage treatment systems has not been paid enough attentions. In this study, eleven tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE, tetG, tetL, tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetS and tetX), four AmpC β-lactamase genes (EBC, MOX, FOX and CIT) and four heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were detected and analyzed in four non-urban sewage plants with different sewage sources and different treatment processes in Guangzhou. The results showed that tetA and tetC were the most prevalent tetracycline resistance genes with the same detection frequency of 85% and EBC was the most prevalent AmpC β-lactamase gene with a detection frequency of 75%. The relative abundance of tetracycline resistance genes was approximately 1.6 orders of magnitudes higher than that of AmpC β-lactamase genes in all samples. A/O was the most effective process for the non-urban sewage plant receiving industrial or agricultural wastewater. Sedimentation was the most key process to eliminate ARGs from liquid phase. Most ARGs were carried in excess sludge rather than effluent. Significant correlation was found between the tet gene and Zn (r = 0.881, p pollution of ARGs in the sewage treatment systems of non-urban zones co-polluted by heavy metals should be paid more attentions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  3. Isolation of cosmid and cDNA clones in the region surrounding the BTK gene at Xq21.3-q22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorechovsky, I.; Zhou, J.N.; Hammarstroem, L. [Karolinska Institute, Huddinge (Sweden)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    A regional physical and transcription map involving yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), cosmids, and cDNAs has been constructed for Xq21.3-q22 around the gene BTK (formerly atk or BPK) defective in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). With a positional cloning strategy employing direct cDNA selection, novel cDNAs were found to cluster in the region of approximately 100 kb flanking the XLA and {alpha}-galactosidase A loci. While these widely expressed transcripts are in the area known to contain CpG islands, a less evolutionarily conserved gene, located more than 130 kb distal of DXS178, maps to cosmid clones that could not be digested with rare-cutting restriction enzymes. The presence of transcribed sequences flanking the BTK allowed investigation of their involvement in complex XLA phenotypes. Southern blot analysis using cDNA clones isolated from this region permitted exclusion of a contiguous deletion syndrome as an underlying defect in three patients with XLA and associated growth hormone deficiency. A single XLA patient with torsion dystonia and cosegregating X-linked deafness has been found with a deletion in the 3{prime} part of BTK extending centromerically into the flanking expressed sequence DXS1274E. This suggests a possible involvement of the DXS1274E in this phenotype. The GenBank accession numbers for novel cDNA sequences are as follows: DXS1269E (L20773), DXS1271E (UO1923), DXS1273E (UO1925), and DXS1274E (UO1922). 51 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Factors Affecting Elevated Arsenic and Methyl Mercury Concentrations in Small Shield Lakes Surrounding Gold Mines near the Yellowknife, NT, (Canada) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Adam James; D'Onofrio, Rebecca; Kokelj, Steven V; Blais, Jules M

    2016-01-01

    Gold mines in the Yellowknife, NT, region--in particular, the Giant Mine--operated from 1949-99, releasing 237,000 tonnes of waste arsenic trioxide (As2O3) dust, among other compounds, from gold ore extraction and roasting processes. For the first time, we show the geospatial distribution of roaster-derived emissions of several chemical species beyond the mine property on otherwise undisturbed taiga shield lakes within a 25 km radius of the mine, 11 years after its closing. Additionally, we demonstrate that underlying bedrock is not a significant source for the elevated concentrations in overlying surface waters. Aquatic arsenic (As) concentrations are well above guidelines for drinking water (10 μg/L) and protection for aquatic life (5 μg/L), ranging up to 136 μg/L in lakes within 4 km from the mine, to 2.0 μg/L in lakes 24 km away. High conversion ratios of methyl mercury were shown in lakes near the roaster stack as well, with MeHg concentrations reaching 44% of total mercury. The risk of elevated exposures by these metals is significant, as many lakes used for recreation and fishing near the City of Yellowknife are within this radius of elevated As and methyl Hg concentrations.

  5. Factors Affecting Elevated Arsenic and Methyl Mercury Concentrations in Small Shield Lakes Surrounding Gold Mines near the Yellowknife, NT, (Canada Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Houben

    Full Text Available Gold mines in the Yellowknife, NT, region--in particular, the Giant Mine--operated from 1949-99, releasing 237,000 tonnes of waste arsenic trioxide (As2O3 dust, among other compounds, from gold ore extraction and roasting processes. For the first time, we show the geospatial distribution of roaster-derived emissions of several chemical species beyond the mine property on otherwise undisturbed taiga shield lakes within a 25 km radius of the mine, 11 years after its closing. Additionally, we demonstrate that underlying bedrock is not a significant source for the elevated concentrations in overlying surface waters. Aquatic arsenic (As concentrations are well above guidelines for drinking water (10 μg/L and protection for aquatic life (5 μg/L, ranging up to 136 μg/L in lakes within 4 km from the mine, to 2.0 μg/L in lakes 24 km away. High conversion ratios of methyl mercury were shown in lakes near the roaster stack as well, with MeHg concentrations reaching 44% of total mercury. The risk of elevated exposures by these metals is significant, as many lakes used for recreation and fishing near the City of Yellowknife are within this radius of elevated As and methyl Hg concentrations.

  6. Technology utilization in a non-urban region: Further impact and technique of the Technology Use Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, C. H.; Moore, A. M.; Dodd, B.; Marshall, R.; West, S. G.

    1978-01-01

    Performance information for the center is reported. The search production during the reporting period exceeds the production record of the center during any period in its 14 year history. A performance average of 30 searches per month, which represents an increase of 45%, is reported. Numerical listings of the searches processed are given. A section of transfer and impact report is included.

  7. Technology utilization in a non-urban region: Further impact and technique of the Technology Use Studies Center (6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, H. C.; Moore, A. M.; Dodd, B.; West, S. G.

    1976-01-01

    The activities of the TU Center are reported. Areas reported include: TUSC clientele informaton, dissemination and assistance, faculty information service, and cooperation with other agencies. The general aviation news letter is included along with transfer and impact reports.

  8. Technology utilization in a non-urban region: Further impact and technique of the Technology Use Studies Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Updated information is given pertaining to Technology Use Studies Center (TUSC) clients who are those that receive/use information as disseminated by the center. The client information is presented as a continuation of client data as set forth in the center's previous annual report.

  9. Technology utilization in a non-urban region: Further impact and technique of the Technology Use Studies Center, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, H. C. (Editor); Moore, A. M.; Dodd, B.; Dittmar, V.

    1971-01-01

    The clientele served by the Technology Use Studies Center (TUSC) is updated. Manufacturing leads the list of client firms. The standard industrial classification (SIC) range of these firms is broad. Substantial numbers of college and university faculties are using TUSC services. Field operations inherent in the functions of dissemination and assistance are reviewed. Increasing emphasis among clientele is on environmental concerns and management. A record is provided of the institutions contacted and the extent of TUSC involvement with them, as well as TUSC's cooperation with agencies and organizations. The impact of TUSC and the NASA-sponsored Technology Utilization Program on other public agencies is discussed.

  10. Surround-Masking Affects Visual Estimation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R.; Hugrass, Laila E.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Crewther, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity. The visual estimation judgments of typically developed adults were significantly impaired for high but not low contrast surround stimulus conditions. The center and surround contrasts of the stimuli also differentially affected the accuracy of numerosity estimation depending on whether fewer or more dots were presented. Remarkably, observers demonstrated the highest mean percentage accuracy across stimulus conditions in the discrimination of more elements when the surround contrast was low and the background luminance of the central region containing the elements was dark (black center). Conversely, accuracy was severely impaired during the discrimination of fewer elements when the surround contrast was high and the background luminance of the central region was mid level (gray center). These findings suggest that estimation ability is functionally related to the quality of low-order filtration of unessential visual information. These surround masking results may help understanding of the poor visual estimation ability commonly observed in developmental dyscalculia.

  11. Regional ecological compensation based on ecosystem service value in the area surrounding Beijing and Tianjin%基于生态系统服务价值的环京津地区生态补偿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭年冬; 李恒哲; 李超; 陈召亚; 许皞

    2015-01-01

    Hebei Province, 73 counties (cities), into 7 sub-ecological regions. Then the paper calculated the per-unit area ecosystem service value and the sequence of priority of ecological compensation (ECPS) of 73 counties (cities) in the region surrounding Beijing and Tianjin. The ECPS can be used to quantify the priority of ecological compensation, and is the basis of regional compensation. The areas with priority for regional ecological compensation in the area surrounding Beijing and Tianjin were analyzed at three spatial scales — the whole region, the sub-ecological region and the county/city scale. The results showed that the ECPS of the area surrounding Beijing and Tianjin was high in totality, and that of the regions around the western mountains and hills was significantly higher than that of the areas in the central and southeast plains. The per-unit area ecosystem service values of different ecological sub-regions were not significantly different. On the contrary, it varied considerably for different counties/cities — 2 440 Yuan·hm-2 for Laishui County (the lowest) in the west mountain area and 10 060 Yuan·hm-2 for Luannan (the highest) County in the east plain. The results also showed that at sub-ecological scale, the grassland and agro-ecological area in Bashang Plateau, the upper reaches of Yongding River and the deciduous broad-leaved forest areas of Jibei and Yanshan mountains needed high priority in terms of ecological compensation. At the county/city scale, Fengning, Weichang and other seven counties/cities in the northern region of the study area had higher priority level in terms of ecological compensation. Then Sanhe, Dachang and other 47 counties/cities in eastern and southern regions of the study area was the first to pay for the ecological compensation. Compared with previous economic compensation intensity models, a relatively simple and reliable evaluation method for priority areas and regional ecological compensation were established in this

  12. Urbanism, Region, and Tolerance Revisited: The Case of Racial Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Using prejudice toward blacks as the outcome measure, analysis of national survey data for 1972 and 1985 indicates that: urbanites and non-Southerners are more racially tolerant than their non-urban and Southern counterparts; the net effects of urbanism on tolerance have increased over time while region effects have decreased; and urban to…

  13. Mesoscale modeling study of the interactions between aerosols and PBL meteorology during a haze episode in China Jing–Jin–Ji and its near surrounding region – Part 1: Aerosol distributions and meteorological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The urbanized region of Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei – often shortened to Jing–Jin–Ji and referred to as the 3JNS region in this paper – and its near surrounding region is becoming China's most polluted area by haze, exceeding even the Yangtze and Pearl river deltas. Aside from pollutant emission, the meteorology of the planetary boundary layer (PBL is the most important factor affecting haze pollution. Focusing on July 2008, the aerosol optical properties and PBL meteorology features closely related with haze formation were simulated in 3JNS region using an online atmospheric chemical transport model. The relationship between regional PBL meteorology, PM2.5, and haze is discussed. Model results accurately simulated the aerosol optical depth (AOD, single scattering albedo (SSA and asymmetry parameter (ASY, validate by comparison with observations from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, the China Aerosol Remote Sensing NETwork (CARSNET and the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET. Modeled PBL wind speeds showed reasonable agreement with those from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP Reanalysis 2. A monthly mean AOD value as high as 1.2 was found from both model and observations, with a daily mean larger than 2.0 during haze episodes in the 3JNS Region. Modeled and observed SSA values of 0.9–0.96 and ASY values of 0.72–0.74 demonstrated the high scattering characteristic of summer aerosols in this region. PBL wind speeds from modeled and NCEP data both showed a reversing trend of PM2.5 variation, illustrating the importance of the "PBL window shadow" on haze formation. Turbulence diffusion and PBL height showed had opposite phases to surface PM2.5, indicating that lower PBL height and weaker PBL turbulence diffusion are essential to haze formation. It is noted that homogeneous air pressure does not occur at the surface but at an 85–950 hPa height during the haze episode. The momentum transmitting

  14. Mesoscale modeling study of the interactions between aerosols and PBL meteorology during a haze episode in China Jing-Jin-Ji and its near surrounding region - Part 2: Aerosols' radiative feedback effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Shi, G. Y.; Zhang, X. Y.; Gong, S. L.; Tan, S. C.; Chen, B.; Che, H. Z.; Li, T.

    2014-11-01

    Two model experiments, namely a control (CTL) experiment without aerosol-radiation feedbacks and a RAD experiment with online aerosol-radiation interactions, were designed to study the radiative feedback on regional radiation budgets, PBL meteorology and haze formation due to aerosols during haze episodes over China Jing-Jin-Ji and its near surroundings (3JNS Region, for Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei Province, East Shanxi Province, West Shandong Province and North Henan Province) with a two-way atmospheric chemical transport model. The impact of aerosols on solar radiation reaching Earth's surface, outgoing longwave emission at the top of the atmosphere, air temperature, PBL turbulence diffusion, PBL height, wind speeds, air pressure pattern and PM2.5 has been studied focusing on a haze episode during the period from 7 to 11 July 2008. The results show that the mean solar radiation flux that reaches the ground decreases about 15% in China 3JNS Region and by 20 to 25% in the region with the highest AOD during the haze episode. The fact that aerosol cools the PBL atmosphere but warms the atmosphere above it leads to a more stable atmospheric stratification over the region, which causes a decrease in about 52% of turbulence diffusion and a decrease in about 33% of the PBL height. This consequently forms a positive feedback on the particle concentration within the PBL and the surface as well as the haze formation. On the other hands, aerosol DRF (direct radiative forcing) increases about 9% of PBL wind speed, weakens the subtropical high by about 14 hPa, which aids the collapse of haze pollution, resulting in a negative feedback to the haze episode. The synthetic impacts from the two opposite feedbacks result in about a 14% increase in surface PM2.5. However, the persistence time of both high PM2.5 and haze pollution is not effected by the aerosol DRF. On the contrary over offshore China, aerosols heat the PBL atmosphere and cause unstable atmospheric stratification, but the

  15. Mesoscale modeling study of the interactions between aerosols and PBL meteorology during a haze episode in China Jing-Jin-Ji and its near surrounding region – Part 2: Aerosols' radiative feedback effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Two model experiments, namely a control (CTL experiment without aerosol-radiation feedbacks and a RAD experiment with online aerosol-radiation interactions, were designed to study the radiative feedback on regional radiation budgets, PBL meteorology and haze formation due to aerosols during haze episodes over China Jing-Jin-Ji and its near surroundings (3JNS Region, for Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei Province, East Shanxi Province, West Shandong Province and North Henan Province with a two-way atmospheric chemical transport model. The impact of aerosols on solar radiation reaching Earth's surface, outgoing longwave emission at the top of the atmosphere, air temperature, PBL turbulence diffusion, PBL height, wind speeds, air pressure pattern and PM2.5 has been studied focusing on a haze episode during the period from 7 to 11 July 2008. The results show that the mean solar radiation flux that reaches the ground decreases about 15% in China 3JNS Region and by 20 to 25% in the region with the highest AOD during the haze episode. The fact that aerosol cools the PBL atmosphere but warms the atmosphere above it leads to a more stable atmospheric stratification over the region, which causes a decrease in about 52% of turbulence diffusion and a decrease in about 33% of the PBL height. This consequently forms a positive feedback on the particle concentration within the PBL and the surface as well as the haze formation. On the other hands, aerosol DRF (direct radiative forcing increases about 9% of PBL wind speed, weakens the subtropical high by about 14 hPa, which aids the collapse of haze pollution, resulting in a negative feedback to the haze episode. The synthetic impacts from the two opposite feedbacks result in about a 14% increase in surface PM2.5. However, the persistence time of both high PM2.5 and haze pollution is not effected by the aerosol DRF. On the contrary over offshore China, aerosols heat the PBL atmosphere and cause unstable atmospheric

  16. Seismotectonics and Neotectonics of the Gulfs of Gökova-Kuşadasi-Siǧacik and Surrounding Regions (SW Turkey): Earthquake Mechanisms, Source Rupture Modeling, Tsunami Hazard and Geodynamic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal-Cevikbilen, Seda; Karaoglu, Özgür; Taymaz, Tuncay; Helvaci, Cahit

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical behavior of the continental lithosphere for the Aegean region is one of the foremost interesting geological disputes in earth sciences. The Aegean region provides complex tectonic events which produced a strong heterogeneity in the crust (i.e. large thrusts and exhumation shear zones or extensional detachments) as such in among most continental regions. In order to investigate mechanical reasons of the ongoing lithospheric-scale extension within the region, we must tackle all of the existing kinematic and dynamic agents: (1) roll back of the subduction slab and back arc extension; (2) westward extrusion of the Anatolian micro-plate; (3) block rotations of the Aegean region and western Anatolia; and (4) transtensional transform faults. Furthermore, seismological studies, particularly earthquake source mechanisms and rupture modeling, play important roles on deciphering the ongoing deformation and seismotectonic characteristics of the region. Recently, many moderate earthquakes occurred in the Gulfs of Gökova, Kuşadası, Sıǧacık and surroundings. In the present study, we examined source mechanisms and rupture histories of those earthquakes with Mw > 5.0 in order to retrieve the geometry of active faulting, source characteristics, kinematic and dynamic source parameters and current deformations of the region by using teleseismic body-waveform inversion of long-period P- and SH-waves, and broad-band P-waveforms recorded by GDSN and FDSN stations. We also checked first motion polarities of P- waveforms recorded at regional and teleseismic stations and applied several uncertainty tests to find the error limits of minimum misfit solutions. Inversion results revealed E-W directed normal faulting mechanisms with small amount of left lateral strike slip components in the Gulf of Gökova and NE-SW oriented right lateral strike slip faulting mechanisms in the Gulf of Sıǧacık. Earthquakes mostly have N-S and NW-SE directed T- axes directions which are

  17. The Impacts of Different PBL Schemes on the Simulation of PM2.5 during Severe Haze Episodes in the Jing-Jin-Ji Region and Its Surroundings in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three schemes [Yonsei University (YSU, Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ, and Bougeault-Lacarrère (Boulac] were employed in the Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem model to simulate the severe haze that occurred in February 2014 in the Jing-Jin-Ji region and its surroundings. The PM2.5 concentration simulated using the three schemes, together with the meteorological factors closely related to PM2.5 (wind speed, local vertical diffusivity, and PBL height, was evaluated through comparison with observations. The results indicated that the eastern plain cities produced better simulation results than the western cities, and the cities under the eastern root of Taihang Mountain produced the worst results in simulating high PM2.5 concentration in haze. All three schemes simulated very similar variation trends of the surface PM2.5 concentration compared with observations. The diurnal variations of simulated surface PM2.5 were not as reasonable as their reflection of daily averaged variation. The simulated concentrations of surface PM2.5 using the YSU, MYJ, and Boulac schemes all showed large negative errors during daytime in polluted days due to their inefficient descriptions of local atmospheric stability or diffusion processes in haze. The lower ability of PBL schemes in distinguishing the diffusion between haze and clean days in the complex topography areas in China is an important problem for PM2.5 forecasting, which is worthy of being studied in detail.

  18. Temporal-spatial Variations of Dynamic Source Parameters in the Capital Circle Region and Its Surrounding Areas before the 2006 Ms 5.1 Wen'an Earthquake in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xuezhong; Li Yan'e; Guo Xiangyun

    2012-01-01

    Source spectra, corner frequency and zero frequency amplitudes in near-source conditions were measured using waveform data from 989 earthquakes with magnitudes larger than ML2. 0 observed by the Beijing Digital Telemetry Seismic Network in the Capital Circle Region of China and its surrounding areas from January 2002 to June 2006 by the Brune model. Relevant formulas that were used for the calculation of dynamic source parameters include rupture radius, seismic moment, seismic energy, stress drop, and apparent stress. Scaling relations and characteristics of temporal-spatial variations of these dynamic parameters before the Ms5.1 Wen'an earthquake in Hebei Province that occurred on July 20, 2006 were analyzed. Results show that apparent stress, stress drop, and the ratio of seismic energy to the rupture radius had relatively high values in some areas before the Wen'an earthquake. These high-value concentration areas were mainly distributed in the North China Plain seismic zone. As is seen from the time curves, parameters, such as apparent stress, stress drop, and ratio of seismic energy to rupture radius underwent significant ascending processes before the Wen'an earthquake, but the variation in the corner frequency showed a descending trend. This result might be related to the enhancement of stress in the North China Plain seismic zone before the earthquake.

  19. Mesoscale modelling study of the interactions between aerosols and PBL meteorology during a haze episode in China Jing-Jin-Ji and its near surrounding region - Part 2: Aerosols' radiative feedback effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Shi, G. Y.; Zhang, X. Y.; Gong, S. L.; Tan, S. C.; Chen, B.; Che, H. Z.; Li, T.

    2015-03-01

    Two model experiments, namely a control (CTL) experiment without aerosol-radiation feedbacks and a experiment with online aerosol-radiation (RAD) interactions, were designed to study the radiative feedback on regional radiation budgets, planetary boundary layer (PBL) meteorology and haze formation due to aerosols during haze episodes over Jing-Jin-Ji, China, and its near surroundings (3JNS region of China: Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, East Shanxi, West Shandong and North Henan) with a two-way atmospheric chemical transport model. The impact of aerosols on solar radiation reaching Earth's surface, outgoing long-wave emission at the top of the atmosphere, air temperature, PBL turbulence diffusion, PBL height, wind speeds, air pressure pattern and PM2.5 has been studied focusing on a haze episode during the period from 7 to 11 July 2008. The results show that the mean solar radiation flux that reaches the ground decreases by about 15% in 3JNS and 20 to 25%in the region with the highest aerosol optical depth during the haze episode. The fact that aerosol cools the PBL atmosphere but warms the atmosphere above it leads to a more stable atmospheric stratification over the region, which causes a decrease in turbulence diffusion of about 52% and a decrease in the PBL height of about 33%. This consequently forms a positive feedback on the particle concentration within the PBL and the surface as well as the haze formation. Additionally, aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) increases PBL wind speed by about 9% and weakens the subtropical high by about 14 hPa, which aids the collapse of haze pollution and results in a negative feedback to the haze episode. The synthetic impacts from the two opposite feedbacks result in about a 14% increase in surface PM2.5. However, the persistence time of both high PM2.5 and haze pollution is not affected by the aerosol DRF. On the contrary over offshore China, aerosols heat the PBL atmosphere and cause unstable atmospheric stratification, but

  20. 气候变化背景下我国周边海域热带气旋灾害风险评估与区划%RISK ASSESSMENT AND REGIONALIZATION OF TROPICAL CYCLONE DISASTER OVER CHINA'S SURROUNDING SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 张韧; 姚雪峰; 葛珊珊; 邹恒琬

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the variation trends and disaster risk of tropical cyclone in the background of climate change, we investigated the the characteristics of intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones over China's surrounding sea. From the point of view of risk analysis, we considered a conceptual framework of tropical cyclone disaster risk and developed an index system and assessment model. The risk regionalization of tropical cyclone disaster in China's surrounding sea is carried out through GIS technology. The results show that the frequency and the extreme peak wind-speed of tropical cyclones were slightly declined during the last 60 years when the typhoon and strong wind were rising significantly in the recent 10 years. The most risky areas caused by tropical cyclone disaster include the north part of South China Sea and the eastern Philippine Sea.%针对气候变化背景下热带气旋的演变趋势与灾害风险,探讨了我国周边海域热带气旋强度及频数的气候变化特征,从风险分析的角度提出了热带气旋灾害风险概念框架,基于风险评价指数法初步构建了风险评估的指标体系和数学模型,应用GIS技术实现了我国周边海域热带气旋灾害风险的等级区划.结果显示,在气候变化背景下,我国周边海域热带气旋频数和平均强度在近60年来呈现弱的下降趋势,但近10年来,台风及以上级别热带气旋频数和强度极值明显增加;热带气旋灾害高风险区位于南海北部和菲律宾海东部洋面.

  1. Comparative analysis of spatio-temporal exposure assessment methods for estimating odor-related responses in non-urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantuaria, Manuella Lech; Løfstrøm, Per; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2017-12-15

    the importance of taking temporal variability into account when investigating odor-related responses in non-urban residential areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Application of Surrounding Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yao-jie; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Surrounding puncture can stop pathogenic qi from spreading, consolidate the connection between local meridians and enrich local qi and blood, which can eventually supplement anti-pathogenic qi and remove pathogenic qi, and consequently remedy diseases. The author of this article summrized and analyzed the clinical application of surrounding puncture for the purpose of studying this technique and improving the therapeutic effect.

  3. In Planta Processing and Glycosylation of a Nematode CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-Like Effector and Its Interaction with a Host CLAVATA2-Like Receptor to Promote Parasitism1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiyan; Lang, Ping; Chronis, Demosthenis; Zhang, Sheng; De Jong, Walter S.; Mitchum, Melissa G.

    2015-01-01

    Like other biotrophic plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effector proteins into host cells to facilitate infection. Effector proteins that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-related (CLE) proteins have been identified in several cyst nematodes, including the potato cyst nematode (PCN); however, the mechanistic details of this cross-kingdom mimicry are poorly understood. Plant CLEs are posttranslationally modified and proteolytically processed to function as bioactive ligands critical to various aspects of plant development. Using ectopic expression coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we show that the in planta mature form of proGrCLE1, a multidomain CLE effector secreted by PCN during infection, is a 12-amino acid arabinosylated glycopeptide (named GrCLE1-1Hyp4,7g) with striking structural similarity to mature plant CLE peptides. This glycopeptide is more resistant to hydrolytic degradation and binds with higher affinity to a CLAVATA2-like receptor (StCLV2) from potato (Solanum tuberosum) than its nonglycosylated forms. We further show that StCLV2 is highly up-regulated at nematode infection sites and that transgenic potatoes with reduced StCLV2 expression are less susceptible to PCN infection, indicating that interference of the CLV2-mediated signaling pathway confers nematode resistance in crop plants. These results strongly suggest that phytonematodes have evolved to utilize host cellular posttranslational modification and processing machinery for the activation of CLE effectors following secretion into plant cells and highlight the significance of arabinosylation in regulating nematode CLE effector activity. Our finding also provides evidence that multidomain CLEs are modified and processed similarly to single-domain CLEs, adding new insight into CLE maturation in plants. PMID:25416475

  4. 环鄱阳湖地区原生态舞龙文化的特点探析%Analysis of the Features of the Original Eco-cultural Dragon Dancing in the Regions Surrounding Poyang Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊奇

    2011-01-01

    This paper adopts literatures and logics to make a study on the cultural features of eco-dragon dancing in the regions surrounding Poyang Lake.It concludes that the faith and worship are present in all aspects of it,so are the inhabitants' faith and sincerity in lives.It is performed by emulating all kinds of animals which they worship and diverse in forms,such as jumping dragon and straw dragon,which they perform on the sunning ground or on the path of the rice fields for the purpose of praying for the good harvest.This kind of dragon dancing,full of humanity,is not skill showing,but rather the epitome of the farming culture which exists for hundreds of years.%采用文献法,逻辑学方法,对环鄱阳湖地区原生态舞龙的文化特点进行研究。分析认为:鄱阳湖地区的舞龙处处体现着信仰和崇拜,体现着一方人民对生活的真诚和感动。环鄱阳湖舞龙多种动物样态,反映的是各种崇拜。他们有的在晒谷场舞跳脚龙,有的在田埂上狂舞草龙,都是祈求五谷丰登,这种充满人性的舞龙不同于一般单纯炫技,而是千百年农耕文化的缩影。

  5. 基于CMIP5资料的云南及周边地区未来50年气候预估%Climate Projection over Yunnan Province and the Surrounding Regions Based on CMIP5 Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀华; 肖子牛

    2014-01-01

    Based on high-resolution CRU (Climatic Research Unit) data and observations at 124 stations in Yunnan Province, the performance of seven global coupled ocean-atmosphere models (Coupled Model Intercomparison Program 5, CMIP5) from the IPCC AR5 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report) in simulating the climatology over Yunnan Province and the surrounding regions was evaluated. The projected change in climate over these regions under different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios from 2006-2055 was also studied. Results show that global coupled ocean-atmosphere models can simulate the spatial structure of temperature and precipitation climatology, the linear temperature rising trend, and the decadal oscillation characteristics of spring and summer precipitation. The multi-model ensemble (MME) shows better skill than the single model, and the temperature simulation results are better than the precipitation results. Spring and summer precipitation results are superior to those in other seasons, making the total annual mean precipitation simulation results better than those for autumn and winter. Future scenario projections indicate that the temperature over the study regions will show a significant linear rising trend. Precipitation will maintain its decadal oscillation characteristics, and increase over the next 50 years. A few regions, including Yunnan Province and its southern regions, will undergo a drought period before 2020.%利用CRU(Climatic Research Unit)高分辨率观测数据及云南省124站资料,检验了参与IPCC AR5(政府间气候变化专门委员会第5次评估报告)的7个全球海气耦合模式(Coupled Model Intercomparison Program 5, CMIP5)及模式集合平均对云南及周边地区气温和降水的模拟性能,同时进行该区域不同温室气体排放量情景下2006~2055年的气候预估。结果表明:全球海气耦合模式对该区域气温和降水气候场空间分布、气温的

  6. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  7. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  8. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  9. Multichannel spatial surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the consideration of being compatible with 5.1 channel horizontal surround sound system, a spatial surround sound system is proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system has a wide listening area. It can not only recreate stable image in the front and rear direction, but also eliminate the defect of poor lateral image of 5.1 channel system. The system can be used to reproduce special 3D sound effect and the spaciousness of hall.

  10. The Interstellar Cloud Surrounding the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P. C.

    Ultraviolet spectral data of nearby stars indicate that the cloud surrounding the solar system has an average neutral density n(HI)~0.1 cm-3, temperature ~6800 K, and turbulence ~1.7 km/s. Comparisons between the anomalous cosmic ray data and ultraviolet data suggest that the electron density is in the range n(e-)~0.22 to 0.44 cm-3. This cloud is flowing past the Sun from a position centered in the Norma-Lupis region. The cloud properties are consistent with interstellar gas which originated as material evaporated from the surfaces of embedded clouds in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, and which was then displaced towards the Sun by a supernova event about 4 Myrs ago. The Sun and surrounding cloud velocities are nearly perpendicular in space, and this cloud is sweeping past the Sun. The morphology of this cloud can be reconstructed by assuming that the cloud moves in a direction parallel to the surface normal. With this assumption, the Sun entered the surrounding cloud 2000 to 8000 years ago, and is now about 0.05 to 0.16 pc from the cloud surface. Prior to its recent entry into the surrounding cloud complex, the Sun was embedded in a region of space with average density lower than 0.0002 cm-3. If a denser cloud velocity component seen towards alpha Cen A,B is real, it will encounter the solar system within 50,000 yr. The nearby magnetic field seen upwind has a spatial orientation that is parallel to the cloud surface. The nearby star Sirius is viewed through the wake of the solar system, but this direction also samples the hypothetical cloud interface. Comparisons of anomalous cosmic ray and interstellar absorption line data suggest that trace elements in the surrounding cloud are in ionization equilibrium. Data towards nearby white dwarfs indicate partial helium ionization, N(N(HI)(/N(HeI)>~13.7, which is consistent with pickup ion data within the solar system if less than 40% hydrogen ionization occurs in the heliopause region. However, the white dwarfs may

  11. 经济快速增长区土地利用信息图谱构建——以江苏省环太湖地区为例%Construction of Land Use Information Tupu in the Rapidly Developing Regions: A Case Study of the Surrounding Regions of Taihu Lake In Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汝成; 黄贤金; 左天惠; 肖思思; 张兴榆; 赵小风

    2009-01-01

    Based on four remote sensing data of land use in the regions surrounding Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province from 1980 to 2005, the theory of Geo-information Tupu and GIS technology, land use pattern information Tupu, classification information Tupu and transfer information Tupu are constructed in 4 units of the timing sequence. The result from Tupu construction indicates that the land use change has the obvious characteristics of spatial and temporal variation, and that transfer information Tupu of the surrounding regions of Taihu Lake is similar in the past 25 years. The characteristics of spatial and temporal variation are mainly reflected in the adjustment of the internal structure of agriculture from 1980 to 1990. However, it manifests that construction land has occupied a large area of cultivated land after 1990. The similar transfer information Tupu suggests that cultivated land has been converted to various types of land from 1980 to 2005. According to the integrated application of CLUE-S and Markov model, the land use change is simulated to complement the shortcomings of previous study of land use information Tupu which lacks simulation of the future. According to the simulation result, it can be concluded that both the increase rate of construction land and the decrease rate of cultivated land will reduce because of the planning target control and of the enhanced land intensive utilization of the surrounding regions of Taihu Lake in 2015. Big cities such as Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou are the typical regions of land use changes around Taihu Lake Regions. In these areas, land use changes are fast in response to the rapid economic growth around Taihu Lake Regions. The rate at which cultivated land is converted to construction land is large in the periphery of cities and towns, along the traffic routes, around the lake areas, and other regions. The research can enrich the research methods of land use information Tupu, summarize the spatial and temporal changes of

  12. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  13. Coincidental (non-development of the non-urbanized part of the city in the case of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Smrekar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes changes within cities and their surrounding areas and deviates from the concepts of sustainable development. The main cause of current condition is the lack of an adequate relation towards the environment.In narrow water-protection zones in the area of Ljubljansko Polje there are areas without any contents, if we donćt take into account water pumping, which enables allotment gardening, uncontrolled taking of water and gravel and waste dumping. The municipality has made first steps towards the rehabilitation of the degraded landscape.

  14. Data to Accompany the Regional Potentiometric-Surface Map of the Great Basin Carbonate and Alluvial Aquifer System in Snake Valley and Surrounding Areas, Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Water-level measurements from 190 wells were used to develop a potentiometric-surface map of the east-central portion of the regional Great Basin carbonate and...

  15. Preventable Disease Practices Among a Lower SES, Multicultural, Nonurban, U.S. Community: The Roles of Vaccination Efficacy and Personal Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Elizabeth Johnson; Lariscy, Ruthann Weaver

    2014-09-01

    In spite of knowledge that early vaccination against contagious diseases such as swine flu reduces morbidity and contains contagion, rates of vaccination in the most recent three annual disease cycles were lower than anticipated. Some previous research suggests that lower socioeconomic status, mixed-racial population composition, and a nonurban environment may all contribute to lower vaccination rates. This study adopts the health belief model to create two composite indexes-vaccine efficacy and personal constraints-to analyze the role of each in predicting vaccination behavior/intention and to explore the role of each on behavior/intention in terms of information sources. Findings indicate that vaccine efficacy significantly predicts vaccination behavior and intention to receive the vaccine and that personal constraints do not significantly predict either. Social media and a notification from a school or employer were the most important information sources for persons who had received the vaccine, while signage in a pharmacy or grocery store and information from a school or employer were the most important motivators for behavioral intentions. Vaccination efficacy was perceived most highly by persons for whom physicians are their most important information source. Finally, satisfaction with public health care services did not predict the location where individuals would seek the flu vaccine-convenience seemed more important, as grocery and drug stores were the most cited locations.

  16. Regard sur la participation de populations marginalisées à la recherche-action. Le cas des squatteurs en Ile-de-France The participation of Marginalised populations in research-action: a case study of squatters in the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Pourtau

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La recherche-action comporte deux caractéristiques principales : elle met en œuvre la collaboration entre plusieurs types d’acteurs et vise une transformation de la réalité sociale. Elle possède des forces et des faiblesses différentes de la recherche à objectif strictement cognitif. L’article rend compte d’une recherche-action menée par des sociologues, des intervenants sociaux et des populations vivant en squats en Ile-de-France. Les auteurs analysent les enjeux méthodologiques qui se sont posés sur ce terrain particulier relevant de la sociologie de la déviance. Ceux-ci sont liés, notamment, à la participation de chaque groupe d’acteurs aux différentes étapes de la recherche, à la présence d’intérêts différents portés par chacun d’entre eux, et à la conciliation entre les principes habituellement de rigueur dans l’enquête sociologique et les principes de la recherche-action.Research-Action has two main objectives: to allow different players to cooperate, and to transform social reality. This methodology has both the strengths and the weaknesses of strictly cognitive research. In this article, the authors discuss a research-action project which brought together sociologists, social workers and squatters from the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region. Methodological issues that arise specifically in the context of deviance are addressed, notably the participation of the different players at different stages of the research project, their different areas of interest, as well as the reconciliation between more conventional sociological research and the principles of research-action.

  17. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  18. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  19. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  20. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Surround suppression and sparse coding in visual and barrel cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N S Sachdev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During natural vision the entire retina is stimulated. Likewise, during natural tactile behaviors, spatially extensive regions of the somatosensory surface are co-activated. The large spatial extent of naturalistic stimulation means that surround suppression, a phenomenon whose neural mechanisms remain a matter of debate, must arise during natural behavior. To identify common neural motifs that might instantiate surround suppression across modalities, we review models of surround suppression and compare the evidence supporting the competing ideas that surround suppression has either cortical or sub-cortical origins in visual and barrel cortex. In the visual system there is general agreement lateral inhibitory mechanisms contribute to surround suppression, but little direct experimental evidence that intracortical inhibition plays a major role. Two intracellular recording studies of V1, one using naturalistic stimuli (Haider et al., 2010, the other sinusoidal gratings (Ozeki et al., 2009, sought to identify the causes of reduced activity in V1 with increasing stimulus size, a hallmark of surround suppression. The former attributed this effect to increased inhibition, the latter to largely balanced withdrawal of excitation and inhibition. In rodent primary somatosensory barrel cortex, multi-whisker responses are generally weaker than single whisker responses, suggesting multi-whisker stimulation engages similar surround suppressive mechanisms. The origins of suppression in S1 remain elusive: studies have implicated brainstem lateral/internuclear interactions and both thalamic and cortical inhibition. Although the anatomical organization and instantiation of surround suppression in the visual and somatosensory systems differ, we consider the idea that one common function of surround suppression, in both modalities, is to remove the statistical redundancies associated with natural stimuli by increasing the sparseness or selectivity of sensory

  2. Star-forming regions at the periphery of the supershell surrounding the Cyg OB1 association. I. The star cluster vdB 130 and its ambient gas and dust medium

    CERN Document Server

    Sitnik, T G; Lozinskaya, T A; Moiseev, A V; Rastorguev, A S; Tatarnikov, A M; Tatarnikova, A A; Wiebe, D S; Zabolotskikh, M V

    2015-01-01

    Stellar population and the interstellar gas-dust medium in the vicinity of the open star cluster vdB 130 are analysed using optical observations taken with the 6-m telescope of the SAO RAS and the 125-cm telescope of the SAI MSU along with the data of Spitzer and Herschel. Based on proper motions and BV and JHKs 2MASS photometric data, we select additional 36 stars as probable cluster members. Some stars in vdB 130 are classified as B stars. Our estimates of minimum colour excess, apparent distance modulus and the distance are consistent with young age (from 5 to 10 Myrs) of the cluster vdB 130. We suppose the large deviations from the conventional extinction law in the cluster direction, with $R_V$ ~ 4 - 5. The cluster vdB 130 appears to be physically related to the supershell around Cyg OB1, a cometary CO cloud, ionized gas, and regions of infrared emission. There are a few regions of bright mid-infrared emission in the vicinity of vdB 130. The largest of them is also visible on H-alpha and [SII] emission m...

  3. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those contai

  4. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  5. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GiulianoF.Panza; AntonellaPontevivo; GiordanoChimera; RenetaRaykova; AbdelkrimAoudia

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by sur-face wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion.Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithos-phere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, iden-tified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the prmctpat recent votca-noes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria, a lithospheric dou-bling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenos-phere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea,likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria.

  6. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception studie

  7. Probabilistic Earthquake Hazard in Metropolitan Taipei and Its Surrounding Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Tung Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability of seismic hazard for the Taipei metropolitan area in northern Taiwan from readily available information, including the attenuation relationship of peak ground acceleration (PGA, tectonic settings, fault-slip data, and seismicity. The PGA seismic hazard mapping reveals that the hazard level in this area increases going from northwest to southeast and southwest. There are four important earthquake sources that contribute to the hazard level: (1 the plate-boundary interface (subduction zone interface located offshore of the Ilan plain; (2 the intraslab subduction zone underneath Taipei itself; (3 the crustal areal sources in eastern Taiwan and central Taiwan; and (4 the nearby active Shanchiao fault. The slip-rate of the targeted fault is relatively low, and therefore not the most dangerous earthquake source revealed in the 475-year return period. However, there is no doubt that the target fault is the control source in the 2475-year return period. Furthermore, higher PGAs are predicted using the attenuation relationship of subduction zone earthquake sources rather than crustal earthquake sources, meaning an increase of the seismic hazard level over previous estimates. Consequently, more attention needs to be paid to subduction zone sources when considering mitigation of seismic hazards in northern Taiwan.

  8. Hurricane Sandy: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of Hurricane Sandy. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The images were acquired...

  9. Vaccine Knowledge in Students in Paris, France, and surrounding Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Mellon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In France, young adults are legally freed from parental authority at the age of 18 years and are, thus, responsible for their own vaccine record. This young adult population is more frequently exposed to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases.

  10. Highly ionized region surrounding SN Refsdal revealed by MUSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, W.; Grillo, C.; Balestra, I.; Rosati, P.; Caputi, K. I.; Di Teodoro, E.; Fraternali, F.; Gavazzi, R.; Mercurio, A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Rodney, S.; Treu, T.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) Refsdal is the first multiply imaged, highly magnified, and spatially resolved SN ever observed. The SN exploded in a highly magnified spiral galaxy at z = 1.49 behind the Frontier Fields cluster MACS1149, and provides a unique opportunity to study the environment of SNe at high z. We

  11. Station Calibration and Regionalization in China and Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    McQuarrie and Tsai, 1998). It also has several cousins such as the corrected-AIC (AICc), Bayesian Information Criteria, Mallows Cp- criteria, and the Swartz...the squared residuals of the inversion, n is the total number of data, and k is the effective number of parameters of the inversion ( McQuarrie and Tsai...UNCLASSIFIED) McQuarrie , A., and C-L Tsai, Regression and Time Series Model Selection, World Scientific, 1998. (UNCLASSIFIED) Michel, G., M. Becker

  12. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Key words: Agroforestry, fuel wood, tree products, woodlot, forest plantation. INTRODUCTION ... The study area included three administrative cells in the surroundings of Nyamure ..... Table 6: Distance and time spent on firewood collection.

  13. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  14. Military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Sohl, T.

    2008-12-01

    Land use activities greatly affect the temporal trends and spatial patterns of regional land-atmospheric exchange of carbon. Military installations generally have drastically different land management strategies from surrounding areas, and the carbon consequences have never been quantified and assessed. Here, we used the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to simulate and compare ecosystem carbon dynamics between Fort Benning and surrounding areas from 1992 to 2050. GEMS was driven by unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes (predicted by FOREcasting SCEnarios of land cover change (FORE-SCE)). Our results indicated that the military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas (0.77 vs. 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1 averaged from 1992 to 2007). Differences in land use activities were the primary cause behind the difference in carbon sequestration rates. From 1992 to 2007, no urban/residential expansion occurred at the installation, and transitional barren (primarily caused by forest harvesting) slightly increased from 0 to 0.2%. In contrast, urban land increased from 5.6 to 7.6% and transitional barren increased from 0.1 to 0.7% in the surrounding areas. Live biomass accumulation accounted for most of the carbon sink in both Fort Benning and surrounding areas (0.75 vs. 0.15 Mg C ha-1 y-1), while soil organic carbon accumulation was small (0.02 vs. 0.01 Mg C ha- 1 y-1), suggesting biomass removal caused by urbanization and harvesting resulted in much less carbon sequestration in surrounding areas. Fort Benning is likely to sequester more carbon in the future, although the rate of carbon sequestered per year will gradually reduce. The future carbon source/sink strength in the surrounding areas varied greatly, from a small sink to a strong source, depending on the path of land use change (e.g., increase of clear

  15. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  16. 新疆罗布泊周边地区极端环境嗜盐菌的研究%Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Halophilic Archaea Isolated from Lop Nut Surrounding Region in Xinjiang, and Gen Sequence of 16S rRNA, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迪丽拜尔·托乎提; 旭格拉; 穆尔特扎; 热则宛古丽; 阿曼古丽; 纪婷; 迪丽乌孜

    2009-01-01

    为了研究分析新疆罗布泊周边地区pH值5~6的盐湖嗜盐古菌资源.从湖中分离筛选出一批嗜盐古菌,对其进行了生理生化特性研究,发现其中6株菌的生理特性和产酶特性比较特殊,并采用PCR方法扩增出其16SrRNA基因(16S rDNA),并测定了基因的核苷酸序列.基于16S rDNA序列的同源性比较以及16S rDNA序列的系统发育学研究表明,菌株B20-RDX是盐盒菌属Haloarchaeon属中新种成员,GenBank登录号为FJ561285,该菌株为革兰氏阴性菌,最适盐浓度25%,最适pH 8.0,能产过氧化氢酶、淀粉酶,对四环素有抗性,能利用精氨酸和丁二酸盐.迄今为止,国内极少有关罗布泊周边地区极端环境微生物研究的报道,该研究可为今后研究同类极端环境中新的物种资源开发应用以及微生物多样性研究提供素材和参考.%Objective:Study and analyze the species resource from a Salt Lake pH5-6 in the LopNur surrounding region,Xinjiang.A group of halophilic archaea strains isolated from a Salt Lake pH5-6 in the LopNur surrounding region,Xinjiang.And their physiological and biochemical characteristics were determined.Based on its morphology and physiological and biochemical features,16S rRNA encoding gene(16S rDNA) from six strains were amplified byPCR,and the nucleotide sequences were determined.The results indicated that the strain B20-RDX was was a novol species of the genus Haloarchaeon,The GenBank accession numbers of the 16S rDNA sequences about strain is FJ561285.The strain B20-RDX is Gram-negative balls,The optimum salt concentration for its growth is 25%,and the optimum pH is at 8.0.The strain B20-RDX produce catalases and amylases,which resistant to tetracycline.B20-RDX make use of arginine and succinate salts.Now,there are few report about Extreme halophiles from Lop Nur surrounding region,in China.The study has offered enlarge the boundary of halophilic archaea diversity and provide halophilic archaea resources for further

  17. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings - 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, Gerard; Burgwal, van de Marcel; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it provid

  18. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  19. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  20. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  1. Modeling the Effects of Land Use on the Quality of Water, Air, Noise, and Habitat for a Five-County Region in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia H. Dale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation model, the Regional Simulator (RSim, was constructed to project how land-use changes affect the quality of water, air, noise, and habitat of species of special concern. RSim was designed to simulate these environmental impacts for five counties in Georgia that surround and include Fort Benning. The model combines existing data and modeling approaches to simulate the effects of land-cover changes on: nutrient export by hydrological unit; peak 8-h average ozone concentrations; noise caused by small arms and blasts; and habitat changes for the rare Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis and gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus. The model also includes submodules for urban growth, new urbanization influenced by existing roads, nonurban land cover transitions, and a new military training area under development at Fort Benning. The model was run under scenarios of business as usual (BAU and greatly increased urban growth for the region. The projections show that the effects of high urban growth will likely differ from those of BAU for noise and nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to surface water, but not for peak airborne ozone concentrations, at least in the absence of associated increases in industry and transportation use or technology changes. In both scenarios, no effects of urban growth are anticipated for existing populations of the federally endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker. In contrast, habitat for gopher tortoise in the five-county region is projected to decline by 5 and 40% in the BAU and high urban growth scenarios, respectively. RSim is designed to assess the relative environmental impacts of planned activities both inside and outside military installations and to address concerns related to encroachment and transboundary influences.

  2. Mutual seismic interaction between tunnels and the surrounding granular soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-12-01

    Study results show that the maximum exerted straining actions in tunnel lining are directly proportional to the relative stiffness between tunnel and surrounding soil (lining thickness and soil shear modulus. Moreover, it is highly affected by the peak ground acceleration and the tunnel location (embedment depth. A comprehensive study is performed to show the effect of tunnel thickness and tunnel diameter on both the induced bending moment and lining deformation. In general, it is concluded that seismic analysis should be considered in regions subjected to peak ground acceleration greater than 0.15g.

  3. Identification of -SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond medium using weak Raman surface phonons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan Kumar Kuntumalla; Harish Ojha; Vadali Venkata Satya Siva Srikanth

    2013-11-01

    It is difficult to detect -SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, -SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in which nanosized -SiC crystallites are surrounded by a relatable nanodiamond medium that leads to the appearance of a weak Raman surface phonon band at about 855 cm-1. Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its volume content when relatable, will affect the resultant Raman response of -SiC phase as seen in the present case of diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin films.

  4. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  5. Interactions of the Infrared bubble N4 with the surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hong-Li; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Liu, Tie; Dubner, G; Paron, S; Ortega, M E; Molinari, Sergio; Huang, Maohai; Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with HII regions have been considered to be a good sample to investigate triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the HII region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with the surroundings and star formation histories therein, aiming at determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 $\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, mean volume density of about 4.4 $\\times10^{4}$ cm$^{-3}$, and a mean mass of 320 $M_{\\odot}$. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 $\\mu$m, ...

  6. Triggered Star Formation Surrounding Wolf-Rayet Star HD 211853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 103 cm-3 and kinematic temperature ~20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core "A," which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the "collect and collapse" process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core "A" seem to be affected by the "radiation-driven implosion" process.

  7. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  8. Characterizing the Microenvironment Surrounding Phosphorylated Protein Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Cai Fan; Xue-Gong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in various cellular processes. Due to its high complexity, the mechanism needs to be further studied. In the last few years, many methods have been contributed to this field, but almost all of them investigated the mechanism based on protein sequences around protein sites. In this study, we implement an exploration by characterizing the microenvironment surrounding phosphorylated protein sites with a modified shell model, and obtain some significant properties by the rank-sum test, such as the lack of some classes of residues, atoms, and secondary structures. Furthermore, we find that the depletion of some properties affects protein phosphorylation remarkably. Our results suggest that it is a meaningful direction to explore the mechanism of protein phosphorylation from microenvironment and we expect further findings along with the increasing size of phosphorylation and protein structure data.

  9. Exploiting Surrounding Text for Retrieving Web Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Noah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Web documents contain useful textual information that can be exploited for describing images. Research had been focused on representing images by means of its content (low level description such as color, shape and texture, little research had been directed to exploiting such textual information. The aim of this research was to systematically exploit the textual content of HTML documents for automatically indexing and ranking of images embedded in web documents. A heuristic approach for locating and assigning weight surrounding web images and a modified tf.idf weighting scheme was proposed. Precision-recall measures of evaluation had been conducted for ten queries and promising results had been achieved. The proposed approach showed slightly better precision measure as compared to a popular search engine with an average of 0.63 and 0.55 relative precision measures respectively.

  10. Survey on the occurrence of brachygnathism in goat and sheep herds in five towns of the region surrounding Irecê (BA Levantamento da ocorrência de bragnatia em caprinos e ovinos, encontrada em cinco municípios da microrregião de Irecê (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Argolo Wicke

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The anomalies happened in the jaw are of genetic character, therefore its presence in the herd should be prevented, therefore this provokes difficulties in the apprehension and chewing of the foods, what can take the animal to serious alimentary deficiencies and until the death. This work has as on objective to verify the presence or not of goat and sheep with that anomaly. 5.221 animals in five towns of the region surrounding of the Irecê had been evaluated. It was verified presence of those anomalies in 107 animals (2.05%, being 53 (1.02% cases of Retrognathism and 54 (1.03% cases of Prognathism. These found values had been considered of low occurrence although not to have other works of goat and sheep similar surveys in being made the comparison.

     

    KEY WORDS: Brachygnathism, goat, sheep, genetic anomalies.

    As anomalias ocorridas na mandíbula são de caráter genético, razão por que sua presença no rebanho deve ser evitada, pois elas provocam dificuldades na apreensão e mastigação dos alimentos, o que pode levar o animal a sérias deficiências alimentares e até à morte. Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a presença ou não de caprinos e ovinos com essa anomalia. Foram avaliados 5.221 animais em cinco municípios da microrregião de Irecê. Verificou-se a presença dessas anomalias em 107 animais (2,05%, sendo 53 (1,02% casos de retrognatismo e 54 (1,03% casos de prognatismo. Trata-se de valores que mostram uma baixa ocorrência, apesar de não haver outros trabalhos de levantamentos semelhantes em caprinos e ovinos que permitam realizar uma comparação.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Braquignatia, caprino, ovino, anomalia genética.

  11. Organization of cervical cancer screening in Campinas and surrounding region, São Paulo State, Brazil Organização do rastreamento do câncer do colo uterino em Campinas e região, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Zeferino

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer screening remains a challenge in developing countries due to a complex array of problems. This paper aimed to describe the experience with organization of cervical cancer screening in three districts of Campinas and the surrounding region in São Paulo State, Brazil, and to report the resulting data. The program was organized in a pyramid format, and the health care hierarchy was defined according to the complexity and total number of medical procedures. Screening has been extended currently to 88 municipalities, of which 51 are equipped with colposcopy and eight have facilities for treating advanced cervical cancer. The standardized incidence rate for cervical cancer in Campinas was 14.2/100,000 women per year in 1993-1995, and the standardized mortality rate per district ranged from 2.7 to 3.0 per 100,000 women in 1997-1998. This project has clearly shown that hierarchical and decentralized organization of health procedures is a necessary condition for achieving the goals of an effective cervical cancer screening program.O programa de rastreamento do câncer do colo uterino ainda é um desafio para os países em desenvolvimento devido a uma série complexa de problemas. Este estudo objetivou descrever a experiência adquirida com a organização e mostrar alguns dados sobre o rastreamento deste câncer em três distritos de Campinas e região, São Paulo, Brasil. A hierarquia das ações de saúde foi estabelecida de acordo com a complexidade dos procedimentos e do total destes procedimentos que precisavam ser realizados. Atualmente, o rastreamento se estende a 88 municípios, dos quais 51 realizam colposcopia e oito têm serviços para tratar câncer avançado do colo uterino. A taxa de incidência ajustada em Campinas foi de 14,2/100 mil mulheres por ano em 1993-1995, e a taxa de mortalidade ajustada por distrito variou entre 2,7 e 3,0 por 100 mil mulheres em 1997-1998. De acordo com a experiência adquirida, a organiza

  12. Stress and deformation analysis on deep surrounding rock at different time stages and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ming; Mao Xianbiao; Yu Yuanlin; Li Kai; Ma Chao; Peng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the deep circular tunnel,the surrounding rock was divided into three regions:the cracked region,the plastic region and the viscoelastic region.The process of rock stress deformation and change was divided into three stages after the roadway excavation.By using the elastic-plastic mechanics theory,the analytical solutions of the surrounding stress and displacement at different stages and the radii of cracked and plastic regions were formulated.We additionally explained the surrounding rock stress and displacement which appeared in practical project.Simultaneously,based on the problem which emerged from a mine in Xuzhou during the excavating process of rock roadway's transport,we got the theoretical solutions for the stress and displacement in the process of rock roadway's excavation and considered that the broken area of rock roadway was largely loosing circle.The results indicate that according to the rheological characteristics of surrounding rock,in the primeval excavation of rock roadway,we should increase the length of anchor bolt and cooperate it with anchor nets cable-U steel supporting frame.In addition,when the deformation rate of the surrounding rock is descending after the 15 days' excavation,we should use the "three anchor" supporting method (anchor bolt spray,anchor note and anchor rope) and set aside about 20 cm as the reserved deformation layer.

  13. Triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853 is studied in molecular emission, infrared emission, as well as radio and HI emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$ and kinematic temperature $\\sim$20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From SED modeling towards the young stellar objects (YSOs), sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the Wolf-Rayet star to the molecular ring. A small scale sequential star formation is revealed towards core A, which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations is thus suggested. The presence of PDR, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, the large scale sequential star formation indicate the "Collect and Collapse" process functions in this region. The star forming activities in core A seem to be affected by the "Radiation-Driven Implosion" (...

  14. Preliminary design of surrounding heliostat fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J. [Zaragoza University, Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, CPS-B, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the author has shown elsewhere a simplified model that allows quick evaluations of the annual overall energy collected by a surrounding heliostat field. This model is the combination of an analytical flux density function produced by a heliostat, developed by the own author, and an optimized mirror density distribution developed by University of Houston for the Solar One Project. As main conclusion of this previous work, it was recognized that such pseudo-continuous simplified model should not substitute much more accurate discrete evaluations, which manage thousands of individual heliostat coordinates. Here in this work, the difficulty of generating a preliminary discrete layout of a large number of heliostats is addressed. The main novelty is the direct definition of thousands of heliostat coordinates through basically two parameters i.e. a simplified blocking factor and an additional security distance. Such procedure, which was formerly theoretically suggested by the author, is put into practice here, showing examples and commenting their problems and advantages. Getting a previous set of thousands of heliostat coordinates would be a major first step in the complex process of designing solar power tower (SPT). (author)

  15. Ozone bioindication in Barcelona and surrounding area of Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, A.; Penuelas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Ecophysiology Unit of CSIC

    2002-07-01

    A field study was conducted from July to September 2000 to assess ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity in Barcelona and surrounding areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) by using tobacco plants Bel-W3 and Populus nigra 'Brandaris' as bioindicators. The study was conducted simultaneously at eight sites where ozone concentrations and meteorological variables were continuously monitored. The ozone levels correlated well with ozone injury on the Bel-W3 cultivar, especially at stations established in the urban area of Barcelona, and in the first months of summer. In the second half of summer plants showed a decreasing efficiency in its biomonitoring capacity. The behaviour of Populus as bioindicator or biomonitor was less satisfactory. For both species it is necessary to improve cultivation conditions since water deficits seem to play an important role in bioindication in the Mediterranean region. (orig.)

  16. On radial oscillations in viscous accretion discs surrounding neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingming; Taam, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    Radial oscillations resulting from axisymmetric perturbations in viscous accretion disks surrounding neutron stars in X-ray binary systems have been investigated. Within the framework of the alpha-viscosity model a series of hydrodynamic calculations demonstrates that the oscillations are global for alpha of about 1. On the other hand, for alpha of 0.4 or less, the oscillations are local and confined to the disk boundaries. If viscous stresses acting in the radial direction are included, however, it is found that the disk can be stabilized. The application of such instabilities in accretion disks, without reference to the boundary layer region between the neutron star (or magnetosphere) and the inner edge of the disk, to the phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations is brought into question.

  17. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O`Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-09-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  18. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O' Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  19. Thoughts on Beijing-Hebei Economic-linked Geographic Transformation Inspired by Tudao Strategy Surrounding the Special Administration Region (SAR) in India%从印度首都的周边特区凸岛战略到京冀经济地理转型的若干思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国高技术产业发展促进会知识产权战略研究课题组

    2013-01-01

    From the comparative study on the development trend of knowledge economy of China and India, the study deeply analyzes the basic experience of India Intellectual Property Agency Development. Two space strategy of India capital economic circle of knowledge economy, namely, surrounding metro integration and metro center outward strategy, and the two largest economic strategy, namely, peripheral zone cooperation and knowledge economy strategy. At the same time, the analysis above and the United States of America strategy in the development of Japan and South Korea, the effectiveness of the. Based on the above research, put forward the strategic planning of development of knowledge economy in China, by drawing lessons from peripheral zone cooperative strategy and national knowledge economy strategy, and according to the city safety view of dissipative structure theory and the multi center resonance, put forward in the new ideas do promote the development of the knowledge economy, the construction of Beijing Metro Gallery, to build Langfang as the subway transportation center of capital economic circle, and the Asian Intellectual Property Operation Center. To build Baoding as the Asia intellectual property creative center, this free economic zone will open to improve China's regional economic vitality, and enhance the capital city’s safety coefficient and the upgrade of industry level.%印度首都经济圈通过两大空间战略--“周边地铁一体化”、“地铁中心外移”战略,以及两大特区战略--“周边特区协同化”、“周边特区凸岛”战略,成为实施印度“国家知识经济战略”的核心区。上述四大战略在美国、日本和韩国也取得了很大的发展成就。基于对国外经验的研究,本文根据耗散结构理论和“多中心谐振”的城市安全观,深入分析了由城市底层业务员驱动的知识经济,需要一个廉价的城市公共交通网络,更需要一个化减“多中

  20. Numerical Analysis of Advanced Displacement in Construction Progress of Tunnel Excavation with Weak Surrounding Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of advanced displacement in construction progress of tunnel excavation with weak surrounding rock is carried out by numerical method and comparison of model test result. In allusion to the problems of regional landslides and extruded large-deformation seriously impacting the stability of rock mass in construction process of large-section tunnel with weak surrounding rock, the elastic-plastic numerical simulation relying on Liangshui tunnel of Lan-Yu railroad is conducted on mechanical behaviors and deformation steric effect of tunnel construction and the calculation results are compared with the modeling data. The research results show that: the steric effect of excavation face is the dominant factor in the incidence of working face and the stress of surrounding rocks gradually releases from excavation face; the range of 0.5~1 times the cave diameter around rock mass in front of working face is the disturbance range and the key area of stabilization and reinforcement for wake surrounding rock. According to the analysis and construction practice, the supporting structure of large-section tunnel with weak surrounding rock should be established as soon as possible to control the displacement change of surrounding rock in the range of load-bearing ring, reduce disturbance and improve the self-bearing capability of surrounding rock. Because of the distinct excavation steric effect of weak surrounding rock, the secondary lining structure must be established in time to bear the later pressure and restrict the large displacement of surrounding rock. The research results can provide reliable basis for engineering stability control of analogous tunnels.

  1. Interaction of massive stars with their surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Due to their short lifetimes but their enormous energy release in all stages of their lives massive stars are the major engines for the comic matter circuit. They affect not only their close environment but are also responsible to drive mass flows on galactic scales. Recent 2D models of radiation-driven and wind-blown HII regions are summarized which explore the impact of massive stars to the interstellar medium but find surprisingly small energy transfer efficiencies while an observable Carbon self-enrichment in the Wolf-Rayet phase is detected in the warm ionized gas. Finally, the focus is set on state-of-the-art modelling of HII regions and its present weaknesses with respect to uncertainties and simplifications but on a perspective of the requested art of their modelling in the 21st century.

  2. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  3. Trends in young-adult mortality between the 1990s and the 2000s in urban and non-urban areas in Belgium: the role of a changing educational composition in overall mortality decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grande, Hannelore; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    This study probes into the evolution in young-adult mortality according to urbanisation degree in Belgium and moves beyond mere description through decomposing mortality trends into changes in educational distribution and in overall mortality. As most of young-adult deaths are preventable and an enormous cost and loss to society, this study addresses a highly relevant public-health topic. Individual record-linked data between the Belgian censuses of 1991 and 2001 and register data on death and emigrations are used. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), directly standardized to the European Population of 2013 are calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI), as well as a decomposition measure to pinpoint the proportion mortality change attributable to differences in educational composition over time. The young-adult population consists of 2,458,637 19-34 year-olds in 1991, with 11,898 deaths in a five-year period, and is slightly smaller in 2001 with 2,174,368 young adults and 8138 deaths. Overall, there is a positive evolution towards lower young-adult mortality, with the strongest declines in men living in large urban areas (ASMR from 149.0 [CI 142.1-155.8] in 1991-1996 to 94.6 [88.9-100.3] in 2001-2006). Decomposition analysis shows that the decrease in male mortality in non-urban areas over time is largely due to changes in the educational composition, while mortality in urban areas mainly decreases because of a decline in overall mortality. In urban areas all educational groups have benefitted over time. This clearly demonstrates that living and growing up in an urban area does not always have to imply a health penalty, but can have health advantages as well.

  4. Ethnoastronomical Investigations in the Surrounding of Pirot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božić, Nikola; Ninković, Slobodan

    2005-10-01

    From 2002. the Department of astronomy of the Research Society "Vladimir Mandić Manda" from Valjevo several times has performed ethnoastronomical research in the Pirot region. The present paper deals with the common beliefs concerning astronomical phenomena. The informations were obtained by interviewing elderly people. The obtained results are grouped according to a few key subjects (calendar, Moon, Sun, Milky Way, stars and constellations, world systems) and they are commented as much as possible. The present study is a continuation of the ethnoastronomical studies realised by this Department from 1997 on and forms a part of the projects "Ethnoastronomical Research in Serbia" and "History of Astronomy among Serbs".

  5. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  6. The water exchange between Chinchorro Bank and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Julio; Ochoa, Jose Luis; Sheinbaum, Julio; Lopez, Manuel; Cornado, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Chinchorro Bank is a relatively large (~500 km^ 2) atoll situated 33 km in front of the Yucatan Peninsula in the Caribbean coast of Mexico. Two years of continuous measurements of the subsurface pressure field inside and around Chinchorro Bank, along with currents and waves observed outside, suggest four major processes governing the water exchange of the Bank with its surroundings: 1) surface wave pumping of water into the Bank through its eastern edge, 2) the large scale circulation in the region that drives the sea level changes through geostrophy, 3) the tidal pumping with imposed cyclic flows into and out of the Bank and 4) the imposed drift by the wind. Waves impinging all along the eastern barrier reef induce water inflows (from overtopping the reef) and generate a pressure gradient that drives a drift from east to west throughout the Bank. This western drift can normally replenish the water over the Bank with a time scale of ~10 days. However, extreme wave events, lasting around 24 hours, can replenish the whole Bank's water in the order of day. The region's large scale circulation is dominated by the zonal Cayman Current impinging on the Yucatan Peninsula becoming the Yucatan Current as it turns northward. Variability in the strength and impacting latitude of this current causes sea level gradients within the Bank, i.e., a Yucatan Current increase of 1 m/s, over a period of a couple of weeks, sets up a zonal sea level gradient within that can replenish the whole Bank's water in a time scale of ~14 days. At such times, the large scale current around the Bank is at a maximum thus ensuring an effective removal and dispersal of the exported waters. The Bank has a micro-tidal regime with a semidiurnal amplitude of ~12 cm during spring tides and a diurnal of ~2 cm, these imply that the Bank is exchanging ~10% of its waters with its surroundings daily. However small, this tidal pumping is effective for the ventilation of the Banks' waters in ~10 days due to the

  7. Tidal propagation in the Gulf of Khambhat, Bombay High, and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    -diurnal and diurnal constituents at forty-two ports in the Gulf and surrounding areas is sued to define characteristics of the tides. A barotropic numerical model based on shallow water wave equations to simulate the sea level and circulation in the region is used...

  8. Momentum Budget of the atmospheric boundary layer over the Greenland ice sheet and its surrounding seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Angelen, J.H.; van den Broeke, M.R.; van de Berg, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric circulation patterns over the Greenland ice sheet and its surrounding seas are studied by explicitly calculating the momentum budget components, using data of a high‐resolution regional atmospheric climate model. In winter (DJF), the katabatic pressure gradient force (PGF) dominates

  9. Solitary fibrous tumor surrounding the carotid sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Oliveira, Guillermo; Alvarez-Flores, Modesto; Arribas-García, Ignacio; Martínez-Gimeno, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare spindle cell neoplasms that are mostly found arising from the pleura. Although SFTs recently have been reported in other regions, they are rare in the head and neck and have often been misdiagnosed due to their rarity. SFTs are benign in most cases. Clinically, SFTs usually manifest as well-circumscribed, slow-growing, smooth and painless masses. Symptoms are often minimal, although they may include sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, change of voice or trismus. CT-Scan and MRI are the most sensitive imaging procedures used. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision of the lesion. Because recurrences have been noted up to 30 years after surgery, long-term follow up is mandatory. In this article, we present a case of a Solitary Fibrous Tumor arising in the parapharyngeal space in a 20-year-old man, involving the carotid sheath, treated by surgical excision with no recurrence after 1 year. The clinical presentation, surgical management and pathological findings are described.

  10. Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    current tectonics of the region are controlled by the collision and continuing convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates . The Arabian and...in the Arabian Plate and surrounding regions, Geophys. J. Int. 157: 775–795. Alinaghi, A., I. Koulakov, and H. Thybo (2007). Seismic tomographic...Tectonophysics 50: 307–336. Brune, J. N. (1970). Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4997-5009. Cong

  11. A Stellar Stream Surrounds the Whale Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    that a dwarf satellite galaxy was disrupted to make that stream.To support their observations, the authors modeled the system using an N-body simulation. They were able to reproduce the appearance of the stream by sending a single, massive dwarf satellite onto a moderately eccentric orbit around the Whale galaxy. The team showed that, over the span of about 3.5 Gyr, the satellite became disrupted and spread into a structure very similar to the stellar tidal stream we now observe. In this simulation, the last remains of the dwarf satellite are contained within the northwest arm of the stream.The authors point out that the Whale galaxy has additional gaseous tidal features that likely originated from a more recent, gas-rich accretion event. There are also two bright regions that may be more dwarf satellites around the galaxy (labeled DW1 and DW2 in the header image). If the authors interpretation of the observed stellar stream is correct, then the Whale galaxy shows evidence for multiple recent mergers. This would support the idea that hierarchical formation models apply to other galaxies similar to the Milky Way.CitationDavid Martnez-Delgado et al 2015 AJ 150 116. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/4/116

  12. Zonal disintegration phenomenon in rock mass surrounding deep tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; FANG Qin; GUO Zhi-kun

    2008-01-01

    Zonal disintegration is a typical static phenomenon of deep rock masses. It has been defined as alternating regions of fractured and relatively intact rock mass that appear around or in front of the working stope during excavation of a deep tunnel. Zonal disintegration phenomenon was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory with 3D tests on analogous gypsum models, two circular cracked zones were observed in the test. The linear Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was used with a constitutive model that showed linear softening and ideal residual plastic to analyze the elasto-plastic field of the enclosing rock mass around a deep tunnel. The results show that tunneling causes a maximum stress zone to appear between an elastic and plastic zone in the surrounding rock. The zonal disintegration phenomenon is analyzed by considering the stress-strain state of the rock mass in the vicinity of the maximum stress zone. Creep instability failure of the rock due to the development of the plastic zone, and transfer of the maximum stress zone into the rock mass, are the cause of zonal disintegration. An analytical criterion for the critical depth at which zonal disintegration can occur is derived. This depth depends mainly on the character and stress concentration coefficient of the rock mass.

  13. Dense Ionized and Neutral Gas Surrounding Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Hemant; Scoville, N Z

    2004-01-01

    We present high resolution H41a hydrogen recombination line observations of the 1.2' (3 pc) region surrounding Sgr A* at 92 GHz using the OVRO Millimeter Array with an angular resolution of 7" x 3" and velocity resolution of 13 km/s. New observations of H31a, H35a, H41a, and H44a lines were obtained using the NRAO 12-m telescope, and their relative line strengths are interpreted in terms of various emission mechanisms. These are the most extensive and most sensitive observations of recombination line to date. Observations of HCO+ (1 - 0) transition at 89 GHz are also obtained simultaneously with a 40% improved angular resolution and 4-15 times improved sensitivity over previous observations, and the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas in the circumnuclear disk (CND) are mapped and compared with those of the ionized gas. The line brightness ratios of the hydrogen recombination lines are consistent with purely spontaneous emission from 7000 K gas with n_e = 20,000 cm$^{-3}$ near LTE condition...

  14. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  15. THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SURROUNDINGS OF COAL MINING ROADWAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹喜正; 侯朝炯; 李华祥

    1996-01-01

    This introduces the calculation of opaper the deformationg .the Surroundings of coaowaysand the divisi of surroundings into 5 levels by means or !fuzzy integral assess mairrx, wnlcnserves-asthe scientific basis for selecting supporting pattern of roadways and determining the, pa-rameters of support.

  16. Black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in Rastall theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we obtain uncharged∖charged Kiselev-like black holes as a new class of black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in the context of Rastall theory. Then, we study the specific cases of the uncharged∖charged black holes surrounded by regular matter like dust and radiation, or exotic matter like quintessence, cosmological constant and phantom fields. By comparing the Kiselev-like black hole solutions in Rastall theory with the Kiselev black hole solutions in GR, we find an effective perfect fluid behavior for the black hole's surrounding field. It is shown that the corresponding effective perfect fluid has interesting characteristic features depending on the different ranges of the parameters in Rastall theory. For instance, Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by regular matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by exotic matter in GR, or Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by exotic matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by regular matter in GR.

  17. GIANT Hα NEBULA SURROUNDING THE STARBURST MERGER NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohyama, Youichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Tanaka, Hisashi [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: yoshidam@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2016-03-20

    We revealed the detailed structure of a vastly extended Hα-emitting nebula (“Hα nebula”) surrounding the starburst/merging galaxy NGC 6240 by deep narrow-band imaging observations with the Subaru Suprime-Cam. The extent of the nebula is ∼90 kpc in diameter and the total Hα luminosity amounts to L{sub Hα} ≈ 1.6 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}. The volume filling factor and the mass of the warm ionized gas are ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −5} and ∼5 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙}, respectively. The nebula has a complicated structure, which includes numerous filaments, loops, bubbles, and knots. We found that there is a tight spatial correlation between the Hα nebula and the extended soft-X-ray-emitting gas, both in large and small scales. The overall morphology of the nebula is dominated by filamentary structures radially extending from the center of the galaxy. A large-scale bipolar bubble extends along the minor axis of the main stellar disk. The morphology strongly suggests that the nebula was formed by intense outflows—superwinds—driven by starbursts. We also found three bright knots embedded in a looped filament of ionized gas that show head-tail morphologies in both emission-line and continuum, suggesting close interactions between the outflows and star-forming regions. Based on the morphology and surface brightness distribution of the Hα nebula, we propose the scenario that three major episodes of starburst/superwind activities, which were initiated ∼10{sup 2} Myr ago, formed the extended ionized gas nebula of NGC 6240.

  18. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real‐world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  19. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  20. Traditional Indian custOInS surrounding birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. ... conception, pregnancy, birth and the early months ofparenthood. .... house attended by a traditional birth attendant of a ..... Spiritual components play a dominant role in traditional.

  1. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  2. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Sun; Huanxin Zou; Shilin Zhou; Cheng Wang; Naser El-Sheimy

    2013-01-01

    Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searc...

  3. "Tilt" in color space: Hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The perceived color of a chromatic stimulus is influenced by the chromaticity of its surround. To investigate these influences along the dimension of hue, we measured hue changes induced in stimuli of different hues by isoluminant chromatic surrounds. Generally, induced hue changes were directed in color space away from the hue of the inducing surround and depended on the magnitude on the hue difference between stimulus and surround. With increasing difference in hue between stimulus and surround, induced hue changes increased up to a maximum and then decreased for larger differences. This qualitative pattern was similar for different inducers, but quantitatively, induction was weaker along some directions in cone-opponent color space than along other directions. The strongest induction effects were found along an oblique, blue-yellow axis that corresponds to the daylight axis. The overall pattern of the induction effect shows similarities to the well-known tilt effect, where shifts in perceived angle of oriented stimuli are induced by oriented surrounds. This suggests analogous neural representations and similar mechanisms of contextual processing for different visual features such as orientation and color.

  4. Control of Formation of Lithological Reservoirs by Surrounding Mudstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Jiyang depression as an example, this paper discusses the control of the formation of lithological reservoir by surrounding rocks by integrated application of geological analysis, physical simulation, and the analysis of oil & gas accumulation mechanism. Geological statistical shows that the major burial depth and interval of lithological reservoirs in the Jiyang depression are related to the hydrocarbon generation in and expulsion from the Lower Tertiary source rocks and the time of the formation of most lithological reservoirs coincides with the peak of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The lithological traps located in the center of effective source rocks are propitious to high oil saturation than those located on the margin of effective source rocks. The hydrocarbon charge degree of the lithological reservoir has a positive correlation with the intensity of hydrocarbon expulsion from surrounding source rocks.Geological analyses and NMR experiments also show that the oil saturation of surrounding source rocks control the hydrocarbon potential of lithological traps, and a critical value for oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is required, that is, when the oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is lower than this critical value, no oil and gas accumulate in the lithological trap. The control of surrounding mudstone on the oil-bearing properties of lithological reservoirs is also analyzed by the mechanisms of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion as well as accumulation.

  5. The activities and perspectives of improvement the polluted waste in surrounding rivers in Bucim mine area

    OpenAIRE

    Danevski, Tome; Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Aleksandar; Gocev, Zivko

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of the influence that the tailing dump or waste as well as the flotation hydro-tailing dump over the environment around the region of copper mine Bucim, surrounding rivers, places, villages, appearance of dust, pollution of ambient air and mine tailing pond. Generally speaking, the monitoring will be done for two periods. The first analysis relating to the period from the year 2005, and the second analysis relating to the period from the year 2010/2012. The monitoring ...

  6. Measurement of Elastic Modulus and Vickers Hardness of Surround Bone Implant Using Dynamic Microindentation - Parameters Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Soares,Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Nunes,Sarah Arantes; Franco,Sinésio Domingues; Pires, Raphael Rezende; Zanetta-Barbosa,Darceny; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-01-01

    The clinical performance of dental implants is strongly defined by biomechanical principles. The aim of this study was to quantify the Vicker's hardness (VHN) and elastic modulus (E) surround bone to dental implant in different regions, and to discuss the parameters of dynamic microindantion test. Ten cylindrical implants with morse taper interface (Titamax CM, Neodent; 3.5 mm diameter and 7 mm a height) were inserted in rabbit tibia. The mechanical properties were analyzed using microhardnes...

  7. Statistical analysis of the 2003-2016 seismicity of Azerbaijan and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Kadirov, Fakhraddin; Yetirmishli, Gurban; Safarov, Rafig; Babayev, Gulam; Ismaylova, Saida

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to furnish a detailed picture of the space-time-magnitude statistical properties of the instrumental seismic catalogue of Azerbaijan and surrounding regions from 2003 to 2016. Although Azerbaijan is one of the most seismically active areas in the world, an exhaustive description of the statistical properties of the time, space, and magnitude distribution of its seismicity is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this work is to fill this scientific gap.

  8. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  9. Inhibitory surround and grouping effects in human and computational multiple object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozgur; Guler, Sadiye; Ogmen, Haluk

    2008-02-01

    Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) experiments show that human observers can track over several seconds up to five moving targets among several moving distractors. We extended these studies by designing modified MOT experiments to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of human visuo-cognitive mechanisms for tracking and applied the findings and insights obtained from these experiments in designing computational multiple object tracking algorithms. Recent studies indicate that attention both enhances the neural activity of relevant information and suppresses the irrelevant visual information in the surround. Results of our experiments suggest that the suppressive surround of attention extends up to 4 deg from the target stimulus, and it takes at least 100 ms to build it. We suggest that when the attentional windows corresponding to separate target regions are spatially close, they can be grouped to form a single attentional window to avoid interference originating from suppressive surrounds. The grouping experiment results indicate that the attentional windows are grouped into a single one when the distance between them is less than 1.5 deg. Preliminary implementation of the suppressive surround concept in our computational video object tracker resulted in less number of unnecessary object merges in computational video tracking experiments.

  10. Development of fractures in soft rock surrounding a roadway and their control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuehua; Yao Qiangling; Man Jiankang; Chen Chaoqun; He Lihui

    2011-01-01

    As the excavation of roadway,new fractures will be formed and the pre-existing fractures extend with the redistribution of stress in surrounding rocks.Eventually,fracture zone and bed separation are formed in rocks because of the developed fractures.Therefore,mastering the fracture evolution of surrounding rocks is very important to maintain the stability of roadway.The surrounding rocks of main haulage roadway in a certain coal mine is so broken and loose that the supporting is very difficult.Based on comprehensive analysis of the engineering geological conditions,a sight instrument was used to observe the fractures of internal surrounding rocks.Four indices,i.e.,the width of fracture zone W,the number of fractures n,the width of fractures d and rock fracture designation RFD,are put forward to evaluate the fracture development.According to the evolution rules of the soft rock roadway from this paper,control principles by stages and by regions are presented through the research.At the same time,the best time of grouting reinforcement is determined on the basis of fracture saturation.Field practice shows that the roadway can satisfy normal production during service periods by suitable first support and grouting reinforcement.

  11. Discovery of an ammonia shell surrounding the LBV nebula G79.29+0.46

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, J R; Jimenez-Esteban, F M; Henkel, C

    2014-01-01

    The surroundings of Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars are excellent laboratories to study the effects of their high UV radiation, powerful winds, and strong ejection events onto the surrounding gas and dust. The LBV G79.29+0.46 powered two concentric infrared rings which may interact with the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G79.3+0.3. The Effelsberg 100m telescope was used to observe the NH_3 (1,1), (2,2) emission surrounding G79.29+0.46 and the IRDC. In addition, we observed particular positions in the (3,3) transition toward the strongest region of the IRDC. We report here the first coherent shell-like structure of dense NH_3 gas associated with an evolved massive star. The shell, two or three orders of magnitude more tenuous than the IRDC, is well traced in both ammonia lines, and surrounds the ionized nebula. The NH_3 emission in the IRDC is characterized by a low and uniform rotational temperature (T_rot ~ 10 K) and moderately high opacities in the (1,1) line. The rest of the observed field is spotted by war...

  12. Migraine increases centre-surround suppression for drifting visual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Battista

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of migraine is incompletely understood, but evidence points to hyper-responsivity of cortical neurons being a key feature. The basis of hyper-responsiveness is not clear, with an excitability imbalance potentially arising from either reduced inhibition or increased excitation. In this study, we measure centre-surround contrast suppression in people with migraine as a perceptual analogue of the interplay between inhibition and excitation in cortical areas responsible for vision. We predicted that reduced inhibitory function in migraine would reduce perceptual surround suppression. Recent models of neuronal surround suppression incorporate excitatory feedback that drives surround inhibition. Consequently, an increase in excitation predicts an increase in perceptual surround suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-six people with migraine and twenty approximately age- and gender-matched non-headache controls participated. The perceived contrast of a central sinusoidal grating patch (4 c/deg stationary grating, or 2 c/deg drifting at 2 deg/sec, 40% contrast was measured in the presence and absence of a 95% contrast annular grating (same orientation, spatial frequency, and drift rate. For the static grating, similar surround suppression strength was present in control and migraine groups with the presence of the surround resulting in the central patch appearing to be 72% and 65% of its true contrast for control and migraine groups respectively (t(44 = 0.81, p = 0.42. For the drifting stimulus, the migraine group showed significantly increased surround suppression (t(44 = 2.86, p<0.01, with perceived contrast being on average 53% of actual contrast for the migraine group and 68% for non-headache controls. CONCLUSIONS: In between migraines, when asymptomatic, visual surround suppression for drifting stimuli is greater in individuals with migraine than in controls. The data provides evidence for a

  13. Quasi-Local Energy Distribution and Thermodynamics of Reissner-Nordstrom Black Hole Surrounded by Quintessence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahamat Saleh; Bouetou Bouetou Thomas; Timoleon Crepin Kofane

    2011-01-01

    We investigate quasi-local energy distribution and thermodynamics of the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole space-time surrounded by quintessence.We use the quasi-local energy distribution from Einstein energy-momentum complex.We plot the variation of the energies, temperature and heat capacity with the state parameter related to the quintessence ωq.We show that due to the presence of quintessence, the total energy of the outer region as well as the temperature and heat capacity decreases with the increase of the density of quintessence, while the total energy of the black hole region increases.

  14. 6.1 channel general planar surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bosun

    2001-01-01

    A new 6.1 channel surround sound system and its two signal mixing methods are proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system is able to recreate 360°sound image in horizontal plane. Especially, compared with current 5.1 channel system, lateral and rear image of the new system is improved obviously. Therefore it is suitable to be used as a general surround sound system. It is also proved that, the new system is fully compatible with 5.1 channel system, and current methods are available to record 6.1 channel signals.

  15. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...

  16. Alternating sequential operators from center-surround top-hat transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiangzhi

    2013-06-01

    Constructing alternating sequential operators is the important way of improving the efficiency of morphological operations for image processing. And, the alternating sequential filters (ASFs), which are constructed by using the morphological opening and closing, have been the important alternating sequential operators of mathematical morphology. However, because the morphological opening and closing operations have the defect of image detail smoothing, ASFs could not perform very well for some detail preserving image processing applications. Center-surround top-hat transform has been proposed through reconstructing the used structuring elements following the properties of image regions, which ensures that the main operations in center-surround top-hat transform could protect some image details; and, the main operations in center-surround top-hat transform achieve the similar function as opening and closing for bright and black feature extraction. Therefore, based on center-surround top-hat transform, some new and effective alternating sequential operators may be constructed. In light of this, a new class of alternating sequential operators with improved performance based on the center-surround top-hat transform is proposed in this paper. The definition and properties of the new alternating sequential operators are given and analyzed. Also, an application of impulsive noise suppression is used to show the improved performance of the new alternating sequential operators comparing with ASFs. Moreover, because the new alternating sequential operators constructed in this paper have some superiorities over ASFs, they could be also widely used in different applications in which the ASFs perform well, which indicates that the new alternating sequential operators may be also a class of useful morphological operators for image analysis.

  17. The Ionized Nebula surrounding the Red Supergiant W26 in Westerlund 1

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Drew, Janet E; Barentsen, Geert; Barlow, Michael J; Walsh, Jeremy R; Zijlstra, Albert; Drake, Jeremy J; Eisloffel, Jochen; Farnhill, Hywel J

    2013-01-01

    We present H\\alpha images of an ionized nebula surrounding the M2-5Ia red supergiant (RSG) W26 in the massive star cluster Westerlund 1. The nebula consists of a circumstellar shell or ring ~0.1pc in diameter and a triangular nebula ~0.2pc from the star that in high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images shows a complex filamentary structure. The excitation mechanism of both regions is unclear since RSGs are too cool to produce ionizing photons and we consider various possibilities. The presence of the nebula, high stellar luminosity and spectral variability suggest that W26 is a highly evolved RSG experiencing extreme levels of mass-loss. As the only known example of an ionized nebula surrounding a RSG W26 deserves further attention to improve our understanding of the final evolutionary stages of massive stars.

  18. Metrizamide demonstration of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, D.; Babin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The chance opacification of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion, observed during metrizamide basal cisternography, is reported. This is compared to similar demonstrations of the optic subarachnoid space. Such infrequently observed images should be known because they may be related to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia.

  19. Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Maria, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    While governing bodies have mandated that all students have the right to an education, with disabled students treated to the same rights and opportunities as non-disabled students, policymakers do not always agree on what all-inclusive education should look like. "Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases"…

  20. CO Observations and Investigation of Triggered Star Formation toward the N10 Infrared Bubble and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, D. R. G.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Mendoza, E.; Wu, Y.; Yuan, J.

    2016-10-01

    We studied the environment of the dust bubble N10 in molecular emission. Infrared bubbles, first detected by the GLIMPSE survey at 8.0 μm, are ideal regions to investigate the effect of the expansion of the H ii region on its surroundings and the eventual triggering of star formation at its borders. In this work, we present a multi-wavelength study of N10. This bubble is especially interesting because infrared studies of the young stellar content suggest a scenario of ongoing star formation, possibly triggered on the edge of the H ii region. We carried out observations of 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) emission at PMO 13.7 m toward N10. We also analyzed the IR and sub-millimeter emission on this region and compare those different tracers to obtain a detailed view of the interaction between the expanding H ii region and the molecular gas. We also estimated the parameters of the denser cold dust condensation and the ionized gas inside the shell. Bright CO emission was detected and two molecular clumps were identified from which we have derived physical parameters. We also estimate the parameters for the densest cold dust condensation and for the ionized gas inside the shell. The comparison between the dynamical age of this region and the fragmentation timescale favors the “Radiation-Driven Implosion” mechanism of star formation. N10 is a case of particular interest with gas structures in a narrow frontier between the H ii region and surrounding molecular material, and with a range of ages of YSOs situated in the region, indicating triggered star formation.

  1. La avalancha de rocas de Pilun Challa: ratificación de una única glaciación en la región de Caviahue-Copahue y sus adyacencias (Neuquén The Pilun Challa rock avalanche: Ratification of a single glaciation in the Caviahue-Copahue region and surroundings (Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. González Díaz

    2006-03-01

    acentuado desnivel de la pendiente y una probable alta velocidad, suministraron al movimiento la necesaria energía para generar una fase de trepada (run-up, interpretada sobre el lateral opuesto del valle. La superficie irregular del depósito de la avalancha de rocas de Pilun Challa, su disposición transversal al valle, su caótica estructura sedimentaria y el reconocimiento de un cuerpo lagunar agua arriba, compusieron los principales elementos de juicio que llevaron a una errónea interpretación del mismo como propio de una morena terminal, atribuible a una supuesta segunda glaciación en la región. Se describen otras avalanchas de rocas vecinas de menor porte, que generaron lagunas permanentes en varias artesas tributarias y algunos deslizamientos menores. Gráficamente se incluyen otros rasgos morfológicos locales relacionados con la morfogenia glaciaria y volcánica.The reconnaissance of an important rock avalanche in the Pilun Challa glacial valley (37°40´S and 71°08´W is a consistent clue for a simple episode of glaciation on the area, fact revealed from geomorphological studies. The hypotesis had been previously proposed to the south the Caviahue-Copahue region. The huge movement originated from the southern margin of the Pilun Challa valley, as well as in many other adjacent regions, occurred after the local Pleistocene glaciation that affected the area. This complex landslide has a breakaway zone at the crest of a overstepped slope of the glacial valley and like most of the similar movements located between 36° and 38°S, it occurred during postglacial times, as suggested for their accumulations located on the previous glacial valley. A rock platform located at intermediate height between the breakaway zone and the glacial floor valley could have had an important role in the avalanche mechanics inferred for the Pilun Challa rock avalanche. Proximal avalanche deposits are therefore not connected with the distal ones, probably due the jumping of the rock

  2. A escuta e o diálogo na assistência ao pré-natal, na periferia da zona Sul, no município de São Paulo Listening and dialogue in pre-natal assistance in the region surrounding the south zone, in the municipal district of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Benedita Boldrin Durães-Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo transversal para verificar a importância da escuta e do diálogo na assistência prestada às gestantes no programa pré-natal, em quatro Unidades Básicas de Saúde: duas com modelo Tradicional e duas com modelo em Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF, localizadas na região da Subprefeitura Capela do Socorro, São Paulo. O objetivo foi identificar as percepções das gestantes quanto à escuta e diálogo oferecidos pela equipe pré-natal. Foi colhida uma amostra por sorteio de 50% das gestantes que estivessem no terceiro atendimento. Para as 152 participantes, utilizou-se questionário auto-aplicável, semi-estruturado com algumas perguntas abertas, elaborado após teste prévio. A análise estatística foi feita com os testes G de Cochran e quiquadrado. O número de gestantes que receberam orientações quanto ao funcionamento do Programa foi maior na Unidade Tradicional Icaraí. Percebeu-se que a gestante encontra escuta e diálogo no pré-natal tanto nas Unidades Tradicionais quanto nas com PSF, sugerindo que nos dois modelos de atendimento pode-se realizar excelente trabalho de Saúde Pública.A transversal study was carried out to verify the importance of dialogue and of listening in the care provided to pregnant women, participants of the pre-natal program in four basic Health Units: two of them, using a traditional model and two using the Family Health Program (PSF model, located at the Subprefeitura (administrative region of Capela do Socorro, Sao Paulo. The objective was to identify the perceptions of the pregnant women related to listening and dialogue offered by the pre-natal team. A sample was randomly taken from 50% of the pregnant women that were in the third month of attendance. For the 152 participants, a self-applicable and semi-structured questionnaire with some opened questions was used, developed after prior testing. Cochran's G and Chi-square tests were used for a statistical analysis. The number of

  3. Dynamics of two-component membranes surrounded by viscoelastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Shigeyuki; Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the dynamics of two-component fluid membranes which are surrounded by viscoelastic media. We assume that membrane-embedded proteins can diffuse laterally and induce a local membrane curvature. The mean squared displacement of a tagged membrane segment is obtained as a generalized Einstein relation. When the elasticity of the surrounding media obeys a power-law behavior in frequency, an anomalous diffusion of the membrane segment is predicted. We also consider the situation where the proteins generate active non-equilibrium forces. The generalized Einstein relation is further modified by an effective temperature that depends on the force dipole energy. The obtained generalized Einstein relations are useful for membrane microrheology experiments.

  4. Study on Temperature Fieldof Surrounding Rock with BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors analyzed the characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face, setup its mathematic model, and got its numerical result with the boundary element method(BEM). To calculate in-tra-domain integral, it was transformed into boundary integration with the DRM method. Using the similitude the-ory, the dimensionless differential equation was educed. Finally, the authors calculated two drifting faces of San-hejian Coal Mine using the computer software developed by authors based on the above principium, and got the dis-tribution characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face and the periodic variation intemperature with its periodic moving forward. Comparing the calculated heat dissipating-capacity of surroundingrock with the measured data shows that the computer software is proper.

  5. Experimental Study of Deformation of Surrounding Rock with Infrared Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-jun; AN Li-qian; REN Run-hou; FAN Shi-min; MA Nian-jie; LI Jian-hui; JI Yuan-ming

    2005-01-01

    According to the practical conditions of coal roadway in Changcun Coal Mine of Lu'an Mining Group, the deformation of rock surrounding roadway was experimentally studied by means of thermal infrared (TIR) imaging system in the process of confined compressions. It is found that the model surface TIR temperature (TIRT) changes with the increase of load. Furthermore, TIRT changes non-synchronously in different ranges such as the roof, floor, wall, corners and bolted ranges. The TIRT is higher in the location of stress concentration and bolted ranges than that in the location of stress relaxation and broken ranges. The interaction ranges of bolt and rock are determined preliminarily according to the corresponding relationship of TIRT fields and the strain fields of the surrounding rock. The new method of TIR image processing has been proved to be effective for the study of bolt support and observation of roadway stability under mine pressure.

  6. High resolution bathymetry of China seas and their surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the oceanic lithospheric flexure and the worldwide bathymetric data ETOPO5, the high resolu tion bathymetry of the China seas and their surroundings is computed from altimeter derived gravity anomalies. The new bathymetry obtained by this study is higher resolution and accuracy than the widely used ETOPO5 data, mean while it shows clearly the seafioor, the tectonic characteristics and the geodynamical processes in the China seas.

  7. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic q...

  8. Hidden History: A Mobile Application for Discovering Surrounding Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work describes the design, development and evaluation of a mobile application called Hidden History. This application lets users discover and explore three types of landscapes (Historic, Scenic and Cultural) using three different modes of discovery (Route, Explore and Tour). Before designing Hidden History, the feature set of other applications that help users explore surrounding landscapes were identified and analyzed. Hidden History was then designed to implement the best fea...

  9. Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia by Surround Needling with Electric Stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jin; YANG Qin-hua

    2005-01-01

    运用电针围刺法治疗带状疱疹后遗神经痛29例,获得较好疗效,总有效率为93.1%.%Twenty-nine cases of postherpetic neuralgia of herpes zoster were treated by the surround needling with electric stimulation, and the better therapeutic effect was obtained, the total effective rate was 93.1%.

  10. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  11. THE DESIGN OF DYNAMIC SIMULATION SYSTEM ON EARTHQUAKE SURROUNDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈毅力; 杨云; 李天石

    2003-01-01

    Objective To design a system that can simulate earthquake surroundings. In the surroundings, people can be familiar with the omen, strong shock and aftershock of earthquake, thus make right choices and get away when the disaster occurs. Methods The system consists of an electro-hydraulic servo system, a whole-information sound system and some lighting device; By using the adaptive inverse control method and LMS algorithms, the inverse model (I.e. The controller) is convergent rapidly; The software based on LabVIEW makes the parameters can be modified easily; There is a double closed-loop structure in the system: an analog closed-loop and a digital closed-loop, and their parameters can be inspected in real time. Results The system is of very high reliability, and the desired vibration signal can be tracked exactly by output. Conclusion Earthquake surroundings is simulated vividly. Through the system, people can be familiar with earthquake phenomena, and know lots of knowledge of earthquake.

  12. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  13. Geometric-model-based segmentation of the prostate and surrounding structures for image-guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Jeong, Yongwon; Radke, Richard J.; Chen, George T. Y.

    2004-01-01

    We present a computer vision tool to improve the clinical outcome of patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer by improving irradiation technique. While intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) allows one to irradiate a specific region in the body with high accuracy, it is still difficult to know exactly where to aim the radiation beam on every day of the 30~40 treatments that are necessary. This paper presents a geometric model-based technique to accurately segment the prostate and other surrounding structures in a daily serial CT image, compensating for daily motion and shape variation. We first acquire a collection of serial CT scans of patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy, and manual segmentation of the prostate and other nearby structures by radiation oncologists. Then we train shape and local appearance models for the structures of interest. When new images are available, an iterative algorithm is applied to locate the prostate and surrounding structures automatically. Our experimental results show that excellent matches can be given to the prostate and surrounding structure. Convergence is declared after 10 iterations. For 256 x 256 images, the mean distance between the hand-segmented contour and the automatically estimated contour is about 1.5 pixels (2.44 mm), with variance about 0.6 pixel (1.24 mm).

  14. Frequency dependent attenuation of seismic waves for Delhi and surrounding area, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The attenuation properties of Delhi & surrounding region have been investigated using 62 local earthquakes recorded at nine stations. The frequency dependent quality factors Qa (using P-waves and Qb (using S-waves have been determined using the coda normalization method. Quality factor of coda-waves (Qc has been estimated using the single backscattering model in the frequency range from 1.5 Hz to 9 Hz. Wennerberg formulation has been used to estimate Qi (intrinsic attenuation parameter and Qs (scattering attenuation parameter for the region. The values Qa, Qb, Qc, Qi and Qs estimated are frequency dependent in the range of 1.5Hz-9Hz. Frequency dependent relations are estimated as Qa=52f1.03, Qb=98f1.07 and Qc=158f0.97. Qc estimates lie in between the values of Qi and Qs but closer to Qi at all central frequencies. Comparison between Qi and Qs shows that intrinsic absorption is predominant over scattering for Delhi and surrounding region

  15. Dual-Material Surrounding-Gate Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors with Asymmetric Halo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zun-Chao

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetrical halo and dual-material gate structure are used in the sub-100 nm surrounding-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) to improve the performance. Using three-region parabolic po-tential distribution and universal boundary condition, analytical surface potential and threshold voltage models of the novel MOSFET are developed based on the solution of Poisson's equation. The performance of the MOS-FET is examined by the analytical models and the 3D numerical device simulator Davinci. It is shown that the novel MOSFET can suppress short channel effect and improve carrier transport efficiency. The derived analytical models agree well with Davinci.

  16. Regional differences and sources of organochlorine pesticides in soils surrounding chemical industrial parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Li, J.; Wang, T.Y.; Han, Jingyi; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were investigated in 105 soil samples collected in vicinity of the chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. OCP concentrations significantly varied

  17. Processing and Monthly Summaries of Downscaled Climate Data for Knoxville, Tennessee and Surrounding Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Linda M [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Allen, Melissa R [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the City of Knoxville, Tennessee have partnered to work on a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project towards investigating climate change, mitigation, and adaptation measures in mid-sized cities. ORNL has statistically and dynamically downscaled ten Global Climate Models (GCMs) to both 1 km and 4 km resolutions. The processing and summary of those ten gridded datasets for use in a web-based tool is described. The summaries of each model are shown individually to assist in determining the similarities and differences between the model scenarios. The variables of minimum and maximum daily temperature and total monthly precipitation are summarized for the area of Knoxville, Tennessee for the periods of 1980-2005 and 2025-2050.

  18. A highly-ionized region surrounding SN Refsdal revealed by MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Karman, W; Balestra, I; Rosati, P; Caputi, K I; Di Teodoro, E; Fraternali, F; Gavazzi, R; Mercurio, A; Prochaska, J X; Rodney, S; Treu, T

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) Refsdal is the first multiply-imaged, highly-magnified, and spatially-resolved SN ever observed. The SN exploded in a highly-magnified spiral galaxy at z=1.49 behind the Frontier Fields Cluster MACS1149, and provides a unique opportunity to study the environment of SNe at high z. We exploit the time delay between multiple images to determine the properties of the SN and its environment, before, during, and after the SN exploded. We use the integral-field spectrograph MUSE on the VLT to simultaneously target all observed and model-predicted positions of SN Refsdal. We find MgII emission at all positions of SN Refsdal, accompanied by weak FeII* emission at two positions. The measured ratios of [OII] to MgII emission of 10-20 indicate a high degree of ionization with low metallicity. Because the same high degree of ionization is found in all images, it cannot be caused by SN Refsdal, but rather by previous SNe or a young and hot stellar population. We find no variability of the [OII] line over a p...

  19. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  20. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Fares, R.; Jardine, M.; Moutou, C.; Donati, J.-F.

    2015-06-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e. the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the Solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD 46375b, HD 73256b, HD 102195b, HD 130322b and HD 179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9-8.0 × 10-13 M⊙ yr-1) and the wind properties at the position of the hot Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are supermagnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrounding these planets. Assuming planetary magnetic fields similar to Jupiter's, we estimate planetary magnetospheric sizes of 4.1-5.6 planetary radii. We also derive the exoplanetary radio emission released in the dissipation of the stellar wind energy. We find radio fluxes ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 mJy, which are challenging to be observed with present-day technology, but could be detectable with future higher sensitivity arrays (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Radio emission from systems having closer hot Jupiters, such as from τ Boo b or HD 189733b, or from nearby planetary systems orbiting young stars, are likely to have higher radio fluxes, presenting better prospects for detecting exoplanetary radio emission.

  1. Issues surrounding record keeping in district nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E E

    2000-07-01

    This article examines some aspects of nursing documentation following the publication of the document 'Guidelines for Records and Record Keeping' (UKCC, 1998). The importance of nursing documentation in patient care, in guiding practice and in providing information for members of the interprofessional healthcare team is highlighted. Record keeping forms an important part of the clinical governance initiative in terms of quality improvement and risk management. The issues surrounding the legal requirements of record keeping in district nursing practice are discussed. Suggestions are made for assessing the quality of nursing documentation by audit and research, in order to establish the suitability of using the present systems in the community setting.

  2. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  3. Problems Surrounding Probation In The South African Public Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Baloyi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate problems surrounding probation periods in the South African Public Service. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the views of both probationers and supervisors managing the probation process. Data was gathered by means of focus groups and individual interviews. Nine key areas were identified as being problematic, viz. clarity regarding the purpose of probation, lack of proper guidelines, the duration of probation, rotation during probation, lack of training, poor management of probation, performance management, anxiety and stress, power and authority. Recommendations are made concerning possible interventions.

  4. CO observations and investigation of triggered star formation towards N10 infrared bubble and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Diana; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jinghua; Mendoza, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    We studied the environment of the Galactic bubble N10 in molecular emission. Infrared bubbles, first detected by GLIMPSE at 8.0 $\\mu$m, are ideal regions to investigate the effect of the expansion of the HII region on its surroundings and the possibility of triggered star formation at the border of HII regions. In this work, we present a molecular study of N10. This bubble is especially interesting as it undergoes a burst of star formation while infrared studies of the young stellar content suggest a scenario of ongoing star formation, possibly triggered, on the edge of the HII region. We carried out observations of $^{12}$CO(1-0) and $^{13}$CO(1-0) emission at PMO 13.7-m towards N10. We also analyzed the IR and sub-mm emission on this region and compare those different tracers to obtain a detailed view of the interaction between the expanding HII region and the molecular gas. Bright CO emission was detected. Two molecular clumps were identified, from which we have derived physical features. Star formation co...

  5. Reduction of Heat Emission to Surroundings From Improved Wood Burning Stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariya Kaneesamkandi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from emissions and inefficiency, heat generation from wood stoves to the surroundings is another undesirable effect causing health repercussions especially in the small dwellings of tropical regions. The present research addresses this problem. Steady state temperature measurements on the surface of the improved wood burning stove is used to determine this loss in which chimney draft control plays an important role. Experimental results were in good agreement with that of the model simulated using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code. A modified model in which changes were introduced to reduce the radiation and convection losses from the stove to the surrounding regions was simulated. Firstly, the radiation losses from the fire was reduced by reducing the size of fuel supply port. Secondly, a waste heat recovery system was introduced which resulted in lower stove body temperature. This was done by optimizing the use of the draft produced by the chimney.Results of the modified model of the stove showed a reduction of this loss by 12.08%. Stoves currently used under the national project for rural energy development was used for this purpose. Apart from improving the stove efficiency, this development will have a positive impact on the acceptability of the improved wood stove in rural households and also help to further reduce fuel consumption.

  6. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at approximately 3-km resolution. While considerable...

  7. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): CNMI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) at approximately...

  8. Whether dots moving in two directions appear coherent or transparent depends on directional biases induced by surrounding motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Hiromasa; Tajima, Satohiro; Murakami, Ikuya

    2011-12-20

    When two random-dot patterns moving in different directions are superimposed, motion appears coherent or transparent depending on the directional difference. In addition, when a pattern is surrounded by another pattern that is moving, the perceived motion of the central stimulus is biased away from the direction of the surrounding motion. That phenomenon is known as induced motion. How is the perception of motion coherence and transparency modulated by surrounding motion? It was found that two random-dot horizontal motions surrounded by another stimulus in downward motion appeared to move in two oblique directions: left-up and right-up. Consequently, when motion transparency occurs, each of the two motions interacts independently with the induced motion direction. Furthermore, for a central stimulus consisting of two physical motions in left-up and right-up directions, the presence of the surrounding stimulus in a vertical motion modulated the perceptual solution of motion coherence/transparency such that if interactions with an induced motion signal narrow the apparent directional difference between the two central motions, then motion coherence is preferred over motion transparency. Therefore, whether a moving stimulus is perceived as coherent or transparent is determined based on the internal representation of motion directions, which can be altered by spatial interactions between adjacent regions.

  9. Radio observations of Supernova Remnants and the surrounding molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Dubner, G

    2011-01-01

    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the main source of Galactic cosmic rays (CR). The strong SNR shocks provide ideal acceleration sites for particles of at least 10^14 eV/nucleon. Radio continuum studies of SNRs carried out with good sensitivity and high angular resolution convey information about three main aspects of the SNRs: morphology, polarization and spectrum. Based on this information it is possible to localize sites of higher compression and particle acceleration as well as the orientation and degree of order of the magnetic fields, and in some cases even its intensity. All this information, when complemented with the study of the distribution and kinematics of the surrounding interstellar gas, results in a very useful dataset to investigate the role of SNRs as cosmic ray accelerators. In this presentation, I analyze the radio observations of SNRs and surrounding molecular clouds, showing the contribution of these studies to the understanding of the role of SNRs as factories of CRs.

  10. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Jardine, M; Moutou, C; Donati, J -F

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e., the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD46375b, HD73256b, HD102195b, HD130322b, HD179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9 to 8.0 $\\times 10^{-13} M_{\\odot}$/yr) and the wind properties at the position of the hot-Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are super-magnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrou...

  11. Study of Interaction between Supersonic Flow and Rods Surrounded by Porous Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minoru YAGA; Kenji YAMAMOTO; Piotr DOERFFER; Kenyu OYAKAWA

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,some preliminary calculations and the experiments were performed to figure out the flow field,in which some rods were normally inserted into the main flow surrounded by a porous cavity.As a result,it is found that the starting shock wave severely interacts with the rods,the bow shock wave,its reflections,and the porous wall,which are numerically well predicted at some conditions.Moreover,inserting the rods makes the pressure on the upper wall in the porous region increase when the main flow in the porous region is completely supersonic.The calculations also suggest that three rods cause the widest suction area.

  12. Physical geography of the Nete basin and surroundings; Fysische geografie van het Netebekken en omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerten, K.

    2011-05-15

    The report briefly describes the main features of the physical geography of the Nete basin (Campine region, Belgium) and its immediate surroundings. First, an integrated overview of the topography, morphology and hydrography is given. This overview serves as the basis for the assessment of the morphological stability of the region and also explains the relationship between the topography and the hydrology. Furthermore, special attention is paid to soil science including a quantitative survey of some soil characteristics data. Another part of this report deals with erosion processes caused by water and wind action, and the (potential) impact on the morphology. Finally, the palaeogeographical evolution during the Quaternary is discussed. This evolution shows that the environment is stable over 10 000 years or more in the current and similar climatic conditions. Altering climatic conditions, notably glacial-interglacial periods, have impacted erosion with periods of strong erosion.

  13. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Aprilia Puspita; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T.

    2015-04-01

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  14. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C, Aprilia Puspita [Geophysical Engineering Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) of Indonesian, Jakarta (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Geophysical Engineering Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  15. Analytic modeling of a depletion-mode cylindrical surrounding-gate nanowire field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun Seop; Park, Hyung-Kun

    2012-07-01

    A compact model for depletion-mode p-type cylindrical surrounding-gate nanowire field-effect transistors (SGNWFETs) is proposed. The SGNWFET model consists of two back-to-back Schottky diodes for the metal-semiconductor (MS) contacts and the intrinsic SGNWFET. Based on the electrostatic method, the intrinsic SGNWFET model was derived from current conduction mechanisms attributed to bulk charges through the center neutral region, in addition to accumulation charges through the surface accumulation region. The authors' previously developed Schottky diode model was used for the M-S contacts. The new model was applied to an advanced design system (ADS), whereby the intrinsic part of the SGNWFET and the Schottky diode were developed using the Verilog-A language. The results of the simulation of the newly developed SGNWFET model reproduced the experiment results considerably well.

  16. Evolution of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein genes and surrounding Alu repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, C M; Easteal, S; Board, P G

    1990-04-01

    There is a mosaic pattern of variation between the two tandemly arranged human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein genes. Both the synonymous and the nonsynonymous sites of exons 3 and 4 are more divergent than the rest of the gene, suggesting that they have had a different evolutionary history. Comparisons of the two gene sequences with rat AGP indicate that exons 3 and 4 of AGP2 have been evolving without functional constraint since their divergence from AGP1. It is proposed that the conserved region of the gene has been homogenized recently by gene conversion with the homologous regions of AGP1. The Alu sequences surrounding the genes appear to have been involved in both the gene duplication and the gene conversion events.

  17. Changing carbonate chemistry in ocean waters surrounding coral reefs in the CMIP5 ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, K.; Schneider, K.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2012-12-01

    Coral reefs comprise some of the most biodiverse ecosystems in the world. Today they are threatened by a number of stressors, including pollution, bleaching from global warming and ocean acidification. In this study, we focus on the implications of ocean acidification for the open ocean chemistry surrounding coral reefs. We use results from 13 Earth System Models included in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) to examine the changing aragonite saturations (Ωa) of open ocean waters surrounding approximately 6,000 coral reefs. These 13 Earth System Models participating in CMIP5 each have interactive ocean biogeochemistry models that output state variables including DIC, alkalinity, SST, and salinity. Variation in these values were combined with values from the GLODAP database to calculate aragonite, the form of calcium carbonate that corals use to make their skeletons. We used reef locations from ReefBase that were within one degree (in latitude or longitude) of water masses represented both in the GLODAP database and in the climate models. Carbonate chemistry calculations were performed by Dr. James C. Orr (IPSL) as part of a separate study. We find that in preindustrial times, 99.9 % of coral reefs were located in regions of the ocean with aragonite saturations of 3.5 or more. The saturation threshold for viable reef ecosystems in uncertain, but the pre-industrial distribution of water chemistry surrounding coral reefs may nevertheless provide some indication of viability. We examine the fate of coral reefs in the context of several potential aragonite saturation thresholds, i.e., when Ωa_crit equals 3, 3.25, or 3.5. We show that under a business-as-usual scenario Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, the specific value of Ωa_crit does not affect the long-term fate of coral reefs -- by the end of the 21st century, no coral reef considered is surrounded by water with Ωa> 3. However, under scenarios with significant CO2 emissions

  18. Os conhecimentos, atitudes e comportamentos sobre SIDA dos adolescentes portugueses do meio urbano e não-urbano Conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos sobre el SIDA en los adolescentes portugueses del medio urbano y no urbano Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about AIDS in Portuguese adolescents in urban and non-urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunção Dores Laranjeira de Almeida

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo desta investigação foi identificar e comparar os conhecimentos, atitudes e comportamentos preventivos sobre a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA dos adolescentes que freqüentam escola secundária inserida em meio urbano com os adolescentes que freqüentam escola secundária inserida em meio não urbano. Para o efeito procedeu-se a um estudo descritivo numa amostra populacional de 826 adolescentes (455 do meio urbano e 371 do meio não-urbano. O instrumento de coleta de dados adotado foi efetuado com base no modelo conceptual Health Belief Model. Constatou-se haver relação entre o meio de inserção dos adolescentes e o conhecimento da SIDA enquanto ameaça grave; o conhecimento sobre os riscos de contágio da SIDA e as atitudes diante da SIDA.El principal objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar y comparar los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos preventivos sobre el SIDA (HIV - Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida en los adolescentes que frecuentan la escuela secundaria insertada en el medio urbano con los adolescentes que frecuentan la escuela secundaria en el medio no urbano. Para tal efecto se procedió un estudio descriptivo de una muestra poblacional de 826 adolescentes (455 del medio urbano y 371 del medio no urbano. El instrumento de la coleta de datos adoptado fue efectuado con base al modelo conceptual Health Belief Model. Fue constatado existir una relación entre el medio de inserción de los adolescentes y el conocimiento sobre el SIDA, según su amenaza grave; el conocimiento sobre los riesgos de contagio del SIDA y las actitudes hacia el SIDA.The main objective of this investigation was to identify and compare preventive knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding AIDS between adolescents at the secondary school in urban and non-urban areas in Portugal. This is a descriptive study with a sample of 826 individuals (455 adolescents from urban environment and 371 from a non-urban

  19. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry

    2007-05-01

    Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  20. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Abu-Qarn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  1. Wave rectification in plasma sheaths surrounding electric field antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Combined measurements of Langmuir or broadband whistler wave intensity and lower-frequency electric field waveforms, all at 10-microsecond time resolution, were made on several recent sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere. It is found that Langmuir and whistler waves are partically rectified in the plasma sheaths surrounding the payload and the spheres used as antennas. This sheath rectification occurs whenever the high frequency (HF) potential across the sheath becomes of the same order as the electron temperature or higher, for wave frequencies near or above the ion plasma frequency. This rectification can introduce false low-frequency waves into measurements of electric field spectra when strong high-frequency waves are present. Second harmonic signals are also generated, although at much lower levels. The effect occurs in many different plasma conditions, primarily producing false waves at frequencies that are low enough for the antenna coupling to the plasma to be resistive.

  2. The nature of plerions surrounding soft gamma-ray repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    1995-01-01

    Compact steady sources of X-ray emission have been detected at the positions of at least two soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These sources have been interpreted as synchrotron nebulae powered by the neutron star that is causing the bursts. We explore a plerion model for the sources surrounding SGRs where the steady observed emission is powered by the SGR bursts rather than by the spin-down of a pulsar. In this case there is no limit on the neutron star magnetic field. We find that the synchrotron lifetime of the particles injected into the plerion around SGR1806-20 is long enough to smear out nebular emission from individual bursts. Transient nebular emission would therefore not be detected following an SGR burst. The combined radio emission from multiple burst injections is expected to have a steeper spectrum than that of a typical plerion.

  3. Casimir Effect in the Kerr Spacetime Surrounded by Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Bezerra, V B; Freitas, L F F; Muniz, C R

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the Casimir energy of a massless scalar field in a cavity formed by nearby parallel plates orbiting a rotating spherical body surrounded by quintessence, investigating the influence of the gravitational field on that energy, at zero temperature. This influence includes the effects due to the spacetime dragging caused by the source rotation as well as those ones due to the quintessence. We show that the energy depends on all the involved parameters, as source mass, angular momentum and quintessence state parameter, for any radial coordinate and polar angle. We show that at the north pole the Casimir energy is not influenced by the quintessential matter. At the equatorial plane, when the quintessence is canceled, the result obtained in the literature is recovered. Finally, constraints in the quintessence parameters are obtained from the uncertainty in the current measurements of Casimir effect.

  4. Physical Coupling of Kazarian Galaxies with Surrounding Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Martirosian, J. R.

    2003-04-01

    Results from a statistical study of Kazarian galaxies and the objects surrounding them are presented. It is shown that: (1) the sample of Kazarian galaxies up to 16m.0 is complete. (2) Roughly 35.7% of the Kazarian galaxies are members of clusters, 14.0% of groups, and 13.6% of binary systems, while 36.7% are single galaxies. (3) Of the 580 Kazarian galaxies, roughly 61.2% are infrared, 8.8% radio, and 2.8% x-ray sources. (4) The relative numbers of Kazarian galaxies for complete samples of I, R, and X in the different groups are systematically higher than the corresponding numbers for samples of all Kazarian galaxies.

  5. A 500 Parsec Halo Surrounding the Galactic Globular NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewski, Edward W; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Using imaging that shows four magnitudes of main sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (>250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of $r^{-1.24}$. It contains approximately 0.1% of the dynamical mass of NGC 1851. There is no evidence for tidal tails. Current models of globular cluster evolution do not explain this feature, although simulations of tidal influences on dwarf spheroidal galaxies qualitatively mimic these results. Given the state of published models it is not possible to decide between creation of this halo from isolated cluster evaporation, or from tidal or disk shocking, or from destruction of a dwarf galaxy in which this object may have once been embedded.

  6. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there is a great deal of difference on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  7. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2017-06-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence ω _q is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there are several differences on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  8. Impact-Generated Dust Clouds Surrounding the Galilean Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, H; Grün, E; Kr\\"uger, Harald~; Krivov, Alexander V.; Gr\\"un, Eberhard

    2003-01-01

    Tenuous dust clouds of Jupiter's Galilean moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto have been detected with the in-situ dust detector on board the Galileo spacecraft. The majority of the dust particles have been sensed at altitudes below five radii of these lunar-sized satellites. We identify the particles in the dust clouds surrounding the moons by their impact direction, impact velocity, and mass distribution. Average particle sizes are 0.5 to $\\rm 1 \\mu m$, just above the detector threshold, indicating a size distribution with decreasing numbers towards bigger particles. Our results imply that the particles have been kicked up by hypervelocity impacts of micrometeoroids onto the satellites' surfaces. The measured radial dust density profiles are consistent with predictions by dynamical modeling for satellite ejecta produced by interplanetary impactors (Krivov et al., PSS, 2003, 51, 251--269), assuming yield, mass and velocity distributions of the ejecta from laboratory measurements. The dust clouds of the th...

  9. Trajectories and Maneuvers of Surrounding Vehicles with Panoramic Camera Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    Vision-based research for intelligent vehicles have traditionally focused on specific regions around a vehicle, such as a front looking camera for, e.g., lane estimation. Traffic scenes are complex and vital information could be lost in unobserved regions. This paper proposes a framework that uses...

  10. The surrounding landscape influences the diversity of leaf-litter ants in riparian cloud forest remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-González, Jorge E.; Escobar-Sarria, Federico; López-Barrera, Fabiola; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Riparian vegetation is a distinctive and ecologically important element of landscapes worldwide. However, the relative influence of the surrounding landscape on the conservation of the biodiversity of riparian remnants in human-modified tropical landscapes is poorly understood. We studied the surrounding landscape to evaluate its influence on leaf-litter-ant alpha and beta diversity in riparian remnants in the tropical montane cloud forest region of central Veracruz, Mexico. Sampling was carried out in 12 sites with riparian vegetation during both rainy (2011) and dry (2012) seasons. Ten leaf-litter samples were collected along a 100-m transect per site and processed with Berlese-Tullgren funnels and Winkler sacks. Using remotely-sensed and ground-collected data, we characterized the landscape around each site according to nine land cover types and computed metrics of landscape composition and configuration. We collected a total of 8,684 ant individuals belonging to 53 species, 22 genera, 11 tribes, and 7 subfamilies. Species richness and the diversity of Shannon and Simpson increased significantly in remnants immersed in landscapes with a high percentage of riparian land cover and a low percentage of land covers with areas reforested with Pinus, cattle pastures, and human settlements and infrastructure. The composition of ant assemblages was a function of the percentage of riparian land cover in the landscape. This study found evidence that leaf-litter ants, a highly specialized guild of arthropods, are mainly impacted by landscape composition and the configuration of the focal remnant. Maintaining or improving the surrounding landscape quality of riparian vegetation remnants can stimulate the movement of biodiversity among forest and riparian remnants and foster the provision of ecosystem services by these ecosystems. Effective outcomes may be achieved by considering scientific knowledge during the early stages of riparian policy formulation, in addition to

  11. The effects of orientation and attention during surround suppression of small image features: A 7 Tesla fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Grant, Andrea N; Burton, Philip C; Olman, Cheryl A

    2016-08-01

    Although V1 responses are driven primarily by elements within a neuron's receptive field, which subtends about 1° visual angle in parafoveal regions, previous work has shown that localized fMRI responses to visual elements reflect not only local feature encoding but also long-range pattern attributes. However, separating the response to an image feature from the response to the surrounding stimulus and studying the interactions between these two responses demands both spatial precision and signal independence, which may be challenging to attain with fMRI. The present study used 7 Tesla fMRI with 1.2-mm resolution to measure the interactions between small sinusoidal grating patches (targets) at 3° eccentricity and surrounds of various sizes and orientations to test the conditions under which localized, context-dependent fMRI responses could be predicted from either psychophysical or electrophysiological data. Targets were presented at 8%, 16%, and 32% contrast while manipulating (a) spatial extent of parallel (strongly suppressive) or orthogonal (weakly suppressive) surrounds, (b) locus of attention, (c) stimulus onset asynchrony between target and surround, and (d) blocked versus event-related design. In all experiments, the V1 fMRI signal was lower when target stimuli were flanked by parallel versus orthogonal context. Attention amplified fMRI responses to all stimuli but did not show a selective effect on central target responses or a measurable effect on orientation-dependent surround suppression. Suppression of the V1 fMRI response by parallel surrounds was stronger than predicted from psychophysics but showed a better match to previous electrophysiological reports.

  12. Estimating the effect of protected lands on the development and conservation of their surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert I; Yuan-Farrell, Chris; Fievet, Charles; Moeller, Matthias; Kareiva, Peter; Foster, David; Gragson, Ted; Kinzig, Ann; Kuby, Lauren; Redman, Charles

    2007-12-01

    The fate of private lands is widely seen as key to the fate of biodiversity in much of the world. Organizations that work to protect biodiversity on private lands often hope that conservation actions on one piece of land will leverage the actions of surrounding landowners. Few researchers have, however, examined whether protected lands do in fact encourage land conservation nearby or how protected lands affect development in the surrounding landscape. Using spatiotemporal data sets on land cover and land protection for three sites (western North Carolina, central Massachusetts, and central Arizona), we examined whether the existence of a protected area correlates with an increased rate of nearby land conservation or a decreased rate of nearby land development. At all sites, newly protected conservation areas tended to cluster close to preexisting protected areas. This may imply that the geography of contemporary conservation actions is influenced by past decisions on land protection, often made for reasons far removed from concerns about biodiversity. On the other hand, we found no evidence that proximity to protected areas correlates with a reduced rate of nearby land development. Indeed, on two of our three sites the development rate was significantly greater in regions with more protected land. This suggests that each conservation action should be justified and valued largely for what is protected on the targeted land, without much hope of broader conservation leverage effects.

  13. Tellurite suspended nanowire surrounded with large holes for single-mode SC and THG generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Meisong; Qin, Guanshi; Yan, Xin; Chaudhari, Chitrarekha; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2011-05-01

    For a suspended nanowire, the holes surrounding the core are expected to be as large as possible to propagate the light at wavelengths as long as possible. However, the fabrication of nanowire surrounded with large holes is still a challenge so far. In this paper, a method which involves pumping positive pressure of nitrogen gas in both the cane fabrication and fiber-drawing processes, is proposed. A suspended nanowire, with a core diameter of 480 nm and an unprecedented large diameter ratio of holey region to core (DRHC) of at least 62, is fabricated in the length of several hundred meters. Owing to the large holes, the confinement loss of the suspended nanowire is insignificant when the wavelength of light propagated in it is 1700 nm. Additionally, the tube-shaped glass cladding of the suspended nanowire shifts the singlemode cutoff wavelength to 810 nm, which is much shorter than the cutoff wavelength, 1070 nm, of a naked nanowire with the same diameter. A single-mode supercontinuum (SC) generation covering a wavelength range of 900-1600 nm is obtained under 1064 nm pump pulse with the peak power as low as 24 W. A single-mode third harmonic generation (THG) is observed by this nanowire under the pump of a 1557 nm femtosecond fiber laser. This work indicates that the suspended nanowire with large holes can provide high nonlinearity together with single-mode propagation, which leads to interesting applications in compact nonlinear devices.

  14. Charge plasma technique based dopingless accumulation mode junctionless cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET: analog performance improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Nitin; Kumar, Manoj; Haldar, Subhasis; Deswal, S. S.; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    A charge plasma technique based dopingless (DL) accumulation mode (AM) junctionless (JL) cylindrical surrounding gate (CSG) MOSFET has been proposed and extensively investigated. Proposed device has no physical junction at source to channel and channel to drain interface. The complete silicon pillar has been considered as undoped. The high free electron density or induced N+ region is designed by keeping the work function of source/drain metal contacts lower than the work function of undoped silicon. Thus, its fabrication complexity is drastically reduced by curbing the requirement of high temperature doping techniques. The electrical/analog characteristics for the proposed device has been extensively investigated using the numerical simulation and are compared with conventional junctionless cylindrical surrounding gate (JL-CSG) MOSFET with identical dimensions. For the numerical simulation purpose ATLAS-3D device simulator is used. The results show that the proposed device is more short channel immune to conventional JL-CSG MOSFET and suitable for faster switching applications due to higher I ON/ I OFF ratio.

  15. The structural feature surrounding glycated lysine residues in human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigenori; Nakahari, Takashi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2011-06-01

    Complications derived from diabetes mellitus are caused by nonenzymatic protein glycation at the specific sites. LC/MS/MS was performed for the identification of the tryptic peptides of glycated hemoglobins using glyceraldehyde. After the identification of the glycation or non-glycation site, computer analysis of the structure surrounding the sites was carried out using PDB data (1BZ0). Five glycated lysine residues (Lys-16(α), -56(α), -8(β), -82(β), and -144(β)) and four non-glycated lysine residues (Lys-7(α), -40(α), -99(α), and -132(β)) were identified. The non-glycated lysine residues, Lys-7(α), -40(α), and -132(β), are most likely to form electrostatic interactions with the β carboxyl group of Asp-74(α), C-terminal His-146(β), and Glu-7(β) by virtue of their proximity, which is 2.67-2.91 Å (N-O). Additionally, there are histidine residues within 4.55-7.38 Å (N-N) around eight sites except for Lys-7(α). We conclude that the following factors seem to be necessary for glycation of lysine residues: (i) the apparent absence of aspartate or glutamate residues to inhibit the glycation reaction by forming an electrostatic interaction, (ii) the presence of histidine residues for acid-base catalysis of the Amadori rearrangement, and (iii) the presence of an amino acid residue capable of stabilizing a phosphate during proton transfer.

  16. Dilemmas surrounding passive euthanasia--a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Norchaya

    2005-09-01

    In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment.

  17. Mercury's interior, surface, and surrounding environment latest discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief details the MESSENGER Mission, the findings of which present challenges to widely held conventional views and remaining mysteries surrounding the planet. The work answers the question of why Mercury is so dense, and the implications from geochemical data on its planetary formation. It summarizes imaging and compositional data from the terrestrial planet surface processes and explains the geologic history of Mercury.  It also discusses the lack of southern hemisphere coverage. Our understanding of the planet Mercury has been in a transitional phase over the decades since Mariner 10. The influx of new data from the NASA MESSENGER Mission since it was inserted into the orbit of Mercury in March of 2011 has greatly accelerated that shift. The combined compositional data of relatively high volatiles (S, K), relatively low refractories (Al, Ca), and low crustal iron, combined with an active, partially molten iron rich core, has major implications for Mercury and Solar System formation. From a s...

  18. Beliefs and practices surrounding postpartum period among Myanmar women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Kyi Kyi

    2013-11-01

    to examine the postpartum beliefs and practices among young women (15-24 years) both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a cross-sectional comparative study using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGDs). Kyimyindaing Township in the western district of Yangon, Myanmar. young women (15-24 years) who had experience of at least one live birth were included. A total of 196 women for a quantitative survey and 31 women for FGDs were recruited. postpartum beliefs and practices at the last childbirth were explored by a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and four FGDs (two in urban and two in rural areas). The survey questionnaire covered socio-demographic data, food and behavioural restrictions and observances during the last postpartum period and underlying reasons for those practices. Majority of participants followed the traditional postpartum practices regardless of the area of residence and education level. Notion of 'dirty lochia' was identified. traditional beliefs and practices surrounding post partum were highly prevalent among young women. Variation in degree and duration of adherence to postpartum taboos was noted. These beliefs and practices were imparted and perpetuated by women's close social network. the findings point out the importance of awareness of postpartum beliefs and practices among health staff for providing culturally sensitive health care and gaining better co-operation and mutual understanding in giving health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unilateral lung agenesis--detrimental roles of surrounding vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, An-Kou; Huang, Shu-Chien; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Huang, Pei-Ming; Wang, Jou-Kou; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chang, Chung-I; Chiu, Ing-Sh; Wu, En-Ting

    2007-03-01

    Unilateral lung agenesis is a rare congenital defect and could be associated with multiple abnormalities. The patients usually have poor long-term outcomes especially in those with right lung agenesis. We reviewed the 10-year experience in our hospital to describe special clinical features and try to delineate the causes of poor outcomes. From 1995 to 2005, 14 patients less than 18 years of age with unilateral lung agenesis (4 with left agenesis, 10 with right agenesis) were enrolled. Medical records reviewed included diagnosis, presentation, chromosome anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies and interventions, outcomes. We found that the mechanisms of severe airway disease in right lung agenesis included (1) trachea compression by the aortic arch, (2) the presence of "pseudo-ring-sling complex," (3) distended pulmonary artery due to left to right shunt which impinged the only bronchus, and finally (4) the persistent LSVC that restricts the growth of trachea. The etiologies of airway complication in left lung agenesis included anomalous aortic arch compression on trachea and the coexisting heart disease with significant left to right shunt, which impinged on the bronchus. In conclusion, unilateral lung agenesis has frequently associated airway problems due to its surrounding vessels. Satisfactory airway intervention remains challenging. This disease still requires great effort to improve patient outcomes.

  20. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun -- a new perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gry, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium around the Sun (LISM) made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar medium, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of MgII, FeII and HI. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the LISM consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions per...

  1. An insight in the surroundings of HR4796

    CERN Document Server

    Lagrange, A -M; Boccaletti, A; Lacour, S; Thebault, P; Chauvin, G; Mouillet, D; Augereau, J C; Bonnefoy, M; Ehrenreich, D; Kral, Q

    2012-01-01

    HR4796 is a young, early A-type star harbouring a well structured debris disk, shaped as a ring with sharp inner edges. It forms with the M-type star HR4796B a binary system, with a proj. sep. ~560 AU. Our aim is to explore the surroundings of HR4796A and B, both in terms of extended or point-like structures. Adaptive optics images at L'-band were obtained with NaCo in Angular Differential Mode and with Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM). We analyse the data as well as the artefacts that can be produced by ADI reduction on an extended structure with a shape similar to that of HR4796A dust ring. We determine constraints on the presence of companions using SAM and ADI on HR4796A, and ADI on HR4796B. We also performed dynamical simulations of a disk of planetesimals and dust produced by collisions, perturbed by a planet located close to the disk outer edge. The disk ring around HR4796A is well resolved. We highlight the potential effects of ADI reduction of the observed disk shape and surface brightness distribution,...

  2. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  3. Expression of zebrafish nos2b surrounds oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kar-Lai; Richardson, Michael; Korzh, Vladimir

    2008-06-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO), and is one of the factors establishing innate immunity. In zebrafish, Nos2 is represented by nos2a and nos2b. Here, we report the cloning and expression pattern of the zebrafish nos2b gene, which does not seem to participate in induced immune response. nos2b was mapped to zebrafish linkage group 15. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of nos2b in embryonic zebrafish was analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization. nos2b is expressed constitutively in two primordia located along the ventral midline. The first group of cells contributes to the neurohypophysis. Initially at the level of the ventral hindbrain, the second group of cells migrates closely with the thyroid primordium to its final position at the basihyal by 3 dpf. Thus, the analysis of expression pattern of nos2b reveals complex morphogenetic movements resulting in its expression surrounding the oral cavity.

  4. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  5. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Extended stellar substructure surrounding the Boötes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, T. A.; Mackey, A. D.; Jerjen, H.; Da Costa, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    We present deep stellar photometry of the Boötes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy in g- and i-band filters, taken with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo in Chile. Our analysis reveals a large, extended region of stellar substructure surrounding the dwarf, as well as a distinct overdensity encroaching on its tidal radius. A radial profile of the Boötes I stellar distribution shows a break radius indicating the presence of extra-tidal stars. These observations strongly suggest that Boötes I is experiencing tidal disruption, although not as extreme as that exhibited by the Hercules dwarf spheroidal. Combined with revised velocity dispersion measurements from the literature, we see evidence suggesting the need to review previous theoretical models of the Boötes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

  7. Extended stellar substructure surrounding the Bo\\"otes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Roderick, T A; Jerjen, H; Da Costa, G S

    2016-01-01

    We present deep stellar photometry of the Bo\\"otes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy in g and i band filters, taken with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo in Chile. Our analysis reveals a large, extended region of stellar substructure surrounding the dwarf, as well as a distinct over-density encroaching on its tidal radius. A radial profile of the Bo\\"otes I stellar distribution shows a break radius indicating the presence of extra-tidal stars. These observations strongly suggest that Bo\\"otes I is experiencing tidal disruption, although not as extreme as that exhibited by the Hercules dwarf spheroidal. Combined with revised velocity dispersion measurements from the literature, we see evidence suggesting the need to review previous theoretical models of the Bo\\"otes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

  8. Variations of geoid undulations from satellite data of GRACE for Israel and surrounding countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelecky, Jan; Klokocnik, Jaroslav; Bezdek, Ales

    2017-04-01

    Since 2002, the US-German GRACE satellite mission (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) has been providing a precise survey of the Earth's time-variable gravity field, with unprecedented temporal and spatial sampling. GRACE time-variable gravity field is a tool for measuring temporal and spatial variations of the mass redistribution within the Earth system. Time variability of the gravity field is presented here as "monthly gravity field models" of the geoid undulations. We show their regional variations in Israel and surrounding countries which have seasonal and secular character, connected with desiccation of underground water in the area. During 13 year interval of the data from GRACE, the secular decrease of the level of the waters in this area became evident. This result supports warnings coming from other data and points to the existence of a great danger not only for this area.

  9. The interplay between the young stellar super cluster Westerlund 1, and the surrounding interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the multi-band (CO, HI and Spitzer maps, large-scale (150 pc gaseous structure around Westerlund 1, the most massive known superstar cluster in the Milky Way, with the intention of exploring the effect of feedback from massive stars in this young (age < 5 Myr cluster on the surrounding interstellar medium. We find no traces of the parental molecular cloud in the immediate vicinity of the cluster, instead this volume is partially filled by HI gas. On the other hand, there are two giant molecular clouds, both moving away from the cluster at 5–10 km s−1, at distances of around 50–150 pc. There are several ultra-compact HII regions associated with these giant molecular clouds. All these events suggest that the cluster has played an important role in re-structuring the ISM, in the form of ejecting the molecular gas, as well as triggering secondary star formation.

  10. Impact of volcanic fluoride and SO/sub 7/ emissions from moderated activity volcanoes on the surrounding vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrec, J.P.; Plebin, R.; Faivre-Pierret, R.X.

    1984-01-01

    Studies in the regions of the volcanoes Etna (Italy) and Masaya (Nicaragua) show that the continuous emissions of gaseous pollutants (HF and SO/sub 2/) from moderated activity volcanoes causes a chronic pollution in the surrounding vegetation with certain economical and ecological consequences. Reciprocally the measure of the pollutants in the plants growing in volcanic regions may be a simple and fast method to investigate some characteristics of the volcanic plume: for example, intensity of the emissions of gas, direction and extent of the plume. 12 references.

  11. Seedling diversity and spatially related regenaration dynamics in holly woodlands and surrounding habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arrieta

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of seedling distribution and diversity were analysed in small fragments of holly Ilex aquifolium L. woodlands and in their surrounding areas. Two sampling locations with similar structure were selected for this study: Oncala and Robregordo. They consist of nearly monospecific Ilex stands surrounded by grasslands with high scrub abundance.

    The seedling appearance of woody species was quantified from March to November 1998. Sampled areas were: 1 closed holly canopy; 2 open holly canopy or small forest gaps; 3 holly woodland edge; 4 surrounding grassland; 5 under isolated fleshy-fruited shrubs scattered over the grassland; 6 under dry-fruited shrubs and 7 the closest forest to the holly woodland. Additionally, a pine forest at a distance of 20 km from Oncala was sampled. In every area ten permanent 50 × 50 cm quadrats were fixed for monthly seedling control.

    The highest germination density occurs under the holly woodland, especially in closed canopy areas. Nevertheless, these closed woodlands neither maintain a great quantity of surviving seedlings nor a high diversity. Seedling density is considerable in canopy gaps, shrubs and forest edge, and these habitats have greater diversity values than understorey habitats. Fleshy-fruited shrubs maintain higher seedling densities and diversity than dry-fruited shrubs. Woody seedlings are rare over the grassland. The three non-holly forests studied have very similar seedling densities and diversity values, higher than those under closed-canopy holly.

    Regional differences are important for the numbers of seedlings surviving from previous years, which are scareer in Robregordo. However, little difference is observed in spatial patterns of seedling diversity between the two locations.

    We discuss a number of processes affecting seed rain density and differential mortality rates that could account for these spatial patterns, namely competition

  12. Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carmisciano

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the region at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aeromagnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

  13. Coupling Between the Climate Variables of Amazonia and its Surrounding Oceans During Drought Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Antônio M. de T.; Macau, Elbert E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Teleconnection patterns between different climate systems have been seen as a feature of the internal dynamics of atmosphere and ocean. However several questions about this non-linear dynamics remain open, especially the interplay of the warming of Oceans and the anomaly precipitation in the Amazon region. For this reason, we investigate how the coupling between the ocean's temperature and the precipitation in Amazon evolve in time. In particular, how does this coupling behave during an anomalous drought period in Amazonia. Here a data-driven approach is applied to detect the coupling time scale between the precipitation in the North/South Amazonia and its surrounding oceans. The framework comprises statistical and information theory approaches that can reveal directional links between the different regional domains. The method is applied on a daily resolution data sets, the variables are average over regional domains well studied in the literature. Finally, the outcomes are systematically analysed seeking patterns that may reveal the underlying dynamics between these climate systems. Also, the study sheds light into the elementary form of the climate network between these systems.

  14. Correlation between calculated stress distribution and recorded seismicity in Northern Israel and its surrounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, N.; Kurzon, I.; Rosenthal, M.; Segev, A.; Rybakov, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Lyakhovsky, V.

    2015-12-01

    We study the relationship between crustal structure, tectonic slip, and seismicity. A detailed 3-D layered crustal model is constructed including the geometry and mechanical properties of the main geological units of the study area, Northern Israel and its surrounding. Boundary condition of the 3-D model had been set according to the regional GPS measurements and including localized weak zones extrapolated from the mapped faults. The regional crustal model is converted to 1-D seismic velocity model that was applied in second order relocation software (hypoDD), to obtain more accurate earthquake location. We compare earthquake record of the past 30 years with areas of uplifted shear stress in the crustal model, and compare it with a reference 3-D model with flat layers and similar rock properties. Numerical simulation shows spatial distribution of the zones with increased shear stress associated with differential gravitational load, weak zones geometry, and tectonic load. The obtained zones with high stress are well correlated with earthquake locations. Our results and interpretation highlight the importance and advantages of utilizing detailed crustal structure for assessment of regional seismic hazards.

  15. The IC 5146 star forming complex and its surroundings with 2MASS, WISE and Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, N. A.; Bonatto, C.; Bica, E.

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the last decade sensitive infrared observations obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope significantly increased the known population of YSOs associated with nearby molecular clouds. With such a census recent studies have characterized pre-main sequence stars (PMS) and determined parameters from different wavelengths. Given the restricted Spitzer coverage of some of these clouds, relative to their extended regions, these YSO populations may represent a limited view of star formation in these regions. We are taking advantage of mid-infrared observations from the NASA Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), which provides an all sky view and therefore full coverage of the nearby clouds, to assess the degree to which their currently known YSO population may be representative of a more complete population. We extend the well established classification method of the Spitzer Legacy teams to archived WISE observations. We have adopted 2MASS photometry as a "standard catalogue" for comparisons. Besides the massive embedded cluster IC 5146 we provide a multiband view of five new embedded clusters in its surroundings that we discovered with WISE. In short, the analysis involves the following for the presently studied cluster sample: (i) extraction of 2MASS/WISE/Spitzer photometry in a wide circular region; (ii) field-star decontamination to enhance the intrinsic Colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) morphology (essential for a proper derivation of reddening, age, and distance from the Sun); and (iii) construction of Colour-magnitude filters, for more contrasted stellar radial density profiles (RDPs).

  16. Small impact of surrounding oceanic conditions on 2007-2012 Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, B.; Fettweis, X.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Erpicum, M.

    2014-03-01

    During recent summers (2007-2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favouring warmer than normal conditions over the GrIS. In addition, it has been suggested that significant anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) may partially explain recent anomalous GrIS surface melt. To assess the impact of 2007-2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR. These simulations suggest that changes in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not significantly impact GrIS SMB, due to the katabatic winds blocking effect. These winds are strong enough to prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST variability, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds are weaker. However, anomalies in SIC and SST could have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, favouring more frequent warm air advection to the GrIS.

  17. Isoperimetric inequalities in surround system and space science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaJin Wen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By means of the algebraic, analysis, convex geometry, computer, and inequality theories we establish the following isoperimetric inequality in the centered 2-surround system S ( 2 { P , Γ , l } $S^{(2} \\{P,\\varGamma ,l \\}$ : ( 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ r ¯ P p 1 / p ⩽ | Γ | 4 π sin l π | Γ | [ csc l π | Γ | + cot 2 l π | Γ | ln ( tan l π | Γ | + sec l π | Γ | ] , ∀ p ⩽ − 2 . $$\\begin{aligned}& \\biggl(\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\bar{r}_{P}^{p} \\biggr^{1/p}\\leqslant\\frac{|\\varGamma |}{4\\pi}\\sin\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggl[ \\csc \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\cot^{2} \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\ln \\biggl(\\tan \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\sec\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr \\biggr], \\\\& \\quad \\forall p\\leqslant -2. \\end{aligned}$$ As an application of the inequality in space science, we obtain the best lower bounds of the mean λ-gravity norm ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ $\\overline{\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\Vert }$ as follows: ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ ≜ 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ 1 ∥ A − P ∥ λ ⩾ ( 2 π | Γ | λ , ∀ λ ⩾ 2 . $$\\overline{\\bigl\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\bigr\\Vert } \\triangleq\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\frac{1}{\\|A-P\\|^{\\lambda }}\\geqslant \\biggl(\\frac{2\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr^{\\lambda},\\quad \\forall \\lambda\\geqslant2. $$

  18. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun: a new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gry, Cécile; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium, made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar gas, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of Mg II, Fe II, and H I. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the local interstellar medium consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions perpendicular to this flow, much like a squashed balloon. Average H I volume densities inside the cloud vary between 0.03 and 0.1 cm-3 over different directions. Metals appear to be significantly depleted onto grains, and there is a steady increase in depletion from the rear of the cloud to the apex of motion. There is no evidence that changes in the ionizing radiation influence the apparent abundances. Secondary absorption components are detected in 60% of the sight lines. Almost all of them appear to be interior to the volume occupied by the main cloud. Half of the sight lines exhibit a secondary component moving at about -7.2 km s-1 with respect to the main component, which may be the signature of a shock propagating toward the cloud's interior.

  19. DEFORMATION OF MOISTURE FLUX CIRCULATION SURROUNDING THE LANDFALL TYPHOON "BILIS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Ling-kun; YANG Wen-xia; HONG Yan-chao

    2009-01-01

    The deformation parameter (DP), which is defined as the product of shear deformation and stretching deformation of moisture flux circulation, is introduced. The tendency equation of DP is derived in pressure coordinates. Furthermore, DP is used to diagnose the deformation character of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis. The analysis showed that before Bilis landed, DP presented eight abnormal areas, which distributed alternately and closely encircled the low-pressure center. This indicated that the moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis rotated counterclockwise and stretched longitudinally and latitudinally to deform. After Bilis landed, DP weakened gradually and its regular pattern of horizontal distribution loosened. The shear and stretching deformations of moisture flux circulation surrounding Bilis weakened after the typhoon landed. The deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis mainly appeared in the middle-lower troposphere. There existed 1/2 phase difference between the shear and stretching deformations in the vertical-latitudinal cross section and a π/4 phase difference between them on the horizontal plane. As Bilis landed and further moved inland of China, the intensities of DP, shear and stretching deformations decreased, meanwhile their vertical and horizontal structures became irregular. The chief dynamic factors responsible for the deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis were the three terms associated with the three-dimensional advection transportation of DP, square difference between shear and stretching deformations coupling with Coriolis parameter, and horizontal gradient of geopotential height before Bilis landed. The last two dynamic factors impacted jointly on the deformation of moisture flux circulation after Bilis landed.

  20. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  1. Sh2-205: I. The surrounding interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, G A

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the HII region Sh2-205 and its environs, based on data obtained from the CGPS, 12CO observations, and MSX data. We find that Sh2-205 can be separated in three independent optical structures: SH149.25--0.0, SH 148.83-0.67, and LBN 148.11-0.45. The derived spectral indices show the thermal nature of SH 148.83--0.67 and LBN 148.11--0.45. The morphology of SH 148.83--0.67, both in the optical and radio data, along with the energetic requ irements indicate that this feature is an interstellar bubble powered by the UV photons of HD 24431 (O9 III). LBN 148.11--0.45 has the morphology of a classic al HII region and their ionizing sources remain uncertain. Dust and molecular gas are found related to LBN 148.11-0.45.Particularly, a photodissociation region is detected at the interface between the ionized and molecular regions. If the proposed exciting star HD 24094 were an O8--O9 type star, as suggested by its near-infrared colors, its UV photon flux would be enough to explain the ionization of th...

  2. Circumstances surrounding dying in the paediatric intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plötz Frans B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Death is inevitable in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. We aimed to describe the circumstances surrounding dying in a PICU. Method The chart records of all patients less than 18 years of age who died at the PICU between January first 2000 and July first 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Information regarding sex, age, length of stay, admission, diagnosis, and the way a patient died was registered. Post mortem information regarding natural versus unnatural death, autopsy and donation was obtained. Non-survivors were allocated in five groups: do-not-resuscitate (DNR, withholding and/or withdrawal of therapy (W/W, failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (failed CPR, brain death (BD, and terminal organ failure (TOF. Results During the study period 87 (4.4% of the 1995 admitted patients died. Non-survivors were more often admitted during the day (54% and the week (68%. W/W was found in 27.6%, TOF in 26.4%, BD in 23.0%, failed CPR in 18.4%, and DNR in 4.6%. Forty-three percent died in the first two days, of which BD (40.5% and failed CPR (37.8% were most common. Seventy-five children (86% died due to a natural cause. Autopsy permission was obtained in 19 of 54 patients (35%. The autopsies confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 11 patients, revealed new information in 5 patients, and in 3 patients the autopsy did not provide additional information. Nine patients were medically suitable for organ donation and 24 patients for tissue donation, whereas consent was only obtained in 2 cases in both groups. Conclusion We observed that 43% of the patients died within the first two days of admission due to BD and failed CPR, whereas after 4 days most patients died after W/W. Autopsy remains an useful tool to confirm clinical diagnoses or to provide new information. Only a small percentage of the deceased children is suitable for organ donation.

  3. Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Cylinders Surrounded by Various Reflector Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard Jones; J. Blair Briggs; Leland Monteirth

    2007-05-01

    A series of experiments was performed at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1958 to determine critical masses of cylinders of Oralloy (Oy) reflected by a number of materials. The experiments were all performed on the Comet Universal Critical Assembly Machine, and consisted of discs of highly enriched uranium (93.3 wt.% 235U) reflected by half-inch and one-inch-thick cylindrical shells of various reflector materials. The experiments were performed by members of Group N-2, particularly K. W. Gallup, G. E. Hansen, H. C. Paxton, and R. H. White. This experiment was intended to ascertain critical masses for criticality safety purposes, as well as to compare neutron transport cross sections to those obtained from danger coefficient measurements with the Topsy Oralloy-Tuballoy reflected and Godiva unreflected critical assemblies. The reflector materials examined in this series of experiments are as follows: magnesium, titanium, aluminum, graphite, mild steel, nickel, copper, cobalt, molybdenum, natural uranium, tungsten, beryllium, aluminum oxide, molybdenum carbide, and polythene (polyethylene). Also included are two special configurations of composite beryllium and iron reflectors. Analyses were performed in which uncertainty associated with six different parameters was evaluated; namely, extrapolation to the uranium critical mass, uranium density, 235U enrichment, reflector density, reflector thickness, and reflector impurities. In addition to the idealizations made by the experimenters (removal of the platen and diaphragm), two simplifications were also made to the benchmark models that resulted in a small bias and additional uncertainty. First of all, since impurities in core and reflector materials are only estimated, they are not included in the benchmark models. Secondly, the room, support structure, and other possible surrounding equipment were not included in the model. Bias values that result from these two simplifications were determined and associated

  4. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  5. Reliability analysis of tunnel surrounding rock stability by Monte-Carlo method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Jia-mi; YANG Geng-she

    2008-01-01

    Discussed advantages of improved Monte-Carlo method and feasibility aboutproposed approach applying in reliability analysis for tunnel surrounding rock stability. Onthe basis of deterministic parsing for tunnel surrounding rock, reliability computing methodof surrounding rock stability was derived from improved Monte-Carlo method. The com-puting method considered random of related parameters, and therefore satisfies relativityamong parameters. The proposed method can reasonably determine reliability of sur-rounding rock stability. Calculation results show that this method is a scientific method indiscriminating and checking surrounding rock stability.

  6. Clinical Observation of Vascular Dementia Treated by Surrounding-acupuncture of the CT-located Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUN Xin; FENG Bi-fang; RONG Li; YANG Wen-hui

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To observe the clinical effect of "Surrounding Needling Technigue through CT Location" in treating vascular dementia. Method Fifty cases of vascular dementia were randomly divided into surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture groups, 25 cases in each group,and were given surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture respectively. Results The effective rates in surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture groups were 88% and 60% respectively, and there was significant difference between the two groups, P < 0.01.Conclusion Therapeutic effect of surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location in treating vascular dementia was satisfactory, and better than that of routine acupuncture.

  7. [Observations and comparison analysis of air pollution in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Ji, Dong-Sheng; Song, Tao; Lin, Hong; Wang, Yue-Si; Jiang, Chang-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    In order to study regional air quality, evaluate the interaction of air quality among Beijing and four cities and assess the effects of regional collaborative emission abatement in Beijing and surrounding areas for the Olympic Games period on regional air quality, and seek an effective means of early warning of air pollution, a monitoring network on observation of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing and four nearby cities which were Zhuozhou, Langfang, Xianghe and Yanjiao, was established to measure concentrations of NO(x), O3 and particulate matter in June 2008. The results show that the primary pollutants in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas are particulates during the study periods. The average mass concentrations of PM10 were (114 +/- 66) microg/m3 and (128 +/- 59) microg/m3 in Beijing and nearby cities, respectively, while the average mass concentrations of PM2.5 were (77 +/- 47) microg/m3 and (81 +/- 51) microg/m3, respectively. The average maximum hourly mass concentrations of O3 were (164 +/- 52) microg/m3 and (165 +/- 55) microg/m3, as well as the average mass concentrations of NO(x) were (58 +/- 23) microg/m3 and (25 +/- 14) microg/m3 in Beijing and nearby cities, respectively. Compared to June, concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO(x) decreased by 69%, 62%, 18% and 41% during the Olympic period (from August 8 to 24) and 56%, 49%, 17% and 16% during the Paralympic Games period (from September 6 to 17) in Beijing. The mass concentration of PM2.5 was affected by the surrounding areas of Beijing seriously. The relative high concentrations of NO(x) in Beijing implied NO(x) had the potential tendency to be transported to the surrounding areas. Ozone showed regional pollution characteristics in summer. It shows that the monitoring network on observation of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas is significant in early warning of air pollution, and could provide scientific support for interregional cooperation of air pollution control.

  8. Complex genetic structure of the rabies virus in Bangkok and its surrounding provinces, Thailand: implications for canine rabies control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Ruankaew, Nipada; Hoonsuwan, Wirongrong; Puanghat, Apirom; Sakarasaeranee, Plyyonk; Briggs, Deborrah; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2006-03-01

    Dog vaccination and population management have been suggested as priorities in attempts at disease control in canine rabies-endemic countries. Budget limitations and the complexity of social, cultural and religious variables have complicated progress in the developing world. In Bangkok, Thailand, an intensive canine vaccination and sterilization programme has been in place since November 2002. Our objective was to determine if the rabies virus could be mapped according to its genetic variations and geographical location on the small localized scale of Bangkok and its surrounding provinces. Phylogenetic characterization of 69 samples from Bangkok and five neighbouring and two remote provinces, by limited sequence analysis of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene, distinguished six different clades. Rabies viruses of four clades were intermixed in Bangkok and in the surrounding highly populated regions whereas the other two clades were confined to rural and less populated provinces. Such a complex pattern of gene flow, particularly in Bangkok, may affect the outcome of canine control programmes.

  9. Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnykh, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was

  10. Divergence in cis-regulatory sequences surrounding the opsin gene arrays of African cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streelman J Todd

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Divergence within cis-regulatory sequences may contribute to the adaptive evolution of gene expression, but functional alleles in these regions are difficult to identify without abundant genomic resources. Among African cichlid fishes, the differential expression of seven opsin genes has produced adaptive differences in visual sensitivity. Quantitative genetic analysis suggests that cis-regulatory alleles near the SWS2-LWS opsins may contribute to this variation. Here, we sequence BACs containing the opsin genes of two cichlids, Oreochromis niloticus and Metriaclima zebra. We use phylogenetic footprinting and shadowing to examine divergence in conserved non-coding elements, promoter sequences, and 3'-UTRs surrounding each opsin in search of candidate cis-regulatory sequences that influence cichlid opsin expression. Results We identified 20 conserved non-coding elements surrounding the opsins of cichlids and other teleosts, including one known enhancer and a retinal microRNA. Most conserved elements contained computationally-predicted binding sites that correspond to transcription factors that function in vertebrate opsin expression; O. niloticus and M. zebra were significantly divergent in two of these. Similarly, we found a large number of relevant transcription factor binding sites within each opsin's proximal promoter, and identified five opsins that were considerably divergent in both expression and the number of transcription factor binding sites shared between O. niloticus and M. zebra. We also found several microRNA target sites within the 3'-UTR of each opsin, including two 3'-UTRs that differ significantly between O. niloticus and M. zebra. Finally, we examined interspecific divergence among 18 phenotypically diverse cichlids from Lake Malawi for one conserved non-coding element, two 3'-UTRs, and five opsin proximal promoters. We found that all regions were highly conserved with some evidence of CRX transcription

  11. VESUVIUS PENTALOGUE: Interdisciplinary Science for Disaster Resilience and Sustainability of Populations Surrounding Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobran, F.

    2015-12-01

    VESUVIUS PENTALOGUE is an elaboration of VESUVIUS 2000 scientific initiative aimed at volcanic risk reduction in the Vesuvius area. Its 5 building blocks are: (1) The current strategy of volcanic risk management (massive deportation of population) is both problematic and unacceptable. (2) A continuing close habitation of the population with the volcano should be the crucial cultural point to be pursued. This can be accomplished through a redefinition of the danger zone around Summa-Vesuvius as follows: (a) An exclusion nucleus should be established that prohibits all future human settlements and discourage the existing ones; (b) A resilience belt, housing most of the current population, should be established; (c) A sustainable area should be established beyond the resilience belt, allowing for both sustainable practices and temporary resettlements of the "resilience belt" citizens. (3) The built environment construction codes for the population of the danger zone should be established by utilizing Plinian eruption scenarios, scenario-based seismic hazard assessment and zonation, (c) dynamic structural analyses, (d) global volcanic simulations modeling of thermo-fluid dynamic eruption processes. (4) The volcanic risk information and education should involve an effective volcanic risk information campaign and active public preparedness strategy. This should be implemented for the exclusion nucleus, resilience belt, and sustainable area regions surrounding Summa-Vesuvius. A Volcanic Risk Education Safety Program should be implemented in all schools located within each of the above areas surrounding the volcano. (5)The political Authorities and the scientific community should produce a "memorandum of understanding" that univocally establishes an effective collaboration, and periodic progress reports that keep the populations informed on the improvements leading to the realization of the above objectives. For further details see www.gvess.org.

  12. Increasing development in the surroundings of U.S. National Park Service holdings jeopardizes park effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmi, Urs; Schmidt, Shelley L; Hawbaker, Todd J; Alcántara, Camilo; Gafvert, Ulf; Radeloff, Volker C

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas are cornerstones of biodiversity conservation, but they are in danger of becoming islands in a sea of human dominated landscapes. Our question was if protected areas may even foster development in their surroundings because they provide amenities that attract development, thus causing the isolation of the ecosystems they were designed to protect. Our study analyzed historic aerial photographs and topographical maps to reconstruct road development and building growth within and around Indiana Dunes and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshores in the U.S. Great Lakes region from 1938 to 2005, and to estimate the effects of park creation in 1966 on changes in landscape patterns. Historic U.S. census housing density data were used as a baseline to compare observed changes to. Our results showed that park establishment was effective in reducing and stopping the fragmenting impact of development within park boundaries. However, increased amenity levels following park establishment led to enhanced development in the surroundings of both parks. In the extreme case of Indiana Dunes, building density outside the park increased from 45 to 200buildings/km(2) and road density almost doubled from 3.6 to 6.6km/km(2) from 1938 to 2005. Development rates of change were much higher than in the broader landscape, particularly after park establishment. The potential amenity effect was up to 9500 new buildings in the 3.2-km zone around Indiana Dunes between 1966 and 2005. For Pictured Rocks the absolute effect was smaller but up to 70% of the observed building growth was potentially due to amenity effects. Our findings highlight the need for conservation planning at broader scales, incorporating areas beyond the boundaries of protected areas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Geometry of deformed black holes. II. Schwarzschild hole surrounded by a Bach-Weyl ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basovník, M.; Semerák, O.

    2016-08-01

    We continue to study the response of black-hole space-times on the presence of additional strong sources of gravity. Restricting ourselves to static and axially symmetric (electro)vacuum exact solutions of Einstein's equations, we first considered the Majumdar-Papapetrou solution for a binary of extreme black holes in a previous paper, while here we deal with a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a concentric thin ring described by the Bach-Weyl solution. The geometry is again revealed on the simplest invariants determined by the metric (lapse function) and its gradient (gravitational acceleration), and by curvature (Kretschmann scalar). Extending the metric inside the black hole along null geodesics tangent to the horizon, we mainly focus on the black-hole interior (specifically, on its sections at constant Killing time) where the quantities behave in a way indicating a surprisingly strong influence of the external source. Being already distinct on the level of potential and acceleration, this is still more pronounced on the level of curvature: for a sufficiently massive and/or nearby (small) ring, the Kretschmann scalar even becomes negative in certain toroidal regions mostly touching the horizon from inside. Such regions have been interpreted as those where magnetic-type curvature dominates, but here we deal with space-times which do not involve rotation and the negative value is achieved due to the electric-type components of the Riemann/Weyl tensor. The Kretschmann scalar also shapes rather nontrivial landscapes outside the horizon.

  14. P3-23: Center/Surround Motion Interactions Measured Using a Nulling Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many direction-selective neurons have a receptive field structure that promotes suppressive interactions between center and surround regions. These interactions sculpt the overall pattern of activity among those neurons and, therefore, presumably impact perceived direction of motion. To test this conjecture, we have assessed the effect of motion signals produced by a moving stimulus on perceived motion within a neighboring region. On each trial a vertical bar (inducer appeared at 8 eccentricity in the upper visual field, moving either leftward or rightward, and a circular shaped random dot kinematogram (test appeared at 4 eccentricity. The test dots moved randomly except when the inducer passed nearby the test, at which time a pulse of coherent motion occurred in one of the two directions within the test. Coherence strength was adjusted by QUEST to maintain equal likelihood (point of subjective equality: PSE of leftward and rightward reports of perceived direction during this motion pulse. The inducer caused a substantial shift in PSE: it was necessary for the test to contain 50% coherent motion in the same direction as that of the inducer to nullify the illusory motion within the test caused by the inducer. The effect of the inducer could also be offset by simultaneously presenting a second inducer moving in the opposite direction. This pattern of results implies substantial suppressive interactions between neighboring moving stimuli, interactions whose strength and direction can be assessed psychophysically using nulling procedures.

  15. The Interaction of Type Ia Supernovae with their Surroundings The Exponential profile in 2D

    CERN Document Server

    Dwarkadas, V V

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of Type Ia supernovae in the surrounding medium is studied using 2-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations. The ejecta are assumed to be described by an exponential density profile, following the work of Dwarkadas & Chevalier (1998). The case of a circumstellar (CS) region formed by mass loss from the progenitor or a companion star is also considered. The decelerating contact discontinuity is found to be Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) unstable, as expected, and the nature of the instability is studied in detail for 2 cases: 1) a constant density ambient medium, and 2) a CS medium whose density goes as r^{-2}. The nature of the instability is found to be different in both cases. In the case of a CS medium the instability is much better resolved, and a fractal-like structure is seen. In the case of a constant density medium the extent of growth is less, and the R-T fingers are found to be limited by the presence of Kelvin-Helmholtz mushroom caps at the tips of the fingers. The unstable region is...

  16. Variable Ly alpha sheds light on the environment surrounding GRB 090426

    CERN Document Server

    Thöne, C C; Lazzati, D; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Fynbo, J P U; Christensen, L; Levan, A J; Aloy, M A; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Levesque, E M; Malesani, D; Milvang-Jensen, B; Roming, P W A; Tanvir, N R; Wiersema, K; Gladders, M; Wuyts, E; Dahle, H

    2011-01-01

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts are commonly associated with the deaths of massive stars. Spectroscopic studies using the afterglow as a light source provide a unique opportunity to unveil the medium surrounding it, probing the densest region of their galaxies. This material is usually in a low ionisation state and at large distances from the burst site, hence representing the normal interstellar medium in the galaxy. Here we present the case of GRB 090426 at z=2.609, whose optical spectrum indicates an almost fully ionised medium together with a low column density of neutral hydrogen. For the first time, we also observe variations in the Ly alpha absorption line. Photoionisation modeling shows that we are probing material from the vicinity of the burst (~80 pc). The host galaxy is a complex of two luminous interacting galaxies, which might suggest that this burst could have occurred in an isolated star-forming region outside its host galaxy created in the interaction of the two galaxies.

  17. Inhibition of the dorsal premotor cortex does not repair surround inhibition in writer's cramp patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugen, Lidwien C; Hoffland, Britt S; Stegeman, Dick F; van de Warrenburg, Bart P

    2013-03-01

    Writer's cramp is a task-specific form of focal dystonia, characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the hand and arm during writing. Two consistent abnormalities in its pathophysiology are a loss of surround inhibition and overactivity of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). This study aimed to assess a possible link between these two phenomena by investigating whether PMd inhibition leads to an improvement of surround inhibition, in parallel with previously demonstrated writing improvement. Fifteen writer's cramp patients and ten controls performed a simple motor hand task during which surround inhibition was measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Motor cortical excitability was measured of the active and surround muscles at three phases of the task. Surround inhibition and writing performance were assessed before and after PMd inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation. In contrast to healthy controls, patients did not show inhibition of the abductor digiti minimi muscle during movement initiation of the first dorsal interosseus muscle, confirming the loss of surround inhibition. PMd inhibition led to an improvement of writing speed in writer's cramp patients. However, in both groups, no changes in surround inhibition were observed. The results confirm a role for the PMd in the pathophysiology of writer's cramp. We show that PMd inhibition does not lead to restoration of the surround inhibition defect in writer's cramp, despite the improvement in writing. This questions the involvement of the PMd in the loss of surround inhibition, and perhaps also the direct link between surround inhibition and dystonia.

  18. Numerical analysis of tunnel reinforcing influences on failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yu-jun; TANG Chun-an; ZHU Wan-cheng; LI Di-yuan; LI Shu-cai

    2008-01-01

    Based on mesoscopic damage mechanics, numerical code RFPA2D (dynamic edition) was developed to analyze the influence of tunnel reinforcing on failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves. The results show that the propagation phenomenon of stress wave in the surrounding rock of tunnel and the failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves are reproduced realistically by using numerical code RFPAED; from the failure process of surrounding rock,the place at which surrounding rock fractures is transferred because of tunnel reinforcing, and the rockfall and collapse caused by failure of surrounding rock are restrained by tunnel reinforcing; furthermore, the absolute values of peak values of major principal stress, and the minimal principal stress and shear stress at center point of tunnel roof are reduced because of tunnel reinforcing, and the displacement at center point of tunnel roof is reduced as well, consequently the stability of tunnel increases.

  19. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-bo; Ip, Carman C M; Zhang, Gan; Jiang, Gui-bin; Li, Xiang-dong

    2010-05-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201ng/g, with an average of 54.4ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the (210)Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades.

  20. Wide-Area Interference Spectroscopy of the Ionized Gas Surrounding the OCL-352 (IC-1805) Stellar Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomos, Nikolaos

    We investigated the global kinematics of the giant ionized shell IC1805 centred a (l,b)=(134.7deg,+0.92deg)at a distance of -2.3 Kpc and surrounding the Ocl352, within Cassiopeia OB6 stellar association. Fabry-Perot interference spectroscopy data in the light of [SIII]9530.9A have been used to obtain the radial velocity field of the IC1795/IC1805 (W3/W4) region as a means to probe the large scale gas motions around Cass Ocl-352. The observations are discussed and interpreted in conjuction with radioastronomical and optical data available. A new empirical model is proposed to account for the complex kinematical structure of the region. As was suggested by Solomos (Ph.D Thesis, 1991)the region is a leaking HII shell with the ionized gas flowing to the North escaping from the galactic plane.

  1. Advances in pharmacovigilance initiatives surrounding antimicrobial resistance-Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Nayak, Veena; A, Avinash; Kunder, Sushil Kiran

    2016-08-01

    In recent years the development of antimicrobial resistance has been accelerating, the discovery of new antimicrobial agents has slowed substantially in past decades. This review mainly focuses on the problem of antimicrobial resistance(AMR); the various contributor mechanisms, consequences and future of AMR. The review also highlights the irrational use of antimicrobials, improving their usage and problems associated with pharmacovigilance of antimicrobial resistance. Pharmacovigilance in the form of surveillance of antibiotic use is being done in 90% of the countries worldwide through the WHONET program developed by WHO. However, the data comes from a limited area of the globe. Data from every part of the world is required, so that there is geographical representation of every region. A major hurdle in quantifying the extent of antimicrobial resistance is the fact that there are several known microbes, that may turn out to be resistant to one or more of the several known antimicrobial agents. The global action plan initiated by WHO, if implemented successfully will definitely reduce AMR and will help in evaluating treatment interventions.

  2. Analysing land cover and land use change in the Matobo National Park and surroundings in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharsich, Valeska; Mtata, Kupakwashe; Hauhs, Michael; Lange, Holger; Bogner, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Natural forests are threatened worldwide, therefore their protection in National Parks is essential. Here, we investigate how this protection status affects the land cover. To answer this question, we analyse the surface reflectance of three Landsat images of Matobo National Park and surrounding in Zimbabwe from 1989, 1998 and 2014 to detect changes in land cover in this region. To account for the rolling countryside and the resulting prominent shadows, a topographical correction of the surface reflectance was required. To infer land cover changes it is not only necessary to have some ground data for the current satellite images but also for the old ones. In particular for the older images no recent field study could help to reconstruct these data reliably. In our study we follow the idea that land cover classes of pixels in current images can be transferred to the equivalent pixels of older ones if no changes occurred meanwhile. Therefore we combine unsupervised clustering with supervised classification as follows. At first, we produce a land cover map for 2014. Secondly, we cluster the images with clara, which is similar to k-means, but suitable for large data sets. Whereby the best number of classes were determined to be 4. Thirdly, we locate unchanged pixels with change vector analysis in the images of 1989 and 1998. For these pixels we transfer the corresponding cluster label from 2014 to 1989 and 1998. Subsequently, the classified pixels serve as training data for supervised classification with random forest, which is carried out for each image separately. Finally, we derive land cover classes from the Landsat image in 2014, photographs and Google Earth and transfer them to the other two images. The resulting classes are shrub land; forest/shallow waters; bare soils/fields with some trees/shrubs; and bare light soils/rocks, fields and settlements. Subsequently the three different classifications are compared and land changes are mapped. The main changes are

  3. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from rural properties surrounding a biological reserve, Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor da Cunha Lima Acosta

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the presence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in serum samples of 187 dogs from 30 rural properties surrounding Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The Reserve is one of the last lowland Atlantic Forest remnants of the region, surrounded by agriculture farms and cattle pastures. The presence of IgG antibodies was determined by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test for T. gondii (cut-off 1:16 and N. caninum (cut-off 1:50. Positive samples were diluted 2-fold until the last positive dilution. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 77 (47.05% dogs and antibodies to N. caninum in 22 dogs (11.76% and one only dog was positive for both infections. No association between T. gondii and N. caninum infection and sex was observed (p>0.05. Control measures to prevent those infections in dogs that living surrounding the reserve and that had contact with wild animals are important to avoid the introduction of N. caninum in wild animals. This was the first study of frequency of occurrence of T. gondii and N. caninum in dogs from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

  4. The cross-correlation of signals and spatial impression in surround sound reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the cross-correlation coefficients of feeding signals and auditory spatial impression(ASI) which are created by the left,right,left surround and right surround loudspeakers in 5.1 channel surround sound system is investigated by psychoacoustic experiments.The results show that for reproducing by the front left-right or left-right surround loudspeakers pair,the auditory source width(ASW) can be broadened by controlling the crosscorrelation coefficients of feeding signals to some e...

  5. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the surface air temperature variations over the Antarctic and its surrounding area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆龙骅; 卞林根; 贾朋群

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of the spatial distribution, temporal variations trend and oscillation for the surface air temperature variations during 1957-1993 in the Antarctic and its surrounding area were analyzed. The results show that the short-time climate change in the Antarctic is complex both temporally and spatially. The Antarctic is by no means the strongest responding region to the global greenhouse effect. There is a distinguished difference in the trends of the temperature changes for the Antarctic and global mean, which could not be explained simply by the global greenhouse effect.

  6. Morphology and distribution of seamounts surrounding Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Y.; Naar, D.F.; Barton, C.C.; Liu, Z.-J.; Hey, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the morphology and distribution of a seamount population on a section of seafloor influenced by both superfast seafloor spreading and hotspot volcanism. The population under investigation is part of a broad chain of seamounts extending eastward from the East Pacific Rise, near Easter Island. In order to define the morphological variability of the seamounts, basal shape, cross-sectional area, volume, flatness, and flank slope are plotted against height for 383 seamounts with heights greater than 200 m, based on bathymetry data collected by GLORI-B and SeaBeam 2000, during three cruises onboard the R/V Melville in the spring of 1993. Nearly complete swath mapping coverage of the seamounts is available for the analysis of size and shape distribution. We quantitatively describe the seamount population of this active region, in which seamounts cover ???27% of the seafloor, and account for ???4.2% of the total crustal volume. Over 50% of the total volume (61,000 km3) of seamounts used in this study is made up by the 14 largest seamounts, and the remaining volume is made up by the 369 smaller seamounts (>200 m in height). Our analysis indicates there are at least two seamount populations in the Easter Island-Salas y Gomez Island (25??-29??S, 113??-104??W) study area. One population of seamounts is composed of short seamounts (1200 m), shield-like, pointy cones (flatness ???1200 m) originate exclusively from a hotspot source, but only a portion of the smaller volcanoes (

  7. A Regional Multi-permit Market for Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Amos, P.; Zhang, E.

    2014-12-01

    Regional cap and trade programs have been in operation since the 1970's to reduce environmental externalities (NOx and SOx emissions) and have been shown to be beneficial. Air quality and water quality limits are enforced through numerous Federal and State laws and regulations while local communities are seeking ways to protect regional green infrastructure and their ecosystems services. Why not combine them in a market approach to reduce many environmental externalities simultaneously? In a multi-permit market program reforestation (land offsets) as part of a nutrient or carbon sequestration trading program would provide a means to reduce agrochemical discharges into streams, rivers, and groundwater. Land conversions also improve the quality and quantity of other environmental externalities such as air pollution. Collocated nonmarket ecosystem services have societal benefits that can expand the crediting system into a multi-permit trading program. At a regional scale it is possible to combine regulation of water quality, air emissions and quality, and habitat conservation and restoration into one program. This research is about the economic feasibility of a Philadelphia regional multi-permit (cap and trade) program for ecosystem services. Instead of establishing individual markets for ecosystem services, the assumption of the spatial portfolio approach is that it is based on the interdependence of ecosystem functions so that market credits encompasses a range of ecosystem services. Using an existing example the components of the approach are described in terms of scenarios of land portfolios and the calculation of expected return on investment and risk. An experiment in the Schuylkill Watershed will be described for ecosystem services such as nutrients in water and populations of bird species along with Green House Gases. The Philadelphia regional market includes the urban - nonurban economic and environmental interactions and impacts.

  8. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): CNMI: Data Assimilating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 3-day, 3-hourly data assimilating hindcast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)...

  9. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Oahu South Shore

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 2-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the south shore of the island of Oahu at approximately 200-m resolution....

  10. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Main Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the main Hawaiian islands at approximately 4-km resolution. While...

  11. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Samoa: Data Assimilating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 3-day, 3-hourly data assimilating hindcast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at approximately 3-km resolution....

  12. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Main Hawaiian Islands: Data Assimilating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 3-day, 3-hourly data assimilating hindcast for the region surrounding the main Hawaiian islands at approximately 4-km...

  13. Comparison of Socioeconomic Factors between Surrounding and Non-Surrounding Areas of the Qinghai–Tibet Railway before and after Its Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s highest railway, and the longest highland railway, the Qinghai–Tibet Railway (QTR has been paid considerable attention by researchers. However, most attention has been paid to the ecological and environmental issues affecting it, and sustainable ecological, social, and economic development-related studies of the QTR are rare. In this study, by analyzing the passenger traffic, freight traffic, passenger-kilometers, and freight-kilometers of the QTR for the period 1982–2013 and the transport structure of the Tibetan Plateau (TP for 1990–2013, the evolutionary process of the transport system in the TP following the construction of the QTR has been revealed. Subsequently, by comparing Gross Domestic Product (GDP, population, industrial structure, and urbanization level at the county and 1 km scales between surrounding and non-surrounding areas of the QTR, the differences in socioeconomic performance before and after its construction were detected. The results show that (1 in the TP, the highway-dominated transport system will break up and an integrated and sustainable transport system will form; (2 at the county scale, the annual growth rates of GDP of counties surrounding the QTR were greater than those of non-surrounding counties for the period 2000–2010. At the 1 km scale, following the opening of the completed line, the GDP of surrounding areas had a greater growth rate than before; (3 analysis at the county and 1 km scales indicated that population was not aggregated into the surrounding areas of the QTR in the period 2000–2010; (4 in terms of industrial structure, the proportion of primary industry decreased continuously, while the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries increased overall in the period 1984–2012. The QTR had no obvious impact on changes in the urbanization level of its surrounding areas.

  14. Bathymetry of the waters surrounding the Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Twichell, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Elizabeth Islands in Massachusetts that separate Vineyard Sound from Buzzards Bay are the remnants of a moraine (unconsolidated glacial sediment deposited at an ice sheet margin; Oldale and O’Hara, 1984). The most recent glacial ice retreat in this region occurred between 25,000 and 20,000 years ago, and the subsequent rise in sea level that followed deglaciation caused differences in the seafloor character between Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound. The relatively rough seafloor of Vineyard Sound reflects widespread exposure of glacial material. Shoals mark the location of recessional ice contact material, and deep channels illustrate where meltwater drainage incised glacial deposits. Following ice retreat from the Elizabeth Islands, a glacial lake formed across the mouth of Buzzards Bay, when the lake drained, it scoured two deep channels at the southern end of the bay. Sea level rise began to inundate Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay about 8,000 years ago and continues to modify the modern seafloor (Robb and Oldale, 1977). Fine-grained marine and estuarine sediments were deposited in the partially protected setting of Buzzards Bay. These deposits, up to 10 meters in thickness, buried the high-relief glacial landscape and created the generally smooth modern seafloor. In contrast, the Vineyard Sound of today experiences strong tidal currents, which largely prevent the deposition of fine-grained material and constantly rework the glacial sand and gravel within shoals. The seafloor of the sound largely reflects the contours of the ancient glaciated landscape that existed before sea level began to rise. The bathymetric data used to create the hillshaded relief image of the seafloor were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management and supplemented with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey data. The map shows the detailed bathymetry of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard

  15. Critical Environmental Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR SOROCOVSCHI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A short etymological interpretation of the notion of regions (Rette Lineatte, etc.. The region is: R= f (S+P, where S is space and P is power. There follows an evaluation of the characteristics of the region and the presentation of different approaches to the region. From the classic ideas (von Humboldt, 1885, Dokuceaev, 1899, Herbertson, 1905, and others we get to a wide interpretative array of what we accept as organizational spatial units of geographical reality. The environmental region has important connotations with regard to the system as a surrounded element (man, society and the adjacent system. Critical environmental regions are areas where there already exists interactive degradation. The critical character may be physical, hence the “geocritical regions” or the result of human impact, hence the “anthropocritical regions.” Critical situations are differentiated at the local, regional, and global level. In order to understand critical regional situations we must refer to the following characteristics: fragility, resilience, and vulnerability. Still there are few environmental studies on critical regions and work must be done in this field.

  16. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Goytacazes National Forest and surrounding areas of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Virgens, Thieres Marassati; Rezende, Helder Ricas; de Souza Pinto, Israel; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of the sand fly fauna in southeastern Brazil are conducted in the peridomiciliary environment of leishmaniasis endemic regions. Therefore, to increase the knowledge about diversity and richness of sand fly conservation areas, we describe here the sand fly fauna from the National Forest of Goytacazes (NFG), state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and its surroundings areas. We also used sand fly fauna records from eight conservations units within the state of Espírito Santo to understand the similarity and relationships among them. The sand flies were simultaneously collected from June, 2008 to May, 2009 in two different environments: a preserved environment represented by the NFG and a modified environment represented by a peridomicile. To establish the similarity among the conservation units, we used a method very similar to parsimony analysis of endemism. We collected 2,466 sand fly specimens belonging to 13 species. Pressatia choti and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant sand fly species. Ny. intermedia is a known vector of Leishmania braziliensis and epidemiological surveillance must be conducted in the area. We discuss aspects regarding the diversity of sand flies as well as the risk of transmission of Leishmania parasites in the area. We also provide for the first time a hypothesis of similarity relationships among conservation units within the state of Espírito Santo. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  17. The infrared and molecular environment surrounding the Wolf-Rayet star WR130

    CERN Document Server

    Cichowolski, S; Pineault, S; Noriega-Crespo, A; Arnal, E M; Flagey, N

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the molecular CO gas and mid/far infrared radiation arising from the environment surrounding the Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star 130. We use the multi-wavelength data to analyze the properties of the dense gas and dust, and its possible spatial correlation with that of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). We use CO J=1-0 data from the FCRAO survey as tracer of the molecular gas, and mid/far infrared data from the recent WISE and Herschel space surveys to study the dust continuum radiation and to identify a population of associated candidate YSOs. The spatial distribution of the molecular gas shows a ring-like structure very similar to that observed in the HI gas, and over the same velocity interval. The relative spatial distribution of the HI and CO components is consistent with a photo-dissociation region. We have identified and characterized four main and distinct molecular clouds that create this structure. Cold dust is coincident with the dense gas shown in the CO measurements. We have found several ...

  18. Maximum geometrical hindrance to diffusion in brain extracellular space surrounding uniformly spaced convex cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L; Nicholson, C

    2004-07-07

    Brain extracellular space (ECS) constitutes a porous medium in which diffusion is subject to hindrance, described by tortuosity, lambda = (D/D*)1/2, where D is the free diffusion coefficient and D* is the effective diffusion coefficient in brain. Experiments show that lambda is typically 1.6 in normal brain tissue although variations occur in specialized brain regions. In contrast, different theoretical models of cellular assemblies give ambiguous results: they either predict lambda-values similar to experimental data or indicate values of about 1.2. Here we constructed three different ECS geometries involving tens of thousands of cells and performed Monte Carlo simulation of 3-D diffusion. We conclude that the geometrical hindrance in the ECS surrounding uniformly spaced convex cells is independent of the cell shape and only depends on the volume fraction alpha (the ratio of the ECS volume to the whole tissue volume). This dependence can be described by the relation lambda = ((3-alpha)/2)1/2, indicating that the geometrical hindrance in such ECS cannot account for lambda > 1.225. Reasons for the discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental tortuosity values are discussed.

  19. Crustal Structure in Northern Malawi and Southern Tanzania surrounding Lake Malawi and the Rungwe Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, D.; Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Ebinger, C. J.; Accardo, N. J.; O'Donnell, J. P.; Mbogoni, G. J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Mphepo, F.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Tepp, G.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal Structure in Northern Malawi and Southern Tanzania surrounding Lake Malawi and the Rungwe Volcanic Province David Borrego, Marsella Kachingwe, Andrew Nyblade, Donna Shillington, James Gaherty, Cynthia Ebinger, Natalie Accardo, J.P. O'Donnell, Gabriel Mbogoni, Gabriel Mulibo, Richard Ferdinand, Patrick Chindandali, Felix Mphepo, Gabrielle Tepp, Godson Kamihanda We investigate crustal structure around the northern end of Lake Malawi and in the Rungwe Volcanic Province using teleseismic receiver functions from the SEGMeNT broadband seismic network. The SEGMeNT network includes 55 broadband stations deployed in northern Malawi and southern Tanzania, with station spacing of 20-50 km. Fourteen stations were deployed in August 2013, and an additional of 41 stations were added to the study region beginning June/July 2014. Fifteen stations are located in Malawi and 40 stations in Tanzania. Data from teleseismic earthquakes with magnitude 5.5 or greater in the 30 to 90 degrees distance range have been used to calculate P-wave receiver functions. Estimates of Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratios have been obtained by using the H-k stacking method and by jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh wave phase velocities. Preliminary results show an average Moho depth of 40 km and an average Vp/Vs ratio of 1.72. Little evidence is found for magmatic underplating beneath the Rungwe Volcanic Province.

  20. Cellular automata segmentation of the boundary between the compacta of vertebral bodies and surrounding structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Nimsky, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Due to the aging population, spinal diseases get more and more common nowadays; e.g., lifetime risk of osteoporotic fracture is 40% for white women and 13% for white men in the United States. Thus the numbers of surgical spinal procedures are also increasing with the aging population and precise diagnosis plays a vital role in reducing complication and recurrence of symptoms. Spinal imaging of vertebral column is a tedious process subjected to interpretation errors. In this contribution, we aim to reduce time and error for vertebral interpretation by applying and studying the GrowCut - algorithm for boundary segmentation between vertebral body compacta and surrounding structures. GrowCut is a competitive region growing algorithm using cellular automata. For our study, vertebral T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans were first manually outlined by neurosurgeons. Then, the vertebral bodies were segmented in the medical images by a GrowCut-trained physician using the semi-automated GrowCut-algorithm. Afterwards, results of both segmentation processes were compared using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the Hausdorff Distance (HD) which yielded to a DSC of 82.99+/-5.03% and a HD of 18.91+/-7.2 voxel, respectively. In addition, the times have been measured during the manual and the GrowCut segmentations, showing that a GrowCutsegmentation - with an average time of less than six minutes (5.77+/-0.73) - is significantly shorter than a pure manual outlining.

  1. Ocean-atmosphere exchange of organic carbon and CO2 surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Halpern, S.; Calleja, M. Ll.; Dachs, J.; Del Vento, S.; Pastor, M.; Palmer, M.; Agustí, S.; Duarte, C. M.

    2014-05-01

    Exchangeable organic carbon (OC) dynamics and CO2 fluxes in the Antarctic Peninsula during austral summer were highly variable, but the region appeared to be a net sink for OC and nearly in balance for CO2. Surface exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC) measurements had a 43 ± 3 (standard error, hereafter SE) μmol C L-1 overall mean and represented around 66% of surface non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Antarctic waters, while the mean concentration of the gaseous fraction of organic carbon (GOC H-1) was 46 ± 3 SE μmol C L-1. There was a tendency towards low fugacity of dissolved CO2 (fCO2-w) in waters with high chlorophyll a (Chl a) content and high fCO2-w in areas with high krill densities. However, such relationships were not found for EDOC. The depth profiles of EDOC were also quite variable and occasionally followed Chl a profiles. The diel cycles of EDOC showed two distinct peaks, in the middle of the day and the middle of the short austral dark period, concurrent with solar radiation maxima and krill night migration patterns. However, no evident diel pattern for GOC H-1 or CO2 was observed. The pool of exchangeable OC is an important and active compartment of the carbon budget surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula and adds to previous studies highlighting its importance in the redistribution of carbon in marine environments.

  2. An oxygen-rich dust disk surrounding an evolved star in the Red Rectangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, LBFM; Waelkens, C; van Winckel, H; Molster, FJ; Tielens, AGGM; van Loon, JT; Morris, PW; Cami, J; Bouwman, J; de Koter, A; de Jong, T; de Graauw, T

    1998-01-01

    The Red Rectangle(1) is the prototype of a class of carbon-rich reflection nebulae surrounding low-mass stars in the final stages of evolution. The central star of this nebula has ejected most of its layers (during the red-giant phase), which now form the surrounding cloud, and is rapidly evolving t

  3. The Space of an Object: Object Attention Alters the Spatial Gradient in the Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Dwight Jacob; Behrmann, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Although object-based attention enhances perceptual processing of information appearing within the boundaries of a selected object, little is known about the consequences for information in the object's surround. The authors show that distance from an attended object's center of mass determines reaction time (RT) to targets in the surround. Of 2…

  4. Different surrounding landscapes may result in different fish assemblages in East African seagrass beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, M.; Grol, M.G.G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Velde, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have considered how seagrass fish assemblages are influenced by surrounding habitats. This information is needed for a better understanding of the connectivity between tropical coastal ecosystems. To study the effects of surrounding habitats on the composition, diversity and densities of

  5. Surround modulation characteristics of local field potential and spiking activity in primary visual cortex of cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available In primary visual cortex, spiking activity that evoked by stimulus confined in receptive field can be modulated by surround stimulus. This center-surround interaction is hypothesized to be the basis of visual feature integration and segregation. Spiking output has been extensively reported to be surround suppressive. However, less is known about the modulation properties of the local field potential (LFP, which generally reflects synaptic inputs. We simultaneously recorded spiking activity and LFP in the area 17 of anesthetized cats to examine and compare their modulation characteristics. When the stimulus went beyond the classical receptive field, LFP exhibited decreased power along the gamma band (30-100 Hz in most of our recording sites. Further investigation revealed that suppression of the LFP gamma mean power (gLFP depended on the angle between the center and surround orientations. The strongest suppression was induced when center and surround orientations were parallel. Moreover, the surround influence of the gLFP exhibited an asymmetric spatial organization. These results demonstrate that the gLFP has similar but not identical surround modulation properties, as compared to the spiking activity. The spatiotemporal integration of LFP implies that the oscillation and synchronization of local synaptic inputs may have important functions in surround modulation.

  6. Variability in response of lakes to climate change explained by surrounding watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råman Vinnå, Love; Wüest, Alfred; Bouffard, Damien

    2017-04-01

    The consequences of climate change for inland waters have been shown to vary extensively not only globally, but also on a sub-regional scale [O'Reilly et al., 2015, GRL]. Local factors affecting heating include morphology [Toffolon et al., 2014, LO], irradiance absorption [Williamson et al., 2015, SR], local weather conditions and onset of stratification [Zhong et al., 2016, LO] as well as ice conditions [Austin and Colman, 2007, GRL]. However, inland waters are often a complex web of rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs. Thereby, to correctly assess and predict future changes in lakes/reservoirs due to climate change, it is important to consider the changes occurring in the surrounding watersheds and how they affect downstream waters. Here we evaluate the impact of climate change on rivers originating in the Swiss Alps (Aare and Rhône) and downstream located perialpine lakes (Lake Biel and Lake Geneva). We use regional predictions for air temperature increase and the subsequently expected shift in river discharge regime under the A1B emission scenario [Bey et al., 2011, CH2011; Federal Office for the Environment FOEN, 2012, CCHydro]. Focus is on predicting the changes in water temperature, particle content, stratification and deep water renewal rate using the 1D SIMSTRAT [Goudsmit et al., 2002, JGR] and Air2Stream [Toffolon and Piccolroaz, 2015, ERL] models. We show that the effect of tributaries on the reaction for downstream lakes to climate change are inversely proportional to the hydraulic residence time of the systems. We furthermore include known changes in anthropogenic thermal emissions, which in Lake Biel correspond to 2 decades of climate induced warming. Our results are put into context with future water utility plans in Lake Biel.

  7. Investigation of Distribution of Beta -Thalassemia Hereditary Mutations in Gaziantep and the Surrounding Areas

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    Serdar Öztuzcu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Beta-thalassemia is the most common autosomal recessive disease. More than 200 different mutations determined in beta-globin gene. Beta thalassemia disease has a severe clinical picture. Treatment of the diseases should be maintained properly otherwise quality of life and life period can be affected. In this study, we tried to reveal inherited beta-thalassemia mutations in surrounding areas of Gaziantep. Material and Methods: In this study, we included 208 patients who applied with beta -thalassemia suspicion to the pediatric hematology clinic (age range 4-14. In that study, 138 patients with homozygous mutations and 70 patients’ heterozygous mutations were identified. HBB gene was sequenced by Sanger DNA Sequencing method. Results: Most common homozygote mutations are IVS I-110 G>A, IVS I-1 G>A, IVS II-1 G>A, the heterozygote mutations are IVS I-110 G>A, IVS II-1 G>A, codon 8 (AA del. The incidence of IVS 1.110 (G>A mutation is 24%, 28 in homozygote patients, 29.7% in heterozygote patients. The 8% homozygote patients and 19.7% heterozygote patients were effected with IVS 1.110 (G>A mutation. Conclusion: The consanguinity marriages are very abundant particularly in our region due to fact that we are able to see many autosomal recessive diseased in our region. Reducing incidence of autosomal recessive disease by given genetic counseling could help the solution but it is still a major problem. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7(4: 265-268

  8. Local earthquake tomography of the Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area in Turkey

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    H. Gökalp

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selected travel time data from the aftershock series of the Erzincan earthquake (March, 1992, Ms=6.8 were inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D Vp and Vs structure. The general features of the 3D velocity structure of the upper crust of Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area, one of the most tectonically and seismically active regions in Turkey were investigated. The data used for this purpose were 2215 P-wave and 547 S-wave arrival times from 350 local earthquakes recorded by temporary 15 short-period seismograph stations. Thurber’s simultaneous inversion method (1983 was applied to the arrival time data to obtain a 3D velocity structure, and hypocentral locations. Both 3D heterogeneous P and S wave velocity variations down to 12 km depth were obtained. The acquired tomographic images show that the 3D velocity structure beneath the region is heterogeneous in that low velocity appears throughout the basin and at the southeastern flank, and high velocities occur at south and east of the basin. The low velocities can be related to small and large scale fractures, thus causing rocks to weaken over a long period of the active tectonic faulting process. The ophiolitic rock units mostly occurring around the basin area are the possible reason for the high velocities. The validity of 3D inversion results was tested by performing detailed resolution analysis. The test results confirm the velocity anomalies obtained from inversion. Despite the small number of inverted S-wave arrivals, the obtained 3D S velocity model has similar anomalies with lower resolution than the 3D P-wave velocity model. Better hypocenter locations were calculated using the 3D heterogeneous model obtained from tomographic inversion.

  9. Effects of surrounding elements on city image in the sample of Erzurum city

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    S. Ozer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural elements which are the parts of city identities are shaped as the result of social and cultural characteristics and natural factors. In order to increase visual quality of cities and make cities more liveable landscape architects use not only living materials such as plants but also nonliving materials. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of surrounding elements which are vertical elements in landscape designs, on functional and city aesthetics. With this aim, materials used in surrounding elements around houses in Erzurum, houses surrounded by these elements and their harmony with their surroundings, aesthetics and functional effects were investigated and their contributions to city image were determined. While surrounding elements are mainly adequate in functions, they are lower quality in aesthetics. Some suggestions were offered for the city images that local councils should be careful on and due to Universiade in 2011.

  10. Catastrophe mechanism and disaster countermeasure for soft rock roadway surrounding rock in Meihe mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang⇑; Zhu Caikun; Chong Deyu; Liu Yang; Li Sichao

    2015-01-01

    The soft rock’s heterogeneity and nonlinear mechanical behavior cause extremely difficult maintenance on the soft rock roadway. Aiming at the asymmetric deformation and destruction phenomenon appearing after excavating and supporting the 7101 air return way in Meihe mine, this paper comprehensively adopted a variety of methods to analyze the roadway surrounding rock deformation rule, obtaining the roadway surrounding rock stress and plastic zone distribution rule under no supporting condition and the roadway surrounding rock deformation features under original symmetric supporting condition. Furthermore, this paper revealed the catastrophe mechanism, and proposed the concept of‘weak struc-ture’ and the disaster countermeasure of‘overall stabilizing the roadway and strengthening the support of weak structure’ . The industrial test shows that the disaster control technology can realize the coordination deformation of the supporting structure and roadway surrounding rock, thus significantly controlling the deformation of roadway surrounding rock.

  11. Effect of longwall length on mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell in mining face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang-Xiang Xie; Lei Wang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2008-12-15

    The mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell in longwall mining face were studied, based on the results of in-situ measurement combined with numerical simulation, and the effect of longwall length on mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell was discovered. The results show that the mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell are influenced by the length of the face. With an increase of mining face length, the level of concentration of shell stress located in the front face and surrounding rock of roadway is amplified and the three- dimensional stress is focused in the working face. The damage lies in the head entry corner of face and the vertical displacement is reduced but horizontal displacement is enlarged. The dynamic balance of surrounding rock stress shell is improved with rational adjustment of face length. It is effective in protecting the working face and controlling strata behavior. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Stability classification model of mine-lane surrounding rock based on distance discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LI Xi-bing; GONG Feng-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis (DDA) theory, a stability classification model for mine-lane surrounding rock was established, including six indexes of discriminant factors that reflect the engineering quality of surrounding rock: lane depth below surface, span of lane, ratio of directly top layer thickness to coal thickness, uniaxial comprehensive strength of surrounding rock, development degree coefficient of surrounding rock joint and range of broken surrounding rock zone. A DDA model was obtained through training 15 practical measuring samples. The re-substitution method was introduced to verify the stability of DDA model and the ratio of mis-discrimination is zero. The DDA model was used to discriminate3 new samples and the results are identical with actual rock kind. Compared with the artificial neural network method and support vector mechanic method, the results show that this model has high prediction accuracy and can be used in practical engineering.

  13. Varieties of Quest and the Religious Openness Hypothesis within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds

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    P. J. Watson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.

  14. Cholinergic enhancement reduces orientation-specific surround suppression but not visual crowding.

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    Kosovicheva, Anna A; Sheremata, Summer L; Rokem, Ariel; Landau, Ayelet N; Silver, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) reduces the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in early visual cortex and receptive field size of V1 neurons. We investigated the perceptual consequences of these physiological effects of ACh with surround suppression and crowding, two phenomena that involve spatial interactions between visual field locations. Surround suppression refers to the reduction in perceived stimulus contrast by a high-contrast surround stimulus. For grating stimuli, surround suppression is selective for the relative orientations of the center and surround, suggesting that it results from inhibitory interactions in early visual cortex. Crowding refers to impaired identification of a peripheral stimulus in the presence of flankers and is thought to result from excessive integration of visual features. We increased synaptic ACh levels by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to healthy human subjects in a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In Experiment 1, we measured surround suppression of a central grating using a contrast discrimination task with three conditions: (1) surround grating with the same orientation as the center (parallel), (2) surround orthogonal to the center, or (3) no surround. Contrast discrimination thresholds were higher in the parallel than in the orthogonal condition, demonstrating orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS). Cholinergic enhancement decreased thresholds only in the parallel condition, thereby reducing OSSS. In Experiment 2, subjects performed a crowding task in which they reported the identity of a peripheral letter flanked by letters on either side. We measured the critical spacing between the targets and flanking letters that allowed reliable identification. Cholinergic enhancement with donepezil had no effect on critical spacing. Our findings suggest that ACh reduces spatial interactions in tasks involving segmentation of visual field locations but that these effects may be limited to early

  15. Cholinergic enhancement reduces orientation-specific surround suppression but not visual crowding

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    Anna A. Kosovicheva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh reduces the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in early visual cortex and the receptive field sizes of V1 neurons. We investigated the perceptual consequences of these physiological effects of ACh with surround suppression and crowding, two tasks that involve spatial interactions between visual field locations. Surround suppression refers to the reduction in perceived stimulus contrast by a high-contrast surround stimulus. For grating stimuli, surround suppression is selective for the relative orientations of the center and surround, suggesting that it results from inhibitory interactions in early visual cortex. Crowding refers to impaired identification of a peripheral stimulus in the presence of flankers and is thought to result from excessive integration of visual features. We increased synaptic ACh levels by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to healthy human subjects in a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In Exp. 1, we measured surround suppression of a central grating using a contrast discrimination task with three conditions: 1 surround grating with the same orientation as the center (parallel, 2 surround orthogonal to the center, or 3 no surround. Contrast discrimination thresholds were higher in the parallel than in the orthogonal condition, demonstrating orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS. Cholinergic enhancement reduced thresholds only in the parallel condition, thereby reducing OSSS. In Exp. 2, subjects performed a crowding task in which they reported the identity of a peripheral letter flanked by letters on either side. We measured the critical spacing between the target and flanking letters that allowed reliable identification. Cholinergic enhancement had no effect on critical spacing. Our findings suggest that ACh reduces spatial interactions in tasks involving segmentation of visual field locations but that these effects may be limited to early visual cortical

  16. Neural mechanisms of surround attenuation and distractor competition in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Carsten N; Tsotsos, John K; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2011-04-06

    Visual attention biases relevant processing in the visual system by amplifying relevant or attenuating irrelevant sensory input. A potential signature of the latter operation, referred to as surround attenuation, has recently been identified in the electromagnetic brain response of human observers performing visual search. It was found that a zone of attenuated cortical excitability surrounds the target when the search required increased spatial resolution for item discrimination. Here we address the obvious hypothesis that surround attenuation serves distractor suppression in the vicinity of the target where interference from irrelevant search items is maximal. To test this hypothesis, surround attenuation was assessed under conditions when the target was presented in isolation versus when it was surrounded by distractors. Surprisingly, substantial and indistinguishable surround attenuation was seen under both conditions, indicating that it reflects an attentional operation independent of the presence of distractors. Adding distractors in the target's surround, however, increased the amplitude of the N2pc--an evoked response known to index distractor competition in visual search. Moreover, adding distractors led to a topographical change of source activity underlying the N2pc toward earlier extrastriate areas. In contrast, the topography of reduced source activity due to surround attenuation remained unaltered with and without distractors in the target's surround. We conclude that surround attenuation is not a direct consequence of the attenuation of distractors in visual search and that it dissociates from attentional operations reflected by the N2pc. A theoretical framework is proposed that links both operations in a common model of top-down attentional selection in visual cortex.

  17. Reappraised list of historical earthquakes that affected Israel and its close surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Motti; Salamon, Amos; Rubin, Rehav

    2016-07-01

    Numerous historical reports of damaging earthquakes in the Levant have accumulated over the last 3000 years. Here, we screen that information and focus on the damaging earthquakes that affected Israel from the second millennia BCE to the 1927 CE Jericho earthquake and list the earthquakes by date, of major damage, type of sequence, and degree of size. The compilation results in three different lists: (i) 71 reliable earthquakes that in our opinion were most probably associated with the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and affected Israel and its close surroundings; (ii) 41 questionable earthquakes that should be re-evaluated or ignored; and (iii) 46 earthquakes that probably occurred but were erroneously associated with damage in Israel. What emerges from the list of the reliable earthquakes is that (i) Israel and its close surroundings suffered damage about 32 times during the last two millennia, that is, once in about 60 years, although not regularly; (ii) 21 of the earthquakes occurred during the last millennia, i.e., an event every ˜45 years; and (iii) three intervals of increased reporting are noticed: between the fourth and the mid-eighth century, from the beginning of the eleventh to the end of the thirteenth century, and from the end of the eighteenth century up to the last entry in 1927, though this period may be extended until today. In-depth evaluation of the changing regimes over time within the study area, the historical reports of earthquake damage outside of Israel, and comparison with physical paleo- and archaeo-seismology evidence, such as the "137-206" and "165-236" paleoseismic earthquakes for which there is no historical match, indicates that the historical list is far from being complete. Thus, we argue that the apparent cycles of historical reporting do not necessarily reflect the actual rate of seismic activity and further investigation is needed to establish a compiled, multi-sourced list to decipher the true nature of cycles of strong earthquakes

  18. An Assessment of Air Quality in the Surrounding Holy Places of Mecca, Saudi Arabia during Hajj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, H. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Hussain, M. M.; Khatib, F.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The associations of exposure to air pollution and adverse human health effects have been demonstrated in many epidemiologic studies. Hajj, an annual pilgrimage of Islam, draws millions of pilgrims from more than 200 countries for religious rituals in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The city is surrounded by mountains with a population of 1.7 million, which gets doubles or even more during Hajj. The city centers on the Grand Mosque (Masjid Al-haram), connected with the network of tunnels. Main Hajj pilgrimage route for five days extends 20 km to the east and includes "Mina", "Arafat", and "Muzdalifah". A detailed study was conducted in Mecca, its tunnels, and surrounding holy places during Hajj (October 13-17, 2013). Spatial and temporal variations in total suspended particulate (TSP), PM10 , PM7 , PM2.5 , PM1 , ozone (O3), and black carbon (BC) levels along the route were recorded using portable monitors and GPS to assess the status of air quality. This is the first study to elucidate the exposure to air pollutants among pilgrims. Extremely high levels of all pollutants were observed during the intensive measuring periods. For example, the PM7 , PM2.5 , O3, and BC concentrations of up to 9,433 µg/m3, 484 µg/m3, 444 ppb, and 468 µg/m3, respectively, were observed. Results of this investigation revealed that most routes had on average exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for PM10 and PM2.5 . The reasons for the high air pollutants concentrations are most probably high volume of traffic, construction work, re-suspension of particles, and geographical conditions (arid regions). The pilgrim's longer trip duration lead to their highest whole trip exposure to air pollutants, which indicate that they are possibly subject to higher health risk. Better understanding of air pollution exposure and their determinants in the environments will contribute to the development of more appropriate exposure reductive strategies and have significant public health meanings.

  19. Measurement of elastic modulus and Vickers hardness of surround bone implant using dynamic microindentation--parameters definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Nunes, Sarah Arantes; Franco, Sinésio Domingues; Pires, Raphael Rezende; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-01-01

    The clinical performance of dental implants is strongly defined by biomechanical principles. The aim of this study was to quantify the Vicker's hardness (VHN) and elastic modulus (E) surround bone to dental implant in different regions, and to discuss the parameters of dynamic microindantion test. Ten cylindrical implants with morse taper interface (Titamax CM, Neodent; 3.5 mm diameter and 7 mm a height) were inserted in rabbit tibia. The mechanical properties were analyzed using microhardness dynamic indenter with 200 mN load and 15 s penetration time. Seven continuous indentations were made distancing 0.08 mm between each other perpendicularly to the implant-bone interface towards the external surface, at the limit of low (Lp) and high implant profile (Hp). Data were analyzed by Student's t-test (a=0.05) to compare the E and VHN values obtained on both regions. Mean and standard deviation of E (GPa) were: Lp. 16.6 ± 1.7, Hp. 17.0 ± 2.5 and VHN (N/mm2): Lp. 12.6 ± 40.8, Hp. 120.1 ± 43.7. No statistical difference was found between bone mechanical properties of high and low profile of the surround bone to implant, demonstrating that the bone characterization homogeneously is pertinent. Dynamic microindantion method proved to be highly useful in the characterization of the individual peri-implant bone tissue.

  20. How to map soil carbon stocks in highly urbanized regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, V. I.; Stoorvogel, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    -use types (3 non-urban and 3 urban) was organized in Moscow region in 2010-2011 (n=242). Both topsoil (0-10 cm) and subsoil (10-150 cm) were included.SOC content for each point was analyzed and this data was incorporated with the information on climatic (annual temperature and precipitation), elevation, land-use, soil (dominating type and soil complexes) factors. The validation of the SOC map, created using regression kriging, demonstrated low accuracy, caused by principal differences in SOC spatial distribution between non-urban and urban areas. Extremely high variability in very short distances (30-50 m) shown for the latter was obviously not possible to interpolate for the whole region territory. In order to consider this internal variability urban areas was described from the total dataset and the heterogeneity index, based on the ratio of functional zones, sealed and open areas and cut-off profiles, was estimated per settlement and district. Thus, the regional SOC map was combined from traditional regression kriging outcome for agricultural areas and aggregated internal variability estimation results for urban ones.

  1. Tomographic imaging beneath Alboran sea and surrounding areas (southern Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, I.; Morales, J.

    2009-04-01

    The main aim of this study is to provide a detailed analysis of the structure of the crust and upper mantle below the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco and surrounding regions using the results of global seismic tomography. We have developed a detailed three-dimensional velocity structure of this region to 700-km depth using P-wave arrival times from more than 15,000 local and regional earthquakes and 145 teleseismic events. For teleseismic events we handpicked P-wave arrival times from high-quality original seismograms from 2000 to 2005 belonging to the Andalusian Seismic Network. We also handpicked data from seismic stations belonging to the GSN (Global Seismic Network) and monitored by IRIS. All events are located between 30° and 90° from the seismic networks. This new data set is superior, in terms of both station density and arrival time accuracy, to that used in previous studies because of the higher sensitivity of the seismographs monitored by the new broad band network of the Andalusian Institute of Geophysics. In this study we modified the original tomographic method of Zhao et al. (1992) to combine teleseismic residuals with local and regional earthquake arrival times in tomographic inversions. Several bodies of high P-wave seismic velocity are located between 5 and 15 km depth and the magnetic and gravimetric data indicate superposition of bodies at different depths in this zone with a complex geological structure. Pronounced low-velocity anomalies characterize the upper crust near the Strait of Gibraltar, both in Spain and Morocco, which could be interpreted as a sedimentary basin or crustal deformation in the flysch regions. Two high-velocity anomalies were obtained in the Alboran Sea, the first, located in the middle of the basin could be related to the existence of high density lithologies, while the second, situated in the eastern Rif and trending NE-SW, could be related to the NE-SW trending magnetic anomaly in the eastern Rif. One of the most robust

  2. Surrounding Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Steffensen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in insurance and finance was always intersecting although they were originally and generally viewed as separate disciplines. Insurance is about transferring risks between parties such that the burdens of risks are borne by those who can. This makes insurance transactions a beneficial activity for the society. It calls on detection, modelling, valuation, and controlling of risks. One of the main sources of control is diversification of risks and in that respect it becomes an issue in itself to clarify diversifiability of risks. However, many diversifiable risks are not, by nature or by contract design, separable from non-diversifiable risks that are, on the other hand, sometimes traded in financial markets and sometimes not. A key observation is that the economic risk came before the insurance contract: Mother earth destroys and kills incidentally and mercilessly, but the uncertainty of economic consequences can be more or less cleverly distributed by the introduction of an insurance market.

  3. Analytical Modeling of Electric Field Distribution in Dual Material Junctionless Surrounding Gate MOSFETs

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    P. Suveetha Dhanaselvam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, electric field distribution of the junctionless dual material surrounding gate MOSFETs (JLDMSG is developed. Junctionless is a device that has similar characteristics like junction based devices, but junctionless has a positive flatband voltage with zero electric field. In Surrounding gate MOSFETs gate material surrounds the channel in all direction , therefore it can overcome the short channel effects effectively than other devices. In this paper, surface potential and electric field distribution is modelled. The proposed surface potential model is compared with the existing central potential model. It is observed that the short channel effects (SCE is reduced and the performance is better than the existing method.

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGY, AETIOLOGY AND PATTERN OF PENETRATING OCULAR TRAUMA IN KOLKATA AND SURROUNDINGS

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    Parthapratim Mandal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The purpose of the study was to determine the epidemiology, aetiology and pattern of penetrating ocular trauma in Kolkata and surroundings. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a retrospective study of patients with open globe injuries who underwent surgery from July 2015 to June 2016 at Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Calcutta Medical College, West Bengal. We examined and classified the injuries based on BETTS (Birmingham eye trauma terminology system. We included 192 eyes from 192 patients. The majority of injuries occurred in young (48% patients were <16 years. 54.17% patients were male and 45.83% were female. Most common mode of trauma was Stone (52, Followed by Iron Rod or Piece (44 and Wood (32. Other causes were Cow’s horn (14, Needle (12 Knife (8, Arrow (6, Sickle (6, Rubber Tube (4, Glass (2, Crackers (4, Metal Instrument (2, Bird Beak (2 and Pencil (2. RESULTS The highest proportion of injuries occurred at home followed by outside. According to BETTS, 61 patients had zone 1, 29 patients - zone 2, 6 patients - Zone 3 injury. Associated features were iris prolapse, hyphaema, anterior capsular rupture, lid tear and impacted foreign body. Mean period of presenting at hospital was 2.72 days. Most common visual acuity at presentation was less than 6/60 to perception of light. CONCLUSION In our study, serious ocular trauma frequently occurred at home followed by outside and the young were particularly at risk. Most common mode of trauma was stone. Most of the injuries were limited to cornea up to limbus. More adequate adult supervision and educational measures are necessary in order to reduce the prevalence of these accidents.

  5. Bat-species richness in the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding uplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, C J R; Fischer, E; Oliveira-Pissini, L F; Santos, C F

    2011-04-01

    We studied the bat fauna of the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding plateaus in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, based on the scientific collection at Universidade Anhanguera-Uniderp and on the Projeto Morcegos do Pantanal data bank at UFMS, comprising 9,037 captures of 56 species recorded from 1994 to 2007. The Pantanal surveys were carried out in the Nhecolândia, Aquidauana, Miranda, and Paraguai sub-regions; the uplands surveys took place in the Maracaju, Bodoquena, and Urucum formations. Bat specimens were mist-netted over 376 nights in 35 sites, predominantly near fruiting trees, bat shelters, and forest patches. In the floodplain 46 species were recorded (n = 6,292 individuals), and 44 species were found in the uplands (n = 2,745 individuals). Six families were recorded: Phyllostomidae (30 species), Molossidae (12 species), Verpertilionidae (nine species) Noctilionidae (two species), Emballorunidae (two species) and Mormoopidae (one species). The bat fauna was predominantly composed of insectivore (32) and frugivore (15) species. The frugivorous Artibeus planirostris (n = 3,101 individuals) was the commonest species in floodplain and uplands. Other common species were Myotis nigricans (n = 762), Molossus molossus (n = 692), Noctilio albiventris (n = 681), Platyrrhinus lineatus (n = 633), Sturnira lilium (n = 461), Carollia perspicillata (n = 451), Glossophaga soricina (n = 436), Artibeus lituratus (n = 320), and Desmodus rotundus (n = 281). In the floodplain there were three insectivores among the most common species, contrasting with the uplands dominated by the frugivores. The diversity for the 35 sites assembled (H' = 2.5) is comparable to that recorded for tropical forests. The bat fauna presented here represents 34% of the Brazilian bat species, and 62% of species reported for the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Additionally, five species are reported for the first time in Mato Grosso do Sul.

  6. Numerical modelling of salt diapirism and the surrounding temperature field during thin-skinned extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieulot, Cedric; Harms, Guido

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of salt diapirs is strongly associated with potential geothermal and hydrocarbon energy sources. Many numerical modelling studies of diapirism have been done in the past, though very few of these in fact use geologically realistic settings and materials. Besides, only analogue and structural studies have been done on full scale diapirism during thin-skinned extension. Two-dimensional numerical modelling of this problem using a Finite Element code aims at addressing the following questions: which geometrical or material parameters affect the growth rate and shape of the diapir and how? what is the effect of this diapirism on the temperature field and surface heat flux? How does the inclusion of simple surface processes influence these observations to first order ? Our results show that, in compliance with both analogue modelling and structural geological studies, a diapir formed during thin-skinned extension undergoes three phases: reactional piercement, active piercement and passive piercement. Extension rates directly influence the total time required for the diapir to reach the surface, as well as how long the system remains in a state of reactional diapirism, which both affect the shape of the resulting diapir. Erosion efficiency is found to affect the growth rate of the diapir during its active stage and the total rising time, which affects in turn its the shape. The density contrast between the salt and the sediments also influences the growth rate during active and passive piercement. Finally, the temperature surrounding a rising diapir (especially in the region above it) is found to be heightened by a few dozens of degrees.

  7. THE COMPLEXITY IN COPING CONFLICTING GROUPS IN SURROUNDING NUSAKAMBANGAN ISLANDS CENTRAL JAVA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairu Roojiqien Sobandi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores social and political conflicts in grassroots level, specifically, the challenge of natural degradations on a mangrove-fringed lagoon in Central Java, Indonesia. Segara Anakan is a significant environmental zone, with many unique ecosystem features, all of which are under threat from illegal land reclamation and timber theft, which have caused great damage. This study analyses how conflict arises between groups and how the rulers interact with villagers in Kampung Laut sur-rounding Nusakambangan Island. The result shows, as Reichel et al. (2009 notes, population growth and lagoon sedimentation indeed have directing to crucial conflicts between groups. However, histori-cal and the rulers approach factors also contribute to Kampung Laut conflicts. Long historical journey contribute to the formation of Kampung Laut villagers’ characters. It is the history of Galuh and Mata-ram Kingdoms’ networks through Babad Pasirluhur and Tanah Jawi in conquering Nusakambangan. More importantly, rulers’ policies and state apparatuses approaches also contribute to the creation of Kampung Laut villagers’ identity. The policies are often inconsistent and create more problems than solutions. Thus, dissatisfaction has directing to the creation of Kampung Laut identity marker as rebel-lions. In short, this hard situation led to conflicts between villagers and rulers. Our study suggest that it is very important to bring the state back in on the isolated and poor area like Kampung Laut Sub-District through more affirmative regional public policies and more over create additional income re-sources, for example eco-tourism that could support its sustainable outcomes.

  8. Recognition of upper airway and surrounding structures at MRI in pediatric PCOS and OSAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, J. K.; Odhner, D.; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2013-03-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is common in obese children with risk being 4.5 fold compared to normal control subjects. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) has recently been shown to be associated with OSAS that may further lead to significant cardiovascular and neuro-cognitive deficits. We are investigating image-based biomarkers to understand the architectural and dynamic changes in the upper airway and the surrounding hard and soft tissue structures via MRI in obese teenage children to study OSAS. At the previous SPIE conferences, we presented methods underlying Fuzzy Object Models (FOMs) for Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) based on CT images of the thorax and the abdomen. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the AAR approach is applicable to a different body region and image modality combination, namely in the study of upper airway structures via MRI. FOMs were built hierarchically, the smaller sub-objects forming the offspring of larger parent objects. FOMs encode the uncertainty and variability present in the form and relationships among the objects over a study population. Totally 11 basic objects (17 including composite) were modeled. Automatic recognition for the best pose of FOMs in a given image was implemented by using four methods - a one-shot method that does not require search, another three searching methods that include Fisher Linear Discriminate (FLD), a b-scale energy optimization strategy, and optimum threshold recognition method. In all, 30 multi-fold cross validation experiments based on 15 patient MRI data sets were carried out to assess the accuracy of recognition. The results indicate that the objects can be recognized with an average location error of less than 5 mm or 2-3 voxels. Then the iterative relative fuzzy connectedness (IRFC) algorithm was adopted for delineation of the target organs based on the recognized results. The delineation results showed an overall FP and TP volume fraction of 0.02 and 0.93.

  9. Analysis of nonlinear dynamic character in the surrounding rock system for deep buried underground engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu; PENG Hai-you

    2010-01-01

    Combining the field monitoring results of a deep-buried tunnel in Chongqing,the dynamic characteristics of the surrounding rock system under high in situ stress was analyzed by phase space reconstruction, calculating correlation dimension, Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents. Both the Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents show that the surrounding rock system is a chaotic one. Based on this, a local model was applied to predict surrounding rock displacement, and a nonlinear dynamic model was derived to forecast the interaction of the surrounding rock and support structure. The local method was found to have an extremely small total error. Also, the nonlinear dynamic model forecasting curves agree with the monitoring ones very well. It is proved that the nonlinear dynamic characteristic study is very important in analyzing rock stability and predicting the evolution of rock systems.

  10. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  11. Effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by circumferential bone defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, Seif

    2010-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by a circumferential bone defect and to compare osseointegration around Osseotite with that around Nanotite implants.

  12. Particulate capture efficiency of a vegetative environmental buffer surrounding an animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter emitted from tunnel-ventilated animal feeding operations (AFOs) is known to transport malodorous compounds. As a mitigation strategy, vegetative environmental buffers (VEBs) are often installed surrounding AFOs to capture particulates and induce lofting and dispersion. Currently, ...

  13. Review of roadway control in soft surrounding rock under dynamic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯朝炯

    2003-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the soft rock roadway under the dynamic pressure are analyzed. At the same time, the three fundamental approaches for controlling the surrounding rock are proposed, which are improving the surrounding rock strength, lowering the rock mass stress and selecting the reasonable supporting technology. The research results are elucidated, including the distribution of the surrounding rock plastic zone, the movement and damage of the surrounding rock under the dynamic pressure, controlling the floor heave through reinforcing the roadway walls and corners, the new route to develop the roadway metal supporting technique, the key theory and technique for the bolt supporting in the coal roadway, the performance and prospect of the ZKD high-water-content quick-setting material, and so on. Finally, some personally views are put forward about the roadway metal supporting, bolt supporting, new material and the stress-relief under the high stress condition.

  14. Targeting Alzheimer's disease by investigating previously unexplored chemical space surrounding the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Greunen, DG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of twenty seven acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, as potential agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, were designed and synthesised based upon previously unexplored chemical space surrounding the molecular skeleton of the drug...

  15. Divergence in cis-regulatory sequences surrounding the opsin gene arrays of African cichlid fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Quin, Kelly E; Smith, Daniel; Naseer, Zan; Schulte, Jane; Engel, Samuel D; Loh, Yong-Hwee E; Streelman, J Todd; Boore, Jeffrey L; Carleton, Karen L

    2011-01-01

    .... We use phylogenetic footprinting and shadowing to examine divergence in conserved non-coding elements, promoter sequences, and 3'-UTRs surrounding each opsin in search of candidate cis-regulatory...

  16. Modelling of the effect of discontinuities on the extent of the fracture zone surrounding deep tunnels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sellers, EJ

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of physical and numerical model tests were performed to investigate the behaviour of the rock surrounding circular excavations under high confining pressures. The aim was to provide information on the formation of fractures around deep...

  17. Site Cleanup of Radioactive Isotope Container Rinsing Pool and Surrounding Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive isotope container rinsing pool and surrounding environmental site was a place of fabrication of container, and package, transportation and storage of radioactive isotopes. A heavy contamination existed in this area for burying of some radioactive wastes.

  18. Reduced visual surround suppression in schizophrenia shown by measuring contrast detection thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica; Read, Jenny C. A.; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Bagney, Alexandra; Caballero-González, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Torresano, Javier; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception in schizophrenia is attracting a broad interest given the deep knowledge that we have about the visual system in healthy populations. One example is the class of effects known collectively as visual surround suppression. For example, the visibility of a grating located in the visual periphery is impaired by the presence of a surrounding grating of the same spatial frequency and orientation. Previous studies have suggested abnormal visual surround suppression in patients with schizophrenia. Given that schizophrenia patients have cortical alterations including hypofunction of NMDA receptors and reduced concentration of GABA neurotransmitter, which affect lateral inhibitory connections, then they should be relatively better than controls at detecting visual stimuli that are usually suppressed. We tested this hypothesis by measuring contrast detection thresholds using a new stimulus configuration. We tested two groups: 21 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy subjects. Thresholds were obtained using Bayesian staircases in a four-alternative forced-choice detection task where the target was a grating within a 3∘ Butterworth window that appeared in one of four possible positions at 5∘ eccentricity. We compared three conditions, (a) target with no-surround, (b) target embedded within a surrounding grating of 20∘ diameter and 25% contrast with same spatial frequency and orthogonal orientation, and (c) target embedded within a surrounding grating with parallel (same) orientation. Previous results with healthy populations have shown that contrast thresholds are lower for orthogonal and no-surround (NS) conditions than for parallel surround (PS). The log-ratios between parallel and NS thresholds are used as an index quantifying visual surround suppression. Patients performed poorly compared to controls in the NS and orthogonal-surround conditions. However, they performed as well as controls when the surround was parallel, resulting in significantly

  19. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (pareas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies.

  20. Indicative levels of PM in the ambient air in the surrounding villages of the copper smelter complex Bor, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Viša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While information on air pollution in the form of particulate matter (PM has been monitored for longer period for EU countries, availability of PM data sets in the Western Balkan countries including the Republic of Serbia are still limited. Studies, related to the particulate pollution research, have been only carried out in the past several years. The main objective of this paper is to present PM levels measured in the ambient air in the surrounding settlements of the Copper Smelter Complex Bor. Also, one of the goals is a comparison of PM levels in the surrounding settlements with those measured in Bor town. The ambient levels of PM particles (PM10, PM2.5 were measured by automatic PM monitors at 4 nearby settlements: Slatina, Oštrelj, Krivelj and Brezonik in the time interval from 2005 to 2010. According to the measurement results, PM10 and PM2.5 levels in the ambient air were higher in the cold, heating, (October-March than in the warm no heating period (April-September. The exceeding of the daily limit of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration levels was observed at all measuring points. A higher number of exceedances were detected in the cold period. The results indicate that there is a significant seasonal change in the level of fine particles at all measuring places in surroundings. In addition, the PM levels in Bor town are more influenced by the air pollution from the Copper Smelter Complex than settlements in the vicinity, where the PM concentrations were greatly influenced by the presence of domestic heating in the cold period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauka Republike Srbije, br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health i br. III41028: “An Integral Study to Identify the Regional Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for the Common Noncommunicable Diseases in the Human Population of Serbia

  1. Camouflaging in a Complex Environment—Octopuses Use Specific Features of Their Surroundings for Background Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Noam Josef; Piero Amodio; Graziano Fiorito; Nadav Shashar

    2012-01-01

    Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiment...

  2. Low-energy neutron flux measurement using a resonance absorption filter surrounding a lithium glass scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghal-Eh, N.; Koohi-Fayegh, R.; Hamidi, S.

    2007-06-01

    The resonance absorption filter technique has been used to determine the thermal/epithermal neutron flux. The main idea in this technique is to use an element with a high and essentially singular resonance in the neutron absorption cross section as a filter surrounding a miniature-type lithium glass scintillator. The count with and without the filter surrounding the detector gives the number of resonance-energy neutrons. Some preliminary results and a comparison with the MCNP code are shown.

  3. P1-13: Color Induction from Surround Color under Interocular Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Kuriki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of surround colors on color appearance is known to subserve color constancy in humans, but how multiple mechanisms in the visual system are involved in this effect is controversial. We used an interocular-suppression technique to examine how the effect occurs at the level higher than the interaction of binocular information. A test color chip (1.7 × 1.7 deg visual angle was presented in a static surround either with continuous-flash suppression in the dominant eye (CFS condition to make the surround inperceptible or without the suppression (no-CFS condition. The surround stimulus was either a Mondrian or a uniform field of the same mean chromaticity. Stimuli were simulated OSA color chips under red, white (D65, or green illuminant color and were presented on a CRT display. Unique yellows were measured by asking the subjects to judge whether the test stimulus appeared reddish or greenish. Two sizes of the surround stimuli (widths of 1 deg and 4 deg were used. Results showed significant shifts in unique yellow even under the CFS conditions, except for the 1 deg uniform-surround condition. Under the no-CFS condition, the shifts showed remarkable difference between subjects, except for the 4 deg Mondrian-surround condition. Interestingly, trends of the shifts showed high consistency within each subject, across conditions. These results indicate that mechanisms at both higher and lower levels than the neuronal site of interocular suppression are involved, and that the color shifts follow each subject's strategy in the higher-order mechanisms when only insufficient clues are available in the surround to estimate illuminant color.

  4. Transport of gaseous NO2 and SO2 by MAX-DOAS in Beijing and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Li, Ang; Xie, Pinhua; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing

    2016-04-01

    With the development of industry and urbanization, regional pollution is increasing seriously, and the cross influence between cities is becoming more frequently. Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) has been successfully applied in the remote sensing of gaseous pollutants during the past decade, it is based on scattered light of the sun, and can measure spectral in different directions, measure tropospheric and the whole atmospheric column densities of trace gases combining with radiative transfer model (RTM). This approach is very useful for the investigation of the main path of air pollution transportation. Fifteen MAX-DOAS stations which are in urban and in the path of pollution transport are set up in Beijing and surrounding area including Tianjin and Hebei province to observe the spatial and temporal distributions and regional transport of gaseous NO2 and SO2. The NO2 VCDs and profiles and SO2 VCDs are obtained. The results show that the NO2 column densities in urban are higher than surroundings, it shows that the NO2 in Beijing is mainly from the local; The SO2 column densities in other cities to the south of Beijing are obviously higher than in Beijing, so regional transport from the south of Hebei province will have a significant impact on Beijing. From the results of NO2 and SO2, the whole pollution process including incubation, generation, duration, and dispersion was observed. The vertical distribution show that NO2 concentration is mainly near the surface from 0 to 400m, and SO2 is higher in the transport process.

  5. Coulomb stress change on surrounding faults by the January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Haase, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The M7 January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake occurred on the previously unmapped Léogâne Fault, a transpressional fault located very close to the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF), the major fault system and primary seismic hazard in southern Haiti. How the rupture of the Léogâne fault influenced stresses on the Enriquillo Fault - especially toward Port-au-Prince - as well as on other regional faults is critical to understanding how seismic hazard in this heavily populated region has been altered as a result of the devastating 2010 earthquake. We calculated Coulomb Failure Stress (CFS) changes in the region surrounding the M7 January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake using dislocation theory, assuming elastic properties for the region. We considered two possible slip models, the simple single-fault slip model proposed by Calais et al. (2010) and the more complex model by Hayes et al. (2010), which involves three subfaults. We resolve CFS changes on the Léogâne rupture plane itself, as well as on regional faults such as the Enriquillo, Neiba-Matheux, and Trois Baies faults. We find that the aftershock distribution is well explained by CFS changes caused by the coseismic rupture, in particular the cluster of reverse faulting events to the west of the rupture, offshore, coincident with the Trois Baies fault. This fault therefore appears to have been triggered by the January 2010 event. The aftershock distribution in the rupture area clearly outlines the Léogâne fault (see Douilly et al., this meeting) but shows no clear evidence of activity on the other subfaults suggested by Hayes et al. (2010). Both slip models imply a ~1 bar increase of CFS bar on the Enriquillo fault to the west and east of the January 2010 rupture. For the Calais et al. (2010) model, CFS changes are higher to the east if the Enriquillo Fault is modeled with a dip of 65° and a rake 20°, as suggested by some geological observations, compared to a purely strike-slip vertical fault, as often

  6. Deformation characteristics of surrounding rock of broken and soft rock roadway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin-xi Wang; Ming-yue Lin; Duan-xin Tian; Cun-liang Zhao [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2009-03-15

    A similar material model and a numerical simulation were constructed and are described. The deformation and failure of surrounding rock of broken and soft roadway are studied by using these models. The deformation of the roof and floor, the relative deformation of the two sides and the deformation of the deep surrounding rock are predicted using the model. Measurements in a working mine are compared to the results of the models. The results show that the surrounding rock shows clear rheological features under high stress conditions. Deformation is unequally distributed across the whole section. The surrounding rock exhibited three deformation stages: displacement caused by stress concentration, rheological displacement after the digging effects had stabilized and displacement caused by supporting pressure of the roadway. Floor heave was serious, accounting for 65% of the total deformation of the roof and floor. Floor heave is the main reason for failure of the surrounding rock. The reasons for deformation of the surrounding rock are discussed based on the similar material and numerical simulations. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Preictal and ictal neurovascular and metabolic coupling surrounding a seizure focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingrui; Nguyen, John; Ma, Hongtao; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2011-09-14

    Epileptic events initiate a large focal increase in metabolism and cerebral blood flow (CBF) to the ictal focus. In contrast, decreases in CBF have been demonstrated surrounding the focus, the etiology of which is unknown (i.e., arising either from active shunting of blood or passive steal). The relationship between these events and neuronal activity and metabolism are also unknown. We investigated neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling in the ictal surround using optical imaging of light scattering and cerebral blood volume, autofluorescence flavoprotein imaging (AFI), direct measurements of the cortical metabolic rate of oxygen and two-photon imaging of blood vessel diameter in a rat model of ictal events elicited with focal injection of 4-aminopyridine. We discovered a novel phenomenon, in which ictal events are preceded by preictal vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the surround, occurring 1-5 s before seizure onset, which may serve to actively shunt oxygenated blood to the imminently hypermetabolic focus or may be due to small local decreases in metabolism in the surround. Early ictal hypometabolism, transient decreases in cell swelling and cerebral blood volume in the surround are consistent with early ictal surround inhibition as a precipitating event in seizure onset as well as shaping the evolving propagating ictal wavefront, although the exact mechanism of these cerebrovascular and metabolic changes is currently unknown. AFI was extremely sensitive to the ictal onset zone and may be a useful mapping technique with clinical applications.

  8. Fovea-periphery axis symmetry of surround modulation in the human visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Nurminen

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus activates different sized cortical area depending on eccentricity of the stimulus. Here, our aim is to understand whether the visual field size of a stimulus or cortical size of the corresponding representation determines how strongly it interacts with other stimuli. We measured surround modulation of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal and perceived contrast with surrounds that extended either towards the periphery or the fovea from a center stimulus, centered at 6° eccentricity. This design compares the effects of two surrounds which are identical in visual field size, but differ in the sizes of their cortical representations. The surrounds produced equally strong suppression, which suggests that visual field size of the surround determines suppression strength. A modeled population of neuronal responses, in which all the parameters were experimentally fixed, captured the pattern of results both in psychophysics and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although the fovea-periphery anisotropy affects nearly all aspects of spatial vision, our results suggest that in surround modulation the visual system compensates for it.

  9. Impact of surrounding tissue on conductance measurement of coronary and peripheral lumen area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won Choi, Hyo; Jansen, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2012-11-07

    Parallel conductance (electric current flow through surrounding tissue) is an important determinant of accurate measurements of arterial lumen diameter, using the conductance method. The present study is focused on the role of non-uniform geometrical/electrical configurations of surrounding tissue, which are a primary source of electric current leakage. Computational models were constructed to simulate the conductance catheter measurement with two different excitation electrodes spacings (i.e. 12 and 20 mm for coronary and peripheral sizing, respectively) for different vessel-tissue configurations: (i) blood vessel fully embedded in muscle tissue, (ii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue, and (iii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue with fat covering half of the arterial vessel (anterior portion). The simulations suggest that the parallel conductance and accuracy of measurement is dependent on the inhomogeneous/anisotropic configuration of surrounding tissue, including the asymmetric dimension and anisotropy in electrical conductivity of surrounding tissue. Specifically, the measurement was shown to be accurate as long as the vessel was superficial, regardless of the considerable total surrounding tissue dimension for coronary or peripheral arteries. Moreover, it was shown that the unfavourable impact of parallel conductance on the accuracy of conductance catheter measurement is decreased by the combination of a lower transverse electrical conductivity of surrounding muscle tissue, a smaller electrode spacing and a larger lumen diameter. The present findings confirm that the conductance catheter technique provides an accurate platform for sizing of clinically relevant (i.e. superficial and diseased) arteries.

  10. Data analysis of Permanent GPS networks in Italy and surrounding region: application of a distributed processing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anzidei

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the procedures used to combine into a uniform velocity solution the observations of more than 80 continuous GPS stations operating in the central Mediterranean in the 1998-2004 time interval. We used a distributed processing approach, which makes efficient use of computer resources, while producing velocity estimates for all stations in one common reference frame, allowing for an effective merging of all the observations into a self-consistent network solution. We describe the CGPS data archiving and processing procedures, and provide main results in terms of position time-series and velocities for all stations that observed more than three years. We computed horizontal and vertical velocities accounting for the seasonal (annual and semi-annual signals, and considering the off-sets in the coordinate time-series caused by station equipment changes. Weighted post-fit RMS of the north, east and vertical velocity components are in the range of 1.57-2.08 mm, 1.31-3.28 mm, and 3.60-7.24 mm, respectively, which are reduced by solving for seasonal signals in the velocity estimates. The annual and semi-annual signals in the height components, with amplitudes up to 4.8 mm, are much stronger than those in the horizontal components. The mean amplitudes of annual and semi-annual signals are within 0.18-0.47 mm, 0.23-0.52 mm and 0.55-1.92 mm in the north, east and vertical components, respectively.

  11. Amphibians and reptiles associated with the prairie dog grasslands ecosystem and surrounding areas at the janos casas grandes complex, northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Santos Barrera; Jesús Pacheco; Gerardo Ceballos

    2008-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are considered a keystone species that forms extensive colonies in the grasslands of western and central North America. These colonies are characterized by high diversity of associated vertebrates. The largest colonies in North America are located in the Janos region, northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. In this study we present an inventory of the amphibians and reptiles inhabiting at prairie dog grasslands and surrounding mesquite scrublands in the Janos regio...

  12. An X-ray study of the supernova remnant G20.0-0.2 and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Petriella, Alberto; Giacani, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We study the supernova remnant G20.0-0.2 and its surroundings in order to look for the high energy counterpart of the radio nebula and to find evidence of interaction between the shock front and the interstellar medium. Methods: We used Chandra archival observations to analyze the X-ray emission from the supernova remnant. The surrounding gas was investigated using data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey, the VLA Galactic Plane Survey, the Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire, and the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. Results: G20.0-0.2 shows diffuse X-ray emission from the central region of the radio remnant. Although the current data do not allow us to distinguish between a thermal or non-thermal origin for the X-ray diffuse emission, based on the radio properties we suggest a synchrotron origin as the most favorable. The hard X-ray point source CXO J182807.4-113516 appears located at the geometrical center of the remnant and is a potential candidate to be the pulsar powering the ...

  13. Regional Integrated Experiments on Air Quality over Pearl River Delta 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004): Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Hu, M.; Zhong, L. J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Liu, S. C.; Andreae, M. O.; Wang, W.; Fan, S. J.

    The aims of the Program of Regional Integrated Experiments on Air Quality over Pearl River Delta of China 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004) were to characterize in depth the pollution, and to improve the understanding of the chemical and radiative processes in the atmosphere of Pearl River Delta (PRD) in South-Eastern China. This comprehensive program integrated ground-base in situ measurements, vertical observations (including aircraft) and model simulations. The intensive field campaign was conducted from 4 October to 5 November 2004 at two super-sites: an urban site in Guangzhou city (23.13°N, 113.26°E) and a non-urban site at Xinken (22.61°N, 113.59°E). They were coordinated with concurrent meteorological observations as well as measurements at stations of a regional monitoring network. Quality control and quality assurances, application of closure studies and observation-based modeling were the key elements of the research strategies for the PRIDE-PRD2004 campaign. Knowledge and understanding of the important issues, including 3-D distribution of air pollution, ozone formation process and its control strategies, sources of volatile organic compounds, chemical and physical characteristics and radiative properties of aerosols, and the important role of nitrous acid atmospheric chemistry, have been improved substantially by this study.

  14. Influence of Surrounding Acupuncture by Cranial MRI Location on Blood Rheology in Apoplectic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Gang-hui; LI Yan-hui; ZHUANG Zi-qi; HUANG Yong; LI Jian-ping; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To study the function of surrounding acupuncture located by cranial MRI on apoplexy. Method: Forty cases of the patients diagnosed as cerebral infarction were divided into the group of surrounding acupuncture by MRI location and the group of traditional scalp acupuncture, 20 cases in each group,and were treated respectively with surrounding acupunc -ture by MRI location and traditional scalp acupuncture,to determine the indexes of blood rheology before and after treatments. Results: There was significant diffe -fence (P<0.01) in comparison of various indexes in blood rheology between the apoplectic patients and healthy adults of same age. In comparison before and after the treatments in the group of surrounding acupunc -ture by MRI location there was significant difference (P<0.01) in various indexes of blood rheology, except ESR and ESR equation K value. In comparison before and after the treatments in the group of traditional scalp acupuncture, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in various indexes of blood rheology, except ESR, sclerosis index and ESR equation K value. Conclusion: The findings indicate that blood becomes thick and flows slowly and resistance increases in blood flow in the apoplectic patients. The two kinds of the needling techniques have an improving function in various indexes of blood rheology in the apoplectic patients and surrounding acupuncture by MRI location was better than traditional scalp acupuncture in improving blood rheology.

  15. Response suppression in v1 agrees with psychophysics of surround masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger-Landolt, Barbara; Heeger, David J

    2003-07-30

    When a target stimulus is embedded in a high contrast surround, the target appears reduced in contrast and is harder to detect, and neural responses in visual cortex are suppressed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and psychophysics to quantitatively compare these physiological and perceptual effects. Observers performed a contrast discrimination task on a contrast-reversing sinusoidal target grating. The target was either presented in isolation or embedded in a high-contrast surround. While observers performed the task, we also measured fMRI responses as a function of target contrast, both with and without a surround. We found that the surround substantially increased the psychophysical thresholds while reducing fMRI responses. The two data sets were compared, on the basis of the assumption that a fixed response difference is required for correct discrimination, and we found that the psychophysics accounted for 96.5% of the variance in the measured V1 responses. The suppression in visual areas V2 and V3 was stronger, too strong to agree with psychophysics. The good quantitative agreement between psychophysical thresholds and V1 responses suggests V1 as a plausible candidate for mediating surround masking.

  16. Enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography: comparison with pathological examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, M. van; Verslegers, I.; Biltjes, I.; Schepper, A. de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Schelfout, K.; Colpaert, C. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Kersschot, E. [Department of Radiology, OLV Hospital, Aalst (Belgium); Tjalma, W.A. [Department of Gynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Weyler, J. [Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    The enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography is correlated with findings from pathological examination. We studied 194 patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative MR mammography. Of all malignant lesions presenting with an enhancing surrounding area on MR mammography, morphologic features including long spicules, a ductal pattern, diffuse enhancement or nodules were evaluated and compared with histopathological examination. A double breast coil was used; we performed a 3D FLASH sequence with contiguous coronal slices of 2 mm, before and after injection of 0.2 mmol/kg GD-DTPA, and subtraction images were obtained. In total, 297 malignant lesions were detected at MR mammography and 101 of them had one or more types of enhancing surrounding area. In 49 of the 53 cancers with long spicules and in 49 of the 55 cancers with surrounding ductal pattern of enhancement, pathological examination showed in situ and/or invasive carcinoma. Multiple nodules adjacent to the carcinoma were seen in 20 patients and corresponded with six cases of invasive and ten cases of ductal in situ carcinoma. A diffuse enhancing area next to a mass was seen in ten patients and consisted of carcinoma in all cases: seven in situ and three invasive carcinomas. Enhancing areas including long spicules, a ductal pattern, noduli, or diffuse enhancement surrounding a carcinoma corresponded with in situ or invasive extension of the carcinoma in 92.5, 89, 80 and 100% of cases, respectively. (orig.)

  17. Hematite-bearing materials surrounding Candor Mensa in Candor Chasma, Mars: Implications for hematite origin and post-emplacement modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, R. L.; Gaddis, L. R.; Rogers, A. D.

    2014-07-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system on Mars is of enduring scientific interest in part due to the presence of interior mounds that contain extensive layering and water-altered minerals, such as crystalline gray hematite and hydrated sulfates. The presence of hematite and hydrated sulfate minerals is important because their host rock lithologies provide information about past environments that may have supported liquid water and may have been habitable. This work further defines the association and relationship between hematite-bearing materials and low albedo (presumably aeolian) deposits and layered materials, identifies physical characteristics that are strongly correlated with the presence of hematite, and refines hypotheses for the origin and post-emplacement modification (including transport) of these hematite-bearing and associated materials. There are only three regions surrounding Candor Mensa where hematite has been identified, even though morphologic properties are similar throughout the entire mensa. Three possible explanations for why hematite is only exposed in these regions include: (1) the topographic structure of the mensa walls concentrates hematite at the base of the layered deposits, influencing the ability to detect hematite from orbit; (2) the presence of differing amounts of “dark mantling material” and hematite-free erosional sediment; (3) the potential fracturing of the mensa and the influence of these structures on fluid flow and subsequent digenesis. The observations of hematite-bearing materials in this work support the hypothesis that hematite is eroding from a unit in the Candor Mensa interior layered deposits (ILD) and is being concentrated as a lag deposit adjacent to the lower layers of Candor Mensa and at the base in the form of dark aeolian material. Due to the similar geologic context associated with hematite-bearing and ILD materials throughout the Valles Marineris canyon system, the insight gained from studying these

  18. Hematite-bearing materials surrounding Candor Mensa in Candor Chasma, Mars: Implications for hematite origin and post-emplacement modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, Robin L.; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Rogers, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system on Mars is of enduring scientific interest in part due to the presence of interior mounds that contain extensive layering and water-altered minerals, such as crystalline gray hematite and hydrated sulfates. The presence of hematite and hydrated sulfate minerals is important because their host rock lithologies provide information about past environments that may have supported liquid water and may have been habitable. This work further defines the association and relationship between hematite-bearing materials and low albedo (presumably aeolian) deposits and layered materials, identifies physical characteristics that are strongly correlated with the presence of hematite, and refines hypotheses for the origin and post-emplacement modification (including transport) of these hematite-bearing and associated materials. There are only three regions surrounding Candor Mensa where hematite has been identified, even though morphologic properties are similar throughout the entire mensa. Three possible explanations for why hematite is only exposed in these regions include: (1) the topographic structure of the mensa walls concentrates hematite at the base of the layered deposits, influencing the ability to detect hematite from orbit; (2) the presence of differing amounts of “dark mantling material” and hematite-free erosional sediment; (3) the potential fracturing of the mensa and the influence of these structures on fluid flow and subsequent digenesis. The observations of hematite-bearing materials in this work support the hypothesis that hematite is eroding from a unit in the Candor Mensa interior layered deposits (ILD) and is being concentrated as a lag deposit adjacent to the lower layers of Candor Mensa and at the base in the form of dark aeolian material. Due to the similar geologic context associated with hematite-bearing and ILD materials throughout the Valles Marineris canyon system, the insight gained from studying these

  19. Communication and surrounding of Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants; La comunicacion y el entorno de las centrales de Asco y Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Asco and Vandellos-II power plants have always been integrated into the regions where they are located, and they take an active part in the development of surrounding towns through quality employment provided by our facilities, social and cultural support and aid to development promoted by regional councils. Communication to media is a corporate priority defined in our strategic plant, to ensure openness, rigour and punctuality. We also attend to the visitors who want to learn more about our facilities in the visitor center, and we have agreements with agrarian institutions in the area so that students can de practical training in the farms we own for agricultural production. (Author)

  20. Cooperatively surrounding control for multiple Euler-Lagrange systems subjected to uncertain dynamics and input constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Ming; Lv, Yue-Yong; Li, Chuan-Jiang; Ma, Guang-Fu

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate cooperatively surrounding control (CSC) of multi-agent systems modeled by Euler-Lagrange (EL) equations under a directed graph. With the consideration of the uncertain dynamics in an EL system, a backstepping CSC algorithm combined with neural-networks is proposed first such that the agents can move cooperatively to surround the stationary target. Then, a command filtered backstepping CSC algorithm is further proposed to deal with the constraints on control input and the absence of neighbors’ velocity information. Numerical examples of eight satellites surrounding one space target illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB720000) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61304005 and 61403103).

  1. Macro mechanical parameters' size effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya project's underground power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhi-hua; ZHOU Chuang-bing; ZHOU Huo-ming; SHENG Qian; LENG Xian-lun

    2005-01-01

    Scale effect is one of the important aspects in the macro mechanical parameters' research of rock mass, from a new point of view, by means of lab and field rock mechanics test, establishment of E~Vp relation, classification of engineering rock mass, numerical simulation test and back analysis based on surrounding rock's displacement monitoring results of Shuibuya Project's underground power station, rock mass deformation module's size effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya Project's undegroud power station was studied. It's shown that rock mass deformation module's scale effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya Project's undeground power station is obvious, the rock mass deformation module to tranquilization is 20% of intact rock's. Finally the relation between rock mass deformation modules and the scale of research was established.

  2. Idea of tourist management of the Radojewo palace park and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Mikołajczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to create a proper tourist trails in the palace park in Radojewo and surrounding areas, according to protected areas requirements, local space management plan, as well as with harmony with natural and landscape values. The ecotourism was found as the only possible kind of tourism in this area. The present areas management is not sufficient, hence the proposition of supplementation presented here, such as information tables and small architecture elements. Radojewo and its surroundings are a high tourism potential areas. The new bicycle trail is proposed in the neighbourhood of the park. It is meant to create a better communication with surrounding areas. Two kinds of pedestrian trails are suggested on the park area together with proper tourist infrastructure. There is also a necessity to assign the palace as a historical object.

  3. ANALYSIS ON INCREMENTAL COHESION OF SURROUNDING ROCK DUE TO PRESTRESSED CABLE ANCHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建中; 闫莫明; 滕年保; 李方政

    1998-01-01

    A new method for determining the incremental cohesion △Cm of surrounding rock due toprestressed cable anchor is presented, and the formulas for △Cm are deduced and ACredistributions also are discussed, based on the two anchorage effects, one is the effect with theprestressed value △Q3 of cable anchor improving the stress state of surrounding rock andincreasing the surrounding rock strength, the other is the fully encapsulated effect. Thedetermined incremental cohesion △Cm is subjected to the model test and field measurement in thereferences, and coincides well with those tested results. The formulas for △Cm can be used indesigning supoport parameters and related numerical analyses of prestressed cable anchor.

  4. Confronting, Confirming, and Dispelling Myths Surrounding ERP-in-the-Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaulieu, Tanya; C. Martin, Todd; Sarker, Saonee

    2015-01-01

    on the topic, there is substantial uncertainty surrounding the benefits and challenges of ERP cloud computing. Consequently, as often is the case with new technologies, popular myths surrounding the technology are used to make adoption and implementation decisions. As a first step toward providing an informed...... with stakeholders related to an ERP cloud-based solution. Our results dispel some of the myths, while supporting others, and highlight how ERP vendors work around the different types of challenges surrounding this technology. Our study also helps understand the benefits of ERP cloud computing, and informs about how...... cloud-based ERP systems will free organizations from the information system “iron cage” and lead to agile organizations....

  5. Context-Adaptive Arithmetic Coding Scheme for Lossless Bit Rate Reduction of MPEG Surround in USAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungyong; Pang, Hee-Suk; Sung, Koeng-Mo

    We propose a new coding scheme for lossless bit rate reduction of the MPEG Surround module in unified speech and audio coding (USAC). The proposed scheme is based on context-adaptive arithmetic coding for efficient bit stream composition of spatial parameters. Experiments show that it achieves the significant lossless bit reduction of 9.93% to 12.14% for spatial parameters and 8.64% to 8.96% for the overall MPEG Surround bit streams compared to the original scheme. The proposed scheme, which is not currently included in USAC, can be used for the improved coding efficiency of MPEG Surround in USAC, where the saved bits can be utilized by the other modules in USAC.

  6. Motion detection, noise reduction, texture suppression, and contour enhancement by spatiotemporal Gabor filters with surround inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Subramanian, Easwar

    2007-12-01

    We study the orientation and speed tuning properties of spatiotemporal three-dimensional (3D) Gabor and motion energy filters as models of time-dependent receptive fields of simple and complex cells in the primary visual cortex (V1). We augment the motion energy operator with surround suppression to model the inhibitory effect of stimuli outside the classical receptive field. We show that spatiotemporal integration and surround suppression lead to substantial noise reduction. We propose an effective and straightforward motion detection computation that uses the population code of a set of motion energy filters tuned to different velocities. We also show that surround inhibition leads to suppression of texture and thus improves the visibility of object contours and facilitates figure/ground segregation and the detection and recognition of objects.

  7. Effects of Surrounding Information and Line Length on Text Comprehension from the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess McMullin

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web (Web is becoming a popular medium for transmission of information and online learning. We need to understand how people comprehend information from the Web to design Web sites that maximize the acquisition of information. We examined two features of Web page design that are easily modified by developers, namely line length and the amount of surrounding information, or whitespace. Undergraduate university student participants read text and answered comprehension questions on the Web. Comprehension was affected by whitespace; participants had better comprehension for information surrounded by whitespace than for information surrounded by meaningless information. Participants were not affected by line length. These findings demonstrate that reading from the Web is not the same as reading print and have implications for instructional Web design.

  8. Research on the stability analysis and design of soil tunnel surrounding rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yingren; Qiu Chenyu; Xiao Qiang

    2010-01-01

    The paper first analyzes the failure mechanism and mode of tunnel according to model experiments and mechanical calculation and then discusses the deficiency of taking the limit value of displacement around the tunnel and the size of the plastic zone of surrounding rock as the criterion of stability.So the writers put forward the idea that the safety factor of surrounding rock calculated through strength reduction FEM(finit element method)should be regarded as the criterion of stability,which has strict mechanical basis and unified standard and would not be influenced by other factors.The paper also studies the safety factors of tunnel surrounding rock(safety factors of shear and tension failure)and lining and some methods of designing and calculating tunnels.At last,the writers take the loess tunnel for instance and show the design and calculation results of two-lane railway tunnel.

  9. Molecular gas and triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet stars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei

    2012-01-01

    The environments surrounding nine Wolf-Rayet stars were studied in molecular emission. Expanding shells were detected surrounding these WR stars (see left panels of Figure 1). The average masses and radii of the molecular cores surrounding these WR stars anti-correlate with the WR stellar wind velocities (middle panels of Figure 1), indicating the WR stars has great impact on their environments. The number density of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is enhanced in the molecular shells at $\\sim$5 arcmin from the central WR star (lower-right panel of Figure 1). Through detailed studies of the molecular shells and YSOs, we find strong evidences of triggered star formation in the fragmented molecular shells (\\cite[Liu et al. 2010]{liu_etal12}

  10. Damage Characteristics of Surrounding Rock Subjected to VCR Mining Blasting Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For limiting the damage range caused by explosive shock loads in vertical crater retreat (VCR mining, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were studied by two methods: numerical simulation and ultrasonic testing. Combined with the mining blasting in Dongguashan Copper Mine of China, the VCR blasting shock characteristics under different conditions are obtained by using LSDYNA. Based on statistical fracture mechanics and damage mechanics theories, a damage constitutive model for rock mass subjected to blasting shock load was established. Then by using the fast Lagrange analysis codes (FLAC3D, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were analyzed by applying the blasting shock loads obtained from the VCR mining and the damage zone is obtained. At last, the relationship between the amount of explosives and the radius of damaged surrounding rock mass was discussed, and its formula was also derived. The research provides a theoretical basis for rationally controlling stope boundaries and optimizing mining blasting parameters.

  11. Crustal thickness and images of the lithospheric discontinuities in the Gibraltar arc and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Flor de Lis; Stich, Daniel; Morales, José; Martín, Rosa; Diaz, Jordi; Pazos, Antonio; Córdoba, Diego; Pulgar, Javier A.; Ibarra, Pedro; Harnafi, Mimoun; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    The Gibraltar arc and surrounding areas are a complex tectonic region and its tectonic evolution since Miocene is still under debate. Knowledge of its lithospheric structure will help to understand the mechanisms that produced extension and westward motion of the Alboran domain, simultaneously with NW-SE compression driven by Africa-Europe plates convergence. We perform a P-wave receiver function analysis in which we analyse new data recorded at 83 permanent and temporary seismic broad-band stations located in the South of the Iberian peninsula. These data are stacked and combined with data from a previous study in northern Morocco to build maps of thickness and average vP/vS ratio for the crust, and cross-sections to image the lithospheric discontinuities beneath the Gibraltar arc, the Betic and Rif Ranges and their Iberian and Moroccan forelands. Crustal thickness values show strong lateral variations in the southern Iberia peninsula, ranging from ˜19 to ˜46 km. The Variscan foreland is characterized by a relatively flat Moho at ˜31 km depth, and an average vP/vS ratio of ˜1.72, similar to other Variscan terranes, which may indicate that part of the lower crustal orogenic root was lost. The thickest crust is found at the contact between the Alboran domain and the External Zones of the Betic Range, while crustal thinning is observed southeastern Iberia (down to 19 km) and in the Guadalquivir basin where the thinning at the Iberian paleomargin could be still preserved. In the cross-sections, we see a strong change between the eastern Betics, where the Iberian crust underthrusts and couples to the Alboran crust, and the western Betics, where the underthrusting Iberian crust becomes partially delaminated and enters into the mantle. The structures largely mirror those on the Moroccan side where a similar detachment was observed in northern Morocco. We attribute a relatively shallow strong negative-polarity discontinuity to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary

  12. Settlement behavior of coal mine waste in different surrounding rock conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-de; LI Xi-bing; HU Bing-nan; CHEN Feng; XU Ji-cheng; LI Di-yuan

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of complex conditions of in-situ surrounding rocks on the settlement behavior of nubbly coal mine waste subjected to high gravity pressure, four kinds of loading chambers made of different similar materials with different elastic moduli in experiments were used to simulate the deformation features of in-site rocks, including soft, moderate hardness, hard and extra-hard rocks. The results show that all the settlement-axial load (or axial strain-stress) curves obtained under four different surrounding rock conditions present power-exponential function feature. The final settlement of coal mine waste under the same axial load is closely related to the lumpiness gradations and the deformation behavior of chamber materials used to simulate behaviors of different in-situ surrounding rocks. In the same surrounding rock condition, the final settlement under the same maximum axial load decreases with the decrease of the proportion of larger gradation of coal mine waste. While for the same lumpiness gradation case, the settlement increases with the decrease of elastic modulus of simulated surrounding rocks and the lateral pressure induced by axial load increases with the increase of elastic modulus of loading chambers that are used to simulate different surrounding rocks. The test results also reveal that both the compaction curve and lateral pressure curve show a three-stage behavior, and the duration of each stage, which is closely related to gradations and the deformation feature of loading chamber materials, decreases with the increase of the proportion of the small size of coal mine waste and elastic modulus of the simulated rock materials.

  13. The physics of positively biased conductors surrounded by dielectrics in contact with a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Chang, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    The physics of a positively biased conductor surrounded by dielectrics in contact with plasma is investigated. It is shown that because of the presence of secondary emission from the surrounding dielectrics, the voltage of the surfaces near the conductor has three solutions. The high- and low-voltage solutions are stable, while the intermediate-voltage solution is unstable. This theory is applied to explain the snapover effect observed on high-voltage solar arrays that involve the use of highly biased surfaces in contact with the space environment.

  14. Conservation and Utilization of a Ramsar Site“ Kabukuri-numa and the Surrounding Rice Paddies"

    OpenAIRE

    淺野, 敏久; 光武, 昌作; 林, 健児郎; 榎本, 隆明

    2012-01-01

    “Kabukuri-numa and the surrounding rice paddies" is the first case bearing the name of “rice paddy" in the Ramsar site of Japan. The residents around this site are aiming at community development and the coexistence of agriculture and geese. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of interviews about the efforts here before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake. And then we consider the problems related to wise use of the Ramsar site including the surrounding rice paddies in...

  15. Study on mechanism and practice of surrounding rock control of high stress coal roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-jun; YANG Lei; OUYANG Guang-bin

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical principle and surrounding rock deformation feature of high stress coal roadway was analyzed. The condition of stress balance of the kind of the roadway was put forward. The surrounding rock control principle and supporting technique of high stress coal roadway were discussed. It was very important to control early days deformation of coal sides. The supporting strength is should increased, so the strength loss of coal sides is decreased. The range of plastic fluid zone is reduced. The above mention-ned principle is applied in industrial test, and the new supporting technique is applied successfully.

  16. TELOMERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN GASTRIC AND COLORECTAL CANCER AND SURROUNDING TISSUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen; ZHANG Qiao; WAN De-sen; CUN Ling-yun; WU Cheng-qiu; PAN Zhi-zhong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the telomerase activities in human gastric and colorectal tumors. Methods: The telomerase activity was assayed by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) technique. Forty human tumor samples including 9 colonic, 20 rectal and 11gastric carcinomas and their surrounding tissues were used for the detection. Results: Thirty-six out of 40human tumor samples exhibited telomerase activity regardless of the stages or the differentiation of the tumors. However, only 1 out of 39 tumor surrounding tissues showed telomerase activity. Conclusion: Telomerase may be a good diagnosis biomarker for tumor detection.

  17. Explanations for preferences in Denmark for surroundings and location of the home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    This paper is based on a survey made in Denmark asking a random selection of the population about their preferences for surroundings and location of the dwelling. The paper tries to explain these preferences by background variables on the respondents and their housing situation and by the interde......This paper is based on a survey made in Denmark asking a random selection of the population about their preferences for surroundings and location of the dwelling. The paper tries to explain these preferences by background variables on the respondents and their housing situation...

  18. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at...

  19. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the island of Guam at...

  20. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: CNMI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern...

  1. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 3.5-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Hawaiian island of Oahu at...

  2. Maternal factors required for oocyte developmental competence in mice: transcriptome analysis of non-surrounded nucleolus (NSN) and surrounded nucleolus (SN) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun-Yu; Li, Mo; Luo, Yi-Bo; Song, Shuhui; Tian, Dongmei; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Bing; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Liu, Zhonghua; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2013-06-15

    During mouse antral follicle development, the oocyte chromatin gradually transforms from a less condensed state with no Hoechst-positive rim surrounding the nucleolus (NSN) to a fully condensed chromatin state with a Hoechst-positive rim surrounding the nucleolus (SN). Compared with SN oocytes, NSN oocytes display a higher gene transcription activity and a lower rate of meiosis resumption (G2/M transition), and they are mostly arrested at the two-cell stage after in vitro fertilization. To explore the differences between NSN and SN oocytes, and the maternal factors required for oocyte developmental competence, we compared the whole-transcriptome profiles between NSN and SN oocytes. First, we found that the NSN and SN oocytes were different in their metabolic pathways. In the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway, the SN oocytes tend to produce diacylglycerol, whereas the NSN oocytes tend to produce phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. For energy production, the SN oocytes and NSN oocytes differed in the gluconeogenesis and in the synthesis processes. Second, we also found that the key genes associated with oocyte meiosis and/or preimplantation embryo development were differently expressed in the NSN and SN oocytes. Our results illustrate that during the NSN-SN transition, the oocytes change their metabolic activities and accumulate maternal factors for further oocyte maturation and post-fertilization embryo development.

  3. Assessing Tourist Resorts Surrounding Metropolitans Applying SWOT- AHP Models Case study: Malaga Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Movahed

    2013-01-01

    and demands of tourists in forest park light, Proceedings of the National Conference of forests and sustainable development – WebmailPapoly Yazdi, MH and Saghaei, M. (2006, the nature and implications of tourism, the publisher, TehranHatmynzhad, H. (2007, the importance of urban tourism, municipal Magazine, Year VII Number 785 - dinar, A. (2005 urban tourism in Iran, published a vocabulary, MashhadRezvani, AA (1995, Geography and Tourism, University Press, Pia lights, TehranZangi Abadi, A. and Mohammadi, J. and Zyrkbash, D. (2006, the paper analyzes the domestic tourism market in Isfahan, Geography and Development Journal, Volume 8, Number 4Cultural Heritage Tourism Crafts province (2006, Statistical design of tourists entering the province - province Transport Statistical Yearbook (2009, Department of Transportation provinceProvince Statistical Yearbook (2006 in Khuzestan Province, Department of PlanningSaghaei, M. (2003 investigate the potential of rural tourism in Iran, M.Sc. Thesis, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.Shahande, B. (2001, Akvgrdshgry not only Tbytgrdy, Green Wave Magazine Issue 7Ghaffari, SR, Turki Harchgany M. (2009, the role of tourism in socio - economic development of rural areas and Bakhtiari province: the case study organization, Journal of Rural Development, No. 12, summer 2009Ghasemi, M. (2006 reduce the huge tourism boost from Mashhad Tourism Qablthay its sphere of influence, adopted at the first conference on urban planning and management, MashhadGhodsi Poor, H. (2005, analysis hierarchy process, Amir Kabir University, TehranKadivar, AA and Saghaei, M. (2008, about the pilgrimage city of Tourist Settlement Case Study: Valley Akhlmd, Geographical Research (2004Saghaei m and M. Maffei (2008 Analysis of the surrounding rural tourism metropolis, Journal of Geography and Regional Development, No. 10.Mafi, E and Saghaei, M. (2008 Analytical Brgrdshgry big cities around the country emphasizing the Metropolis of Mashhad, Journal of Geography and

  4. Developmental Changes during Childhood in Single-Letter Acuity and Its Crowding by Surrounding Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong Taek; Hamid, Joshua; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.

    2010-01-01

    Crowding refers to impaired target recognition caused by surrounding contours. We investigated the development of crowding in central vision by comparing single-letter and crowding thresholds in groups of 5-year-olds, 8-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults. The task was to discriminate the orientation of a Sloan letter E. Single-letter thresholds,…

  5. ALTERNATING METHOD STUDY ON STRESS ANALYSIS OF SURROUNDING ROCK FOR TWO RANDOM GEOMETRY TUNNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱钟; 张路青

    1997-01-01

    The stress analysis of surrounding rock for two random geometry tunnels is studied inthis paper by using Schwarz's alternating method. The simple and effective alternating algorithm is found, in which the surplus surface force is approximated by Fourier series, thus the iteration derivation can be conducted according to the precision required, finally, the stress results with high precision are obtained.

  6. Plastic zone distribution laws and its types of surrounding rock in large-span roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chong; Xu Jinhai; Pan Jianzhong; Ma Chao

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the distribution laws and types of plastic zone of surrounding rock in large-span roadway,we analyzed the distribution laws with different spans and lateral pressures using FLAC3D numerical calculation software.Based on the roadway support difficulty and distribution laws of the plastic zone of surrounding rock,we defined the large-span roadway and classified the types of large-span rectangular roadways.As a result,the distribution laws of the plastic zone on surrounding rock in a rectangular roadway with different spans and lateral pressures were obtained.The results show that the area of the plastic zone on surrounding rock increased with the increase of the spans and lateral pressures,and the plastic zone was symmetrical to the center line of roadway.At λ =0.5,1.0,1.5,and 2.0,the plastic zone presented "addleshape" distribution,"ellipse" distribution."thin and high" distribution and "inverse trapezium" distribution,respectively.In addition,we classified the roadways into four types according to the different lateral pressures and spans,including small-span,moderate-span,large-span and extreme-large-span roadways.

  7. Temporal properties of centre-surround interactions in human motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perge, J.A.; Kanai, R.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A recent electrophysiological study revealed that the response to the antagonistic surround of macaque area MT receptive fields is delayed (15 - 20 ms) relative to the centre (Perge et al, 2002 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 43 E-Abstract 3931). We investigated whether this phenomenon,

  8. On the transition to the normal phase for superconductors surrounded by normal conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Kachmar, Ayman

    2009-01-01

    For a cylindrical superconductor surrounded by a normal material, we discuss transition to the normal phase of stable, locally stable and critical configurations. Associated with those phase transitions, we define critical magnetic fields and we provide a sufficient condition for which those...

  9. Perils to pregnancies: On social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpt, E. van der; Notermans, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon-a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the

  10. Perils to pregnancies: on social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.; Notermans, C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon—a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the

  11. On Sedna and the cloud of comets surrounding the Solar System in Milgromian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Paučo, R

    2016-01-01

    We reconsider the hypothesis of a vast cometary reservoir surrounding the Solar System - the Oort cloud of comets - within the framework of Milgromian Dynamics (MD or MOND). For this purpose we build a numerical model of the cloud, assuming the theory of modified gravity QUMOND. Adopting popular pair $\

  12. Center-surround antagonism in spatial vision: retinal or cortical locus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    Mach and Hering had early advanced a model of spatial visual processing featuring an antagonistic interaction between adjoining areas in the visual field. Spatial opponency was one of the first findings when single-unit studies of the retina were begun. Not long afterwards psychophysical experiments revealed a center-surround organization closely matching that found in the mammalian retina. It hinged on the demonstration of reduction of sensitivity in a small patch of the visual field when its surround was changed from dark to bright. Because such patterns inevitably produce borders, well-known phenomena of border interaction could be seen as providing alternative explanations, whose substrate would most likely be in the visual cortex. These competing viewpoints are discussed especially as they pertain to the recent demonstration of spatial differences in the center/surround organization between the normal and affected eyes of amblyopes. To the extent that most findings favor a retinal site for the psychophysically measured antagonism, and that evidence is accumulating for a direct effect on the mammalian retina of stimulus manipulation during visual development, the difference in spatial parameters of center/surround antagonism in amblyopia suggests that the dysfunction in amblyopia begins already in the retina.

  13. Mechanism of zonal disintegration in surrounding rock mass around deep rock engineering and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical behaviors of deep rock mass are different from those of shallow rock mass.Through cases of Jinping II Hydropower Station,the special phenomenon of zonal disintegration in the surrounding rock mass around the diversion tunnels,is analyzed.On the basis of fracture mechanics,a new strength criterion for deep rock mass is derived.The new nonlinear strength criterion that is relative to the rock mass rating classification can be applied to the study of the tensile failure of deep rock mass.Subsequently,zonal disintegration model is established,and the radius of fractured zone and none-fractured zone of deep surrounding rock mass around cylindrical tunnel are obtained,their exact positions and the evolution law of zonal disintegration of surrounding rock mass is determined.To validate the present model,comparison between calculation results and the experiment observation on facture and failure around underground openings is carried out.It is found that the numerical simulation result is in good agreement with the experimental one on failure modes around the hole.Through sensitivity analysis,the effects of stress condition,cohesion and the angle of internal friction on the phenomenon of zonal disintegration are determined.Finally,the present model is adopted in the analysis of the zonal disintegration in the surrounding rock mass around the diversion tunnels in Jinping II Hydropower Station.Meanwhile,the magnitude and distributions of fractured zones are determined by numerical simulation.

  14. Greenhouse Effect: Temperature of a Metal Sphere Surrounded by a Glass Shell and Heated by Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc H.; Matzner, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the greenhouse effect on a model satellite consisting of a tungsten sphere surrounded by a thin spherical, concentric glass shell, with a small gap between the sphere and the shell. The system sits in vacuum and is heated by sunlight incident along the "z"-axis. This development is a generalization of the simple treatment of the…

  15. Can Centre Surround Model Explain the Enhancement of Visual Perception through Stochastic Resonance?

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Ajanta

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of centre surround model for simulating the enhancement of contrast sensitivity through stochastic resonance observed in psychophysical experiments. We also show that this model could be used to simulate the contrast sensitivity function through stochastic resonance. The quality of the fit of measured contrast sensitivity function to the simulated data is very good.

  16. The Geomorphology of the surroundings of the Ría de Arosa (Galicia, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, A.J.

    1966-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a geomorphological introduction to a series of papers on the sedimentology and weathering phenomena of the Ría de Arosa area. The area contains a large mass of coarse-grained porphyritic granite surrounded by other crystalline rocks. The granite is deeply weathered

  17. Do personal conditions and circumstances surrounding partner loss explain loneliness in newly bereaved older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarsen, B.; Smit, J.H; Snijders, T.A.B.; Knipscheer, K.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to explain loneliness in newly bereaved older adults, taking into account personal and circumstantial conditions surrounding the partner's death. A distinction is made between emotional and social loneliness. Data were gathered both before and after partner loss. Results

  18. The impact of circumstances surrounding the death of a child on parents' grief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaards-de Meij, Leoniek; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk; Van den Bout, Jan; Van Der Heijden, Peter G M; Dijkstra, Iris

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted among bereaved parents to examine the relationship between the circumstances surrounding the death of their child and psychological adjustment. Two hundred nineteen couples participated at 6, 13, and 20 months post-loss. Examination was made of two categories of fa

  19. Perils to pregnancies: on social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.; Notermans, C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon—a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the count

  20. Perils to pregnancies: On social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpt, E. van der; Notermans, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon-a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the count

  1. Control over Surrounding Rocks Deformation of Soft Floor and Whole-Coal Gateways with Trapezoidal Supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Xin-xian; LI De-Quan; SHAO Qiang; SUN Yu-feng

    2005-01-01

    In Gengcun Colliery, Yima Coal Group Co. Ltd.the characteristics of the gateways of thick coal seam and the coal seam is with fully mechanized sublevel caving mining are that the thickness of roof coal seam of gateways is larger, their surrounding rocks are the whole-coal mass and the coal seam is prone to Spontaneous Combustion. With the natural equilibrium arch theory, the reasonable adjacent distance of No.11 mine-type metal supports was calculated in trapezoidal gateways based on these characteristics. Then, in-situ supporting experiments were carried out. The results indicate that under the action of virgin rock stress, the width of broken rocks zone of surrounding rocks is 1.7-2.0 m in return heading and 1.1-1.3 m in going headway. And their surrounding rocks belong to the Ⅳ-type soften rock and the Ⅲ-type common surrounding rock respectively. Therefore, under the movable abutment pressure, the gateways deformation is serious. It is suggested that the designed gateways have to use pre-broadened cross section to suit their deformation. At the same time, the accumulated water on gateway floor must be drained in time. These measures were taken in the 1302 and 1304 coal faces in Gengcun Colliery, and the satisfactory results have been obtained.

  2. On the Optimal Radiation Bandwidth of Printed Slot Antennas Surrounded by EBGs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Llombart, N.; Gerini, G.; Maagt, P. de

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a design strategy to achieve the maximum bandwidth and efficiency for a printed slot antenna surrounded by EBGs. First the dielectric constant and the thickness of the dielectric slab that guarantees an acceptable front to back radiation ratio is identified. Then electromagnetic

  3. Rheological properties of surrounding rock in deep hard rock tunnels and its reasonable support form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 陈卫忠; 王清标; 郑朋强

    2016-01-01

    Second lining stability, which is the last protection in tunnel engineering, is critically important. The rheological properties of the surrounding rock heavily affect second lining stability. In this work, we used laboratory triaxial compressive rheological limestone tests to study nonlinear creep damage characteristics of surrounding rock mass in construction projects. We established a nonlinear creep damage constitutive model for the rock mass, as well as a constitutive model numerical implementation made by programming. Second, we introduced a new foam concrete with higher compression performance and good ductility and studied its mechanical properties through uniaxial and triaxial tests. This concrete was used as the filling material for the reserved deformation layer between the primary support and second lining. Finally, we proposed a high efficiency and accuracy staged optimization method. The minimum reserved deformation layer thickness was established as the optimization goal, and the presence of plastic strain in the second lining after 100 years of surrounding rock creep was used as an evaluation index. Reserved deformation layer thickness optimization analysis reveals no plastic strain in the second lining when the reserved deformation minimum thickness layer is 28.50 cm. The results show that the new foam concrete used as a reserved deformation layer filling material can absorb creep deformation of surrounding rock mass, reduce second lining deformation that leads to plastic strain, and ensure long-term second lining stability.

  4. Motion detection, noise reduction, texture suppression, and contour enhancement by spatiotemporal Gabor filters with surround inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Subramanian, Easwar

    2007-01-01

    We study the orientation and speed tuning properties of spatiotemporal three-dimensional (3D) Gabor and motion energy filters as models of time-dependent receptive fields of simple and complex cells in the primary visual cortex (V1). We augment the motion energy operator with surround suppression to

  5. A morphological analysis on the osteocytic lacunar canalicular system in bone surrounding dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Maiko; Nozawa-Inoue, Kayoko; Li, Minqi; Oda, Kimimitsu; Yoshie, Sumio; Amizuka, Norio; Maeda, Takeyasu

    2011-06-01

    Osseointegration is the most preferable interface of dental implants and newly formed bone. However, the cavity preparation for dental implants often gives rise to empty lacunae or pyknotic osteocytes in bone surrounding the dental implant. This study aimed to examine the chronological alternation of osteocytes in the bone surrounding the titanium implants using a rat model. The distribution of the osteocytic lacunar canalicular system (OLCS) in bone around the titanium implants was examined by silver impregnation according to Bodian's staining. We also performed double staining for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), as well as immunohistochemistry for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23--a regulator for the serum concentration of phosphorus--and sclerostin, which has been shown to inhibit osteoblastic activities. Newly formed bone and the injured bone at the early stage exhibited an irregularly distributed OLCS and a few osteocytes positive for sclerostin or FGF23, therefore indicating immature bone. Osteocytes in the surrounding bone from Day 20 to Month 2 came to reveal an intense immunoreactivity for sclerostin. Later on, the physiological bone remodeling gradually replaced such immature bone into a compact profile bearing a regularly arranged OLCS. As the bone was remodeled, FGF23 immunoreactivity became more intense, but sclerostin became less so in the well-arranged OLCS. In summary, it seems likely that OLCS in the bone surrounding the dental implants is damaged by cavity formation, but later gradually recovers as bone remodeling takes place, ultimately inducing mature bone. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  7. Do personal conditions and circumstances surrounding partner loss explain loneliness in newly bereaved older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarsen, B.; Smit, J.H; Snijders, T.A.B.; Knipscheer, K.P.M.

    This longitudinal study aims to explain loneliness in newly bereaved older adults, taking into account personal and circumstantial conditions surrounding the partner's death. A distinction is made between emotional and social loneliness. Data were gathered both before and after partner loss. Results

  8. The Geomorphology of the surroundings of the Ría de Arosa (Galicia, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, A.J.

    1966-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a geomorphological introduction to a series of papers on the sedimentology and weathering phenomena of the Ría de Arosa area. The area contains a large mass of coarse-grained porphyritic granite surrounded by other crystalline rocks. The granite is deeply weathered

  9. The Didactical Contract Surrounding CAS When Changing Teachers in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Misfeldt, Morten; Marcussen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses three empirical examples of Computer Algebra System (CAS) use in a Danish upper secondary school mathematics class that had experienced a recent change of teacher. All examples lead to didactical problems surrounding the situation and unclear expectations between teacher and students, involving loss of students' mathematical…

  10. Relationship between the number of cells surrounding oocytes and energy states of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Yasuhisa; Ichinose, Tomoya; Ogawa, Kaori; Itami, Nobuhiko; Tasaki, Hidetaka; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-10-15

    Lipid content, ATP content, and histone acetylation are thought to reflect the energy state of cells. In addition, the energy state closely associates with growth and developmental ability of oocytes. Oocyte growth is accompanied by active proliferation of the surrounding granulosa cells (GCs), and GCs play a key role in the provision of energy substrates to the oocytes. In the present study, we first examined the relationship among the average number of GCs per follicle, the average number of cumulus cells (CCs) per oocyte, and the average lipid content in oocytes that developed in vivo within individual donor gilts. Second, we validated the relationship between the number of cells surrounding oocytes and the energy states of oocytes by using an IVC system of oocyte granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) derived from early antral follicles. We collected cumulus cells and oocyte complexes (COCs) from antral follicles (3-5 mm in diameter) and found that average lipid content in oocytes significantly correlated with the average number of both GCs/follicle and CCs/oocyte (P cell number of OGCs, as well as the lipid content, ATP content, and acetylation level of H4K12 in oocytes grown in vitro. In addition, glucose consumption by OGCs was calculated from the sample media collected at Days 13 and 14. The lipid content of oocytes grown in vitro, significantly correlated with the number of cells surrounding the oocytes (P number of cells surrounding the oocytes (P number of cells surrounding the oocytes, and glucose uptake by OGCs is crucial for lipid content and ATP content, and H4K12 acetylation in oocytes.

  11. Visual Population Receptive Fields in People with Schizophrenia Have Reduced Inhibitory Surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elaine J; Tibber, Marc S; Schwarzkopf, D Sam; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Rees, Geraint; Dakin, Steven C

    2017-02-08

    People with schizophrenia (SZ) experience abnormal visual perception on a range of visual tasks, which have been linked to abnormal synaptic transmission and an imbalance between cortical excitation and inhibition. However, differences in the underlying architecture of visual cortex neurons, which might explain these visual anomalies, have yet to be reported in vivo Here, we probed the neural basis of these deficits using fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) mapping to infer properties of visually responsive neurons in people with SZ. We employed a difference-of-Gaussian model to capture the center-surround configuration of the pRF, providing critical information about the spatial scale of the pRFs inhibitory surround. Our analysis reveals that SZ is associated with reduced pRF size in early retinotopic visual cortex, as well as a reduction in size and depth of the inhibitory surround in V1, V2, and V4. We consider how reduced inhibition might explain the diverse range of visual deficits reported in SZ.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT People with schizophrenia (SZ) experience abnormal perception on a range of visual tasks, which has been linked to abnormal synaptic transmission and an imbalance between cortical excitation/inhibition. However, associated differences in the functional architecture of visual cortex neurons have yet to be reported in vivo We used fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) mapping to demonstrate that the fine-grained functional architecture of visual cortex in people with SZ differs from unaffected controls. SZ is associated with reduced pRF size in early retinotopic visual cortex largely due to reduced inhibitory surrounds. An imbalance between cortical excitation and inhibition could drive such a change in the center-surround pRF configuration and ultimately explain the range of visual deficits experienced in SZ.

  12. Reduced visual surround suppression in schizophrenia shown by measuring contrast detection thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eSerrano-Pedraza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception in schizophrenia is attracting a broad interest given the deep knowledge that we have about the visual system in healthy population. In visual science it is known that the visibility of a grating located in the visual periphery is impaired by the presence of a surrounding grating of the same spatial frequency and orientation. Previous studies have suggested abnormal visual surround suppression in patients with schizophrenia. Given that schizophrenia patients have cortical alterations including hypofunction of NMDA receptors and reduced concentration of GABA neurotransmitter, which affect lateral inhibitory connections, then they should perform better than controls in visual suppression tasks. We tested this hypothesis by measuring contrast detection thresholds using a new stimulus configuration. We tested two groups: 21 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy subjects. Thresholds were obtained using Bayesian staircases in a 4AFC detection task where the target was a grating within a 3 deg Butterworth window that appeared in one of four possible positions at 5 deg eccentricity. We compared three conditions, a target with no surround (NS, b target on top of a surrounding grating of 20 deg diameter and 25% contrast with same spatial frequency and orthogonal orientation (OS, and c target on top of a surrounding grating with parallel (same orientation (PS. Our results show significantly lower thresholds for controls than for patients in NS and OS conditions. We also found significant lower suppression ratios PS/NS in patients. Our results support the hypothesis that inhibitory lateral connections in early visual cortex are impaired in schizophrenia patients.

  13. Hydroclimatic changes in China and surroundings during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age: spatial patterns and possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Fahu; Feng, Song; Huang, Wei; Liu, Jianbao; Zhou, Aifeng

    2015-01-01

    Investigating hydroclimatic changes during key periods such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, 1000-1300 AD) and the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1400-1900 AD) is of fundamental importance for quantifying the responses of precipitation to greenhouse gas-induced warming on regional and global scales. This study synthesizes the most up-to-date and comprehensive proxy moisture/precipitation records during the past 1000 years in China and surroundings. The proxy data collected include 34 records from arid central Asia (ACA) and 37 records from monsoonal Asia. Our results demonstrate a pattern of generally coherent regional moisture variations during the MCA and LIA. In mid-latitude Asia north of 30°N, monsoonal northern China (North China and Northeast China) was generally wetter, while ACA (Northwest China and Central Asia) was generally drier during the MCA than in the LIA (a West-East mode). The boundary between wetter northern China and drier ACA was roughly consistent with the modern summer monsoon boundary. In monsoonal China to the east of 105°E, the northern part was generally wetter, while the southern part was generally drier during the MCA than in the LIA (a North-South mode), with a boundary roughly along the Huai River at about 34°N. These spatial patterns of moisture/precipitation variations are also identified by instrumental data during the past 50 years. In order to understand the possible mechanisms related to the moisture variations during the MCA and LIA, we investigate the major SST and atmospheric modes (e.g. the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)) which affect the moisture/precipitation variations in the study region using both the instrumental data and the reconstructed time series. It is found that the ENSO may play an important role in determining hydroclimatic variability over China and surroundings on a multi-centennial time-scale; and that the foregoing

  14. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Model Volcanic Hazard Risk Levels in Areas Surrounding the Copahue Volcano in the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, A. M.; Weigel, A. M.; Rivas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Copahue is a stratovolcano located along the rim of the Caviahue Caldera near the Chile-Argentina border in the Andes Mountain Range. There are several small towns located in proximity of the volcano with the two largest being Banos Copahue and Caviahue. During its eruptive history, it has produced numerous lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and lahars. This isolated region has steep topography and little vegetation, rendering it poorly monitored. The need to model volcanic hazard risk has been reinforced by recent volcanic activity that intermittently released several ash plumes from December 2012 through May 2013. Exposure to volcanic ash is currently the main threat for the surrounding populations as the volcano becomes more active. The goal of this project was to study Copahue and determine areas that have the highest potential of being affected in the event of an eruption. Remote sensing techniques were used to examine and identify volcanic activity and areas vulnerable to experiencing volcanic hazards including volcanic ash, SO2 gas, lava flow, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ISS ISERV Pathfinder, and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products were used to analyze volcanic hazards. These datasets were used to create a historic lava flow map of the Copahue volcano by identifying historic lava flows, tephra, and lahars both visually and spectrally. Additionally, a volcanic risk and hazard map for the surrounding area was created by modeling the possible extent of ash fallout, lahars, lava flow, and pyroclastic density currents (PDC) for future eruptions. These model results were then used to identify areas that should be prioritized for disaster relief and evacuation orders.

  15. Use of native mosses as biomonitors of heavy metals and nitrogen deposition in the surroundings of two steel works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Miqueo, L; Elustondo, D; Lasheras, E; Santamaría, J M

    2010-02-01

    A biomonitoring survey using the moss species Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. was conducted in the surroundings of two steel plants located in the North of Spain. Levels of V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb and N were determined. Very high concentrations in the areas of study were detected when compared to nearby unaffected regions. Similar trends were observed for all the elements in the differently orientated transects, showing an appreciable influence of the NW prevailing winds of the region in the dispersion of pollutants, as well as a clear decreasing gradient in the concentrations of metals in mosses within a distance of 1500 meters from the facilities. A differentiation between the elements emitted by the chimney as result of the industrial activity (V, Cr, Ni, Cu and As) and those with a high presence in steel slag deposits (Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was observed. The range of contamination was also established by means of the Contamination Factor, indicating a category 4 out of 6 categories, which shows the high levels reported in the areas of study. A different dynamic was registered for nitrogen regarding the rest of the heavy metals analysed except for Hg, probably due to the elevated volatility and mobility of both elements, as well as their high persistence in the atmosphere.

  16. Birds of prey (Cathartiformes, Accipitriformes, Strigiformes e Falconiformes in the Perobas Biological Reserve, Parana, Brazil, and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Menq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, has undergone a dramatic suppression and fragmentation of its primary vegetation, currently there remains small and sparse forest fragments. From this perspective, this study aimed to do an inventory of and analyze the assembly of birds of prey (Cathartiformes, Accipitriformes, Strigiformes, and Falconiformes in the Perobas Biological Reserve, a conservation area of 8,716 ha, which represents one of the last remnants with significant extent of semideciduous seasonal forest in Paraná. The counting method by fixed sites, as well as hearing sites and playback, was used to sample the bird of prey species in the reserve, from June 2009 to January 2012, with a total sampling effort of 210 h. Altogether 25 raptor species were surveyed, a value corresponding to 37% of the species richness known for Paraná. Among the records, 3 species are worth highlighting, Spizaetus melanoleucus, Asio flammeus, and Strix virgata, listed in the current Red Book of Endangered Fauna in Paraná and poorly documented in the region. About 70% of the observed species have habits associated with forest environments, while 30% are associated with open areas, such as pastures and farmland surrounding the forest. These results reaffirm the importance of this reserve for the conservation and preservation of many bird species, especially those rare and regionally endangered.

  17. Compilation of radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data, Yucca Mountain and surrounding areas of southwestern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T.

    1994-12-31

    This document is a compilation of available radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data for volcanic rocks and episodes of hydrothermal activity in Yucca Mountain and the surrounding region of southwestern Nevada. Only the age determinations considered to be geologically reasonable (consistent with stratigraphic relations) are listed below. A number of the potassium-argon (K-Ar) ages of volcanic rocks given by Kistler, Marvin et al., Noble et al., Weiss et al., and Noble et al. are not included as these ages have been shown to be incorrect or disturbed by hydrothermal alteration based on subsequent stratigraphic and/or petrographic data and the recognition of errors in K-Ar age determinations related to incomplete extraction of argon. In cases where absolute ages are tightly constrained by high precision {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages and unequivocal stratigraphic relations, we have omitted the less precise K-Ar age data. Similarly, the more precise single-crystal laser-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age determinations of certain units are reported and less precise ages by multi-grain bulk-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are not included. This compilation does not include age data for basaltic rocks of Pliocene and Quaternary age in the Yucca Mountain region.

  18. Field-mapping and petrographic analysis of volcanoes surrounding the Lake Natron Homo sapiens footprint site, northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, S. M.; Zimmer, B.; Liutkus, C.; Carmichael, S. K.; McGinnis, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Lake Natron Homo sapiens footprint site is located in northern Tanzania along the East African Rift escarpment. The site is positioned south of Lake Natron within an ephemeral channel of the Engare Sero River. The hominid footprints are preserved in a tuff, which originated from one of the volcanic centers surrounding the site. Two large volcanoes in the surrounding region, including the active carbonatite producing Oldoinyo L’engai and the now extinct Kerimasi are possible sources. This area also contains over 30 smaller tuff cones and tuff rings that have been poorly mapped and not analyzed in detail. The site is significant as it is the oldest modern human trackway in East Africa and one of the largest collections of hominid footprints in the world. Determining the source of the footprinted volcanic ash requires detailed field mapping, and both petrographic and geochemical analyses. Extensive field-mapping of the region revealed multiple regional beds that stratigraphically overlay the footprinted layer. Age dating as well as geochemical analysis is being conducted to relate these beds to the footprinted layer. Field-mapping showed that the footprinted tuff is over 35 cm thick, suggesting a large, sustained eruption. The bulk of the tuff cones examined in the field visibly varied in composition to the footprinted tuff and, based on proximity to the footprint site, are too small to produce the requisite volume of ash. Field analysis of samples collected from Oldoinyo L’engai reveal the most similar mineral assemblages to the footprinted layer, and the large volcano provides a source substantial enough to create a thick ash bed 10 km north of the summit. Preliminary research reveals that the footprinted tuff is a phonolite, characterized by silica depletion and the presence of sanidine, augite, and annite with interstitial calcite. XRD analysis of samples collected from Oldoinyo L’engai reveal a nepheline-rich phonolite with zeolites (ie. phillipsite

  19. The human health impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira eruptions on Goma city and its surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michellier, C.; Dramaix, M.; Arellano, S. R.; Kervyn, F.; Kahindo, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira are two of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Nyiragongo last erupted in January 2002 and Nyamulagira in November 2011. Even if only a small number of victims resulted directly from these eruptions (notably because they both happened in the day-time), the town of Goma (approx. 700 000 inhabitants) is directly threatened by the fluid lava flows, of which the speed can reach several tens of km/h. But this is not the only menace. Indeed, Nyiragongo hosts a permanent lava lake that produces a plume of gases rich in sulphur (SO2), carbon (CO2), and halogen compounds (HCl, HF). As for Nyamulagira, it makes a major contribution to these emissions during its frequent and regular periods of eruptive activity (approx. every two years). Although the region under study is densely populated (up to 250 inh/km2), and basic volcanic hazard mapping exists, an updated and long-term evaluation of the specific impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira semi-permanent volcanic plumes on the population health has not been done to date. It is the objective of this study. Michigan Technological University (MTU, USA) provides satellite data retrievals of volcanogenic SO2 gas columns. These remote sensing data provide insights about the spatial distribution of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira plumes, which are used to select the sampling areas for studying the human health impact of volcanic emissions. Based on the Congolese Health Information System (HIS) data provided by the CEMUBAC, our study is focused on the 1999-2010 time period. Scientific studies carried out on other active volcanoes suggest that certain pathologies could be linked to a high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. These include Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), conjunctivitis, skin diseases, and ear-nose-throat infections. Using Poisson regression analysis, we determine a Relative Risk Index (IRR) that allows us to identify the years

  20. HAM56 and CD68 antigen presenting cells surrounding a sarcoidal granulomatous tattoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Tattoos are produced by introducing colorants of various compositions into the skin, either accidentally or for cosmetic purposes. Case Report: A 62-year-old male presented with a cosmetic tattoo and requested a total excision of the lesion. Dermatopathologic analysis of the excised tissue with hematoxylin and eosin examination, as well as immunohistochemistry was performed. H&E staining demonstrated classic histologic features of a tattoo. Utilizing immunohistochemistry, dermal histiocytic antigen presenting cells stained with HAM56 and CD68 antibodies; the staining was present surrounding the tattoo pigment. Conclusions : We identified two macrophage markers (HAM56 and CD68 surrounding dermal tattoo pigment. A minimal dermal inflammatory immune was noted to the tattoo pigment. Moreover, the immune response and/or tolerance to tattoos is not well characterized. We suggest that tattoo materials and techniques could be utilized in therapeutic delivery for diseases such recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, potentially preventing immune rejection of gene therapy agents.

  1. Structure and function of the interphotoreceptor matrix surrounding retinal photoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Sawada, Yu; Yoshitomi, Takeshi

    2015-04-01

    The interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) is a highly organized structure with interconnected domains surrounding cone and rod photoreceptor cells and extends throughout the subretinal space. Based on known roles of the extracellular matrix in other tissues, the IPM is thought to have several prominent functions including serving as a receptor for growth factors, regulating retinoid transport, participating in cytoskeletal organization in surrounding cells, and regulation of oxygen and nutrient transport. In addition, a number of studies suggest that the IPM also may play a significant role in the etiology of retinal degenerative disorders. In this review, we describe the present knowledge concerning the structure and function of the IPM under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, M.S.; Coolbaugh, M.F.; Engle, M.A.; Fitzgerald, B.C.; Keislar, R.E.; Lindberg, S.E.; Nacht, D.M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J.J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, H.; Zehner, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid west-ern United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  3. Stability Evaluation on Surrounding Rocks of Underground Powerhouse Based on Microseismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the stability of underground powerhouse at Houziyan hydropower station during excavation, a microseismic monitoring system is adopted. Based on the space-time distribution characteristics of microseismic events during excavation of the main powerhouse, the correlation between microseismic events and blasting construction is established; and the microseismic clustering areas of the underground powerhouse are identified and delineated. The FLAC3D code is used to simulate the deformation of main powerhouse. The simulated deformation characteristics are consistent with that recorded by microseismic monitoring. Finally, the correlation between the macroscopic deformation of surrounding rock mass and microseismic activities is also revealed. The results show that multiple faults between 1# and 3# bus tunnels are activated during excavation of floors V and VI of the main powerhouse. The comprehensive method combining microseismic monitoring with numerical simulation as well as routine monitoring can provide an effective way to evaluate the surrounding rock mass stability of underground caverns.

  4. Failure mechanism and stability control technology of rock surrounding a roadway in complex stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang; Bai Jianbiao; Chen Ke; Wang Xiangyu; Xiao Tongqiang; Chen Yong

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem of supporting three downhill coal structures in the Yongan Coal Mine of Shanxi Jincheng,we studied the regular development of stress and plastic zones and characteristics of deformation of rock surrounding roadway groups after a period of roadway driving,mining one side as well as mining both sides,we used FLAC3D for our numerical and theoretical analyses.Field test were carried out,where we revealed the deformation mechanism of roadways and its coal pillars in complex stress conditions.We proposed a roadway stability control technology using backwall grouting with high-water rapid hardening material and combined support with bolt and cable anchoring after mining both sides.Our field practices showed that deformation of rock surrounding roadways can be controlled with this technology.

  5. Camouflaging in a complex environment--octopuses use specific features of their surroundings for background matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef, Noam; Amodio, Piero; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-01-01

    Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiments show that when camouflaging, Octopus cyanea and O. vulgaris base their body patterns on selected features of nearby objects rather than attempting to match a large field of view. Such an approach enables the octopus to camouflage in partly occluded environments and to solve the problem of differences in appearance as a function of the viewing inclination of the observer.

  6. Camouflaging in a Complex Environment—Octopuses Use Specific Features of Their Surroundings for Background Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef, Noam; Amodio, Piero; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-01-01

    Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to “blend in.” To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiments show that when camouflaging, Octopus cyanea and O. vulgaris base their body patterns on selected features of nearby objects rather than attempting to match a large field of view. Such an approach enables the octopus to camouflage in partly occluded environments and to solve the problem of differences in appearance as a function of the viewing inclination of the observer. PMID:22649542

  7. The effect of wind direction and building surroundings on a marina bay in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Cosmin; Safta, Carmen Anca

    2017-01-01

    The wind effect has usually a major importance in the marina bay. These environmental sites are an interplay between tourist and commercial activities, requiring a high-detailed and definition studies of the dynamic fluid in the harbor. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used elaborately in urban surroundings research. However, most CFD studies were performed for harbors for only a confined number of wind directions and/or without considering the building surroundings effects. This paper presents the results of different simulations based on various wind flows and the CFD simulation of coupled urban wind flow and general wind directions upon a semi-closed area. Thus the importance of wind effects on the evaluation of the marina bay will be pointed out to achieve a safe and secure mooring at the berth and eventually a good potential of renewable energy for an impending green harbor.

  8. Camouflaging in a complex environment--octopuses use specific features of their surroundings for background matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Josef

    Full Text Available Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiments show that when camouflaging, Octopus cyanea and O. vulgaris base their body patterns on selected features of nearby objects rather than attempting to match a large field of view. Such an approach enables the octopus to camouflage in partly occluded environments and to solve the problem of differences in appearance as a function of the viewing inclination of the observer.

  9. Performance and analytical modelling of halo-doped surrounding gate MOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zun-Chao

    2008-01-01

    Halo structure is added to sub-100 nm surrounding-gate metal--oxide-semiconductor field- effect-transistors (MOSFETs) to suppress short channel effect.This paper develops the analytical surface potential and threshold voltage models based on the solution of Poisson's equation in fully depleted condition for symmetric halo-doped cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs.The performance of the halo-doped device is studied and the validity of the analytical models is verified by comparing the analytical results with the simulated data by three dimensional numerical device simulator Davinci.It shows that the halo doping profile exhibits better performance in suppressing threshold voltage roll-off and drain-induced barrier lowering,and increasing carrier transport efficiency.The derived analytical models are in good agreement with Davinci.

  10. The Effects of GH Transgenic Goats on the Microflora of the Intestine, Feces and Surrounding Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekun Bao

    Full Text Available The development of genetically engineered animals has brought with it increasing concerns about biosafety issues. We therefore evaluated the risks of growth hormone from transgenic goats, including the probability of horizontal gene transfer and the impact on the microbial community of the goats' gastrointestinal tracts, feces and the surrounding soil. The results showed that neither the GH nor the neoR gene could be detected in the samples. Moreover, there was no significant change in the microbial community of the gastrointestinal tracts, feces and soil, as tested with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, phylogenetic analysis showed that the intestinal content, feces and soil samples all contained the same dominant group of bacteria. These results demonstrated that expression of goat growth hormone in the mammary of GH transgenic goat does not influence the microflora of the intestine, feces and surrounding soil.

  11. Effects of particle size and surrounding media on optical radiation efficiencies of spherical plasmonic metal nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinayak A Dhumale; Preeti V Shah; Rishi B Sharma; Katsuaki Tanabe

    2012-04-01

    The optical radiation efficiency (), the ratio of scattering cross-section to extinction cross-section, of spherical metal nanoparticles (M= Al, Ag, Au and Cu) surrounded by glass and water was calculated using classical electrostatics. The effect of varying particle diameter (∼100 nm) on was also studied for free space wavelengths in the range of 400–1200 nm. The variations in the value of with the diameter () of the metal nanoparticles were calculated on the basis of quasi-static approximation. The increases with the size of metal nanoparticles. Corresponding to a metal nanoparticle, was found to exhibit a sharp dip (dip) at a characteristic wavelength ()M in a particular medium ( = air, glass and water). ()M was independent of particle size. The (medium)M was found to be slightly blue shifted for all metal nanoparticles surrounded by glass or water with respect to those in the air.

  12. The Effects of GH Transgenic Goats on the Microflora of the Intestine, Feces and Surrounding Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zekun; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Qiang; Lin, Jian; Hu, Weiwei; Yu, Huiqing; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    The development of genetically engineered animals has brought with it increasing concerns about biosafety issues. We therefore evaluated the risks of growth hormone from transgenic goats, including the probability of horizontal gene transfer and the impact on the microbial community of the goats' gastrointestinal tracts, feces and the surrounding soil. The results showed that neither the GH nor the neoR gene could be detected in the samples. Moreover, there was no significant change in the microbial community of the gastrointestinal tracts, feces and soil, as tested with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, phylogenetic analysis showed that the intestinal content, feces and soil samples all contained the same dominant group of bacteria. These results demonstrated that expression of goat growth hormone in the mammary of GH transgenic goat does not influence the microflora of the intestine, feces and surrounding soil.

  13. Thermodynamics and Phase transition of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om Black Hole surrounded by quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, Mahamat; Crepin, Kofane Timoleon

    2016-01-01

    We investigate thermodynamics and Phase transition of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole surrounded by quintessence. Using thermodynamical laws of black holes, we derive the expressions of some thermodynamics quantities for the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole surrounded by quintessence. The variations of the temperature and heat capacity with the entropy were plotted for different values of the state parameter related to the quintessence, $\\omega_{q}$, and the normalization constant related to the density of quintessence $c$. We show that when varying the entropy of the black hole a phase transition is observed in the black hole. Moreover, when increasing the density of quintessence, the transition point is shifted to lower entropy and the temperature of the black hole decreases.

  14. Investigation of electrostatic performance for a conical surrounding gate MOSFET with linearly modulated work-function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkrishna, B. S.; Jena, B.; Dash, S.; Mishra, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time a continuous variation of work-function based gate metal has been introduced in conical surrounding gate MOSFET. Here, a comparative study of the electrostatic as well as RF characteristics for basic conical surrounding gate MOSFET and the work-function modulated conical MOSFET is carried out using TCAD device simulator. These simulated results reveal that the work-function modulated conical model provides better electrostatic and RF performance in terms of drain current, transconductance, transconductance generation factor, unity gain cut-off frequency and intrinsic delay. An overall performance investigation has been presented for both the aforementioned models and verified using TCAD device simulator from Synopsys.

  15. Confronting, Confirming, and Dispelling Myths Surrounding ERP-in-the-Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaulieu, Tanya; C. Martin, Todd; Sarker, Saonee;

    2015-01-01

    understanding about the true challenges related to ERP cloud computing, it is important to examine these myths in an effort to dispel or support them. In this paper, we attempt to achieve that. Specifically, we explore eight myths related to cloud-based ERP systems through a study involving in-depth interviews......Although cloud computing is still in its infancy, it is rapidly becoming one of the most used buzzwords in the IS/IT field and ERP-systems are one of the fastest growing SaaS cloud applications. However, given the relative newness of ERP cloud computing, and the lack of empirical research...... on the topic, there is substantial uncertainty surrounding the benefits and challenges of ERP cloud computing. Consequently, as often is the case with new technologies, popular myths surrounding the technology are used to make adoption and implementation decisions. As a first step toward providing an informed...

  16. Scenario analysis of land use change in Horqin Desert and its surrounding area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.M.; Zhao, S.; Verburg, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Horqin desert and its surrounding area(41°17'~45°24' N,116°21'~123°30' E),loca-ted in the eastern part of agro-pas ture transitional zone in northern China,is an area sensitive to environmental change due to transitional location and the high potential for sandy desert-if ication.During the past dec

  17. Domino instability effect of surrounding rock-coal pillars in a room-and-pillar gob

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chong; Xu Jinhai; Wang Zhongliang; Qin Shuai

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the domino instability effect and large area roof falling and roof accidents of surrounding rock-coal pillars in a room-and-pillar gob, the equilibrium equation for a roof-coal pillar-floor system with the influence of mining floor was developed based on the engineering conditions of the surrounding rock in a room-and-pillar gob in the 3-2 coal seam of Tanggonggou mine. The conditions of system instability and the relationship between system stability and system stiffness were analyzed from an energetic point of view. Numerical simulation using the discrete element software UDEC was also carried out to simulate conditions causing the domino effect on surrounding rock-coal pillars in a 3-2 room-and-pillar gob. The results show that:if we want the system to destabilize, the collective energy in roof-and-floor must be larger than that in the coal pillar. When the stiffness of the coal pillars and the roof-and-floor are both greater than zero, the system is stable. When the stiffness of the coal pillars is negative but the summed stiffness of the coal pillars and roof-and-floor is larger than or equal to zero, the system is statically destroyed. When the sum of the coal pillars and the roof-floor stiffness is negative, the system suffers from severe damages. For equal advance distances of the coal mining face, the wider coal pillars can reduce the probability of domino type instability. Conversely, the smaller width pillars can increase the instability probability. Domino type instability of surrounding rock-coal pillars is predicted to be unli-kely when the width of coal pillars is not less than 8 m.

  18. Analysis for interaction of supports and surrounding rock of gateways in Iongwall minging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍永平

    2001-01-01

    Gateway supporting in long-wall mining has been a problem that restricts the mine production and safety, the paper sets up an interaction model between support and surrounding rock ( rock mass structure) and probes the elementary t.heory about ground pressure behaviors of gateway. Based on the analysis of supporting theories, some new viewpoints about gateways supporting and ground pressure controlling are put forward.

  19. MicroCT Bone Densitometry: Context Sensitivity, Beam Hardening Correction and the Effect of Surrounding Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip L. Salmon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The context-sensitivity of microCT bone densitometry due to beam hardening artefacts was assessed. Bones and teeth are scanned with varying thickness of surrounding media (water, alcohol, biological tissue and it is important to understand how this affects reconstructed attenuation (“density” of the mineralized tissue. Aluminium tubes and rods with thickness 0.127mm–5mm were scanned both in air or surrounded by up to 2cm of water. Scans were performed with different energy filters and degrees of software beam hardening correction (BHC. Also tested were the effects of signal-to-noise ratio, magnification and truncation. The thickness of an aluminium tube significantly affected its mean reconstructed attenuation. This effect of thickness could be reduced substantially by BHC for scans in air, but not for scans in water. Varying thickness of surrounding water also changed the mean attenuation of an aluminium tube. This artefact could be almost eliminated by an optimal BHC value. The “cupping” artefact of heterogeneous attenuation (elevated at outer surfaces could be corrected if aluminium was scanned in air, but in water BHC was much less effective. Scan truncation, changes to magnification and signal-to-noise ratio also caused artificial changes to measured attenuation. Measurement of bone mineral density by microCT is highly context sensitive. A surrounding layer of liquid or biological tissue reduces the ability of software BHC to remove bone density artefacts. Sample thickness, truncation, magnification and signal to noise ratio also affect reconstructed attenuation. Thus it is important for densitometry that sample and calibration phantom dimensions and mounting materials are standardised.

  20. Experiments on the Microenvironment and Breathing of a Person in Isothermal and Stratified Surroundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Litewnicki, Michal;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisation...... is used to show the formation, movement and disappearance of the exhalation jets from both nose and mouth. The exhalation of breathing without ventilation in the room, and with stratified surroundings (displacement ventilation) is analysed....

  1. Acoustoelastic effects of Stoneley waves in a borehole surrounded by a transversely isotropic elastic solid

    OpenAIRE

    Jinxia Liu; Zhiwen Cui; Zhengliang Cao; Kexie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Stoneley wave in a fluid-filled pressurized borehole surrounded by a transversely isotropic elastic solid with nine independent third-order elastic constants in presence of biaxial stresses are studied. A simplified acoustoelastic formulation of Stoneley wave is presented for the parallelism of the borehole axis and the formation axis of symmetry. Sensitivity coefficients and velocity dispersions for Stoneley wave due to the presence of stresses are numerically investigated, respectively. The...

  2. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for st...

  3. Research on characters of surrounding rock in complex geology conditions and supporting time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Weijian; Gao Qian; Zhai Shuhua; Zhang Meihua

    2008-01-01

    The methods combined by test, field monitoring and theoretical analysis were adopted to do the systemic re- search on the rock mass from micro-structure to macro-deformation, and rheological model of Jinchuan rock mass was es-tablished to discuss the reasonable supporting time. Results show that supporting after suitable stress and displacement release can benefit for the long-term stability of surrounding rock.

  4. Cerebellar brain inhibition in the target and surround muscles during voluntary tonic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyakaew, Pattamon; Cho, Hyun Joo; Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Popa, Traian; Wu, Tianxia; Hallett, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Motor surround inhibition is the neural mechanism that selectively favours the contraction of target muscles and inhibits nearby muscles to prevent unwanted movements. This inhibition was previously reported at the onset of a movement, but not during a tonic contraction. Cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) is reduced in active muscles during tonic activation; however, it has not been studied in the surround muscles. CBI was evaluated in the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle as the target muscle, and the abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles as surround muscles, during rest and tonic activation of the FDI muscle in 21 subjects. Cerebellar stimulation was performed under magnetic resonance imaging-guided neuronavigation targeting lobule VIII of the cerebellar hemisphere. Stimulus intensities for cerebellar stimulation were based on the resting motor cortex threshold (RMT) and adjusted for the depth difference between the cerebellar and motor cortices. We used 90-120% of the adjusted RMT as the conditioning stimulus intensity during rest. The intensity that generated the best CBI at rest in the FDI muscle was selected for use during tonic activation. During selective tonic activation of the FDI muscle, CBI was significantly reduced only for the FDI muscle, and not for the surround muscles. Unconditioned motor evoked potential sizes were increased in all muscles during FDI muscle tonic activation as compared with rest, despite background electromyography activity increasing only for the FDI muscle. Our study suggests that the cerebellum may play an important role in selective tonic finger movement by reducing its inhibition in the motor cortex only for the relevant agonist muscle.

  5. More than 10 years after the first 'savior siblings': parental experiences surrounding preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierhut, Heather; MacMillan, Margaret L; Wagner, John E; Bartels, Dianne M

    2013-10-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to create a healthy donor for a sibling's hematopoetic stem cell transplantation for a child with Fanconi Anemia (FA) was first reported in 2001. Yet we know little about the experiences of parents who have encountered decision making surrounding PGD and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing. The first aim of this study was to understand parents' awareness, perceptions and beliefs about reproductive decision-making including emotional, cognitive, moral dimensions as well as regret surrounding the use of this technology. The second aim was to describe the experiences and rationale of parents of children with a single gene disorder regarding the factors that influenced their decision making surrounding the use of natural pregnancy and/or PGD and HLA-typing. Parents from two national FA support networks in the US and Canada responded to an emailed survey about reproductive decision making and outcomes surrounding natural pregnancy and PGD and HLA-typing. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-Square tests were used to describe and compare data. Our results indicate that the most important factors in the PGD decision making process were the health of the child and cognitive appraisals followed by emotional responses and then moral judgments. A significant difference was noted in parents considering natural pregnancy before and after 2001 (p = 0.01). Unexpected findings were that less than 35 % of parents were offered PGD by any health care professional and only 70 % were aware PGD with HLA-typing was a reproductive option. Our research suggests that the option of PGD and HLA-typing may influence parents' reproductive decision making choices.

  6. Linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the "greenness" of school surroundings using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; McNeely, Eileen; Cedeño-Laurent, J G; Pan, Wen-Chi; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Dominici, Francesca; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Su, Huey-Jen; Spengler, John D

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported the physical and mental health benefits from exposure to "green" neighborhoods, such as proximity to neighborhoods with trees and vegetation. However, no studies have explicitly assessed the association between exposure to "green" surroundings and cognitive function in terms of student academic performance. This study investigated the association between the "greenness" of the area surrounding a Massachusetts public elementary school and the academic achievement of the school's student body based on standardized tests with an ecological setting. Researchers used the composite school-based performance scores generated by the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) to measure the percentage of 3rd-grade students (the first year of standardized testing for 8-9 years-old children in public school), who scored "Above Proficient" (AP) in English and Mathematics tests (Note: Individual student scores are not publically available). The MCAS results are comparable year to year thanks to an equating process. Researchers included test results from 2006 through 2012 in 905 public schools and adjusted for differences between schools in the final analysis according to race, gender, English as a second language (proxy for ethnicity and language facility), parent income, student-teacher ratio, and school attendance. Surrounding greenness of each school was measured using satellite images converted into the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in March, July and October of each year according to a 250-meter, 500-meter, 1,000-meter, and 2000-meter circular buffer around each school. Spatial Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) estimated the impacts of surrounding greenness on school-based performance. Overall the study results supported a relationship between the "greenness" of the school area and the school-wide academic performance. Interestingly, the results showed a consistently positive significant association between the

  7. Analysis for interaction of supports and surrounding rock of gateways in longwall minging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yong-ping

    2001-01-01

    Gateway supporting in long-wall mining has been a problem that restri cts the mine production and safety, the paper sets up an interaction model betwe en support and surrounding rock (rock mass structure) and probes the elementary theory about ground pressure behaviors of gateway. Based on the analysis of supp orting theories, some new viewpoints about gateways supporting and ground pressu re controlling are put forward.

  8. Inflammation surrounding the vertebral spinous processes as spondylarthritis in Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Kazuo; Takahashi, Yuko; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kano, Toshikazu; Mimori, Akio

    2013-07-01

    Here, we present two Behçet's disease (BD) patients with an uncommon complication: inflammation surrounding the spinous processes revealed by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Both patients were treated successfully with 20 mg of prednisolone daily. Whether BD should be considered a form of spondylarthritis remains an open question. However, inflammation around the spinous processes should be regarded as a possible uncommon finding of seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SpA) in BD patients.

  9. BIRDS OF PIURA, PERU AND ITS SURROUNDINGS: EIGHT YEARS LOOKING AT THE SKY

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-Villavicencio, César

    2013-01-01

    Fast growth of the cities and its effect on wildlife makes it necessary to study the diversity in urban areas, and include the results in the planning of urban growth. In the case of birds inhabiting urban areas, published studies are scarce, especially in the case of cities outside the department of Lima. With the objective of determining the bird species inhabiting the city of Piura, Peru (UTM 541372 E / 9425534 N) and its surroundings, between March 1988 and December 2006 weeke...

  10. Production and zooplankton community structure in the lagoon and surrounding sea at Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    .6 degrees C, 35.7 x 10/3, ml.l/1 and 0.8, 1.5 and 3.6 mu g-at.l/1 respectively. Fluctuations in the secondary production were greater in the surrounding sea (19.9 to 44.8 mgC.m/2.d/1) than at lagoon (6.6 to 15.7 mgC.m/2 d/1). Zooplankton community structure...

  11. Influence of the personal and social surrounding on the tobacco consumption in Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Martínez Abadía

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco addiction is the main problem of public health in the developed countries. The prevalence in our country is elevated among adolescent children and. The factors that influence in the acquisition and maintenance of the conduct to smoke are complex. Next to personal factors the importance of the personal and social surroundings of the adolescent is had underlining, the availability of this drug and the socioeconomic situation of the potentials consumers.

  12. Damage Characteristics of Surrounding Rock Subjected to VCR Mining Blasting Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Jiang; Chuanbo Zhou; Xuedong Luo; Shiwei Lu

    2015-01-01

    For limiting the damage range caused by explosive shock loads in vertical crater retreat (VCR) mining, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were studied by two methods: numerical simulation and ultrasonic testing. Combined with the mining blasting in Dongguashan Copper Mine of China, the VCR blasting shock characteristics under different conditions are obtained by using LSDYNA. Based on statistical fracture mechanics and damage mechanics theories, a damage constitutive mode...

  13. Simulation of coupled THM process in surrounding rock mass of nuclear waste repository in argillaceous formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋中明; 陈永贵

    2015-01-01

    To investigate and analyze the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupling phenomena of a surrounding rock mass in an argillaceous formation, a nuclear waste disposal concept in drifts was represented physically in an in-situ test way. A transversely isotropic model was employed to reproduce the whole test process numerically. Parameters of the rock mass were determined by laboratory and in-situ experiments. Based on the numerical simulation results and in-situ test data, the variation processes of pore water pressure, temperature and deformation of surrounding rock were analyzed. Both the measured data and numerical results reveal that the thermal perturbation is the principal driving force which leads to the variation of pore water pressure and deformations in the surrounding rock. The temperature, pore pressure and deformation of rock mass change rapidly at each initial heating stage with a constant heating power. The temperature field near the heater borehole is relatively steady in the subsequent stages of the heating phase. However, the pore pressure and deformation fields decrease gradually with temperature remaining unchanged condition. It also shows that a transversely isotropic model can reproduce the THM coupling effects generating in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository in an argillaceous formation.

  14. A Novel Model of Set Pair Analysis Coupled with Extenics for Evaluation of Surrounding Rock Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of surrounding rock stability is a complex problem involving numerous uncertainty factors. Here, based on set pair analysis (SPA coupled with extenics, a novel model, considering incompatibility, certainty, and uncertainty of evaluation indicators, was presented to analyze the surrounding rock stability. In this model, extension set was first utilized to describe the actual problem of surrounding rock stability. Then, the connectional membership degree of the set pair was introduced to compare the measured values with classification standards from three aspects embracing identity, discrepancy, and contrary. Also, according to identity-discrepancy-contrary (IDC analysis in the universe of the extension set, the connection numbers were proposed to specify the connectional membership degree of an evaluation indicator to each class. Combined with the weights of evaluation indicators, integrated connectional membership degrees were calculated to determine their classes of rock stability. Finally, a case study and comparison with variable fuzzy set method, triangular fuzzy number method, and basic quality (BQ grading method were performed to confirm the validity and reliability of the proposed model. The results show that this model can effectively and quantitatively express the differences within a group, transformation of different groups, and uncertainty of complex indicators as a whole.

  15. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang-xiang Xie; Ke Yang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Safety and Efficiently Caving of Ministry of Education

    2009-06-15

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the macro stress shell, (MSS) distribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteristics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide theoretic references to the surrounding rocks stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Control over surrounding rocks deformation of soft floor and whole-coal gateways with trapezoidal supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, X.; Li, D.; Shao, Q.; Sun, Y. [Henan Polytechnic University, Jaozuo (China). Dept. of Resource and Material Engineering

    2005-06-01

    The coal seams of Guengcun Coal mine of Yima Coal Group Co. Ltd. are prone to spontaneous combustion. Fully mechanized longwall mining with sublevel caving is used as the mining method. Based on the characteristics of the gateways of the 1301 coal face and of the roof coal seams, the natural equilibrium arch theory was used to design the parameters of 11 mine-type metal supports. Then, in-situ supporting experiments were carried out. The results indicate that under the action of virgin rock stress, the width of broken rocks zone of surrounding rocks is 1.7-2.0 m in the return heading and 1.1-1.3 m in the outgoing headway and their surrounding rocks belong to the IV-type soft rock and the III-type common surrounding rock respectively. Therefore, under the movable abutment pressure, the gateway deformation is serious. At the same time, the accumulated water on gateway floor must be drained in time. These measures were taken in the 1302 and 1304 coal faces in Gengcun colliery, and satisfactory results have been obtained. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  17. INTERACTION OF A LONG PILE OF FINITE STIFFNESS WITH SURROUNDING SOIL AND FOUNDATION CAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the formulation and analytical solution to a quantification of stress strain state of a two-layer soil cylinder enclosing a long pile, interacting with the cap. The solution of the problem is considered for two cases: with and without account for the settlement of the heel and the underlying soil. In the first case, the article is offering equations for determining the stresses of pile’s body and the surrounding soil according to their hardness and the ratio of radiuses of the pile and the surrounding soil cylinder, as well as formulating for determining equivalent deformation modulus of the system “cap-pile-surrounding soil” (the system. Assessing the carrying capacity of the soil under pile’s heel is of great necessity. In the second case, the article is solving a second-order differential equation. We gave the formulas for determining the stresses of the pile at its top and heel, as well as the variation of stresses along the pile’s body. The article is also formulating for determining the settlement of the foundation cap and equivalent deformation modulus of the system. It is shown that, pushing the pile into underlying layer results in the reducing of equivalent modulus of the system.

  18. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-xiang; YANG Ke

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the MSS dis-tribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteris-tics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide lots of theoretic references to the surrounding rocks' stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc.

  19. Numerical analysis and field monitoring tests on shallow tunnels under weak surrounding rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建华; 刘晓明; 张永杰; 肖庭

    2015-01-01

    The Jianpudong No. 4 tunnel is a shallow tunnel, which belongs to Shaoshan County scenic highway in Hunan province, China and whose surrounding rock is weak. According to its characteristics, the field monitoring tests and numerical analysis were done. The mechanical characteristics of shallow tunnels under weak surrounding rock and the stress−strain rule of surrounding rock and support were analyzed. The numerical analysis results show that the settlement caused by upper bench excavating accounts for 44% of the total settlement, and the settlement caused by tunnel upper bench supporting accounts for 56% of the total settlement. The maximum axial force of shotcrete lining is 177.2 kN, which locates in hance under the secondary lining. The maximum moment of shotcrete lining is 5.08 kN·m, which locates in the arch foot. The stress curve of steel arch has three obvious stages during the tunnel construction. The maximum axial force of steel arch is 297.4 kN, which locates in tunnel vault. The axial forces of steel arch are respectively 23.5 kN and−21.8 kN, which is influenced by eccentric compression of shallow tunnel and locates in hance. The results show that there is larger earth pressure in tunnel vault which is most unfavorable position of steel arch. Therefore, the advance support should be strengthened in tunnel vault during construction process.

  20. Failure mechanism of Mesozoic soft rock roadway in Shajihai coal mine and its surrounding rock control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yue; Zhu Yongjian; Wang Weijun; Yu Weijian

    2014-01-01

    In view of the buckling failure caused by large deformation of Mesozoic soft rock roadway in Shajihai mining area, such as serious roof fall, rib spalling, floor heave, etc., based on the detail site investigation, theoretical analysis, mineral composition test, microstructure test, water-physical property test and field experiments were carried out. And we revealed the compound failure mechanism of Mesozoic soft rock roadway in Shajihai mining area, namely the molecule expansion-shear slip of weak structural plane-construction disturbance. On this basis, the coupling support technology whose core is constant resistance with large deformation bolt was proposed. The feature of this supporting technology is that a new type of structural composite material was used, which makes the supporting system not only has the ideal deformation characteristics, but also has high supporting resistance. Thus the fully release of plastic energy within surrounding rock and reasonable control of the thickness of the plastic ring were realized. Then the differential deformation between the surrounding rock and support was eliminated by the secondary coupling support of bolt–mesh–cable, and the bolt with high strength was applied in the base angle to control floor. Eventually the collaborative bearing system of surrounding rock–support was formed. Through field tests the validity and rationality of support was also verified.